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Sample records for current gold standard

  1. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  2. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  3. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  4. The Gold Standard Since Alec Ford

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry

    1989-01-01

    This paper surveys studies of the operation of the classical gold standard published subsequent to the appearance of Alec Ford's The Gold Standard 1880-1914: Britain and Argentina in 1962. Contributions tend to fall under two headings: those which emphasize stock equilibrium in money markets (examples of the so-called "monetary approach") and those which emphasize instead stockflow interactions in bond markets. The paper then addresses the perennial question of how the gold standard worked. A...

  5. The size distribution of 'gold standard' nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Ralf; Emmerling, Franziska; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2009-11-01

    The spherical gold nanoparticle reference materials RM 8011, RM 8012, and RM 8013, with a nominal radius of 5, 15, and 30 nm, respectively, have been available since 2008 from NIST. These materials are recommended as standards for nanoparticle size measurements and for the study of the biological effects of nanoparticles, e.g., in pre-clinical biomedical research. We report on determination of the size distributions of these gold nanoparticles using different small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) instruments. Measurements with a classical Kratky type SAXS instrument are compared with a synchrotron SAXS technique. Samples were investigated in situ, positioned in capillaries and in levitated droplets. The number-weighted size distributions were determined applying model scattering functions based on (a) Gaussian, (b) log-normal, and (c) Schulz distributions. The mean radii are 4.36 +/- 0.04 nm (RM 8011), 12.20 +/- 0.03 nm (RM 8012), and 25.74 +/- 0.27 nm (RM 8013). Low polydispersities, defined as relative width of the distributions, were detected with values of 0.067 +/- 0.006 (RM 8011), 0.103 +/- 0.003, (RM 8012), and 0.10 +/- 0.01 (RM 8013). The results are in agreement with integral values determined from classical evaluation procedures, such as the radius of gyration (Guinier) and particle volume (Kratky). No indications of particle aggregation and particle interactions--repulsive or attractive--were found. We recommend SAXS as a standard method for a fast and precise determination of size distributions of nanoparticles.

  6. 'Gold standard' for remediation of WTC contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001 and thereafter resulted in arguably the worst environmental disaster in the history of New York City. Particulate matter and combustion by-products containing asbestos, lead, mercury, dioxin, PAHs, and other toxic substances, not only affected rescue and recovery workers but also infiltrated thousands of residences and workplaces. Government agencies did not acknowledge responsibility for residential indoor environmental quality until eight months later, and still have not accepted responsibility for indoor environmental quality in commercial or government buildings. In May 2002, 200 representatives from 38 community, labor, environmental, and public health organizations met to discuss unmet post-9/11 public health needs. They established a technical working group to press the Environmental Protection Agency to expand and improve its proposals for the cleanup of Lower Manhattan. This 2002 document, "The 'Gold Standard' for Remediation of WTC Contamination," articulates the environmental health concerns and suggestions of grassroots organizations active in 9/11 response efforts at that time.

  7. Current methods for synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herizchi, Roya; Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles, such as nanoparticles synthesized using gold, have numerous uncommon chemical and physical properties due to the effects of their quantum size and their large surface area, in comparison with other metal atoms or bulk metal. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs), in particular, are very attractive because of their size and shape-dependent properties. Metal nanoparticles have gathered extensive attention due to their uncommon properties and promising applications in photonics, electronics, biochemical sensing, and imaging. This review covers recent advances in the synthesis of GNPs.

  8. Shifting the genomic gold standard for the prokaryotic species definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Michael; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2009-11-10

    DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) has been used for nearly 50 years as the gold standard for prokaryotic species circumscriptions at the genomic level. It has been the only taxonomic method that offered a numerical and relatively stable species boundary, and its use has had a paramount influence on how the current classification has been constructed. However, now, in the era of genomics, DDH appears to be an outdated method for classification that needs to be substituted. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between two genomes seems the most promising method since it mirrors DDH closely. Here we examine the work package JSpecies as a user-friendly, biologist-oriented interface to calculate ANI and the correlation of the tetranucleotide signatures between pairwise genomic comparisons. The results agreed with the use of ANI to substitute DDH, with a narrowed boundary that could be set at approximately 95-96%. In addition, the JSpecies package implemented the tetranucleotide signature correlation index, an alignment-free parameter that generally correlates with ANI and that can be of help in deciding when a given pair of organisms should be classified in the same species. Moreover, for taxonomic purposes, the analyses can be produced by simply randomly sequencing at least 20% of the genome of the query strains rather than obtaining their full sequence.

  9. COMPARACION DE METODOS DE MEDICION CON UN GOLD-STANDARD

    OpenAIRE

    VENEGAS CANCINO, NATALIA ELIZABETH

    2011-01-01

    Es cada vez más frecuente la necesidad de comparar el grado de acuerdo de p métodos aproximados con respecto al método de medición sin error (gold-standard). Para cuantificar esta concordancia se cuenta con el coeficiente de correlación intraclase para el j-ésimo método alternativo, pj con j = 1, ... ,p. Luego, para estudiar si los p métodos de medición tienen igual grado de acuerdo con el gold-standard se plantea la hipótesis H0 : p1 = · · · = PP que puede ser probada por test de ra...

  10. Cycloplegic refraction is the gold standard for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ian G; Iribarren, Rafael; Fotouhi, Akbar; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Many studies on children have shown that lack of cycloplegia is associated with slight overestimation of myopia and marked errors in estimates of the prevalence of emmetropia and hyperopia. Non-cycloplegic refraction is particularly problematic for studies of associations with risk factors. The consensus around the importance of cycloplegia in children left undefined at what age, if any, cycloplegia became unnecessary. It was often implicitly assumed that cycloplegia is not necessary beyond childhood or early adulthood, and thus, the protocol for the classical studies of refraction in older adults did not include cycloplegia. Now that population studies of refractive error are beginning to fill the gap between schoolchildren and older adults, whether cycloplegia is required for measuring refractive error in this age range, needs to be defined. Data from the Tehran Eye Study show that, without cycloplegia, there are errors in the estimation of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in the age range 20-50, just as in children. Similar results have been reported in an analysis of data from the Beaver Dam Offspring Eye Study. If the only important outcome measure of a particular study is the prevalence of myopia, then cycloplegia may not be crucial in some cases. But, without cycloplegia, measurements of other refractive categories as well as spherical equivalent are unreliable. In summary, the current evidence suggests that cycloplegic refraction should be considered as the gold standard for epidemiological studies of refraction, not only in children, but in adults up to the age of 50. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Current-voltage curves of gold quantum point contacts revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.; Nielsen, S K.; Brandbyge, Mads;

    2000-01-01

    We present measurements of current-voltage (I-V) curves on gold quantum point contacts (QPCs) with a conductance up to 4 G(0) (G(0) = 2e(2)/h is the conductance quantum) and voltages up to 2 V. The QPCs are formed between the gold tip of a scanning tunneling microscope and a Au(110) surface under...... clean ultra-high-vacuum conditions at room temperature. The I - V curves are found to he almost linear in contrast to previous reports. Tight-binding calculations of I - V curves for one- and two-atom contacts are in excellent agreement with our measurements. On the other hand, clearly nonlinear I - V...

  12. Is primary stability the gold standard factor in implant success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazish Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osseointergration defined as the intimate bone-to-implant apposition is the key to implant success and predictability. The primary bone anchorage has long been considered as the gold standard factor and buzzword for successful osseointergration. Bone augmentation and simultaneous implant surgery procedure allow clinicians to reconstruct alveolar bone deficiencies, preserve alveolar dimensions, and replace missing teeth with dental implants in a prosthetically driven position with natural appearance and function. Case Report: This paper reports a case where primary stability although compromised during initial placement, the use of bone graft with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF combined with stringent maintenance and elimination of micromovements leads to a successful outcome. Six months postoperative findings showed a stable implant with good soft and hard tissue augmentation. Discussion: Primary stability though considered to be a gold standard factor in implant success is not a sole requisite. Achieving secondary stability is the long-term goal, and a combination of stringent maintenance and minimal micromovements will make it achievable.

  13. PET/CT in cancer: moderate sample sizes may suffice to justify replacement of a regional gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: For certain cancer indications, the current patient evaluation strategy is a perfect but locally restricted gold standard procedure. If positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can be shown to be reliable within the gold standard region and if it can be argued that PET....../CT also performs well in adjacent areas, then sample sizes in accuracy studies can be reduced. PROCEDURES: Traditional standard power calculations for demonstrating sensitivities of both 80% and 90% are shown. The argument is then described in general terms and demonstrated by an ongoing study...... of metastasized prostate cancer. RESULTS: An added value in accuracy of PET/CT in adjacent areas can outweigh a downsized target level of accuracy in the gold standard region, justifying smaller sample sizes. CONCLUSIONS: If PET/CT provides an accuracy benefit in adjacent regions, then sample sizes can be reduced...

  14. The Gold Standard Paradox in Digital Image Analysis: Manual Versus Automated Scoring as Ground Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeffner, Famke; Wilson, Kristin; Martin, Nathan T; Black, Joshua C; Hendriks, Cris L Luengo; Bolon, Brad; Rudmann, Daniel G; Gianani, Roberto; Koegler, Sally R; Krueger, Joseph; Young, G Dave

    2017-09-01

    - Novel therapeutics often target complex cellular mechanisms. Increasingly, quantitative methods like digital tissue image analysis (tIA) are required to evaluate correspondingly complex biomarkers to elucidate subtle phenotypes that can inform treatment decisions with these targeted therapies. These tIA systems need a gold standard, or reference method, to establish analytical validity. Conventional, subjective histopathologic scores assigned by an experienced pathologist are the gold standard in anatomic pathology and are an attractive reference method. The pathologist's score can establish the ground truth to assess a tIA solution's analytical performance. The paradox of this validation strategy, however, is that tIA is often used to assist pathologists to score complex biomarkers because it is more objective and reproducible than manual evaluation alone by overcoming known biases in a human's visual evaluation of tissue, and because it can generate endpoints that cannot be generated by a human observer. - To discuss common visual and cognitive traps known in traditional pathology-based scoring paradigms that may impact characterization of tIA-assisted scoring accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. - This manuscript reviews the current literature from the past decades available for traditional subjective pathology scoring paradigms and known cognitive and visual traps relevant to these scoring paradigms. - Awareness of the gold standard paradox is necessary when using traditional pathologist scores to analytically validate a tIA tool because image analysis is used specifically to overcome known sources of bias in visual assessment of tissue sections.

  15. Task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms for diffusion-weighted MRI without using a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Kupinski, Matthew A; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J; Stephen, Renu M; Stopeck, Alison T

    2012-07-07

    In many studies, the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lesions in visceral organs in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance images requires an accurate lesion-segmentation algorithm. To evaluate these lesion-segmentation algorithms, region-overlap measures are used currently. However, the end task from the DW images is accurate ADC estimation, and the region-overlap measures do not evaluate the segmentation algorithms on this task. Moreover, these measures rely on the existence of gold-standard segmentation of the lesion, which is typically unavailable. In this paper, we study the problem of task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms in DW imaging in the absence of a gold standard. We first show that using manual segmentations instead of gold-standard segmentations for this task-based evaluation is unreliable. We then propose a method to compare the segmentation algorithms that does not require gold-standard or manual segmentation results. The no-gold-standard method estimates the bias and the variance of the error between the true ADC values and the ADC values estimated using the automated segmentation algorithm. The method can be used to rank the segmentation algorithms on the basis of both the ensemble mean square error and precision. We also propose consistency checks for this evaluation technique.

  16. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: What should be the gold standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Anil Kumar; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    plaques and environmental specimens. There are speculations for false positivity due to detection of non-pylori Helicobacters due to genetic sharing; and false negativity due to low bacterial counts and presence of PCR inhibitors. However, specimen collection, transportation and processing do not require speed and special conditions. PCR based diagnosis may be considered as gold standard by designing primers extremely specific to H. pylori and targeting at least more than one conserved genes. Similarly specificity of PCR may be improved by use of internal Primers. Further, nested PCR will take care of false negatives by countering the effect of PCR inhibitors and low bacterial counts. Therefore, nested PCR based methods if performed properly, may be proposed as gold standard test. PMID:25278682

  17. The gold standard: linking the CDM to development and poverty reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlup, M. [Hamburg Inst. of International Economics (HWWA), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces to the objectives, methodologies and procedures of the gold standard, a tool to generate high-quality emission reduction projects with a strong development component. It is discussed how this tool can be used to create sound synergies between climate policy, private sector and non-ODA government involvement in the CDM and development and poverty alleviation objectives. Recommendations are given to direct more CDM investments towards sustainable and additional projects. It is concluded that renewable energy and energy efficiency projects need to become more dominant under the current CDM regime and that both developing as well as industrialised country actors have different but common responsibilities to achieve this. (orig.)

  18. Outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A new gold standard for cholecystectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bueno Lledó

    Full Text Available Objective: to contribute our experience for five years in the implemetation of outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC. Patients: between January 1999 and March 2004 we performed 504 outpatient LCs. We applied both exclusion and inclusion criteria, an anesthetic and surgical protocol, and discharge-specific criteria. Postoperative management in "fast track" regime. Postoperative period controlled by protocol, including phone calls after cholecystectomy. Results: the ambulatory percentage in the global series was 88.8%, and mean hospital stay was 6.1 hours. Fifty-one patients required overnight stays (10.1%, most of them for "social" causes. Five patients required admission (between 24 and 48 hours for different causes (conversion to laparotomy, intraoperative neumothorax, and postoperative medical complications. Six patients (1.1% were readmitted, and we observed 11.6% postoperative complications in the global series, with abdominal parietal pain being most frequent. Phone localization by 22.00 p.m. in the same day of surgery was 100% complete for outpatient cases. Postoperative surveillance within the first month after surgery was completed in 93.9%, and within th first year in 86.7% of patients. Conclusions: outpatient LC is safe and feasible, and probably represents a new "gold standard" in the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis.

  19. Microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedbalkar, Utkarsha; Singh, Richa; Wadhwani, Sweety; Gaidhani, Sharvari; Chopade, B A

    2014-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been employed in biomedicine since the last decade because of their unique optical, electrical and photothermal properties. Present review discusses the microbial synthesis, properties and biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles. Different microbial synthesis strategies used so far for obtaining better yield and stability have been described. It also includes different methods used for the characterization and analysis of gold nanoparticles, viz. UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ransmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron dispersive X ray, X ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltametry. The different mechanisms involved in microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles have been discussed. The information related to applications of microbially synthesized gold nanoparticles and patents on microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles has been summarized.

  20. Rifampin Drug Resistance Tests for Tuberculosis: Challenging the Gold Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Kya J. M.; Bola, Valentin; Lebeke, Rossin; Hossain, Mohamed Anwar; de Rijk, Willem Bram; Rigouts, Leen; Gumusboga, Aysel; Torrea, Gabriela; de Jong, Bouke C.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid diagnosis of rifampin resistance is hampered by a reported insufficient specificity of molecular techniques for detection of rpoB mutations. Our objective for this study was to document the prevalence and prognostic value of rpoB mutations with unclear phenotypic resistance. The study design entailed sequencing directly from sputum of first failure or relapse patients without phenotypic selection and comparison of the standard retreatment regimen outcome, according to the mutation present. We found that among all rpoB mutations, the best-documented “disputed” rifampin resistance mutations (511Pro, 516Tyr, 526Asn, 526Leu, 533Pro, and 572Phe) made up 13.1% and 10.6% of all mutations in strains from Bangladesh and Kinshasa, respectively. Except for the 511Pro and 526Asn mutations, most of these strains with disputed mutations tested rifampin resistant in routine Löwenstein-Jensen medium proportion method drug susceptibility testing (DST; 78.7%), but significantly less than those with common, undisputed mutations (96.3%). With 63% of patients experiencing failure or relapse in both groups, there was no difference in outcome of first-line retreatment between patients carrying a strain with disputed versus common mutations. We conclude that rifampin resistance that is difficult to detect by the gold standard, phenotypic DST, is clinically and epidemiologically highly relevant. Sensitivity rather than specificity is imperfect with any rifampin DST method. Even at a low prevalence of rifampin resistance, a rifampin-resistant result issued by a competent laboratory may not warrant confirmation, although the absence of a necessity for confirmation needs to be confirmed for molecular results among new cases. However, a result of rifampin susceptibility should be questioned when suspicion is very high, and further DST using a different system (i.e., genotypic after phenotypic testing) would be fully justified. PMID:23761144

  1. nonbinROC: Software for Evaluating Diagnostic Accuracies with Non-Binary Gold Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nguyen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ROC analysis is a standard method for estimating and comparing diagnostic tests' accuracies when the gold standard is binary. However, there are many situations when the gold standard is not binary. In these situations, traditional ROC methods applied have lead to biased and uninformative outcomes. This article introduces nonbinROC, software for R that implements nonparametric estimators proposed by Obuchowski (2005 for estimating and comparing diagnostic tests' accuracies when the gold standard is measured on a continuous, ordinal or nominal scale. The results produced from these estimators are interpreted in the same manner as in ROC analysis but are not associated with any ROC curve.

  2. After the Gold Rush: Questioning the "Gold Standard" and Reappraising the Status of Experiment and Randomized Controlled Trials in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The past few years have seen a resurgence of faith in experimentation in education inquiry, and particularly in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Proponents of such research have succeeded in bringing into common parlance the term "gold standard," which suggests that research emerging from any other design frame fails to achieve the…

  3. Origin of current-induced forces in an atomic gold wire: A first-principles study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt; Taylor, Jeremy Philip;

    2003-01-01

    We address the microscopic origin of the current-induced forces by analyzing results of first principles density functional calculations of atomic gold wires connected to two gold electrodes with different electrochemical potentials. We find that current induced forces are closely related...

  4. Manganese oxides supported on gold nanoparticles: new findings and current controversies for the role of gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Maedeh; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Tomo, Tatsuya; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2015-12-01

    We synthesized manganese oxides supported on gold nanoparticles (diameter gold nanoparticles under hydrothermal conditions. In this green method Mn oxide is deposited on the gold nanoparticles. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the next step, the water-oxidizing activities of these compounds in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a non-oxo transfer oxidant were studied. The results show that these compounds are good catalysts toward water oxidation with a turnover frequency of 1.0 ± 0.1 (mmol O2/(mol Mn·s)). A comparison with other previously reported Mn oxides and important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of Mn oxides is also discussed.

  5. Gold Standard Testing of Motion Based Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th Air Base Wing Public Affairs Office and is available...systems against a ‘Gold Standard’ on-field measurement system for human physiological performance monitoring. Data shows that the accuracy of the...Zebra (RFID-based) system is very good, due to its high sampling frequency, with most measurements being within ~2% for distance and ~4% for velocity

  6. [Juniperus ashei: the gold standard of the Cuppressaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, C; Dumur, J P; Hrabina, M; Lefebvre, E; Sicard, H

    2000-03-01

    The non-standardized Cupressus sempervirens allergen extract currently available for the diagnosis of cypress allergy has a low level of activity. The search for an active material consisted of in vitro and in vivo comparison of three Cupressaceae pollen extracts: Cupressus sempervirens (Cs), Cupressus arizonica (Ca) and Juniperus ashei (Ja) (synonyms: Juniperus sabinoides and Mountain Cedar). These 3 trees belong to the same botanical family of Cupressaceae. While Cs and Ca are commonly encountered in Mediterranean regions, Ja is only present in Europe in the Balkans, but is a major cause of allergy in the USA. In vitro, with a similar protein content, the allergenic properties of Ja extract are 20-Fold higher than those of Cs and 11-fold higher than those of Ca. IgE immunoblotting revealed 14, 42 and 70 kDa allergens common to all 3 extracts. The inhibition curves of the 3 extracts were more than 88% parallel. A significant correlation was observed between serum specific IgE titres for Ja and Cs in 23 patients (r = 0.916; p allergy, the mean diameter of the prick test papule at 1/20 W/V of Ja (8.3 mm) was greater than that of the Cs papule (6.3 mm) (p = 0.001) and the Ca papule (6.7 mm) (p allergy.

  7. Device and methods for "gold standard" registration of clinical 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Hennadii; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Å piclin, Žiga

    2015-03-01

    Translation of any novel and existing 3D-2D image registration methods into clinical image-guidance systems is limited due to lack of their objective validation on clinical image datasets. The main reason is that, besides the calibration of the 2D imaging system, a reference or "gold standard" registration is very difficult to obtain on clinical image datasets. In the context of cerebral endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs), we present a calibration device in the form of a headband with integrated fiducial markers and, secondly, propose an automated pipeline comprising 3D and 2D image processing, analysis and annotation steps, the result of which is a retrospective calibration of the 2D imaging system and an optimal, i.e., "gold standard" registration of 3D and 2D images. The device and methods were used to create the "gold standard" on 15 datasets of 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms, whereas each dataset was acquired on a patient undergoing EIGI for either aneurysm coiling or embolization of arteriovenous malformation. The use of the device integrated seamlessly in the clinical workflow of EIGI. While the automated pipeline eliminated all manual input or interactive image processing, analysis or annotation. In this way, the time to obtain the "gold standard" was reduced from 30 to less than one minute and the "gold standard" of 3D-2D registration on all 15 datasets of cerebral angiograms was obtained with a sub-0.1 mm accuracy.

  8. Current rectification in nickelocenylferrocene sandwiched between two gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yukihito

    2013-01-07

    I present a theoretical study of the electronic transport properties of nickelocenylferrocene sandwiched between gold electrodes. Compared with the biferrocene system, the nickelocenylferrocene system had high electrical conduction and rectification in the bias range -1 to 1 V. Furthermore, the spin-down states of the nickelocenylferrocene system exhibited perfect spin-filtering properties. From the electronic states of the nickelocenylferrocene, it was found that the rectification was caused by a difference in the bias-dependent behaviors between the Fe 3d and Ni 3d orbitals.

  9. Carbon finance and pro-poor co-benefits: The Gold Standard and Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Rachel

    2011-04-15

    This paper assesses the practical contribution of the Gold Standard (GS) and Climate Community and Biodiversity (CCB) Standards to local development through the identification of high quality carbon offset projects and ensuring high standards of consultation with local communities during project development and implementation. It is based on desk research, involving analysis of the GS and CCB Standards' project databases, project design documents, and secondary literature. In addition, over 20 representatives of the two standards systems, project developers, NGO representatives, and researchers were interviewed. The paper concludes that both standard systems successfully reward high quality projects which have a demonstrated commitment to local consultations and sustainable development benefits. Moreover, they serve to give well-meaning project developers frameworks with which to ensure that a wide range of criteria are considered in planning and implementing projects. As voluntary standards, it is unrealistic to expect either the GS or CCB Standards to improve poor-quality or unsustainable projects.

  10. Application of gold thin-films for internal standardization in LA-ICP-MS imaging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonta, Maximilian; Lohninger, Hans; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Limbeck, Andreas

    2014-03-21

    LA-ICP-MS imaging experiments are of growing interest within the field of biosciences. Revealing the distributions of major components as well as trace elements in biological samples can help to understand fundamental biological processes. However, highly variable sample conditions and changing instrumental parameters during measurement time aggravate reliable quantification especially in biological tissues. Normally matrix matched standards used for calibration are scarcely available and the manufacturing process thereof is rather complicated. Thus most experiments reported in the literature only delivered qualitative information on the analyte distributions. The use of appropriate internal standards facilitates the preparation of calibrations even without the utilization of matrix-matched standards. In the presented work an approach for providing reliable quantitative bio-images is proposed using gold thin-layers as an internal standard and patterns printed with commercially available inkjet printers as standards. The method development is based on copper from blue ink as the element of interest. It could be shown that gold standardization compensates instrumental drifts, matrix related ablation differences and day-to-day signal changes. Not only was the quality of the obtained images improved by gold standardization; while the relative standard deviation of the measurements was around 15% before standardization it could be decreased to less than 5% by gold standardization. Also quantitative information could be obtained for samples with unknown analyte concentrations. Depending on the used beam diameter limits of detection in the range of some hundreds ng g(-1) were achieved. The presented method is a promising and easy-to-handle alternative to matrix matched standards for signal quantification.

  11. Nursing Program Success: Are We Using the Right "Gold" Standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Sharon L.; Helfert, Karen; Teich, Carolyn R.; Viterito, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Community college administrators and state regulatory bodies assess associate degree nursing programs on a continual basis. In their quest to evaluate the programs, they rely heavily on the "first time pass rate" reports on the standard licensing test: NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination). A closer look at the use of this…

  12. Still no single gold standard for using cementless femoral stems routinely in total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T. Moskal, MD

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Using evidence-based data should be better guidance in selecting the most reliable implants for THA. Although cementless femoral fixation for THA has evolved to the “new standard,” it has not been proven to be the “gold standard” for all patients.

  13. Human papillomavirus testing as a cytology gold standard : comparing Surinam with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachtel, MS; Boon, ME; Korporaal, H; Kok, LP

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction to detect high- risk human papillomavirus has been suggested as a gold standard for cytology. The Netherlands and Surinam were prospectively compared in regard to the proportions of Negative, Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, and Squamous Intraepithelial

  14. Human papillomavirus testing as a cytology gold standard : comparing Surinam with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachtel, MS; Boon, ME; Korporaal, H; Kok, LP

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction to detect high- risk human papillomavirus has been suggested as a gold standard for cytology. The Netherlands and Surinam were prospectively compared in regard to the proportions of Negative, Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, and Squamous Intraepithelial

  15. Training text chunkers on a silver standard corpus: Can silver replace gold?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kang (Ning); E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To train chunkers in recognizing noun phrases and verb phrases in biomedical text, an annotated corpus is required. The creation of gold standard corpora (GSCs), however, is expensive and time-consuming. GSCs therefore tend to be small and to focus on specific subdomains,

  16. Seeking a Valid Gold Standard for an Innovative, Dialect-Neutral Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Jackson, Janice E.; Wu, Haotian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored alternative gold standards to validate an innovative, dialect-neutral language assessment. Method: Participants were 78 African American children, ages 5;0 (years;months) to 6;11. Twenty participants had previously been identified as having language impairment. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Language…

  17. Monocular Vision: Occupational Limitations and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Kumagai, J. K., Williams, S., and Kline, D. (2005), Vision standards for aircrew: Visual acuity for pilots, (DRDC-TORONTO-CR-2005-142), Greenley ...Canadian Forces aircrew, (DRDC-TORONTO-CR-2006-255), Greenley and Associate Inc., Ottawa. Lövsund, P., Hedin, A., and Törnros, J. (1991), Effects...Williams, S., Casson, E., Brooks, J., Greenley , M., and Nadeau, J. (2003), Visual acuity standard for divers, Greenley & Associates Incorporated

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic sonoelastography, and strain ratio evaluation of lymph nodes with histology as gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Hareskov; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Hansen, Tine Plato

    2012-01-01

    . Endoscopic sonoelastography (ESE) assesses the elasticity of lymph nodes and has been used to differentiate lymph nodes with promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of EUS, EUS - FNA, ESE, and ESE-strain ratio using histology as the gold standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients......, EUS - FNA and EUS - FNM were performed. The marked lymph node was isolated during surgery for histological examination. RESULTS: The marked lymph node was isolated for separate histological examination in 56 patients, of whom 22 (39 %) had malignant lymph nodes and 34 (61 %) had benign lymph nodes...... - FNM technique enabled the identification of a specific lymph node and thereby the use of histology as gold standard. ESE and ESE-strain ratio were no better than standard EUS in differentiating between malignant and benign lymph nodes in patients with resectable upper gastrointestinal cancer....

  19. Open Partial Nephrectomy in Renal Cancer: A Feasible Gold Standard Technique in All Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Cozar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Partial nephrectomy (PN is playing an increasingly important role in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC as a true alternative to radical nephrectomy. With the greater experience and expertise of surgical teams, it has become an alternative to radical nephrectomy in young patients when the tumor diameter is 4 cm or less in almost all hospitals since cancer-specific survival outcomes are similar to those obtained with radical nephrectomy. Materials and Methods. The authors comment on their own experience and review the literature, reporting current indications and outcomes including complications. The surgical technique of open partial nephrectomy is outlined. Conclusions. Nowadays, open PN is the gold standard technique to treat small renal masses, and all nonablative techniques must pass the test of time to be compared to PN. It is not ethical for patients to undergo radical surgery just because the urologists involved do not have adequate experience with PN. Patients should be involved in the final treatment decision and, when appropriate, referred to specialized centers with experience in open or laparoscopic partial nephrectomies.

  20. Comparative evaluation of an ambulatory EEG platform vs. clinical gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Gregory; Radhu, Natasha; Sun, Yinming; Tallevi, Kevin; Ritvo, Paul; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Grundlehner, Bernard; Penders, Julien; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) testing in clinical labs makes use of large amplifiers and complex software for data acquisition. While there are new ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG) systems, few have been directly compared to a gold standard system. Here, an ultra-low power wireless EEG system designed by Imec is tested against the gold standard Neuroscan SynAmps2 EEG system, recording simultaneously from the same laboratory cap prepared with electrode gel. The data was analyzed using correlation analysis for both time domain and frequency domain data. The analysis indicated a high Pearson's correlation coefficient (mean=0.957, median=0.985) with high confidence (mean P=0.002) for 10-second sets of data transformed to the frequency domain. The time domain results had acceptable Pearson's coefficient (mean=0.580, median =0.706) with high confidence (mean P=0.008).

  1. Predicting a single HIV drug resistance measure from three international interpretation gold standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Singh Yashik; Mars Maurice

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the possibility of combining the interpretation of three gold standard interpretation algorithms using weighted heuristics in order to produce a single resistance measure.Methods:The outputs ofHIVdb,Rega,ANRS were combined to obtain a single resistance profile using the equally weighted voting algorithm, accuracy based weighing voting algorithm and theBayesian based weighted voting algorithm techniques.Results:TheBayesian based voting combination increased the accuracy of the resistance profile prediction compared to phenotype, from58% to69%.The equal weighted voting algorithm and the accuracy based algorithm both increased the prediction accuracy to60%.Conclusions:From the result obtained it is evident that combining the gold standard interpretation algorithms may increase the predictive ability of the individual interpretation algorithms.

  2. Pharmacotherapy of erectile dysfunction: Current standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew-Kim Chew

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacotherapy is currently the therapeutic option of choice for erectile dysfunction. Comprising mainly intracavernosal injection therapy using alprostadil or alprostadil combined with phentolamine and/or papaverine and oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, it is safe and effective if appropriately prescribed and administered. The medications in current use produce satisfactory erectile responses by enhancing cavernosal vasodilatation mainly through their ability to promote relaxation of the smooth muscle cells in the corpora cavernosa involving the synthesis and activity of nitric oxide via the cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate biochemical pathways. The main side-effects and complications of intracavernosal injections are postinjection pain, prolonged erections, priapism and penile fibrosis. There may be a variety of side-effects with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition but these are usually inconsequential. Recent serious ill health and the need for ongoing long-acting nitrate therapy or frequent use of short-acting nitrates for angina are absolute contraindications to the use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Caution has to be exercised in prescribing phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for patients with impaired renal or hepatic functions or receiving multi-drug therapy for any systemic disease. All patients presenting with erectile dysfunction should be investigated and treated for cardiovascular risk factors. They should also be counseled regarding lifestyle factors particularly healthy balanced diet, regular physical exercise and inappropriate social habits.

  3. An overview of synthetic strategies and current applications of gold nanorods in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish Lakhani, Prit; Vishnu Kiran Rompicharla, Sri; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2015-10-01

    Photothermal therapy, also referred to as optical hyperthermia or photothermal ablation, is an emerging strategy for treating solid tumours. Colloidal gold converts the absorbed light into localized heat via a non-radiative mechanism, surface plasmon resonance, which ablates the solid tumours. Several plasmon resonating nanostructures, including gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), gold nanorods (AuNRs), gold nanoshells, gold nanocages, copper sulphide and carbon nanotubes, have shown potential for photo-activated cancer therapy. Generally, spherical AuNPs display absorption maxima between 500-550 nm, making them inefficient due to low tissue penetration. On the other hand, AuNRs absorb light in the near-infrared (NIR) region that penetrates deeper with higher spatial precision, and causes no damage to the surrounding healthy tissues due to the low energy absorption of NIR light by normal tissue. Moreover, the absorption range of light can be fine-tuned to the NIR region by adjusting the aspect ratios of AuNRs. However, large-scale synthesis and stability of this colloidal system still poses challenges for clinical translation. In this review, we discuss various strategies applied up to now for the synthesis of AuNRs. Current trends in the pre-clinical development of multifunctional AuNRs with emphasis on preparation and application strategies in cancer therapy have been delineated.

  4. Usage of Latent Class Analysis in Diagnostic Microbiology in the Absence of Gold Standard Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Bayram Abiha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of performance of various tests diagnostic tests in the absence of gold standard is an important problem. Latent class analysis (LCA is a statistical analysis method known for many years, especially in the absence of a gold standard for evaluation of diagnostic tests so that LCA has found its wide application area. During the last decade, LCA method has widely used in for determining sensivity and specifity of different microbiological tests. It has investigated in the diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterium bovis, human papilloma virus, bordetella pertussis, influenza viruses, hepatitis E virus (HEV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and other various viral infections. Researchers have compared several diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of different pathogens with LCA. We aimed to evaluate performance of latent class analysis method used microbiological diagnosis in various diseases in several researches. When we took into account all of these tests' results, we suppose that LCA is a good statistical analysis method to assess different test performances in the absence of gold standard. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 467-488

  5. Fungus-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and standardization of parameters for its biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidke, Pritish R; Gupta, Indarchand; Gade, Aniket K; Rai, Mahendra

    2014-12-01

    We report the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using a fungus Fusarium acuminatum. Mycosynthesis of Au-NPs was carried out by challenging the fungal cells filtrate with HAuCl 4 solution (1 mM), as nanoparticles synthesizing enzyme secrete extracellularly by the fungi. The AuNPs were characterized with the help of UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Zeta Potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We observed absorbance peak in between 520 nm-550 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon absorbance of the gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles synthesized in the present investigation were found to be capped by proteins. XRD results showed that the distinctive formation of crystalline gold nanoparticles in the solution. The spherical and polydispersed AuNPs in the range 8 to 28 nm with average size of 17 nm were observed by TEM analysis. We also standardized the parameters like the effect of pH, temperature and salt concentration on the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. It was found that acidic pH, 1 mM salt concentration and 37 (°)C temperature were found to be optimum for the synthesis of Au-NPs. Therefore, the present study introduces the easy, better and cheaper method for biosynthesis of AuNPs.

  6. Standard guidelines for electrosurgery with radiofrequency current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutalik Sharad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Definition: Radiofrequency (RF induces thermal destruction of the targeted tissue by an electrical current at a frequency of 0.5 MHz (RF. As the electrode tip is not heated, there is minimal thermal damage to the surrounding tissues, producing good esthetic results. Therefore, RF ablation is also known as cold ablation or "coblation." Modality: It has three modes of operation: (a Cut, (b cut and coagulate and (c coagulate. Therefore, it can be used for various purposes like incision, ablation, fulguration, shave excision and coagulation. Because of the coagulation facility, hemostasis can be achieved and operation becomes easier and faster. Indications: It is effective in treating various skin conditions like dermatosis papulosa nigra, warts, molluscum contagiosum, colloid milia, acquired junctional, compound and dermal melanocytic nevi, seborrheic keratosis, skin tags, granuloma pyogenicum, verrucous epidermal nevi, xanthelesma, rhinophyma, superficial basal cell carcinoma and telangiectasia. It can also be used for cosmetic indications such as resurfacing, earlobe repair and blepharoplasty. Anesthesia: The procedure is accomplished either under topical anesthesia eutactic mixture of local anesthetics or local injectable anesthesia, under all aseptic precautions. Procedure: While operating, only the tip of the electrode should come in contact with the tissue. Actual contact of the electrode with the tissue should be very brief in order to prevent excessive damage to the deeper tissues. This can be accomplished by moving the electrode quickly. Complications: Complications are uncommon and mainly occur due to an improper technique. The treating physician should be aware of the contraindications of the procedure as listed in these guidelines. Physician qualification: RF surgery may be performed by a dermatologist who has acquired adequate training during post-graduation or through recognized fellowships and workshops dedicated to RF surgery. He

  7. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  8. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yongdong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  9. Digital panoramic radiography for diagnosis of the temporomandibular joint: CBCT as the gold standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brait Silva LADEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional imaging modalities have been reported to be more accurate than panoramic radiographs (PR for the assessment of bone components of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. No exact prior information is available that demonstrates which specific limitations occur in terms of TMJ diagnosis when using PR for this purpose. This study aimed to assess the clinical validity of digital panoramic radiography (DPR when diagnosing morphological disorders of the TMJ using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT images as the gold standard. A sample composed of TMJ images (N = 848, including 212 DPR and 212 CBCT images obtained from the same patient, was used to assess any morphological changes in the TMJ. Four appraisers diagnosed all of the DPR images, whereas the CBCT images were used to establish the gold standard. The reliability of each appraiser’s response pattern was analyzed using the Kappa test (κ, and diagnostic tests were performed to assess each appraiser’s performance using a significance level setting of 5% (α = 0.05. Reliability of each appraiser’s response pattern compared to the gold standard ranged from a slight-to-moderate agreement (0.18 ≤ κ ≤ 0.45; and among the different appraisers, the response pattern showed a fair agreement (0.22 ≤ κ ≤ 0.39. Diagnostic tests showed a wide range among the different possible morphological changes diagnosed. DPR does not have validity when diagnosing morphological changes in the TMJ; it underestimates the radiological findings with higher prevalence, and thus, it cannot be used effectively as a diagnostic tool for bone components within this region.

  10. Digital panoramic radiography for diagnosis of the temporomandibular joint: CBCT as the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Daniela Brait Silva; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging modalities have been reported to be more accurate than panoramic radiographs (PR) for the assessment of bone components of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). No exact prior information is available that demonstrates which specific limitations occur in terms of TMJ diagnosis when using PR for this purpose. This study aimed to assess the clinical validity of digital panoramic radiography (DPR) when diagnosing morphological disorders of the TMJ using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images as the gold standard. A sample composed of TMJ images (N = 848), including 212 DPR and 212 CBCT images obtained from the same patient, was used to assess any morphological changes in the TMJ. Four appraisers diagnosed all of the DPR images, whereas the CBCT images were used to establish the gold standard. The reliability of each appraiser's response pattern was analyzed using the Kappa test (κ), and diagnostic tests were performed to assess each appraiser's performance using a significance level setting of 5% (α = 0.05). Reliability of each appraiser's response pattern compared to the gold standard ranged from a slight-to-moderate agreement (0.18 ≤ κ ≤ 0.45); and among the different appraisers, the response pattern showed a fair agreement (0.22 ≤ κ ≤ 0.39). Diagnostic tests showed a wide range among the different possible morphological changes diagnosed. DPR does not have validity when diagnosing morphological changes in the TMJ; it underestimates the radiological findings with higher prevalence, and thus, it cannot be used effectively as a diagnostic tool for bone components within this region.

  11. The Framingham Heart Study, on its way to becoming the gold standard for Cardiovascular Genetic Epidemiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquish Cashell E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Framingham Heart Study, founded in 1948 to examine the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in a small town outside of Boston, has become the worldwide standard for cardiovascular epidemiology. It is among the longest running, most comprehensively characterized multi-generational studies in the world. Such seminal findings as the effects of smoking and high cholesterol on heart disease came from the Framingham Heart Study. At the time of publication these were novel cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, now they are the basis of treatment and prevention in the US. Is the Framingham study now on it's way to becoming the gold standard for genetic epidemiology of CVD? Will the novel genetic findings of today become the health care standards of tomorrow? The accompanying articles summarizing the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS give the reader a first glimpse into the possibilities.

  12. Evaluation of the value of frozen tissue section used as "gold standard" for immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Liu, Cheng; Pootrakul, Llana; Tang, Laurie; Young, Andrew; Chen, Ryan; Cote, Richard J; Taylor, Clive R

    2008-03-01

    To examine the use of acetone- or ethanol-fixed frozen tissue sections as the "gold standard" for immunohistochemical analysis, we evaluated frozen sections with various conditions of fixation and antigen retrieval (AR). Fresh human tissues were frozen in OCT. An adjacent tissue block was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF) and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Frozen sections were fixed by 6 protocols: acetone, ethanol, NBF (2 durations), and NBF + calcium chloride (2 durations). AR was used for all NBF-fixed sections. More than half of the antibodies (16/26 [62%]) showed immunohistochemical results indistinguishable between acetone- and NBF-fixed sections; 8 (31%) showed better immunohistochemical signals following NBF and AR; 2 gave better immunohistochemical results for acetone-fixed sections. Most cytoplasmic proteins (10/13) showed comparable immunohistochemical signals between acetone- and NBF-fixed sections. For nuclear proteins, NBF-fixed sections gave better immunohistochemical signals than did acetone-fixed sections. In most cases, NBF yielded stronger signals with less background and better morphology. The data do not support the use of acetone-fixed frozen tissue sections as the gold standard for immunohistochemical analysis. In evaluating new antibodies, a combination of acetone- and NBF-fixed frozen sections should be used, although in practice, FFPE tissue sections may serve as the standard for most antigens for immunohistochemical analysis.

  13. [Use of gold implants as a treatment of pain related to canine hip dysplasia--a review. Part 1: Background and current state of research regarding the effects of implanting gold in tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisenroth, A; Nolte, I; Wefstaedt, P

    2013-01-01

    Gold-bead implantation as a method of pain treatment in dogs suffering from osteoarthritic disease is receiving increasing attention in veterinary medicine. For the present article, publications from veterinary books and journals were collected and evaluated, together with related articles in human medicine. After providing an overview of the historical use of gold and gold compounds, the technique of implanting this noble metal is introduced. The reasons for establishing the terms gold acupuncture and gold (bead) implantation are described, considering the question whether and what kind of methodological differences exist behind these terms. Next, previous publications concerning the effects of gold implantation in tissue are summarised. In 2002 it was proven that gold ions are released from the surface of gold implants by a process termed dissolucytosis. Subsequent publications further investigated details about the interaction between gold ions and tissue as well as the distribution pattern of bio-released ions. Gold compounds were previously used for chrysotherapy in human medicine until medication with fewer side effects became established. The anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties of gold compounds were used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Current research aims to ascertain whether the anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating effects of gold compounds are imitated by gold ions released from gold implants at a local level. In conclusion, the present review summarises important findings about the effects of gold implanted in tissue. However, further research is necessary to estimate the limitations and benefits of this auromedication.

  14. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis by MC-PCR: evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity without gold standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Wahlström

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A semi-automated magnetic capture probe-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method (MC-PCR, allowing for a more efficient large-scale surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence, has been developed. The test sensitivity has previously been evaluated using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT as a gold standard. However, as the sensitivity of the SCT is not 1, test characteristics of the MC-PCR was also evaluated using latent class analysis, a methodology not requiring a gold standard. Materials and methods: Test results, MC-PCR and SCT, from a previous evaluation of the MC-PCR using 177 foxes shot in the spring (n=108 and autumn 2012 (n=69 in high prevalence areas in Switzerland were used. Latent class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics of the MC-PCR. Although it is not the primary aim of this study, estimates of the test characteristics of the SCT were also obtained. Results and discussion: This study showed that the sensitivity of the MC-PCR was 0.88 [95% posterior credible interval (PCI 0.80–0.93], which was not significantly different than the SCT, 0.83 (95% PCI 0.76–0.88, which is currently considered as the gold standard. The specificity of both tests was high, 0.98 (95% PCI 0.94–0.99 for the MC-PCR and 0.99 (95% PCI 0.99–1 for the SCT. In a previous study, using fox scats from a low prevalence area, the specificity of the MC-PCR was higher, 0.999% (95% PCI 0.997–1. One reason for the lower estimate of the specificity in this study could be that the MC-PCR detects DNA from infected but non-infectious rodents eaten by foxes. When using MC-PCR in low prevalence areas or areas free from the parasite, a positive result in the MC-PCR should be regarded as a true positive. Conclusion: The sensitivity of the MC-PCR (0.88 was comparable to the sensitivity of SCT (0.83.

  15. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  16. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  17. Giant streaming currents measured in a gold sputtered glass microchannel array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Kostiuk, Larry W.

    2016-02-01

    Pressure-driven-flow of a dilute aqueous solution in a microchannel with charged walls generates streaming currents (ionic current) and streaming potentials across the microchannel. While generation of streaming currents can be performed in network of parallel circular microchannels or unstructured porous media, accurate measurements of such currents remain a challenge. In this study a gigantic amount of streaming current was successfully generated and measured using a glass microchannel array with special gold sputtered coatings on both its ends. Streaming current as high as 0.7 mA was obtained with moderate pressure drop (124 kPa) across the glass microchannel array that consists of approximately 11 250 000 parallel microchannels with radii of 2.5 μm. Higher streaming currents are also possible to generate (scaled to 142 μA/cm2 of frontal area at a flow rate of 12 cm3/s) with potential applications in surface charge characterizations and electrokinetic power generation. In addition, apparent ζ potential of glass microchannel array surface was estimated with the aid of streaming current data and Levine-Olivare theories and an apparent ζ potential of -65 mV (0 M KCl, κa = 8) is reported.

  18. The Gold Standard Program for Smoking Cessation is Effective for Participants Over 60 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flamand, Mette Kehlet; Schroeder, Torben V; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among the elderly than among the young, and the elderly also have the most frequent contact with the health care system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Program, which is an intensive six-week smoking...... cessation program, on continuous self-reported abstinence rates after six months, on participants over the age of 60 years in a real life setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from the national Danish smoking cessation database. RESULTS: The database registered 7369 participants over...... recommendation for smoking cessation (OR 1.12), being compliant with program (OR 1.35) and being abstinent at end of course (OR 13.3). CONCLUSIONS: Participants over the age of 60 years had significantly higher continuous abstinence rates after six months than the participants less than 60 years. It is never too...

  19. Bayesian analysis of longitudinal Johne's disease diagnostic data without a gold standard test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, C.; Turnbull, B.W.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2011-01-01

    . An application is presented to an analysis of ELISA and fecal culture test outcomes in the diagnostic testing of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) for a Danish longitudinal study from January 2000 to March 2003. The posterior probability criterion based on the Bayesian model with 4 repeated observations has......A Bayesian methodology was developed based on a latent change-point model to evaluate the performance of milk ELISA and fecal culture tests for longitudinal Johne's disease diagnostic data. The situation of no perfect reference test was considered; that is, no “gold standard.” A change......-point process with a Weibull survival hazard function was used to model the progression of the hidden disease status. The model adjusted for the fixed effects of covariate variables and random effects of subject on the diagnostic testing procedure. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to compute...

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic sonoelastography, and strain ratio evaluation of lymph nodes with histology as gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Hareskov; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Hansen, Tine Plato

    2012-01-01

    . Endoscopic sonoelastography (ESE) assesses the elasticity of lymph nodes and has been used to differentiate lymph nodes with promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of EUS, EUS - FNA, ESE, and ESE-strain ratio using histology as the gold standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients...... with upper gastrointestinal cancer who were referred for EUS examination were enrolled if surgical treatment was planned and the patient had a lymph node that was accessible for EUS - FNA and EUS-guided fine-needle marking (FNM). The lymph node was classified using EUS, ESE, and ESE-strain ratio. Finally......, EUS - FNA and EUS - FNM were performed. The marked lymph node was isolated during surgery for histological examination. RESULTS: The marked lymph node was isolated for separate histological examination in 56 patients, of whom 22 (39 %) had malignant lymph nodes and 34 (61 %) had benign lymph nodes...

  1. Can 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy remain the gold standard for gallbladder surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Kinyas; Uludag, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Fin dalla prima esecuzione di una colecistectomia laparoscopica (LC), questo approccio ha attratto l’attenzione di tutti i chirurghi per continuare quindi la sua rivoluzione tecnica. Con l’aumentare dell’esperienza chirurgica si è sviluppata la tendenza verso approcci sempre meno invasivi ed ha comportato innovazioni nel campo della chirurgia laparoscopica. Le procedure chirurgiche correnti sono: l’approccio con 4 port (4PLC) che rappresenta tutt’ora il gold standard, l’approccio con 3 port (3PLC), quello con 2 port (2PLC) ed infine quello con un solo port (SPLC). La colecistectomia robotica (RC) e la chirurgia eseguita endoscopicamente tramite orifici coporei naturali (NOTES) rappresentano le altre nuove tecniche per l’esecuzione dell’asportazione della colecisti. In questo articolo ci si propone di fare un confronto obiettivo tra i diversi tipi di colecistectomia laparoscopica sulla base della corrente letteratura medica del settore.

  2. Blinded sample size re-estimation in three-arm trials with 'gold standard' design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Tobias; Friede, Tim

    2017-10-15

    In this article, we study blinded sample size re-estimation in the 'gold standard' design with internal pilot study for normally distributed outcomes. The 'gold standard' design is a three-arm clinical trial design that includes an active and a placebo control in addition to an experimental treatment. We focus on the absolute margin approach to hypothesis testing in three-arm trials at which the non-inferiority of the experimental treatment and the assay sensitivity are assessed by pairwise comparisons. We compare several blinded sample size re-estimation procedures in a simulation study assessing operating characteristics including power and type I error. We find that sample size re-estimation based on the popular one-sample variance estimator results in overpowered trials. Moreover, sample size re-estimation based on unbiased variance estimators such as the Xing-Ganju variance estimator results in underpowered trials, as it is expected because an overestimation of the variance and thus the sample size is in general required for the re-estimation procedure to eventually meet the target power. To overcome this problem, we propose an inflation factor for the sample size re-estimation with the Xing-Ganju variance estimator and show that this approach results in adequately powered trials. Because of favorable features of the Xing-Ganju variance estimator such as unbiasedness and a distribution independent of the group means, the inflation factor does not depend on the nuisance parameter and, therefore, can be calculated prior to a trial. Moreover, we prove that the sample size re-estimation based on the Xing-Ganju variance estimator does not bias the effect estimate. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Immobilization and surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles monitored via streaming current/potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greben, Kyrylo; Li, Pinggui; Mayer, Dirk; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wördenweber, Roger

    2015-05-14

    A streaming current/potential method is optimized and used for the analysis of the variation of the surface potential upon chemical modifications of a complex interface consisting of different organic molecules and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The surfaces of Si/SiO2 substrates modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), AuNPs, and 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (aminothiols) are analyzed via pH and time dependent ζ potential measurements that reveal the stability and modification of the surface and identify crucial parameters for each individual preparation step. For instance, surface activation and especially molecular adsorbate layers tend not to be stable in time, whereas the substrate and the AuNPs provide a stable surface potential as long as impurities are avoided. It is shown that the streaming potential/current technique represents an ideal tool to analyze and monitor the complex surfaces and their modification.

  4. Gold nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sekyu; Nam, Jutaek; Jung, Sungwook; Song, Jaejung; Doh, Hyunmi; Kim, Sungjee

    2014-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are attractive photothermal agents for cancer therapy because they show efficient local heating upon excitation of surface plasmon oscillations. The strong absorption, efficient heat conversion, high photostability, inherent low toxicity and well-defined surface chemistry of AuNPs contribute to the growing interest in their photothermal therapy (PTT) applications. The facile tunability of gold nanostructures enables engineering of AuNPs for superior near-infrared photothermal efficacy and target selectivity, which guarantee efficient and deep tissue-penetrating PTT with mitigated concerns regarding side effects by nonspecific distributions. This article discusses the current research findings with representative near-infrared-active AuNPs, which include nanoshell, nanorod, nanocage, nanostar, nanopopcorn and nanoparticle assembly systems. AuNPs successfully demonstrate potential for use in PTT, but several hurdles to clinical applications remain, including long-term toxicity and a need for sophisticated control over biodistribution and clearance. Future research directions are discussed, especially regarding the clinical translation of AuNP photosensitizers.

  5. Estimation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Three Conditionally Dependent Diagnostic Tests in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, B.; Swildens, B.; Stegeman, J.A.; Buist, W.G.; Jong, de M.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a model to evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Data from three tests for the detection of EF-positive Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains in sows were analyzed. The data were collected in a field study in the absence of a gold standard, that is, the true disease status

  6. Diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori : A prospective evaluation of their accuracy, without selecting a single test as the gold standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J C; van Zwet, A A; Thijs, W J; Oey, H B; Karrenbeld, A; Stellaard, F; Luijt, D S; Meyer, B C; Kleibeuker, J H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of six commonly used diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori in a prospective study without using any specific test as the gold standard (the patient was regarded as H. pylori-infected if two or more tests, whatever their nature, were positive). METHODS: In 105 out

  7. Diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori : A prospective evaluation of their accuracy, without selecting a single test as the gold standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J C; van Zwet, A A; Thijs, W J; Oey, H B; Karrenbeld, A; Stellaard, F; Luijt, D S; Meyer, B C; Kleibeuker, J H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of six commonly used diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori in a prospective study without using any specific test as the gold standard (the patient was regarded as H. pylori-infected if two or more tests, whatever their nature, were positive). METHODS: In 105

  8. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  9. Can We Create a "Gold Standard of Education" for Our Children through the "Advancement via Independent Determination (AVID) Program"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    We need to come together as a team and become one system of total quality improvement regarding the education of our nation's children. In order to achieve a gold standard in the education of our nation's children, leadership has to be willing to go against the status quo and build bridges for long-term sustainable change. In order to survive,…

  10. Effectiveness of the gold standard programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life....

  11. Direct Animal Calorimetry, the Underused Gold Standard for Quantifying the Fire of Life*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal calorimetry, the gold standard method for quantifying animal heat production (HP), has been largely supplanted by respirometric indirect calorimetry owing to the relative ease and ready commercial availability of the latter technique. Direct calorimetry, however, can accurately quantify HP and thus metabolic rate (MR) in both metabolically normal and abnormal states, whereas respirometric indirect calorimetry relies on important assumptions that apparently have never been tested in animals with genetic or pharmacologically-induced alterations that dysregulate metabolic fuel partitioning and storage so as to promote obesity and/or diabetes. Contemporary obesity and diabetes research relies heavily on metabolically abnormal animals. Recent data implicating individual and group variation in the gut microbiome in obesity and diabetes raise important questions about transforming aerobic gas exchange into HP because 99% of gut bacteria are anaerobic and they outnumber eukaryotic cells in the body by ~10-fold. Recent credible work in non-standard laboratory animals documents substantial errors in respirometry-based estimates of HP. Accordingly, it seems obvious that new research employing simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry (total calorimetry) will be essential to validate respirometric MR phenotyping in existing and future pharmacological and genetic models of obesity and diabetes. We also detail the use of total calorimetry with simultaneous core temperature assessment as a model for studying homeostatic control in a variety of experimental situations, including acute and chronic drug administration. Finally, we offer some tips on performing direct calorimetry, both singly and in combination with indirect calorimetry and core temperature assessment. PMID:20427023

  12. SHORT- AND LONG-TERM BOND STRENGTHS OF A GOLD STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa TUNCER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the micro tensile bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system following 1 year storage in water. Materials and Methods: 10 sound human molar teeth were used for micro tensile bond strength test. Twostep self-etch dentin adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond® was applied to the flat dentin surfaces according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Composite blocks (Z- 250; 3M ESPE of 5 mm in height have been prepared by using layering technique. Teeth were stored in water for 24 hours at 37°C and longitudinally sectioned to obtain dentin sticks of 1 mm2.Randomly selected samples from half of the teeth were immediately subjected to micro tensile test and. Remaining specimens were tested after 1 year storage in water. Bond strengths were calculated in megapascal (MPa. Results: Means and standard deviations of the Clearfil SE Bond® micro tensile bond strength values were, respectively, 37.31 ± 13.77 MPa and 24.78 ± 2.99 MPa after 24 h and 1 year of storage in water. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.031. Conclusion: Long-term storage in water decreased the micro tensile bond strength values of the twostep self-etch adhesive which has been accepted as the gold standard in bond strength tests.

  13. Is mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy any better than the gold standard?: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Haris R; Abbas, Asad; Aleem, Salik; Lakhani, Miqdad R

    2017-01-01

    Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) has widened the horizons of modern laparoscopic surgery. Standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), which has long been established as the "Gold Standard" for gall bladder diseases, is under reconsideration following the advent of further minimally-invasive procedures including MLC. Our study aims to provide a comparison between MLC and SLC and assesses whether MLC has any added benefits. Patients with symptomatic gall bladder disease undergoing MLC or SLC during the 2.5-month period were included in the study. Thirty-two patients underwent MLC while SLC was performed on 40 patients by the same surgeon. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively using a predesigned questionnaire. In our study, both the groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution. No cases of MLC required insertion of additional ports. The mean operative time for MLC was 38.2 min (33-61 min), which is longer than SLC; but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesia requirement and mobilization. Patients who underwent MLC were able to return to normal activity earlier than patients undergoing SLC (P < 0.01). Our experience suggests that MLC can safely be used as an alternative to SLC. Compared to SLC, it has the added benefit of an early return to work along with excellent cosmetic results. Further large scale trials are required to prove any additional benefit of MLC.

  14. Standards for scalable clinical decision support: need, current and emerging standards, gaps, and proposal for progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Lobach, David F; Jenders, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Despite their potential to significantly improve health care, advanced clinical decision support (CDS) capabilities are not widely available in the clinical setting. An important reason for this limited availability of CDS capabilities is the application-specific and institution-specific nature of most current CDS implementations. Thus, a critical need for enabling CDS capabilities on a much larger scale is the development and adoption of standards that enable current and emerging CDS resources to be more effectively leveraged across multiple applications and care settings. Standards required for such effective scaling of CDS include (i) standard terminologies and information models to represent and communicate about health care data; (ii) standard approaches to representing clinical knowledge in both human-readable and machine-executable formats; and (iii) standard approaches for leveraging these knowledge resources to provide CDS capabilities across various applications and care settings. A number of standards do exist or are under development to meet these needs. However, many gaps and challenges remain, including the excessive complexity of many standards; the limited availability of easily accessible knowledge resources implemented using standard approaches; and the lack of tooling and other practical resources to enable the efficient adoption of existing standards. Thus, the future development and widespread adoption of current CDS standards will depend critically on the availability of tooling, knowledge bases, and other resources that make the adoption of CDS standards not only the right approach to take, but the cost-effective path to follow given the alternative of using a traditional, ad hoc approach to implementing CDS.

  15. A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortie, Michael; Ford, Mike [Institute for Nanoscale Technology, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2007-06-13

    We perform a computational investigation of the optical properties of nanoscale gold 'semi-shells' and show how additional plasmon resonances develop as the shape is successively mutated from 'nanoshell' to 'nano-cup', 'half-shell' and finally to 'nano-cap'. The effects of aspect ratio, surface roughness and cut-off height are explored. Of special interest is a new longitudinal resonance that generates an electric current loop. We predict that this will induce an orthogonal magnetic component that will sum with the magnetic component of incident light at certain orientations. Exploitation of this phenomenon in an ordered array of semi-shells may produce anomalous optical effects due to an altered magnetic permeability.

  16. Validation of ultrasonographic muscle thickness measurements as compared to the gold standard of computed tomography in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey E. Bullen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the validity of ultrasonographic (US muscle measurements as compared to the gold standard of computed tomography (CT in the canine. Design This was a prospective study. Population Twenty-five, client-owned dogs scheduled for CT as part of a diagnostic work-up for the management of their primary disease process were included. Materials and Methods Specific appendicular (cubital flexors and extensors, coxofemoral flexors and extensors and axial (temporalis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, lumbar epaxials muscle groups were selected for quantitative measure based on CT planning and patient position. Prior to CT scan, the skin over the muscle sites was shaved and marked with a permanent marker. Patient body position was determined based on the patient’s CT plan; positioning was consistent between CT and US imaging. To ensure identical imaging position for both CT and US measurements, radio-opaque fiducial markers were placed directly over the skin marks once the dog was positioned. Quantitative measurements (cm for both lean muscle mass (LMM and subcutaneous adipose (SQA were recorded. Statistical comparisons between CT and US values were done separately for each site and type. Results Muscle groups and associated SQA measured by US and CT were not statistically different based on an adjusted p-value using Bonferroni’s correction (p 0.897 for LLM and >0.8289 for SQA. Conclusions Ultrasound imaging of selected appendicular and axial muscle groups in dogs can provide comparable assessment of muscle thickness to the current gold standard, CT. In consideration of both statistical reliability to CT and cage-side accessibility, the temporalis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and lumbar epaxial LMM sites are considered the most useful targets for US LMM assessment in the canine. Our findings support the potential utility of US as a clinical tool in veterinary medicine to assess LMM status in patients

  17. Validation of ultrasonographic muscle thickness measurements as compared to the gold standard of computed tomography in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Lindsey E.; Evola, Maria G.; Griffith, Emily H.; Seiler, Gabriela S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the validity of ultrasonographic (US) muscle measurements as compared to the gold standard of computed tomography (CT) in the canine. Design This was a prospective study. Population Twenty-five, client-owned dogs scheduled for CT as part of a diagnostic work-up for the management of their primary disease process were included. Materials and Methods Specific appendicular (cubital flexors and extensors, coxofemoral flexors and extensors) and axial (temporalis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, lumbar epaxials) muscle groups were selected for quantitative measure based on CT planning and patient position. Prior to CT scan, the skin over the muscle sites was shaved and marked with a permanent marker. Patient body position was determined based on the patient’s CT plan; positioning was consistent between CT and US imaging. To ensure identical imaging position for both CT and US measurements, radio-opaque fiducial markers were placed directly over the skin marks once the dog was positioned. Quantitative measurements (cm) for both lean muscle mass (LMM) and subcutaneous adipose (SQA) were recorded. Statistical comparisons between CT and US values were done separately for each site and type. Results Muscle groups and associated SQA measured by US and CT were not statistically different based on an adjusted p-value using Bonferroni’s correction (p 0.897 for LLM and >0.8289 for SQA. Conclusions Ultrasound imaging of selected appendicular and axial muscle groups in dogs can provide comparable assessment of muscle thickness to the current gold standard, CT. In consideration of both statistical reliability to CT and cage-side accessibility, the temporalis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and lumbar epaxial LMM sites are considered the most useful targets for US LMM assessment in the canine. Our findings support the potential utility of US as a clinical tool in veterinary medicine to assess LMM status in patients. Additional

  18. Randomized double blind placebo control studies, the "Gold Standard" in intervention based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Misra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies follow a hierarchy in terms of the quality of evidence that they can provide. Randomized double blind placebo control (RDBPC studies are considered the "gold standard" of epidemiologic studies. And the same is discussed at length in this paper taking example of a real journal article employing this study design to answer the research question; "Does once daily dose of Valacyclovir reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes in a susceptible partner?" RDBPC studies remain the most convincing research design in which randomly assigning the intervention can eliminate the influence of unknown or immeasurable confounding variables that may otherwise lead to biased and incorrect estimate of treatment effect. Also, randomization eliminates confounding by baseline variables and blinding eliminates confounding by co-interventions, thus eliminating the possibility that the observed effects of intervention are due to differential use of other treatments. The best comparison is placebo control that allows participants, investigators and study staff to be blinded. The advantage of trial over an observational study is the ability to demonstrate causality. Hope, this will be useful to neophyte researchers to understand causal hierarchy when critically evaluating epidemiologic literature.

  19. Randomized double blind placebo control studies, the "Gold Standard" in intervention based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shobha

    2012-07-01

    Studies follow a hierarchy in terms of the quality of evidence that they can provide. Randomized double blind placebo control (RDBPC) studies are considered the "gold standard" of epidemiologic studies. And the same is discussed at length in this paper taking example of a real journal article employing this study design to answer the research question; "Does once daily dose of Valacyclovir reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes in a susceptible partner?" RDBPC studies remain the most convincing research design in which randomly assigning the intervention can eliminate the influence of unknown or immeasurable confounding variables that may otherwise lead to biased and incorrect estimate of treatment effect. Also, randomization eliminates confounding by baseline variables and blinding eliminates confounding by co-interventions, thus eliminating the possibility that the observed effects of intervention are due to differential use of other treatments. The best comparison is placebo control that allows participants, investigators and study staff to be blinded. The advantage of trial over an observational study is the ability to demonstrate causality. Hope, this will be useful to neophyte researchers to understand causal hierarchy when critically evaluating epidemiologic literature.

  20. Is mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy any better than the gold standard?: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Haris R.; Abbas, Asad; Aleem, Salik; Lakhani, Miqdad R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) has widened the horizons of modern laparoscopic surgery. Standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), which has long been established as the “Gold Standard” for gall bladder diseases, is under reconsideration following the advent of further minimally-invasive procedures including MLC. Our study aims to provide a comparison between MLC and SLC and assesses whether MLC has any added benefits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with symptomatic gall bladder disease undergoing MLC or SLC during the 2.5-month period were included in the study. Thirty-two patients underwent MLC while SLC was performed on 40 patients by the same surgeon. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively using a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: In our study, both the groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution. No cases of MLC required insertion of additional ports. The mean operative time for MLC was 38.2 min (33-61 min), which is longer than SLC; but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesia requirement and mobilization. Patients who underwent MLC were able to return to normal activity earlier than patients undergoing SLC (P cosmetic results. Further large scale trials are required to prove any additional benefit of MLC. PMID:27251827

  1. Performances of Four Helicobacter pylori Serological Detection Kits Using Stool Antigen Test as Gold Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit. Methods: Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control) and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Results: The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; p<0.05, accuracy = 86.4%), followed by EIA IgG (AUC = 0.75; p<0.05, accuracy = 75.2%). The Rapid Hexagon and EIA IgA kits had relatively poor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value. Conclusion: The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration. PMID:27736910

  2. Inter-Observer Agreement in Dysplasia Grading: Towards an Enhanced Gold Standard for Clinical Pathology Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Paul M.; Abram, Timothy J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; James, Robert; Vick, Julie; Thornhill, Martin H.; Murdoch, Craig; Freeman, Christine; Hegarty, Anne M; D’Apice, Katy; Kerr, A. Ross; Phelan, Joan; Corby, Patricia; Khouly, Ismael; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Bouquot, Jerry; Demian, Nagi M.; Weinstock, Y. Etan; Redding, Spencer W.; Rowan, Stephanie; Yeh, Chih-Ko; McGuff, H. Stan; Miller, Frank R.; McDevitt, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inter-observer agreement in the context of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) grading has been notoriously unreliable and can impose barriers for developing new molecular markers and diagnostic technologies. This paper aimed to report the details of a 3-stage histopathology review and adjudication process with the goal of achieving a consensus histopathologic diagnosis of each biopsy. Study Design Two adjacent serial histological sections of oral lesions from 846 patients were independently scored by two different pathologists from a pool of four. In instances where the original two pathologists disagreed, a third, independent adjudicating pathologist conducted a review of both sections. If a majority agreement was not achieved, the third stage involved a face-to-face consensus review. Results Individual pathologist pair kappa values ranged from 0.251 – 0.706 (fair – good) before the 3-stage review process During the initial review phase, the two pathologists agreed on a diagnosis for 69.9% of the cases. After the adjudication review by a third pathologist, an additional 22.8% of cases were given a consensus diagnosis (agreement of 2 out of 3 pathologists). Following the face-to-face review, the remaining 7.3% of cases had a consensus diagnosis. Conclusion The use of the defined protocol resulted in a substantial increase (30%) in diagnostic agreement and has the potential to improve the level of agreement for establishing gold standards for studies based on histopathologic diagnosis. PMID:26216170

  3. Interobserver agreement in dysplasia grading: toward an enhanced gold standard for clinical pathology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Paul M; Abram, Timothy J; Floriano, Pierre N; James, Robert; Vick, Julie; Thornhill, Martin H; Murdoch, Craig; Freeman, Christine; Hegarty, Anne M; D'Apice, Katy; Kerr, A Ross; Phelan, Joan; Corby, Patricia; Khouly, Ismael; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Bouquot, Jerry; Demian, Nagi M; Weinstock, Y Etan; Redding, Spencer W; Rowan, Stephanie; Yeh, Chih-Ko; McGuff, H Stan; Miller, Frank R; McDevitt, John T

    2015-10-01

    Interobserver agreement in the context of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) grading has been notoriously unreliable and can impose barriers for developing new molecular markers and diagnostic technologies. This paper aimed to report the details of a 3-stage histopathology review and adjudication process with the goal of achieving a consensus histopathologic diagnosis of each biopsy. Two adjacent serial histologic sections of oral lesions from 846 patients were independently scored by 2 different pathologists from a pool of 4. In instances where the original 2 pathologists disagreed, a third, independent adjudicating pathologist conducted a review of both sections. If a majority agreement was not achieved, the third stage involved a face-to-face consensus review. Individual pathologist pair κ values ranged from 0.251 to 0.706 (fair-good) before the 3-stage review process. During the initial review phase, the 2 pathologists agreed on a diagnosis for 69.9% of the cases. After the adjudication review by a third pathologist, an additional 22.8% of cases were given a consensus diagnosis (agreement of 2 out of 3 pathologists). After the face-to-face review, the remaining 7.3% of cases had a consensus diagnosis. The use of the defined protocol resulted in a substantial increase (30%) in diagnostic agreement and has the potential to improve the level of agreement for establishing gold standards for studies based on histopathologic diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct animal calorimetry, the underused gold standard for quantifying the fire of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiyala, Karl J; Ramsay, Douglas S

    2011-03-01

    Direct animal calorimetry, the gold standard method for quantifying animal heat production (HP), has been largely supplanted by respirometric indirect calorimetry owing to the relative ease and ready commercial availability of the latter technique. Direct calorimetry, however, can accurately quantify HP and thus metabolic rate (MR) in both metabolically normal and abnormal states, whereas respirometric indirect calorimetry relies on important assumptions that apparently have never been tested in animals with genetic or pharmacologically-induced alterations that dysregulate metabolic fuel partitioning and storage so as to promote obesity and/or diabetes. Contemporary obesity and diabetes research relies heavily on metabolically abnormal animals. Recent data implicating individual and group variation in the gut microbiome in obesity and diabetes raise important questions about transforming aerobic gas exchange into HP because 99% of gut bacteria are anaerobic and they outnumber eukaryotic cells in the body by ∼10-fold. Recent credible work in non-standard laboratory animals documents substantial errors in respirometry-based estimates of HP. Accordingly, it seems obvious that new research employing simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry (total calorimetry) will be essential to validate respirometric MR phenotyping in existing and future pharmacological and genetic models of obesity and diabetes. We also detail the use of total calorimetry with simultaneous core temperature assessment as a model for studying homeostatic control in a variety of experimental situations, including acute and chronic drug administration. Finally, we offer some tips on performing direct calorimetry, both singly and in combination with indirect calorimetry and core temperature assessment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Bayesian framework for estimating the incremental value of a diagnostic test in the absence of a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daphne I; Pai, Madhukar; Schiller, Ian; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2014-05-15

    The absence of a gold standard, i.e., a diagnostic reference standard having perfect sensitivity and specificity, is a common problem in clinical practice and in diagnostic research studies. There is a need for methods to estimate the incremental value of a new, imperfect test in this context. We use a Bayesian approach to estimate the probability of the unknown disease status via a latent class model and extend two commonly-used measures of incremental value based on predictive values [difference in the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI)] to the context where no gold standard exists. The methods are illustrated using simulated data and applied to the problem of estimating the incremental value of a novel interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) over the tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis (TB) screening. We also show how to estimate the incremental value of IGRAs when decisions are based on observed test results rather than predictive values. We showed that the incremental value is greatest when both sensitivity and specificity of the new test are better and that conditional dependence between the tests reduces the incremental value. The incremental value of the IGRA depends on the sensitivity and specificity of the TST, as well as the prevalence of latent TB, and may thus vary in different populations. Even in the absence of a gold standard, incremental value statistics may be estimated and can aid decisions about the practical value of a new diagnostic test.

  6. Development of gold standard ion-selective electrode-based methods for fluoride analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mier, E A; Cury, J A; Heilman, J R; Katz, B P; Levy, S M; Li, Y; Maguire, A; Margineda, J; O'Mullane, D; Phantumvanit, P; Soto-Rojas, A E; Stookey, G K; Villa, A; Wefel, J S; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M; Zero, D T; Zhang, W; Zohouri, V

    2011-01-01

    Currently available techniques for fluoride analysis are not standardized. Therefore, this study was designed to develop standardized methods for analyzing fluoride in biological and nonbiological samples used for dental research. A group of nine laboratories analyzed a set of standardized samples for fluoride concentration using their own methods. The group then reviewed existing analytical techniques for fluoride analysis, identified inconsistencies in the use of these techniques and conducted testing to resolve differences. Based on the results of the testing undertaken to define the best approaches for the analysis, the group developed recommendations for direct and microdiffusion methods using the fluoride ion-selective electrode. Initial results demonstrated that there was no consensus regarding the choice of analytical techniques for different types of samples. Although for several types of samples, the results of the fluoride analyses were similar among some laboratories, greater differences were observed for saliva, food and beverage samples. In spite of these initial differences, precise and true values of fluoride concentration, as well as smaller differences between laboratories, were obtained once the standardized methodologies were used. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.90 to 0.93, for the analysis of a certified reference material, using the standardized methodologies. The results of this study demonstrate that the development and use of standardized protocols for F analysis significantly decreased differences among laboratories and resulted in more precise and true values. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. 76 FR 9449 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... add carbon adsorbers to control the ore pre-heaters. Based on this beyond-the-floor analysis, we... controls on all thermal units at Nevada gold mines. According to the commenters, these permits are...

  8. De-identifying Swedish clinical text - refinement of a gold standard and experiments with Conditional random fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalianis Hercules

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to perform research on the information contained in Electronic Patient Records (EPRs, access to the data itself is needed. This is often very difficult due to confidentiality regulations. The data sets need to be fully de-identified before they can be distributed to researchers. De-identification is a difficult task where the definitions of annotation classes are not self-evident. Results We present work on the creation of two refined variants of a manually annotated Gold standard for de-identification, one created automatically, and one created through discussions among the annotators. The data is a subset from the Stockholm EPR Corpus, a data set available within our research group. These are used for the training and evaluation of an automatic system based on the Conditional Random Fields algorithm. Evaluating with four-fold cross-validation on sets of around 4-6 000 annotation instances, we obtained very promising results for both Gold Standards: F-score around 0.80 for a number of experiments, with higher results for certain annotation classes. Moreover, 49 false positives that were verified true positives were found by the system but missed by the annotators. Conclusions Our intention is to make this Gold standard, The Stockholm EPR PHI Corpus, available to other research groups in the future. Despite being slightly more time-consuming we believe the manual consensus gold standard is the most valuable for further research. We also propose a set of annotation classes to be used for similar de-identification tasks.

  9. Imaging of the optic disk in caring for patients with glaucoma: ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, George L; Reddy, Swathi C

    2014-01-01

    Optic disk imaging is integral to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with glaucoma. We discuss the various forms of imaging the optic nerve, including ophthalmoscopy, photography, and newer imaging modalities, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT), and scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), specifically highlighting their benefits and disadvantages. We argue that ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard of imaging due to portability, ease of interpretation, and the presence of a large database of images for comparison.

  10. Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Rafael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data.

  11. Survey Definitions of Gout for Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison With Crystal Identification as the Gold Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Schumacher, H Ralph; Fransen, Jaap; Neogi, Tuhina; Jansen, Tim L; Brown, Melanie; Louthrenoo, Worawit; Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Eliseev, Maxim; McCarthy, Geraldine; Stamp, Lisa K; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Sivera, Francisca; Ea, Hang-Korng; Gerritsen, Martijn; Scire, Carlo A; Cavagna, Lorenzo; Lin, Chingtsai; Chou, Yin-Yi; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo; Janssen, Matthijs; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Cimmino, Marco A; Uhlig, Till; Taylor, William J

    2016-12-01

    To identify the best-performing survey definition of gout from items commonly available in epidemiologic studies. Survey definitions of gout were identified from 34 epidemiologic studies contributing to the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC) genome-wide association study. Data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR) were randomly divided into development and test data sets. A data-driven case definition was formed using logistic regression in the development data set. This definition, along with definitions used in GUGC studies and the 2015 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) gout classification criteria were applied to the test data set, using monosodium urate crystal identification as the gold standard. For all tested GUGC definitions, the simple definition of "self-report of gout or urate-lowering therapy use" had the best test performance characteristics (sensitivity 82%, specificity 72%). The simple definition had similar performance to a SUGAR data-driven case definition with 5 weighted items: self-report, self-report of doctor diagnosis, colchicine use, urate-lowering therapy use, and hyperuricemia (sensitivity 87%, specificity 70%). Both of these definitions performed better than the 1977 American Rheumatism Association survey criteria (sensitivity 82%, specificity 67%). Of all tested definitions, the 2015 ACR/EULAR criteria had the best performance (sensitivity 92%, specificity 89%). A simple definition of "self-report of gout or urate-lowering therapy use" has the best test performance characteristics of existing definitions that use routinely available data. A more complex combination of features is more sensitive, but still lacks good specificity. If a more accurate case definition is required for a particular study, the 2015 ACR/EULAR gout classification criteria should be considered. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Is mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy any better than the gold standard?: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris R Shaikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC has widened the horizons of modern laparoscopic surgery. Standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC, which has long been established as the “Gold Standard” for gall bladder diseases, is under reconsideration following the advent of further minimally-invasive procedures including MLC. Our study aims to provide a comparison between MLC and SLC and assesses whether MLC has any added benefits. Materials and Methods: Patients with symptomatic gall bladder disease undergoing MLC or SLC during the 2.5-month period were included in the study. Thirty-two patients underwent MLC while SLC was performed on 40 patients by the same surgeon. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively using a predesigned questionnaire. Results: In our study, both the groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI and gender distribution. No cases of MLC required insertion of additional ports. The mean operative time for MLC was 38.2 min (33-61 min, which is longer than SLC; but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesia requirement and mobilization. Patients who underwent MLC were able to return to normal activity earlier than patients undergoing SLC (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Our experience suggests that MLC can safely be used as an alternative to SLC. Compared to SLC, it has the added benefit of an early return to work along with excellent cosmetic results. Further large scale trials are required to prove any additional benefit of MLC.

  13. Training text chunkers on a silver standard corpus: can silver replace gold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ning; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2012-01-30

    To train chunkers in recognizing noun phrases and verb phrases in biomedical text, an annotated corpus is required. The creation of gold standard corpora (GSCs), however, is expensive and time-consuming. GSCs therefore tend to be small and to focus on specific subdomains, which limits their usefulness. We investigated the use of a silver standard corpus (SSC) that is automatically generated by combining the outputs of multiple chunking systems. We explored two use scenarios: one in which chunkers are trained on an SSC in a new domain for which a GSC is not available, and one in which chunkers are trained on an available, although small GSC but supplemented with an SSC. We have tested the two scenarios using three chunkers, Lingpipe, OpenNLP, and Yamcha, and two different corpora, GENIA and PennBioIE. For the first scenario, we showed that the systems trained for noun-phrase recognition on the SSC in one domain performed 2.7-3.1 percentage points better in terms of F-score than the systems trained on the GSC in another domain, and only 0.2-0.8 percentage points less than when they were trained on a GSC in the same domain as the SSC. When the outputs of the chunkers were combined, the combined system showed little improvement when using the SSC. For the second scenario, the systems trained on a GSC supplemented with an SSC performed considerably better than systems that were trained on the GSC alone, especially when the GSC was small. For example, training the chunkers on a GSC consisting of only 10 abstracts but supplemented with an SSC yielded similar performance as training them on a GSC of 100-250 abstracts. The combined system even performed better than any of the individual chunkers trained on a GSC of 500 abstracts. We conclude that an SSC can be a viable alternative for or a supplement to a GSC when training chunkers in a biomedical domain. A combined system only shows improvement if the SSC is used to supplement a GSC. Whether the approach is applicable to

  14. Training text chunkers on a silver standard corpus: can silver replace gold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ning

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To train chunkers in recognizing noun phrases and verb phrases in biomedical text, an annotated corpus is required. The creation of gold standard corpora (GSCs, however, is expensive and time-consuming. GSCs therefore tend to be small and to focus on specific subdomains, which limits their usefulness. We investigated the use of a silver standard corpus (SSC that is automatically generated by combining the outputs of multiple chunking systems. We explored two use scenarios: one in which chunkers are trained on an SSC in a new domain for which a GSC is not available, and one in which chunkers are trained on an available, although small GSC but supplemented with an SSC. Results We have tested the two scenarios using three chunkers, Lingpipe, OpenNLP, and Yamcha, and two different corpora, GENIA and PennBioIE. For the first scenario, we showed that the systems trained for noun-phrase recognition on the SSC in one domain performed 2.7-3.1 percentage points better in terms of F-score than the systems trained on the GSC in another domain, and only 0.2-0.8 percentage points less than when they were trained on a GSC in the same domain as the SSC. When the outputs of the chunkers were combined, the combined system showed little improvement when using the SSC. For the second scenario, the systems trained on a GSC supplemented with an SSC performed considerably better than systems that were trained on the GSC alone, especially when the GSC was small. For example, training the chunkers on a GSC consisting of only 10 abstracts but supplemented with an SSC yielded similar performance as training them on a GSC of 100-250 abstracts. The combined system even performed better than any of the individual chunkers trained on a GSC of 500 abstracts. Conclusions We conclude that an SSC can be a viable alternative for or a supplement to a GSC when training chunkers in a biomedical domain. A combined system only shows improvement if the SSC is used to

  15. An investigation into the validity of cervical spine motion palpation using subjects with congenital block vertebrae as a 'gold standard'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Cynthia K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the effectiveness of manipulative therapy for treating back and neck pain has been demonstrated, the validity of many of the procedures used to detect joint dysfunction has not been confirmed. Practitioners of manual medicine frequently employ motion palpation as a diagnostic tool, despite conflicting evidence regarding its utility and reliability. The introduction of various spinal models with artificially introduced 'fixations' as an attempt to introduce a 'gold standard' has met with frustration and frequent mechanical failure. Because direct comparison against a 'gold standard' allows the validity, specificity and sensitivity of a test to be calculated, the identification of a realistic 'gold standard' against which motion palpation can be evaluated is essential. The objective of this study was to introduce a new, realistic, 'gold standard', the congenital block vertebra (CBV to assess the validity of motion palpation in detecting a true fixation. Methods Twenty fourth year chiropractic students examined the cervical spines of three subjects with single level congenital block vertebrae, using two commonly employed motion palpation tests. The examiners, who were blinded to the presence of congenital block vertebrae, were asked to identify the most hypomobile segment(s. The congenital block segments included two subjects with fusion at the C2–3 level and one with fusion at C5-6. Exclusion criteria included subjects who were frankly symptomatic, had moderate or severe degenerative changes in their cervical spines, or displayed signs of cervical instability. Spinal levels were marked on the subject's skin overlying the facet joints from C1 to C7 bilaterally and the motion segments were then marked alphabetically with 'A' corresponding to C1-2. Kappa coefficients (K were calculated to determine the validity of motion palpation to detect the congenitally fused segments as the 'most hypomobile' segments. Sensitivity

  16. Current safety standards in infant nutrition--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernell, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Foods intended specifically for infants and young children are considered under European community law and are defined in specific commission directives. In principal, these directives conclude that such foods must be safe, have a special composition, be distinguishable from normal foods, be suitable for fulfilling particular nutritional requirements, and should, when marketed, indicate such suitability. Since infant formulas are intended as the sole source of nutrition during the first months of life, their nutritional adequacy and safety are particularly strictly regulated. The Scientific Committee on Food report from 2003, on which the current commission directive is based, makes clear recommendations on how benefits, suitability, and safety of modifications beyond established standards should be documented and evaluated. These principles resulted in part from a workshop on characterization of infant food modifications in the EU and two position papers by the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). These papers are reviewed below.

  17. Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Robert, F.; Hart, C.J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Metamorphic belts are complex regions where accretion or collision has added to, or thickened, continental crust. Gold-rich deposits can be formed at all stages of orogen evolution, so that evolving metamorphic belts contain diverse gold deposit types that may be juxtaposed or overprint each other. This partly explains the high level of controversy on the origin of some deposit types, particularly those formed or overprinted/remobilized during the major compressional orogeny that shaped the final geometry of the hosting metamorphic belts. These include gold-dominated orogenic and intrusion-related deposits, but also particularly controversial gold deposits with atypical metal associations. There are a number of outstanding problems for all types of gold deposits in metamorphc belts. These include the following: (1) definitive classifications, (2) unequivocal recognition of fluid and metal sources, (3) understanding of fluid migration and focusing at all scales, (4) resolution of the precise role of granitoid magmatism, (5) precise gold-depositional mechanisms, particularly those producing high gold grades, and (6) understanding of the release of CO2-rich fluids from subducting slabs and subcreted oceanic crust and granitoid magmas at different crustal levels. Research needs to be better coordinated and more integrated, such that detailed fluid-inclusion, trace-element, and isotopic studies of both gold deposits and potential source rocks, using cutting-edge technology, are embedded in a firm geological framework at terrane to deposit scales. Ultimately, four-dimensional models need to be developed, involving high-quality, three-dimensional geological data combined with integrated chemical and fluid-flow modeling, to understand the total history of the hydrothermal systems involved. Such research, particularly that which can predict superior targets visible in data sets available to exploration companies before discovery, has obvious spin-offs for global- to deposit

  18. Electrodeposition of Gold to Conformally Fill High Aspect Ratio Nanometric Silicon Grating Trenches: A Comparison of Pulsed and Direct Current Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Znati, Sami A.; Chedid, Nicholas; Miao, Houxun; Chen,Lei; Bennett, Eric E.; Wen, Han

    2015-01-01

    Filling high-aspect-ratio trenches with gold is a frequent requirement in the fabrication of x-ray optics as well as micro-electronic components and other fabrication processes. Conformal electrodeposition of gold in sub-micron-width silicon trenches with an aspect ratio greater than 35 over a grating area of several square centimeters is challenging and has not been described in the literature previously. A comparison of pulsed plating and constant current plating led to a gold electroplatin...

  19. Changing organizational culture: using the CEO cancer gold standard policy initiatives to promote health and wellness at a school of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Samuel D; Anderson, Kelsey E; Smith, Matthew Lee; Dahlke, Deborah Vollmer; Kellstedt, Debra; Purcell, Ninfa Pena; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-09-03

    Worksite wellness initiatives for health promotion and health education have demonstrated effectiveness in improving employee health and wellness. We examined the effects of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on organizational capacity to meet requirements to become CEO Cancer Gold Standard Accredited. We conducted an online survey to assess perceived organizational values and support for the five CEO Cancer Gold Standard Pillars for cancer prevention: tobacco cessation; physical activity; nutrition; cancer screening and early detection; and accessing information on cancer clinical trials. Baseline and follow-up surveys were sent 6-months apart to faculty, staff, and students at a school of public health to test the impact of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on perceived organizational change. Descriptive analyses were used to characterize percent improvement. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to control for participants' university status. The current organizational culture highly supported tobacco cessation at both time points. Significant improvements (p < .05) from baseline to follow-up were observed for questions measuring organizational values for 'prevention, screening, and early detection of cancer' and 'accessing cancer treatment and clinical trials'. Health promotion and education efforts using multiple approaches were effective to improve perceived organizational values and support for cancer prevention and early detection, and increase access to information about cancer clinical trials. Future studies are needed to examine broader impacts of implementing worksite health promotion initiatives.

  20. Electron transport in dodecylamine capped gold nanocluster films using current sensing atomic force microscope (C-AFM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Minakshi; Dey, Shirshendu; Date, Kalyani; Iyyer, S B; Dharmadhikaril, C V

    2009-09-01

    Electron transport across cataphoretically deposited dodecylamine capped gold nanocluster rough films on Si(111) substrate is investigated using current sensing atomic force microscopy. Contact mode images depict uniform deposition of agglomerates of gold nanoparticles. The current images display strong correlation with topographic images. The I-V measurement on a single agglomerate of approximately = 250 nm size at different forces exhibits force dependent threshold voltage. The electron transport from tip to sample is found to be ohmic in contrast to that from sample to tip which, exhibits Fowler-Nordheim behavior up to 35 nN force. At higher forces, the I-V behavior could be attributed to other electron transfer processes such as Schottky/Poole-Frenkel or trapping/detrapping, although no exact mechanism could be identified. The results are discussed in the light of models based on Coulomb blockaded collective charge transport in nanoparticle arrays duly accounting for the potential role of the capping layer.

  1. The restoration of the gold standard after the US Civil War : A volatility analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemann, Max; Uebele, Martin; Wilfling, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new view on the gold price of greenbacks during and after the American Civil War by analyzing exchange-rate volatility rather than exchange-rate levels. Our empirical investigation detects regimes of high and low volatility alternating in a way that is consistent with a theoret

  2. 75 FR 22469 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...- 1990s. Also, a number of facilities had carbon adsorption beds to control mercury emissions on various... adsorption process, the gold loaded carbon (which also contains mercury and other constituents) is moved into... in the pregnant solution are concentrated through adsorption onto activated carbon. If mercury...

  3. The gold industry standard for risk and cost of drug and vaccine development revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronkers, E.S.; Weenen, T.C.; Commandeur, H.R.; Osterhaus, H.R.; Claassen, H.J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Gold dimensions of pharmaceutical drug development indicate that it takes on average 11.9 years, with an investment around US$ 0.8 Billion, to launch one product on the market. Furthermore, approximately 22% of the drug candidates successfully complete clinical testing. These universally acknowledge

  4. Open Augmented Reality Standards: Current Activities in Standards- Development Organizations%Open Augmented Reality Standards: Current Activities in Standards- Development Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Perey

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has emerged from research laboratories and is now being accepted in other domains as an attractive way of visualizing information. Before AR can be used in the mass market, there are a number of obstacles that need to be overcome. Several of these can be overcome by adopting open standards. A global grassroots community seeking open, interoperable AR content and experiences began to take shape in early 2010. This community is working collaboratively to reduce the barriers to the flow of data from content provider to AR end user. Standards development organizations and industry groups that provide open interfaces for AR meet regularly to provide updates, identify complementary work, and seek harmonization. The community also identifies deployer and implementer needs, communicates requirements, and discusses emerging challenges that could be resolved with standards. In this article, we describe current activities in international standards-development organizations. We summarize the AR standards gap analysis and shed light on special considerations for using standards in mobile AR.

  5. Gold nanoparticles in theranostic oncology: current state-of-the-art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhter, S.; Ahmad, M.Z.; Ahmad, F.J.; Storm, G.; Kok, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In recent years, extensive multidisciplinary investigations have been carried out in the area of cancer nanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have emerged as promising carrier for delivery of various pay-loads into their target. In view of their unique physicochemical and optical

  6. The effect of using high facilitation when implementing the Gold Standards Framework in Care Homes programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley, Julie; Stone, Louisa; Dewey, Michael; Levy, Jean; Stewart, Robert; McCrone, Paul; Sykes, Nigel; Hansford, Penny; Begum, Aysha; Hockley, Jo

    2014-10-01

    The provision of quality end-of-life care is increasingly on the national agenda in many countries. In the United Kingdom, the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme has been promoted as a national framework for improving end-of-life care. While its implementation is recommended, there are no national guidelines for facilitators to follow to undertake this role. It was hypothesised that action learning alongside high facilitation when implementing the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme will result in a reduced proportion of hospital deaths for residents and improvement in the care home staff ability to facilitate good end-of-life care. A cluster randomised controlled trial where 24 nursing homes received high facilitation to enable them to implement the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme. The managers of 12 nursing homes additionally took part in action learning sets. A third group (14 nursing homes) received the 'standard' Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes facilitation available in their locality. In total, 38 nursing homes providing care for frail older people, their deceased residents and their nurse managers. A greater proportion of residents died in those nursing homes receiving high facilitation and action learning but not significantly so. There was a significant association between the level of facilitation and nursing homes completing the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme through to accreditation. Year-on-year change occurred across all outcome measures. There is a danger that without national guidelines, facilitation of the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme will vary and consequently so will its implementation. The nurse manager of a care home must be actively engaged when implementing the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Standard practice for characterization of coatings using conformable Eddy-Current sensors without coating reference standards

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the use of conformable eddy-current sensors for nondestructive characterization of coatings without standardization on coated reference parts. It includes the following: (1) thickness measurement of a conductive coating on a conductive substrate, (2) detection and characterization of local regions of increased porosity of a conductive coating, and (3) measurement of thickness for nonconductive coatings on a conductive substrate or on a conductive coating. This practice includes only nonmagnetic coatings on either magnetic (μ ≠ μ0) or nonmagnetic (μ = μ0) substrates. This practice can also be used to measure the effective thickness of a process-affected zone (for example, shot peened layer for aluminum alloys, alpha case for titanium alloys). For specific types of coated parts, the user may need a more specific procedure tailored to a specific application.

  8. 21st Century Standards and Curriculum: Current Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alismail, Halah Ahmed; McGuire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The integration of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and 21st century skills in the curriculum is not only beneficial to students and teachers, but also necessary to prepare our youth for their future careers. In an age of education where standardized tests determine the success of our schools, it is important to allow students the creativity and…

  9. Is Sub-Epithelial Connective Tissue Graft Really a Gold Standard for the Treatment of Gingival Recession Defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Mahajan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession defects are one of the most common peri-odontal problems. In the past few decades there have been several attempts to treat the gingival recession defects. Among all the treatment options the sub-epithelial connective tis-sue graft is still the most widely used. The sub-epithelial connective tissue graft is considered to produce high percentage of root coverage and therefore considered to be the gold standard technique for the treatment of gingival reces-sion defects. Despite many research papers favoring the use of sub-epithelial connective tissue graft, recent data suggests no major difference in terms of percent root coverage when various other techniques for the treatment of gingival recession defects are compared with each other. In the light of present clinical evidence the criteria to determine whether sub-epithelial connective tissue graft technique should be considered a gold standard or not for be treatment of gingival recession must be re-evaluated. This article highlights some inherent drawbacks associated with sub-epithelial connective tissue graft and emphasizes the need to consider other available techniques for the treatment of gingival recession defects.

  10. Technical standardization of oil well abandonment: a review of current standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Pessoa, Laudemar; Paiva, Maria [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a new methodology for well abandonment. This practice is becoming more and more important because of the increasing number of production fields being abandoned. We strongly recommend a study of cement slurries properties for specific use in temporary and permanent abandonment plugs based on the estimation of the cement slurry hardened when placed in the well. By using specific additives, it is possible to achieve very stable slurries. For example, when permeability is reduced, formation fluid migration can be blocked and chemical reactions between the fluid and the slurry may be inhibited. With this objective, we present a laboratory investigation model and an example of slurry testing recommendation. During the abandonment operation, all records of the well characteristics should be maintained to include the reason for the abandonment, and location of fresh water, brine, and hydrocarbon zones that may exist. This documentation will also allow the analysis of solutions for the problems that originally caused the abandonment of the well. This data could be important for future use by environmental protection commissions to reopen or to drill an adjacent well. Given the high price of oil, it may now be economically feasible to reopen the well, if the reason for abandonment was low productivity. This way, a critical analysis of the current conditions of well and field abandonment in the country is presented. Based on this information, a review of the current standards is suggested. (author)

  11. Adventures in data citation: sorghum genome data exemplifies the new gold standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmunds Scott C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific progress is driven by the availability of information, which makes it essential that data be broadly, easily and rapidly accessible to researchers in every field. In addition to being good scientific practice, provision of supporting data in a convenient way increases experimental transparency and improves research efficiency by reducing unnecessary duplication of experiments. There are, however, serious constraints that limit extensive data dissemination. One such constraint is that, despite providing a major foundation of data to the advantage of entire community, data producers rarely receive the credit they deserve for the substantial amount of time and effort they spend creating these resources. In this regard, a formal system that provides recognition for data producers would serve to incentivize them to share more of their data. The process of data citation, in which the data themselves are cited and referenced in journal articles as persistently identifiable bibliographic entities, is a potential way to properly acknowledge data output. The recent publication of several sorghum genomes in Genome Biology is a notable first example of good data citation practice in the field of genomics and demonstrates the practicalities and formatting required for doing so. It also illustrates how effective use of persistent identifiers can augment the submission of data to the current standard scientific repositories.

  12. New tool for biological dosimetry: Reevaluation and automation of the gold standard method following telomere and centromere staining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M’kacher, Radhia [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie (LRO), Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maalouf, Elie E.L. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie (LRO), Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Laboratoire MIPS – Groupe TIIM3D, Université de Haute-Alsace, F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Ricoul, Michelle [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie (LRO), Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Heidingsfelder, Leonhard [MetaSystems GmbH, Robert-Bosch-Str. 6, 68804 Altlussheim (Germany); Laplagne, Eric [Pole Concept, 61 Rue Erlanger, 75016 Paris (France); Cuceu, Corina; Hempel, William M. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie (LRO), Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Colicchio, Bruno; Dieterlen, Alain [Laboratoire MIPS – Groupe TIIM3D, Université de Haute-Alsace, F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Sabatier, Laure, E-mail: laure.sabatier@cea.fr [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie (LRO), Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We have applied telomere and centromere (TC) staining to the scoring of dicentrics. • TC staining renders the scoring of dicentrics more rapid and robust. • TC staining allows the scoring of not only dicentrics but all chromosomal anomalies. • TC staining has led to a reevaluation of the radiation dose–response curve. • TC staining allows automation of the scoring of chromosomal aberations. • Automated scoring of dicentrics after TC staining was as efficient as manual scoring. - Abstract: Purpose: The dicentric chromosome (dicentric) assay is the international gold-standard method for biological dosimetry and classification of genotoxic agents. The introduction of telomere and centromere (TC) staining offers the potential to render dicentric scoring more efficient and robust. In this study, we improved the detection of dicentrics and all unstable chromosomal aberrations (CA) leading to a significant reevaluation of the dose–effect curve and developed an automated approach following TC staining. Material and methods: Blood samples from 16 healthy donors were exposed to {sup 137}Cs at 8 doses from 0.1 to 6 Gy. CA were manually and automatically scored following uniform (Giemsa) or TC staining. The detection of centromeric regions and telomeric sequences using PNA probes allowed the detection of all unstable CA: dicentrics, centric and acentric rings, and all acentric fragments (with 2, 4 or no telomeres) leading to the precise quantification of estimated double strand breaks (DSB). Results: Manual scoring following TC staining revealed a significantly higher frequency of dicentrics (p < 10{sup −3}) (up to 30%) and estimated DSB (p < 10{sup −4}) compared to uniform staining due to improved detection of dicentrics with centromeres juxtaposed with other centromeres or telomeres. This improvement permitted the development of the software, TCScore, that detected 95% of manually scored dicentrics compared to 50% for

  13. Current Account Balance and Dollar Standard: Exploring the Linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, Adreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether the international role of the dollar as main global reserve currency has contributed to persistent current account imbalances. To this end, we analyse how central banks' accumulation of reserve assets affects the current account balance of both reserve-accumulating and re

  14. Alignment of Elementary Geometry Curriculum with Current Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickreign, Jamar; Capps, Lelon R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines geometry language used in K-6 textbooks and compares the findings to language used in modern mathematics standards documents. Finds a substantial misalignment between the geometry presented in textbooks, the geometry teaching expectations of mathematics education professionals, and the geometry being assessed in student performance…

  15. Current state and prospects of the phytosynthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles and their applications in cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovais, Muhammad; Raza, Abida; Naz, Shagufta; Islam, Nazar Ul; Khalil, Ali Talha; Ali, Shaukat; Khan, Muhammad Adeeb; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2017-05-01

    The design, development, and biomedical applications of phytochemical-based green synthesis of biocompatible colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are becoming an emerging field due to several advantages (safer, eco-friendly, simple, fast, energy efficient, low-cost, and less toxic) over conventional chemical synthetic procedures. Biosynthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles are remarkably attractive in several biomedical applications including cancer theranostics due to small size, unusual physico-chemical properties, facile surface modification, high biocompatibility, and numerous other advantages. Of late, several researchers have investigated the biosynthesis and prospective applications (diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, and cancer therapeutics) of AuNPs in health care and medicine. However, not a single review article is available in the literature that demonstrates the anti-cancer potential of biosynthesized colloidal AuNPs with detailed mechanistic study. In the present review article, we for the first time discuss the biointerface of colloidal AuNPs, plants, and cancer mainly (i) comprehensive mechanistic aspects of phytochemical-based synthesis of AuNPs; (ii) proposed anti-cancer mechanisms along with biomedical applications in diagnostics, imaging, and drug delivery; and (iii) key challenges for biogenic AuNPs as future cancer nanomedicine.

  16. Parachute drawing standards currently in use at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronquillo, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    A need exists in the parachute industry for a standard method of defining and guiding the formation of textile drawings. Textile drawings have their own unique problems associated with their development. Unlike mechanical parts, textiles have no mass in cross section. Therefore, a cross-sectioned view has no hash marks. Hidden views are not usually incorporated in textile drawings as they are easily confused with stitch formations. Side views of textile parts are depicted using only one line to show thickness. This report will address these and other unique drawing problems associated with the development of parachute drawings and will offer, as a base, standards to be used when developing these drawings. 21 figs.

  17. Current-voltage characteristics of single-molecule diarylethene junctions measured with adjustable gold electrodes in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briechle, Bernd M; Kim, Youngsang; Ehrenreich, Philipp; Erbe, Artur; Sysoiev, Dmytro; Huhn, Thomas; Groth, Ulrich; Scheer, Elke

    2012-01-01

    We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport through sulfur-free photochromic molecular junctions. The conductance of individual molecules contacted with gold electrodes and the current-voltage characteristics of these junctions are measured in a mechanically controlled break-junction system at room temperature and in liquid environment. We compare the transport properties of a series of molecules, labeled TSC, MN, and 4Py, with the same switching core but varying side-arms and end-groups designed for providing the mechanical and electrical contact to the gold electrodes. We perform a detailed analysis of the transport properties of TSC in its open and closed states. We find rather broad distributions of conductance values in both states. The analysis, based on the assumption that the current is carried by a single dominating molecular orbital, reveals distinct differences between both states. We discuss the appearance of diode-like behavior for the particular species 4Py that features end-groups, which preferentially couple to the metal electrode by physisorption. We show that the energetic position of the molecular orbital varies as a function of the transmission. Finally, we show for the species MN that the use of two cyano end-groups on each side considerably enhances the coupling strength compared to the typical behavior of a single cyano group.

  18. Current Standards in the Management of Cerebral Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Goetz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last 30 years have seen major changes in attitude toward patients with cerebral metastases. This paper aims to outline the major landmarks in this transition and the therapeutic strategies currently used. The controversies surrounding control of brain disease are discussed, and two emerging management trends are reviewed: tumor bed radiosurgery and salvage radiation.

  19. Utilising magnetic resonance imaging as the gold-standard in management of suspected scaphoid fractures in the emergency department setting

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasubbu, B

    2017-02-01

    Scaphoid fractures are the most common carpal bone fracture. Up to 40% of scaphoid fractures can be missed at initial presentation and investigation. Follow-up plain film radiograph has overall poor sensitivity and reliability. MRI has been shown to have an almost 100% sensitivity and specificity and so is the gold standard in scaphoid fracture diagnosis. Additionally, early specialist involvement is recommended. We proposed that following a designated pathway, there would be no significant increase in MRI requests. Following implementation of a pathway for the management of suspected scaphoid fractures in St James’s Hospital in 2012 re-auditing demonstrated that management changed to either MRI directly after initial x-ray (16\\/145, 11%), MRI after second x-ray (9\\/28, 32%) or orthopaedic follow-up (19\\/28, 68%). The number of MRIs requested was consistent with our predictors of demand. Thus, our new protocol maximises diagnostics, cost effectiveness and quality of patient care.

  20. Using a web-based application to define the accuracy of diagnostic tests when the gold standard is imperfect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cherry; Wannapinij, Prapass; White, Lisa; Day, Nicholas P J; Cooper, Ben S; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the sensitivity and specificity for new diagnostic tests based on evaluation against a known gold standard are imprecise when the accuracy of the gold standard is imperfect. Bayesian latent class models (LCMs) can be helpful under these circumstances, but the necessary analysis requires expertise in computational programming. Here, we describe open-access web-based applications that allow non-experts to apply Bayesian LCMs to their own data sets via a user-friendly interface. Applications for Bayesian LCMs were constructed on a web server using R and WinBUGS programs. The models provided (http://mice.tropmedres.ac) include two Bayesian LCMs: the two-tests in two-population model (Hui and Walter model) and the three-tests in one-population model (Walter and Irwig model). Both models are available with simplified and advanced interfaces. In the former, all settings for Bayesian statistics are fixed as defaults. Users input their data set into a table provided on the webpage. Disease prevalence and accuracy of diagnostic tests are then estimated using the Bayesian LCM, and provided on the web page within a few minutes. With the advanced interfaces, experienced researchers can modify all settings in the models as needed. These settings include correlation among diagnostic test results and prior distributions for all unknown parameters. The web pages provide worked examples with both models using the original data sets presented by Hui and Walter in 1980, and by Walter and Irwig in 1988. We also illustrate the utility of the advanced interface using the Walter and Irwig model on a data set from a recent melioidosis study. The results obtained from the web-based applications were comparable to those published previously. The newly developed web-based applications are open-access and provide an important new resource for researchers worldwide to evaluate new diagnostic tests.

  1. Electric Current-induced Failure of 200-nm-thick Gold Interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHANG; Qingyuan YU; Jun TAN; Guangping ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    200-nm-thick Au interconnects on a quartz substrate were tested in-situ inside a dual-beam microscope by applying direct current,alternating current and alternating current with a small direct current component.The failure behavior of the Au interconnects under three kinds of electric currents were characterized in-situ by scanning electron microscopy.It is found that the formation of voids and subsequent growth perpendicular to the interconnect direction is the fatal failure mode for all the Au interconnects under three kinds of electric currents.The failure mechanism of the ultrathin metal lines induced by the electric currents was analyzed.

  2. Current Standards and Novel Treatment Options for Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Benjamin A; Yabar, Cinthya S; Brody, Jonathan R; Pishvaian, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal solid tumors. The prognosis of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains dismal, with a median survival of less than 1 year, due in large part to the fact that pancreatic adenocarcinoma is notoriously refractory to chemotherapy. However, there recently have been significant improvements in outcomes for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma: ongoing trials have shown promise, and these may lead to still further progress. Here we review the current treatment paradigms for metastatic disease, focusing on ways to ameliorate symptoms and lengthen survival. We then summarize recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of pancreatic cancer. Finally, we outline new approaches currently under development for the treatment of metastatic disease, arising from our improved understanding of the genetic and nongenetic alterations within pancreatic cancer cells-and of interactions between cancer cells, the tumor microenvironment, and the immune system.

  3. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.; Goda, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80...... standard on coastal engineering practice....

  4. The role of relativity in the optical response of gold within the time-dependent current-density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, P L

    2005-04-22

    We included relativistic effects in the formulation of the time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the calculation of linear response properties of metals [P. Romaniello and P. L. de Boeij, Phys. Rev. B (to be published)]. We treat the dominant scalar-relativistic effects using the zeroth-order regular approximation in the ground-state density-functional theory calculations, as well as in the time-dependent response calculations. The results for the dielectric function of gold calculated in the spectral range of 0-10 eV are compared with experimental data reported in literature and recent ellipsometric measurements. As well known, relativistic effects strongly influence the color of gold. We find that the onset of interband transitions is shifted from around 3.5 eV, obtained in a nonrelativistic calculation, to around 1.9 eV when relativity is included. With the inclusion of the scalar-relativistic effects there is an overall improvement of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function over the nonrelativistic ones. Nevertheless some important features in the absorption spectrum are not well reproduced, but can be explained in terms of spin-orbit coupling effects. The remaining deviations are attributed to the underestimation of the interband gap (5d-6sp band gap) in the local-density approximation and to the use of the adiabatic local-density approximation in the response calculation.

  5. Modeling the dark current histogram induced by gold contamination in complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domengie, F.; Morin, P.; Bauza, D.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a model for dark current induced by metallic contamination in a CMOS image sensor. Based on Shockley-Read-Hall kinetics, the expression of dark current proposed accounts for the electric field enhanced emission factor due to the Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering and phonon-assisted tunneling mechanisms. To that aim, we considered the distribution of the electric field magnitude and metal atoms in the depth of the pixel. Poisson statistics were used to estimate the random distribution of metal atoms in each pixel for a given contamination dose. Then, we performed a Monte-Carlo-based simulation for each pixel to set the number of metal atoms the pixel contained and the enhancement factor each atom underwent, and obtained a histogram of the number of pixels versus dark current for the full sensor. Excellent agreement with the dark current histogram measured on an ion-implanted gold-contaminated imager has been achieved, in particular, for the description of the distribution tails due to the pixel regions in which the contaminant atoms undergo a large electric field. The agreement remains very good when increasing the temperature by 15 °C. We demonstrated that the amplification of the dark current generated for the typical electric fields encountered in the CMOS image sensors, which depends on the nature of the metal contaminant, may become very large at high electric field. The electron and hole emissions and the resulting enhancement factor are described as a function of the trap characteristics, electric field, and temperature.

  6. Accuracy of periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography scans in diagnosing apical periodontitis using histopathological findings as a gold standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Paula-Silva, F.W.G.; Wu, M.K.; Leonardo, M.R.; da Silva, L.A.B.; Wesselink, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of two imaging methods in diagnosing apical periodontitis (AP) using histopathological findings as a gold standard. Methods: The periapex of 83 treated or untreated roots of dogs' teeth was examined using periapical radiography (PR), c

  7. Validity and reliability of 3D US for the detection of erosions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using MRI as the gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, K; Bliddal, H; Møller Døhn, U

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the reliability and validity of a 3D US erosion score in RA using MRI as the gold standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RA patients were examined with 3D US and 3 T MRI over the 2nd and 3rd metacarpophalangeal joints. 3D blocks were evaluated by two investigators. The erosions were...

  8. Realism and Imagination in Child Foreign-Language Productions: Three Reasons for an Early Exit from the "Gold Standard" of Personal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongeun; Kellogg, David

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often assume that personal experience is a rich resource for classroom chat and a gold standard for meaningful exchange of information. But in this paper, we first present three kinds of reasons for suspecting that primary intersubjectivity--the "me and you" relationship in which personal experiences are directly exchanged…

  9. Continuous ECG Monitoring in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome or Heart Failure: EASI Versus Gold Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, Loreto; Toccaceli, Andrea; Petrucci, Cristina; Romano, Silvio; Penco, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the EASI system with the standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) for the accuracy in detecting the main electrocardiographic parameters (J point, PR, QT, and QRS) commonly monitored in patients with acute coronary syndromes or heart failure. In this observational comparative study, 253 patients who were consecutively admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure were evaluated. In all patients, two complete 12-lead ECGs were acquired simultaneously. A total of 6,072 electrocardiographic leads were compared (3,036 standard and 3,036 EASI). No significant differences were found between the investigate parameters of the two measurement methods, either in patients with acute coronary syndrome or in those with heart failure. This study confirmed the accuracy of the EASI system in monitoring the main ECG parameters in patients admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure.

  10. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) as a Core Material and a Comparison with Gold Standard Core Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Schmid, Philipp; Roos, Malgorzata; Eichberger, Marlis; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2016-06-20

    This study investigated the colorimetric properties of different veneering materials on core materials. Standardized specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 1.5 mm) reflecting four core (polyetheretherketone (PEEK), zirconia (ZrO₂), cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo), and titanium oxide (TiO₂); thickness: 1.5 mm) and veneering materials (VITA Mark II, IPS e.max CAD, LAVA Ultimate and VITA Enamic, all in shade A3; thickness: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mm, respectively) were fabricated. Specimens were superimposed to assemblies, and the color was determined with a spectrophotometer (CieLab-System) or a chair-side color measurement device (VITA EasyShade), respectively. Data were analyzed using three-, two-, and one-way ANOVA, a Chi²-test, and a Wilson approach (p materials (p material (p material (p material showed comparable outcomes as compared to ZrO₂ and CoCrMo, with respect to CieLab-System parameters for each veneering material. The relative frequency of the measured VITA EasyShade parameters regarding PEEK cores also showed comparable results as compared to the gold standard CoCrMo, regardless of the veneering material used.

  11. Generic Gold Standard or Contextualised Public Good? Teaching Excellence Awards in Post-Colonial South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behari-Leak, Kasturi; McKenna, Sioux

    2017-01-01

    Teaching Excellence Awards have raised the profile of teaching as a scholarly project. There are however a number of questions about what constitutes teaching excellence and how "excellence" is understood in current higher education. In a post-colonial South Africa, where significant injustices permeate our society, we question whether…

  12. Data standards for clinical research data collection forms: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richesson, Rachel L; Nadkarni, Prakash

    2011-05-01

    Case report forms (CRFs) are used for structured-data collection in clinical research studies. Existing CRF-related standards encompass structural features of forms and data items, content standards, and specifications for using terminologies. This paper reviews existing standards and discusses their current limitations. Because clinical research is highly protocol-specific, forms-development processes are more easily standardized than is CRF content. Tools that support retrieval and reuse of existing items will enable standards adoption in clinical research applications. Such tools will depend upon formal relationships between items and terminological standards. Future standards adoption will depend upon standardized approaches for bridging generic structural standards and domain-specific content standards. Clinical research informatics can help define tools requirements in terms of workflow support for research activities, reconcile the perspectives of varied clinical research stakeholders, and coordinate standards efforts toward interoperability across healthcare and research data collection.

  13. Blood pressure measurement in children: which method? which is the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Enrico; Murer, Luisa; Matteucci, Maria Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The burden of hypertension has become increasingly prevalent in children. Hypertension that begins in childhood can carry on into adulthood, therefore early detection, accurate diagnosis and effective therapy of high blood pressure may improve long-term outcomes of children and adolescents. As far as pediatric hypertension is concerned, doubts still persist about the right instruments, modalities and standards of reference that should be used in routine practice. Due to the dynamic process of growth and development, many physiological parameters undergo intensive change with age. Therefore, in children, the definition of hypertension can not rely on a single blood pressure level but should be based on age- and height-specific percentiles. In this review, we introduce the nephrologist to the correct definition of high blood pressure in children. Moreover, we specifically address the main characteristics of different modalities for blood pressure measurement in children, focusing on practical aspects. The latest international guidelines and appropriate standards of reference for office, ambulatory and home blood pressure data collection are presented. As clinicians are being faced with a greater number of children with hypertension, they should be aware of these peculiarities.

  14. Of gastro and the gold standard: evaluation and policy implications of norovirus test performance for outbreak detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The norovirus group (NVG of caliciviruses are the etiological agents of most institutional outbreaks of gastroenteritis in North America and Europe. Identification of NVG is complicated by the non-culturable nature of this virus, and the absence of a diagnostic gold standard makes traditional evaluation of test characteristics problematic. Methods We evaluated 189 specimens derived from 440 acute gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated in Ontario in 2006–07. Parallel testing for NVG was performed with real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT2-PCR, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and electron microscopy (EM. Test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity were estimated using latent class models and composite reference standard methods. The practical implications of test characteristics were evaluated using binomial probability models. Results Latent class modelling estimated sensitivities of RT2-PCR, EIA, and EM as 100%, 86%, and 17% respectively; specificities were 84%, 92%, and 100%; estimates obtained using a composite reference standard were similar. If all specimens contained norovirus, RT2-PCR or EIA would be associated with > 99.9% likelihood of at least one test being positive after three specimens tested. Testing of more than 5 true negative specimens with RT2-PCR would be associated with a greater than 50% likelihood of a false positive test. Conclusion Our findings support the characterization of EM as lacking sensitivity for NVG outbreaks. The high sensitivity of RT2-PCR and EIA permit identification of NVG outbreaks with testing of limited numbers of clinical specimens. Given risks of false positive test results, it is reasonable to limit the number of specimens tested when RT2-PCR or EIA are available.

  15. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  16. Are Randomized Controlled Trials the (G)old Standard? From Clinical Intelligence to Prescriptive Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, Sven; Thomeer, Michiel; Heath, John; Vukicevic, Milan

    2016-07-06

    Despite the accelerating pace of scientific discovery, the current clinical research enterprise does not sufficiently address pressing clinical questions. Given the constraints on clinical trials, for a majority of clinical questions, the only relevant data available to aid in decision making are based on observation and experience. Our purpose here is 3-fold. First, we describe the classic context of medical research guided by Poppers' scientific epistemology of "falsificationism." Second, we discuss challenges and shortcomings of randomized controlled trials and present the potential of observational studies based on big data. Third, we cover several obstacles related to the use of observational (retrospective) data in clinical studies. We conclude that randomized controlled trials are not at risk for extinction, but innovations in statistics, machine learning, and big data analytics may generate a completely new ecosystem for exploration and validation.

  17. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Rasmussen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group, older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

  18. Modeling the dark current histogram induced by gold contamination in complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domengie, F., E-mail: florian.domengie@st.com; Morin, P. [STMicroelectronics Crolles 2 (SAS), 850 Rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Bauza, D. [CNRS, IMEP-LAHC - Grenoble INP, Minatec: 3, rue Parvis Louis Néel, CS 50257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France)

    2015-07-14

    We propose a model for dark current induced by metallic contamination in a CMOS image sensor. Based on Shockley-Read-Hall kinetics, the expression of dark current proposed accounts for the electric field enhanced emission factor due to the Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering and phonon-assisted tunneling mechanisms. To that aim, we considered the distribution of the electric field magnitude and metal atoms in the depth of the pixel. Poisson statistics were used to estimate the random distribution of metal atoms in each pixel for a given contamination dose. Then, we performed a Monte-Carlo-based simulation for each pixel to set the number of metal atoms the pixel contained and the enhancement factor each atom underwent, and obtained a histogram of the number of pixels versus dark current for the full sensor. Excellent agreement with the dark current histogram measured on an ion-implanted gold-contaminated imager has been achieved, in particular, for the description of the distribution tails due to the pixel regions in which the contaminant atoms undergo a large electric field. The agreement remains very good when increasing the temperature by 15 °C. We demonstrated that the amplification of the dark current generated for the typical electric fields encountered in the CMOS image sensors, which depends on the nature of the metal contaminant, may become very large at high electric field. The electron and hole emissions and the resulting enhancement factor are described as a function of the trap characteristics, electric field, and temperature.

  19. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK as a Core Material and a Comparison with Gold Standard Core Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Stawarczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the colorimetric properties of different veneering materials on core materials. Standardized specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 1.5 mm reflecting four core (polyetheretherketone (PEEK, zirconia (ZrO2, cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo, and titanium oxide (TiO2; thickness: 1.5 mm and veneering materials (VITA Mark II, IPS e.max CAD, LAVA Ultimate and VITA Enamic, all in shade A3; thickness: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mm, respectively were fabricated. Specimens were superimposed to assemblies, and the color was determined with a spectrophotometer (CieLab-System or a chair-side color measurement device (VITA EasyShade, respectively. Data were analyzed using three-, two-, and one-way ANOVA, a Chi2-test, and a Wilson approach (p < 0.05. The measurements with EasyShade showed A2 for VITA Mark II, A3.5 for VITA Enamic, B2 for LAVA Ultimate, and B3 for IPS e.max CAD. LabE-values showed significant differences between the tested veneering materials (p < 0.001. CieLab-System and VITA EasyShade parameters of the different assemblies showed a significant impact of core (p < 0.001, veneering material (p < 0.001, and thickness of the veneering material (p < 0.001. PEEK as core material showed comparable outcomes as compared to ZrO2 and CoCrMo, with respect to CieLab-System parameters for each veneering material. The relative frequency of the measured VITA EasyShade parameters regarding PEEK cores also showed comparable results as compared to the gold standard CoCrMo, regardless of the veneering material used.

  20. Hard x-ray micro-tomography of a human head post-mortem as a gold standard to compare X-ray modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalstra, Michel; Schulz, Georg; Dagassan-Berndt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    An entire human head obtained at autopsy was micro-CT scanned in a nano/micro-CT scanner in a 6-hour long session. Despite the size of the head, it could still be scanned with a pixel size of 70 μm. The aim of this study was to obtain an optimal quality 3D data-set to be used as baseline control...... in a larger study comparing the image quality of various cone beam CT systems currently used in dentistry. The image quality of the micro-CT scans was indeed better than the ones of the clinical imaging modalities, both with regard to noise and streak artifacts due to metal dental implants. Bony features...... in the jaws, like the trabecular architecture and the thin wall of the alveolar bone were clearly visible. Therefore, the 3D micro-CT data-set can be used as the gold standard for linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of anatomical features in and around the oral cavity when comparing clinical imaging...

  1. Hard x-ray micro-tomography of a human head post-mortem as a gold standard to compare x-ray modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, M.; Schulz, G.; Dagassan-Berndt, D.; Verna, C.; Müller-Gerbl, M.; Müller, B.

    2016-10-01

    An entire human head obtained at autopsy was micro-CT scanned in a nano/micro-CT scanner in a 6-hour long session. Despite the size of the head, it could still be scanned with a pixel size of 70 μm. The aim of this study was to obtain an optimal quality 3D data-set to be used as baseline control in a larger study comparing the image quality of various cone beam CT systems currently used in dentistry. The image quality of the micro-CT scans was indeed better than the ones of the clinical imaging modalities, both with regard to noise and streak artifacts due to metal dental implants. Bony features in the jaws, like the trabecular architecture and the thin wall of the alveolar bone were clearly visible. Therefore, the 3D micro-CT data-set can be used as the gold standard for linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of anatomical features in and around the oral cavity when comparing clinical imaging modalities.

  2. Prevalence and Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Young Children in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, Carlos; Malheiro, Adriana; Bührer, Samira; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor; Abellana, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For adequate disease control the World Health Organization has proposed the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in groups of risk of developing the disease such as children. There is no gold standard (GS) test for the diagnosis of LTBI. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in young children in contact with a household case of tuberculosis (TB-HCC) and determine the accuracy and precision of the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT) used in the absence of a GS. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in children up to 6 years of age in Manaus/Brazil during the years 2009–2010. All the children had been vaccinated with the BCG and were classified into two groups according to the presence of a TB-HCC or no known contact with tuberculosis (TB). The variables studied were: the TST and QFT results and the intensity and length of exposure to the index tuberculosis case. We used the latent class model to determine the prevalence of LTBI and the accuracy of the tests. Results Fifty percent of the children with TB-HCC had LTBI, with the prevalence depending on the intensity and length of exposure to the index case. The sensitivity and specificity of TST were 73% [95% confidence interval (CI): 53–91] and 97% (95%CI: 89–100), respectively, versus 53% (95%CI: 41–66) and 81% (95%CI:71–90) for QFT. The positive predictive value of TST in children with TB-HCC was 91% (95%CI: 61–99), being 74% for QFT (95%CI: 47–95). Conclusions This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in children and the parameters of the main diagnostic tests using a latent class model. Our results suggest that children in contact with an index case have a high risk of infection. The accuracy and the predictive value of the two tests did not significantly differ. Combined use of the two tests showed scarce improvement in the diagnosis of LTBI. PMID:27783642

  3. Self-Assembled Core-Satellite Gold Nanoparticle Networks for Ultrasensitive Detection of Chiral Molecules by Recognition Tunneling Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanchao; Liu, Jingquan; Li, Da; Dai, Xing; Yan, Fuhua; Conlan, Xavier A; Zhou, Ruhong; Barrow, Colin J; He, Jin; Wang, Xin; Yang, Wenrong

    2016-05-24

    Chirality sensing is a very challenging task. Here, we report a method for ultrasensitive detection of chiral molecule l/d-carnitine based on changes in the recognition tunneling current across self-assembled core-satellite gold nanoparticle (GNP) networks. The recognition tunneling technique has been demonstrated to work at the single molecule level where the binding between the reader molecules and the analytes in a nanojunction. This process was observed to generate a unique and sensitive change in tunneling current, which can be used to identify the analytes of interest. The molecular recognition mechanism between amino acid l-cysteine and l/d-carnitine has been studied with the aid of SERS. The different binding strength between homo- or heterochiral pairs can be effectively probed by the copper ion replacement fracture. The device resistance was measured before and after the sequential exposures to l/d-carnitine and copper ions. The normalized resistance change was found to be extremely sensitive to the chirality of carnitine molecule. The results suggested that a GNP networks device optimized for recognition tunneling was successfully built and that such a device can be used for ultrasensitive detection of chiral molecules.

  4. Accuracy of popular automatic QT Interval algorithms assessed by a 'Gold Standard' and comparison with a Novel method: computer simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of the QT interval is very important from a clinical and pharmaceutical drug safety screening perspective. Expert manual measurement is both imprecise and imperfectly reproducible, yet it is used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of current automatic computer algorithms, which thus produce reproducible but incorrect measurements of the QT interval. There is a scientific imperative to evaluate the most commonly used algorithms with an accurate and objective 'gold standard' and investigate novel automatic algorithms if the commonly used algorithms are found to be deficient. Methods This study uses a validated computer simulation of 8 different noise contaminated ECG waveforms (with known QT intervals of 461 and 495 ms, generated from a cell array using Luo-Rudy membrane kinetics and the Crank-Nicholson method, as a reference standard to assess the accuracy of commonly used QT measurement algorithms. Each ECG contaminated with 39 mixtures of noise at 3 levels of intensity was first filtered then subjected to three threshold methods (T1, T2, T3, two T wave slope methods (S1, S2 and a Novel method. The reproducibility and accuracy of each algorithm was compared for each ECG. Results The coefficient of variation for methods T1, T2, T3, S1, S2 and Novel were 0.36, 0.23, 1.9, 0.93, 0.92 and 0.62 respectively. For ECGs of real QT interval 461 ms the methods T1, T2, T3, S1, S2 and Novel calculated the mean QT intervals(standard deviations to be 379.4(1.29, 368.5(0.8, 401.3(8.4, 358.9(4.8, 381.5(4.6 and 464(4.9 ms respectively. For ECGs of real QT interval 495 ms the methods T1, T2, T3, S1, S2 and Novel calculated the mean QT intervals(standard deviations to be 396.9(1.7, 387.2(0.97, 424.9(8.7, 386.7(2.2, 396.8(2.8 and 493(0.97 ms respectively. These results showed significant differences between means at >95% confidence level. Shifting ECG baselines caused large errors of QT interval with T1 and T2

  5. Multidetector CT: a new gold standard in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism? State of the art and diagnostic algorithms; La TC multitettore: il nuovo gold standard nella diagnosi di embolia polmonare? Stato dell'arte e algoritmi diagnostici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Piva, Tommaso; Lovato, Luigi; Fattori, Rossella; Gavelli, Giampaolo [Policlinico S. Orsola, Bologna (Italy). Dipartimento di Radiologia Radiologia III

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: From the early 90s, spiral CT technology has considerably changed the diagnostic capability of Pulmonary Embolism (PE), giving a direct vision of intravascular thrombi. Further technological progress has straightened its diagnostic impact leading to an essential role in clinical practice. The advent of Multi-Detector CT (MDCT) has subsequently increased the reliability of this technique to the point of undermining the role of pulmonary angiography as the gold standard and occupying a central position in diagnostic algorithms. The aim of this paper is to appraise this evolution by means of a meta-analysis of the relevant literature from 1995 to 2004. Results: The review of the literature showed the sensitivity and specificity of CT to have increased from 37-94% and 91-100% (single detector CT) to 87-94% and 94-100% (4-channel multidetector CT), especially thanks to the possibility of depicting subsegmental clots, with an interobserver agreement of 0.63-0.94 (k). Conclusions: CT is one of the most reliable and effective methods in the diagnosis is PE, with the advantage of being extremely fast and providing alternative diagnoses. Recent improvements in MDCT technology confers the highest value of diagnostic accuracy with respect to other imaging modalities such as scintigraphy, angiography, MRI, D-dimer essay and Doppler US. [Italian] Scopo: Dall'inizio degli anni '90, la tecnologia TC spirale (TCS) ha cambiato notevolmente la capacita' diagnostica di Embolia Polmonare (EP), fornendo una visione diretta dei trombi endoluminali. Successivi progressi tecnologici hanno fortificato il suo impatto diagnostico a tal punto che questa metodica e' ora essenziale nella pratica clinica. L'avvento della TC Multi-Detettore (TCMD) ha aumentato di conseguenza l'affidabilita' di questa tecnica fino a tal punto da scalzare l'angiopneumografia dal ruolo di Gold Standard ed occupare una posizione cantrale negli algoritmi diagnostici

  6. Outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A new gold standard for cholecystectomy? Colecistectomía laparoscópica ambulatoria: ¿El nuevo "gold standard" de la colecistectomía?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bueno Lledó

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to contribute our experience for five years in the implemetation of outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC. Patients: between January 1999 and March 2004 we performed 504 outpatient LCs. We applied both exclusion and inclusion criteria, an anesthetic and surgical protocol, and discharge-specific criteria. Postoperative management in "fast track" regime. Postoperative period controlled by protocol, including phone calls after cholecystectomy. Results: the ambulatory percentage in the global series was 88.8%, and mean hospital stay was 6.1 hours. Fifty-one patients required overnight stays (10.1%, most of them for "social" causes. Five patients required admission (between 24 and 48 hours for different causes (conversion to laparotomy, intraoperative neumothorax, and postoperative medical complications. Six patients (1.1% were readmitted, and we observed 11.6% postoperative complications in the global series, with abdominal parietal pain being most frequent. Phone localization by 22.00 p.m. in the same day of surgery was 100% complete for outpatient cases. Postoperative surveillance within the first month after surgery was completed in 93.9%, and within th first year in 86.7% of patients. Conclusions: outpatient LC is safe and feasible, and probably represents a new "gold standard" in the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis.Objetivo: aportar nuestra experiencia durante cinco años en la implantación de la colecistectomía laparoscópica (CL en un programa de cirugía mayor ambulatoria (CMA. Pacientes: entre enero de 1999 y marzo de 2004, se realizaron 504 CL consecutivas en régimen ambulatorio. Se aplicaron criterios de exclusión e inclusión, un procedimiento anestésico-quirurgico protocolizado, y criterios específicos al alta hospitalaria. El manejo postoperatorio se realizó en régimen de "fast track" o de recuperación rápida. Seguimiento postoperatorio estricto mediante protocolo de revisiones, incluido localizaci

  7. A survey of immunohistochemical biomarkers for basal-like breast cancer against a gene expression profile gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jennifer R; Gao, Dongxia; Chow, Christine; Cheng, Jinjin; Lau, Sherman Y H; Ellis, Matthew J; Perou, Charles M; Bernard, Philip S; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2013-11-01

    Gene expression profiling of breast cancer delineates a particularly aggressive subtype referred to as 'basal-like', which comprises ∼15% of all breast cancers, afflicts younger women and is refractory to endocrine and anti-HER2 therapies. Immunohistochemical surrogate definitions for basal-like breast cancer, such as the clinical ER/PR/HER2 triple-negative phenotype and models incorporating positive expression for CK5 (CK5/6) and/or EGFR are heavily cited. However, many additional biomarkers for basal-like breast cancer have been described in the literature. A parallel comparison of 46 proposed immunohistochemical biomarkers of basal-like breast cancer was performed against a gene expression profile gold standard on a tissue microarray containing 42 basal-like and 80 non-basal-like breast cancer cases. Ki67 and PPH3 were the most sensitive biomarkers (both 92%) positively expressed in the basal-like subtype, whereas CK14, IMP3 and NGFR were the most specific (100%). Among biomarkers surveyed, loss of INPP4B (a negative regulator of phosphatidylinositol signaling) was 61% sensitive and 99% specific with the highest odds ratio (OR) at 108, indicating the strongest association with basal-like breast cancer. Expression of nestin, a common marker of neural progenitor cells that is also associated with the triple-negative/basal-like phenotype and poor breast cancer prognosis, possessed the second highest OR at 29 among the 46 biomarkers surveyed, as well as 54% sensitivity and 96% specificity. As a positively expressed biomarker, nestin possesses technical advantages over INPP4B that make it a more ideal biomarker for identification of basal-like breast cancer. The comprehensive immunohistochemical biomarker survey presented in this study is a necessary step for determining an optimized surrogate immunopanel that best defines basal-like breast cancer in a practical and clinically accessible way.

  8. Gold Standard Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    distinguishing a drug effect from spontaneous rheumatoid arthritis . Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) variability. Am HeartJ 1996;131:472-80. 1983;61:831-7. 2...I1 yellow Miscellaneous Strychnine + Cannabis indica + Tobacco LI, LII + (amblyopia) Sildenafil citrate + LI, III blue, blue- flashing lights

  9. GRIP: A web-based system for constructing Gold Standard datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Fiona; Wang, Haiying; Zheng, Huiru; Azuaje, Francisco

    2009-01-26

    Information about protein interaction networks is fundamental to understanding protein function and cellular processes. Interaction patterns among proteins can suggest new drug targets and aid in the design of new therapeutic interventions. Efforts have been made to map interactions on a proteomic-wide scale using both experimental and computational techniques. Reference datasets that contain known interacting proteins (positive cases) and non-interacting proteins (negative cases) are essential to support computational prediction and validation of protein-protein interactions. Information on known interacting and non interacting proteins are usually stored within databases. Extraction of these data can be both complex and time consuming. Although, the automatic construction of reference datasets for classification is a useful resource for researchers no public resource currently exists to perform this task. GRIP (Gold Reference dataset constructor from Information on Protein complexes) is a web-based system that provides researchers with the functionality to create reference datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both positive and negative cases for a reference dataset can be extracted, organised and downloaded by the user. GRIP also provides an upload facility whereby users can submit proteins to determine protein complex membership. A search facility is provided where a user can search for protein complex information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GRIP is developed to retrieve information on protein complex, cellular localisation, and physical and genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manual construction of reference datasets can be a time consuming process requiring programming knowledge. GRIP simplifies and speeds up this process by allowing users to automatically construct reference datasets. GRIP is free to access at http://rosalind.infj.ulst.ac.uk/GRIP/.

  10. GRIP: A web-based system for constructing Gold Standard datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Huiru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about protein interaction networks is fundamental to understanding protein function and cellular processes. Interaction patterns among proteins can suggest new drug targets and aid in the design of new therapeutic interventions. Efforts have been made to map interactions on a proteomic-wide scale using both experimental and computational techniques. Reference datasets that contain known interacting proteins (positive cases and non-interacting proteins (negative cases are essential to support computational prediction and validation of protein-protein interactions. Information on known interacting and non interacting proteins are usually stored within databases. Extraction of these data can be both complex and time consuming. Although, the automatic construction of reference datasets for classification is a useful resource for researchers no public resource currently exists to perform this task. Results GRIP (Gold Reference dataset constructor from Information on Protein complexes is a web-based system that provides researchers with the functionality to create reference datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both positive and negative cases for a reference dataset can be extracted, organised and downloaded by the user. GRIP also provides an upload facility whereby users can submit proteins to determine protein complex membership. A search facility is provided where a user can search for protein complex information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion GRIP is developed to retrieve information on protein complex, cellular localisation, and physical and genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manual construction of reference datasets can be a time consuming process requiring programming knowledge. GRIP simplifies and speeds up this process by allowing users to automatically construct reference datasets. GRIP is free to access at http://rosalind.infj.ulst.ac.uk/GRIP/.

  11. Current Status of International Airborne Platform Data and Instrument Interface Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Matt; Webster, Chris; Freundinger, Larry

    2016-06-01

    Commission I of the International Society for Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing formed working group I/1 for the purpose of standardizing airborne platform interfaces. The primary mission of this working group is to promote the standardization of instrument interfaces, data formats, and supporting infrastructures; and to facilitate more efficient, flexible, and cost-effective international science flight operations. Within WGI/1 are a number of focused subgroups. This paper addresses the efforts of some of these subgroups having interdependent and overlapping interests; including the development of standard software interfaces for sensors, standardized approaches to management of information over potentially intermittent wireless data links, the development of standardized processing algorithms, and data archival format standards. The data in this report reflect the outcome of work-to-date in the current subgroups.

  12. Study of the underlying electrochemistry of polycrystalline gold electrodes in aqueous solution and electrocatalysis by large amplitude fourier transformed alternating current voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertanantawong, Benchaporn; O'Mullane, Anthony P; Surareungchai, Werasak; Somasundrum, Mithran; Declan Burke, L; Bond, Alan M

    2008-03-18

    Polycrystalline gold electrodes of the kind that are routinely used in analysis and catalysis in aqueous media are often regarded as exhibiting relatively simple double-layer charging/discharging and monolayer oxide formation/removal in the positive potential region. Application of the large amplitude Fourier transformed alternating current (FT-ac) voltammetric technique that allows the faradaic current contribution of fast electron-transfer processes to be emphasized in the higher harmonic components has revealed the presence of well-defined faradaic (premonolayer oxidation) processes at positive potentials in the double-layer region in acidic and basic media which are enhanced by electrochemical activation. These underlying quasi-reversible interfacial electron-transfer processes may mediate the course of electrocatalytic oxidation reactions of hydrazine, ethylene glycol, and glucose on gold electrodes in aqueous media. The observed responses support key assumptions associated with the incipient hydrous oxide adatom mediator (IHOAM) model of electrocatalysis.

  13. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts.

  14. Evaluation of the Performance of Five Diagnostic Tests for Fasciola hepatica Infection in Naturally Infected Cattle Using a Bayesian No Gold Standard Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, Neil; Kelly, Robert F.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Handel, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and economic importance of fasciolosis has been recognised for centuries, yet diagnostic tests available for cattle are far from perfect. Test evaluation has mainly been carried out using gold standard approaches or under experimental settings, the limitations of which are well known. In this study, a Bayesian no gold standard approach was used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of five tests for fasciolosis in cattle. These included detailed liver necropsy including gall bladder egg count, faecal egg counting, a commercially available copro-antigen ELISA, an in-house serum excretory/secretory antibody ELISA and routine abattoir liver inspection. In total 619 cattle slaughtered at one of Scotland’s biggest abattoirs were sampled, during three sampling periods spanning summer 2013, winter 2014 and autumn 2014. Test sensitivities and specificities were estimated using an extension of the Hui Walter no gold standard model, where estimates were allowed to vary between seasons if tests were a priori believed to perform differently for any reason. The results of this analysis provide novel information on the performance of these tests in a naturally infected cattle population and at different times of the year where different levels of acute or chronic infection are expected. Accurate estimates of sensitivity and specificity will allow for routine abattoir liver inspection to be used as a tool for monitoring the epidemiology of F. hepatica as well as evaluating herd health planning. Furthermore, the results provide evidence to suggest that the copro-antigen ELISA does not cross-react with Calicophoron daubneyi rumen fluke parasites, while the serum antibody ELISA does. PMID:27564546

  15. Gold Rush!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahier, Daniel J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a mathematical investigation of gold--how it is weighed, stored, used, and valued. For grades 3-4, children estimate the value of treasure chests filled with gold coins and explore the size and weight of gold bars. Children in grades 5-6 explore how gold is mined and used, and how the value of gold changes over time. (PVD)

  16. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children.

  17. Electric current in flares ribbons: from the standard model in 3D to observations

    CERN Document Server

    Janvier, Miho; Bommier, V; Schmieder, B; Démoulin, P; Pariat, E

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents for the first time a quantification of the photospheric electric current ribbon evolutions during an eruptive flare, accurately predicted by the standard 3D flare model. The standard flare model in 3D has been developed with the MHD code OHM, which models the evolution of an unstable flux rope. Through a series of paper, the model has been successful in explaining observational characteristics of eruptive flares, as well as the intrinsic 3D reconnection mechanism. Such a model also explains the increase of the photospheric currents as a consequence of the evolution of the coronal current layer where reconnection takes place. The photospheric footprints of the 3D current layer reveal a ribbon shape structure. In the present paper, the evolution of the current density is analyzed for the X-class flare that occurred on 15/02/2011 in AR 11158. We first describe the structural evolution of the high vertical current density regions derived with the UNNOFIT inversion code from magnetograms (HMI, e...

  18. Training in clinical forensic medicine in the UK--perceptions of current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M; Norfolk, Guy A

    2011-08-01

    As clinical forensic medicine (CFM) is not currently recognised as a speciality in the UK there are no nationally agreed mandatory standards for training forensic physicians in either general forensic (GFM) or sexual offence medicine (SOM). The General Medical Council (GMC), the medical regulator in the UK, has issued clear standards for training in all specialities recommending that "trainees must be supported to acquire the necessary skills and experience through induction, effective educational supervision, an appropriate workload and time to learn". In order to evaluate the current situation in the field of clinical forensic medicine, doctors who have recently (within the last two years) started working in the field "trainees" (n = 38), and trainers (n = 61) with responsibility for clinical and educational supervision of new trainees, were surveyed by questionnaire to gather their perceptions of how the relevant GMC standards are being met in initial on-the-job training. Telephone interviews were performed with eleven doctors working as clinical or medical directors to determine their views. It is clear that currently the quality of training in CFM is sub-standard and inconsistent and that the published standards, as to the minimum requirement for training that must be met by post-graduate medical and training providers at all levels, are not being met. The Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) needs to set explicit minimum standards which will comply with the regulator and work to pilot credentialing for forensic physicians. A number of recommendations are made for urgent FFLM development.

  19. submitter Flavour-changing neutral currents making and breaking the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Archilli, F; Owen, P; Petridis, K A

    2017-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics is our best description yet of fundamental particles and their interactions, but it is known to be incomplete. As yet undiscovered particles and interactions might exist. One of the most powerful ways to search for new particles is by studying processes known as flavour-changing neutral current decays, whereby a quark changes its flavour without altering its electric charge. One example of such a transition is the decay of a beauty quark into a strange quark. Here we review some intriguing anomalies in these decays, which have revealed potential cracks in the standard model—hinting at the existence of new phenomena.

  20. American Dietetic Association's Standardized Nutrition Language: Project logic model and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melinda; Myers, Esther; Charney, Pam; Escott-Stump, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Standardized terminology and digital sources of evidence are essential for evidence-based practice. Dieticians desire concise and consistent documentation of nutrition diagnoses, interventions and outcomes that will be fit for electronic health records. Building on more than 5 years of work to generate the Nutrition Care Process and Model as a road map to quality nutrition care and outcomes, and recognizing existing standardized languages serving other health professions, a task force of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) has begun to develop and disseminate standardized nutrition language. This paper will describe the group's working logic model, the Nutrition Care Process, and the current status of the nutrition language with comparisons to nursing process and terminology.

  1. Real-time cardiac magnetic resonance cine imaging with sparse sampling and iterative reconstruction for left-ventricular measures: Comparison with gold-standard segmented steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Gabriel C; Erthal, Fernanda; Sabioni, Leticia; Penna, Filipe; Strecker, Ralph; Schmidt, Michaela; Zenge, Michael O; Lima, Ronaldo de S L; Gottlieb, Ilan

    2017-05-01

    Segmented cine imaging with a steady-state free-precession sequence (Cine-SSFP) is currently the gold standard technique for measuring ventricular volumes and mass, but due to multi breath-hold (BH) requirements, it is prone to misalignment of consecutive slices, time consuming and dependent on respiratory capacity. Real-time cine avoids those limitations, but poor spatial and temporal resolution of conventional sequences has prevented its routine application. We sought to examine the accuracy and feasibility of a newly developed real-time sequence with aggressive under-sampling of k-space using sparse sampling and iterative reconstruction (Cine-RT). Stacks of short-axis cines were acquired covering both ventricles in a 1.5T system using gold standard Cine-SSFP and Cine-RT. Acquisition parameters for Cine-SSFP were: acquisition matrix of 224×196, temporal resolution of 39ms, retrospective gating, with an average of 8 heartbeats per slice and 1-2 slices/BH. For Cine-RT: acquisition matrix of 224×196, sparse sampling net acceleration factor of 11.3, temporal resolution of 41ms, prospective gating, real-time acquisition of 1 heart-beat/slice and all slices in one BH. LV contours were drawn at end diastole and systole to derive LV volumes and mass. Forty-one consecutive patients (15 male; 41±17years) in sinus rhythm were successfully included. All images from Cine-SSFP and Cine-RT were considered to have excellent quality. Cine-RT-derived LV volumes and mass were slightly underestimated but strongly correlated with gold standard Cine-SSFP. Inter- and intra-observer analysis presented similar results between both sequences. Cine-RT featuring sparse sampling and iterative reconstruction can achieve spatial and temporal resolution equivalent to Cine-SSFP, providing excellent image quality, with similar precision measurements and highly correlated and only slightly underestimated volume and mass values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion transport and loss in the earth's quiet ring current. I - Data and standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, R. B.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the transport and loss of ions in the earth's quiet time ring current, in which the standard radial diffusion model developed for the high-energy radiation belt particles is compared with the measurements of the lower-energy ring current ions, is presented. The data set provides ionic composition information in an energy range that includes the bulk of the ring current energy density, 1-300 keV/e. Protons are found to dominate the quiet time energy density at all altitudes, peaking near L of about 4 at 60 keV/cu cm, with much smaller contributions from O(+) (1-10 percent), He(+) (1-5 percent), and He(2+) (less than 1 percent). A minimization procedure is used to fit the amplitudes of the standard electric radial diffusion coefficient, yielding 5.8 x 10 exp -11 R(E-squared)/s. Fluctuation ionospheric electric fields are suggested as the source of the additional diffusion detected.

  3. Ion transport and loss in the earth's quiet ring current. I - Data and standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, R. B.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the transport and loss of ions in the earth's quiet time ring current, in which the standard radial diffusion model developed for the high-energy radiation belt particles is compared with the measurements of the lower-energy ring current ions, is presented. The data set provides ionic composition information in an energy range that includes the bulk of the ring current energy density, 1-300 keV/e. Protons are found to dominate the quiet time energy density at all altitudes, peaking near L of about 4 at 60 keV/cu cm, with much smaller contributions from O(+) (1-10 percent), He(+) (1-5 percent), and He(2+) (less than 1 percent). A minimization procedure is used to fit the amplitudes of the standard electric radial diffusion coefficient, yielding 5.8 x 10 exp -11 R(E-squared)/s. Fluctuation ionospheric electric fields are suggested as the source of the additional diffusion detected.

  4. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  5. Recommendation for modifying current cytotoxicity testing standards for biodegradable magnesium-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Witte, Frank; Xi, Tingfei; Zheng, Yufeng; Yang, Ke; Yang, Yuansheng; Zhao, Dewei; Meng, Jian; Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong; Chan, Kaiming; Qin, Ling

    2015-07-01

    As one of the most promising medical metal implants, magnesium (Mg) or its alloys have shown significant advantages over other candidates attributed to not only their excellent biodegradability and suitable mechanical properties but also their osteopromotive effects for bone applications. Prior to approval mandated by the governmental regulatory body, the access to the medical market for Mg-based implants requires a series of testing for assurance of their safety and efficacy via preclinical evaluations and clinical tests including phase 1 and 2 evaluations, and phase 3 of multi-center randomized double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, as the most widely used protocols for biosafety evaluation of medical devices, current ISO 10993 standards should be carefully reevaluated when directly applying them to predict potential health risks of degradable Mg based biomaterials via cytotoxicity tests due to the huge gap between in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, instead of a direct adoption, modification of current ISO standards for in vitro cytotoxicity test is desirable and justified. The differences in sensitivities of cells to in vitro and in vivo Mg ions and the capability of in vivo circulation system to dilute local degradation products were fully considered to propose modification of current ISO standards. This paper recommended a minimal 6 times to a maximal 10 times dilution of extracts for in vitro cytotoxicity test specified in ISO 10993 part 5 for pure Mg developed as potential orthopedic implants based on literature review and our specifically designed in vitro and in vivo tests presented in the study. Our work may contribute to the progress of biodegradable metals involved translational work. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Current status of the Standard Model CKM fit and constraints on $\\Delta F=2$ New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, J; Descotes-Genon, S; Lacker, H; Menzel, A; Monteil, S; Niess, V; Ocariz, J; Orloff, J; Perez, A; Qian, W; Tisserand, V; Trabelsi, K; Urquijo, P; Silva, L Vale

    2015-01-01

    This letter summarises the status of the global fit of the CKM parameters within the Standard Model performed by the CKMfitter group. Special attention is paid to the inputs for the CKM angles $\\alpha$ and $\\gamma$ and the status of $B_s\\to\\mu\\mu$ and $B_d\\to \\mu\\mu$ decays. We illustrate the current situation for other unitarity triangles. We also discuss the constraints on generic $\\Delta F=2$ New Physics. All results have been obtained with the CKMfitter analysis package, featuring the frequentist statistical approach and using Rfit to handle theoretical uncertainties.

  7. Monolithic integration of GMR sensors for standard CMOS-IC current sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marcellis, A.; Reig, C.; Cubells-Beltrán, M.-D.; Madrenas, J.; Santos, J. D.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we report on the development of Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors for off-line current measurements in standard integrated circuits. An ASIC has been specifically designed and fabricated in the well-known AMS-0.35 μm CMOS technology, including the electronic circuitry for sensor interfacing. It implements an oscillating circuit performing a voltage-to-frequency conversion. Subsequently, a fully CMOS-compatible low temperature post-process has been applied for depositing the GMR sensing devices in a full-bridge configuration onto the buried current straps. Sensitivity and resolution of these sensors have been investigated achieving experimental results that show a detection sensitivity of about 100 Hz/mA, with a resolution of about 5 μA.

  8. Gold internal standard correction for elemental imaging of soft tissue sections by LA-ICP-MS: element distribution in eye microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernández, Beatriz; Fernández, M Luisa; Pereiro, Rosario; González, Héctor; Alvarez, Lydia; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the elemental imaging of Mg, Fe and Cu distribution in histological tissue sections of fixed eyes, embedded in paraffin, from human donors (cadavers). This work presents the development of a novel internal standard correction methodology based on the deposition of a homogeneous thin gold film on the tissue surface and the use of the (197)Au(+) signal as internal standard. Sample preparation (tissue section thickness) and laser conditions were carefully optimized, and internal normalisation using (197)Au(+) was compared with (13)C(+) correction for imaging applications. (24)Mg(+), (56)Fe(+) and (63)Cu(+) distributions were investigated in histological sections of the anterior segment of the eye (including the iris, ciliary body, cornea and trabecular meshwork) and were shown to be heterogeneously distributed along those tissue structures. Reproducibility was assessed by imaging different human eye sections from the same donor and from ten different eyes from adult normal donors, which showed that similar spatial maps were obtained and therefore demonstrate the analytical potential of using (197)Au(+) as internal standard. The proposed analytical approach could offer a robust tool with great practical interest for clinical studies, e.g. to investigate trace element distribution of metals and their alterations in ocular diseases.

  9. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and LabelingProgram to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-03

    The report summarizes the history and nature of China sstandardsand labeling program in the Introduction in Section 1. Trends indomestic production, exports, penetration rates, unit energy consumptionand the history of S&L technical levels by product are discussed ingreat detail in Section 2. The national energy impactsanalysis found inSection 3 concludes that overall China s standards and labeling programsreduce total electricity consumption in 2020 by an annual 106 TWh, or 16percent of what would otherwise been expected in that year in the absenceof standards and labeling programs.In total, the report concludes thatthe S&L programs currently in place in China are expected to save acumulative 1143 TWh by 2020, or 9 percent of the cumulative consumptionof residential electricity to that year. In 2020 alone, annual savingsare expected to be equivalent to 11 percent of residential electricityuse. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coalfired plants that would have required around 75 million tonnes of coal tooperate.In comparison, savings from the US appliance standards programalone is expected to save 10 percent of residential electricityconsumption in 2020.

  10. Flavour changing neutral currents in the standard model and its extensions with singlet quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Bejlin, V A; Kuksa, V I

    2001-01-01

    The review is devoted to the phenomenology of singlet quarks, which are singlets with respect to the SU(2), have hypercharges Y = -1/3 masses m > m sub t. It is shown, that experimental data on rare processes and the corresponding theoretical predictions of the Standard Model (SM) allow to invoke the SM extensions for the analysis of the phenomena stimulated by flavor changing neutral current. The extended matrix of standard and singlet quark mixing is constructed, the restriction on mixing angles and the estimate of low bound of singlet quark mass m sub D >= 0.5 TeV are obtained. Besides the direct observation the perspectives to increase the confidence level of the singlet quark existence are discussed. The cross-sections of nondiagonal production of singlet quark in pair with standard one in e sup - e sup + -, ep- and pp-bar-collisions are analyzed and the unique signature of such events is described. The model of up-singlet quark with the hypercharge Y sub U 2/3 and its applications to the physics of t-qu...

  11. Investigation of widely used nanomaterials (TiO{sub 2}, Ag) and gold nanoparticles in standardized ecotoxicological tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Klawonn, Thorsten [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    nanomaterial gold. Since ecotoxicological data based on standardised test methods, as requested for risk assessment, are not available for these substances, and information on modifications to standardised procedures for testing nanoparticles is lacking, the aim of the present project was to contribute to the following topics: - Recommendations concerning the improvement of existing OECD Test Guidelines for the testing of nanoparticles; - Recommendations on the application of the investigated nanoparticles to the test medium; - Ecotoxicity of TiO{sub 2} and Ag nanoparticles with respect to: Earthworm reproduction, Respiration rate of soil microflora, Nitrification of soil microflora, Growth of plants, Reproduction of chironomids, Reproduction of daphnids. - Ecotoxicity of gold with respect to: Growth of algae, Immobilisation of daphnids, Development of fish embryos, Reproduction of chironomids. As a first step in the present project the German Federal Environment Agency selected several nanoparticles from the priority list of the OECD Sponsorship Programme, and the tests that should be performed with these nanoparticles were selected on the basis of available informa-tion and priority.

  12. Validity of ultrasonography and measures of adult shoulder function and reliability of ultrasonography in detecting shoulder synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using magnetic resonance imaging as a gold standard.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bruyn, G A W

    2010-08-01

    To assess the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) in detecting inflammatory shoulder changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and to determine the agreement between US and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a gold standard.

  13. Transscrotal Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Test for Testis Torsion in Pediatric Acute Scrotum: A Prospective Comparison to Gold Standard Diagnostic Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Bruce J; Keays, Melise A; Grimsby, Gwen M; Granberg, Candace F; DaJusta, Daniel G; Menon, Vani S; Ostrov, Lauren; Sheth, Kunj R; Hill, Martinez; Sanchez, Emma J; Harrison, Clanton B; Jacobs, Micah A; Huang, Rong; Burgu, Berk; Hennes, Halim; Baker, Linda A

    2017-09-01

    A rapid test for testicular torsion in children may obviate the delay for testicular ultrasound. In this study we assessed testicular tissue percent oxygen saturation (%StO2) measured by transscrotal near infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic test for pediatric testicular torsion. This was a prospective comparison to a gold standard diagnostic test study that evaluated near infrared spectroscopy %StO2 readings to diagnose testicular torsion. The gold standard for torsion diagnosis was standard clinical care. From 2013 to 2015 males with acute scrotum for more than 1 month and who were less than 18 years old were recruited. Near infrared spectroscopy %StO2 readings were obtained for affected and unaffected testes. Near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 was calculated as unaffected minus affected reading. The utility of near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 to diagnose testis torsion was described with ROC curves. Of 154 eligible patients 121 had near infrared spectroscopy readings. Median near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 in the 36 patients with torsion was 2.0 (IQR -4.2 to 9.8) vs -1.7 (IQR -8.7 to 2.0) in the 85 without torsion (p=0.004). AUC for near infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic test was 0.66 (95% CI 0.55-0.78). Near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 of 20 or greater had a positive predictive value of 100% and a sensitivity of 22.2%. Tanner stage 3-5 cases without scrotal edema or with pain for 12 hours or less had an AUC of 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-1.0) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.62-0.99), respectively. In all children near infrared spectroscopy readings had limited utility in diagnosing torsion. However, in Tanner 3-5 cases without scrotal edema or with pain 12 hours or less, near infrared spectroscopy discriminated well between torsion and nontorsion. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Simple visual review of pre- to post-operative renal ultrasound images predicts pyeloplasty success equally as well as geometric measurements: A blinded comparison with a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Adam J M; Schlomer, Bruce J; Timberlake, Matthew D; Peters, Craig A; Hammer, Matthew R; Jacobs, Micah A

    2017-04-28

    MAG3 diuretic renal scan remains the gold standard for determination of improvement in renal drainage following pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. We hypothesized that (i) a change in geometric measurements between pre-operative and post-operative renal ultrasound (RUS) images and (ii) blinded simple visual review of images both would predict pyeloplasty success. To determine if simple visual review and/or novel geometric measurement of renal ultrasounds can detect pyeloplasty failure. This study was a retrospective, blinded comparison with a gold standard. Included were children aged ≤18 years undergoing pyeloplasty at our institution from 2009 to 2015. For each kidney, representative pre-operative and post-operative RUS images were chosen. Our standard for pyeloplasty success was improved drainage curve on MAG3 and lack of additional surgery. Measurements for collecting system circularity, roundness, and renal parenchymal to collecting system area ratio (RPCSR) were obtained by three raters (Figure), who were blinded to the outcome of the pyeloplasty. Changes in geometric measurements were analyzed as a diagnostic test for MAG3-defined pyeloplasty success using ROC curve analysis. In addition, six reviewers blinded to pyeloplasty success reviewed pre-operative and post-operative images visually for improved hydronephrosis and categorized pyeloplasty as success or failure based on simple visual review of RUS. Fifty-three repaired renal units were identified (50 children). There were five pyeloplasty failures, four of which underwent revision or nephrectomy. While all geometric measurements could discriminate pyeloplasty failure and success, the geometric measurements that discriminated best between pyeloplasty failure and success were change in collecting system roundness and change in RPCSR. Consensus opinion among six blinded reviewers using simple visual review had a sensitivity of 94% and PPV of 100% with respect to identifying pyeloplasty

  15. Laboratory test descriptions for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis and their strengths and weaknesses: gold standards for diagnosis, do they exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Robert W; Confer, Anthony W

    2012-07-01

    The diagnosis of bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) poses significant challenges to the clinician as there are numerous infectious etiologies, operating singly or most often in combination. Clinical signs alone may not be diagnostic and the diagnostic laboratory is often used to assist the clinician. Recently many molecular-based tests have been taken from the research laboratory to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. This review describes the "traditional tests" and several "molecular tests" and discusses the benefits and limitations of the tests and their interpretation. Clinicians should consult with their diagnostic laboratory regarding the interpretation of the test results. The rate of development and use of molecular diagnostic tests have outpaced validation, standardization, and standards for interpretation relative to their use in BRD diagnostics.

  16. [Current neurophysiological tests and revised JSCN technical standards for clinical EEG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Yoji

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to review the development of current neurophysiology and the revised standard of society for clinical EEG. 1. The improvement of neurophysiological tests. 1) EEG and evoked potential: EEG and evoked potential testing includes the routine EEG recording, EEG monitoring in surgical operation, all night sleep polygraph for the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome and many kinds of brain evoked potentials. Especially, the P300 component in the ERP(event-related evoked potential) is useful for the testing of essential brain functions. 2) EMG and evoked EMG: These tests are applied for the diagnosis of neurogenic, myogenic and neuromuscular junction disorder, and also the single fiber EMG using micro needle electrode is useful for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity are calculated from the latency of evoked EMGs. Furthermore, the distribution of these conduction velocities in many nerve fibers is measured by the collision technique. 3) Other tests: Near-infrared spectroscopy for the testing of brain functions has made rapid progress, and the transcranial magnetic stimulation method has come to be used for evaluation of functional diseases in the pyramidal tract, cerebellum and the spinal cord. 2. The revised JSCN technical standards for clinical EEG. The revised recording conditions of ECI(electro cerebral inactivity: flat EEG) in brain death are the focus of this lecture.

  17. Clinical compliance of viewing conditions in radiology reporting environments against current guidelines and standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, S.; Rainford, L.; Butler, M. L.

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the importance of environmental conditions in the radiology reporting environment, with many indicating that incorrect parameters could lead to error and misinterpretation. Literature is available with recommendations as to the levels that should be achieved in clinical practice, but evidence of adherence to these guidelines in radiology reporting environments is absent. This study audited the reporting environments of four teleradiologist and eight hospital based radiology reporting areas. This audit aimed to quantify adherence to guidelines and identify differences in the locations with respect to layout and design, monitor distance and angle as well as the ambient factors of the reporting environments. In line with international recommendations, an audit tool was designed to enquire in relation to the layout and design of reporting environments, monitor angle and distances used by radiologists when reporting, as well as the ambient factors such as noise, light and temperature. The review of conditions were carried out by the same independent auditor for consistency. The results obtained were compared against international standards and current research. Each radiology environment was given an overall compliance score to establish whether or not their environments were in line with recommended guidelines. Poor compliance to international recommendations and standards among radiology reporting environments was identified. Teleradiology reporting environments demonstrated greater compliance than hospital environments. The findings of this study identified a need for greater awareness of environmental and perceptual issues in the clinical setting. Further work involving a larger number of clinical centres is recommended.

  18. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...... value maximization forces the manager of high type to extract the gold.The implications are three-fold. First, all managers (except the lowest type) extract the gold too soon compared to the first-best policy of leaving the gold in the mine forever. Second, a manager of high type extracts the gold...... sooner than a manager of lower type. Third, a non-operating gold mine is valued as being of the lowest type in the pool and all else equal, high-asymmetri mines are valued lower than low-asymmetri mines. In a qualitative sense these results are robust with respect to different assumptions (re cost...

  19. Significance on using gold standard method for reexaming the HBSAg weak positive samples by ELISA method%金标法对ELISA法检测HBSAg弱阳性标本复查的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾雪静

    2012-01-01

    目的 总结分析金标法对ELISA法检测HBSAg弱阳性标本复查的重要性,进一步提高ELISA法手工检测的质量.方法 以0.1≤A≤0.4作为弱阳性,从4 970例ELISA手工法检测HBSAg的结果中选出37例弱阳性标本用金标法进行复检.结果 用ELISA法检测的37例弱阳性标本,用金标法复查,其中阴性7例,再次用ELISA法复查检出阳性4例.结论 ELISA法联合金标法检测HBSAg可以提高检测结果的准确性.%OBJECTIVE To analyse the importance of using the gold standard method to reexamine HBSAg weakly positive samples detected by ELISA method, to further improve the quality of manual testing of ELISA method. METHODS 0.1 ≤A≤0.4 as weakly positive, selected 37 weak positive samples from the assay results of 4 970 cases of HBSAg weakly positive samples detected by the ELISA manual testing, and reexamined these 37 with gold standard method. RESULTS In 37 weak positive samples tested by ELISA method, 7 cases showed be negative when reexamined by gold standard method, reviewed with gold standard method, in which 4 cases were positive. CONCLUSION Combined gold standard method and ELISA method in detecting HBSAg can improve the accuracy of test results.

  20. THE SIGNIFICANCE ON USING GOLD STANDARD METHOD FOR REEXAMING THE HBSAG WEAK POSITIVE SAMPLES BY ELISA METHOD%金标法对ELISA法检测HBSAg弱阳性标本复查的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾雪静

    2011-01-01

    [目的]总结分析金标法对ELISA法检测HBSAg弱阳性标本复查的重要性,进一步提高ELISA法手工检测的质量. [方法]以0.1≤A≤0.4作为弱阳性,从4 970例ELISA手工法检测HBSAg的结果中选出37例弱阳性标本用金标法进行复检. [结果]用ELISA法检测的37例弱阳性标本,用金标法复查,其中阴性7例,再次用ELISA法复查检出阳性4例. [结论] ELISA法联合金标法检测HBSAg可以提高检测结果的准确性.%[Objective] To analyze the importance of using the gold standard method to reexamine HBSAg weakly positive samples detected by ELISA method, to further improve the quality of ELISA method's manual testing. [Methods] 0.1 :SA ≤0.4 as weakly positive, selected 37 weak positive samples from the assay results of 4 970 cases of HBSAg weakly positive samples detected by the ELISA manual testing, and reexamined these 37 with gold standard method. [Results] Used Gold standard method to reexamine these 37 weak positive samples detected by ELISA, the result was that 7 cases showed be negative with review of gold standard method. Reexamined them with ELISA again, positive was in 4 cases. [Conclusion] Combining the gold standard method and ELISA method in detecting HBSAg can improve the accuracy of test results.

  1. Comparison of the gold standard of hemoglobin measurement with the clinical standard (BGA) and noninvasive hemoglobin measurement (SpHb) in small children: a prospective diagnostic observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenmeier, Eva; Bellosevich, Sophia; Mauff, Susanne; Schmidtmann, Irene; Eli, Michael; Pestel, Gunther; Noppens, Ruediger R

    2015-10-01

    Collecting a blood sample is usually necessary to measure hemoglobin levels in children. Especially in small children, noninvasively measuring the hemoglobin level could be extraordinarily helpful, but its precision and accuracy in the clinical environment remain unclear. In this study, noninvasive hemoglobin measurement and blood gas analysis were compared to hemoglobin measurement in a clinical laboratory. In 60 healthy preoperative children (0.2-7.6 years old), hemoglobin was measured using a noninvasive method (SpHb; Radical-7 Pulse Co-Oximeter), a blood gas analyzer (clinical standard, BGAHb; ABL 800 Flex), and a laboratory hematology analyzer (reference method, labHb; Siemens Advia). Agreement between the results was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and by determining the percentage of outliers. Sixty SpHb measurements, 60 labHb measurements, and 59 BGAHb measurements were evaluated. In 38% of the children, the location of the SpHb sensor had to be changed more than twice for the signal quality to be sufficient. The bias/limits of agreement between SpHb and labHb were -0.65/-3.4 to 2.1 g·dl(-1) . Forty-four percent of the SpHb values differed from the reference value by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . Age, difficulty of measurement, and the perfusion index (PI) had no influence on the accuracy of SpHb. The bias/limits of agreement between BGAHb and labHb were 1.14/-1.6 to 3.9 g·dl(-1) . Furthermore, 66% of the BGAHb values differed from the reference values by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . The absolute mean difference between SpHb and labHb (1.1 g·dl(-1) ) was smaller than the absolute mean difference between BGAHb and labHb (1.5 g·dl(-1) /P = 0.024). Noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin agrees more with the reference method than the measurement of hemoglobin using a blood gas analyzer. However, both methods can show clinically relevant differences from the reference method (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01693016). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Array CGH on unstimulated blood does not detect all cases of Pallister-Killian syndrome: a skin biopsy should remain the diagnostic gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jennelle C; Hulshizer, Rachael L; Seger, Pam; St Antoine, Angelique; Bair, Jennifer; Kirmani, Salman

    2012-03-01

    A child whose features are consistent with Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) did not have detectable tetrasomy 12p due to an additional isochromosome 12p in an unstimulated blood specimen by interphase FISH or array CGH analysis. The diagnosis of PKS was made through these methods solely in a skin biopsy specimen. To determine the sensitivity of our array CGH platform to tetrasomy 12p mosaicism, dilutions of DNA from both the child's skin fibroblasts and a PKS cell line were analyzed. Tetrasomy 12p at 10% mosaicism was identifiable but 5% was below the limit of detection. This result suggests through extrapolation that the tetrasomy 12p is present in <10% of cells in our patient's blood, confirming the tissue-limited mosaicism of PKS. Multiple recent studies show that array CGH provides greater sensitivity than chromosome analysis to detect mosaic abnormalities including that of tetrasomy 12p in blood specimens. However, our case demonstrates that the biology of PKS precludes the exclusive use of array CGH on blood for diagnosis. A tissue sample should continue to be the diagnostic gold standard for PKS.

  3. Correctness of multi-detector-row computed tomography for diagnosing mechanical prosthetic heart valve disorders using operative findings as a gold standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, I.Chen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Lin, Yung-Kai; Chang, Yen; Wang, Chung-Chi; Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Wei, Hao-Ji; Tsai, Hung-Wen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Fu, Yun-Ching; Jan, Sheng-Ling [Institute of Clinical Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Taichung (China); Wang, Kuo-Yang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of General Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Chung-Shan Medical University, Department of Medicine, Taichung (China); Chen, Min-Chi; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiological Technology, Taichung (China)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose was to compare the findings of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in prosthetic valve disorders using the operative findings as a gold standard. In a 3-year period, we prospectively enrolled 25 patients with 31 prosthetic heart valves. MDCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were done to evaluate pannus formation, prosthetic valve dysfunction, suture loosening (paravalvular leak) and pseudoaneurysm formation. Patients indicated for surgery received an operation within 1 week. The MDCT findings were compared with the operative findings. One patient with a Bjoerk-Shiley valve could not be evaluated by MDCT due to a severe beam-hardening artifact; thus, the exclusion rate for MDCT was 3.2% (1/31). Prosthetic valve disorders were suspected in 12 patients by either MDCT or TTE. Six patients received an operation that included three redo aortic valve replacements, two redo mitral replacements and one Amplatzer ductal occluder occlusion of a mitral paravalvular leak. The concordance of MDCT for diagnosing and localizing prosthetic valve disorders and the surgical findings was 100%. Except for images impaired by severe beam-hardening artifacts, MDCT provides excellent delineation of prosthetic valve disorders. (orig.)

  4. How good are experienced cardiologists at predicting the hemodynamic severity of coronary stenoses when taking fractional flow reserve as the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueren, B R G; ten Berg, J M; Suttorp, M J; Bal, E T; Ernst, J M P G; Mast, E G; Plokker, H W M

    2002-04-01

    Coronary angioplasty should be based on documented ischemia. However, in daily clinical practice the indication for angioplasty is often based on eyeball assessment of the severity of the stenosis. This study was performed to assess the accuracy of eyeball estimation of coronary stenosis when taking functional flow reserve (FFR) as gold standard. Study lesions were where no mutual agreement on the severity of the stenosis was obtained. The procedure consisted of a repeat control angiogram, FFR measurement and in case of FFR<75% percutaneous coronary intervention. The eyeball assessment of the stenosis was written down before further execution of the procedure. FFR was measured with a pressure monitoring guide. Maximal myocardial hyperemia was induced by intravenous adenosine infusion. Fifty-two patients were studied. Agreement between eyeball assessment and FFR existed in a total of 36 cases (69.2%). Over estimation of hemodynamic severity occurred in six cases (11.5%) and under estimation in 10 cases (19.2%). Consequently, the positive predictive value of eyeball assessment for pressure-derived FFR was 63% and the negative predictive value 76%. The assessment of the hemodynamic severity of intermediate coronary stenosis should not be based on eyeball assessment even by experienced interventional cardiologists.

  5. Objective evaluation of methods to track motion from clinical cardiac-gated tagged MRI without the use of a gold standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parages, Felipe M.; Denney, Thomas S.; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac-gated MRI is widely used for the task of measuring parameters related to heart motion. More specifically, gated tagged MRI is the preferred modality to estimate local deformation (strain) and rotational motion (twist) of myocardial tissue. Many methods have been proposed to estimate cardiac motion from gated MRI sequences. However, when dealing with clinical data, evaluation of these methods is problematic due to the absence of gold-standards for cardiac motion. To overcome that, a linear regression scheme known as regression-without-truth (RWT) was proposed in the past. RWT uses priors to model the distribution of true values, thus enabling us to assess image-analysis algorithms without knowledge of the ground-truth. Furthermore, it allows one to rank methods by means of an objective figure-of-merit γ (i.e. precision). In this work we apply RWT to compare the performance of several gated MRI motion-tracking methods (e.g. non-rigid registration, feature based, harmonic phase) at the task of estimating myocardial strain and left-ventricle (LV) twist, from a population of 18 clinical human cardiac-gated tagged MRI studies.

  6. Acute appendicitis: should the laparoscopic approach be proposed as the gold standard? Six-year experience in an Emergency Surgery Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUERCIO, G.; AUGELLO, G.; LICARI, L.; DAFNOMILI, A.; RASPANTI, C.; BAGARELLA, N.; FALCO, N.; ROTOLO, G.; FONTANA, T.; PORRELLO, C.; GULOTTA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is common in an Emergency Surgery Unit. Although the laparoscopic approach is a method accepted for its treatment, no strong data are available for determining how many procedures must an experienced surgeon carry out for obtaining all the advantages of this technique and if this approach can become the gold standard in the activity of a general emergency unit with senior surgeons variously skilled on the basic laparoscopy. 142 patients that underwent appendectomy (90 laparoscopic, 52 conventional) for acute appendicitis were enrolled in this institutional retrospective cohort study. The surgeons were classified with a descriptor-based grading and divided in two groups regarding the skill. The only relevant result of our study was the significant reduction of conversion rate in case of laparoscopic approach. No strong differences were found concerning the duration of the procedure and the hospital stay between the two groups. The rate of complications were very low in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced surgeons can easily perform a laparoscopic approach independently from the specific skill in this approach. PMID:27938536

  7. Comparison of MR-arthrography and CT-arthrography in hyaline cartilage-thickness measurement in radiographically normal cadaver hips with anatomy as gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler, A; Bousson, V; Bergot, C; Polivka, M; Leveque, E; Vicaut, E; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2009-01-01

    To compare magnetic resonance (MR)-arthrography and multidetector-spiral-computed-tomography (MDSCT)-arthrography in cartilage-thickness measurement, in hips without cartilage loss, with coronal anatomic slices as gold standard. Institutional review board permission to study cadavers of individuals who willed their bodies to science was obtained. Two independent observers measured femoral and acetabular cartilage thicknesses of 12 radiographically normal hips (six women, five men; age range, 52-98 years; mean age, 76.5 years), on MDSCT-arthrographic and MR-arthrographic reformations, and on coronal anatomic slices, excluding regions of cartilage loss. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibilities were determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test differences between MR-arthrographic and MDSCT-arthrographic measurement errors compared to anatomy. By MR-arthrography, cartilage was not measurable at approximately 50% of points on sagittal and transverse sections, compared to 0-6% of the points by MDSCT-arthrography. In the coronal plane, the difference between MDSCT-arthrographic and MR-arthrographic measurement errors was not significant (P=0.93). In the coronal plane, MR-arthrography and MDSCT-arthrography were similarly accurate for measuring hip cartilage thickness.

  8. Bomb calorimetry, the gold standard for assessment of intestinal absorption capacity: normative values in healthy ambulant adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierdsma, N J; Peters, J H C; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M A E; Mulder, C J J; Metgod, I; van Bodegraven, A A

    2014-04-01

    Intestinal absorption capacity is considered to be the best method for assessing overall digestive intestinal function. Earlier reference values for intestinal function in healthy Dutch adults were based on a study that was conducted in an inpatient metabolic unit setting in a relatively small series. The present study aimed to readdress and describe the intestinal absorption capacity of healthy adults, who were consuming their usual (Western European) food and beverage diet, in a standard ambulatory setting. Twenty-three healthy subjects (aged 22-60 years) were included in the analyses. Nutritional intake (energy and macronutrients) was determined with a 4-day nutritional diary. Subsequently, mean faecal losses of energy (by bomb calorimetry), fat, protein and carbohydrate were determined following a 3-day faecal collection. Finally, intestinal absorption capacity was calculated from the differences between intake and losses. Mean (SD) daily faeces production was 141 (49) g (29% dry weight), containing 891 (276) kJ [10.7 (1.3) kJ g(-1) wet faeces; 22.6 (2.5) kJ g(-1) dry faeces], 5.2 (2.2) g fat, 10.0 (3.8) g protein and 29.7 (11.7) g carbohydrates. Mean (SD) intestinal absorption capacity of healthy subjects was 89.4% (3.8%) for energy, 92.5% (3.7%) for fat, 86.9% (6.4%) for protein and 87.3% (6.6%) for carbohydrates. The present study provides normative values for both stool nutrient composition and intestinal energy and macronutrient absorption in healthy adults on a regular Dutch diet in an ambulatory setting. Intestinal energy absorption was found to be approximately 90%. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. The dark matter crisis: falsification of the current standard model of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kroupa, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The current standard model of cosmology (SMoC) requires The Dual Dwarf Galaxy Theorem to be true. According to this theorem two types of dwarf galaxies must exist: primordial dark-matter (DM) dominated (type A) dwarf galaxies, and tidal-dwarf and ram-pressure-dwarf (type B) galaxies void of DM. In the model, type A dwarfs are distributed approximately spherically following the shape of the host galaxy DM halo, while type B dwarfs are typically correlated in phase-space. Type B dwarfs must exist in any cosmological theory in which galaxies interact. Only one type of dwarf galaxy is observed to exist on the baryonic Tully-Fisher plot and in the radius-mass plane. The Milky Way satellite system forms a vast phase-space-correlated structure that includes globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams. Similar arguments apply to Andromeda. Other galaxies also have phase-space correlated satellite systems. Therefore, The Dual Galaxy Theorem is falsified by observation and dynamically relevant cold or warm DM on ...

  10. Taper Preparation Variability Compared to Current Taper Standards Using Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gergi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to compare the taper variation in root canal preparations among Twisted Files and PathFiles-ProTaper .08 tapered rotary files to current standards. Methods. 60 root canals with severe angle of curvature (between 25∘ and 35∘ and short radius (<10 mm were selected. The canals were divided randomly into two groups of 30 each. After preparation with Twisted Files and PathFiles-ProTaper to size 25 taper .08, the diameter was measured using computed tomography (CT at 1, 3, and 16 mm. Canal taper preparation was calculated at the apical third and at the middle-cervical third. Results. Of the 2 file systems, both fell within the ±.05 taper variability. All preparations demonstrated variability when compared to the nominal taper .08. In the apical third, mean taper was significantly different between TF and PathFiles-ProTaper ( value < 0.0001; independent -test. Mean Taper was significantly higher with PathFile-ProTaper. In the middle-cervical third, mean Taper was significantly higher with TF ( value = 0.015; independent -test. Conclusion. Taper preparations of the investigated size 25 taper .08 were favorable but different from the nominal taper.

  11. The use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbit species when there is no gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turechek, William W; Webster, Craig G; Duan, Jingyi; Roberts, Pamela D; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Adkins, Scott

    2013-12-01

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. At present, there is not a gold standard diagnostic test for determining the true status of SqVYV infection in plants. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (TB), and expression of visual symptoms. A quantitative assessment of the performance of these diagnostic tests is lacking, which may lead to an incorrect interpretation of results. In this study, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR, TB, and visual assessment of symptoms as diagnostic tests for SqVYV. The LCA model assumes that the observed diagnostic test responses are linked to an underlying latent (nonobserved) disease status of the population, and can be used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of the individual tests, as well as to derive an estimate of the incidence of disease when a gold standard test does not exist. LCA can also be expanded to evaluate the effect of factors and was done here to determine whether diagnostic test performances varied among the type of plant tissue being tested (crown versus vine tissue), where plant samples were taken relative to the position of the crown (i.e., distance from the crown), host (i.e., genus), and habitat (field-grown versus greenhouse-grown plants). Results showed that RT-PCR had the highest sensitivity (0.94) and specificity (0.98) of the three tests. TB had better sensitivity than symptoms for detection of SqVYV infection (0.70 versus 0.32), while the visual assessment of symptoms was more specific than TB and, thus, a better indicator of noninfection (0.98 versus 0.65). With respect to the grouping variables, RT-PCR and TB had

  12. 室间隔切除术:治疗梗阻性肥厚型心肌病的金标准%Septal myectomy for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:the gold standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph A Dearani; Hartzell V Schaff; Steve R Ommen

    2009-01-01

    Septal myectomy effectively and definitively relieves LVOT obstruction and cardiac symptoms in adults and children with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM).Abnormalities of the mitral valve can be addressed without the need for mitral valve replacement in almost all circumstances.Concomitant mitral valve repair for myxomatous disease requires minor modifications when performed in conjunction with septal myectomy;mitral valve replacement is rarely necessary.In experienced centers,early mortality for isolated septai myectomy is low(~1%)and overall results are excellent and continue to improve in the current era.Symptomatic improvement with myectomy is expected for most;90% of patients improve by at least one functional class,and most remain improved on late follow-up.Late survivorship is improved compared to nonopereted patients with obstructive HCM,and myectomy may be associated with reduced risk of sudden cardiac death.These results should serve as the gold standard and a basis for comparison with newer nonsurgical medalities,i.e.,septal alcohol ablation.

  13. XBRL Standard for Financial Reporting in Croatia: Current State and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gostimir Dejan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harmonization and standardization is becoming important among regulators and business community. XBRL has entered the global stage as a financial reporting standard. Its mission was to standardize the financial reporting, lower the reporting costs and make the reporting as transparent as possible.

  14. Nanomolar Trace Metal Analysis of Copper at Gold Microband Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, A; Dawson, K; Sassiat, N; Quinn, A J; O' Riordan, A, E-mail: alan.oriordan@tyndall.ie [Nanotechnology Group, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    This paper describes the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of gold microband electrode arrays designated as a highly sensitive sensor for trace metal detection of copper in drinking water samples. Gold microband electrodes have been routinely fabricated by standard photolithographic methods. Electrochemical characterization were conducted in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and found to display characteristic gold oxide formation and reduction peaks. The advantages of gold microband electrodes as trace metal sensors over currently used methods have been investigated by employing under potential deposition anodic stripping voltammetry (UPD-ASV) in Cu{sup 2+} nanomolar concentrations. Linear correlations were observed for increasing Cu{sup 2+} concentrations from which the concentration of an unknown sample of drinking water was estimated. The results obtained for the estimation of the unknown trace copper concentration in drinking was in good agreement with expected values.

  15. NODC Standard Format Current Meter (Components) (F015) Data (1962-1992) (NCEI Accession 0066358)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series measurements of ocean currents. These data are obtained from current meter moorings and represent the Eulerian method of current...

  16. Current standards of neuropsychological assessment in epilepsy surgery centers across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Viola Lara; Äikiä, Marja; Del Barrio, Antonio; Boon, Paul; Borbély, Csaba; Bran, Ema; Braun, Kees; Carette, Evelien; Clark, Maria; Cross, Judith Helen; Dimova, Petia; Fabo, Daniel; Foroglou, Nikolaos; Francione, Stefano; Gersamia, Anna; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Guekht, Alla; Harrison, Sue; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Heminghyt, Einar; Hirsch, Edouard; Javurkova, Alena; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Kavan, Nicole; Kelemen, Anna; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Kirschner, Margarita; Kleitz, Catherine; Kobulashvili, Teia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Kurtish, Selin Yagci; Lesourd, Mathieu; Ljunggren, Sofia; Lossius, Morten Ingvar; Malmgren, Kristina; Mameniskiené, Ruta; Martin-Sanfilippo, Patricia; Marusic, Petr; Miatton, Marijke; Özkara, Çiğdem; Pelle, Federica; Rubboli, Guido; Rudebeck, Sarah; Ryvlin, Philippe; van Schooneveld, Monique; Schmid, Elisabeth; Schmidt, Pia-Magdalena; Seeck, Margitta; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Shavel-Jessop, Sara; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Trinka, Eugen; Viggedal, Gerd; Wendling, Anne-Sophie; Witt, Juri-Alexander; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    We explored the current practice with respect to the neuropsychological assessment of surgical epilepsy patients in European epilepsy centers, with the aim of harmonizing and establishing common standards. Twenty-six epilepsy centers and members of "E-PILEPSY" (a European pilot network of reference centers in refractory epilepsy and epilepsy surgery), were asked to report the status of neuropsychological assessment in adults and children via two different surveys. There was a consensus among these centers regarding the role of neuropsychology in the presurgical workup. Strong agreement was found on indications (localization, epileptic dysfunctions, adverse drugs effects, and postoperative monitoring) and the domains to be evaluated (memory, attention, executive functions, language, visuospatial skills, intelligence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life). Although 186 different tests are in use throughout these European centers, a core group of tests reflecting a moderate level of agreement could be discerned. Variability exists with regard to indications, protocols, and paradigms for the assessment of hemispheric language dominance. For the tests in use, little published evidence of clinical validity in epilepsy was provided. Participants in the survey reported a need for improvement concerning the validity of the tests, tools for the assessment of everyday functioning and accelerated forgetting, national norms, and test co-normalization. Based on the present survey, we documented a consensus regarding the indications and principles of neuropsychological testing. Despite the variety of tests in use, the survey indicated that there may be a core set of tests chosen based on experience, as well as on published evidence. By combining these findings with the results of an ongoing systematic literature review, we aim for a battery that can be recommended for the use across epilepsy surgical centers in Europe. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League

  17. Occupational health impacts of climate change: current and future ISO standards for the assessment of heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The current system of International Standards (ISO) is assessed to consider whether standards are fit for purpose for the future in the context of climate change. ISO 7243, ISO 7933 and ISO 9886 provide the current ISO system for the assessment of heat stress. These involve a simple monitoring index, an analytical approach and physiological monitoring, respectively. The system relies on accurate measurement of the thermal conditions experienced by the worker (ISO 7726); and estimations of metabolic heat production due to work (ISO 8996) and the thermal properties of clothing (ISO 9920). As well as standards for heat stress assessment, the full range of ISO standards and the physical environment is listed as well as current work and proposed standards. A particular 'gap' in anticipating requirements for ISO standards in the future is the link between meteorological data and ISO standards. This is important for predicting the global consequences of a changing climate and anticipating potential impacts on occupational health across countries and cultures.

  18. Predicting the efficacy of trastuzumab-based therapy in breast cancer: current standards and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Christian F; Köstler, Wolfgang J; Hudelist, Gernot

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy in many industrialized countries. Approximately one fourth of all women diagnosed with early breast cancer present with tumors that are characterized by erbB2 amplification. While the associated Her-2/neu receptor overexpression results in a high risk of relapse and poor prognosis, these tumors also represent a target for a selective monoclonal antibody therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). The combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapy has led to a considerable reduction of recurrences and to a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality both in the adjuvant and metastatic setting. Unfortunately, despite Her-2/neu overexpression, not all patients equally benefit from trastuzumab treatment, and almost all women with metastatic breast cancer eventually progress during antibody therapy. Moreover, trastuzumab is burdened with cardiotoxicity, thus increasing the risk of symptomatic congestive heart failure. In addition, the marginal costs for a 1 year therapy of trastuzumab-based therapy, which is currently considered to be the most effective treatment regimen in the adjuvant setting, may amount for up to US$ 40.000. Testing for erbB2 oncogene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), respectively, and staining for Her-2/neu receptor overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) represent the current standard for determining patient eligibility for trastuzumab-based therapy. However, while the negative predictive value of these assays for predicting the absence of benefit from trastuzumab-based therapy is sufficiently high, their positive predictive value remains insufficient, i.e. only a proportion of patients selected by these tests substantially benefit from trastuzumab-containing regimen. Accordingly, over the last years a number of biomarkers have been evaluated in their potential to predict response to trastuzumab-based therapies. These include

  19. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov

    2014-01-01

    There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  20. The National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS): Current State Implementation. inForum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Eve; Burdette, Paula

    2007-01-01

    As part of the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), states are required to comply with the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS) beginning July 19, 2006. NIMAS is defined as "the standard established by the Secretary to be used in the preparation of electronic files suitable…

  1. NODC Standard Product: Ocean current drifter data (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These CD-ROMs hold over 4 million surface current observations, almost all obtained by the ship drift method. Date, data source, position, and current direction and...

  2. Effect of letter separation on computerised visual acuity measurements: comparison with the gold standard Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nilpa; Laidlaw, D Alistair H; Brown, Graham; Robson, Chloe

    2010-03-01

    Contour interaction plays an important role in letter recognition and has long been known to influence clinical visual acuity measurements. LogMAR charts originally employed between-letter and line spacing of one letter width/height; however, in more recent designs, half letter width spacing has become accepted without validation. COMPlog is a computerised visual acuity measurement device being developed and validated for routine and research clinical use and is available commercially. This study was performed to investigate the effect of letter separation on computerised visual acuity measurements. An iterative series of experiments was performed in which test and retest fully interpolated five letters-per-line logMAR visual acuity measurements were taken in three groups of a total 100 adult subjects. Each group had visual acuity measured using ETDRS charts 1 and 2 and on COMPlog using various combinations of letter and line spacing. The first group consisted of 31 subjects tested using 3.75 and 2.50 stroke width spacing, the second 45 subjects using 2.50 and 1.25 stroke width spacing and the last group, 24 subjects tested using 1.90 stroke width spacing. The methods of Bland and Altman were used to analyse the data. No significant bias was noted between the gold standard ETDRS measurements and those taken using COMPlog with 3.75 stroke width spacing. Significant bias of half a logMAR line was found with crowding of 1.90 and 1.25 stroke widths. A small systematic bias with a reduction of 1 ETDRS letter was found with spacing of 2.50 stroke widths which has not been demonstrated in previous validation studies. Crowding of 2.50 stroke widths is the smallest spacing which can be used in the design of COMPlog.

  3. Comparison of the performance of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques for the diagnosis of human intestinal parasites in the absence of a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Abellana, Rosa; Pereira-da-Silva, Hélio Doyle; Santos, Ivanildes; Serra, Paula Taquita; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli; Ascaso, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Performance evaluation of diagnostic tests is critical in the search for accurate diagnoses. A gold standard test is usually absent in parasitology, thus rendering satisfactory assessment of diagnostic accuracy difficult. Moreover, reliability (assessed by the study of repeatability) is a rarely studied characteristic of diagnostic tests. This study compared and evaluated the performance (repeatability, concordance and accuracy) of the spontaneous sedimentation technique (SST) and the Paratest for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica complex, Blastocystis spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Calodium hepaticum. Fecal samples of 143 individuals were separated into three replicates for each test. Concordance and homogeneity of the results between replicates of each test and between tests were evaluated. Proportions of positives, sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a Bayesian Latent Class Model. High repeatability of both tests was found for the detection of intestinal parasites, except for Blastocystis spp. and hookworm. Concordance between tests was generally high (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.72-0.88), except for Blastocystis spp., hookworm and T. trichiura. The Paratest detected more cases of Blastocystis spp. and fewer of hookworm than the SST. The tests were quite discordant in the detection of T. trichiura. A low sensitivity (39.4-49.2% for SST, 35.8-53.8% for Paratest) and a high specificity (93.2-97.2%) were found for both tests. The Paratest presented a slightly higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. (53.8%), and SST did so for hookworm (49.2%). This is the first study on repeatability and accuracy (using a Bayesian approach) of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques. These results suggest underdiagnosis of little dense parasitic forms due to technical limitations in both tests. We conclude that the combined study of repeatability, concordance and accuracy is a key

  4. Combining Shigella Tn-seq data with gold-standard E. coli gene deletion data suggests rare transitions between essential and non-essential gene functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Nikki E; Bumann, Dirk; Silander, Olin K

    2016-09-06

    Gene essentiality - whether or not a gene is necessary for cell growth - is a fundamental component of gene function. It is not well established how quickly gene essentiality can change, as few studies have compared empirical measures of essentiality between closely related organisms. Here we present the results of a Tn-seq experiment designed to detect essential protein coding genes in the bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri 2a 2457T on a genome-wide scale. Superficial analysis of this data suggested that 481 protein-coding genes in this Shigella strain are critical for robust cellular growth on rich media. Comparison of this set of genes with a gold-standard data set of essential genes in the closely related Escherichia coli K12 BW25113 revealed that an excessive number of genes appeared essential in Shigella but non-essential in E. coli. Importantly, and in converse to this comparison, we found no genes that were essential in E. coli and non-essential in Shigella, implying that many genes were artefactually inferred as essential in Shigella. Controlling for such artefacts resulted in a much smaller set of discrepant genes. Among these, we identified three sets of functionally related genes, two of which have previously been implicated as critical for Shigella growth, but which are dispensable for E. coli growth. The data presented here highlight the small number of protein coding genes for which we have strong evidence that their essentiality status differs between the closely related bacterial taxa E. coli and Shigella. A set of genes involved in acetate utilization provides a canonical example. These results leave open the possibility of developing strain-specific antibiotic treatments targeting such differentially essential genes, but suggest that such opportunities may be rare in closely related bacteria.

  5. Deep Brain Stimulation in Anorexia Nervosa: Hope for the Hopeless or Exploitation of the Vulnerable? The Oxford Neuroethics Gold Standard Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rebecca J; Singh, Ilina; Pike, Alexandra C; Tan, Jacinta O A

    2017-01-01

    Neurosurgical interventions for psychiatric disorders have a long and troubled history (1, 2) but have become much more refined in the last few decades due to the rapid development of neuroimaging and robotic technologies (2). These advances have enabled the design of less invasive techniques, which are more focused, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) (3). DBS involves electrode insertion into specific neural targets implicated in pathological behavior, which are then repeatedly stimulated at adjustable frequencies. DBS has been used for Parkinson's disease and movement disorders since the 1960s (4-6) and over the last decade has been applied to treatment-refractory psychiatric disorders, with some evidence of benefit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder, and addictions (7). Recent consensus guidelines on best practice in psychiatric neurosurgery (8) stress, however, that DBS for psychiatric disorders remains at an experimental and exploratory stage. The ethics of DBS-in particular for psychiatric conditions-is debated (1, 8-10). Much of this discourse surrounds the philosophical implications of competence, authenticity, personality, or identity change following neurosurgical interventions, but there is a paucity of applied guidance on neuroethical best practice in psychiatric DBS, and health-care professionals have expressed that they require more (11). This paper aims to redress this balance by providing a practical, applied neuroethical gold standard framework to guide research ethics committees, researchers, and institutional sponsors. We will describe this as applied to our protocol for a particular research trial of DBS in severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SE-AN) (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01924598, unique identifier NCT01924598), but believe it may have wider application to DBS in other psychiatric disorders.

  6. Molecular testing for viral and bacterial enteric pathogens: gold standard for viruses, but don't let culture go just yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Maxim G; Balm, Michelle N D; Blackmore, Timothy K

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary diagnostic microbiology is increasingly adopting molecular methods as front line tests for a variety of samples. This trend holds true for detection of enteric pathogens (EP), where nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for viruses are well established as the gold standard, and an increasing number of commercial multi-target assays are now available for bacteria and parasites. NAAT have significant sensitivity and turnaround time advantages over traditional methods, potentially returning same-day results. Multiplex panels offer an attractive 'one-stop shop' that may provide workflow and cost advantages to laboratories processing large sample volumes. However, there are a number of issues which need consideration. Reflex culture is required for antibiotic susceptibility testing and strain typing when needed for food safety and other epidemiological investigations. Surveillance systems will need to allow for differences in disease incidence due to the enhanced sensitivity of NAAT. Laboratories should be mindful of local epidemiology when selecting which pathogens to include in multiplex panels, and be thoughtful regarding which pathogens will not be detected. Multiplex panels may not be appropriate in certain situations, such as hospital-onset diarrhoea, where Clostridium difficile testing might be all that is required, and laboratories may wish to retain the flexibility to run single tests in such situations. The clinical impact of rapid results is also likely to be relatively minor, as infective diarrhoea is a self-limiting illness in the majority of cases. Laboratories will require strategies to assist users in the interpretation of the results produced by NAAT, particularly where pathogens are detected at low levels with uncertain clinical significance. These caveats aside, faecal NAAT are increasingly being used and introduce a new era of diagnosis of gastrointestinal infection.

  7. Current Climate Data Set Documentation Standards: Somewhere between Anagrams and Full Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    techniques are being developed that will simplify the creation of much of the provenance information but there are both cultural and infrastructure problems that discourage provision of complete documentation. It is time to reconsider what the standards for production and documentation of data sets should be. There is only a short window before the loss of knowledge about current data sets associated with human mortality becomes irreversible. .

  8. CURRENT SITUATION INHARMONIZATION OF TURKISH ACCOUNTING STANDARDS TO THE INTERNATIONAL ACOUNTINGSTANDARDS IN EUROPEAN UNION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KORKMAZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the ending of the coldwar period, all world countries opened their countries to the foreign investorswith the purpose of having more share from the welfare all over the world, andthey even began to apply incentives encouraging investors to invest in their countries.Within this process which is called globalization, the most important factorfor investors to invest in these countries is that financial statements shouldbe prepared in accordance with the criteria accepted all over the world. With thispurpose, world accounting association gives utmost importance to thepreparation of accounting standards as related to the preparation of financialstatements. In recent years, significant developments have been experienced inthis field in Turkey due to both European Union process and pressures of globalizingTurkish investors. Firstly, International Accounting Standards were harmonizedwith the Turkish Accounting System and then they started to be applied asTurkish Accounting Standards. As depending on the last seen world economiccrisis, studies of harmonization of the changes in these standards with TurkishAccounting System continue. In this study, to which degree these rules appliedas a standard all over the world are tried to be applied in Turkey has beenanalyzed.

  9. 75 FR 22150 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies Correction In notice...

  10. Historical Development of NATO Stanag 6001 Language Standards and Common European Framework (CEF) and the Comparison of Their Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to shed light on the historical development of language studies in military and social context and to compare the current status of NATO Stanag (Standard Agreement) 6001 language scale with Common European Framework (CEF). Language studies in military context date back to World War II and the emergence of Army Specialized…

  11. 我国乳品标准体系现状%Current Status of China s Dairy Product Standards System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸汐媛; 李江华

    2011-01-01

    近年来乳品安全事件频繁发生,本文通过介绍我国乳品标准体系的发展和乳品标准体系的特点,对我国现行的在奶畜养殖环节、生产加工环节和流通环节的乳品国家标准、行业标准进行相关阐述,分析我国乳品标准体系的现状。%Dairy safety incidents occur frequently in recent years.This article introduces the development and features of China s dairy product standards system,and summarizes and analyzes the current national and industrial standards for dairy products concerning cow breeding,production,processing,and circulation.Meanwhile,a review of the current status of China s dairy product standards system is provided.

  12. THE CURRENT STATE OF APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN UKRAINE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzed the process of reforming the system of accounting and reporting in Ukraine in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. The main results of the tasks of the Strategy of application IFRS in Ukraine approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 2007 are identified. The results of analysis showed that only 1% of the total number of enterprises form the financial statements in accordance with IFRS, the others apply national standards of accounting. The proportion of small enterprises is 95% that do not have the financial capacity, qualified staff and the necessary motivation for the formation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS. As a result, one of the main objectives of the reform of the accounting and reporting is to improve the legislation on accounting for small enterprises and develop national accounting standards of the simplified procedure for accounting of assets, liabilities, equity and financial results of the calculation for small enterprises.

  13. State standards for domestic violence perpetrator treatment: current status, trends, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiuro, Roland D; Eberle, Jane A

    2008-01-01

    We empirically surveyed and analyzed existing standards for the treatment of perpetrators of domestic violence across the United States. Specific areas examined included: presence and scope; administrative entity for certifying; screening and risk assessment protocols; minimum length of treatment; theoretical or conceptual orientation; treatment content; preferred or allowable modalities of treatment; whether research findings are mentioned; methods for revising standards; and minimum education and training required for providers. We examined trends using several methods including comparisons between present and previous survey data (Maiuro et al., 2001). Positive trends were evident including increased use of multivariate models of treatment content, use of an intake assessment prior to treatment, use of a danger/lethality assessment to manage risk, recognition of the need for program evaluation and supportive research, and the requirement of a minimum level of formal education as a prerequisite for providers. We identify specific areas for further research and development and make recommendations for improving existing practice and standards of care.

  14. Selective method for the determination of gold by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolczuk, M

    1996-12-01

    A highly selective method for the deter- mination of gold by anodic stripping voltammetry is described. For preconcentration a glassy carbon electrode, activated by deposition of small amounts of gold before the measurement, is proposed. The Au(3+) reduction process at such an electrode is effective starting with the potential +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode. A linear dependence of the current of the gold stripping peak on the gold concentration was obtained in the range from 5x10(-8) to 1x10(-6) mol/l. The relative standard deviation for 2x10(-7) mol/l HAuCl(4) was 4.2% (n=5). The detection limit was 4x10(-9) mol/l. The accuracy of the method was verified by the determination of gold in reference materials.

  15. The influence of stabilizers on the production of gold nanoparticles by direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge generated in contact with liquid flowing cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzimitrowicz, Anna; Jamroz, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.jamroz@pwr.edu.pl; Greda, Krzysztof; Nowak, Piotr; Nyk, Marcin; Pohl, Pawel [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were prepared by direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-μAPGD) generated between a miniature argon flow microjet and a flowing liquid cathode. The applied discharge system was operated in a continuous flow liquid mode. The influence of various stabilizers added to the solution of the liquid cathode, i.e., gelatin (GEL), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), as well as the concentration of the Au precursor (chloroauric acid, HAuCl{sub 4}) in the solution on the production growth of Au NPs was investigated. Changes in the intensity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band in UV/Vis absorption spectra of solutions treated by dc-μAPGD and their color were observed. The position and the intensity of the LSPR band indicated that relatively small nanoparticles were formed in solutions containing GEL as a capping agent. In these conditions, the maximum of the absorption LSPR band was at 531, 534, and 535 nm, respectively, for 50, 100, and 200 mg L{sup −1} of Au. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to analyze the structure and the morphology of obtained Au NPs. The shape of Au NPs was spherical and uniform. Their mean size was ca. 27, 73, and 92 nm, while the polydispersity index was 0.296, 0.348, and 0.456 for Au present in the solution of the flowing liquid cathode at a concentration of 50, 100, and 200 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The production rate of synthesized Au NPs depended on the precursor concentration with mean values of 2.9, 3.5, and 5.7 mg h{sup −1}, respectively.

  16. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary Standards Documents from Current Review - Federal Register Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops and publishes a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding the review of the SO2 national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). A public comment period follows. Taking into account comments received on the proposed rule, EPA issues a final rule.

  17. A Historical Perspective and Current Views on the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Wayne J.; Lane, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" have evolved in the breadth and depth of coverage of issues in educational testing and measurement since their first publication in 1954. There were a number of substantive changes in the 1999 revision that addressed validity, fairness, accommodations, and compliance with the…

  18. School Nursing Documentation: Knowledge, Attitude, and Barriers to Using Standardized Nursing Languages and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearous, Sharon Kay Guthrie

    2011-01-01

    The independent, complex role of a school nurse requires accurate documentation of assessments, interventions, and outcomes. Consistent documentation by all school nurses is crucial to study the impact of nursing interventions on children's health and success in school. While standardized nursing languages are available, the actual use of…

  19. Diagnostic performance of ELISA, IFAT and Western blot for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in cats using a Bayesian analysis without a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Maria Flaminia; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Vullo, Angela; Masucci, Marisa; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal; Vitale, Fabrizio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia

    2017-03-13

    Anti-Leishmania antibodies are increasingly investigated in cats for epidemiological studies or for the diagnosis of clinical feline leishmaniosis. The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB) are the serological tests more frequently used. The aim of the present study was to assess diagnostic performance of IFAT, ELISA and WB to detect anti-L. infantum antibodies in feline serum samples obtained from endemic (n = 76) and non-endemic (n = 64) areas and from cats affected by feline leishmaniosis (n = 21) by a Bayesian approach without a gold standard. Cut-offs were set at 80 titre for IFAT and 40 ELISA units for ELISA. WB was considered positive in presence of at least a 18 KDa band. Statistical analysis was performed through a written routine with MATLAB software in the Bayesian framework. The latent data and observations from the joint posterior were simulated in the Bayesian approach by an iterative Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique using the Gibbs sampler for estimating sensitivity and specificity of the three tests. The median seroprevalence in the sample used for evaluating the performance of tests was estimated at 0.27 [credible interval (CI) = 0.20-0.34]. The median sensitivity of the three different methods was 0.97 (CI: 0.86-1.00), 0.75 (CI: 0.61-0.87) and 0.70 (CI: 0.56-0.83) for WB, IFAT and ELISA, respectively. Median specificity reached 0.99 (CI: 0.96-1.00) with WB, 0.97 (CI: 0.93-0.99) with IFAT and 0.98 (CI: 0.94-1.00) with ELISA. IFAT was more sensitive than ELISA (75 vs 70%) for the detection of subclinical infection while ELISA was better for diagnosing clinical leishmaniosis when compared with IFAT (98 vs 97%). The overall performance of all serological techniques was good and the most accurate test for anti-Leishmania antibody detection in feline serum samples was WB.

  20. Performance of InterVA for assigning causes of death to verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaxman Abraham D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background InterVA is a widely disseminated tool for cause of death attribution using information from verbal autopsies. Several studies have attempted to validate the concordance and accuracy of the tool, but the main limitation of these studies is that they compare cause of death as ascertained through hospital record review or hospital discharge diagnosis with the results of InterVA. This study provides a unique opportunity to assess the performance of InterVA compared to physician-certified verbal autopsies (PCVA and alternative automated methods for analysis. Methods Using clinical diagnostic gold standards to select 12,542 verbal autopsy cases, we assessed the performance of InterVA on both an individual and population level and compared the results to PCVA, conducting analyses separately for adults, children, and neonates. Following the recommendation of Murray et al., we randomly varied the cause composition over 500 test datasets to understand the performance of the tool in different settings. We also contrasted InterVA with an alternative Bayesian method, Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP, to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the tool. Results Across all age groups, InterVA performs worse than PCVA, both on an individual and population level. On an individual level, InterVA achieved a chance-corrected concordance of 24.2% for adults, 24.9% for children, and 6.3% for neonates (excluding free text, considering one cause selection. On a population level, InterVA achieved a cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.546 for adults, 0.504 for children, and 0.404 for neonates. The comparison to SSP revealed four specific characteristics that lead to superior performance of SSP. Increases in chance-corrected concordance are attained by developing cause-by-cause models (2%, using all items as opposed to only the ones that mapped to InterVA items (7%, assigning probabilities to clusters of symptoms (6%, and using empirical

  1. No gold standard estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of two molecular diagnostic protocols for Trypanosoma brucei spp. in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend Mark de Clare Bronsvoort

    Full Text Available African animal trypanosomiasis is caused by a range of tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites includingTrypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypansoma brucei. In Western Kenya and other parts of East Africa two subspecies of T. brucei, T.b. brucei and the zoonoticT.b. rhodesiense, co-circulate in livestock. A range of polymerase chain reactions (PCR have been developed as important molecular diagnostic tools for epidemiological investigations of T. brucei s.l. in the animal reservoir and of its zoonotic potential. Quantification of the relative performance of different diagnostic PCRs is essential to ensure comparability of studies. This paper describes an evaluation of two diagnostic test systems for T. brucei using a T. brucei s.l. specific PCR [1] and a single nested PCR targeting the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of trypanosome ribosomal DNA [2]. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model was employed to estimate their test performance in the absence of a gold standard test for detecting T.brucei s.l. infections in ear-vein blood samples from cattle, pig, sheep and goat populations in Western Kenya, stored on Whatman FTA cards. The results indicate that the system employing the T. brucei s.l. specific PCR (Se1=0.760 had a higher sensitivity than the ITS-PCR (Se2=0.640; both have high specificity (Sp1=0.998; Sp2=0.997. The true prevalences for livestock populations were estimated (pcattle=0.091, ppigs=0.066, pgoats=0.005, psheep=0.006, taking into account the uncertainties in the specificity and sensitivity of the two test systems. Implications of test performance include the required survey sample size; due to its higher sensitivity and specificity, the T. brucei s.l. specific PCR requires a consistently smaller sample size than the ITS-PCR for the detection of T. brucei s.l. However the ITS-PCR is able to simultaneously screen samples for other pathogenic trypanosomes and may thus be, overall, a better

  2. Comparison of validity of DIAGNOdent with conventional methods for detection of occlusal caries in primary molars using the histological gold standard: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to compare the in vivo effectiveness of DIAGNOdent with other conventional methods (visual, tactile and bitewing radiographs for the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars. Another objective of the study was to calculate new cut-off limits for the detection of caries by DIAGNOdent in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four primary molars in 52 children (aged 8-12 years, which were indicated for extraction, were selected and evaluated for dental caries using DIAGNOdent, visual and tactile examination and bitewing radiographs. Histological examination of the sections, prepared subsequent to extraction of the teeth, served as the gold standard for comparison of the above-mentioned methods. Results: When considering enamel caries, values obtained for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 48.15, 100 and 49.40% for visual examination, 48.15, 100.00 and 49.40% for tactile examination, 49.38, 50.00 and 49.40% for bitewing radiographs, 85.19, 50.00 and 84.34% for DIAGNOdent scores interpreted according to manufacturer′s cut-off limits and 81.48, 100.00 and 81.93% for DIAGNOdent scores interpreted according to newly formulated cut-off limits, respectively. At dentin caries cut-off levels, the values of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for visual examination were 52.78, 89.36 and 73.49%; 50.00, 91.49 and 73.49% for tactile examination; 30.56, 82.98 and 60.24% for bitewing radiographs; 72.22, 76.60 and 74.70% for DIAGNOdent scores when interpreted according to manufacturer′s cut-off limits and 77.48, 74.47 and 75.90%, respectively, for the DIAGNOdent scores when interpreted according to the newly formulated cut-off limits. Conclusions: DIAGNOdent showed higher sensitivity and accuracy as compared with other conventional methods for detection of enamel caries, whereas for detection of dentinal caries, even though the sensitivity was high, accuracy of the DIAGNOdent device was similar to other

  3. Gold-gold junction electrodes:the disconnection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sara E C; Vuorema, Anne; Ashmore, Ellen M Y; Kasprzyk-Horden, Barbara; Sillanpää, Mika; Denuault, Guy; Marken, Frank

    2012-02-01

    The formation of gold-gold junction electrodes for application in electroanalysis is described here based on electro-deposition from a non-cyanide gold plating bath. Converging growth of two hemispherical gold deposits on two adjacent platinum microelectrodes (both 100 µm diameter in glass, ca. 45 µm gap) followed by careful etching in aqueous chloride solution was employed. During growth both gold hemispheres "connect" and during etching "disconnection" is evident in a drop in current. Gold-gold junctions with sub-micron gaps are formed and applied for the electroanalytical detection of sub-micromolar concentrations of hydroquinone in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7 (E(rev) = 0.04 V vs. SCE) and sub-micromolar concentration of dopamine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7 (E(rev) = 0.14 V vs. SCE). The potential future uses in analysis and limitations of gold-gold junction electrodes are discussed.

  4. 零流电位法研究人血清白蛋白在金表面的吸附%Investigation of adsorption of human serum albumin on gold surface by zero current potentiometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑凤凤; 梁耀东; 陈莉英; 李华; 程忠洲

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate the adsorption behavior of human serum albumin (HSA) on the gold surface in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. Methods A novel electrochemically approach, zero current potentiometry, was used. Results The adsorption of HSA on the gold surface resulted in the gradual shifts of the recorded 1-E curve and zero current potential Elcp along potential axis in negative direction. The plot of zero current potential Etxp a-gainst adsorption time t showed that the adsorption of HSA on the gold surface involved two steps, adsorption and conformation change of HSA. And the apparent rate constant kobs the adsorption obtained was (4. 0 ± 1. 8) × 10-3 s-1 Conclusion Using zero current potentiometry, the adsorption of HSA on the gold surface can be probed in situ and continuously, without the destruction of the formed adsorption layer.%目的 在pH7.0磷酸盐缓冲液中研究人血清白蛋白(HSA)在金表面的吸附行为.方法 采用零流电位法.结果 HSA在金表面吸附使记录的I-E曲线及其零流电位Ezcp沿着电位轴逐渐负移.零流电位Ezcp与吸附时间t的关系曲线表明,HSA在金表面吸附经历了吸附和HSA构象改变两个连续阶段,吸附的表观速率常数kobs为(4.0±1.8)×10-3 s-1.结论 用零流电位法可以原位连续跟踪HSA在金表面的吸附过程,而且不损伤HSA吸附层.

  5. The current status of measurement standards for acoustics and vibration at Inmetro

    OpenAIRE

    Ripper, Gustavo Palmeira; Hoffmann, Walter Erico

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Division of Acoustics and Vibration (DIAVI) of INMETRO establishes, validates and maintains the Brazilian national measurement standards used for the realization of the units of physical quantities related to the field of acoustics and vibration. The basic vibration quantity realized by DIAVI is translational acceleration, from which the other motion quantities, i.e., velocity and displacement can be derived. Acoustical physical quantities include sound pressure and sound power...

  6. Current considerations related to physiological differences between the sexes and physical employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Delia; Gebhardt, Deborah L; Gaskill, Steven E; Roy, Tanja C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2016-06-01

    The use of physical employment standards (PES) has helped ensure that workers have the physical attributes necessary to complete their jobs in a safe and efficient manner. However, PES used in the selection processes have not always reflected the critical physical requirements of the job tasks. Women generally have smaller anthropometric stature than men, less muscle mass, and therefore less strength, power, and endurance, particularly in the upper body. Nonetheless, these attributes in themselves are not valid grounds for exclusion from employment in physically demanding occupations. Selection standards based upon size or strength, irrespective of the job requirements, have resulted in the barring of capable women from physically demanding jobs, claims of gender bias, and costly litigations. To ensure all individuals are provided with equal access to employment, accurate characterization of the critical physical requirements of the job is paramount. This paper summarizes the existing research related to disparities between the sexes that contribute to sex differences in job performance in physically demanding occupations including physical and legal factors. Strategies for mitigating these differences in the setting of PES and the meeting of minimum employment standards are discussed. Where available, injury rates for women and men in physically demanding occupations are presented and the etiology considered. Finally, areas for further research are identified.

  7. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  8. Current status of nuclear cardiology in Japan: Ongoing efforts to improve clinical standards and to establish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2015-08-01

    Nuclear cardiology imaging tests are widely performed in Japan as clinical practice. The Japanese nuclear cardiology community has developed new diagnostic imaging tests using (123)I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET for detecting cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis. These tests have become popular worldwide. The Japanese Circulation Society and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Cardiology have published clinical imaging guidelines showing indications and standards for the new imaging tests. JSNC is currently striving to improve the standard of clinical practice and is promoting research activities.

  9. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  10. Current applications and future directions for the CDISC Operational Data Model standard: A methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Sam; Aerts, Jozef; Sarnikar, Surendra; Huser, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    In order to further advance research and development on the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM) standard, the existing research must be well understood. This paper presents a methodological review of the ODM literature. Specifically, it develops a classification schema to categorize the ODM literature according to how the standard has been applied within the clinical research data lifecycle. This paper suggests areas for future research and development that address ODM's limitations and capitalize on its strengths to support new trends in clinical research informatics. A systematic scan of the following databases was performed: (1) ABI/Inform, (2) ACM Digital, (3) AIS eLibrary, (4) Europe Central PubMed, (5) Google Scholar, (5) IEEE Xplore, (7) PubMed, and (8) ScienceDirect. A Web of Science citation analysis was also performed. The search term used on all databases was "CDISC ODM." The two primary inclusion criteria were: (1) the research must examine the use of ODM as an information system solution component, or (2) the research must critically evaluate ODM against a stated solution usage scenario. Out of 2686 articles identified, 266 were included in a title level review, resulting in 183 articles. An abstract review followed, resulting in 121 remaining articles; and after a full text scan 69 articles met the inclusion criteria. As the demand for interoperability has increased, ODM has shown remarkable flexibility and has been extended to cover a broad range of data and metadata requirements that reach well beyond ODM's original use cases. This flexibility has yielded research literature that covers a diverse array of topic areas. A classification schema reflecting the use of ODM within the clinical research data lifecycle was created to provide a categorized and consolidated view of the ODM literature. The elements of the framework include: (1) EDC (Electronic Data Capture) and EHR (Electronic Health Record

  11. [Contact allergy to gold and its alloys. Pertinence of gold salt patch tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, E; Lacroix, M; Dalac, S; Ponnelle, C; Lambert, D

    1994-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to gold and its alloys is a rare affection and it is difficult to interpret gold salts patch tests. We report two cases of patients with positive patch tests to 0.5% sodium aurothiosulfate discovered during a dermatology exploration of an occupational contact eczema (for the first patient) and an intolerance to gold jewelry (for the second). There is much confusion in the literature concerning the allergologic exploration of contact dermatitis to gold: no standardized test, possible cross reactions between different gold salts, the tests often irritate. The mechanism of sensitization to gold salts is unknown since pure gold is inalterable and does not contain any salts. The pertinence of a positive test to one or more gold salts must therefore be examined carefully and the diagnosis of gold allergy must not be made without sufficient evidence.

  12. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

  13. Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods: Bio-oil Analytical Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Christensen, Earl D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge TN USA; Stankovikj, Filip [Washington State University (WSU), Pullman WA USA; Meier, Dietrich [Thünen Institute of Wood Research (TI), Hamburg Germany; Paasikallio, Ville [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd (VTT), Espoo Finland

    2016-07-05

    In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80 degrees C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.

  14. Current Situation and Development Trend of Standards of Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xiangfeng; Wen Baozhong

    2012-01-01

    Traction battery is one of the most significant systems in electric vehicles.Its general performance,cycle characteristics and safety performance have crucial influence on the economical efficiency,dynamic property and safety of the vehicle.Therefore traction battery has always been the key area in researches of electric vehicles and its standardization. 1.Main performance indicators of traction batteries As the energy storage device of electric vehicles,the performance of traction battery is very important for the complete vehicle.Requirements of traction battery for electric vehicles should have the following characteristics as high power,high energy,high energy density/specific energy,high power density/specific power,low cost,long life length,abuse resistance,high reliability,good temperature property,short charging time,nice interchangeability etc.Traction batteries used at present are mainly lead-acid cells,nickel-hydride cells and lithium-ion cells.Although none of them can meet all requirements,lithium battery is widely regarded the most promising one with optimal comprehensive performance in recent time.

  15. Biochemical and immunological analysis of mould skin prick test solution: current status of standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kespohl, S; Maryska, S; Zahradnik, E; Sander, I; Brüning, T; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2013-11-01

    Sensitization prevalence to moulds reached from less than 10% in the general population to more than 25% in atopic and/or asthmatic subjects. To diagnose IgE-mediated mould sensitization, skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) measurement are recommended. However, concordance of SPT and sIgE results is often less than 50% and standardization of the extracts is required to achieve reliable test results. The aim of our study was to analyse mould SPT solutions (SPTs) with respect to quantity and quality of protein, antigen and human IgE-binding content as a prerequisite for further in vivo studies. Commercial SPTs of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum from six manufacturers as well as two in-house extracts from Aspergillus versicolor were investigated. Protein-, antigen- and IgE-binding contents were quantified by Bradford assay, sandwich ELISA and IgE-ImmunoCAP-inhibition tests. Protein composition and IgE and IgG binding were analysed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, respectively. Median protein concentrations were similar in all mould SPT extracts (90-110 μg/mL). In contrast, antigen contents and IgE-binding capacity showed a high variability with median antigen values from 4 to 118 μg/mL and IgE inhibition results between 30 to 95%. Whereas almost all SPTs of A. alternata and A. versicolor showed complete sIgE inhibition with mean values > 80%, only three extracts for A. fumigatus, two extracts for C. herbarum and none of the tested extracts for P. chrysogenum exceeded 50% sIgE reduction. Quantitative amounts of protein, antigenic and IgE-binding structures were not comparable with the quality of the corresponding protein or immunoblot pattern, with the exception of A. alternata SPTs. Commercially available mould SPT extracts showed high variability raising the question of comparability and reliability of SPT results. Possible consequences for diagnostic test outcome will be investigated

  16. Relativistic effects in homogeneous gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, David J; Toste, F Dean

    2007-03-22

    Transition-metal catalysts containing gold present new opportunities for chemical synthesis, and it is therefore not surprising that these complexes are beginning to capture the attention of the chemical community. Cationic phosphine-gold(i) complexes are especially versatile and selective catalysts for a growing number of synthetic transformations. The reactivity of these species can be understood in the context of theoretical studies on gold; relativistic effects are especially helpful in rationalizing the reaction manifolds available to gold catalysts. This Review draws on experimental and computational data to present our current understanding of homogeneous gold catalysis, focusing on previously unexplored reactivity and its application to the development of new methodology.

  17. Re: Current Standard Technique for Modern Flexible Ureteroscopy: Tips and Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Keskin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of urinary stone disease is increasing worldwide. The dissemination of the clinical use of ultrasound has improved the diagnosis of stones at an earlier stage. It has increased the expansion of the indications of flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS. With the advances in flexible ureteroscopy (FU, more successful outcomes are being reported. The most recent EAU guidelines state that for all stones smaller than 2 cm, fURS can be the first choice of treatment. Especially for lower pole stones, the stone free rate is better than that with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. For stones larger than 2 cm staged procedures may be necessary. This paper recommends a standardized technique for fURS to decrease the rate of possible complications, and increase the success rate. Endourological techniques are widely adopted by most of the urological surgeons, hence fURS is an expansion of our surgical armamentarium. In this paper, an experienced group recommends some tips and tricks for each step of the procedure. The authors recommend general anesthesia over spinal anesthesia for two reasons: larger tidal volume during spinal anesthesia may cause movement, which can make the procedure harder. Secondly, the duration of the spinal anesthesia may be too short for some cases. The placement of ureteral access sheath (UAS should be done under fluoroscopic guidance and proper force should be applied. Ideally, the distal tip of the UAS should be just below the ureteropelvic junction. For preventing functional deterioration of the FU, the tip of the laser probe should be out of the scope as far as one-quarter of the screen diameter. For preventing excessive prolonged deflections, the stones in the lower pole should be repositioned in order to allow a more straight working channel. Pulverization of the stone is preferred over fragmentation since it decreases the operation time and risk of injury during removal of fragments. A power setting of low

  18. Re: Current Standard Technique for Modern Flexible Ureteroscopy: Tips and Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Selçuk Keskin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL COMMENT The prevalence of urinary stone disease is increasing worldwide. The dissemination of the clinical use of the ultrasound has increased the rate of diagnosis of stones at an earlier stage, thus, has increased the expansion of the indications for flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS. With the advancements in flexible ureteroscopy (FU, more successful outcomes are being reported. The most recent EAU guidelines state that fURS can be the first choice of treatment for all stones smaller than 2 cm. Especially for the lower pole stones, the stone-free rate is better than that with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. For stones larger than 2 cm, staged procedures may be necessary. This paper recommends a standardized technique for fURS which is aimed to decrease the rate of possible complications and increase the success rate. Endourological techniques are widely adopted by most of the urological surgeons, hence fURS is an expansion of our surgical armamentarium. In this paper, an experienced group recommended some tips and tricks for each step of the procedure. The authors recommended general anesthesia over spinal anesthesia for two reasons: larger tidal volume during spinal anesthesia may cause movement, which can make the procedure harder. Secondly, the duration of the spinal anesthesia may be too short for some cases. Placement of ureteral access sheath (UAS should be done under fluoroscopic guidance and proper force should be applied. Ideally, the distal tip of the UAS should be just below the ureteropelvic junction. For preventing functional deterioration of the FU, the tip of the laser probe should be out of the scope as far as one-quarter of the screen diameter. For preventing excessive prolonged deflections, the stones in the lower pole should be repositioned in order to allow a more straight working channel. Pulverization of the stone is preferred over fragmentation since it decreases the operative time and risk of injury

  19. A Summary of Proposed Changes to the Current ICARTT Format Standards and their Implications to Future Airborne Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, E. A.; Kusterer, J.; Quam, B.; Chen, G.; Early, A. B.; Beach, A. L., III

    2015-12-01

    The current ICARTT file format standards were developed for the purpose of fulfilling the data management needs for the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign in 2004. The goal of the ICARTT file format was to establish a common and simple to use data file format to promote data exchange and collaboration among science teams with similar science objectives. ICARTT has been the NASA standard since 2010, and is widely used by NOAA, NSF, and international partners (DLR, FAAM). Despite its level of acceptance, there are a number of issues with the current ICARTT format, especially concerning the machine readability. To enhance usability, the ICARTT Refresh Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) was established to enable a platform for atmospheric science data producers, users (e.g. modelers) and data managers to collaborate on developing criteria for this file format. Ultimately, this is a cross agency effort to improve and aggregate the metadata records being produced. After conducting a survey to identify deficiencies in the current format, we determined which are considered most important to the various communities. Numerous recommendations were made to improve upon the file format while maintaining backward compatibility. The recommendations made to date and their advantages and limitations will be discussed.

  20. Evaluation of current operating standards for chlorine dioxide in disinfection of dump tank and flume for fresh tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Callejas, Alejandro; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Valadez, Angela M; Sbodio, Adrian; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Danyluk, Michelle D; Suslow, Trevor V

    2012-02-01

    Standard postharvest unit operations that rely on copious water contact, such as fruit unloading and washing, approach the criteria for a true critical control point in fresh tomato production. Performance data for approved sanitizers that reflect commercial systems are needed to set standards for audit compliance. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) for water disinfection as an objective assessment of recent industry-adopted standards for dump tank and flume management in fresh tomato packing operations. On-site assessments were conducted during eight temporally distinct shifts in two Florida packinghouses and one California packinghouse. Microbiological analyses of incoming and washed fruit and dump and flume system water were evaluated. Water temperature, pH, turbidity, conductivity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were monitored. Reduction in populations of mesophilic and coliform bacteria on fruit was not significant, and populations were significantly higher (P dump tanks but consistently below the detection limit in flumes. Turbidity and conductivity increased with loads of incoming tomatoes. Water temperature varied during daily operations, but pH and ORP mostly remained constant. The industry standard positive temperature differential of 5.5°C between water and fruit pulp was not maintained in tanks during the full daily operation. ORP values were significantly higher in the flume than in the dump tank. A positive correlation was found between ORP and temperature, and negative correlations were found between ORP and turbidity, total mesophilic bacteria, and coliforms. This study provides in-plant data indicating that ClO(2) can be an effective sanitizer in flume and spray-wash systems, but current operational limitations restrict its performance in dump tanks. Under current conditions, ClO(2) alone is unlikely to allow the fresh tomato industry to meet its microbiological quality goals under typical

  1. A critical evaluation of glycated protein parameters in advanced nephropathy: a matter of life or death: A1C remains the gold standard outcome predictor in diabetic dialysis patients. Counterpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2012-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease remains as one of the major complications for individuals with diabetes and contributes to considerable morbidity. Individuals subjected to dialysis therapy, half of whom are diabetic, experience a mortality of ~20% per year. Understanding factors related to mortality remains a priority. Outside of dialysis units, A1C is unquestioned as the "gold standard" for glycemic control. In the recent past, however, there is evidence in large cohorts of diabetic dialysis patients that A1C at both the higher and lower levels was associated with mortality. Given the unique conditions associated with the metabolic dysregulation in dialysis patients, there is a critical need to identify accurate assays to monitor glycemic control to relate to cardiovascular endpoints. In this two-part point-counterpoint narrative, Drs. Freedman and Kalantar-Zadeh take opposing views on the utility of A1C in relation to cardiovascular disease and survival and as to consideration of use of other short-term markers in glycemia. In the narrative preceeding this counterpoint, Dr. Freedman suggests that glycated albumin may be the preferred glycemic marker in dialysis subjects. In the counterpoint narrative below, Dr. Kalantar-Zadeh defends the use of A1C as the unquestioned gold standard for glycemic management in dialysis subjects.

  2. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  3. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute, maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  4. Consent for routine neonatal procedures: A study of practices in Irish neonatal units. How do we compare with the gold standard BAPM guidelines?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, M A

    2017-06-01

    The Irish National Consent Policy (NCP)¹ proposes that the legal requirement for consent extends to all forms of interventions, investigations and treatment, carried out on or behalf of the Health Service Executive (HSE). This study employs a quantitative descriptive approach to investigate the practices for obtaining consent for an identified group of routine neonatal procedures in neonatal facilities throughout Ireland. The BAPM (British Association of Perinatal Medicine)² guidelines were identified as ‘gold standard’ for the purposes of this study. The results indicated a lack of consistency between participating units pertaining to the modes of consent utilised and notable variances from ‘gold standard’ guidelines. Unanimity was evident for 3 procedures only (administering BCG, 6-in-1, and donor breast milk to infant). Significant findings related to EEG with video recordings, MRI\\/CT and gastro intestinal imaging, screening of an infant with suspected substance abuse or retinopathy of prematurity screening (ROP), administration of Vitamin K, and the carrying out of a lumbar puncture.

  5. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  6. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  7. Upgrade of the ESA DRAMA OSCAR Tool: Analysis of Disposal Strategies Considering Current Standards for Future Solar and Geomagnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V.; Sanchez-Ortiz, N.; Gelhaus, J.; Kebschull, C.; Flegel, S.; Mockel, M.; Wiedemann, C.; Krag, H.; Vorsmann, P.

    2013-08-01

    In 2008 the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 62/217, endorsing the space debris mitigation guidelines (SDMG) of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS). These guidelines contain recommendations for satellite operators to implement measures for various mission phases in order to reduce the further accumulation of space debris in space and especially within the protected regions. These are defined within the SDMG as being the LEO region (up to 2,000 km altitude) and the GEO region (∼200 km in altitude around the GEO altitude and ∼15 degrees latitude). In the first version of ESA's DRAMA tool suite, OSCAR (Orbital SpaceCraft Active Removal) was designed as a tool to allow users the analysis of different disposal stragies for spacecraft in the LEO and GEO region. The upgrade of the ESA DRAMA tool suite by TUBS and DEIMOS under ESA/ESOC contract included the development of a renewed version of the existing OSCAR tool, allowing in its current version the consideration of different future solar and geomagnetic activity scenarios and besides the already known disposal systems (chemical and electric propulsion, as well as electrodynamic tether) the analysis of the orbital evolution using drag augmentation devices. One of the primary goals was to implement techniques recommended by current standards. The recommendations from the SDMG were used for the definition of the critical regions as well as compliance criteria, the user may check his disposal strategy against. For satellites operating in GEO, the ISO 26872:2010 (Space Systems - Disposal of satellites operating at geosynchronous altitude) standard was accounted for. For the generation of future solar and geomagnetic activity, the standards ISO 27852:2011 (Space Systems -Estimation of orbit lifetime) and the ECSS-E-ST-10-04C (Space engineering - Space environment) have been considered and recommended modeling approaches were implemented. In this paper, the OSCAR tool is presented, giving

  8. Anticancer studies of the synthesized gold nanoparticles against MCF 7 breast cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala Priya, M. R.; Iyer, Priya R.

    2015-04-01

    It has been previously stated that gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized using various green extracts of plants. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized under scanning electron microscopy and EDX to identify the size of the nanoparticles. It was found that the nanoparticles were around 30 nm in size, which is a commendable nano dimension achieved through a plant mediated synthesis. The nanoparticles were further studied for their various applications. In the current study, we have made attempts to exploit the anticancer ability of the gold nano particles. The nanoparticles were studied against MCF 7 breast cancer cell lines. The results obtained from the studies of anticancer activity showed that gold nanoparticles gave an equivalent good results, in par with the standard drugs against cancer. The AuNP's proved to be efficient even from the minimum concentrations of 2 μg/ml, and as the concentration increased the anticancer efficacy as well increased.

  9. Effect of Gold Marker Seeds on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Murshed, E-mail: Murshed.Hossain@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schirmer, Timo [Global MR Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Munich (Germany); Richardson, Theresa; Chen, Lili; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Ma Changming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance stereoscopic imaging (MRSI) of the prostate is an emerging technique that may enhance targeting and assessment in radiotherapy. Current practices in radiotherapy invariably involve image guidance. Gold seed fiducial markers are often used to perform daily prostate localization. If MRSI is to be used in targeting prostate cancer and therapy assessment, the impact of gold seeds on MRSI must be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of gold seeds on the quality of MRSI data acquired in phantom experiments. Methods and Materials: A cylindrical plastic phantom with a spherical cavity 10 centimeters in diameter wss filled with water solution containing choline, creatine, and citrate. A gold seed fiducial marker was put near the center of the phantom mounted on a plastic stem. Spectra were acquired at 1.5 Tesla by use of a clinical MRSI sequence. The ratios of choline + creatine to citrate (CC/Ci) were compared in the presence and absence of gold seeds. Spectra in the vicinity of the gold seed were analyzed. Results: The maximum coefficient of variation of CC/Ci induced by the gold seed was found to be 10% in phantom experiments at 1.5 T. Conclusion: MRSI can be used in prostate radiotherapy in the presence of gold seed markers. Gold seeds cause small effects (in the order of the standard deviation) on the ratio of the metabolite's CC/Ci in the phantom study done on a 1.5-T scanner. It is expected that gold seed markers will have similar negligible effect on spectra from prostate patients. The maximum of 10% of variation in CC/Ci found in the phantom study also sets a limit on the threshold accuracy of CC/Ci values for deciding whether the tissue characterized by a local spectrum is considered malignant and whether it is a candidate for local boost in radiotherapy dose.

  10. 含金量样品分析检测方法现状%Gold Sample to the Analysis of Current Detection Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立红; 周西林

    2017-01-01

    In recent years were reviewed for the determination of various samples for the determination of gold content analysis method, the content involves the classification of the dry process and wet process analysis, and review of every method, respectively;Through related literature to the annuity content analysis to determine the progress of technology are reviewed, the determination of gold content analysis technology in the future development direction are proposed.%综述了近年来金含量测定的样品的各种分析测定的方法,内容涉及到干法分析和湿法分析的分类,并分别对各个方法进行点评;通过相关文献对这几年金含量分析测定技术的进展概况进行了综述,对金含量分析测定技术今后的发展方向提出建议.

  11. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2014-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds derived from cellulose, hemicelluloses, and woody biomass extractives. Since gold catalysts possess high stability under oxidative conditions, selective oxidation reactions were discussed more thoroughly than other critical reactions such as partial hydrogenation, acetalization, and isomerization. The influence of reaction conditions, the role of the catalyst, and the advantages and disadvantages of using gold are pre...

  12. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW

    2016-01-01

    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  13. Utilization study of antidiabetic agents in a teaching hospital of Sikkim and adherence to current standard treatment guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushrut Varun Satpathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes has gradually emerged as one of the most serious public health problems in our country. This underlines the need for timely disease detection and decisive therapeutic intervention. This prospective cross-sectional observational study aims at analyzing the utilization pattern of antidiabetic agents in a remote North-East Indian tertiary care teaching hospital in the perspective of current standard treatment guidelines. Materials and Methods: Diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic medication, both as outpatients and inpatients in our hospital over a period of 12 months (May 2013–May 2014, were included in this study. The data obtained were sorted and analyzed on the basis of gender, type of therapy, and hospital setting. Results: A total of 310 patients were included in the study. Metformin was the single most frequently prescribed antidiabetic agent (66.8% followed by the sulfonylureas group (37.4%. Insulin was prescribed in 23.2% of the patients. Combination antidiabetic drug therapy (65.1% was used more frequently than monotherapy (34.8%. The use of biguanides (P < 0.0001 and sulfonylureas (P = 0.02 in combination was significant as compared to their use as monotherapy. A total of 48% of all antidiabetic combinations used, comprised metformin and sulfonylureas (n = 96. Insulin use was significantly higher as monotherapy and in inpatients (P< 0.0001. The utilization of drugs from the National List of Essential Medicines was 51.2%, while 11% of antidiabetics were prescribed by generic name. Conclusion: The pattern of utilization largely conforms to the current standard treatment guidelines. Increased use of generic drugs is an area with scope for improvement.

  14. Going for Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    While the international gold price in February hit the highest point in 25 years at $541.20 per ounce for futures delivery, a new gold rush is sweeping across China. According to the World Gold Council, the London-based gold marketing organization funded by leading global gold mining firms, the purchase of gold products in China grew by 9 percent in the first nine

  15. Evaluation of a Commercial Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Quantification of Beta-Casomorphin 7 in Yogurt Using Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled to Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry as the "Gold Standard" Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Doan; Busetti, Francesco; Johnson, Stuart Keith; Solah, Vicky Ann

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) in yogurt by means of LC-tandem MS (MS/MS) and enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA) and use LC-MS/MS as the "gold standard" method to evaluate the applicability of a commercial ELISA. The level of BCM7 in milk obtained from ELISA analysis was much lower than that obtained by LC-MS/MS analysis and trended to increase during fermentation and storage of yogurt. Meanwhile, the results obtained from LC-MS/MS showed that BCM7 degraded during stages of yogurt processing, and its degradation may have been caused by X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase activity. As a result, the commercial sandwich ELISA kit was not suitable for the quantification of BCM7 in fermented dairy milk.

  16. Gold in Modern Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryshkevych Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the role of gold in modern economy. It analyses dynamics and modern state of the gold market. It studies volumes of contracts in exchange and off-exchange markets. In order to reveal changes of key features of the gold market, it focuses on the study of gold demand volumes, studies volumes and geographical changes in the world gold mining, and analyses volumes of monetary gold of central banks and its share in gold and currency reserves. It analyses price fluctuations in the gold market during 1968 – 2013 and identifies main factors that determine the gold price. It identifies interconnection between the state of the gold market and financial markets of countries. The study showed that namely geopolitical and economic instability restricts the spectrum of financial assets for investing and gold is not only a safe investment object but also a profitable one.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sofosbuvir compared to current standard treatment in Swiss patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena M Pfeil

    Full Text Available In clinical trials, sofosbuvir showed high antiviral activity in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV across all genotypes. We aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir-based treatment compared to current standard treatment in mono-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC genotypes 1-4 in Switzerland. Cost-effectiveness was modelled from the perspective of the Swiss health care system using a lifetime Markov model. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs used an endpoint of cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained. Treatment characteristics, quality of life, and transition probabilities were obtained from published literature. Country-specific model inputs such as patient characteristics, mortality and costs were obtained from Swiss sources. We performed extensive sensitivity analyses. Costs and effects were discounted at 3% (range: 0-5% per year. Sofosbuvir-containing treatment in mixed cohorts of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients with CHC genotypes 1-4 showed ICERs between CHF 10,337 and CHF 91,570 per QALY gained. In subgroup analyses, sofosbuvir dominated telaprevir- and boceprevir-containing treatment in treatment-naïve genotype 1 cirrhotic patients. ICERs of sofosbuvir were above CHF 100,000 per QALY in treatment-naïve, interferon eligible, non-cirrhotic patients infected with genotypes 2 or 3. In deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, results were generally robust. From a Swiss health care system perspective, treatment of mixed cohorts of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients with CHC genotypes 1-4 with sofosbuvir-containing treatment versus standard treatment would be cost-effective if a threshold of CHF 100,000 per QALY was assumed.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sofosbuvir compared to current standard treatment in Swiss patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil, Alena M; Reich, Oliver; Guerra, Ines M; Cure, Sandrine; Negro, Francesco; Müllhaupt, Beat; Lavanchy, Daniel; Schwenkglenks, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In clinical trials, sofosbuvir showed high antiviral activity in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) across all genotypes. We aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir-based treatment compared to current standard treatment in mono-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotypes 1-4 in Switzerland. Cost-effectiveness was modelled from the perspective of the Swiss health care system using a lifetime Markov model. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) used an endpoint of cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Treatment characteristics, quality of life, and transition probabilities were obtained from published literature. Country-specific model inputs such as patient characteristics, mortality and costs were obtained from Swiss sources. We performed extensive sensitivity analyses. Costs and effects were discounted at 3% (range: 0-5%) per year. Sofosbuvir-containing treatment in mixed cohorts of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients with CHC genotypes 1-4 showed ICERs between CHF 10,337 and CHF 91,570 per QALY gained. In subgroup analyses, sofosbuvir dominated telaprevir- and boceprevir-containing treatment in treatment-naïve genotype 1 cirrhotic patients. ICERs of sofosbuvir were above CHF 100,000 per QALY in treatment-naïve, interferon eligible, non-cirrhotic patients infected with genotypes 2 or 3. In deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, results were generally robust. From a Swiss health care system perspective, treatment of mixed cohorts of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients with CHC genotypes 1-4 with sofosbuvir-containing treatment versus standard treatment would be cost-effective if a threshold of CHF 100,000 per QALY was assumed.

  19. Stripping Chronopotentiometry: An Alternative Method for the Determination of Gold in Geological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipaporn MEEPUN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A stripping chronopotentiometric method was developed for reliable determination of gold in geological samples. Gold in gold ore and steam sediment samples was determined by constant current film stripping chronopotentiometry at a bare glassy carbon working electrode. The following optimum conditions were obtained: 0.5 M hydrochloric acid as a supporting electrolyte, an electrolysis potential of –0.6 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE, an electrolysis time of 2 min and a constant oxidative current of +4 μA. A linear concentration range was obtained from 1.0 to 20 mg/l. The detection limit was 0.27 mg/l (n = 10 and the relative a standard deviations of 1.0 mg/l Au(III was 2.8 % (n = 10. In order to check the analytical accuracy, standard solution was spiked in a sample and the recoveries were found at 100.1 to 105.8 %. The results revealed that the quantity of gold in gold ore and sediment were 0.6 to 3.3 % and 0.9 to 1.2 %, respectively.

  20. Application of gold in the field of heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Siwei

    2014-01-01

    Gold has been long thought as an inert metal which finds most of its use in jewelry and monetary exchange. However, catalysis by gold has rapidly become a hot topic in chemistry ever since Haruta and Hutchings found gold to be an extraordinary good heterogeneous catalyst in certain reactions. Here in this paper, several model reactions which made gold historically famous as a catalyst and a currently hot topic will be demonstrated, such as oxidation of CO, selective oxidation, and hydrodechlorination. Conclusions on the chemical nature of gold will be made as well as future perspectives of designing gold as a better catalyst.

  1. Nanobubble trouble on gold surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Kuhle, A.; Garnaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    When analyzing surfaces related to biosensors with in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), the existence of nanobubbles called for our attention. The bubbles seem to form spontaneously when gold surfaces are immersed in clean water and are probably a general phenomenon at water-solid interfaces....... Besides from giving rise to undesired effects in, for example, biosensors, nanobubbles can also cause artifacts in AFM imaging. We have observed nanobubbles on unmodified gold surfaces, immersed in clean water, using standard silicon AFM probes. Nanobubbles can be made to disappear from contact mode AFM...

  2. Can the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Test Be the "Gold Standard" for the Motor Assessment of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis; Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is an important risk factor in the development of children that can have a significant academic and social impact. This reinforces the need for its timely identification using appropriate assessment methods and accurate screening tests. The commonly used standardized motor test for the DCD identification…

  3. A gold standard publication checklist to improve the quality of animal studies, to fully integrate the Three Rs, and to make systematic reviews more feasible.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijmans, C.R.; Leenaars, M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2010-01-01

    Systematic reviews are generally regarded by professionals in the field of evidence-based medicine as the highest level of medical evidence, and they are already standard practice for clinical studies. However, they are not yet widely used nor undertaken in the field of animal experimentation, even

  4. A gold standard publication checklist to improve the quality of animal studies, to fully integrate the Three Rs, and to make systematic reviews more feasible.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijmans, C.R.; Leenaars, M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2010-01-01

    Systematic reviews are generally regarded by professionals in the field of evidence-based medicine as the highest level of medical evidence, and they are already standard practice for clinical studies. However, they are not yet widely used nor undertaken in the field of animal experimentation, even

  5. Research on Effective Evaluation of Concepts in Agricultural Ontology Based on Gold Standard%基于黄金准则的农业领域本体概念有效性评估方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章丽; 李绍稳; 刘超; 许高建; 张筱丹; 刘恺

    2012-01-01

    本体作为表达知识的共享概念模型,已日渐成为人工智能和知识领域中一个重要的研究方向。为了客观地评估已构建好的农业领域本体,进一步地提升利用本体学习方法自动构建本体的效率,以茶树虫害本体为研究对象,提出了一种基于黄金准则的农业领域本体概念评估方法。该方法通过计算本体学习自动构建的本体概念与黄金本体概念的相似度,实现对农业领域本体学习的评估。%As a conceptual model of the expression of knowledge sharing,ontology becomes an important research direction of the field of artificial intelligence and knowledge engineering.In order to evaluate the agricultural ontology that has already been constructed objectively and further improve the efficiency of ontology modeling automatically based on ontology learning,we choose tea disease ontology as the research object,propose a method of agricultural ontology concept evaluation based on the gold standard.By the means of computing the similarity of the concepts of a automatically-constructed ontology and the concepts of the gold ontology,we realize the agricultural ontology evaluation in this paper.

  6. 75 FR 32950 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... standards of Subpart C of the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (Mandatory... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in...

  7. 75 FR 45128 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... standards of Subpart C of the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (Mandatory... Engaged in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in...

  8. 75 FR 27348 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... standards of Subpart C of the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (Mandatory... Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in order to...

  9. 75 FR 16813 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... standards of Subpart C of the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (Mandatory... Engaged in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in...

  10. 75 FR 5088 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... standards of Subpart C of the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (Mandatory... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in...

  11. 75 FR 9229 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... standards of Subpart C of the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (Mandatory... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in...

  12. 75 FR 55795 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... standards of Subpart C of the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (Mandatory... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in...

  13. 75 FR 39023 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... standards of Subpart C of the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (Mandatory... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in...

  14. Standards-Based Classroom Assessments of English Proficiency: A Review of Issues, Current Developments, and Future Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llosa, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    With the United States' adoption of a standards-based approach to education, most attention has focused on the large-scale, high-stakes assessments intended to measure students' mastery of standards for accountability purposes. Less attention has been paid to the role of standards-based assessments in the classroom. The purpose of this paper is to…

  15. Appraising fertilisers: origins of current regulations and standards for contaminants in fertilisers : background of quality standards in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom and Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Posthuma, L.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Wintersen, A.M.; Wijnen, van H.; Dijk, van T.A.; Schöll, van L.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The standards for contaminants in fertilisers in Denmark, Germany, Flanders, the Netherlands and United Kingdom, are given in the context of the proposals for new European fertiliser legislation. This EU legislation might result in generic limit values for contaminants and input lists of materials,

  16. Appraising fertilisers: origins of current regulations and standards for contaminants in fertilisers : background of quality standards in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom and Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Posthuma, L.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Wintersen, A.M.; Wijnen, van H.; Dijk, van T.A.; Schöll, van L.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The standards for contaminants in fertilisers in Denmark, Germany, Flanders, the Netherlands and United Kingdom, are given in the context of the proposals for new European fertiliser legislation. This EU legislation might result in generic limit values for contaminants and input lists of materials,

  17. Exploring the Gold-Standard: Evidence for a Two-Factor Model of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for the DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Joshua C; Chesney, Samantha A; Jorgensen, Terrence D; Schumann, Nicholas R; deRoon-Cassini, Terri A

    2017-08-10

    The latent factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a source of considerable variability. The current study compared several a priori factor structures, as well as a novel 2-factor structure of posttraumatic psychological distress as measured by the Clinician Administered PTSD scale for the DSM-5 (CAPS-5). In addition, variability in diagnostic rates according to the divergent DSM-5 and ICD-11 criteria were explored. The setting for this study was a Level 1 trauma center in a U.S. metropolitan city. Data were pooled from 2 studies (N = 309) and participants were administered the CAPS-5 at 1 (n = 139) or 6 months postinjury (n = 170). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to compare several factor models, and prevalence rates based on DSM-5 and ICD-11 criteria were compared via z tests and kappa. CFAs of 5 factor structures indicated good fit for all models. A novel 2-factor model based on competing models of PTSD symptoms and modification indices was then tested. The 2-factor model of the CAPS-5 performed as well or better on most indices compared to a 7-factor hybrid. Comparisons of PTSD prevalence rates found no significant differences, but agreement was variable. These findings indicate that the CAPS-5 can be seen as measuring 2 distinct phenomena: posttraumatic stress disorder and general posttraumatic dysphoria. This is an important contribution to the current debate on which latent factors constitute PTSD and may reduce discordance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Estimation of infection prevalence and sensitivity in a stratified two-stage sampling design employing highly specific diagnostic tests when there is no gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ezer; Huppert, Amit; Novikov, Ilya; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Freedman, Laurence S

    2015-11-10

    In this work, we describe a two-stage sampling design to estimate the infection prevalence in a population. In the first stage, an imperfect diagnostic test was performed on a random sample of the population. In the second stage, a different imperfect test was performed in a stratified random sample of the first sample. To estimate infection prevalence, we assumed conditional independence between the diagnostic tests and develop method of moments estimators based on expectations of the proportions of people with positive and negative results on both tests that are functions of the tests' sensitivity, specificity, and the infection prevalence. A closed-form solution of the estimating equations was obtained assuming a specificity of 100% for both tests. We applied our method to estimate the infection prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis according to two quantitative polymerase chain reaction tests performed on blood samples taken from 4756 patients in northern Ethiopia. The sensitivities of the tests were also estimated, as well as the standard errors of all estimates, using a parametric bootstrap. We also examined the impact of departures from our assumptions of 100% specificity and conditional independence on the estimated prevalence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. 物流标准化发展现状研究综述%The Research Review of the Current Situation of the Development of Logistics Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳飞; 武赟; 戴铭卿

    2015-01-01

    The thesis reviews current situation of the development of logistics standardization systematically. It summarizes the general research contents from the four aspects: logistics standardization and management system, establishment of the standardization of logistics, implementation of the standardization of logistics and performance evaluation of the standardization.Moreover, the authors put forward with their own view.%本文系统回顾了有关物流标准化发展现状.分别从物流标准化和管理体制、物流标准化的建立、物流标准化的贯彻实施以及物流标准化的绩效评价四个方面进行综述,提出本文观点.

  20. Magnetically mediated vortexlike assembly of gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianfei; Dong, Jian; Sun, Dongke; Guo, Zhirui; Gu, Ning

    2012-04-24

    Gold nanoshells currently attract increasing research interests due to the important role in many subjects. For practical applications, random arrangement of the nanoparticles is often unfavored so that the assembly of gold nanoshells is becoming a central issue. We here proposed to utilize time-variant magnetic field to direct the assembly of gold nanoshells. It was discovered that the alternating magnetic field can mediate the vortex-like assembly of gold nanoshells. The mechanism was explored and thought to be relative with the electric field of induction which caused the thermal gradient on the substrate and the electric force. The vortexlike structure as well as the assembly mechanism will play an important role in research and application of gold nanomaterials.

  1. The Modern Monetary System and Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Rubtsov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the nature of modern money, analyzes the mechanism of its creation, showing that it is basically generated by credit and the principle of partial bank reserve. The article draws comparative parallels between trade money based on gold and contemporary, credit money; the author quotes leading bankers and finance experts on the need for partial return to the principles of functioning of the gold standard as the most effective institute of regulating the monetary system in society.

  2. Application of non-cyanide gold for selective plating of microelectronic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worobey, W.; Rieger, D.

    1991-01-01

    With the current trends towards miniaturization, high performance, high quality and cost competiveness, the electrodeposition process has become an important manufacturing technology in many new microelectronic applications. Gold electrodeposition plays an increasing role in processes that require this noble metal. Added to these trends is the continuing and increasing emphasis on manufacturing processes which are less damaging to the environment and potentially less hazardous to the operator and personnel in the vicinity of the operation. The present standard gold plating solutions are based on cyanide salts and are considered acutely hazardous solutions. The trend away from their use is gaining momentum as new non-hazardous gold plating solutions and manufacturing processes making use of them are developed. 2 refs.

  3. Non-enzymatic glucose biosensor based on hyperbranched pine-like gold nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heli, H; Amirizadeh, O

    2016-06-01

    Hyperbranched pine-like gold nanostructure was electrodeposited on the polycrystalline gold surface at 0 mV (vs. AgCl) with the assistance of histidine as a soft template. The nanostructure was then applied as a highly sensitive nonenzymatic sensor for glucose. The catalytic activity and sensitivity of the gold nanostructure toward the electrooxidation of glucose was excellent without surface fouling and deterioration effects. The current related to the oxidation of glucose rapidly and linearly depended on its concentration with a sensitivity of 776.8 μA cm(-2)mmol(-1)dm(3), a detection limit of 3.39 μmol dm(-3) with a relative standard deviation of 2.32%.

  4. Computational approaches to homogeneous gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faza, Olalla Nieto; López, Carlos Silva

    2015-01-01

    Homogenous gold catalysis has been exploding for the last decade at an outstanding pace. The best described reactivity of Au(I) and Au(III) species is based on gold's properties as a soft Lewis acid, but new reactivity patterns have recently emerged which further expand the range of transformations achievable using gold catalysis, with examples of dual gold activation, hydrogenation reactions, or Au(I)/Au(III) catalytic cycles.In this scenario, to develop fully all these new possibilities, the use of computational tools to understand at an atomistic level of detail the complete role of gold as a catalyst is unavoidable. In this work we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the available benchmark works on methodological options to study homogenous gold catalysis in the hope that this effort can help guide the choice of method in future mechanistic studies involving gold complexes. This is relevant because a representative number of current mechanistic studies still use methods which have been reported as inappropriate and dangerously inaccurate for this chemistry.Together with this, we describe a number of recent mechanistic studies where computational chemistry has provided relevant insights into non-conventional reaction paths, unexpected selectivities or novel reactivity, which illustrate the complexity behind gold-mediated organic chemistry.

  5. Projection of bootstrap current in the ITER with standard type I ELMy H-mode and steady state scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thawatchai Onjun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of bootstrap current formation in ITER is carried out using BALDUR integrated predictive modelingcode. The combination of Mixed B/gB anomalous transport model and NLCASS module together with the pedestal model isused in BALDUR code to simulate the time evolution of temperature, density, and plasma current profiles. It was found inthe simulations that without the presence of ITB, a minimal fraction of bootstrap current (as well as low fusion performancewas achieved. The enhancement due to ITB depends sensitively on the strength of toroidal velocity. A sensitivity study wasalso carried out to optimize the bootstrap current fraction and plasma performance. It was found that the bootstrap currentfraction slightly improved; while the plasma performance greatly improved with increasing of NBI power or pedestal temperature.On the other hand, higher impurity concentration resulted in a significant degradation of fusion performance, buta smaller degradation in bootstrap current.

  6. 75 FR 75485 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (Mandatory Guidelines). The Mandatory Guidelines were first... section 503 of Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs...

  7. 75 FR 62842 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (Mandatory Guidelines). The Mandatory Guidelines were first... section 503 of Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs...

  8. Statistical Association: Alignment of Current U.S. High School Textbooks with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the alignment of three selected U.S. high school textbooks series with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) regarding the treatment of statistical association. A framework grounded in the literature for inclusion and exclusion of reasoning about association topics was developed, and textbook entries were…

  9. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  10. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  11. Assessing and Addressing the "Testing Backlash": Practical Advice and Current Public Opinion Research for Business Coalitions and Standards Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Roundtable, Washington, DC.

    As states and communities across the United States work to raise expectations for student learning, many are challenged by concerns and questions from increasingly vocal parents and teachers. This report summarizes the best advice for business coalitions and standards advocates on how to address the testing backlash. It also features an analysis…

  12. Comparison between differently priced devices for digital capture of X-ray films using computed tomography as a gold standard: a multireader-multicase receiver operating characteristic curve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Antonio J; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Aguirre, Diego Andrés

    2011-05-01

    Film digitizers are a specialized technology that is available for scanning X-ray radiographs; however, their cost makes them unaffordable for developing countries. Thus, less expensive alternatives are used. The purpose of this study was to compare three devices for digital capture of X-ray films: a film digitizer (US $15,000), a flatbed scanner (US $1800), and a 10-megapixel digital camera (US $450), in terms of diagnostic accuracy, defined as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and computed tomography as the gold standard. The sample included 136 chest X-ray cases with computed tomography confirmation of the presence or absence of pneumothorax, interstitial opacities, or nodules. The readers were six radiologists who made observations of eight variables for each digital capture of the X-ray films: three main variables to determine the accuracy in the detection of the above-mentioned pathologies, four secondary variables to categorize other pathological classifications, and one variable regarding digital image quality. The receiver operating characteristic curves for each device and pathology were very similar. For the main variables, there was no significant statistical difference in diagnostic accuracy between the devices. For the secondary variables, >84% of cases were correctly classified, even those that were classified with the lowest image quality. High accuracy was determined for the three main variables (0.75 to 0.96), indicating good performance for all tested devices, despite their very different prices. Choosing a device for a teleradiology service should involve additional factors, such as capture time, maintenance concerns, and training requirements.

  13. Current situation and development countermeasure of China International Standard Dance%中国国际标准舞现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜静歌

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the international standard dance after entering our country ’s two main devel-opment direction ,Analyzes the current situation and existing problems of China international ballroom ,And put for-ward the development countermeasures of China’s international standard dance .%阐述了国际标准舞进入我国后的两种主要发展方向,分析了当前中国国际标准舞的现状和存在的问题,并提出了发展中国国际标准舞的对策。

  14. Hydroxycarbamine: from an Old Drug Used in Malignant Hemopathies to a Current Standard in Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, Giovanna; Poutrel, Solène; Thomas, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    While hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea, HU) has less and fewer indications in malignant hemopathies, it represents the only widely used drug which modifies sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Clinical experience with HU for patients with sickle cell disease has been accumulated over the past 25 years in Western countries. The review of the literature provides increasing support for safety and efficacy in both children and adults for reducing acute vaso-occlusive events including pain episodes and acute chest syndrome. No increased incidence of leukemia and teratogenicity was demonstrated. HU has become the standard-of-care for sickle cell anemia but remains underused. Barriers to its use should be identified and overcome. PMID:28293403

  15. HYDROXYCARBAMINE: FROM AN OLD DRUG USED IN MALIGNANT HEMOPATHIES TO A CURRENT STANDARD IN SICKLE CELL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cannas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While hydroxycarbamine (hydroxyurea, HU has less and less indications in malignant hemopathies, it represents the only widely used drug which modifies sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Clinical experience with HU for patients with sickle cell disease has been accumulated over the past 25 years in Western countries. The review of the literature provides increasing support of safety and efficacy in both children and adults for reducing acute vaso-occlusive events including pain episodes and acute chest syndrome. HU has become the standard-of-care for sickle cell anemia, but remains underused. Barriers to its use should be identified and overcome.

  16. Gold Nanoparticle-Biological Molecule Interactions and Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G. Heddle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review gives a brief summary of the field of gold nanoparticle interactions with biological molecules, particularly those with possible catalytic relevance. Gold nanoparticles are well known as catalysts in organic chemistry but much is unknown regarding their potential as catalysts of reactions involving biological molecules such as protein and nucleic acids. Biological molecules may be the substrate for catalysis or, if they are the ligand coating the gold particle, may be the catalyst itself. In other cases biological molecules may form a template upon which gold nanoparticles can be precisely arrayed. As relatively little is currently known about the catalytic capabilities of gold nanoparticles in this area, this review will consider templating in general (including, but not restricted to, those which result in structures having potential as catalysts before going on to consider firstly catalysis by the gold nanoparticle itself followed by catalysis by ligands attached to gold nanoparticles, all considered with a focus on biological molecules.

  17. Preparation and characterization of gold-decorated graphite nanosheet composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Nam, Dae Geun; Oh, Weon Tae

    2013-05-01

    Some composites of gold nanoparticles and graphite nanosheets were prepared by electrostatic interaction, and structurally and electrochemically characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UVNis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and cyclic-voltammetry. Pristine graphite was chemically treated using aqueous acid solution, and dispersed inpoly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride aqueous solution to prepare positively charged graphite nanosheets. The gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in this work were stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate, poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate), or poly(vinylpyrrolidone). Gold nanoparticles and graphite nanosheet composites with gold nanoparticles showed the characteristic surface plasmon band at -530 nm. The electrochemical properties of the graphite nanosheet composites with gold nanoparticles were studied by cyclic voltammetry, in which reduction potential and reduction current of gold nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the gold-wrapped stabilizer in the composites.

  18. 我国黄金矿产资源综合利用现状与发展趋势%Current Situation and Development Trend of Comprehensive Utilization of Gold Mineral Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子玉; 郭海军

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development in China , the demand of resources speeds up .The pro-gress of science and technology continues to expand the scope of gold gold resources development , from easy processing single gold resources to gold ore containing arsenic , sulfur and complex metal re-sources in the area with complex metal that is difficult to disposal .%随着我国国民经济快速稳定发展对资源的需求加快,黄金科技进步不断扩展黄金资源开发的范围,从性质单一的易处理黄金资源,迅速发展到含砷、含硫及含复杂金属的难处理金矿资源领域。

  19. Assessment of resveratrol, apocynin and taurine on mechanical-metabolic uncoupling and oxidative stress in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy: A comparison with the gold standard, α-methyl prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Mantuano, Paola; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Sblendorio, Valeriana Teresa; De Bellis, Michela; Tamma, Roberto; Giustino, Arcangela; Nico, Beatrice; Montagnani, Monica; De Luca, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidants have a great potential as adjuvant therapeutics in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, although systematic comparisons at pre-clinical level are limited. The present study is a head-to-head assessment, in the exercised mdx mouse model of DMD, of natural compounds, resveratrol and apocynin, and of the amino acid taurine, in comparison with the gold standard α-methyl prednisolone (PDN). The rationale was to target the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via disease-related pathways that are worsened by mechanical-metabolic impairment such as inflammation and over-activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX) (taurine and apocynin, respectively) or the failing ROS detoxification mechanisms via sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (resveratrol). Resveratrol (100mg/kg i.p. 5days/week), apocynin (38mg/kg/day per os), taurine (1g/kg/day per os), and PDN (1mg/kg i.p., 5days/week) were administered for 4-5 weeks to mdx mice in parallel with a standard protocol of treadmill exercise and the outcome was evaluated with a multidisciplinary approach in vivo and ex vivo on pathology-related end-points and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol≥taurine>apocynin enhanced in vivo mouse force similarly to PDN. All the compounds reduced the production of superoxide anion, assessed by dihydroethidium staining, with apocynin being as effective as PDN, and ameliorated electrophysiological biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol also significantly reduced plasma levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Force of isolated muscles was little ameliorated. However, the three compounds improved histopathology of gastrocnemius muscle more than PDN. Taurine>apocynin>PDN significantly decreased activated NF-kB positive myofibers. Thus, compounds targeting NOX-ROS or SIRT1/PGC-1α pathways differently modulate clinically relevant DMD-related endpoints according to their mechanism of action. With the

  20. Are the current attempts at standardization of antiphospholipid antibodies still useful? Emerging technologies signal a shift in direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Laura; Rizzini, Silvia; Allegri, Flavio; Meroni, Pierluigi; Tincani, Angela

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been widely established over past years in several experimental models and clinical studies. Accordingly, the detection of aPL by immunoassays (anticardiolipin antibodies; anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies) has become a routine practice in the clinical workup of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. aPL are mostly assayed using commercial ELISA kits, whose performance has not been found to be sufficiently concordant among the different manufacturers. In the past years, collaborative groups have spent considerable effort to reach some form of standardization but this process is still ongoing. Such lack of standardization has recently become even more crucial, as manufacturers have had to face an increasing demand for fully automated tests for aPL, like those test systems that have been developed for other autoantibodies (e.g., antinuclear antibodies, anti-ENA antibodies). We therefore report our recent experience with two newly developed automated methods for anticardiolipin antibodies testing. In particular, we discuss the results obtained using routine samples, as we believe that these better reflect the "real-life" situation in which those automated methods will operate. We also mention other emerging technologies in the field of aPL detection.

  1. Nanobubble trouble on gold surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Kuhle, A.; Garnaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    When analyzing surfaces related to biosensors with in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), the existence of nanobubbles called for our attention. The bubbles seem to form spontaneously when gold surfaces are immersed in clean water and are probably a general phenomenon at water-solid interfaces....... Besides from giving rise to undesired effects in, for example, biosensors, nanobubbles can also cause artifacts in AFM imaging. We have observed nanobubbles on unmodified gold surfaces, immersed in clean water, using standard silicon AFM probes. Nanobubbles can be made to disappear from contact mode AFM...... tip and the nanobubble indicates that a small tip cone angle and a relatively hydrophilic tip surface makes it possible to image nanobubbles with contact mode AFM even though the tip has penetrated the surface of the bubble....

  2. Gold induced apoptsis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Introduction   Cancer cells are highly thermo sensitive. On the basis of an article in Nature the idea arose, for a new non-invasive thermotherapy technique, based on radio frequency inductive heating of nano gold particles in an MR-scanner. Thermotherapy is getting considerably attention...... at the moment, especially in the fields of lasers, they though have some problems concerning the placement of the tumor in the human body. Local heating by MR has tremendous advance in comparison too lasers. The first step is to validate the hypothesis of the inductive heating of the gold nano particles trough...... in silico methods are here proposed for apoptosis studies and for AMG studies.   Methods   MR - heating of high concentration micrometer gold and low concentration nano gold.   CSLM of ethidum bromide stained cell lines, with and witout gold and automated image processing.   AMG gold uptake study...

  3. Current Performance Characteristics of NASA Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Base and Standardized Test Procedure for Future Performance Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Brandon; Stringer, Mary T.; Hutchinson, Brian K.; Davidson, Paul C.; Gupton, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the updated performance characteristics of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Cockpit Motion Base (CMB) after recent revisions that were made to its inner-loop, feedback control law. The modifications to the control law will be briefly described. The performance of the Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) will be presented. A short graphical comparison to the previous control law can be found in the appendix of this report. The revised controller will be shown to yield reduced parasitic accelerations with respect to the previous controller. Metrics based on the AGARD Advisory Report No. 144 are used to assess the overall system performance due to its recent control algorithm modification. This report also documents the standardized simulator test procedure which can be used in the future to evaluate potential updates to the control law.

  4. A Summary of Proposed Changes to the Current ICARTT Format Standards and their Implications to Future Airborne Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, Emily; Benson Early, Amanda; Beach, Aubrey; Wang, Dali; Kusterer, John; Quam, Brandi; Chen, Gao

    2015-01-01

    The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center is responsible for the ingest, archive, and distribution of NASA Earth Science data in the areas of radiation budget, clouds, aerosols, and tropospheric chemistry. The ASDC specializes in atmospheric data that is important to understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities on the climate. The ASDC currently supports more than 44 projects and has over 1,700 archived data sets, which increase daily. ASDC customers include scientists, researchers, federal, state, and local governments, academia, industry, and application users, the remote sensing community, and the general public.

  5. Evidence-based medicine: the time has come to set standards for staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quirke, Phil; Cuvelier, Claude; Ensari, Arzu

    2010-01-01

    think that TNM should be a continual reactive process, rather than a proactive process. Changes should only occur after extensive discussion within the community, and before the introduction of any changes these should be tested for reproducibility and compared to the currently used gold standard. TNM...

  6. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.

  7. National Institute of Standards and Technology measurement service of the optical properties of biomedical phantoms: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaillet, Paul; Cooksey, Catherine C.; Levine, Zachary H.; Pintar, Adam L.; Hwang, Jeeseong; Allen, David W.

    2016-03-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has maintained scales for reflectance and transmittance over several decades. The scales are primarily intended for regular transmittance, mirrors, and solid surface scattering diffusers. The rapidly growing area of optical medical imaging needs a scale for volume scattering of diffuse materials that are used to mimic the optical properties of tissue. Such materials are used as phantoms to evaluate and validate instruments under development intended for clinical use. To address this need, a double-integrating sphere based instrument has been installed to measure the optical properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms. The basic system and methods have been described in previous papers. An important attribute in establishing a viable calibration service is the estimation of measurement uncertainties. The use of custom models and comparisons with other established scales enabled uncertainty measurements. Here, we describe the continuation of those efforts to advance the understanding of the uncertainties through two independent measurements: the bidirectional reflectance distribution function and the bidirectional transmittance distribution function of a commercially available solid biomedical phantom. A Monte Carlo-based model is used and the resulting optical properties are compared to the values provided by the phantom manufacturer.

  8. CMS Industries awarded gold, crystal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CMS collaboration honoured 10 of its top suppliers in the seventh annual awards ceremony The representatives of the firms that recieved the CMS Gold and Crystal Awards stand with their awards after the ceremony. The seventh annual CMS Awards ceremony was held on Monday 13 March to recognize the industries that have made substantial contributions to the construction of the collaboration's detector. Nine international firms received Gold Awards, and General Tecnica of Italy received the prestigious Crystal Award. Representatives from the companies attended the ceremony during the plenary session of CMS week. 'The role of CERN, its machines and experiments, beyond particle physics is to push the development of equipment technologies related to high-energy physics,'said CMS Awards Coordinator Domenico Campi. 'All of these industries must go beyond the technologies that are currently available.' Without the involvement of good companies over the years, the construction of the CMS detector wouldn't be possible...

  9. Switchable Imbibition in Nanoporous Gold

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Yahui; Duan, Huiling; Weissmueller, Joerg; Huber, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous imbibition enables the elegant propelling of nano-flows because of the dominance of capillarity at small length scales. The imbibition kinetics are, however, solely determined by the static geometry of the porous host, the capillarity, and the fluidity of the imbibed liquid. This makes active control particularly challenging. Here, we show for aqueous electrolyte imbibition in nanoporous gold that the fluid flow can be reversibly switched on and off through electric potential control of the solid-liquid interfacial tension, i.e. we can accelerate the imbibition front, stop it, and have it proceed at will. Simultaneous measurements of the mass flux and the electrical current allow us to document simple scaling laws for the imbibition kinetics, and to explore the charge flow dynamics in the metallic nanopores. Our findings demonstrate that the high electric conductivity along with the pathways for ionic and/or fluid transport render nanoporous elemental gold a versatile, accurately controllable elec...

  10. Imaging in syndrome complex diabetes mellitus. Current standards and future perspectives; Bildgebung im Syndromkomplex Diabetes mellitus. Stellenwert und Chancen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetterich, H.; Schafnitzel, A. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Bamberg, F. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent multisystemic disorder with numerous potential complications and substantial socioeconomic consequences. In many cases, the patient history, physical examination and laboratory tests are not sufficient for a comprehensive evaluation of complicating disorders. Imaging modalities, such as sonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are of major significance in the evaluation of complicating disorders of diabetes according to current guidelines. Examples include assessment of coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke and diabetic foot syndrome. Technical developments allow a substantial reduction in radiation dose and scan time in CT and MRI, respectively and could therefore justify a broader application in this patient population. In the future CT and MRI could also be used for the early detection of diabetic complications. Furthermore, they could also be used for risk stratification, e.g. measurement of hepatic fat content and evaluation of atherosclerosis in whole body MRI. Prior to widespread application of advanced imaging techniques in this patient population, improved outcomes with respect to survival, quality of life and cost-effectiveness need to be demonstrated. Diagnostic imaging modalities for the evaluation of the syndrome complex of diabetic disorders should be used according to the current guidelines but the use is predicted to increase given the high potential in this population. (orig.) [German] Diabetes mellitus ist eine hochpraevalente Multisystemerkrankung mit zahlreichen Komplikationen und bedeutenden soziooekonomischen Konsequenzen. Die Folgeerkrankungen koennen oft nicht abschliessend mittels Anamnese, koerperlicher Untersuchung und laborchemischen Verfahren evaluiert werden. Radiologische Verfahren wie die Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT) und Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) haben gemaess verschiedener Leitlinien einen festen Stellenwert bei der

  11. Accuracy of Teledentistry for Diagnosing Dental Pathology Using Direct Examination as a Gold Standard: Results of the Tel-e-dent Study of Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queyroux, Alain; Saricassapian, Bernard; Herzog, Daniel; Müller, Karin; Herafa, Isabelle; Ducoux, Dorothée; Marin, Benoît; Dantoine, Thierry; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Tchalla, Achille

    2017-06-01

    Dental neglect and high levels of unmet dental needs are becoming increasingly prevalent among elderly residents of long-term care facilities, although frail, elderly, and dependent populations are the most in need of professional dental care. Little is known about the validity of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology in nursing home residents. To evaluate the accuracy of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology, assessing the rehabilitation status of dental prostheses, and evaluating the chewing ability of older adults living in nursing homes (using direct examination as a gold standard). Multicenter diagnostic accuracy study performed in France and Germany. Eight nursing homes in France and Germany. Nursing home residents with oral or dental complaints, self-reported or reported by caregivers, willing to receive oral or dental preventive care. In total, 235 patients were examined. The mean age was 84.4 ± 8.3 years, and 59.1% of the subjects were female. The patients were examined twice. Each patient was his or her own control. First, the dental surgeon established a diagnosis by reviewing a video recorded in the nursing home and accessed remotely. Second, within a maximum of 7 days, patients were examined conventionally (face-to-face) by the same surgeon who established the initial diagnosis. All residents received a comprehensive clinical examination in their home by a trained geriatrician and underwent a dental hygiene evaluation that used the Silness-Loe and Greene-Vermillion dental hygiene assessment indices. The diagnoses established via the video recording and in the face-to-face setting were compared. The main outcome measure was number of dental pathologies. In total, 128 (55.4%) patients had a dental pathology. The sensitivity of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology was 93.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 90.7-96.9), and the specificity was 94.2% (95% CI 91.2-97.2). Among the 128 cases of dental pathology identified by

  12. Estimating the sensitivity and specificity of Kato-Katz stool examination technique for detection of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in humans in the absence of a 'gold standard'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, M R; Carabin, H; Joseph, L; Balolong, E; Olveda, R; McGarvey, S T

    2010-03-15

    The accuracy of the Kato-Katz technique in identifying individuals with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is limited by day-to-day variation in helminth egg excretion, confusion with other parasites and the laboratory technicians' experience. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique to detect infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura using a Bayesian approach in the absence of a 'gold standard'. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study conducted between January 2004 and December 2005 in Samar Province, the Philippines. Each participant provided between one and three stool samples over consecutive days. Stool samples were examined using the Kato-Katz technique and reported as positive or negative for STHs. In the presence of measurement error, the true status of each individual is considered as latent data. Using a Bayesian method, we calculated marginal posterior densities of sensitivity and specificity parameters from the product of the likelihood function of observed and latent data. A uniform prior distribution was used (beta distribution: alpha=1, beta=1). A total of 5624 individuals provided at least one stool sample. One, two and three stool samples were provided by 1582, 1893 and 2149 individuals, respectively. All STHs showed variation in test results from day to day. Sensitivity estimates of the Kato-Katz technique for one stool sample were 96.9% (95% Bayesian Credible Interval [BCI]: 96.1%, 97.6%), 65.2% (60.0%, 69.8%) and 91.4% (90.5%, 92.3%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Specificity estimates for one stool sample were 96.1% (95.5%, 96.7%), 93.8% (92.4%, 95.4%) and 94.4% (93.2%, 95.5%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Our results show that the Kato-Katz technique can perform with reasonable accuracy with one day's stool collection for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Low sensitivity of the Kato-Katz for detection

  13. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Finland in 1984-85 - Re-analysis of viral sequences using the current standard approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, Marja-Leena; Roivainen, Merja; Iber, Jane; Burns, Cara; Hovi, Tapani

    2010-01-01

    In 1984, a wild type 3 poliovirus (PV3/FIN84) spread all over Finland causing nine cases of paralytic poliomyelitis and one case of aseptic meningitis. The outbreak was ended in 1985 with an intensive vaccination campaign. By limited sequence comparison with previously isolated PV3 strains, closest relatives of PV3/FIN84 were found among strains circulating in the Mediterranean region. Now we wanted to reanalyse the relationships using approaches currently exploited in poliovirus surveillance. Cell lysates of 22 strains isolated during the outbreak and stored frozen were subjected to RT-PCR amplification in three genomic regions without prior subculture. Sequences of the entire VP1 coding region, 150 nucleotides in the VP1-2A junction, most of the 5' non-coding region, partial sequences of the 3D RNA polymerase coding region and partial 3' non-coding region were compared within the outbreak and with sequences available in data banks. In addition, complete nucleotide sequences were obtained for 2 strains isolated from two different cases of disease during the outbreak. The results confirmed the previously described wide intraepidemic variation of the strains, including amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites, as well as the likely Mediterranean region origin of the strains. Simplot and bootscanning analyses of the complete genomes indicated complicated evolutionary history of the non-capsid coding regions of the genome suggesting several recombinations with different HEV-C viruses in the past.

  14. Current Understanding on the Role of Standard and Immunoproteasomes in Inflammatory/Immunological Pathways of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bellavista

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major intracellular molecular machinery for protein degradation and maintenance of protein homeostasis in most human cells. As ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in the regulation of the immune system, it might also influence the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS. Both ex vivo analyses and animal models suggest that activity and composition of ubiquitin-proteasome system are altered in MS. Proteasome isoforms endowed of immunosubunits may affect the functionality of different cell types such as CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and B cells as well as neurons during MS development. Furthermore, the study of proteasome-related biomarkers, such as proteasome antibodies and circulating proteasomes, may represent a field of interest in MS. Proteasome inhibitors are already used as treatment for cancer and the recent development of inhibitors selective for immunoproteasome subunits may soon represent novel therapeutic approaches to the different forms of MS. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the potential role of proteasomes in MS and discuss the pro et contra of possible therapies for MS targeting proteasome isoforms.

  15. 黄金工业特征污染物综合治理装备现状及发展趋势%Current status of comprehensive treatment equipment intended for featured pollutants in gold industry and its development trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铃; 丁成; 李延吉; 高飞翔; 迟崇哲

    2015-01-01

    黄金工业特征污染物综合治理装备是黄金工业实现绿色、和谐、可持续发展的重要技术支撑。介绍了黄金工业特征污染物综合治理装备的分类、应用工艺、相应结构、功能实现过程与应用特点等现状,统计分析了治理装备在黄金矿山的应用状况,并对黄金工业特征污染物综合治理装备及技术的未来发展趋势进行了研讨。%Comprehensive treatment equipment intended for featured pollutants in gold industry is important tech-nical support for green,harmonious and sustainable development of gold industry.The paper gives an overview of the classification,application,structure,function completion process and application characteristics of comprehensive treat-ment equipment intended for featured pollutants in gold industry.The application status of the treatment equipment in gold mines is showed by statistical analysis.And discussions are made about the development trend of the equipment and technology for comprehensive treatment of featured pollutants in gold industry.

  16. Cysteine-cystine redox cycling in a gold-gold dual-plate generator-collector microtrench sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jules L; Gross, Andrew J; Estrela, Pedro; Iniesta, Jesus; Green, Stephen J; Winlove, C Peter; Winyard, Paul G; Benjamin, Nigel; Marken, Frank

    2014-07-15

    Thiols and disulfides are ubiquitous and important analytical targets. However, their redox properties, in particular on gold sensor electrodes, are complex and obscured by strong adsorption. Here, a gold-gold dual-plate microtrench dual-electrode sensor with feedback signal amplification is demonstrated to give well-defined (but kinetically limited) steady-state voltammetric current responses for the cysteine-cystine redox cycle in nondegassed aqueous buffer media at pH 7 down to micromolar concentration levels.

  17. Treatment patterns of advanced malignant melanoma (stage III-IV) - A review of current standards in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Mark; Malvehy, Josep; Lebbe, Céleste; Heron, Louise; Amelio, Justyna; Szabo, Zsolt; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2016-06-01

    With the recent emergence of immunotherapies and novel targeted treatments for advanced and metastatic melanoma such as selective B-Raf inhibitors and checkpoint inhibitors, the treatment landscape in Europe has changed considerably. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current treatment pathways in Europe for the treatment of advanced melanoma, unresectable stage III-IV. A literature search of four databases was conducted to identify publications reporting on the treatment patterns of advanced and metastatic melanoma (stage III-IV) in European populations. Seven full-text publications and two conference abstracts reported on observational studies of melanoma treatment practices in France, Italy and the United Kingdom. Treatment patterns were identified for two time periods: 2005-2009 and 2011-2012. Common treatments reported for both periods included chemotherapy with dacarbazine, fotemustine or temozolomide. The main differences between the two periods were the introduction and prescription of immunotherapy ipilimumab and targeted therapy vemurafenib between 2011 and 2012. Across the three countries studied, the types of treatments prescribed between 2005 and 2009 were relatively similar, however, with noticeable differences in the frequency and priority of administration. Treatment practices for advanced melanoma vary markedly across different European countries and continue to evolve with the introduction of new therapies. The results of this review highlight a considerable evidence gap with regards to recent treatment patterns for advanced melanoma in Europe, especially post-2011 after the introduction of novel therapeutic agents, and more recently with the introduction of programmed cell death 1 inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gold in the Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江河

    2002-01-01

    In the present Chinese market, more and more businessmen turn to the profit-making trade. Even some counters in the bookstores are selling gold rings, necklaces, bracelets, etc. One day a school teacher asked a store assistant,“Why are you selling gold in your bookstore?”

  19. 过滤器性能测试标准现状%The Current Status of the Filter Performance Testing Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金妹; 谈萍; 李程; 皮艳霞

    2015-01-01

    总结了国内外液体和气体过滤性能测试标准现状。在液体过滤方面对一些常用标准进行了比较,并描述了一些知名企业的测试动态。在气体过滤性能方面,包括阻力、容尘量、过滤效率及脉冲清灰等性能测试标准之间的测试条件和方法的差异进行了分析,并提出了今后标准制定的发展方向。%the current situation of liquid and gas filtration performance testing standards were summarized in this paper. Com⁃mon used standards in liquid filtration were compared and the test methods of well-known companies were described. The differ⁃ence of test conditions and methods in gas filtration test standards were analyzed, including resistance, dust containing capacity, filter efficiency and pulse deashing. The development direction of standard setting in the future was proposed.

  20. A cyclo olefin polymer microfluidic chip with integrated gold microelectrodes for aqueous ans non-aqueous electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illa, Xavi; Sala, Olga Ordeig; Snakenborg, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an entirely polymeric microfluidic system, made of cyclo olefin polymer (COP), with integrated gold microband electrodes for electrochemical applications in organic media. In the present work, we take advantage of the COP's high chemical stability to polar organic solvents...... in two different ways: (i) to fabricate gold microelectrodes using COP as a substrate by standard lithographic and lift-off techniques; and (ii) to perform electrochemical experiments in organic media. In particular, fourteen parallel gold microelectrodes with a width of 14 m and separated from...... and 24 m deep channel was fabricated via hot embossing. Cyclic voltammetric measurements were carried out in aqueous and organic media, using a solution consisting of 5 mM ferrocyanide/ferricyanide in 0.5 M KNO3 and 5 mM ferrocene in 0.1 M TBAP/acetonitrile, respectively. Experimental currents obtained...

  1. Immobilization of gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces for safe and enhanced gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, Stefan; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Gentemann, Lara; Meyer, Heiko; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-07-01

    In comparison to standard transfection methods, gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection has proven to be a versatile alternative. This is based on its minor influence on cell viability and its high efficiency, especially for the delivery of small molecules like small interfering RNA. However, in order to transfer it to routine usage, a safety aspect is of major concern: The avoidance of nanoparticle uptake by the cells is desired. The immobilization of the gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces can address this issue. In this study, we achieved this by silanization of the appropriate surfaces and the binding of gold nanoparticles to them. Comparable perforation efficiencies to the previous approaches of gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection with free gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. The uptake of the immobilized particles by the cells is unlikely. Consequently, these investigations offer the possibility of bringing gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection closer to routine usage.

  2. Immobilization of gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces for safe and enhanced gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, Stefan; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Gentemann, Lara; Meyer, Heiko; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to standard transfection methods, gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection has proven to be a versatile alternative. This is based on its minor influence on cell viability and its high efficiency, especially for the delivery of small molecules like small interfering RNA. However, in order to transfer it to routine usage, a safety aspect is of major concern: The avoidance of nanoparticle uptake by the cells is desired. The immobilization of the gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces can address this issue. In this study, we achieved this by silanization of the appropriate surfaces and the binding of gold nanoparticles to them. Comparable perforation efficiencies to the previous approaches of gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection with free gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. The uptake of the immobilized particles by the cells is unlikely. Consequently, these investigations offer the possibility of bringing gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection closer to routine usage.

  3. The Coverage of Human Evolution in High School Biology Textbooks in the 20th Century and in Current State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the emphasis given to human evolution in secondary biology textbooks historically and in the current state science standards. Prior to the 1960s, biology textbooks provided little emphasis to human evolution. In the 1970s and early 1980s textbooks reduced the coverage of human evolution. However, in the 1990s the coverage became quite comprehensive again. In 2004, the state science frameworks of only three states had standards concerned with human evolution.

  4. Current Situation and Research of Intelligent Luminaire and Standard%智能灯具及其标准的现状和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施晓红; 庄晓波; 虞再道; 陈超中

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is the development trend of lighting system and luminaire .From the point of the definition of lighting system and based on the characteristics of intelligent lighting luminaire , this article discussed current situation of intelligent lighting system standards , and presented the basic ideas of developing intelligent standards of luminaire .%智能化是照明系统及其灯具的发展趋势. 本文以照明系统的相关定义为切入点, 在给出智能照明灯具构成特点的基础上, 讨论了智能照明系统标准现状, 表述了开发智能灯具标准的基本思路.

  5. Reposicionamento do músculo papilar: a técnica padrão para plastia do prolapso da cúspide anterior da mitral Papillary muscle repositioning: the gold standard technique to repair anterior mitral leaflet prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívio Souza Neto

    2005-12-01

    - NYHA, o controle ecocardiográfico mostrou nenhuma ou mínima regurgitação em 89 (74,2 % pacientes, leve regurgitação em oito (6,7% e moderada regurgitação em nove (7,5%. CONCLUSÃO: O reposicionamento do músculo papilar é uma técnica confiável e segura, com excelentes resultados clínicos e ecocardiográficos a longo prazo. Desta maneira, estamos propondo-a como padrão para o reparo da cúspide anterior prolapsada.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that papillary muscle repositioning is a reliable technique to repair anterior leaflet prolapse. Therefore we describe this technique and its long term results to propose it as a gold standard. METHOD: Between 1989 and 2005, 120 mitral valve repairs were consecutively performed using papillary muscle repositioning in cases of anterior leaflet prolapse. There were 87 males and 33 females, the mean age was 59 ± 11.5 years. 59% of patients were in NYHA III or IV. Mean ejection fraction was 65.7 ± 8.9%. Predominant aetiology of mitral regurgitation (MR was degenerative: Barlow (n=43 and dystrophic (n=62. The other aetiologies were: healed endocarditis (n=5, rheumatic (n=5, ischemic (n=4, congenital (n=1. A posterior papillary muscle repositioning was performed in 111 (92.5% cases and an anterior in 38 (31.7%. Associated procedures were carried out in 76 (63.3% patients. RESULTS: There were no in-hospital deaths. During the follow-up, 14 patients (11.7% died, including seven (5.8% due to cardiac causes. The cumulated survival rates at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years were 98.3%, 97.2%, 94.1% and 81.4% respectively. Two patients (1.7% were reoperated for recurrency of the regurgitation, they underwent a replacement of the valve 1 and 5 years after the repair and died 3 and 6 years, respectively after this replacement. There was no systolic anterior motion. The cumulated survival rates free from reoperation involving the mitral valve at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years were 97.4%, 97.4%, 92.8 % and 86.7% respectively. We

  6. Revisiting the flavor changing neutral current Higgs decays $H\\to q_i q_j$ in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez-Guzmán, L G; López-Osorio, M A; Martínez-Pascual, E; Toscano, J J

    2015-01-01

    An exact calculation of the Higgs boson decays $H\\to q_i q_j$ mediated by flavor changing neutral currents is presented in the context of the Standard Model. Using up-to-date experimental data, branching ratios of the order of $10^{-7}$, $10^{-8}$, $10^{-8}$, and $10^{-15}$ are found for the $\\bar{b}s+\\bar{s}b$, $\\bar{b}d+\\bar{d}b$, $\\bar{s}d+\\bar{d}s$, and $\\bar{c}u+\\bar{u}c$ decay modes, respectively.

  7. Phase transitions and kinetic properties of gold nanoparticles confined between two-layer graphene nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wu, Nanhua; Chen, Jionghua; Wang, Jinjian; Shao, Jingling; Zhu, Xiaolei; Lu, Xiaohua; Guo, Lucun

    2016-11-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors of gold nanoparticles confined between two-layer graphene nanosheets (two-layer-GNSs) are examined and investigated during heating and cooling processes via molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. An EAM potential is applied to represent the gold-gold interactions while a Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential is used to describe the gold-GNS interactions. The MD melting temperature of 1345 K for bulk gold is close to the experimental value (1337 K), confirming that the EAM potential used to describe gold-gold interactions is reliable. On the other hand, the melting temperatures of gold clusters supported on graphite bilayer are corrected to the corresponding experimental values by adjusting the εAu-C value. Therefore, the subsequent results from current work are reliable. The gold nanoparticles confined within two-layer GNSs exhibit face center cubic structures, which is similar to those of free gold clusters and bulk gold. The melting points, heats of fusion, and heat capacities of the confined gold nanoparticles are predicted based on the plots of total energies against temperature. The density distribution perpendicular to GNS suggests that the freezing of confined gold nanoparticles starts from outermost layers. The confined gold clusters exhibit layering phenomenon even in liquid state. The transition of order-disorder in each layer is an essential characteristic in structure for the freezing phase transition of the confined gold clusters. Additionally, some vital kinetic data are obtained in terms of classical nucleation theory.

  8. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 23 - Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate, Silver, and Platinum Industry...—Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate... be considered in any assay for quality of a gold filled, gold overlay and rolled gold plate industry...

  9. Methanobactin-mediated one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jia-ying; Cheng, Dan-dan; Zhang, Lan-xuan; Lin, Kai; Fan, Hong-chen; Wang, Yan; Xia, Chun-gu

    2013-11-01

    Preparation of gold nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution has enormous importance in nanotechnology. Methanobactin (Mb) is a copper-binding small peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and catalytically reduce Au (III) to Au (0). In this study, we demonstrate a facile Mb-mediated one-step synthetic route to prepare monodispersed gold nanoparticles. Continuous reduction of Au (III) by Mb can be achieved by using hydroquinone as the reducing agent. The gold nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The formation and the surface plasmon resonance properties of the gold nanoparticles are highly dependent on the ratio of Au (III) to Mb in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence spectra and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra suggest that Mb molecules catalytically reduce Au (III) to Au (0) with the concomitant production of gold nanoparticles, and then, Mb statically adsorbed onto the surface of gold nanoparticles to form an Mb-gold nanoparticles assembly. This avoids secondary nucleation. The formed gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be monodispersed and uniform by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Analysis of these particles shows an average size of 14.9 nm with a standard deviation of 1.1 nm. The gold nanoparticles are extremely stable and can resist aggregation, even after several months.

  10. Methanobactin-Mediated One-Step Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of gold nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution has enormous importance in nanotechnology. Methanobactin (Mb is a copper-binding small peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and catalytically reduce Au (III to Au (0. In this study, we demonstrate a facile Mb-mediated one-step synthetic route to prepare monodispersed gold nanoparticles. Continuous reduction of Au (III by Mb can be achieved by using hydroquinone as the reducing agent. The gold nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The formation and the surface plasmon resonance properties of the gold nanoparticles are highly dependent on the ratio of Au (III to Mb in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, fluorescence spectra and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra suggest that Mb molecules catalytically reduce Au (III to Au (0 with the concomitant production of gold nanoparticles, and then, Mb statically adsorbed onto the surface of gold nanoparticles to form an Mb-gold nanoparticles assembly. This avoids secondary nucleation. The formed gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be monodispersed and uniform by transmission electron microscopy (TEM images. Analysis of these particles shows an average size of 14.9 nm with a standard deviation of 1.1 nm. The gold nanoparticles are extremely stable and can resist aggregation, even after several months.

  11. Prelude to Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    FEMALE Chinese athletes Fu Mingxia and Wang Junxia recorded outstanding performances at 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. Fu Mingxia won gold medals in both platform and springboard diving, and in so doing became the first double medal winner in Olympic diving since 1960. Wang Junxia, the holder of several world records in women’s long distance events, struggled against the odds and captured gold in the 5,000-meter event,

  12. Gold nanoprobes for theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Book-Newell, Brittany; Sethu, Palaniappan; Rao, Madhusudhana; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoprobes have become attractive diagnostic and therapeutic agents in medicine and life sciences research owing to their reproducible synthesis with atomic level precision, unique physical and chemical properties, versatility of their morphologies, flexibility in functionalization, ease of targeting, efficiency in drug delivery and opportunities for multimodal therapy. This review highlights some of the recent advances and the potential for gold nanoprobes in theranostics. PMID:22122586

  13. Joining the Gold Rush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2006-01-01

    @@ Flush with advanced technology and large amounts of capital, overseas mining firms are carving a place in the Chinese gold industry Dozens of Western mining companies, particularly those from Canada, are making the journey into the kind of remote corners in China that other overseas investors shy away from. What are they looking for? The answer is one of the most precious substances on the planet: gold.

  14. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule--Toddler Module: A New Module of a Standardized Diagnostic Measure for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., J Autism Dev Disord, 30(3):205-223, 2000) is widely accepted as a "gold standard" diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the…

  15. Electrochemical investigation of 18k gold in acidic electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grekulović Vesna J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an attempt in using cyclic voltammetry for characterization of gold, silver, copper and 18-k gold alloys by their anodic behavior in 1 mol/dm3 H2SO4 are presented in this paper. Gold alloys containing 75 mass% Au are named as 18-k gold, but it is usually three component alloy containing 75 mass% Au, 12.5 mass% Ag and 12.5 mass% Cu as the main components. Investigated alloys were obtained by melting powders of pure metals mixed in corresponding ratio, casting, cooling in air, rolling and drawing in the wire shape. To achieve the required mechanical properties, the alloys had heat-treated three times. Each alloy exhibits characteristic current peaks on voltammogram that can be used to recognize the kind of present alloying metal in gold. Also, the content of the alloying metal can be roughly estimated from the peak value of current densities.

  16. Recovery of gold from spent matrices using supercritical carbon dioxide / Pieter Gideon van Zyl

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of recovering gold preloaded onto activated carbon by supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was investigated in view of the actuality of a more environmentally friendly process for the retrieval of gold from real-world matrices (ion-exchange resin, cellulose, activated carbon) than the harsh elution methods currently employed. Several complexes of gold(I) and gold(III) were synthesised and characterised (AA, uv/visible), and their solubility in sc-CO2 investi...

  17. On the evolution of the standard genetic code: vestiges of critical scale invariance from the RNA world in current prokaryote genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V José

    Full Text Available Herein two genetic codes from which the primeval RNA code could have originated the standard genetic code (SGC are derived. One of them, called extended RNA code type I, consists of all codons of the type RNY (purine-any base-pyrimidine plus codons obtained by considering the RNA code but in the second (NYR type and third (YRN type reading frames. The extended RNA code type II, comprises all codons of the type RNY plus codons that arise from transversions of the RNA code in the first (YNY type and third (RNR nucleotide bases. In order to test if putative nucleotide sequences in the RNA World and in both extended RNA codes, share the same scaling and statistical properties to those encountered in current prokaryotes, we used the genomes of four Eubacteria and three Archaeas. For each prokaryote, we obtained their respective genomes obeying the RNA code or the extended RNA codes types I and II. In each case, we estimated the scaling properties of triplet sequences via a renormalization group approach, and we calculated the frequency distributions of distances for each codon. Remarkably, the scaling properties of the distance series of some codons from the RNA code and most codons from both extended RNA codes turned out to be identical or very close to the scaling properties of codons of the SGC. To test for the robustness of these results, we show, via computer simulation experiments, that random mutations of current genomes, at the rates of 10(-10 per site per year during three billions of years, were not enough for destroying the observed patterns. Therefore, we conclude that most current prokaryotes may still contain relics of the primeval RNA World and that both extended RNA codes may well represent two plausible evolutionary paths between the RNA code and the current SGC.

  18. The International Labour Standard and Our National Current Situation%国际劳动标准与我国执行现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盼盼

    2014-01-01

    The article will discuss about the current situation in five core standards for workers from the perspective of origin and development of the international workers ’ convention , including abolishment of slave labor, freedom of gathering , organizing the trade union , collective bargaining right , abolishment of exploiting young workers , and eliminating of occupation discrimination .The article will also talk about the challenges we are facing up to in the process of implementing the international standard for workers as a developing and labor intensive country and discuss on some countermeasures and advice .%本文从国际劳工公约的由来与发展出发,分别从立法层面与执行层面分析我国在五项核心劳工标准中的现状,其中包括废除强迫劳动、结社自由、组织工会和集体谈判权、消除剥削童工、消除就业歧视。通过对现状的分析,指出作为发展中国家、劳动密集型、以贴牌制造生产为主的中国在执行国际劳工标准上所面临的挑战,以及应对挑战的对策建议。

  19. [Current state of training in pharmacy education using a problem-based learning/tutorial model with simulated patients and standardized patients at National University Corporation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Tetsumi; Nitta, Atsumi; Akaike, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    Simulated/standardized patient-based (SP) education and problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial education become a powerful tool to heighten the pharmacy students' will to learn in order to cultivate the responsibility to contribute to public health and welfare as a clinical professional and to facilitate students' competences to solve problems by themselves. What this program is trying to do is: 1) to establish the system to train, educate and supply SP who are effective in the training and education of pharmacy students in close cooperation with the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals; 2) to improve the quality of the current PBL tutorial education and thereby establish it as an advanced education program in the education of senior students. We carried out the questionnaire to National University Corporation which establishes a school of pharmacy, as to the training and education of SP. The analysis of the answers to the questionnaire revealed the present status of SP in the Pharmaceutical Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in the Pharmaceutical Common Achievement Test, and the existence of the problems on how to standardize SP as well as how to cover such expenses. Furthermore, the activity of the first year consisted of the exchange and sharing of information regarding the existing method of training and education of SP and PBL tutorial education and the identification of the problems to be solved in order to improve the quality of the educational program.

  20. 现行准则下会计人员职业判断能力研究%Study on Accounting Professional Judgment Under Current Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁海帆

    2015-01-01

    The existing accounting standards conform to the trend of internationalization, changing from the rule-oriented mode to principle-oriented mode, which no longer carries out provisions for specific operations of the business and only gives accounting principles. This change not only expands the space of judgment of accounting personnel, but also imposes higher requirements of accounting personnel professional knowledge and skills. This paper analyzes the current standards of accounting professional judgment ability, in order to improve the account-ing professional judgment.%现有会计准则顺应了国际化趋势,由原有的规则导向模式转变为原则导向模式,不再对业务的具体操作进行细节性的规定,而仅给出会计核算的原则性要求。这一转变虽然扩大了会计人员的职业判断空间,但也对会计人员的专业知识和技能提出了更高的要求。本文对现有准则下会计人员职业判断能力进行分析,以期对会计职业判断的提高起到一定的推动作用。

  1. Terminalia chebula mediated green and rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kesarla Mohan; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sinha, Madhulika; Krishnakumar, Varadhan

    2012-02-01

    Biologically inspired experimental process in synthesising nanoparticles is of great interest in present scenario. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered to be one of the best green techniques in synthesising metal nanoparticles. Here, an in situ green biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula as reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance in the range of 535 nm using UV-visible spectrometry. TEM analysis revealed that the morphology of the particles thus formed contains anisotropic gold nanoparticles with size ranging from 6 to 60 nm. Hydrolysable tannins present in the extract of T. chebula are responsible for reductions and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles showed better activity towards gram positive S. aureus compared to gram negative E. coli using standard well diffusion method.

  2. SPS Gold Code Generation and Implementation for IRNSS User Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanya S Konandur

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS with Indian Constellation is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system developed by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO. In this paper we have implemented the design of SPS gold code on MATLAB2012a and Xilinx ISE 14.7. The properties of SPS (standard positioning system gold codes have been verified using MATLAB 2012a. It is found that IRNSS gold codes have three valued cross-correlation and four valued autocorrelation in line with theory. It is also found that IRNSS have balanced gold codes. This paper also deals with Hardware implementation of SPS Gold codes on Spartan-II FPGA Kit. The results are verified and analyzed with the PRN properties.

  3. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggon, Krishan

    2007-01-01

    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  4. Gold nanocrystals with DNA-directed morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingyi; Huh, June; Park, Wounjhang; Lee, Luke P.; Kwon, Young Jik; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-09-01

    Precise control over the structure of metal nanomaterials is important for developing advanced nanobiotechnology. Assembly methods of nanoparticles into structured blocks have been widely demonstrated recently. However, synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures remains challenging. Here we show a directed crystallization of gold by a single DNA molecular regulator in a sequence-independent manner and its applications in three-dimensional topological controls of crystalline nanostructures. We anchor DNA onto gold nanoseed with various alignments to form gold nanocrystals with defined topologies. Some topologies are asymmetric including pushpin-, star- and biconcave disk-like structures, as well as more complex jellyfish- and flower-like structures. The approach of employing DNA enables the solution-based synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures in a desired direction, and expands the current tools available for designing and synthesizing feature-rich nanomaterials for future translational biotechnology.

  5. Electrochemical Determination of Food Preservative Nitrite with Gold Nanoparticles/p-Aminothiophenol-Modified Gold Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşem Üzer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the negative impact of nitrate and nitrite on human health, their presence exceeding acceptable levels is not desired in foodstuffs. Thus, nitrite determination at low concentrations is a major challenge in electroanalytical chemistry, which can be achieved by fast, cheap, and safe electrochemical sensors. In this work, the working electrode (Au was functionalized with p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP and modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs to manufacture the final (Au/p-ATP-Aunano electrode in a two-step procedure. In the first step, p-ATP was electropolymerized on the electrode surface to obtain a polyaminothiophenol (PATP coating. In the second step, Au/p-ATP-Aunano working electrode was prepared by coating the surface with the use of HAuCl4 solution and cyclic voltammetry. Determination of aqueous nitrite samples was performed with the proposed electrode (Au/p-ATP-Aunano using square wave voltammetry (SWV in pH 4 buffer medium. Characteristic peak potential of nitrite samples was 0.76 V, and linear calibration curves of current intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 0.5–50 mg·L−1 nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD of 0.12 mg·L−1. Alternatively, nitrite in sausage samples could be colorimetrically determined with high sensitivity by means of p-ATP‒modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and naphthylethylene diamine as coupling agents for azo-dye formation due to enhanced charge-transfer interactions with the AuNPs surface. The slopes of the calibration lines in pure NO2− solution and in sausage sample solution, to which different concentrations of NO2− standards were added, were not significantly different from each other, confirming the robustness and interference tolerance of the method. The proposed voltammetric sensing method was validated against the colorimetric nanosensing method in sausage samples.

  6. Electrochemical Determination of Food Preservative Nitrite with Gold Nanoparticles/p-Aminothiophenol-Modified Gold Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üzer, Ayşem; Sağlam, Şener; Can, Ziya; Erçağ, Erol; Apak, Reşat

    2016-08-02

    Due to the negative impact of nitrate and nitrite on human health, their presence exceeding acceptable levels is not desired in foodstuffs. Thus, nitrite determination at low concentrations is a major challenge in electroanalytical chemistry, which can be achieved by fast, cheap, and safe electrochemical sensors. In this work, the working electrode (Au) was functionalized with p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) and modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to manufacture the final (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) electrode in a two-step procedure. In the first step, p-ATP was electropolymerized on the electrode surface to obtain a polyaminothiophenol (PATP) coating. In the second step, Au/p-ATP-Aunano working electrode was prepared by coating the surface with the use of HAuCl₄ solution and cyclic voltammetry. Determination of aqueous nitrite samples was performed with the proposed electrode (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) using square wave voltammetry (SWV) in pH 4 buffer medium. Characteristic peak potential of nitrite samples was 0.76 V, and linear calibration curves of current intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 0.5-50 mg·L(-1) nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.12 mg·L(-1). Alternatively, nitrite in sausage samples could be colorimetrically determined with high sensitivity by means of p-ATP‒modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and naphthylethylene diamine as coupling agents for azo-dye formation due to enhanced charge-transfer interactions with the AuNPs surface. The slopes of the calibration lines in pure NO₂(-) solution and in sausage sample solution, to which different concentrations of NO₂(-) standards were added, were not significantly different from each other, confirming the robustness and interference tolerance of the method. The proposed voltammetric sensing method was validated against the colorimetric nanosensing method in sausage samples.

  7. Electrochemical Determination of Food Preservative Nitrite with Gold Nanoparticles/p-Aminothiophenol-Modified Gold Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üzer, Ayşem; Sağlam, Şener; Can, Ziya; Erçağ, Erol; Apak, Reşat

    2016-01-01

    Due to the negative impact of nitrate and nitrite on human health, their presence exceeding acceptable levels is not desired in foodstuffs. Thus, nitrite determination at low concentrations is a major challenge in electroanalytical chemistry, which can be achieved by fast, cheap, and safe electrochemical sensors. In this work, the working electrode (Au) was functionalized with p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) and modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to manufacture the final (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) electrode in a two-step procedure. In the first step, p-ATP was electropolymerized on the electrode surface to obtain a polyaminothiophenol (PATP) coating. In the second step, Au/p-ATP-Aunano working electrode was prepared by coating the surface with the use of HAuCl4 solution and cyclic voltammetry. Determination of aqueous nitrite samples was performed with the proposed electrode (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) using square wave voltammetry (SWV) in pH 4 buffer medium. Characteristic peak potential of nitrite samples was 0.76 V, and linear calibration curves of current intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 0.5–50 mg·L−1 nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.12 mg·L−1. Alternatively, nitrite in sausage samples could be colorimetrically determined with high sensitivity by means of p-ATP‒modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and naphthylethylene diamine as coupling agents for azo-dye formation due to enhanced charge-transfer interactions with the AuNPs surface. The slopes of the calibration lines in pure NO2− solution and in sausage sample solution, to which different concentrations of NO2− standards were added, were not significantly different from each other, confirming the robustness and interference tolerance of the method. The proposed voltammetric sensing method was validated against the colorimetric nanosensing method in sausage samples. PMID:27490543

  8. Comparison of standardized uptake values measured on {sup 18}F-NaF PET/CT scans using three different tube current intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valadares, Agnes Araujo; Woellner, Eduardo Bechtloff; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto, E-mail: agnesvaladares@me.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Coura-Filho, George Barberio [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: to analyze standardized uptake values (SUVs) using three different tube current intensities for attenuation correction on {sup 18}FNaF PET/CT scans. Materials and methods: a total of 254 {sup 18}F-NaF PET/CT studies were analyzed using 10, 20 and 30 mAs. The SUVs were calculated in volumes of interest (VOIs) drawn on three skeletal regions, namely, right proximal humeral diaphysis (RH), right proximal femoral diaphysis (RF), and first lumbar vertebra (LV1) in a total of 712 VOIs. The analyses covered 675 regions classified as normal (236 RH, 232 RF, and 207 LV1). Results: mean SUV for each skeletal region was 3.8, 5.4 and 14.4 for RH, RF, and LV1, respectively. As the studies were grouped according to mAs value, the mean SUV values were 3.8, 3.9 and 3.7 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the RH region; 5.4, 5.5 and 5.4 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the RF region; 13.8, 14.9 and 14.5 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the LV1 region. Conclusion: the three tube current values yielded similar results for SUV calculation. (author)

  9. Comparison of standardized uptake values measured on 18F-NaF PET/CT scans using three different tube current intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Araujo Valadares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze standardized uptake values (SUVs using three different tube current intensities for attenuation correction on 18FNaF PET/CT scans. Materials and Methods: A total of 254 18F-NaF PET/CT studies were analyzed using 10, 20 and 30 mAs. The SUVs were calculated in volumes of interest (VOIs drawn on three skeletal regions, namely, right proximal humeral diaphysis (RH, right proximal femoral diaphysis (RF, and first lumbar vertebra (LV1 in a total of 712 VOIs. The analyses covered 675 regions classified as normal (236 RH, 232 RF, and 207 LV1. Results: Mean SUV for each skeletal region was 3.8, 5.4 and 14.4 for RH, RF, and LV1, respectively. As the studies were grouped according to mAs value, the mean SUV values were 3.8, 3.9 and 3.7 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the RH region; 5.4, 5.5 and 5.4 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the RF region; 13.8, 14.9 and 14.5 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the LV1 region. Conclusion: The three tube current values yielded similar results for SUV calculation.

  10. The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) v.5: a metadata management system based on a four level (meta)genome project classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T B K; Thomas, Alex D; Stamatis, Dimitri; Bertsch, Jon; Isbandi, Michelle; Jansson, Jakob; Mallajosyula, Jyothi; Pagani, Ioanna; Lobos, Elizabeth A; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD; http://www.genomesonline.org) is a comprehensive online resource to catalog and monitor genetic studies worldwide. GOLD provides up-to-date status on complete and ongoing sequencing projects along with a broad array of curated metadata. Here we report version 5 (v.5) of the database. The newly designed database schema and web user interface supports several new features including the implementation of a four level (meta)genome project classification system and a simplified intuitive web interface to access reports and launch search tools. The database currently hosts information for about 19,200 studies, 56,000 Biosamples, 56,000 sequencing projects and 39,400 analysis projects. More than just a catalog of worldwide genome projects, GOLD is a manually curated, quality-controlled metadata warehouse. The problems encountered in integrating disparate and varying quality data into GOLD are briefly highlighted. GOLD fully supports and follows the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Minimum Information standards.

  11. The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) v.5: a metadata management system based on a four level (meta)genome project classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T.B.K.; Thomas, Alex D.; Stamatis, Dimitri; Bertsch, Jon; Isbandi, Michelle; Jansson, Jakob; Mallajosyula, Jyothi; Pagani, Ioanna; Lobos, Elizabeth A.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2015-01-01

    The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD; http://www.genomesonline.org) is a comprehensive online resource to catalog and monitor genetic studies worldwide. GOLD provides up-to-date status on complete and ongoing sequencing projects along with a broad array of curated metadata. Here we report version 5 (v.5) of the database. The newly designed database schema and web user interface supports several new features including the implementation of a four level (meta)genome project classification system and a simplified intuitive web interface to access reports and launch search tools. The database currently hosts information for about 19 200 studies, 56 000 Biosamples, 56 000 sequencing projects and 39 400 analysis projects. More than just a catalog of worldwide genome projects, GOLD is a manually curated, quality-controlled metadata warehouse. The problems encountered in integrating disparate and varying quality data into GOLD are briefly highlighted. GOLD fully supports and follows the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Minimum Information standards. PMID:25348402

  12. The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) v.5: a metadata management system based on a four level (meta)genome project classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Tatiparthi B. K. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Thomas, Alex D. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Stamatis, Dimitri [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Bertsch, Jon [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Isbandi, Michelle [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Jansson, Jakob [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Mallajosyula, Jyothi [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Pagani, Ioanna [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lobos, Elizabeth A. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Kyrpides, Nikos C. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-27

    The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD; http://www.genomesonline.org) is a comprehensive online resource to catalog and monitor genetic studies worldwide. GOLD provides up-to-date status on complete and ongoing sequencing projects along with a broad array of curated metadata. Within this paper, we report version 5 (v.5) of the database. The newly designed database schema and web user interface supports several new features including the implementation of a four level (meta)genome project classification system and a simplified intuitive web interface to access reports and launch search tools. The database currently hosts information for about 19 200 studies, 56 000 Biosamples, 56 000 sequencing projects and 39 400 analysis projects. More than just a catalog of worldwide genome projects, GOLD is a manually curated, quality-controlled metadata warehouse. The problems encountered in integrating disparate and varying quality data into GOLD are briefly highlighted. Lastly, GOLD fully supports and follows the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Minimum Information standards.

  13. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  14. Nanoparticle-assisted STED nanoscopy with gold nanospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Nicolai T; Hell, Stefan W; Sivan, Yonatan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy with 20 nm gold nanospheres coated by fluorescent silica. Compared with previous demonstrations of STED with a hybrid plasmonic fluorescent label, the current implementation offers a substantially smaller label and a better resolution improvement of up to 2.5-fold beyond the diffraction limit of confocal microscopy. This is achieved at approximately 2 times lower intensity than conventional STED based on dyes alone, and in an aqueous environment, demonstrating the relevance to bio-imaging. Finally, we also show, for the first time in this context, a 3-fold reduction in the rate of photobleaching compared to standard dye-based STED, thus, enabling brighter images.

  15. Plant Extract (Bupleurum falcatum) as a Green Factory for Biofabrication of Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You Jeong; Cha, Song-Hyun; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2015-09-01

    This work describes a biofabrication process for gold nanoparticles in which the plant extract (Bupleurum falcatum) is used as a reducing agent to convert gold ions to gold nanoparticles. Biofabricated gold nanoparticles with spherical shapes were observed with an average diameter of 10.5 ± 2.3 nm. The color of the gold nanoparticles was purple, with a surface plasmon resonance peak at 542 nm. The face-centered cubic structure of crystalline gold was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction patterns. The biofabricated gold nanoparticles demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards the 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction. The current report suggests that plant extracts are valuable natural sources for the biofabrication of gold nanoparticles with excellent catalytic activities.

  16. Gold-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles restrict growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Swiecicka, Izabela; Wilczewska, Agnieszka Z; Misztalewska, Iwona; Kalska-Szostko, Beata; Bienias, Kamil; Bucki, Robert; Car, Halina

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and their derivatives (aminosilane and gold-coated) have been widely investigated in numerous medical applications, including their potential to act as antibacterial drug carriers that may penetrate into bacteria cells and biofilm mass. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent cause of infection in hospitalized patients, and significant numbers of currently isolated clinical strains are resistant to standard antibiotic therapy. Here we describe the impact of three types of SPIONs on the growth of P. aeruginosa during long-term bacterial culture. Their size, structure, and physicochemical properties were determined using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We observed significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa growth in bacterial cultures continued over 96 hours in the presence of gold-functionalized nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Au). At the 48-hour time point, growth of P. aeruginosa, as assessed by the number of colonies grown from treated samples, showed the highest inhibition (decreased by 40%). These data provide strong evidence that Fe3O4@Au can dramatically reduce growth of P. aeruginosa and provide a platform for further study of the antibacterial activity of this nanomaterial. PMID:24855358

  17. Phonon assisted thermophoretic motion of gold nanoparticles inside carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Philipp A. E.; Walther, Jens H.; Poulikakos, Dimos; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2007-06-01

    The authors investigate the thermally driven mass transport of gold nanoparticles confined inside carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. The observed thermophoretic motion of the gold nanoparticles correlates with the phonon dispersion exhibited by a standard carbon nanotube and, in particular, with the breathing mode of the tube. Additionally, the results show an increased static friction for gold nanoparticles confines inside a zig-zag carbon nanotube when increasing the size (length) of the nanoparticles. However, an unexpected, opposite trend is observed for the same nanoparticles inside armchair tubes.

  18. Phonon assisted thermophoretic motion of gold nanoparticles inside carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Philipp A.E.; Walther, Jens Honore; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the thermally driven mass transport of gold nanoparticles confined inside carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. The observed thermophoretic motion of the gold nanoparticles correlates with the phonon dispersion exhibited by a standard carbon nanotube and......, in particular, with the breathing mode of the tube. Additionally, the results show an increased static friction for gold nanoparticles confines inside a zig-zag carbon nanotube when increasing the size length of the nanoparticles. However, an unexpected, opposite trend is observed for the same nanoparticles...

  19. The Analysis and Research on Current Situation and Counter measures of Mobile Laboratory Standards in China%中国移动实验室标准的现状分析与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈弘; 苏锡辉; 刘阳

    2014-01-01

    Based on lots of field investigations and researches, this article analyzes in details the current situation of mobile laboratory standards in China, summarizes and explains the existing problems in standardization, and puts forward reasonable measures for the development of the industry.

  20. Chemistry for oncotheranostic gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouiller, Anne Juliette; Hebié, Seydou; El Bahhaj, Fatima; Napporn, Teko W; Bertrand, Philippe

    2015-06-24

    This review presents in a comprehensive ways the chemical methods used to functionalize gold nanoparticles with focus on anti-cancer applications. The review covers the parameters required for the synthesis gold nanoparticles with defined shapes and sizes, method for targeted delivery in tumours, and selected examples of anti-cancers compounds delivered with gold nanoparticles. A short survey of bioassays for oncology based on gold nanoparticles is also presented.

  1. Development of plating thickness standards. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Standards which are unavailable from the National Bureau of Standards were developed to support the nondestructive measurement of plating thickness. Their fabrication, measurement, certification, and calibration-recall schedule are discussed. Reference standards that have been put into service include aluminum/Kapton, silver/copper, tin/steel, gold/silver, cadmium/Kovar, silver/iron, rhodium/copper, and gold/ceramic. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  3. Digging for Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2012-01-01

    In the case of higher education, the hills are more like mountains of data that "we're accumulating at a ferocious rate," according to Gerry McCartney, CIO of Purdue University (Indiana). "Every higher education institution has this data, but it just sits there like gold in the ground," complains McCartney. Big Data and the new tools people are…

  4. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  5. Digging for Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2012-01-01

    In the case of higher education, the hills are more like mountains of data that "we're accumulating at a ferocious rate," according to Gerry McCartney, CIO of Purdue University (Indiana). "Every higher education institution has this data, but it just sits there like gold in the ground," complains McCartney. Big Data and the new tools people are…

  6. Aiming for Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-three years ago he claimed China’s first Olympic gold medal,with a win in the 50-meter pistol shooting competition.Now Xu Haifeng is leading the country’s modern pentathlon team in its bid for success at the Beijing Games

  7. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  8. SU-E-J-247: A Simulation of X-Ray Emission with Gold Nanoparticle Irradiated by Energetic Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newpower, M; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the proton induced X-ray emissions in gold-water mixture materials. Methods: In this study a Monte Carlo simulation was created using the GEANT4 toolkit (version 4.9.6). The geometry in this setup includes a 2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm target, a scoring sphere (radius = 10 cm) and a 65 MeV planar proton source (2 cm × 2 cm). Four concentrations of a gold-water solution were irradiated with 5×10{sup 5} incident protons at a distance of 0.5 cm perpendicular to the surface of the target. The solutions of gold-water mixture had 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.5% of gold by mass, respectively. The number of photon emitting for the target was counted in the scoring sphere for the energy range of 0-86.0 keV in 0.1 keV bins. For this study the reference physics list PhysListEmStandard was used together with the x-ray fluorescence, Auger electron and PIXE (particle induced xray emission) options enabled. The range cuts for photons and electrons were set at 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm, respectively. Results: In the energy spectra of emitting X-ray fluorescence, peaks from gold K shell characteristic x-rays (68.8 and 66.9 keV) were observed. The number of counts under the peaks of Ka1 and Ka2 was found to increase with the increasing of the gold concentrations in the mixture materials. The X-ray yields (for both Ka1 and Ka2) when fitted with least-square method as a function of gold concentration demonstrate a linear dependency with R{sup 2} > 0.96. The Ka1yield per incident proton was found to be 0.0016 for 10% gold-water mixture solutions. Conclusion: This preliminary study with PIXE technique with gold nanoparticle has demonstrated potentials for its utilization in the development of range and dose verification methodology that is currently of great interest in the field of proton radiation therapy.

  9. Hydroquinone Based Synthesis of Gold Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolini, Silvia; Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Gramatica, Furio; Morasso, Carlo

    2016-08-10

    Gold nanorods are an important kind of nanoparticles characterized by peculiar plasmonic properties. Despite their widespread use in nanotechnology, the synthetic methods for the preparation of gold nanorods are still not fully optimized. In this paper we describe a new, highly efficient, two-step protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a mild reducing agent. Our approach allows the preparation of nanorods with a good control of size and aspect ratio (AR) simply by varying the amount of hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and silver ions (Ag(+)) present in the "growth solution". By using this method, it is possible to markedly reduce the amount of CTAB, an expensive and cytotoxic reagent, necessary to obtain the elongated shape. Gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of about 3 can be obtained in the presence of just 50 mM of CTAB (versus 100 mM used in the standard protocol based on the use of ascorbic acid), while shorter gold nanorods are obtained using a concentration as low as 10 mM.

  10. Current perspectives on reflux laryngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Hojo, Mariko; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-12-01

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an extraesophageal manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). With the increase of GERD patients, the importance of LPR is acknowledged widely. However, the pathophysiology of LPR is not understood completely and the diagnostic criteria for LPR remain controversial. Unfortunately, a gold standard diagnostic test for reflux laryngitis is not available. Recently, an experimental animal model for reflux laryngitis was developed to investigate the pathophysiology of reflux laryngitis. An empirical trial of lifestyle modification and proton pump inhibitor therapy is a reasonable approach for LPR symptoms. Alternatives after failure with aggressive medical treatment are limited and multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring is currently the best alternative to detect nonacid reflux. Additional prospective and evidence-based research is anticipated.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES OF ELECTRO-THERMAL RESISTIBILITY OF SEND-OFFS AND CABLES TO ACTION RATIONED ON THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD OF IEC 62305-1-2010 OF APERIODIC IMPULSE OF CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING

    OpenAIRE

    M.I. Baranov; Rudakov, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Experimental researches of electro-thermal resistibility of cable-explorer products, applied in the power electric circuits of objects of electric-power industry, to action on its copper and aluminum parts bearings a current rationed on the International Standard of IEC 62305-1-2010 aperiodic impulse 10/350 μs of current of artificial lightning. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of technique of high tensions and high pulsed currents (HPC), and also scientific and technical bases of p...

  12. Low-energy ED-XRF spectrometry application in gold assaying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marucco, Alessandra E-mail: marucco@itia.cnr.it

    2004-01-01

    The performances of a low-energy dispersive XRF spectrometer in gold assaying are evaluated by a series of analysis on international standards and other certified gold alloys with. Results of standard-free analysis based on fundamental parameters method compared to results of multi-standard method, demonstrate a large gain of accuracy by drawing appropriate calibration curves with use of 1 to 16 matrix-specific standards. The accuracy of gold assaying has improved by a factor of 10, as compared to the conventional touchstone test. This rather economical technique satisfies then numerous precious alloys analyst needs, representing an excellent alternative to the traditional method for quick anti-fraud controls.

  13. Cancer theranostics with gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Wallace, Michael; Melancon, Marites P

    2014-09-01

    Gold nanoshells (AuNSs) present a vivid example of integrating nanoscience in order to solve a biomedical problem. AuNSs exhibit tunable surface plasmon resonance, which can be tuned to the near-infrared region in order to realize optimal tissue penetration. The highly efficient light-to-heat transformation by AuNSs during laser irradiation causes thermal damage to the tumor without damaging healthy organs. Transient nanobubbles can form around AuNSs during laser treatment and induce mechanical stress specifically in tumor cells. AuNSs also serve as a versatile platform for the delivery of various diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In this article, we describe the physicochemical properties of AuNSs in the context of their design, preparation and application in cancer theranostics. Ultimately, we look beyond the current research on AuNSs and discussed future challenges to their successful translation into clinical use.

  14. PXRF characterization of gold nanoparticles in human cancer cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Fabio; Estevam, Marcelo; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Panis, Carolina; Galvao, Tiago Dutra [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil); Zucolotto, Valtencir [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full Text: Nanomaterials, including nanoparticles and nanotubes, have been widely used in biotechnology and medicine. Applications include systems for controlled release of drugs, biomarkers, biosensors and devices for diagnosis of various diseases like cancer, tuberculosis and Chagas. In the case of cancer, the success of current anti-cancer therapy depends on the speed of diagnosis. Gold nanoparticles can be used to visualize lesions or to destroy cancer cells. In this study, was developed a methodology for identification and quantification of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) deposited on polymer films and matrices that simulate the human skin with pH 7.4, as well as determining the radiation dose of the measures. The nanoparticles were chemically synthesized at the Laboratory of Nanomedicine and nanotoxicology the IFSC/USP and used in concentrations from 1 ppm to 1000 ppm. The measurements were performed with the portable system of the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics (LFNA-UEL), composed of X-ray detector type S-PIN with a resolution of 149 eV for the line at 5.9 keV Mn (AMPTEK) and an X-ray detector type Si-Drift with a resolution of 139 eV for 5.9 keV line of Fe (AMPTEK) and standard electronics, the excitation of samples was performed with a mini X-ray tube with target Silver operated at 28 kV and 10{mu} A (MOXTEK). Filters were used for silver and aluminum in the output of X-ray tube. The positioner for the set of excitation-detection allows degrees of freedom of translation and rotation. The lower limit of quantification was 5 ppm of gold, using measurement times of 300 s to 1000 s, with R2 ranging from 0.92 to 0.96. X-ray fluorescence lines of gold were analyzed by 8.5 keV, 9.7 keV and 11.4 keV showing a statistical deviation of 0.24. (author)

  15. Current trends in molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhas, Raquel; Cordeiro, Milton; Pedrosa, Pedro; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Baptista, Pedro V

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 1.5 million people worldwide suffer from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), characterized by the genetic translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), involving the fusion of the Abelson oncogene (ABL1) with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene. Early onset diagnosis coupled to current therapeutics allow for a treatment success rate of 90, which has focused research on the development of novel diagnostics approaches. In this review, we present a critical perspective on current strategies for CML diagnostics, comparing to gold standard methodologies and with an eye on the future trends on nanotheranostics.

  16. Cytogenetic evaluation of gold nanorods using Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshwari, A; Roy, Barsha; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-12-01

    The current study reveals the impact of gold nanorods (NRs) capped with CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) or PEG (polyethylene glycol) on Allium cepa. The morphology and surface charge of CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs were characterized by electron microscopic and zeta potential analyses. The chromosomal aberrations like clumped chromosome, chromosomal break, chromosomal bridge, diagonal anaphase, disturbed metaphase, laggard chromosome, and sticky chromosome were observed in the root tip cells exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL) of CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs. We found that both CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs were able to induce toxicity in the plant system after 4-h interaction. At a maximum concentration of 10 μg/mL, the mitotic index reduction induced by CTAB-capped gold NRs was 40-fold higher than that induced by PEG-capped gold NRs. The toxicity of gold NRs was further confirmed by lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress analyses. The unbound CTAB also contributed to the toxicity in root tip cells, while PEG alone shows less toxicity to the cells. The vehicle control CTAB contributed to the toxic effects in root tip cells, while PEG alone did not show any toxicity to the cells. The results revealed that even though both the particles have adverse effects on A. cepa, there was a significant difference in the mitotic index and oxidative stress generation in root cells exposed to CTAB-capped gold NRs. Thus, this study concludes that the surface polymerization of gold NRs by PEG can reduce the toxicity of CTAB-capped gold NRs.

  17. Global demand for gold is another threat for tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L.; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The current global gold rush, driven by increasing consumption in developing countries and uncertainty in financial markets, is an increasing threat for tropical ecosystems. Gold mining causes significant alteration to the environment, yet mining is often overlooked in deforestation analyses because it occupies relatively small areas. As a result, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the spatial extent of gold mining impacts on tropical forests. In this study, we provide a regional assessment of gold mining deforestation in the tropical moist forest biome of South America. Specifically, we analyzed the patterns of forest change in gold mining sites between 2001 and 2013, and evaluated the proximity of gold mining deforestation to protected areas (PAs). The forest cover maps were produced using the Land Mapper web application and images from the MODIS satellite MOD13Q1 vegetation indices 250 m product. Annual maps of forest cover were used to model the incremental change in forest in ˜1600 potential gold mining sites between 2001-2006 and 2007-2013. Approximately 1680 km2 of tropical moist forest was lost in these mining sites between 2001 and 2013. Deforestation was significantly higher during the 2007-2013 period, and this was associated with the increase in global demand for gold after the international financial crisis. More than 90% of the deforestation occurred in four major hotspots: Guianan moist forest ecoregion (41%), Southwest Amazon moist forest ecoregion (28%), Tapajós-Xingú moist forest ecoregion (11%), and Magdalena Valley montane forest and Magdalena-Urabá moist forest ecoregions (9%). In addition, some of the more active zones of gold mining deforestation occurred inside or within 10 km of ˜32 PAs. There is an urgent need to understand the ecological and social impacts of gold mining because it is an important cause of deforestation in the most remote forests in South America, and the impacts, particularly in aquatic systems, spread well

  18. Current status of the dual-frequency precipitation radar on the global precipitation measurement core spacecraft and the new version of GPM standard products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, K.; Nio, T.; Konishi, T.; Masaki, T.; Kubota, T.; Oki, R.; Iguchi, T.

    2016-10-01

    The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite was developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The objective of the GPM mission is to observe global precipitation more frequently and accurately. The GPM core satellite is a joint product of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), JAXA and NICT. NASA developed the satellite bus and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), and JAXA and NICT developed the DPR. The inclination of the GPM core satellite is 65 degrees, and the nominal flight altitude is 407 km. The non-sunsynchronous circular orbit is necessary for measuring the diurnal change of rainfall. The DPR consists of two radars, which are Ku-band precipitation radar (KuPR) and Ka-band precipitation radar (KaPR). GPM core observatory was successfully launched by H2A launch vehicle on Feb. 28, 2014. DPR keeps its performances on orbit after launch. DPR products were released to the public on Sep. 2, 2014. JAXA is continuing DPR trend monitoring, calibration and validation operations to confirm that DPR keeps its function and performance on orbit. JAXA have started to provide new version (Version 4) of GPM standard products on March 3, 2016. Various improvements of the DPR algorithm were implemented in the Version 4 product. Moreover, the latent heat product based on the Spectral Latent Heating (SLH) algorithm is available since Version 4 product. Current orbital operation status of the GPM/DPR and highlights of the Version 4 product are reported.

  19. Spiky gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Park, So-Jung

    2010-12-21

    We report a high-yield synthetic method for a new type of metal nanostructure, spiky gold nanoshells, which combine the morphological characteristics of hollow metal nanoshells and nanorods. Our method utilizes block copolymer assemblies and polymer beads as templates for the growth of spiky nanoshells. Various shapes of spiky metal nanoshells were prepared in addition to spherical nanoshells by using block copolymer assemblies such as rod-like micelles, vesicles, and bilayers as templates. Furthermore, spiky gold shells encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles or quantum dots were prepared based on the ability of block copolymers to self-assemble with various types of nanoparticles and molecules. The capability to encapsulate other materials in the core, the shape tunability, and the highly structured surface of spiky nanoshells should benefit a range of imaging, sensing, and medical applications of metal nanostructures.

  20. Gold induced apoptsis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    at the moment, especially in the fields of lasers, they though have some problems concerning the placement of the tumor in the human body. Local heating by MR has tremendous advance in comparison too lasers. The first step is to validate the hypothesis of the inductive heating of the gold nano particles trough......Introduction   Cancer cells are highly thermo sensitive. On the basis of an article in Nature the idea arose, for a new non-invasive thermotherapy technique, based on radio frequency inductive heating of nano gold particles in an MR-scanner. Thermotherapy is getting considerably attention...... the low energy radio frequencies. If the method is demonstrated to be feasible, next step is testing in cell line trials.   Confocal microscopy experiments on cells are very hard to do reliable and reproducible statistic on, due to the fact that that it’s user counting which makes the data. Automatic...

  1. The RHIC gold rush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, T. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Physicists are colliding gold nuclei to recreate the fireball that existed in the very early universe, and they may have found evidence for quark-gluon plasma. What happens to ordinary matter as you heat it to higher and higher temperatures, or compress it to greater and greater densities? This simple question underpins a major effort to create extreme conditions in the lab, which has recently taken the shape of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This machine has been colliding gold nuclei since 2000, and has produced tantalizing hints that a new state of matter - the quark-gluon plasma - is created in the reactions. But it has also sparked surprises that are sending researchers back to the drawing board. (U.K.)

  2. The RHIC gold rush

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, T

    2003-01-01

    Physicists are colliding gold nuclei to recreate the fireball that existed in the very early universe, and they may have found evidence for quark-gluon plasma. What happens to ordinary matter as you heat it to higher and higher temperatures, or compress it to greater and greater densities? This simple question underpins a major effort to create extreme conditions in the lab, which has recently taken the shape of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This machine has been colliding gold nuclei since 2000, and has produced tantalizing hints that a new state of matter - the quark-gluon plasma - is created in the reactions. But it has also sparked surprises that are sending researchers back to the drawing board. (U.K.)

  3. Film Ace Takes Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "Really, I never, never expected to win this," said Chinese director Jia Zhangke on hearing he had taken the top award for his movie Still Life (Sanxia Haoren) at the Venice Film Festival, on September 9. A surprise late entry, Still Life quickly emerged as the favorite and the Gold Lion was again hugged by Chinese. The well-known Chinese director Zhang Yimou won the same award back in 1999, for Not One Less-also a

  4. JUNK: rubbish to gold

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    JUNK: rubbish to gold is a playful exploration of community economies (exchange, giving, bartering, gathering, earning, harvesting); putting on display the process of creating the ‘work of art’. Co-created and co-curated by Jivan Astfalck, Laura Bradshaw-Heap and Rachel Darbourne and partnered with charities, who supplied JUNK jewellery. During a public performance 31 jewellers ‘gifted’ their skills, (re)constructing pieces selected from a mountain of JUNK creating reimagined artworks for the...

  5. Rushing for gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

    2009-01-01

    African rural dwellers have faced depressed economic prospects for several decades. Now, in a number of mineral-rich countries, multiple discoveries of gold and precious stones have attracted large numbers of prospective small-scale miners. While their 'rush' to, and activities within, mining sit...... affluent than the others, suggesting that movement can be rewarding for those willing to 'try their luck' with the hard work and social networking demands of mining another site....

  6. World-class Xincheng gold deposit:An example from the giant Jiaodong gold province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqiang Yang; Jun Deng; Ruipeng Guo; Lin’nan Guo; Zhongliang Wang; Binghan Chen; Xudong Wang

    2016-01-01

    The Jiaodong gold deposits are currently the most important gold resources (with Au reserves of>4000 t) in China, and the leading gold-producing country globally (with Au production of w428 t in 2013). Jiaodong is also considered as perhaps the only world-class to giant gold accumulation on the planet where relatively young gold ores (ca. 130e120 Ma) were deposited in rocks that are 2 Ga older. The Xincheng world-class high-grade gold deposit, with a proven reserve of >200 t gold, is one of the largest deposits in the giant gold province of the Jiaodong Peninsula. It is located in the northwestern part of the Jiaobei Uplift, and hosted by ca. 132e123 Ma Xincheng quartz monzonites and monzogranites. Ore zones are structurally controlled by the NE-trending and NW-dipping Jiaojia Fault and subsidiary faults, and are mainly restricted to the footwall of the fault. The dominant disseminated-and stockwork-style ores are associated with strong sericitization, silicification, sulfidation and K-feldspathization, and minor carbonate wallrock alteration halos. The four mineralization stages are pyriteequartzesericite (stage 1), quartzepyrite (stage 2), quartzepolysulfide (stage 3) and quartzecarbonate (stage 4). Gold occurs dominantly as electrum, with lesser amounts of sulfide-hosted native gold and rare native silver and argentite, normally associated with pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and sphalerite:the latter with proven resources of about 105 t Ag, 713 t Cu, and 5100 t S. There are three types of ore-related fluid inclusions: type 1 aqueous-carbonate (H2OeCO2), type 2 aqueous (liquid H2O þ vapor H2O), and type 3 CO2 (liquid CO2 and vapor CO2) inclusions. Homogeni-zation temperatures range from 221 to 304 ?C for type 1 inclusions, with salinities of 2.4e13.3 wt.%NaCl eq., and bulk densities of 0.858e1.022 g/cm3. The d34SCDT values of hydrothermal sulfides are 4.3e10.6&and d18O values of hydrothermal quartz have a median value of 13.0&. dD values of fluid inclusions in

  7. Initial Studies Concerning the Current Status and Problems on the Formulation and Revision of the National Standards for Electric Insulation Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction After its accession to the WTO, China must establish an operational mechanism for the standardization work to meet the demands of domestic and foreign markets, and gradually perfect a standard system that meet the needs of national economy and social development.

  8. NODC Standard Product: Texas-Louisiana Shelf Circulation and Transport Processes Study: Current Meter, Meteorological Buoy, XBT/XSV/XCP/CTD/IES (NODC Accession 9700319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This package contains current direction/velocity, water temperature, air temperature, salinity, and other data which were collected using current meter, CTD casts,...

  9. The 'price' of Olympic Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, K; Norton, K

    2000-06-01

    In 1981 the Commonwealth Government established the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). The Australian Sports Commission (ASC) which administers the AIS has 2 objectives: (1) excellence in sports performances; and (2) increased participation in sports and sports activities. State-based institutes of sport have also been established with the same or very similar objectives. Federal policy directs the bulk of the ASC budget to elite athlete programs. A smaller proportion goes towards community participation. The official reason is based on the notion of the 'trickle-down' or 'demonstration' effect. That is, a flow-on of benefits to the broader community in the form of increased participation as a direct result of elite sports success. The aims of this study were to determine the (1) spending pattern to elite sports programs for the 5 Olympics 1976/77 to 1995/96, (2) evidence for the two ASC objectives having been met, and (3) expected medal tally at the 2000 Olympic Games. Results show funding (in 1998 dollars), has accelerated from about $1.2 million (1976/77) to $106 million in (1997/98), particularly since the Games were awarded to Sydney. The total amount spent on elite athletes was $0.918 billion. In the period 1980-96 Australia won 25 gold and 115 total Olympic medals. This equates to approximately $37 million per gold and $8 million per medal in general. There was a significant linear relationship between money spent and total medals won. This was also found when all medal types were analysed independently. The predicted medal tally in 2000 (based on the cost per medal and the expenditure towards Sydney) indicates the medal count will be about 14+/-1 gold, 15+/-2 silver and 33+/-4 bronze. Based on our nation's record of international sporting achievement, there is little doubt we have fulfilled the ASC's first objective. Current data on physical activity patterns of Australians suggest the second objective has not been met. Focusing attention on and achieving

  10. Size-Dependent Electrocatalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles on HOPG and Highly Boron-Doped Diamond Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Brülle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles were prepared by electrochemical deposition on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG and boron-doped, epitaxial 100-oriented diamond layers. Using a potentiostatic double pulse technique, the average particle size was varied in the range from 5 nm to 30 nm in the case of HOPG as a support and between < 1 nm and 15 nm on diamond surfaces, while keeping the particle density constant. The distribution of particle sizes was very narrow, with standard deviations of around 20% on HOPG and around 30% on diamond. The electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen evolution and oxygen reduction of these carbon supported gold nanoparticles in dependence of the particle sizes was investigated using cyclic voltammetry. For oxygen reduction the current density normalized to the gold surface (specific current density increased for decreasing particle size. In contrast, the specific current density of hydrogen evolution showed no dependence on particle size. For both reactions, no effect of the different carbon supports on electrocatalytic activity was observed.

  11. Radiotherapy of high-grade gliomas:current standards and new concepts, innovations in imaging and radiotherapy, and new therapeutic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frederic Dhermain

    2014-01-01

    The current standards in radiotherapy of high-grade gliomas (HGG) are based on anatomic imaging techniques, usually computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The guidelines vary depending on whether the HGG is a histological grade 3 anaplastic glioma (AG) or a grade 4 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). For AG, T2-weighted MRI sequences plus the region of contrast enhancement in T1 are considered for the delineation of the gross tumor volume (GTV), and an isotropic expansion of 15 to 20 mm is recommended for the clinical target volume (CTV). For GBM, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group favors a two-step technique, with an initial phase (CTV1) including any T2 hyperintensity area (edema) plus a 20 mm margin treated with up to 46 Gy in 23 fractions, followed by a reduction in CTV2 to the contrast enhancement region in T1 with an additional 25 mm margin. The European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer recommends a single-phase technique with a unique GTV, which comprises the T1 contrast enhancement region plus a margin of 20 to 30 mm. A total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions is usual y delivered for GBM, and a dose of 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions is typical y given for AG. As more than 85% of HGGs recur in field, dose-escalation studies have shown that 70 to 75 Gy can be delivered in 6 weeks with relevant toxicities developing in60 Gy. Trials delivering a SIB into a biological GTV showed the feasibility of this treatment, but the final results, in terms of clinical benefits for HGG patients, are stil pending. Many issues have been identified: the variety of MRI and PET machines (and amino-acid tracers), the heterogeneity of the protocols used for image acquisition and post-treatment, the geometric distortion and the unreliable algorithms for co-registration of brain anatomy with functional maps, and the semi-quiescent but highly invasive HGG cells. These issues could be solved by the homogenization of the protocols and software

  12. Applications of gold nanoparticles in cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Cai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Weibo Cai1,2, Ting Gao3, Hao Hong1, Jiangtao Sun11Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 2University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 3Tyco Electronics Corporation, 306 Constitution Drive, Menlo Park, California, USAAbstract: It has been almost 4 decades since the “war on cancer” was declared. It is now generally believed that personalized medicine is the future for cancer patient management. Possessing unprecedented potential for early detection, accurate diagnosis, and personalized treatment of cancer, nanoparticles have been extensively studied over the last decade. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of gold nanoparticles in biomedical applications targeting cancer. Gold nanospheres, nanorods, nanoshells, nanocages, and surface enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles will be discussed in detail regarding their uses in in vitro assays, ex vivo and in vivo imaging, cancer therapy, and drug delivery. Multifunctionality is the key feature of nanoparticle-based agents. Targeting ligands, imaging labels, therapeutic drugs, and other functionalities can all be integrated to allow for targeted molecular imaging and molecular therapy of cancer. Big strides have been made and many proof-of-principle studies have been successfully performed. The future looks brighter than ever yet many hurdles remain to be conquered. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanoparticles, with multiple receptor targeting, multimodality imaging, and multiple therapeutic entities, holds the promise for a “magic gold bullet” against cancer.Keywords: gold nanoparticles, cancer, nanotechnology, optical imaging, nanomedicine, molecular therapy

  13. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghorbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased interest in understanding the toxicity and rational design of gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications in recent years. In this study gold nanoparticles were synthesized using dextrose as a reducing agent. The gold nanoparticles displayed characteristic Surface Plasmon Resonance peak at around 550 nm having a mean particle size of 75±30 nm. In order to identify and analyze nanoparticles, UV–Vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used.

  14. Current Situation and Development Strategies of China Fur Industry Standardization%我国裘皮行业标准化体系现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华彦; 张伟; 刘欣

    2012-01-01

    The current situation and problems of China fur industry standardization was analyzed. The standardization frame work and development strategies of China fur industry standardization were also discussed.%通过分析我国裘皮行业标准化工作的现状与存在的问题,探讨了我国裘皮行业标准化体系框架及现阶段裘皮行业标准化的发展策略。

  15. Preparation of colloidal gold immunochromatography strip for detection of methamidophos residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chenggang; ZHAO Suqing; ZHANG Kun; HONG Guobao; ZHU Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    Methamidophos (Met) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide and acaricide. Even a trace of its residue is harmful to humans and many animals. In this study, the synthesis and identification of colloidal gold particles and antibody-colloidal gold conjugates were performed, and the preparation of colloidal gold immunochromatography strip was conducted for detection of Met residue. The size of colloidal gold particles was checked using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The formation of antibody-colloidal gold conjugates was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The preparation of colloidal gold immunochromatography strips,analysis of Met standard solutions, and other four pesticides and vegetable samples were operated with common methods and principals.The TEM images showed the average diameter of colloidal gold particles was almost the same size: approximately 40.0 nm in diameter.For the conjugation of colloidal gold and monoclonal antibody (MAb), 0.03 mg/ml of MAb was confirmed to be the minimum amount for stabilization of colloidal gold. With the prepared colloidal gold immunochromatography test strip to determine the standard Met solution, the results demonstrated a detection limit of approximately 1.0 μg/ml. Cross-reaction indicated that the strip had a high specificity to Met. The results of 10 green vegetable sample tests confirmed that one sample was positive by HPLC analysis. There was evidence to suggest that colloidal gold particles and antibody-colloidal gold conjugates were synthesized successfully. The prepared colloidal gold immunochromatography strip was applicable for preliminary screening of Met residue.

  16. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  17. Gold recovery from low concentrations using nanoporous silica adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledresse, Adil

    gold adsorption shows the high affinity of the mesoporous material to the gold-thiosulphate ([Au (S2O3)2]3- ) ions. A high adsorption saturation level for these materials was found, up to 0.25 mmol (5 mg) Au/g of HMS from gold-thiosulphate solutions. When ammonia was added to the thiosulphate solutions, with or without added copper, the mesoporous material (HMS) achieved the maximum adsorption, 0.24 mmol (47 mg) Au/g of HMS at pH = 7, where as 0.14 mmol (28 mg) Au/g was adsorbed from ammonia-thiosulphate solution at pH > 6. For the fist time, a promising adsorbent system has been found that is capable of effectively concentrating gold thiosulphate complexes, whereas conventional carbon-in-pulp (CIP) and carbon-in-leach (CIL) systems fail. For process design of gold adsorption by HMS particles, certain engineering conditions and practical limitations have to be considered, including particle size of the MP-HMS. Therefore, several experiments have been conducted to enlarge the size of the very fine MP-HMS particles to a size (1--2mm) satisfying the engineering requirements for process design in a real practical and industrial process. The agglomerated mesoporous materials, using sodium metasilicate (Na 2SiO3) binder, adsorbed gold ions in the range of 51%--63% of what the parent HMS powder adsorb. That means the agglomerates can adsorb 19--23% of their own weight (or 190--230 mg Au per one gram of the agglomerated HMS) from [AuCL4]- which is still very satisfactory and acceptable comparing to the current used adsorbents.

  18. Patterning of oxide-hardened gold black by photolithography and metal lift-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep Panjwani; Mehmet Yesiltas; Janardan Nath; D.E. Maukonen; Imen Rezadad; Evan M. Smith; R.E. Peale; Carol Hirschmugl; Julia Sedlmair; Ralf Wehlitz; Miriam Unger; Glenn Boreman

    2014-01-01

    A method to pattern infrared-absorbing gold black by conventional photolithography and lift-off is described. A photo-resist pattern is developed on a substrate by standard photolithography. Gold black is deposited over the whole by thermal evaporation in an inert gas at

  19. Proportion of U.S. Civilian Population Ineligible for U.S. Air Force Enlistment Based on Current and Previous Weight Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    place. However, in June 2006 the USAF implemented a new set of height-weight limits utilizing body mass index ( BMI ) criteria [3, 4]. The...the maximum weight limit, alternative body fat assessments are made to guarantee that eligible and qualified enlistees do not get overlooked [5...weight standards serve as a preliminary appraisal, and should an individual exceed these limits, he/she may undergo a standardized body fat

  20. [Standardization of measurement of catalytic activity concentration of enzymes--current situation regarding the external quality assessment program provided by the Japan Medical Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes has been standardized using a traceability chain, consisting a reference measurement system for enzyme catalytic activity and reference standard-JSCC enzyme. The Japan Medical Association (JMA) has provided an external quality assessment (EQA) survey program for clinical laboratory testing. More than 3,100 clinical laboratories participated in 2008. The EQA program indicated that standardization of the measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes has been completed for AST, ALT, LD, ALP, gammaGT, and CK in more than 90% laboratories, and for Amy and ChE in nearly 80% of laboratories. Because such a large survey program must use artificial specimens, a matrix effect cannot be avoided, especially in dry chemistry. However, the bias produced by a matrix effect usually has a predictable tendency: it can be corrected. Next, after standardization of the measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes, we should develop and use common reference intervals. On completing the standardization, we can make standard medical decisions using reference measurement systems and rules.

  1. Solid gold nanostructures fabricated by electron beam deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Rasmussen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Direct writing with gold by electron beam deposition is a method for rapid fabrication of electrically conducting nanostructures. An environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) equipped with a source of the precursor gas dimethylacetylacetonate gold(Ill) was used to fabricate nanoscale tips...... and bridges. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study how the composition of these structures was affected when the background gas in the ESEM chamber and the electron beam parameters were varied. The nanostructures were layered composites of up to three different materials each characterized...... by a certain range of gold/carbon ratios. Above a certain threshold of ESEM chamber water vapor pressure and a certain threshold of electron beam current, the deposited tips contained a solid polycrystalline gold core. The deposition technique was used to fabricate free-standing nanowires and to solder free...

  2. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  3. Electrical characterization of gold-DNA-gold structures in presence of an external magnetic field by means of I-V curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatir, Nadia Mahmoudi; Banihashemian, Seyedeh Maryam; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Ritikos, Richard; Abd Majid, Wan Haliza; Abdul Rahman, Saadah

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study of gold-DNA-gold structures in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields with strengths less than 1,200.00 mT. The DNA strands, extracted by standard method were used to fabricate a Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM) structure. Its electric behavior when subjected to a magnetic field was studied through its current-voltage (I-V) curve. Acquisition of the I-V curve demonstrated that DNA as a semiconductor exhibits diode behavior in the MDM structure. The current versus magnetic field strength followed a decreasing trend because of a diminished mobility in the presence of a low magnetic field. This made clear that an externally imposed magnetic field would boost resistance of the MDM structure up to 1,000.00 mT and for higher magnetic field strengths we can observe an increase in potential barrier in MDM junction. The magnetic sensitivity indicates the promise of using MDM structures as potential magnetic sensors.

  4. Electroanalytical sensing of chromium(III) and (VI) utilising gold screen printed macro electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metters, Jonathan P; Kadara, Rashid O; Banks, Craig E

    2012-02-21

    We report the fabrication of gold screen printed macro electrodes which are electrochemically characterised and contrasted to polycrystalline gold macroelectrodes with their potential analytical application towards the sensing of chromium(III) and (VI) critically explored. It is found that while these gold screen printed macro electrodes have electrode kinetics typically one order of magnitude lower than polycrystalline gold macroelectrodes as is measured via a standard redox probe, in terms of analytical sensing, these gold screen printed macro electrodes mimic polycrystalline gold in terms of their analytical performance towards the sensing of chromium(III) and (VI), whilst boasting additional advantages over the macro electrode due to their disposable one-shot nature and the ease of mass production. An additional advantage of these gold screen printed macro electrodes compared to polycrystalline gold is the alleviation of the requirement to potential cycle the latter to form the required gold oxide which aids in the simplification of the analytical protocol. We demonstrate that gold screen printed macro electrodes allow the low micro-molar sensing of chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions over the range 10 to 1600 μM with a limit of detection (3σ) of 4.4 μM. The feasibility of the analytical protocol is also tested through chromium(VI) detection in environmental samples.

  5. What is the gold standard for comprehensive interinstitutional communication of perioperative information for thyroid cancer patients? A comparison of existing electronic health records with the current American Thyroid Association recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Laura L; Tuttle, R Michael; Alon, Eran; Bergman, Donald A; Bernet, Victor; Brett, Elise M; Cobin, Rhoda; Doherty, Gerard; Harris, Jeffrey R; Klopper, Joshua; Lee, Stephanie L; Lupo, Mark; Milas, Mira; Machac, Josef; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Orloff, Lisa; Randolph, Gregory; Ross, Douglas S; Smallridge, Robert C; Terris, David James; Tufano, Ralph P; Mehra, Saral; Scherl, Sophie; Clain, Jason B; Urken, Mark L

    2014-10-01

    Appropriate management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer requires treating clinicians to have access to critical elements of the patient's presentation, surgical management, postoperative course, and pathologic assessment. Electronic health records (EHRs) provide an effective method for the storage and transmission of patient information, although most commercially available EHRs are not intended to be disease-specific. In addition, there are significant challenges for the sharing of relevant clinical information when providers involved in the care of a patient with thyroid cancer are not connected by a common EHR. In 2012, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) defined the critical elements for optimal interclinician communication in a position paper entitled, "The Essential Elements of Interdisciplinary Communication of Perioperative Information for Patients Undergoing Thyroid Cancer Surgery." We present a field-by-field comparison of the ATA's essential elements as applied to three contemporary electronic reporting systems: the Thyroid Surgery e-Form from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), the Alberta WebSMR from the University of Calgary, and the Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative (TCCC). The MSKCC e-form fulfills 21 of 32 intraoperative fields and includes an additional 14 fields not specifically mentioned in the ATA's report. The Alberta WebSMR fulfills 45 of 82 preoperative and intraoperative fields outlined by the ATA and includes 13 additional fields. The TCCC fulfills 117 of 120 fields outlined by the ATA and includes 23 additional fields. Effective management of thyroid cancer is a highly collaborative, multidisciplinary effort. The patient information that factors into clinical decisions about thyroid cancer is complex. For these reasons, EHRs are particularly favorable for the management of patients with thyroid cancer. The MSKCC Thyroid Surgery e-Form, the Alberta WebSMR, and the TCCC each meet all of the general recommendations for effective reporting of the specific domains that they cover in the management of thyroid cancer, as recommended by the ATA. However, the TCCC format is the most comprehensive. The TCCC is a new Web-based disease-specific database to enhance communication of patient information between clinicians in a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant manner. We believe the easy-to-use TCCC format will enhance clinician communication while providing portability of thyroid cancer information for patients.

  6. Gold nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode for differential pulse voltammetric determination of eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Daryoush; Zarei, Somaye; Fathirad, Fariba; Mostafavi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a carbon paste electrode chemically modified with gold nanoparticles was used as a sensitive electrochemical sensor for determination of eugenol. The differential pulse voltammetric method was employed to study the behavior of eugenol on this modified electrode. The effect of variables such as percent of gold nanoparticles, pH of solution, accumulation potential and time on voltammogram peak current were optimized. The proposed electrode showed good oxidation response for eugenol in 0.1 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution (pH8) and the peak potential was about +285 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). The peak current increased linearly with the eugenol concentration in the range of 5-250 μmol L(-1). The detection limit was found to be 2.0 μmol L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 1.2% (n=7). The effect of interferences on the eugenol peak current was studied. The method has been applied to the determination of eugenol in different real samples, spiked recoveries were in the range of 96%-99%.

  7. Difference analysis on new national standard and current industry standard for hydraulic supports%液压支架新国标与现行行标的差异性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠辉

    2012-01-01

    介绍了新国标GB25974.1的特点,即更加强调液压支架的安全措施和安全性能。通过与旧标准MT312对比分析可知,二者差异性主要体现在:增加了循环复合加载项目对支架进行综合性能测试,为原来次数的2~3倍;增加了让缩性能试验项目,着重考核液压支架承受顶板下沉的能力;增加了水平加载和多项集中栽荷试验项目等强度试验项目。这些变化和改进对液压支架的结构强度、耐久性能和安全性能等方面提出了更高要求。新标准基本上与国际标准接轨,该标准的颁布使我国的液压支架标准体系更加完善,对于提高我国液压支架的设计、制造和试验水平将发挥重要作用。%The features of the upcoming national standard GB 25974.1 were introduced, which more emphasized the safety measures and performance of the hydraulic support. Compared with the old standard MT 312, there were the following differences: circulation composite loading project was added for testing comprehensive performance of the support, and the number of time was 2 - 3 times of the original one; contraction performance test project was added to assess the support ability to withstand roof sinking; strength test projects such as horizontal and concentrated loading were added also. These changes and improvements raised higher requirement for the structural strength, endurance and safety performance of the hydraulic support. The new standard was almost in line with international standards. The issuance of the standard made the hydraulic support standard system more perfect, and would play an important role in enhancing the design, manufacturing and test level of the hydraulic support.

  8. Gold electrodes from recordable CDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angnes; Richter; Augelli; Kume

    2000-11-01

    Gold electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry. The notable performance when used in stripping analysis of many ionic species and the extraordinary affinity of thio compounds for its surface make these electrodes very suitable for many applications. This paper reports a simple and novel way to construct gold electrodes (CDtrodes) using recordable CDs as the gold source. The nanometer thickness of the gold layer of recordable disks (50-100 nm) favors the construction of band nanoelectrodes with areas as small as 10(-6) cm2. The plane surface can be easily used for the construction of conventional-sized gold electrodes for batch or flow injection analysis or even to obtain electrodes as large as 100 cm2. The low price of commercial recordable CDs allows a "one way use". The evaluation and applicability of these electrodes in the form of nanoelectrodes, in batch and associated with flow cells, are illustrated in this paper.

  9. French Neo-Colonial Influence on Moroccan Language Education Policy: A Study of Current Status of Standard Arabic in Science Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhir, Marouane; O'Brien, Jason L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study on the attitudes of teachers and students regarding the language policy of the Moroccan educational system. Its primary goal is to explain the gap existing between the policy of Arabisation (i.e., the official adoption and utilization of Standard Arabic) and its practical implementation in science…

  10. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Acoustic doppler current profilers data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World-Wide shipboard current data were collected from ADCP casts from the ALPHA HELIX and other platforms as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Data...

  11. NODC Standard Format Coastal Ocean Wave and Current (F181) Data from the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE) (1980) (NODC Accession 0014202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series coastal ocean wave and current data collected during the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE). ARSLOE was...

  12. Photoinitiated gold sol generation in aqueous Triton X-100 and its analytical application for spectrophotometric determination of gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, A

    1998-08-01

    Gold complex, HAuCl(4) has been transformed into pink-coloured stable gold sol having lambda(max) at 523 nm (in=3.06x10(3)1.mol(-1)cm(-1)) at room temperature in aqueous Triton X-100 (TX-100) upon photoirradiation. It is a very rapid and simple process and the absorbance at 523 nm is a direct measure of gold concentration. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 0-150 ppm of gold. The relative standard deviation for 22.7 and 90.9 ppm of gold are 2.8 and 2.5% respectively. The 95% confidence limit (ten determinations) for 22.7 ppm of gold is 23.6+/-0.5 ppm. Sandell sensitivity is 6.44x10(-2) mug cm(-2). TX-100 acts both as a reducing agent and a stabilizer here. Statistical parameters, effects of TX-100 concentration, irradiation time and interferents are studied. The method is applicable for ore and synthetic mixture analysis.

  13. Relationship between Gold and Oil Prices and Stock Market Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mansoor Baig

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study objective to examine the relationship between gold prices, oil prices and KSE100 return. This study important for the investor whose want to invest in real assets and financial assets. This study helps investor to achieve the portfolio diversification. This study uses the monthly data of gold prices, KSE100, and oil prices for the period of 2000 to 2010 (monthly. This study applied Descriptive statistics, Augmented Dickey Fuller test Phillip Perron test, Johansen and Jelseluis Co-integration test, Variance Decomposition test to find relationship. This study concludes that Gold prices growth, Oil prices growth and KSE100 return have no significant relationship in the long run. This study provides information to the investors who want to get the benefit of diversification by investing in Gold, Oil and stock market. In the current era Gold prices and oil prices are fluctuating day by day and investors think that stock returns may or may not affected by these fluctuations. This study is unique because it focuses on current issues and takes the current data in this research to help the investment institutions or portfolio managers.

  14. A systematic review on the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial pneumonia: when gold is bronze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lynch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developing countries, pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in children under five years of age and hence timely and accurate diagnosis is critical. In North America, pneumonia is also a common source of childhood morbidity and occasionally mortality. Clinicians traditionally have used the chest radiograph as the gold standard in the diagnosis of pneumonia, but they are becoming increasingly aware that it is not ideal. Numerous studies have shown that chest radiography findings lack precision in defining the etiology of childhood pneumonia. There is no single test that reliably distinguishes bacterial from non-bacterial causes. These factors have resulted in clinicians historically using a combination of physical signs and chest radiographs as a 'gold standard', though this combination of tests has been shown to be imperfect for diagnosis and assigning treatment. The objectives of this systematic review are to: 1 identify and categorize studies that have used single or multiple tests as a gold standard for assessing accuracy of other tests, and 2 given the 'gold standard' used, determine the accuracy of these other tests for diagnosing childhood bacterial pneumonia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Search strategies were developed using a combination of subject headings and keywords adapted for 18 electronic bibliographic databases from inception to May 2008. Published studies were included if they: 1 included children one month to 18 years of age, 2 provided sufficient data regarding diagnostic accuracy to construct a 2x2 table, and 3 assessed the accuracy of one or more index tests as compared with other test(s used as a 'gold standard'. The literature search revealed 5,989 references of which 256 were screened for inclusion, resulting in 25 studies that satisfied all inclusion criteria. The studies examined a range of bacterium types and assessed the accuracy of several combinations of diagnostic tests. Eleven different gold

  15. Gold Nanorods as Nanodevices for Bioimaging, Photothermal Therapeutics, and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Aung Thu; Niidome, Takuro

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanorods are promising metals in several biomedical applications such as bioimaging, thermal therapy, and drug delivery. Gold nanorods have strong absorption bands in near-infrared (NIR) light region and show photothermal effects. Since NIR light can penetrate deeply into tissues, their unique optical, chemical, and biological properties have attracted considerable clinical interest. Gold nanorods are expected to act not only as on-demand thermal converters for photothermal therapy but also as mediators of a controlled drug-release system responding to light irradiation. In this review, we discuss current progress using gold nanorods as bioimaging platform, phototherapeutic agents, and drug delivery vehicles.

  16. Modelling world gold prices and USD foreign exchange relationship using multivariate GARCH model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Pung Yean; Ahmad, Maizah Hura Binti

    2014-12-01

    World gold price is a popular investment commodity. The series have often been modeled using univariate models. The objective of this paper is to show that there is a co-movement between gold price and USD foreign exchange rate. Using the effect of the USD foreign exchange rate on the gold price, a model that can be used to forecast future gold prices is developed. For this purpose, the current paper proposes a multivariate GARCH (Bivariate GARCH) model. Using daily prices of both series from 01.01.2000 to 05.05.2014, a causal relation between the two series understudied are found and a bivariate GARCH model is produced.

  17. Comparison of the copper and gold wire bonding processes for LED packaging*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhaohui; Liu Yong; Liu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wire bonding is one of the main processes of the LED packaging which provides electrical interconnection between the LED chip and lead frame The gold wire bonding process has been widely used in LED packaging industry currently. However, due to the high cost of gold wire, copper wire bonding is a good substitute for the gold wire bonding which can lead to significant cost saving. In this paper, the copper and gold wire bonding processes on the high power LED chip are compared and analyzed with finite element simulation. This modeling work may provide guidelines for the parameter optimization of coppor wire bonding process on the high power LED packaging.

  18. A luminosity model of RHIC gold runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-11-01

    In this note, we present a luminosity model for RHIC gold runs. The model is applied to the physics fills in 2007 run without cooling, and with the longitudinal cooling applied to one beam only. Having good comparison, the model is used to project a fill with the longitudinal cooling applied to both beams. Further development and possible applications of the model are discussed. To maximize the integrated luminosity, usually the higher beam intensity, smaller longitudinal and transverse emittance, and smaller {beta} are the directions to work on. In past 10 years, the RHIC gold runs have demonstrated a path toward this goal. Most recently, a successful commissioning of the bunched beam stochastic cooling, both longitudinal and transverse, has offered a chance of further RHIC luminosity improvement. With so many factors involved, a luminosity model would be useful to identify and project gains in the machine development. In this article, a preliminary model is proposed. In Section 2, several secondary factors, which are not yet included in the model, are identified based on the RHIC operation condition and experience in current runs. In Section 3, the RHIC beam store parameters used in the model are listed, and validated. In Section 4, the factors included in the model are discussed, and the luminosity model is presented. In Section 5, typical RHIC gold fills without cooling, and with partial cooling are used for comparison with the model. Then a projection of fills with more coolings is shown. In Section 6, further development of the model is discussed.

  19. [Overview of current modalities of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajzrlíková, Ivana Mikoviny; Vítek, Petr

    2016-04-01

    There are one-step and two-steps programs for colorectal cancer screening. The aim of all screening examinations is to detect early stage of the disease in asymptomatic patient. The aim of this article is actual review of current screening modalities such as fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoideoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography, capsule endoscopy, blood-based tests and stool DNA tests. Colonoscopy still remains the gold standard for detection of colorectal neoplasias. In majority of countries worldwide programs for colorectal cancer screening are based on immunochemical fecal occult blood test followed by colonoscopy when positive.

  20. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  1. Open Access needs terminology to distinguish between Gold OA funding models

    OpenAIRE

    Eve, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Shedding further light on the wider open access debate, Martin Eve calls for a more precise terminology for the variety of Gold OA business models that currently exist to help correct the false assumption in many academics’ minds that Gold OA necessarily requires an Article Processing Charge (APC).

  2. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.; Kulcsar, I.Z.; Roes, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the dev

  3. Anodic dissolution of gold in alkaline solutions containing thiourea, thiosulfate and sulfite ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Gold dissolves electrochemically in alkaline solutions containing ligands to form complex ions with gold ion. Therefore, selective leaching of noble metals is expected without dissolution of base metals such as steels, aluminum alloys in scrap treatment. Gold electrodes were investigated using linear sweep voltammetry, EQCM method and potentiostatic electrolysis in alkaline solutions containing thiourea, Na2SO3 and Na2S2O3. The solution composition, electrode potential affect gold dissolution rate and current efficiency. The gold dissolved from anode electrode forms complex ions, suspension particles as compound precipitates and deposits on cathode electrode as a metal. Anodic efficiency for gold dissolution is between 10% and 22%. This is caused by the oxidation decomposition of sulfite ions and thiourea. The stability of the alkaline solution containing these elements was also estimated by capillary electrophoresis technique.

  4. Effects of sulfurous acid on anodic process of gold electrode in thiourea solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙怀中; 舒万艮

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemistry behaviors of gold electrode in thiourea solution were studied by using electrochemical techniques, such as potentiodynamic, voltammogram and current step. A catalytical electrochemical-reduction mechanism was proposed to identify the anodic oxidation of gold in the thiourea solution. The results indicate that the decomposition of thiourea occurs when the electrode potential is higher than 640 mV. The addition of sulfurous acid presents a very positive effect on the anodic process of gold electrode. The anodic oxidation rate of gold is 5 times faster than that without sulfurous acid. The passivity of gold electrode is attributed to the accumulation of elemental sulfur on the surface of gold. The sulfurous acid reacts with the oxidation product ((SC(NH)NH2 )2 ) of thiourea, which can decrease the decomposition of thiourea and improves its stability.

  5. A powerful high-voltage generator of aperiodic impulses of current of artificial lightning with the peak-temporal parameters rated on an International Standard IEC 62305-1-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Created in accordance with the requirements of international standard of IEC 62305-1-2010 powerful high-voltage generator, forming on the low-resistance actively-inductive loading the aperiodic impulses of current of artificial lightning of the rationed temporal form 10 μs/350 μs and amplitudes of ±(100−200 кА with a foregoing standard by admittances set is presented and described. The results of practical approbation in the laboratory terms of this generator at the in-use electric loading with active resistance of 0.1 Ohm and inductance of 1,5 μH are presented.

  6. A POWERFUL HIGH-VOLTAGE GENERATOR OF APERIODIC IMPULSES OF CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING WITH THE PEAK-TEMPORAL PARAMETERS RATED ON AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IEC 62305-1-2010

    OpenAIRE

    M.I. Baranov; G.M. Koliushko; V.I. Kravchenko; Rudakov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Created in accordance with the requirements of international standard of IEC 62305-1-2010 powerful high-voltage generator, forming on the low-resistance actively-inductive loading the aperiodic impulses of current of artificial lightning of the rationed temporal form 10 μs/350 μs and amplitudes of ±(100−200) кА with a foregoing standard by admittances set is presented and described. The results of practical approbation in the laboratory terms of this generator at the in-use electric loading w...

  7. A powerful high-voltage generator of aperiodic impulses of current of artificial lightning with the peak-temporal parameters rated on an International Standard IEC 62305-1-2010

    OpenAIRE

    M.I. Baranov; G.M. Koliushko; V.I. Kravchenko; Rudakov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Created in accordance with the requirements of international standard of IEC 62305-1-2010 powerful high-voltage generator, forming on the low-resistance actively-inductive loading the aperiodic impulses of current of artificial lightning of the rationed temporal form 10 μs/350 μs and amplitudes of ±(100−200) кА with a foregoing standard by admittances set is presented and described. The results of practical approbation in the laboratory terms of this generator at the in-use electric loading w...

  8. Solid phase extraction of gold(III) on Amberlite XAD-2000 prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elci, Latif; Sahan, Derya; Basaran, Aydan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-09-01

    A solid phase extraction method for the determination of gold(III) at trace levels by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) was developed. The method was based on retention of gold as chloro complexes through the Amberlite XAD-2000. The effect of some analytical parameters including hydrochloric acid concentration, sample volume, sample and eluent flow rates, eluent volume, eluent concentration and interfering ions on the recovery of gold(III) was investigated. The retention of gold(III) from 1.5 mol l(-1) HCl solution and the recovery of gold with 0.07 mol l(-1) NH3 solution were quantitative (>or=95%). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was calculated as 3.2% (n = 10). The detection limit for gold was 2 microg l(-1). The accuracy was checked with the determination of gold spiked an artificial seawater and a pure copper samples.

  9. Standardization of calibration of clinic dosemeters using electric currents and charges; Padronizacao da calibracao de dosimetros clinicos utilizando cargas e correntes eletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Marcos Antonio de Lima

    1999-09-15

    Clinical dosimeters used in radiotherapy are calibrated in Latin American countries, including Brazil, as a complete 'system, i.e., ionization chamber and electrometer together. Some countries, as European ones, and USA calibrate them by component, i.e., ionisation chamber apart from electrometer. This method is more advantageous than the previous one, since it makes possible the automation of the calibration process, allowing the acquisition of data related to the chamber and the electrometer measurements independently, as well as the substitution of one of the components, in case of failure. This work proposes a method for standardisation of low intensity electric charge and currents in order to implement electric calibration of electrometers. This will make possible the implementation of a by components calibration technique, by components, of clinical dosimeters in Brazil. The results obtained with the calibration by components prove that the proposed method of standardisation of low electric charges and currents is viable. The difficulties found for the generation and measurement of low intensity electric charges and currents and the procedures adopted for the calibration by components are presented. Additionally, a current source was built to yield reference electric charges that will make possible the quality control clinical dosimeters. This source will also allow the user to identify the defective components of the dosimeters, through a simple verification test. (author)

  10. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  11. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  12. Ultrafast laser functionalized rare phased gold-silicon/silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premnath, P; Tan, B; Venkatakrishnan, K

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a hybrid nanostructured biomaterial that is a combination of rare phases of immiscible gold and silicon oxide, functionalized via ultrafast laser synthesis. For the first time, we show cancer controlling properties of rare phases of gold silicides, which include Au7Si, Au5Si, Au0.7Si2.3 and Au8Si2. Conventionally, pure forms of gold and silicon/silicon oxide are extensively employed in targeted therapy and drug delivery systems due to their unique properties. While silicon and silicon oxide nanoparticles have shown biocompatibility, gold nanoparticles show conflicting results based on their size and material properties. Several studies have shown that gold and silicon combinations produce cell controlling properties, however, these studies were not able to produce a homogenous combination of gold and silicon, owing to its immiscibility. A homogenous combination of gold and silicon may potentially enable properties that have not previously been reported. We describe rare phased gold-silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid biomaterials and its unique cancer controlling properties, owing to material properties, concentration, size and density. The gold-silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid is composed of individual gold-silicon oxide nanoparticles in various concentrations of gold and silicon, some nanoparticles possess a gold-core and silicon-shell like structure. The individual nanoparticles are bonded together forming a three dimensional nanostructured hybrid. The interaction of the nanostructured hybrids with cervical cancer cells showed a 96% reduction in 24h. This engineered nanostructured hybrid biomaterial presents significant potential due to the combination of immiscible gold and silicon oxide in varying phases and can potentially satiate the current vacuum in cancer therapy.

  13. 41 CFR 101-45.002 - Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Gold. 101-45.002 Section... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.002 Gold. (a) Gold will be sold in accordance with this section and part 102-38 of the Federal Management Regulation. (b) Sales of gold shall be processed to— (1) Use the sealed bid...

  14. 20th-Century Gold Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  15. Protein-mediated autoreduction of gold salts to gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Nivedita; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: Mukherjee.Priyabrata@mayo.edu

    2008-09-01

    Here we report for the first time that proteins can function as unique reducing agents to produce gold nanoparticles from gold salts. We demonstrate that three different proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), Rituximab (RIT-an anti-CD20 antibody) and Cetuximab (C225-anti-EGFR antibody), reduce gold salts to gold nanoparticles (GNP). Interestingly, among all the three proteins tested, only BSA can reduce gold salts to gold nanotriangles (GNT). BSA-induced formation of GNT can be controlled by carefully selecting the reaction condition. Heating or using excess of ascorbic acid (AA) as additional reducing agent shifts the reaction towards the formation of GNP with flower-like morphology, whereas slowing down the reaction either by cooling or by adding small amount of AA directs the synthesis towards GNT formation. GNT is formed only at pH 3; higher pHs (pH 7 and pH 10) did not produce any nanoparticles, suggesting the involvement of specific protein conformation in GNT formation. The nanomaterials formed by this method were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is an important finding that will have uses in various nanotechnological applications, particularly in the green synthesis of novel nanomaterials based on protein structure.

  16. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille;

    2013-01-01

    by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study....... In conclusion, our findings support that bio-liberation of gold from metallic gold surfaces have anti-inflammatory properties similar to classic gold compounds, warranting further studies into the pharmacological potential of this novel gold-treatment and the possible synergistic effects of hyaluronic acid....

  17. Gold-Catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Synthesis of Heterocycles via Gold-Catalyzed Heteroatom Addition to Unsaturated C-C Bonds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cyclization of Polyunsaturated Compounds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds via α-Oxo Gold Carbenoid * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cycloaddition Reactions * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Activation of Carbonyl Groups and Alcohols * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds through Gold-Mediated C-H Bond Functionalization * Gold-Catalyzed Domino Cyclization/Oxidative Coupling Reactions * Conclusions * References

  18. Precision gold conductors for HMCs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmer, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    Ti/Pd/Au multiple code coded switch (MCCS) networks were built and compared to Cr/Au MCCS networks. The data showed no measurable difference between the two systems. Interface resistance of both types of networks was measured as a diagnostic aid to determine if hydrogen was affecting the Ti/Pd/Au MCCS networks. The data showed that although hydrogen does affect Ti/Pd/Au, the changes are not significant with respect to MCCS environments. An evaluation of several proprietary gold electroplating solutions for use in the production of Ti/Pd/Au conductors was performed. All the testing results were comparable to the current product requirements.

  19. Thermionic field emission in gold nitride Schottky nanodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, N.; Sarantopoulou, E.; Kollia, Z.; Samardžija, Z.; Kobe, S.; Cefalas, A. C.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the thermionic field emission and charge transport properties of gold nitride nanodomains grown by pulsed laser deposition with a molecular fluorine laser at 157 nm. The nanodomains are sandwiched between the metallic tip of a conductive atomic force microscope and a thin gold layer forming thus a metal-semiconductor-metal junction. Although the limited existing data in the literature indicate that gold nitride was synthesized previously with low efficiency, poor stability, and metallic character; in this work, it is shown that gold nitride nanodomains exhibit semiconducting behavior and the metal-semiconductor-metal contact can be modeled with the back-to-back Schottky barrier model. From the experimental I-V curves, the main charge carrier transport process is found to be thermionic field emission via electron tunneling. The rectifying, near symmetric and asymmetric current response of nanocontacts is related to the effective contact area of the gold nitride nanodomains with the metals. A lower limit for the majority charge carriers concentration at the boundaries of nanodomains is also established using the full depletion approximation, as nanodomains with thickness as low as 6 nm were found to be conductive. Current rectification and charge memory effects are also observed in "quite small" conductive nanodomains (6-10 nm) due to stored charges. Indeed, charges near the surface are identified as inversion domains in the phase shift mapping performed with electrostatic force microscopy and are attributed to charge trapping at the boundaries of the nanodomains.

  20. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  1. Current and proposed revisions, changes, and modifications to American codes and standards to address packaging, handling, and transportation of radioactive materials and how they relate to comparable international regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borter, W.H.; Froehlich, C.H. [BNFL Fuel Solutions, Campbell, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper addresses current and proposed revisions, additions, and modifications to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (i.e., ''ASMEthe Code'') Section III, Division 3 and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASME N14.6. It provides insight into the ongoing processes of the associated committees and highlights important revisions, changes, and modifications to this Code and Standard. The ASME Code has developed and issued Division 3 to address items associated with the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. It currently only addresses ''General Requirements'' in Subsections WA and ''Class TP (Type B) Containments'' (Transportation Packages) in Subsection WB, but is in the process of adding a new Subsection WC to address ''Class SC'' (Storage Containments). ANSI/ASME Standard N14.6 which interacts with components constructed to Division 3 by addressinges special lifting devices for radioactive material shipping containers. This Standard is in the process of a complete re-write. This Code and Standard can be classified as ''dynamic'' in that their committees meet at least four times a year to evaluate proposed modifications and additions that reflect current safety practices in the nuclear industry. These evaluations include the possible addition of new materials, fabrication processes, examination methods, and testing requirements. An overview of this ongoing process is presented in this paper along with highlights of the more important proposed revisions, changes, and modifications and how they relate to United States (US) and international regulations and guidance like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Requirement No. TS-R-1.

  2. Electromigration in gold and silver nanostructures; Elektromigration in Gold und Silber Nanostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlmecke, Burkhard

    2008-01-15

    Electromigration is the current induced mass transport in metallic wires. It is the main reason for electrical breakdown in integrated circuits and has been studied for more than 50 years. In this thesis, the electromigration behavior in polycrystalline gold as well as in self-organized single crystalline silver wires are studied. To study the electromigration behavior in detail, in-situ investigations of the wires are performed in a scanning electron microscope, for which a new test rig was successfully installed. During electromigration, the development of voids on the cathode and hillocks on the anode side of the wire are observed. This behavior is studied in detail in this thesis. Electrical breakdown in the gold wires takes place due to the presence of slit-like voids perpendicular to the current direction. The void area grows linearly during the course of the experiments, and the electrical breakdown takes place when the total void area reaches a value of 2 % to 4 % of the total wire area. The influence of single voids on the electrical resistance during high current stressing is determined. The dependence of the electromigration behavior on the width and height as well as on the crystallinity and temperature of the gold wires is studied in detail. For high resolution imaging of the wires during the experiments, a special layout with arbitrary kinks is used. The dependence of electromigration effects on current density and on the influence of the measurement setup itself are also discussed in this thesis. When reversing the current direction, a reversible electromigration behavior is observed. Also, the lifetime of the wires grows considerably. According to the resistance data, a remarkable stabilization of the polycrystalline wires is observed during this experiments. Furthermore, it is possible to define an alternative sheet length according to the position of voids and hillocks in the wires. This leads also to the determination of the critical product for

  3. Gold island fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Wig, A. G.; Passian, A.; Downey, Todd R.; Buncick, Milan; Ferrell, Trinidad L.

    1999-12-01

    A fiber optic chemical sensor based on gold-island surface plasmon excitation is presented. The sensing part of the fiber is the end of the fiber onto which a thin layer of gold has been deposited to form a particulate surface. Annealing the gold reshapes the particles and produces an optical absorbance near 535 nm with the fiber in air. The optical absorption resonance of the gold particles is shifted if the fiber is immersed in a medium other than air. These resonance shifts are examined by transmission spectroscopy through the fiber. Experimental results for the sensitivity and dynamic range in the measurement of liquid solutions are in agreement with a basic theoretical model which characterizes the surface plasmon using nonretarded electrodynamics.

  4. Gold, currencies and market efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2016-05-01

    Gold and currency markets form a unique pair with specific interactions and dynamics. We focus on the efficiency ranking of gold markets with respect to the currency of purchase. By utilizing the Efficiency Index (EI) based on fractal dimension, approximate entropy and long-term memory on a wide portfolio of 142 gold price series for different currencies, we construct the efficiency ranking based on the extended EI methodology we provide. Rather unexpected results are uncovered as the gold prices in major currencies lay among the least efficient ones whereas very minor currencies are among the most efficient ones. We argue that such counterintuitive results can be partly attributed to a unique period of examination (2011-2014) characteristic by quantitative easing and rather unorthodox monetary policies together with the investigated illegal collusion of major foreign exchange market participants, as well as some other factors discussed in some detail.

  5. Forecasting Gold Prices Using Multiple Linear Regression Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Forecasting is a function in management to assist decision making. It is also described as the process of estimation in unknown future situations. In a more general term it is commonly known as prediction which refers to estimation of time series or longitudinal type data. Gold is a precious yellow commodity once used as money. It was made illegal in USA 41 years ago, but is now once again accepted as a potential currency. The demand for this commodity is on the rise. Approach: Objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for predicting gold prices based on economic factors such as inflation, currency price movements and others. Following the melt-down of US dollars, investors are putting their money into gold because gold plays an important role as a stabilizing influence for investment portfolios. Due to the increase in demand for gold in Malaysian and other parts of the world, it is necessary to develop a model that reflects the structure and pattern of gold market and forecast movement of gold price. The most appropriate approach to the understanding of gold prices is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR model. MLR is a study on the relationship between a single dependent variable and one or more independent variables, as this case with gold price as the single dependent variable. The fitted model of MLR will be used to predict the future gold prices. A naive model known as “forecast-1” was considered to be a benchmark model in order to evaluate the performance of the model. Results: Many factors determine the price of gold and based on “a hunch of experts”, several economic factors had been identified to have influence on the gold prices. Variables such as Commodity Research Bureau future index (CRB; USD/Euro Foreign Exchange Rate (EUROUSD; Inflation rate (INF; Money Supply (M1; New York Stock Exchange (NYSE; Standard and Poor 500 (SPX; Treasury Bill (T-BILL and US Dollar index (USDX were considered to

  6. Gold, coal and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio U

    2010-03-01

    Jared Diamond has hypothesized that guns, germs and steel account for the fate of human societies. Here I propose an extension of Diamond's hypothesis and put it in other terms and dimensions: gold, coal and oil account not only for the fate of human societies but also for the fate of mankind through the bodily accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic, an invisible weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change. The background is clear; arsenic species fulfill seven criteria for a weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change: (i) bioavailability to all living organisms; (ii) imperceptibility; (iii) acute toxicity; (iv) bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity; (v) adverse impact on reproductive fitness and reproductive outcomes and early-age development and growth in a wide range of microbial, plant and animal species including man; (vi) widespread geographical distribution, mobility and ecological persistence on a centennial to millennial basis and (vii) availability in necessary and sufficient amounts to exert evolutionarily meaningful effects. The proof is becoming increasingly feasible as human exploitation of gold, coal and oil deposits cause sustainable rises of arsenic concentrations in the biosphere. Paradoxically, humans are among the least arsenic-resistant organisms because humans are long-lived, encephalized and complex social metazoans. An arsenic accumulation model is presented here to describe how arsenic accumulates in the human body with increasing age and at different provisionally safe exposure levels. Arsenic accumulates in the human body even at daily exposure levels which are within the lowest possible WHO provisional tolerance limits, yielding bodily arsenic concentrations which are above WHO provisional limits. Ongoing consequences of global scale arsenic poisoning of mankind include age-specific rises in morbidity and mortality followed by adaptive changes. The potential rise of successful forms of inborn resistance to arsenic in humans

  7. 基于当前节能标准公共建筑空调综合能效比分析%Based on the Current Efficiency Standards of Public Building Air Conditioning Comprehensive Efficiency Ratio Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官玲俊; 谢泽渊; 江向阳

    2013-01-01

    Based on the national the currently executing public building energy efficiency standards , analysis and evaluation of the current energy -saving standard for central air conditioning system comprehensive Energy Efficiency ratio applicable scope , through the two practical engineering projects , evaluate comprehensive Energy Efficiency ra-tio of the temperature humidity independent control air conditioning system.Through the calculation analysis , this paper concludes that the current national standards for public buildings central air conditioning system minimum EER constraint value is 2.67 W/W, In this paper is beneficial for evaluation EER of new buildings air conditioning sys -tem and existing building air conditioning system energy saving operation provides a reliable technical data support .%基于国家当前执行的公共建筑节能标准,评价分析了当前节能标准对于中央空调系统综合能效比适用范围,通过计算分析得出:现行国家标准对于公共建筑中央空调系统最低能效比约束值为2.67 W/W,本文对于评价新建筑建筑空调系统能效比和既有建筑空调系统节能运营提供了可靠的技术数据支撑。

  8. RESULTS OF TESTS OF LIGHTNING-RODS WITH UNIVERSAL CLAMPS BY THE APERIODIC IMPULSES OF CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING WITH THE PEAK-TEMPORAL PARAMETERS RATIONED ON FOREIGN STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Test in obedience to the requirements of row of operating foreign standards of round metallic lightning-rods with the flat metallic universal clamps of the special type on firmness to direct action of аperiodic impulses of current of temporal form 10/350 μs by amplitude of 50 кА (N− class and 100 кА (H− class. Methodology. The order of leadthrough of these tests is certain the followings normative documents: International IEC 62305-1: 2010, Russian national GOST R IEC 62305-1-2010 and German national DIN EN 50164-1:2008 Standards. Results. Conducted on a powerful high-voltage pulsed current of artificial linear lightning with the peak-temporal parameters and admittances of test rationed on the indicated foreign standards rationed that all of the lightning-rods tested in collection with universal clamps, isolating holders and ceramic elements of roof of technical building were survive electrodynamics and electrothermal action of in-use single short blow of an artificial storm digit. Originality. First in domestic practice the similar model tests of lightning-rods are conducted with universal clamps, executed from different explorer materials, on firmness to flowing to on by it the indicated large impulsive currents of artificial lightning. Practical value. Real firmness to lightning of round copper and zincked steel lightning-rods is certain with the flat copper, zincked steel and non-rusting steel universal clamps of the special execution.

  9. Dynamics of multi-photon photoluminescence in gold nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Biagioni, P; Huang, J -S; Kern, J; Duò, L; Hecht, B; Finazzi, M; Cerullo, G

    2011-01-01

    We perform a combined study of the degree of nonlinearity and the temporal dynamics of multiphoton-excited photoluminescence (MPPL) in gold nanoantennas. At variance with standard gold two-photon photoluminescence (TPPL), the large photoluminescence enhancement in resonant nanostructures is sometimes found to involve more than two absorbed photons per emitted photon. By two-pulse correlation measurements of TPPL and MPPL we are able to address the particular dynamics of these mechanisms. Our data give direct evidence for the two-step model that has been proposed for gold TPPL and suggest that MPPL is characterized by very similar dynamics. Interestingly, for resonant antennas we observe a reduced MPPL relaxation time compared to off-resonant antennas.

  10. Tiopronin gold nanoparticle precursor forms aurophilic ring tetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carrie A; Farrow, Christopher L; Tian, Peng; Billinge, Simon J L; Huffman, Brian J; Harkness, Kellen M; Cliffel, David E

    2010-12-06

    In the two step synthesis of thiolate-monolayer protected clusters (MPCs), the first step of the reaction is a mild reduction of gold(III) by thiols that generates gold(I) thiolate complexes as intermediates. Using tiopronin (Tio) as the thiol reductant, the characterization of the intermediate Au(4)Tio(4) complex was accomplished with various analytical and structural techniques. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were all consistent with a cyclic gold(I)-thiol tetramer structure, and final structural analysis was gathered through the use of powder diffraction and pair distribution functions (PDF). Crystallographic data has proved challenging for almost all previous gold(I)-thiolate complexes. Herein, a novel characterization technique when combined with standard analytical assessment to elucidate structure without crystallographic data proved invaluable to the study of these complexes. This in conjunction with other analytical techniques, in particular mass spectrometry, can elucidate a structure when crystallographic data is unavailable. In addition, luminescent properties provided evidence of aurophilicity within the molecule. The concept of aurophilicity has been introduced to describe a select group of gold-thiolate structures, which possess unique characteristics, mainly red photoluminescence and a distinct Au-Au intramolecular distance indicating a weak metal-metal bond as also evidenced by the structural model of the tetramer. Significant features of both the tetrameric and the aurophilic properties of the intermediate gold(I) tiopronin complex are retained after borohydride reduction to form the MPC, including gold(I) tiopronin partial rings as capping motifs, or "staples", and weak red photoluminescence that extends into the Near Infrared region.

  11. The Discrepancies Between the IEC Updated versions for Skin and Hair Care Appliances and the Current National Standards%IEC最新版皮肤及毛发护理器具标准与现行国标之间的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝艳莉

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces the newest IEC standard for the skin & hair care appliance, and then compares them with the standards of the national standard that is carrying at present. The author puts his emphasis on the discrepancies between the IEC updated versions for skin and hair care appliances and the current national standards.

  12. 我国现行会计准则存在的问题及对策研究%The Problems of China's Current Accounting Standards and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于婧婧

    2014-01-01

    China's accounting standards now have some problems. The defined scopes of the assets need to extend and divide meticulous-ly. The vague provisions of contingent amounts payable need to confirm following the principle of prudence principle of accounting. The use of fair value needs to adopt prudence principle and consider the actual. Facing the problems of identification of non-monetary assets exchange and tax, accounting standards should give an accurate concept and definition, so as to make up for the deficiency.%目前,我国会计准则中资产的界定范围、或有事项处理、公允价值计量与非货币性资产交换等方面存在的问题主要是对资产的定义有待扩展,进行细致划分;或有应付金额确认的规定存在模糊,应该遵照会计的谨慎性原则进行确认;对公允价值的运用既要采用谨慎性原则,还要考虑实际;在处理非货币的资产交换认定和税费的问题时,会计准则应给出一个准确的概念和定义,进而补充各项会计准则的不足之处。

  13. Gold-catalyzed domino reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Gold-catalyzed reactions have appeared to be highly attractive tools for chemists to promote novel transformations to prepare elaborated structures from simple starting materials. This chapter presents selected and original examples of domino processes in the presence of gold catalysts, highlighting reports implying hydration, hydroxylation, and hydroamination as key starting point for cascade transformations. Domino processes implying 1,n-enynes, asymmetric domino transformations, and applications of all the presented processes in total synthesis are presented.

  14. Synergic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles towards immunosensing of ricin with carbon nanotube-gold nanoparticles-chitosan modified screen printed electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Srinivasan; Gupta, Manish; Kumar, Gupta Ajay; Rao, Vepa Kameswara; Kumar, Om; Ghosal, Partha

    2012-09-07

    An amperometric immunosensor for the specific detection of Ricinus communis is reported. Screen printed electrodes (SPEs) were modified with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) loaded multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-chitosan (Ch) film. The ratio of MWCNT and GNP was optimised to get best electrochemically active electrode. Sandwich immunoassay format was used for the immunosensing of ricin. The revealing antibodies tagged with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) converts the substrate 1-naphthyl phosphate into 1-naphthol that was determined with the amperometric technique. The amperometric current obtained was correlated with the concentration of ricin. The prepared GNP-MWCNT-Ch-SPE showed high stability due to the Ch film, short response time with good reproducibility and increased shelf life of the electrodes immobilised with antibodies. The electrochemical activity of the electrode improved because of optimization of composition of CNTs and gold nanoparticles. Under the optimal conditions, the modified electrode showed a wide linear response to the concentration of ricin in the range of 2.5-25 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 2.1 ng mL(-1) and with a relative standard deviation of 5.1% and storage life of 32 days.

  15. Comparison of several surfaces for use as a MWIR BRDF standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Bradley L.; Marciniak, Michael A.

    2009-08-01

    The Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) has a well defined and studied diffuse measurement standard in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared (NIR), Spectralon®. It is predictable, stable, repeatable, and has low surface variation because it is a bulk scatterer. In the mid-wave IR (MWIR) and long-wave IR (LWIR), there is not such a well-defined standard. There are well-defined directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR) standards, but the process of integrating BRDF measurements into DHR for the purpose of calibration is problematic at best. Direct BRDF measurement standards are needed. This study systematically investigates the BRDF and its variation for six potential MWIR diffuse BRDF standards. The currently accepted reflectance standard in the MWIR, Infragold®, is compared against two alternative gold-electroplated arc-sprayed aluminum samples, a silver-painted arc-sprayed aluminum sample, a black-paint sample, Spectralon®, and a novel a laser beam diffuser that has been gold coated. Diffuseness is compared by fitting the data to BRDF models, and repeatability is measured by using the standard deviation and percent difference from the mean calculated from multiple BRDF measurements across the surface of the samples.

  16. 76 FR 81295 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... cost on a current mark-to-market basis better aligns the CAS measurement with current accounting and... 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards... Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and......

  17. Using measurements of muscle color, pH, and electrical impedance to augment the current USDA beef quality grading standards and improve the accuracy and precision of sorting carcasses into palatability groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, D M; Page, J K

    2000-10-01

    This research was conducted to determine whether objective measures of muscle color, muscle pH, and(or) electrical impedance are useful in segregating palatable beef from unpalatable beef, and to determine whether the current USDA quality grading standards for beef carcasses could be revised to improve their effectiveness at distinguishing palatable from unpalatable beef. One hundred beef carcasses were selected from packing plants in Texas, Illinois, and Ohio to represent the full range of muscle color observed in the U.S. beef carcass population. Steaks from these 100 carcasses were used to determine shear force on eight cooked beef muscles and taste panel ratings on three cooked beef muscles. It was discovered that the darkest-colored 20 to 25% of the beef carcasses sampled were less palatable and considerably less consistent than the other 75 to 80% sampled. Marbling score, by itself, explained 12% of the variation in beef palatability; hump height, by itself, explained 8% of the variation in beef palatability; measures of muscle color or pH, by themselves, explained 15 to 23% of the variation in beef palatability. When combined together, marbling score, hump height, and some measure of muscle color or pH explained 36 to 46% of the variation in beef palatability. Alternative quality grading systems were proposed to improve the accuracy and precision of sorting carcasses into palatability groups. The two proposed grading systems decreased palatability variation by 29% and 39%, respectively, within the Choice grade and decreased palatability variation by 37% and 12%, respectively, within the Select grade, when compared with current USDA standards. The percentage of unpalatable Choice carcasses was reduced from 14% under the current USDA grading standards to 4% and 1%, respectively, for the two proposed systems. The percentage of unpalatable Select carcasses was reduced from 36% under the current USDA standards to 7% and 29%, respectively, for the proposed systems

  18. Medical image registration algorithms assesment Bronze Standard application enactment on grids using the MOTEUR workflow engine

    CERN Document Server

    Glatard, T; Pennec, X

    2006-01-01

    Medical image registration is pre-processing needed for many medical image analysis procedures. A very large number of registration algorithms are available today, but their performance is often not known and very difficult to assess due to the lack of gold standard. The Bronze Standard algorithm is a very data and compute intensive statistical approach for quantifying registration algorithms accuracy. In this paper, we describe the Bronze Standard application and we discuss the need for grids to tackle such computations on medical image databases. We demonstrate MOTEUR, a service-based workflow engine optimized for dealing with data intensive applications. MOTEUR eases the enactment of the Bronze Standard and similar applications on the EGEE production grid infrastructure. It is a generic workflow engine, based on current standards and freely available, that can be used to instrument legacy application code at low cost.

  19. Gold-Coated Nanoelectrospray Emitters Fabricated by Gravity-Assisted Etching Self-Termination and Electroless Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Liang, Yu; Weng, Yejing; Chen, Yuanbo; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-12-06

    To improve the stability and sensitivity of nanoelectrospray for liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) analysis, we present a new method to fabricate gold-coated emitters. Via gravity-assisted etching self-termination, the emitter with a tapered outer surface and a straight inner surface is prepared with good reproducibility, without the need of fluid introduced to protect internal surface during etching. Followed by electroless deposition, the emitter is further coated with gold film homogeneously, by which the relative standard deviation (RSD) value of total ion current in 160 h is <5%, showing good stability. Compared to that obtained by a commercial emitter, the identified protein number from 2 μg HeLa cell digests is increased over 10%, contributed by the stable electrospray and improved signal intensity of peptides. Furthermore, the integrated gold-coated emitter is prepared at the end of the ultranarrow-bore packed column (inner diameter of 25 μm), and 218 proteins are identified from 2 ng HeLa cell digests. All of these results demonstrate the great promise of such emitters for use in ultrasensitive proteome analysis.

  20. Characterization of gold and nickel coating on AISI 304 stainless steel for use in the fabrication of current collector plates for fuel cells; Caracterizacion de recubrimientos de oro y niquel realizados sobre acero inoxidable AISI 304 para su empleo en la fabricacion de placas colectoras de corriente para celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Hernandez, J. Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] e-mail: jrflores@iie.org.mx; Aguilar Gama, M. Tulio [UNAM. Facultad de Quimica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cano Castillo, Ulises; Albarran, Lorena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Olvera, J. Carlos; Orozco, German [CIDETEQ, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Among the different components that compose fuel cell technology (MEA, bipolar plates, seals, etc.) current collector plates play an important role in the good performance of fuel cells, since they collect all of the current generated and distribute it to the external circuit. Therefore, the most important properties that the current collector plates should have are excellent conductivity and good resistance to the corrosive conditions present in the fuel cell. This document presents results obtained during the nickel and gold electrodeposition process on AISI 304 stainless steel and the morphology and thickness of each coating, their adhesion, hardness and conductivity values. Finally, results obtained during some of the electrochemical tests performed on the coatings are shown. [Spanish] De los diferentes componentes que integran la tecnologia de celdas de combustible (MEA's, placas bipolares, sellos, etc.), las placas colectoras de corriente tienen un importante rol en el buen desempeno de la celdas de combustibles, ya que en estas placas se colecta toda la corriente generada y se distribuye al circuito externo. Debido a esto, las propiedades mas importantes que deben tener las placas colectaras de corriente son: excelente conductividad y buena resistencia a las condiciones corrosivas presentes en la celda de combustible. En este documento se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el proceso de electrodeposicion de niquel y oro sobre acero inoxidable AISI 304, asi como la morfologia y el espesor de cada recubrimiento, sus valores de adherencia, dureza y conductividad. Finalmente se muestran tambien los resultados obtenidos de algunas pruebas electroquimicas a los que fueron sometidos los recubrimientos.

  1. Evolution and current challenges of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Dahua.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has evolved into a safe and convenient minimally invasive surgical method, which is now the gold standard therapy for cholelithiasis worldwide. Physicians have continued to improve upon the procedure, creating methods that further minimize the related scarring and pain, such as the laproendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy and the gasless-lift laparoscopy. Additionally, the primary challenge of limited operative space in these procedures remains a key feature requiring improvement. In this review, the development and progression of laparoscopic cholecystectomy over the past 26 years is discussed, highlighting the current advantages and disadvantages that need to be addressed by practicing physicians to maximize the clinical value of this important therapy.

  2. Gold Nanostructures as a Platform for Combinational Therapy in Future Cancer Therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelveh, Salomeh [Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chithrani, Devika B., E-mail: devika.chithrani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); STTARR Innovation Centre, Toronto Medical Discovery Tower, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-03-04

    The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanocages (GNCs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

  3. Gold Nanostructures as a Platform for Combinational Therapy in Future Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomeh Jelveh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs, gold nanorods (GNRs, gold nanoshells (GNSs and gold nanocages (GNCs in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

  4. Gold nanostructures as a platform for combinational therapy in future cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelveh, Salomeh; Chithrani, Devika B

    2011-03-04

    The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanocages (GNCs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

  5. Outpatient Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management: Going for the GOLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Christina R; Peters, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States with a burden of $50 billion in direct health care costs. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) defines airflow obstruction as spirometry where the ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity after bronchodilation is less than 0.70. The guidelines also provided graded recommendations on current therapy for COPD. Treatment can be guided based on severity of disease and severity of symptoms. We review the GOLD guidelines to provide an overview of treatment modalities aimed at improving lung function, reducing hospitalization, and reducing mortality.

  6. CALCULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF RESULTS OF ELECTRO-THERMAL ACTION OF RATIONED BY THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IEC 62305-1-2010 IMPULSE CURRENT OF SHORT BLOW OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING ON THE THIN-WALLED COVERAGE FROM STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation and experimental researches of electro-thermal resistibility of the pre-production thin-walled sheet models of outward roof of height technical buildings from stainless steel are easily soiled 12Х18Н10Т to direct action on them rationed by the International Standard IEC 62305-1-2010 aperiodic impulse of current of short bow of artificial lightning of temporal form 10/350 μs with the proper admittances on his peak-temporal parameters (PTP. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of technique of high voltage and large impulsive currents (LIC, and also scientific and technical bases of planning of high-voltage impulsive devices and measuring methods in them LIC with followings below extreme PTP: amplitude of impulse of current of ImL=200 кА (with admittance ±10 %; integral of action of impulse of current of JL=10·106 A2·s (with admittance ±35 %; %; duration of wavefront current of T1=10 μs (with admittance ±20 %; time, proper amplitude of impulse of current of ImL, tmL≤24 μs (with admittance ±20 %; duration of flowing of impulse of current of T2=350 μs (with admittance ±10 %. Results. The results of evaluation calculation and experimental researches of electro-thermal resistibility of the indicated pre-production sheet models are resulted measuring in the plan of 0,5 x 0,5 m from stainless steel are easily soiled the 12Х18Н10Т thickness of 1 mm to action on them of aperiodic impulse of current of short blow of artificial lightning with rationed PTP on the requirements of the International Standard IEC 62305-1-2010. In high current experiments amplitude of ImL of the aperiodic rationed impulse of current of artificial lightning of temporal form of T1/T2=15 μs/315 μs changed in the range of (100-184 кА. The integral of action of JL of impulse of current for I-IV of levels of protection of lightning of technical objects (TO numeral made from 2,32·106 А2·s to 7,88·106 А2·s, and the flowing through the

  7. The Current Banking Industry Civilized Norms Service Demonstration Unit With the Correct Evaluation Standard%现行银行业文明规范服务示范单位考核标准的评价与矫正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠翠

    2014-01-01

    The current bank of civilized service demonstration unit standards questionable places a lot of. In this paper, ifnd out the shortage of the current service standards through the national banking has to carry out a speciifc analysis and evaluation, put forward the bank civilized service demonstration unit standard correction view, deals with the formulation and evaluation standard of perfection of the principle is:to be practical and realistic attitude, pragmatic style of work, the idea of scientiifc development, characteristic and the demand of the customer for the the banking industry to design and make the evaluation standard, the only way is responsible for the development of China's banking sector.%现行的银行文明服务示范单位标准值得商榷的地方很多。本文通过找出目前全国银行业服务标准存在的不足来进行了具体分析和评价,提出了银行文明服务示范单位标准的矫正观点,阐述了制定和完善评价标准的原则是:要以实事求是的态度,务实的作风,科学发展的思想,针对银行业的特点和客户的实际需求来设计制定考核评价标准,只有这样才是对中国银行业发展负责。

  8. 40 CFR 440.104 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum bearing ores or any combination of these ores from open... discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters from mills that use the froth-flotation process alone...

  9. Gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and gold nanopore (AuNPore) catalysts in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takale, Balaram S; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2014-04-07

    Organic synthesis using gold has gained tremendous attention in last few years, especially heterogeneous gold catalysis based on gold nanoparticles has made its place in almost all organic reactions, because of the robust and green nature of gold catalysts. In this context, gold nanopore (AuNPore) with a 3D metal framework is giving a new dimension to heterogeneous gold catalysts. Interestingly, AuNPore chemistry is proving better than gold nanoparticles based chemistry. In this review, along with recent advances, major discoveries in heterogeneous gold catalysis are discussed.

  10. Modeling of gold production in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Nora; Ainuddeen, Nasihah Rasyiqah; Ismail, Hamizun; Umor, Mohd Rozi

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to identify the main factors that contribute to the gold production and hence determine the factors that affect to the development of the mining industry in Malaysia. An econometric approach was used by performing the cointegration analysis among the factors to determine the existence of long term relationship between the gold prices, the number of gold mines, the number of workers in gold mines and the gold production. The study continued with the Granger analysis to determine the relationship between factors and gold production. Results have found that there are long term relationship between price, gold production and number of employees. Granger causality analysis shows that there is only one way relationship between the number of employees with gold production in Malaysia and the number of gold mines in Malaysia.

  11. Selection of Arginine-Rich Anti-Gold Antibodies Engineered for Plasmonic Colloid Self-Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Purvi; Narayanan, S Shankara; Sharma, Jadab; Girard, Christian; Dujardin, Erik; Nizak, Clément

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are affinity proteins with a wide spectrum of applications in analytical and therapeutic biology. Proteins showing specific recognition for a chosen molecular target can be isolated and their encoding sequence identified in vitro from a large and diverse library by phage display selection. In this work, we show that this standard biochemical technique rapidly yields a collection of antibody protein binders for an inorganic target of major technological importance: crystalline metallic gold surfaces. 21 distinct anti-gold antibody proteins emerged from a large random library of antibodies and were sequenced. The systematic statistical analysis of all the protein sequences reveals a strong occurrence of arginine in anti-gold antibodies, which corroborates recent molecular dynamics predictions on the crucial role of arginine in protein/gold interactions. Once tethered to small gold nanoparticles using histidine tag chemistry, the selected antibodies could drive the self-assembly of the colloids onto t...

  12. Electrolysis Process of High Purity Gold%高纯金的电解工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶跃威

    2014-01-01

    介绍了遂昌金矿有限公司的高纯金电解工艺。实践表明,采用该工艺,在金阳极板含金95%~99%下经过一次金电解,金纯度即可达到99.997%以上。经检测,杂质含量低于高纯金(99.999%)的杂质要求。%The high-purity gold electrolysis process of Suichang Gold Mine Co. Ltd., is introduced. The production practice showed that, the content of gold can reach above 99.997% after only one cycle of electrolysis from the anode plate which contains 95%~99% gold. The test results showed that the impurities accord with the requirement of Chinese national standard of high-purity gold (99.999%).

  13. The use of a gold electrode for the determination of amphetamine derivatives and application to their analysis in human urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevešćanin Marina M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic abilities of gold electrode were tested for the quantitative determination of amphetamine (A and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA standards by their oxidation using cyclic voltammetry (CV. The value of the oxidative currents of A and MDMA standards at 0.80 V vs. SCE in 0.05 M NaHCO3 at the scan rate of 50 mV/s is linear function of concentration in range of 110.9-258.9 mM and 38.7-229.2 mM, respectively. Square wave voltammetry (SWV revealed linear increase of current with concentration of MDMA (range 30.9-91.6 mM and thus quantitative determination of amphetamine derivates. SWV analysis is successfully performed in spiked urine samples as well. A and MDMA in the presence of sucrose and as a content in illegally produced tablets were also analyzed. The voltammetric determination of A and MDMA derivatives using CV and SWV at gold electrode is a rapid, selective and simple procedure and its accuracy was confirmed with reference method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The spiked urine samples analysis offers additional possibility for the rapid detection of A and MDMA in human urine.

  14. Effect of gold nanoparticles on postoperative peritoneal adhesions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Abdominal adhesions are one of the most important problems, occurring after intra-abdominal surgery in more than 90% of cases. This condition is the leading cause of bowel obstruction, infertility, and abdominal/pelvic pain. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs have been shown to be non-toxic and exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antioxidant activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intraperitoneal lavage with GNP solutions on the development of postoperative peritoneal adhesion (PPA. Materials and Methods:In the current experimental study, thirty-five male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to seven groups of five rats. After a standardized peritoneal injury, GNP solutions in different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml were locally administered through nebulization; normal saline (NS was administered to the control group. Two weeks later, the rats were sacrificed and cecum and peritoneal samples were harvested for histopathological assessment. Blood samples were obtained to determine serum concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Results: The rats treated with GNPs had significantly lower microscopic and macroscopic peritoneal adhesion scores, compared to the control group (P

  15. Indacaterol/glycopyrronium in symptomatic patients with COPD (GOLD B and GOLD D) versus salmeterol/fluticasone: ILLUMINATE/LANTERN pooled analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmeier, Claus; Zhong, Nanshan; Humphries, Michael J; Mezzi, Karen; Fogel, Robert; Bader, Giovanni; Patalano, Francesco; Banerji, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background Indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) is approved for maintenance treatment of adult patients with COPD. This post hoc analysis explored the efficacy and safety of IND/GLY versus salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) in symptomatic (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] B and GOLD D) patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Patients and methods Data from LANTERN and ILLUMINATE studies were pooled and analyzed. In both studies, symptomatic COPD patients were randomized to once-daily IND/GLY 110 μg/50 μg or twice-daily SFC 50 μg/500 μg. End points were pre-dose trough forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), standardized area under the curve for FEV1 from 0 to 12 hours (FEV1 AUC0–12 hours), peak FEV1, peak forced vital capacity (FVC), pre-dose trough FVC, Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) total score, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score, rescue medication use and safety. Results A total of 1,263 patients were classified as either GOLD B (n=809) or GOLD D (n=454). At week 26, IND/GLY demonstrated statistically significant improvement in all lung function parameters versus SFC in patients in both the GOLD B and GOLD D subgroups. TDI total score and rescue medication use were significantly improved with IND/GLY versus SFC in the overall population and in the GOLD B (TDI total score only) and GOLD D (rescue medication only) subgroups. IND/GLY also reduced the rate of exacerbations in the pooled population. Overall safety profile was comparable with a higher incidence of pneumonia in the SFC-treated group. Conclusion In this pooled analysis, IND/GLY demonstrated superior efficacy compared with SFC in patients in the GOLD B and GOLD D subgroups and supported its use in symptomatic COPD patients. PMID:28008244

  16. Protein-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindra, Pratibha [Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz (E) 400098, Mumbai (India)], E-mail: Pratibha.kamble@osumc.edu

    2009-07-15

    Our current approach is to synthesize gold nanoparticles utilizing Serrapeptase that serves as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. The investigations further reveal that certain amino acid groups like lysine are involved in reduction and stabilization of these particles. The particles are characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H NMR) Spectroscopy studies and Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for Serrapeptidase and Au-Serrapeptidase isolation. Transmission electron microscopy studies show particles ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm that are spherical, hexagonal and polygonal in nature. UV-vis spectroscopy shows surface plasmon band at 536 nm that indicates formation of spherical particles whereas, results further add that gold particles are formed inside the nanosphere that is stabilized by interaction of amino acid groups like {gamma}-lysine of peptase. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies reveal that few carboxyl groups are involved during the synthesis process followed by stretching of -CH bonds which has been seen in the case of lysine of Serrapeptase. Current studies therefore show that the method utilized for the synthesis of Au-nanoparticles is a biofriendly method and the nanogold formed can be a useful attribute for various applications.

  17. 儿科急诊现状和规范化建设%Current situation and standardization of pediatric emergency system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璧如; 王莹

    2012-01-01

    分析儿科急诊发展现状及儿科急诊医疗服务体系;阐述儿科急诊配置和人员、急诊医护人员应该掌握的技术、预检分诊系统、急性疾病和创伤儿童的服务流程及急症与危重症疾病诊治流程;提出对儿科急诊建设发展模式的建议和思考.%The current situation of pediatric emergency medicine and the pediatric emergency medical service systems were analyzed.The equipment configuration,personnel allocation and the requirement of professional knowledge and technology in pediatric emergency setting,the triage system,the process of medical services for patients with acute illness or trauma,and the optimizing process of diagnosis and treatment for emergency cases and critical cases were discussed.The nationwide development model of pediatric emergency service systems were reviewed.

  18. Use of Soybean Lecithin in Shape Controlled Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Benjamin Robert

    The work presented in this dissertation is a composite of experiments in the growth of gold nanoparticles with specific optical properties of interest. The goal is to synthesize these gold nanoparticles using soybean extract for not only shape control, but for propensity as a biocompatible delivery system. The optical properties of these nanoparticles has found great application in coloring glass during the Roman empire and, over the centuries, has grown into its own research field in applications of nanoparticulate materials. Many of the current functions include use in biological systems as biosensors and therapeutic applications, thus making biocompatibility a necessity. Current use of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide leads to rod-shaped gold nanoparticles, however, the stability of these gold nanoparticles does not endure for extended periods of time in aqueous media. In my research, two important components were found to be necessary for stable, anisotropic growth of gold nanoparticles. In the first experiments, it was found that bromide played a key role in shape control. Bromide exchange on the gold atoms led to specific packing of the growing crystals, allowing for two-dimensional growth of gold nanoparticles. It was also discerned that soybean lecithin contained ligands that blocked specific gold facets leading to prismatic gold nanoparticle growth. These gold nanoprisms give a near infrared plasmon absorption similar to that of rod-shaped gold nanoparticles. These gold nanoprisms are discovered to be extremely stable in aqueous media and remain soluble for extended periods of time, far longer than that of gold nanoparticles grown using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Since soy lecithin has a plethora of compounds present, it became necessary to discover which compound was responsible for the shape control of the gold nanoprisms in order to optimize the synthesis and allow for a maximum yield of the gold nanoprisms. Many of these components were identified

  19. Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Imaged by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined...... for correlation with features of the current-voltage diagram. Copper growth is by nucleation and formation of 3D islands. During the initial stages of bulk copper growth the potentials were fixed at selected values and a balance observed between formation of polycrystalline copper nuclei and of copper crystals....... After the first cycle of copper deposition and dissolution the morphology of the polycrystalline gold surface had apparently changed into a recrystallized phase of a copper-gold alloy. At a given stage of the cycle the potential of the electrode was found to depend linearly on the tip potential...

  20. Hepatitis C Treatment: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Madiha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a member of Flaviviridae family and one of the major causes of liver disease. There are about 175 million HCV infected patients worldwide that constitute 3% of world's population. The main route of HCV transmission is parental however 90% intravenous drug users are at highest risk. Standard interferon and ribavirin remained a gold standard of chronic HCV treatment having 38-43% sustained virological response rates. Currently the standard therapy for HCV is pegylated interferon (PEG-INF with ribavirin. This therapy achieves 50% sustained virological response (SVR for genotype 1 and 80% for genotype 2 & 3. As pegylated interferon is expensive, standard interferon is still the main therapy for HCV treatment in under developed countries. On the other hand, studies showed that pegylated IFN and RBV therapy has severe side effects like hematological complications. Herbal medicines (laccase, proanthocyandin, Rhodiola kirilowii are also being in use as a natural and alternative way for treatment of HCV but there is not a single significant report documented yet. Best SVR indicators are genotype 3 and 2,

  1. Sulfur radical species form gold deposits on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovski, Gleb S; Kokh, Maria A; Guillaume, Damien; Borisova, Anastassia Y; Gisquet, Pascal; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Lahera, Eric; Del Net, William; Proux, Olivier; Testemale, Denis; Haigis, Volker; Jonchière, Romain; Seitsonen, Ari P; Ferlat, Guillaume; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Saitta, Antonino Marco; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Dubessy, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Current models of the formation and distribution of gold deposits on Earth are based on the long-standing paradigm that hydrogen sulfide and chloride are the ligands responsible for gold mobilization and precipitation by fluids across the lithosphere. Here we challenge this view by demonstrating, using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and solubility measurements, coupled with molecular dynamics and thermodynamic simulations, that sulfur radical species, such as the trisulfur ion S3(-), form very stable and soluble complexes with Au(+) in aqueous solution at elevated temperatures (>250 °C) and pressures (>100 bar). These species enable extraction, transport, and focused precipitation of gold by sulfur-rich fluids 10-100 times more efficiently than sulfide and chloride only. As a result, S3(-) exerts an important control on the source, concentration, and distribution of gold in its major economic deposits from magmatic, hydrothermal, and metamorphic settings. The growth and decay of S3(-) during the fluid generation and evolution is one of the key factors that determine the fate of gold in the lithosphere.

  2. Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposites as solid polymer electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S N Suraiya; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Aswal, Vinod K; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal

    2014-08-01

    Lithium micro batteries are emerging field of research. For environmental safety biodegradable films are preferred. Recently biodegradable polymers have gained wide application in the field of solid polymer electrolytes. To make biodegradable polymers films plasticizers are usually used. However, use of plasticizers has disadvantages such as inhomogenities in phases and mechanical instability that will affect the performance of Lithium micro batteries. We have in this research used gold nanoparticles that are environmentally friendly, instead of plasticizers. Gold nanoparticles were directly template upon chitosan membranes by reduction process so as to enhance the interactions of Lithium with the polymer. In this article, for the first time the characteristics of Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposite films are investigated. The films were prepared using simple solution casting technique. We have used various characterization tools such as Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), XRD, FTIR, Raman, FESEM, and AFM, Light scattering, Dielectric and electrical conductivity measurements. Our investigations show that incorporation of gold results in enhancement of conductivity in Lithium containing Chitosan films. Also it affects the dielectric characteristics of the films. We conclude through various characterization tools that the enhancement in the conductivity was due to the retardation of crystal growth of lithium salt in the presence of gold nanoparticles. A model is proposed regarding the formation of the new nanocomposite. The conductivity of these biodegradable films is comparable to those of the current inorganic Lithium micro batteries. This new chitosan-Au-Li nanocomposite has potential applications in the field of Lithium micro batteries.

  3. Gold process mineralogy: Objectives, techniques, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Joe Y.; Cabri, Louis J.

    2004-07-01

    The extractive metallurgy of gold is largely driven by mineralogical factors such as gold particle size; association with other minerals; coatings; presence of cyanicides, oxygen consumers, and preg-robbers; presence of refractory gold minerals; and locking of submicroscopic gold in sulfide and sulfarsenide mineral structures. Gold process mineralogy addresses all issues related to gold ore processing by the detailed study of an ore or a mill product. The methodology is widely used as a predictive tool in feasibility studies and during the process development stage, and as a trouble-shooting tool for mineral processing and hydrometallurgical operations.

  4. Serum gold concentrations during treatment with auranofin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riel, P L; Gribnau, F W; Van de Putte, L B; Arts, C W; Van Aernsbergen, A

    1987-03-01

    Serum gold concentrations were measured in rheumatoid arthritis patients during chronic treatment with the orally adsorbable gold compound auranofin. In agreement with data in the literature, the highest serum gold concentration was reached after 16 weeks of treatment with 6 mg auranofin daily. A striking finding in this study was that thereafter the serum gold concentrations did not appear to plateau but declined gradually. Statistically this resulted in a significantly lower concentration after one year as compared with week 16 (p less than 0.05, paired t-test). It is suggested that a shift from protein bound gold to cell-bound gold might be the explanation.

  5. Phage based green chemistry for gold ion reduction and gold retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Magdiel I; Xie, Jianping; Leong, David T

    2014-01-22

    The gold mining industry has taken its toll on the environment, triggering the development of more environmentally benign processes to alleviate the waste load release. Here, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophages (phages) for biosorption and bioreduction of gold ions from aqueous solution, which potentially can be applied to remediate gold ions from gold mining waste effluent. Phage has shown a remarkably efficient sorption of gold ions with a maximum gold adsorption capacity of 571 mg gold/g dry weight phage. The product of this phage mediated process is gold nanocrystals with the size of 30-630 nm. Biosorption and bioreduction processes are mediated by the ionic and covalent interaction between gold ions and the reducing groups on the phage protein coat. The strategy offers a simple, ecofriendly and feasible option to recover of gold ions to form readily recoverable products of gold nanoparticles within 24 h.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES OF ELECTRO-THERMAL RESISTIBILITY OF SEND-OFFS AND CABLES TO ACTION RATIONED ON THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD OF IEC 62305-1-2010 OF APERIODIC IMPULSE OF CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Experimental researches of electro-thermal resistibility of cable-explorer products, applied in the power electric circuits of objects of electric-power industry, to action on its copper and aluminum parts bearings a current rationed on the International Standard of IEC 62305-1-2010 aperiodic impulse 10/350 μs of current of artificial lightning. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of technique of high tensions and high pulsed currents (HPC, and also scientific and technical bases of planning of devices of high-voltage impulsive technique and measuring HPC in them. Results. Experimental a way the quantitative levels of maximal values maximum of possible and critical closenesses of aperiodic impulse 10/350 μs of current of artificial lightning with rationed on the international standard of IEC 62305-1-2010 peak-temporal parameters and admittances on them in copper (aluminum parts bearings a current of send-offs and cables with a polyethylene (PET and polyvinylchloride (PVCH isolation. Originality. First in world practice on the unique powerful high-voltage generator of HPC of artificial lightning experimental researches of resistibility to lightning of pre-production models of send-offs (cables are conducted with copper (aluminum tendons, PET and PVCH by an isolation, in-use in power electric circuits of electric-power industry objects. Practical value. The use in practice of protecting from lightning of the got results will allow substantially to promote functional and fire-prevention safety of engineering communications of objects of industrial electroenergy in the conditions of action on them of short shots of linear lightning.

  7. Review of exposure therapy: A gold standard for PTSD treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A. M. Rauch, PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure (PE is an effective first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, regardless of the type of trauma, for Veterans and military personnel. Extensive research and clinical practice guidelines from various organizations support this conclusion. PE is effective in reducing PTSD symptoms and has also demonstrated efficacy in reducing comorbid issues such as anger, guilt, negative health perceptions, and depression. PE has demonstrated efficacy in diagnostically complex populations and survivors of single- and multiple-incident traumas. The PE protocol includes four main therapeutic components (i.e., psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, imaginal exposure, and emotional processing. In light of PE’s efficacy, the Veterans Health Administration designed and supported a PE training program for mental health professionals that has trained over 1,300 providers. Research examining the mechanisms involved in PE and working to improve its acceptability, efficacy, and efficiency is underway with promising results.

  8. Gold standards for primary care of burn management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Zor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, about 2.5 million people are affected from burns in the world. In our country there is no reliable database related to this subject. There are ongoing studies about the epidemiology of burns in Turkey. After burn injury had represent many various complications, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac deficiency, acute hypertension, endocarditis, thromboembolism, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, respiratuar failure, renal failure, gastric ulcus, ileus, sepsis, coagulopathy and anemia. Such complications can preventable or treatable. In this respect, preventive management in the first step burn treatment had very importantly in burn cases. Skin is a barrier which protects evaporative heat loss. In cases of acute burn, hypothermia occurs related to skin loss. For these cases, care must be taken to keep the patient warm. In addition fluid resuscitation is very important in these cases. Furthermore, the damaged tissues are highly susceptible to infection in burned patients. Burn care and rehabilitation includes challenging and complex procedures. Briefly, treatments of burn cases require a multidisciplinary and meticulous approach.

  9. Amphotericin B: time for a new "gold standard".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Marr, Kieren A; Rex, John H; Cohen, Stuart H

    2003-08-01

    When introduced in 1959, amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBD) was clearly a life-saving drug. Randomized studies demonstrating its efficacy were not thought to be necessary, and it was granted indications for many invasive fungal infections. Despite its formidable toxicities, AmBD is thus often used as the primary comparator in studies of invasive fungal infections. Safer lipid-based versions of amphotericin B (AmB) have been introduced, but difficulties with studying these agents generally led to licensure for salvage therapy, not primary therapy. However, the cumulative clinical experience to date with the lipid-based preparations is now adequate to demonstrate that these agents are no less active than AmBD, and, for some infections, it can now be stated that specific lipid-based preparations of AmB are superior to AmBD. Given their superior safety profiles, these preparations can now be considered suitable replacements for AmBD for primary therapy for many invasive fungal infections in clinical practice and research.

  10. Annotated chemical patent corpus: A gold standard for text mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Akhondi (Saber); A.G. Klenner (Alexander G.); C. Tyrchan (Christian); A.K. Manchala (Anil K.); K. Boppana (Kiran); D. Lowe (Daniel); M. Zimmermann (Marc); S.A.R.P. Jagarlapudi (Sarma A. R. P.); R. Sayle (Roger); J.A. Kors (Jan); C. Muresan (Cornelia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractExploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting poin

  11. Iron metabolism in athletes--achieving a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an important mineral element required for diverse life processes. Its metabolism is almost synonymous to erythrocyte maintenance, erythropoiesis and erythrophagocytosis. Consequently, exercise exertion impacts significantly on red cell haematology. Here, the interactions between exercise and erythropoiesis are explored. Hepcidin, the peptide hormone that regulates systemic iron metabolism, decreases in response to erythropoiesis by facilitating increased iron efflux from ferroportin into circulation. However, during exercise, there is an alarming increase in the expression of hepcidin resulting in a negative iron balance in athletes. In this review, the confounding cause and effect scenarios of exercise, athlete training and haematology and hepcidin interactions are discussed.

  12. Internal standard method for the determination of Gold and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olof Vorster

    Group Metals Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission ... Abstract. A method is described for the determination of Au, Pt, Pd, Ru and Rh in a converter ..... 53.7. 29.0. 18.2. 3.06. 120. 52.7. 27.8. 17.9. 3.02. 106. 46.8. 23.1. 15.3. 2.94 ...

  13. Enhanced uniformity in arrays of electroless plated spherical gold nanoparticles using tin presensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Phillip; Ahn, Wonmi; Roper, D Keith

    2010-02-02

    Gold nanoparticle arrays created with electroless gold plating provide a unique means of transforming nanocylinders usually formed in electron beam lithography to spherical nanoparticles. Alone, electroless gold plating is not selective to the substrate and results in the formation of a gold film on all exposed surfaces of an electron beam patterned sample, including the electron resist. Undesired gold plating occurred near patterned features on the substrate surface, which was reduced by increasing post-spin-coat cure time. When the electron resist is removed, some nanocylinders break off with the gold film, leaving partial cylinders or holes in the patterned elements. By presensitizing the substrate surface with tin, gold cylinders may be selectively deposited to the substrate surface without forming a film on the electron resist. Tin presensitized arrays were produced with 47.1 +/- 7.4 nm radius gold nanoparticles with an interparticle distance of 646.0 +/- 12.4 nm. Defects from sheared, missing, and redeposited Au particles associated with the resist removal were minimized, resulting in enhanced size and shape uniformity of pillars and arrays. Hollow particles were eliminated, and relative standard deviation in particle size was reduced by 7.4% on average, while elongation was reduced 12.3% when astigmatism was eliminated.

  14. Experimental determination of detection limits for performing neutron activation analysis for gold in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarzemba, M.S.; Weldy, J.; Pearcy, E.; Prikryl, J.; Pickett, D.

    1999-11-01

    Measurements are presented of gold concentration in rock/soil samples by delayed neutron activation analysis using a device and method that are potentially field portable. The device consists of a polyethylene moderator and {sup 252}Cf as the source of neutrons for activating the samples and a high-purity germanium detector to measure the 412-keV gamma-ray emissions from activated gold. This information is used to extract the gold concentration in the sample. Two types of samples were investigated: (1) pure SiO{sub 2} doped with a known amount of gold chloride and (2) US Geological Survey standards. The former types were used to evaluate optimum device performance and to calibrate the device and method. The latter types were used to show typical system performance for the intended application (field exploration for gold deposits). It was found that the device was capable of determining gold concentrations to {approximately}10 ppb with a turnaround time (the sum of irradiation, decay, and counting times) of {approximately}10 days. For samples where the gold concentration was much higher (i.e., gold ore), turnaround times are {approximately}2 days and could be shortened further by sacrificing accuracy (e.g., lessening irradiation, decay, and counting times) or by augmenting source strength.

  15. Gold in the oceans through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Ross R.; Gregory, Daniel D.; Steadman, Jeffrey A.; Tomkins, Andrew G.; Lounejeva, Elena; Danyushevsky, Leonid V.; Halpin, Jacqueline A.; Maslennikov, Valeriy; Sack, Patrick J.; Mukherjee, Indrani; Berry, Ron; Hickman, Arthur

    2015-10-01

    During sedimentation and diagenesis of carbonaceous shales in marine continental margin settings, Au is adsorbed from seawater and organic matter and becomes incorporated into sedimentary pyrite. LA-ICPMS analysis of over 4000 sedimentary pyrite grains in 308 samples from 33 locations around the world, grouped over 123 determined ages, has enabled us to track, in a first order sense, the Au content of the ocean over the last 3.5 billion years. Gold was enriched in the Meso- and Neoarchean oceans, several times above present values, then dropped by an order of magnitude from the first Great Oxidation Event (GOE1) through the Paleoproterozoic to reach a minimum value around 1600 Ma. Gold content of the oceans then rose, with perturbations, through the Meso- and Neoproterozoic, showing a steady rise at the end of the Proterozoic (800 to 520 Ma), which most likely represents the effects of the second Great Oxidation Event (GOE2). Gold in the oceans was at a maximum at 520 Ma, when oxygen in the oceans rose to match current maximum values. In the Archean and Proterozoic, the Au content of seawater correlates with the time distribution of high-Mg greenstone belts, black shales and banded iron formations, suggesting that increases in atmospheric oxygen and marine bio-productivity, combined with the higher background of Au in komatiitic and Mg-rich basalts were the first order causes of the pattern of Au enrichment in seawater. We suggest the lack of major Au deposits from 1800 to 800 Ma, is explained by the low levels of Au in the oceans during this period.

  16. Sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong G

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guangxian Zhong,1,2,* Ruilong Lan,3,* Wenxin Zhang,1,4 Feihuan Fu,5 Yiming Sun,1,4 Huaping Peng,1,4 Tianbin Chen,3 Yishan Cai,6 Ailin Liu,1,4 Jianhua Lin,2 Xinhua Lin1,4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, 2Department of Orthopaedics, 3The Centralab, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 4Nano Medical Technology Research Institute, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 5Department of Endocrinology, The County Hospital of Anxi, Anxi, 6Fujian International Travel Healthcare Center, Fujian Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP based on a three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode using a facile, rapid, “green” square-wave oxidation-reduction cycle technique. The resulting three-dimensional gold nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. A “sandwich-type” detection strategy using an electrochemical immunosensor was employed. Under optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between the current response signal and the AFP concentrations was observed in the range of 10–50 ng/mL with a detection limit of 3 pg/mL. This new immunosensor showed a fast amperometric response and high sensitivity and selectivity. It was successfully used to determine AFP in a human serum sample with a relative standard deviation of <5% (n=5. The proposed immunosensor represents a significant step toward practical application in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of prognosis. Keywords: electrochemical immunosensors, three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode, square-wave oxidation-reduction cycle, alpha-fetoprotein 

  17. Flow field-flow fractionation: a versatile approach for size characterization of alpha-tocopherol-induced enlargement of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermsri, Wimut; Jarujamrus, Purim; Shiowatana, Juwadee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2010-04-01

    Flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) was used for size characterization of gold nanoparticles. The measured particle sizes obtained from FlFFF for the commercial 10 nm gold nanoparticle standard and the gold nanoparticles synthesized in the laboratory were in good agreement with those measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the capability of alpha-tocopherol to induce enlargement of gold nanoparticles by catalysis of the reduction of AuCl(4)(-) by citrate was observed by monitoring the changes in particle size of gold nanoparticles using FlFFF. The effects of alpha-tocopherol and incubation time on enlargement of the gold nanoparticles were examined. Higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol resulted in larger nanoparticles. At fixed alpha-tocopherol concentration, larger nanoparticles were formed at longer incubation times.

  18. Signs and symptoms of mercury-exposed gold miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Siebert, Uwe; Roider, Gabriele; Nowak, Dennis; Drasch, Gustav

    2017-03-30

    Gold miners use mercury to extract gold from ore adding liquid mercury to the milled gold-containing ore. This results in a mercury-gold compound, called amalgam. Miners smelt this amalgam to obtain gold, vaporizing it and finally inhaling the toxic mercury fumes. The objective was to merge and analyze data from different projects, to identify typical signs and symptoms of chronic inorganic mercury exposure. Miners and community members from various artisanal small-scale gold mining areas had been examined (Philippines, Mongolia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Indonesia). Data of several health assessments were pooled. Urine, blood and hair samples were analyzed for mercury (N = 1252). Questionnaires, standardized medical examinations and neuropsychological tests were used. Participants were grouped into: Controls (N = 209), living in an exposed area (N = 408), working with mercury as panners (N = 181), working with mercury as amalgam burners (N = 454). Chi2 test, linear trend test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation coefficient, Spearman's rho, and analysis of variance tests were used. An algorithm was used to define participants with chronic mercury intoxication. Mean mercury concentrations in all exposed subgroups were elevated and above threshold limits, with amalgam burners showing highest levels. Typical symptoms of chronic metallic mercury intoxication were tremor, ataxia, coordination problems, excessive salivation and metallic taste. Participants from the exposed groups showed poorer results in different neuropsychological tests in comparison to the control group. Fifty-four percent of the high-exposed group (amalgam burners) were diagnosed as being mercury-intoxicated, compared to 0% within the control group (Chi2 p mercury intoxication, with tremor, ataxia and other neurological symptoms together with a raised body burden of mercury was clinically diagnosed in exposed people in artisanal small-scale mining areas. The mercury exposure needs to be

  19. Model studies with gold: a versatile oxidation and hydrogenation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ming; Gong, Jinlong; Dong, Guangbin; Mullins, C Buddie

    2014-03-18

    Historically, scientists have considered gold an inert catalyst constituent. However, in recent decades, chemists have discovered that nanoscale gold shows exceptional activity for many chemical reactions. They have investigated model gold surfaces in order to obtain fundamental understanding of catalytic properties. In this Account, we present our current understanding of oxidation and hydrogenation reactions on the Au(111) single crystal as a planar representative of gold catalysts, revealing the interesting surface chemistry of gold. We begin by comparing two inverse reactions, alcohol oxidation and aldehyde hydrogenation, on a Au(111) surface. Beyond the expected different chemistry, we observe intriguing similarities since the same surface is employed. First, both molecular oxygen and hydrogen have high barriers to dissociation on Au(111), and frequently chemists study reactions here by using atomic O and H to populate the surfaces. Recombinative desorption features of oxygen and hydrogen are apparent at ∼500 and ∼110 K, lower than other transition metals. These results indicate that oxygen and hydrogen have low desorption activation energies and weakly chemisorb on the surface, likely leading to selective reactions. On the oxygen-precovered Au(111) surface, alcohols are selectively oxidized to aldehydes. Similarly, weakly bound hydrogen atoms on Au(111) also show chemoselective reactivity for hydrogenation of propionaldehyde and acetone. The second similarity is that the gold surface activates self-coupling of alcohol or aldehyde with oxygen or hydrogen, resulting in the formation of esters and ethers, respectively, in alcohol oxidation and aldehyde hydrogenation. During these two reactions, both alkoxy groups and alcohol-like species show up as intermediates, which likely play a key role in the formation of coupling products. In addition, the cross coupling reaction between alcohol and aldehyde occurs on both O- and H-modified surfaces, yielding the

  20. Gold--a controversial sensitizer. European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    for the questioning may have been confusion in differentiating between contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis. To arrive at a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis, 3 steps have, in principle, to be fulfilled: (i) establishment of contact allergy; (ii) demonstration of present exposure; (iii) assessment...... of clinical relevance, i.e., causing or aggravating a contact dermatitis. In this paper, these steps are discussed with regard to gold. With our present knowledge of contact allergy-allergic contact dermatitis, we do not recommend including gold sodium thiosulfate in the standard series. It should be applied...... for scientific purposes and when allergic contact dermatitis from gold is suspected....