WorldWideScience

Sample records for current federal state

  1. FEDERAL SUPPORT OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY IN THE UNITED STATES: CURRENT EVOLUTION UNDER THE POLITICAL STRUGGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Istomin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2000’s and 2010’s witnessed diminishing margin of the United States in science and technology. Meanwhile, the U.S. remains a clear leader in this fi eld. Major driving force of the country’s success in the second half of the ХХ century remained assertive federal science policy. The article seeks to identify major trends in evolution of the U.S. science policy and the reasons behind relative decline of the level of budget support of the scientifi c research. The author studies evolution of the policies of George Bush and Barack Obama, as well as the views of Democrats and Republicans in the House of Representatives and the Senate. The article also examines the input into the federal policy of the governmental bodies, which are directly responsible for its implementation, as well as non-governmental organizations, which seek to advocate interests of scientists; it studies rising competition between the executive authorities and legislators for the recognition as a major champion of the academic community as well as American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  2. Belgian Federalism after the Sixth State Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Jurgen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the most important institutional evolutions of Belgian federalism stemming from the implementation of the sixth state reform (2012-2014. This reform inter alia included a transfer of powers worth 20 billion euros from the federal level to the level of the federated states, a profound reform of the Senate, and a substantial increase in fiscal autonomy for the regions. This contribution critically analyses the current state of Belgian federalism. Although the sixth state reform realized important and long-awaited changes, further evolutions are to be expected. Since the Belgian state model has reached its limits with regard to complexity and creativity, politicians and academics should begin to reflect on the seventh state reform with the aim of increasing the transparency of the current Belgian institutional labyrinth.

  3. Federalism in Pakistan, Current Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Musarrat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to elaborate the political issues and challenges faces by the federation of Pakistan during and after the Gen. Pervez Musharraf government. In this paper effort is made to discuss those issues on the biases of which politics of federalism started in the country. Pinching problems that caused disintegration to Pakistan are also discussed. Those issues are also discussed in details which are a constant threat to the “new federation of Pakistan”. Authors also focus on the 2008 elections and its consequences on Pakistan politics. All the results of this research are proved via review of the previous literature. Researchers have proved that as Pakistan has a diversified culture so federalism is best suited for its political structure. Researchers have also discussed few suggestive solutions for better bureaucracy.

  4. State-federal interactions in nuclear regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 established, and later Congressional amendments have confirmed, that except in areas which have been explicitly granted to the states, the federal government possesses preemptive authority to regulate radiation hazards associated with the development and use of atomic energy. Since the passage of the original Act, numerous decisions by the courts have reaffirmed the legitimacy of federal preemption, and have defined and redefined its scope. In this study, the aim is to explore the underlying issues involved in federal preemption of radiation-hazard regulation, and to recommend actions that the Department of Energy and other agencies and groups should consider undertaking in the near term to protect the preemption principle. Appropriate roles of the states are discussed, as well as recent state-level activities and their rationale, and several current arenas in which state-federal conflicts about regulation of hazards are being played out. The emphasis here is on four particular arenas that are now important arenas of conflict, but the issues discussed are far broader in scope. These four arenas are: state-level moratorium activity; emergency planning for reactors; conflicts arising from state financial regulation; and inroads in federal preemption through litigation under state law.

  5. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krummel, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, H. Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-21

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines.

  6. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  7. Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    The federal specific gasoline tax falls equally on consumers and wholesalers; whereas state specific taxes fall almost entirely on consumers. The consumer incidence of state taxes is greater in states that use relatively little gasoline.

  8. Federal Grants to State and Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…

  9. [Current ascariasis situation in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchenkova, N N; Romanenko, N A; Chernyshenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), ascariasis remains to be the most common geohelminthiasis, in children in particular. With its overall reduction, the prevalence of ascariasis is very uneven on the RF territory. In the past 15 years, from 1991 to 2004, there was a steady-state decrease in the incidence of ascariasis from 79.5 to 46.0 per 100,000. Its incidence rates remained higher than the average Russian ones in 33 RF subjects and lower than those in 48 subjects and began reducing in 8 subjects in the past 4 years. Of the 33 RF subjects wherein the incidence rates were constantly greater than the average Russian ones, 27 subjects are located in the natural background-favorable areas. In the past 15 years, there was an increase in the impact of socioeconomic factors on the higher incidence of ascariasis: the population's migration; the delivery and transport of Ascaris egg-contaminated greens, vegetables, berries; the development of hothouse gardening, and, as a result, the occurrence of ascariasis in the northern areas of the country, as well as the use of discharged waters for soil fertilization to grow crops. The territory of Russia was first epidemiologically districted in the context of ascariasis, by taking into account the natural background and socioeconomic factors. The area of ascariasis is on the rise. In all RF subjects, public health and social security bodies should constantly keep in mind the problem in ascariasis control and prevention.

  10. Overview Of Federal And State Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Frank J.

    1981-01-01

    Energy audits are a major component of a number of Federal and State energy conservation programs. To various degrees, these programs provide an opportunity for the application of infrared remote sensing (thermography) to the conduct of these audits. The following programs are reviewed and an indication given of how each might make use of infrared as an audit tool: o Residential Conservation Service Program o Schools and Hospitals Program o Federal Energy Management Program o State Energy Grants Program o Weatherization Assistance Program o Energy Extension Service Program o Industrial Energy Conservation Program

  11. Reinventing (Open) Government: State and Federal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeremy R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Resource limitations and increases in the number of requests demand a rethinking of the review process of government documents for public access. State and federal trends may soon require a disclosure of database reports in electronic form. Issues central to the establishment of an adequate policy for electronic freedom of information are…

  12. 78 FR 67200 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Labor signed the annual certifications under the Federal Unemployment...

  13. 30 CFR 281.13 - Joint State/Federal coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Joint State/Federal coordination. 281.13....13 Joint State/Federal coordination. (a) The Secretary may invite the adjacent State Governor(s) to... a State/Federal task force or some other joint planning or coordination arrangement when...

  14. 30 CFR 936.30 - State-Federal Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the Federal land management agency, and other Federal agencies as required. The Secretary reserves the... period. The ratio or cost split of Federal to non-Federal dollars allocated under this Agreement will be... ratio will be applied to the final eligible total State expenditures to arrive at the total...

  15. Telemedicine in the Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutstein, D

    2000-09-01

    Telemedicine (other than costly long distance telephone and facsimile messages) in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) started approximately 4 years ago with the establishment of Internet access in the State of Yap. A local access, for medical use only, via already established trunk lines maintained by Continental Airlines was established. It provided a connection to CompuServe at a baud rate of 300 bps. FSM TeleCom provided this free service. While this connection was slow, it allowed medical staff at Yap State Hospital to send and receive text based e-mail regarding patient management. By its use interest was generated in both medical and non-medical individuals to develop a commercial full scale Internet service. In March 1996, TeleCom became a full scale commercial Internet Service Provider in Yap. Rates were reasonable and the CompuServe access was phased out. The full scale internet allowed medical personnel to engage in telemedicine activities, including email; email attachments; the search and retrieval of medical literature; transmission to medical specialists of X-rays, ECG's and other images; and real-time teleconferencing over the Internet with both audio and video. In addition, to the improvement of medical care, this allowed for greater efficiency in arranging referral of patients for medical treatment outside of the FSM.

  16. Pre-Emption: Federal Statutory Intervention in State Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    David E.Wildasin

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of federal statutory restrictions on state government taxing powers. Such pre–emption can prevent states from pursuing policies that are best adapted to their economic circumstances and objectives, inefficiently constraining decentralized state tax policymaking. States policy choices may, however, harm the efficient operation of the US federation as a whole; in such cases, the "visible hand" of federal pre–emption may lead to improved policy outcomes. Exis...

  17. 77 FR 38199 - Determining Conformity of Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 93 Determining Conformity of Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans... conformity purposes, the budget(s) shall not be used to satisfy the requirements of this section....

  18. Trends and Milestones: Leveraging Federal Funding in the States To Address Olmstead [and] Growing Waiting Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Richard; Parish, Susan; Braddock, David, Ed.; Smith, Gary, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses using existing state resources not currently used for matching purposes to leverage additional federal Medicaid funding for community services and supports for persons with mental retardation. A table is provided that lists state funds potentially available to match additional federal Medicaid funding. (Contains six…

  19. 75 FR 44231 - Notice of Proposed Extension of Project Period and Waiver for the State and Federal Policy Forum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Notice of Proposed Extension of Project Period and Waiver for the State and Federal Policy Forum for... extension of project period and waiver for the State and Federal Policy Forum for Program Improvement Center... enable the currently funded State and Federal Policy Forum for Program Improvement Center to receive...

  20. Cancer in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; Gladu, Rebecca; Keybond, Kolid; Ruben, Kino

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study, funded by the National Cancer Institute, was to document the state of cancer awareness and services in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) and to begin to identify the need for cancer-care services. Findings suggest that cancer is the third-leading cause of death in Chuuk, yet cancer-related awareness, prevention, detection, and treatment services are limited. A number of needs were identified, and an action plan was developed based on five priority areas: 1) establishing a cancer registry; 2) improving ICD coding skills and knowledge; 3) increasing public awareness about cancer; 4) establishing an office dedicated to cancer; and 5) increasing screening of high-risk individuals.

  1. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    UNITED STATES FEDERAL GUIDANCE ON WITNESS PROTECTION IN HUMAN TRAFFICKING A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...JUN 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...United States needs overarching federal guidance on witness protection for human trafficking victims/witnesses in order to enhance their safety and

  2. 18 CFR 740.11 - Federal/State coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal/State coordination. 740.11 Section 740.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.11 Federal/State coordination. The Council will coordinate...

  3. 21 CFR 100.2 - State enforcement of Federal regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal regulations. (a) Under section 307 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), a State...-605), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch... notification pursuant to section 307(b)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C....

  4. Design Patterns for and Automation of Federation State Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, R.E.J.; Ufer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The suitability of or choice for a particular design pattern for federation execution state control depends on several factors, such as the degree in which legacy applications can support particular patterns and the complexity of the federation. For small federations that involve only a handful of

  5. 77 FR 66482 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to state...

  6. Cancer in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; Wong, Vanessa; Hedson, John; David, Wincener J

    2004-09-01

    A cancer needs assessment, funded by the National Cancer Institute, was conducted in Pohnpei State (Pohnpei), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Findings revealed that cancer is the third leading cause of death in Pohnpei, yet cancer-related awareness, prevention, detection, and treatment services are limited. A number of needs were identified, and an action plan was developed based on five priority areas: 1) increasing community awareness about cancer (especially, cervix, breast, liver and lung) and related risk factors; 2) securing funding for cancer prevention and control planning and activities; 3) establishing a fully staffed cancer prevention and control office; 4) building local capacity for cancer cytology; and 5) increasing capacity to obtain and process lab specimens for high-risk patients.

  7. 76 FR 78085 - Permissible Investments for Federal and State Savings Associations: Corporate Debt Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ...), (E), or (F) of the Home Owners Loan Act (``HOLA''). The FDIC currently may require a state savings... (HOLA) (12 U.S.C. 1464 et seq.), as well as activities recognized as permissible for a Federal...

  8. 49 CFR 172.701 - Federal-State relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal-State relationship. 172.701 Section 172.701 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Training § 172.701 Federal-State relationship. This subpart and the parts...

  9. Fiscal federalism and equity in the state joint local governments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiscal federalism and equity in the state joint local governments' account: Oyo state in focus. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Data for this study were collected through secondary sources and descriptive and inferential statistical ...

  10. Identity Politics, Democratisation and State Building Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are complex, especially in the cases of relatively young post-colonial countries, such as ... consideration in state making since most states are multi-ethnic. State ... The nature of the post-colonial state in Africa remains highly problem- atic. ... ness of the state in advancing the well-being of citizens and in managing society in ...

  11. Microphthalmia and anophthalmia in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomai, A A; Pavlin, B I

    2010-04-01

    Microphthalmia ('small eye') and anophthalmia ('no eye') are rare congenital defects of eye development. Previous studies utilizing a variety of methodologies have estimated their combined incidence at anywhere from 4 to 30 cases per 100,000 live births. In Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia, there have been 42 cases detected since 1988, yielding an estimated incidence of 140 cases per 100,000. A number of putative genetic and environmental causes have previously been associated with microphthalmia and anophthalmia, including vitamin A deficiency. To date, it is unclear which of these factors may play a role in the alarmingly high rates observed in Chuuk. The Chuuk Division of Public Health has proposed a study to explore these potential causes, which will hopefully shed light on the prevention of these rare but debilitating conditions.

  12. 75 FR 68001 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY... annual certifications under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to state unemployment funds to obtain certain credits against their...

  13. 76 FR 68790 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY... annual certifications under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to state unemployment funds to obtain certain credits against their...

  14. 49 CFR Attachment 3 - Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding the Agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Attachment 3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC.... Attachment 3—Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding...

  15. 30 CFR 917.30 - State-Federal cooperative agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and implementing regulations. 11. The... Federal definitions, the definitions used in the approved State Program will apply except in the case of a..., laboratories and facilities to perform all inspections, investigations, studies, tests and analyses that...

  16. 18 CFR 2.19 - State and Federal comprehensive plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State and Federal comprehensive plans. 2.19 Section 2.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  17. Federal/State Jurisdictional Split: Implications for Emerging Electricity Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Jeffery S. [Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Kelly, Suedeen G. [Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Nordhaus, Robert R. [Van Ness Feldman, LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Douglas W. [Van Ness Feldman, LLP, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The first Administration-wide Quadrennial Energy Review (QER), released in April 2015, found that the “interacting and overlapping” division of authority between “federal, regional and state institutions and regulatory structures” for the electricity sector could “impede development of the grid of the future [and] . . . the development of markets that efficiently integrate” new and emerging technologies.1 While “technology is indifferent to state-Federal boundaries and jurisdictions,” the QER explained, “technology users cannot be.”2 The report concluded that “[b]oth Federal and state governments need to play constructive and collaborative roles in the future to ensure that consumers and industry are able to maximize the value of new technologies.”3 The QER recommended that the Department of Energy (“DOE”) facilitate such collaboration by playing a “convening role” to bring together state and federal regulators and other stakeholders to consider these issues.4 This paper provides background and analysis on these jurisdictional issues and the impact they may have on adoption of emerging energy technologies and coordination of markets for those technologies, in support of future dialogs on these subjects. In particular, this paper reviews the structure of the Federal Power Act (“FPA”),5 and compares the division of authority between the federal and state governments adopted there with other federal energy and energy-related statutes.

  18. The New Federalism: State Policies Regarding Embryonic Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Nefi D; Golub, Sidney H

    2016-09-01

    Stem cell policy in the United States is an amalgam of federal and state policies. The scientific development of human pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) triggered a contentious national stem cell policy debate during the administration of President George W. Bush. The Bush "compromise" that allowed federal funding to study only a very limited number of ESC derived cell lines did not satisfy either the researchers or the patient advocates who saw great medical potential being stifled. Neither more restrictive legislation nor expansion of federal funding proved politically possible and the federal impasse opened the door for a variety of state-based experiments. In 2004, California became the largest and most influential state venture into stem cell research by passing "Prop 71," a voter initiative that created a new stem cell agency and funded it with $3 billion. Several states followed suit with similar programs to protect the right of investigators to do stem cell research and in some cases to invest state funding in such projects. Other states devised legislation to restrict stem cell research and in five states, criminal penalties were included. Thus, the US stem cell policy is a patchwork of multiple, often conflicting, state and federal policies.

  19. Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-16

    71.23 of 42 CFR. 47 aula Mindes, Note, Tuberculosis Quarantine: A Review of Legal Issues in Ohio and Other States, 10 J.L. & HEALTH 403, 409 (1995...be demonstrated that unlimited travel to the area would directly and materially interfere with the safety and welfare of the area.”81 In Miller v

  20. 49 CFR 266.9 - Federal/State share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... follows: (A) The value of State tangible personal property shall be established at the State's actual cost in accordance with Federal Management Circular 74-4; (B) The value of donated tangible personal... information as the Administrator may request to verify the value of in-kind benefits. (3) Request for approval...

  1. 75 FR 55784 - Final Extension of Project Period and Waiver for the State and Federal Policy Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Final Extension of Project Period and Waiver for the State and Federal Policy Forum AGENCY: Office of... Forum for Program Improvement Center (CFDA No. 84.326F). SUMMARY: The Secretary issues this notice to... period and waiver enable the currently funded State and Federal Policy Forum for Program Improvement...

  2. 49 CFR Attachment 2 - Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Attachment 2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC.... Attachment 2—Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With...

  3. Federal and state management of inland wetlands: Are states ready to assume control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glubiak, Peter G.; Nowka, Richard H.; Mitsch, William J.

    1986-03-01

    As inland wetlands face increasing pressure for development, both the federal government and individual states have begun reevaluating their respective wetland regulatory schemes. This article focuses first on the effectiveness of the past, present, and proposed federal regulations, most notably the Section 404, Dredge and Fill Permit Program, in dealing with shrinking wetland resources. The article then addresses the status of state involvement in this largely federal area, as well as state preparedness to assume primacy should federal priorities change. Finally, the subject of comprehensive legislation for wetland protection is investigated, and the article concludes with some procedural suggestions for developing a model law.

  4. The Federal-state Intergovernmental Relationship in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigussie_Afesha

    dictating non-hierarchal relationship between the federal and regional states, the Ethiopian ..... hand, formal IGR is established by the Constitution, subsequent laws or by ...... sector development programmes and to follow up and evaluate the .... monolithic party, the total dominance of EPRDF at both levels of government in.

  5. Federal Lands of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  6. Variation in the Use of Federal and State Civil Money Penalties for Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Tsoukalas, Theodore; Rudder, Cynthia; Mollot, Richard J.; Carrillo, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study examined factors associated with state variations in the use of federal and state civil money penalties (CMPs) for nursing homes. Design and Methods: We collected federal and state CMP data from state survey and certification agencies for 2004. We also used federal CMP data from the federal enforcement action database for…

  7. Current state of food radiopreservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, P.; Kyzlink, V. (Vysoka Skola Chemicko-Technologicka, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Rusz, J. (Vyzkumny Ustav Masneho Prumyslu, Brno (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-11-01

    Irradiation of foodstuffs causes undesirable changes in oxylabile vitamins and lipids, the release of smelly products or the softening of fibres even at very low doses. A combination of irradiation with heating or freezing is used in the attempt to mitigate these unfavourable effects. Gamma and x rays are used for irradiation, beta rays are being tried which inactivate microorganisms on the surface of the foodstuff and interfere only very little with the internal structure of the foodstuff. In case dose rates over 1 kGy are used it will be necessary to test the toxicity and mutagenicity of the irradiated foodstuff on laboratory animals. Next to undesirable changes in the sensory properties and nutritional value of the foodstuffs there are also the high costs of irradiation which amount to 5 to 10% of the price of the foodstuff. Currently, irradiation is permitted for the preservation of foodstuffs in 21 countries of the world.

  8. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  9. [Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.

  10. RUSSIAN FEDERATION STATE PRIZE IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Russian Federation State Prize in the field of Science and Technology for 2009 for "A Set of Scientific Works on the Development of Laser and Information Technologies in Medicine" (Presidential Decree N° 678, dated June 6th, 2010) was awarded jointly to Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the Institute of Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, V. Ya. Panchenko; to Doctor of Medical Sciences, Ac...

  11. Repealing Federal Health Reform: Economic and Employment Consequences for States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Leighton; Steinmetz, Erika; Brantley, Erin; Bruen, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Issue: The incoming Trump administration and Republicans in Congress are seeking to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA), likely beginning with the law’s insurance premium tax credits and expansion of Medicaid eligibility. Research shows that the loss of these two provisions would lead to a doubling of the number of uninsured, higher uncompensated care costs for providers, and higher taxes for low-income Americans. Goal: To determine the state-by-state effect of repeal on employment and economic activity. Methods: A multistate economic forecasting model (PI+ from Regional Economic Models, Inc.) was used to quantify for each state the effects of the federal spending cuts. Findings and Conclusions: Repeal results in a $140 billion loss in federal funding for health care in 2019, leading to the loss of 2.6 million jobs (mostly in the private sector) that year across all states. A third of lost jobs are in health care, with the majority in other industries. If replacement policies are not in place, there will be a cumulative $1.5 trillion loss in gross state products and a $2.6 trillion reduction in business output from 2019 to 2023. States and health care providers will be particularly hard hit by the funding cuts.

  12. Analysis of current state and prospects of steel production development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopov, E. V.; Feyler, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    Data on world production of steel in the XXI century are provided. Analysis of current state and prospects of ferrous metallurgy development in the Russian Federation is carried out. Results of national steel production performance during 10 months of the year 2015 are given for different countries. Analysis of the main directions of metallurgical equipment import substitution aimed at technological independence in the industry is made. Russian ferrous metallurgy development predictions in its’ main directions up to 2030 is provided.

  13. Cancer in Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Cherie; Kroon, Eugene; Skilling, Vita A; Taulung, Livinson

    2004-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of cancer and the extent of cancer-related services in Kosrae. The purpose of this study, funded by the National Cancer Institute, was to document the state of cancer awareness and services in Kosrae and to begin to identify cancer-care needs. Findings suggest that cancer is the eighth-leading cause of death in Kosrae, although a number of factors contribute to a possible undercount of cancer cases. Cancer-related services are limited. A number of needs were identified, and an action plan was developed based on three priority areas: 1) establishing a cancer registry; 2) increasing public awareness about cancer risk, prevention, and detection; and 3) expanding cancer screening and detection programs.

  14. Cancer in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Sharyl; Hancock, Thane; Ngaden, Victor; Yow, A Richter; Durand, A Mark

    2004-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of cancer and the extent of cancer-related services in Yap. The purpose of this study, funded by the National Cancer Institute, was to document the state of cancer awareness and services in Yap and to prioritize cancer-care needs. Findings suggest that cancer is the leading cause of death in Yap, yet cancer-related awareness, prevention, detection, and treatment services are limited. A number of needs were identified, and an action plan was developed based on five priority areas: 1) establishing a cancer registry; 2) increasing awareness of cancer risk, prevention, and detection; 3) expanding cancer screening and detection programs; 4) expanding cancer-related training opportunities for clinical staff; and 5) purchasing cancer-related equipment & supplies.

  15. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  16. 50 CFR 18.22 - Taking by Federal, State or local government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Taking by Federal, State or local government officials. (a) A Federal, State or local government official... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Taking by Federal, State or local government officials. 18.22 Section 18.22 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE...

  17. 48 CFR 702.170-8 - Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions. As used in the FAR and AIDAR, these terms do... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions. 702.170-8 Section 702.170-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  18. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  19. 30 CFR 944.30 - State-Federal Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other Federal agencies as required. The Secretary reserves the right to act independently of DOGM to... lands during the same time period. 2. The ratio or cost split of Federal to non-Federal dollars... grant application to OSMRE's Albuquerque Field Office. The Federal lands/non-Federal lands ratio will...

  20. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  1. 75 FR 44231 - Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia... Complex AGENCY: Department of Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...) Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia and...

  2. [Regionalization of federal health reporting using the example of diabetes surveillance : Aims and results of the discussion between the Robert Koch Institute and the federal states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Lars; Heidemann, Christin; Teti, Andrea; Borrmann, Brigitte; Gawrich, Stefan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Fertmann, Regina; Schubert, Ulrike; Schmidt, Christian; Baumert, Jens; Paprott, Rebecca; Du, Yong; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Ziese, Thomas

    2017-09-04

    Insufficiently treated diabetes mellitus can lead to severe comorbidities. National and international analyses show a continuous increase in diabetes prevalence over the last decades. Currently, an indicator-based national diabetes surveillance system is implemented at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) to monitor and report on diabetes development on the basis of available primary and secondary data. The aim of the meeting was to go into deeper discussions and to integrate expectations and expertise of the federal states into the design of the national surveillance system. A close collaboration between the RKI and the federal states is intended.

  3. Ecosystem carbon stocks and sequestration potential of federal lands across the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L; Wu, Yiping; Young, Claudia J

    2015-10-13

    Federal lands across the conterminous United States (CONUS) account for 23.5% of the CONUS terrestrial area but have received no systematic studies on their ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and contribution to the national C budgets. The methodology for US Congress-mandated national biological C sequestration potential assessment was used to evaluate ecosystem C dynamics in CONUS federal lands at present and in the future under three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A1B, A2, and B1. The total ecosystem C stock was estimated as 11,613 Tg C in 2005 and projected to be 13,965 Tg C in 2050, an average increase of 19.4% from the baseline. The projected annual C sequestration rate (in kilograms of carbon per hectare per year) from 2006 to 2050 would be sinks of 620 and 228 for forests and grasslands, respectively, and C sources of 13 for shrublands. The federal lands' contribution to the national ecosystem C budget could decrease from 23.3% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2050. The C sequestration potential in the future depends not only on the footprint of individual ecosystems but also on each federal agency's land use and management. The results presented here update our current knowledge about the baseline ecosystem C stock and sequestration potential of federal lands, which would be useful for federal agencies to decide management practices to achieve the national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation goal.

  4. 10 CFR 1.41 - Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Management Programs. (a) The Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management...) The Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs— (1) Plans and directs... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental...

  5. 49 CFR 22.15 - Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality... PROGRAM (STLP) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.15 Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt. (a) The borrower must not be delinquent on any Federal, State, or municipality debt, including...

  6. Domestic violence against women on Yap, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugwen, Geraldine Luchuen; Hancock, W Thane; Gilmar, James; Gilmatam, John; Tun, Petra; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2013-09-01

    Anecdotally there are high rates of domestic violence in the small Micronesian State of Yap, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), but there have been no studies to quantify the prevalence or characteristics of domestic violence in Yap or in any other state of the FSM. A survey was administered to women at the Yap hospital and community health centers from February through June 2011. Survey data were on domestic violence, which was supplemented by a focus group to explore the issues involved in greater detail. A high prevalence of domestic violence was documented by the survey; perceptions about this were explored in the focus group. On the questionnaire, 148 of 194 (76%) women reported at least one form of abuse. Given the small number of adult women in Yap, these findings suggest that domestic violence is a serious, pervasive problem that Yap needs urgently to address. The issue clearly needs to be investigated throughout the other states of the FSM and addressed at the national policy level as well as at the state level.

  7. The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State cooperative water- resources program; fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B.K.; Mann, William B.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's Federal-State Cooperative Water Resources Program (50-50 matching of funds) started in Kansas in 1895. During fiscal year (FY) 1987, hydrologic data collection, investigations, and research are being conducted in every state, Puerto Rico, and several territories in cooperation with 940 state, regional and local agencies. Federal funding of $55.3 million was matched by cooperating agencies; cooperators also provided $4.6 million unmatched, for a program total of about $115 million. The Cooperative Program accounted for almost 45% of the FY 1987 obligations of the Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division. The principal areas of emphasis during the year included groundwater contamination, stream quality, water supply and demand, and hydrologic hazards. Information is presented on program functions and priorities. Data collection activities are also described as is work related to water resources contamination. Several examples of current (1987) investigations are provided. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  9. Toward Effective Water Pipe Tobacco Control Policy in the United States: Synthesis of Federal, State, and Local Policy Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Jason B; Ton, Jessica N; James, A Everette; Primack, Brian A

    2016-01-05

    Purpose . Water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is growing in popularity among U.S. young adults and is associated with health risks similar to those of cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine existing tobacco control policies (TCPs) in order to investigate how they engage WTS. Approach . A systematic synthesis of content and legal interactions among federal, state, and local TCP documents. Setting . Pennsylvania, which represents a politically and demographically diverse microcosm of the United States. Participants . No human subjects. Method . Federal and state TCPs were retrieved via public legal repositories. Local policy searches were conducted via county/municipal Web sites, inclusive of 13 localities that had autonomous health departments or existing TCPs based on a National Cancer Institute report. Full-text TCPs were double coded within a grounded theory framework for health policy analysis. Emergent codes were used to compare and contrast policy texts and to examine legal interactions among TCPs. Results . Examination of policy categories including youth access, use restrictions, and taxation revealed WTS as largely omitted from current TCPs. WTS was sometimes addressed as an "other" tobacco product under older TCPs, though ambiguities in language led to questionable enforceability. State preemptions have rolled back or prevented well-tailored reforms at the local level. Federal preemptions have likewise constrained state TCPs. Conclusion . Outdated, preempted, and unclear policies limit the extent to which TCPs engage WTS. Health advocates might target these aspects of TCP reform.

  10. THE CURRENT STATE OF RISK-CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of risk-controlling is based on the general theory of risk. The current state of risk-management in our country is reviewed. We also discuss the research on risk-controlling made in the BMSTU Laboratory of economic-mathematical methods in controlling

  11. Current State of Craniofacial Prosthetic Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariani, Nina; Visser, Anita; van Oort, Robert P.; Kusdhany, Lindawati; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to review the current state of the techniques and materials used to rehabilitate maxillofacial defects. Materials and Methods: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles pertinent to maxillofacial prostheses published from January 1990 to July 2011. The

  12. Current state of US breastfeeding laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu T; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2013-07-01

    This study systematically examined state-level laws protecting breastfeeding, including their current status and historical development, as well as identified gaps across US states and regions. The National Conference of State Legislatures summarised breastfeeding laws for 50 states and DC as of September 2010, which we updated through May 2011. We then searched LexisNexis and Westlaw to find the full text of laws, recording enactment dates and definitions. Laws were coded into five categories: (1) employers are encouraged or required to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees; (2) employers are prohibited from discriminating against breastfeeding employees; (3) breastfeeding is permitted in any public or private location; (4) breastfeeding is exempt from public indecency laws; and (5) breastfeeding women are exempt from jury duty. By May 2011, 1 state had enacted zero breastfeeding laws, 10 had one, 22 had two, 12 had three, 5 had four and 1 state had laws across all five categories. While 92% of states allowed mothers to breastfeed in any location and 57% exempted breastfeeding from indecency laws, 37% of states encouraged or required employers to provide break time and accommodations, 24% offered breastfeeding women exemption from jury duty and 16% prohibited employment discrimination. The Northeast had the highest proportion of states with breastfeeding laws and the Midwest had the lowest. Breastfeeding outside the home is protected to varying degrees depending on where women live; this suggests that many women are not covered by comprehensive laws that promote breastfeeding. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Climate protection targets in the German federal states; Klimaschutzziele in den deutschen Bundeslaendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, Anna

    2011-07-15

    With respect to the embankment of the climatic change, the Federal Republic of Germany has set itself to reduce their annual greenhouse gas emissions by 40 % till to the year 2020 in comparison to 1990. Also, the most federal states want to contribute to the climate protection and therefore have adopted appropriate reduction targets. The main aim of the contribution under consideration is to make the climate protection goals of the federal states comparable with each other and with the 40 % target of the federal government. Therefore, the author first of all reports on the options for action of the federal states in the climate protection. Then the methods are presented with which the federal states balance their greenhouse gas emissions. The goals adopted by the federal states to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are not sufficient to meet the climate target of the federal government.

  14. Dengue outbreak--Federated States of Micronesia, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    On September 26, 2012, a woman aged 35 years from Kosrae in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) was hospitalized with fever, headache, muscle pain, vomiting, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (Dengue Duo, Standard Diagnostics Inc.) was positive for dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein-1 (NS1). During the next week, seven more persons with suspected dengue were tested with the RDT, of whom three were RDT-positive for NS1 or anti-DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM). During October, the Kosrae State Department of Health Services, with support from the FSM Department of Health and Social Affairs and the World Health Organization (WHO), responded to the outbreak with enhanced surveillance, training in clinical management, analysis of hospital surge capacity, a rapid mosquito survey to identify species and distributions, and control measures. By March 14, 2013, approximately 3.7% of Kosrae State residents had been hospitalized with suspected dengue. The outbreak consumed scarce medical and public health services, including outpatient, inpatient, and laboratory services, resulting in redirection of human and material resources from other important medical and public health activities. Because the health consequences of dengue can be substantial in resource-limited settings, Pacific Island nations might wish to consider preparedness measures for dengue outbreaks such as developing and testing outbreak response plans and ensuring adequate capacity for epidemiologic surveillance and laboratory testing.

  15. Natural gas: federal versus state competence; Competencia federal versus competencia estadual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Garcia da; Correia, Andre de Luizi [Wald Associados Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in regulating the natural gas sector in Brazil, which has hindered the development of the full potential of this industry. It analyzes the partition of competencies between the federative entities according to the Federal Constitution, the 'Law of oil' and the project of the 'Law of gas'.

  16. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  17. 76 FR 1664 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment G)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment G... relate to a proposed highway project, Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment G, from Interstate Highway... the following highway project in the State of Texas: Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment G from...

  18. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  19. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  20. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  1. 30 CFR 931.30 - State-Federal cooperative agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis of the enviromental impacts of the proposal and alternatives to the proposal, prepared in... agency receives a petition that could impact adjacent Federal or non-Federal lands, the agency receiving... determine the need for an Environmental Assessment or an Environmental Impact Statement. 4. Publish...

  2. 77 FR 13952 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... RIN 9000-AM18 Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCY... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement. The...-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Pub. L...

  3. 77 FR 71009 - Framework for Pharmacy Compounding: State and Federal Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Framework for Pharmacy Compounding: State and Federal Roles... ``Framework for Pharmacy Compounding: State and Federal Roles.'' At this public meeting, FDA and State... critical role in the oversight of traditional pharmacy compounding, which can include compounding a...

  4. 38 CFR 1.506 - Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies, and the Office of Servicemembers....506 Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies... official purposes by any department or other agency of the U.S. Government or any state unemployment...

  5. 45 CFR 235.60 - Federal financial participation (FFP) for State and local training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal financial participation (FFP) for State... participation (FFP) for State and local training. Sections 235.61 through 235.66 contain (a) State plan requirements for training programs and (b) conditions for Federal financial participation (FFP) for...

  6. [Current state of competence assessment in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann-Finck, Ingrid; Reuschenbach, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Competency measurement is central to the optimisation of outcome oriented educational processes in nursing, similar to the concept of evidence based practice. The classification of measurement tools provides the basis for describing the current state of research and development in relation to competence measurement in nursing science, and any gaps are identified. The article concludes with questioning the importance of outcome oriented quality orientation in order to achieve an increase in quality during training. Further methodological developments and qualitative studies are needed to examine the context specific processes of interaction and learning, beyond competence diagnostics. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. RETAIL BANKING BUSINESS: CURRENT STATE ANDSPECIFIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гузель Рефкадовна Фаизова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the retail banking business in the banking sector continueto grow. The current state of the retail banking business is considered and specific features of this area in the face of growing demand for banking products and services by the public and interest from lending institutions are identified by the article.Purpose: Research of current state of retail banking business and detection specific features of this area.Methodology: In the process of analysis and researchof the question the methods of economical and statistical analysis, methods of comparison and generalizationwereused.Results: The conclusion is that interest in the retail banking business continues to grow.There were revealed the role and the importance of standardized service processes and standardized products and services delivering as one of the main line of development in the segment of retail business.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-2

  8. Matrix of Key Federal Statutes and Federal and State Court Decisions Reflecting the Core Concepts of Disability Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Stowe, Matt; Klein, Samara; Riffel, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    This matrix displays the decisions of the United States Supreme Court and the federal statutes most relevant to individuals with disabilities and their families. It is organized according to the core concepts of disability policy as identified by Rud Turnbull and his colleagues at the Beach Center on Disability, the University of Kansas, Lawrence,…

  9. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Chuuk State Federated States of Micronesia, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred, D; Desai, M; Song, R; Bamrah, S; Pavlin, B I; Heetderks, A; Ekiek, M J

    2010-04-01

    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a growing public health concern, particularly for the Pacific, where rates of tuberculosis infection are extremely high. In May 2008, a cluster of patients with MDR TB were identified in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. A multi-agency investigation led to the eventual discovery of 21 cases, and over 100 latent TB infections. Incomplete implementation of Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) and contact investigation were major contributors to the outbreak. The problem of MDR TB in Chuuk was controlled only after a concerted effort on the part of multiple agencies coupled with the highest level of political commitment.

  10. Inventory of power plants in the United States. [By state within standard Federal Regions, using county codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this inventory of power plants is to provide a ready reference for planners whose focus is on the state, standard Federal region, and/or national level. Thus the inventory is compiled alphabetically by state within standard Federal regions. The units are listed alphabetically within electric utility systems which in turn are listed alphabetically within states. The locations are identified to county level according to the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Counties and County Equivalents of the States of the United States. Data compiled include existing and projected electrical generation units, jointly owned units, and projected construction units.

  11. 40 CFR 312.26 - Reviews of Federal, State, Tribal, and local government records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local government records. 312.26 Section 312.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Federal, State, Tribal, and local government records. (a) Federal, tribal, state, and local government... data bases of such government records and local government records and data bases of such...

  12. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and local government records. 137.60 Section 137.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... DEFENSE Standards and Practices § 137.60 Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records. (a) Federal, State, tribal, and local government records or databases of government records of...

  13. 9 CFR 390.9 - Communications with State and other Federal government agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION AND PUBLIC INFORMATION § 390.9 Communications with State and other Federal government agencies. (a... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications with State and other Federal government agencies. 390.9 Section 390.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  14. 75 FR 22756 - Federal Advisory Committee; United States Army Science Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; United States Army Science Board; Charter Renewal AGENCY... the charter for the United States Army Science Board (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER..., 703-601-6128. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Board is a discretionary Federal advisory committee...

  15. 31 CFR 205.35 - What is the result of Federal Program Agency or State non-compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR EFFICIENT FEDERAL-STATE FUNDS TRANSFERS Rules Applicable to Federal...

  16. Understanding the data-action cycle of surveillance: a qualitative study of federal and state stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sussner, Katarina M; Greaney, Mary L; Mierzwa, Sharon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Wiecha, Jean; Peterson, Karen

    2010-03-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand how personnel in state and federal agencies view surveillance systems and the extent to which systematically collected data inform nutrition and physical activity policies and interventions addressing obesity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 respondents purposively sampled from state health departments, federal public health agencies, and prevention research centers. All informants acknowledged the importance of surveillance systems and influence of the data-action cycle for monitoring trends and increasing obesity awareness. However, state-level respondents believed surveillance systems should be designed for programmatic purposes, whereas federal participants thought they should be designed for monitoring. Respondents held differing opinions about the flexibility, timeliness, accessibility, and usefulness of existing national surveillance systems, highlighting significant differences in state and federal agencies' perceptions and utilization of surveillance systems. Such discrepancies call for increased communication surrounding purposes and uses of surveillance data, enabling stronger partnerships between state and federal agencies.

  17. Fiscal Federalism in Transition Countries: The Three Baltic States Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Jaansoo, Annika

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes three transition countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) regarding four essential features of fiscal federalism: (a) the administrative set-up, (b) the tasks and functions allocated to sub-national governments, (c) revenue structure and fiscal autonomy, and (d) fiscal disciplin

  18. 30 CFR 914.30 - State-Federal Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other interested parties. D. Personnel: Subject to adequate appropriations and grant awards, the DOR will maintain the necessary personnel to fully implement this Agreement in accordance with the... difficulties between DOR and other Federal agencies in a timely manner. (b) Assisting in scheduling...

  19. Russian electricity market. Current state and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdurafikov, R.

    2009-06-15

    The Russian electricity market is currently in transition. The restructuring of the sector has been completed and former public vertically integrated monopolies have been unbundled and partly privatised. The government retained control in all the network companies, the system operator, nuclear generation, and hydro generation. The state retains control also via owner-ship in several TGCs and WGCs in the strategic regions of Moscow and Saint-Petersburg via the state owned gas monopoly Gazprom. The liberalization takes place within two price zones, Europe and Siberia, where more than 90%, 913 TWh in 2007, of Russian electricity consumption takes place. In the rest of Russia, e.g. the Far East and isolated areas like Kaliningrad, electricity is supplied at regulated rates. Only a minor part of electricity in the price zones is currently traded at free prices. The share of electricity traded at free market prices will increase according to the liberalization schedule, reaching ca 90%, all except households, by 2011. Wholesale electricity market bids are aggregated in a detailed power system model of the Russian power grid, taking into account the physical locations of the facilities. The resulting 7700+ nodal market prices, scattered across the 7 time zones of the Russian market area, capture costs of congestion and load losses in the grid. The price level of electricity seems to be rather low at a glance - about 21 euro and 15 euro per MWh in Europe and Siberia respectively. On the other hand, wholesale market buyers have to pay for capacity availability, on average around 3000 euro/MW monthly. With greater share of electricity traded at free prices there will be an increased need to hedge price risks. For this reason a financial market is planned. There are also plans for support schemes for renewable generation and to limit environmental pollution as well as ancillary services markets. Some areas do not experience a likewise opening of the competition in Russia, for

  20. Current management of obsessive and phobic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljevscek, Serena; Carvalho, Livia A

    2011-01-01

    Obsessional states show an average point prevalence of 1%-3% and a lifetime prevalence of 2%-2.5%. Most treatment-seeking patients with obsessions continue to experience significant symptoms after 2 years of prospective follow-up. A significant burden of impairment, distress, and comorbidity characterize the course of the illness, leading to an increased need for a better understanding of the nature and management of this condition. This review aims to give a representation of the current pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Antidepressants (clomipramine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) are generally the first-line choice used to handle obsessional states, showing good response rates and long-term positive outcomes. About 40% of patients fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. So far, additional pharmacological treatment strategies have been shown to be effective, ie, administration of high doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, as well as combinations of different drugs, such as dopamine antagonists, are considered efficacious and well tolerated strategies in terms of symptom remission and side effects. Psychotherapy also plays an important role in the management of obsessive-compulsive disorder, being effective for a wide range of symptoms, and many studies have assessed its long-term efficacy, especially when added to appropriate pharmacotherapy. In this paper, we also give a description of the clinical and psychological features likely to characterize patients refractory to treatment for this illness, with the aim of highlighting the need for greater attention to more patient-oriented management of the disease.

  1. Current management of obsessive and phobic states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goljevscek S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Serena Goljevscek1, Livia A Carvalho21Psychiatric Clinic, University of Udine, Udine, Italy; 2Health Science Research Centre, Department of Life Sciences, Roehampton University, London, UKAbstract: Obsessional states show an average point prevalence of 1%–3% and a lifetime prevalence of 2%–2.5%. Most treatment-seeking patients with obsessions continue to experience significant symptoms after 2 years of prospective follow-up. A significant burden of impairment, distress, and comorbidity characterize the course of the illness, leading to an increased need for a better understanding of the nature and management of this condition. This review aims to give a representation of the current pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Antidepressants (clomipramine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are generally the first-line choice used to handle obsessional states, showing good response rates and long-term positive outcomes. About 40% of patients fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. So far, additional pharmacological treatment strategies have been shown to be effective, ie, administration of high doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, as well as combinations of different drugs, such as dopamine antagonists, are considered efficacious and well tolerated strategies in terms of symptom remission and side effects. Psychotherapy also plays an important role in the management of obsessive-compulsive disorder, being effective for a wide range of symptoms, and many studies have assessed its long-term efficacy, especially when added to appropriate pharmacotherapy. In this paper, we also give a description of the clinical and psychological features likely to characterize patients refractory to treatment for this illness, with the aim of highlighting the need for greater attention to more patient-oriented management of the disease.Keywords: obsessive

  2. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  3. Comparative survey on renewable energies across federal states; Erneuerbare Energien im Bundeslaendervergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Sperl, Antje; Puettner, Andreas [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen; Groba, Felix [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW), Berlin (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The German federal states play an important role in the progressive expansion of renewable energies and the success of the energy turnaround as a whole. Ultimately the energy turnaround has to happen locally. The federal states have considerable leeway at their disposal to this end. A recent comparative survey shows which states have undertaken the greatest efforts and which have had the greatest success in the area of renewable energies.

  4. Govt. Pubs.: Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1980-01-01

    Lists reports, monographs, and journal articles of the last five years that deal with internal auditing at various governmental levels, including the growth of the internal audit, the development of guidelines, current practices, types of audit, and current issues. (FM)

  5. Govt. Pubs.: Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1980-01-01

    Lists reports, monographs, and journal articles of the last five years that deal with internal auditing at various governmental levels, including the growth of the internal audit, the development of guidelines, current practices, types of audit, and current issues. (FM)

  6. Analyzing Social Issues Related to Teaching about the Federal Budget, Federal Debt, and Budget Deficit in Fifty State High School Social Studies Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Crocco, Margaret S.; Shuttleworth, Jay; Gaudelli, William; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study of all fifty state, high school social studies curriculum standards found a lack of attention in the vast majority of state standards to the federal budget, federal debt, and budget deficit, topics of significant concern. These concepts are important to teaching about economics in the United States since they lie at the center of…

  7. The Current State of Music Therapy Theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    An essay on themes from Ken Aigen (2014): "The Study of Music Therapy. Current Issues and Concepts"......An essay on themes from Ken Aigen (2014): "The Study of Music Therapy. Current Issues and Concepts"...

  8. State Budgets and Federal Stimulus: A First Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    U.S. has slipped into a recession greater and deeper than anyone expected. At least 47 states are grappling with budget shortfalls, and 46 states already anticipate problems into 2010 and 2011. State legislatures have the daunting task of balancing budgets as revenues drop and the need for services increases. Whether one participates in a child…

  9. FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS AND GREAT PEDAGOGICAL HERITAGE, OR HOW TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Mikhaylovna Zakharova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Federal state educational standards entails a growing need for comparability of the results of the control of activity of educational institutions and the assessment of its work. The main result of education is considered on the basis of the activity approach as the achievement of learners with new levels of development based on the development of them as a universal way of action and the ways in specific disciplines. This is the distinctive feature of new standards of General and professional education. The idea of connecting the system and active approaches belongs mainly of national scientists, and regarded her, for the effective implementation of the Federal state educational standards, first, we have in the works of the outstanding teachers of the 19-20 centuries, such as A.S. Makarenko, V.A.Sukhomlinsky, S.T. Shatsky, K.D. Ushinsky.Currently in the theory and practice of General and professional education of the popular idea individually-oriented training to meet the needs of students, that, certainly, is directly connected with the problem of quality of preparation of graduates. Thus, the necessity of sustaining the ability of the education system to respond flexibly to requests identity and the changing needs of the market economy. But the problem of quality assurance requires a scientific substantiation and updated criteria and indicators of educational outcomes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-13

  10. [Main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on Federal Highway 163, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lívia Victório de Carvalho; Pignatti, Marta Gislene; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez

    2009-02-01

    Transportation is essential to the economic development of Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and Federal Highway 163 is the main route for marketing regional agricultural produce. One unfortunate consequence of this activity is the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. With the aim of analyzing and categorizing the main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on this highway, the current study used data from the Mato Grosso State Division of the Brazilian Federal Highway Patrol for the year 2004. Factors significantly associated with accidents involving casualties were: substandard paving (OR = 1.89; CI: 1.32-2.70); front-end collisions (OR = 14.14; CI: 8.96-22.32); and running over pedestrians (OR = 35.95; CI: 8.10-159.52. Contributing factors included highway maintenance problems (OR = 4.35; CI: 1.94-9.75) and disobeying traffic signs (OR = 5.69; CI: 2.01-16.12). In conclusion, reduction of motor vehicle accidents on this highway requires comprehensive intervention rather than targeting measures only to drivers or highway patrol personnel, but considering regional issues and their economic, social, and cultural dimensions.

  11. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 30, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Font, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives…

  12. A Comparison of Project Delivery Systems on United States Federal Construction Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of federal projects. Quality measures were based on evaluation criteria measured through post - occupancy -surveys conducted by some federal agencies...However, both the Navy’s Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) program (Naval Facilities Engineering Command, 1995) and current quality research (Corbett, 1997...Washington, D.C. Naval Facilities and Engineering Command. 1995. Post Occupancy Evaluation Program Draft Survey. Norfolk, VA. Neter, John

  13. Federal health policies in the United States: an alternative explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1987-01-01

    Since 1980 there has been an unprecedented shift in federal expenditures away from health and social welfare; an "electoral mandate" to reduce government's role is widely cited as justification. Yet, a survey of all major opinion polls of the past decade shows that electoral behavior and popular opinion are not synonymous. In exploring the historical ideological roots of this disjunction, the post- New Deal rise of "interest group" over "class" behavior is noted; "depoliticization" of political issues and "abstentionism" in voting follow. Rather than a realignment, recent elections represent a dealignment from regressive choices.

  14. 75 FR 76633 - Oregon; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... irrespective of how this mixture is to be recycled; (3) It explains that the initial marketer of on... marketer delivers the used oil. The Federal Used Oil Management Standards; Clarification rule (68 FR 44659... federalism implications. It will not have substantial direct effects on the States, on the...

  15. Update: New Federal Financial Accounting for State and Local School Systems Due Out Soon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on several changes in the 2002 edition (forthcoming) of the federal government accounting handbook "Federal Financial Accounting for State and Local School Systems." Includes brief summary of "Emerging Issues" section of the handbook that addresses issues such as alternative revenues, charter schools, school safety and security,…

  16. 31 CFR 205.13 - How do you determine when State or Federal interest liability accrues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR EFFICIENT FEDERAL-STATE FUNDS TRANSFERS Rules Applicable to Federal... indirect cost must be consistent with OMB Circular A-87 (For availability, see 5 CFR 1310.3.) and be...

  17. Update: New Federal Financial Accounting for State and Local School Systems Due Out Soon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on several changes in the 2002 edition (forthcoming) of the federal government accounting handbook "Federal Financial Accounting for State and Local School Systems." Includes brief summary of "Emerging Issues" section of the handbook that addresses issues such as alternative revenues, charter schools, school safety and security,…

  18. 30 CFR 946.30 - State-Federal Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations, including 40 CFR part 1500. 4. The Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq., and...) of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA or the Act), 30 U.S.C. 1273(c), which...) provide uniform and effective application of the Virginia State Program (State Program) on all...

  19. 78 FR 23885 - Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently... collection 7 CFR part 201 for Federal Seed Act Labeling and Enforcement. DATES: Comments on this document... submitted online at www.regulations.gov or sent to Fawad S. Shah, Director, Seed Regulatory and...

  20. Special Reports; Homeland Security and Information Management; The Development of Electronic Government in the United States: The Federal Policy Experience; Digital Rights Management: Why Libraries Should Be Major Players; The Current State and Future Promise of Portal Applications; Recruitment and Retention: A Professional Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Harold C.; Halchin, L. Elaine; Hogue, Henry B.; Agnew, Grace; Martin, Mairead; Schottlaender, Brian E. C.; Jackson, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Theses five reports address five special issues: the effects of the September 11 attacks on information management, including homeland security, Web site information removal, scientific and technical information, and privacy concerns; federal policy for electronic government information; digital rights management and libraries; library Web portal…

  1. 78 FR 24714 - Notice of Funds Availability Inviting Applications for the Federal-State Marketing Improvement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... opportunities in marketing, transportation, and distribution of U.S. food and agricultural products domestically... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Funds Availability Inviting Applications for the Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program (FSMIP) AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice....

  2. 76 FR 41800 - Estimated Federal Allotments to State Developmental Disabilities Councils and Protection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Estimated Federal Allotments to State... Families (ACF), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notification of Estimated Fiscal... Advocacy Systems Formula Grant Programs. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth estimated FY 2012...

  3. 77 FR 6055 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Federal-State Marketing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program (FSMIP) AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) announces the availability...

  4. 77 FR 8860 - Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations... to control unforeseen pest outbreaks. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: See each emergency exemption... be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer,...

  5. Statistics and Probability at Secondary Schools in the Federal State of Salzburg: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Voit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the practical use of statistics and probability in today's mathematics instruction at secondary schools is vital in order to improve the academic education for future teachers. We have conducted an empirical study among school teachers to inform towards improved mathematics instruction and teacher preparation. The study provides a snapshot into the daily practice of instruction at school. Centered around the four following questions, the status of statistics and probability was examined. Where did  the current mathematics teachers study? What relevance do statistics and probability have in school? Which contents are actually taught in class? What kind of continuing education would be desirable for teachers? The study population consisted of all teachers of mathematics at secondary schools in the federal state of Salzburg.

  6. Managing overlapping federal FMLA and state leave regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebowski, Lucinda S

    2002-03-01

    The overlap between the Family and Medical Leave Act and state leave laws can create complications. Employers, particularly those with multistate operations, may wish to consider an outsourced absence management system, which can remove the burden of day-to-day administration and the need to stay abreast of changing state regulations. However, employers cannot outsource the responsibility to set broad policy toward absence management.

  7. Federal-State Cooperative Program in Kansas, seminar proceedings, July 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    During the past few years, water-resource management in Kansas has undergone reorientation with the creation of the Kansas Water Authority and the Kansas Water office. New thrusts toward long-term goals based on the Kansas State Water plan demand strong communication and coordination between all water-related agencies within the State. The seminar discussed in this report was an initial step by the Kansas Water Office to assure the continued presence of a technical-coordination process and to provide an opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey to summarize their technical-informational activities in Kansas for the benefit of State and Federal water agencies with the State. The seminar was held on July 8 and 9, 1985, in Lawrence, Kansas. The agenda included a summary of the data-collection activities and short synopses of projects completed within the past year and those currently underway. The data program discussions described the information obtained at the surface water, groundwater, water quality, and sediment sites in Kansas. Interpretive projects summarized included studies in groundwater modeling, areal hydrologic analysis, regional analysis of floods , low-flow, high-flow, and flow-volume characteristics, water quality of groundwater and lakes, and traveltime and transit-loss analysis. (USGS)

  8. Hepatitis A in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E; Jim, R; Pavlin, B I

    2010-04-01

    An epidemic of infectious hepatitis caused by the hepatitis A virus was detected in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), beginning in November 2008. Epidemiologic investigation revealed that the index case occurred in late June 2008 in a traveler from nearby Chuuk State, which itself had experienced an epidemic of hepatitis A in the first half of 2008. Most cases have been confirmed by IgM serology, the rest by a clinically compatible syndrome with either jaundice or elevated liver enzymes. The most commonly affected group has been school-aged children; it is likely that the paucity of patients in the 40-50 year age group represents immunity conferred during the previous epidemic of hepatitis A in the early 1970's, as hepatitis A is not thought to be endemic in Pohnpei. As of September 17, 2009 there have been 300 reported cases with 17 hospitalizations (6%) and one death (0.3%). The epidemic peaked in April 2009, with a sharp decline in cases in June attributable with the end of the school year, as schools were found to be the major focus of infection. Efforts to control the outbreak have centered on public awareness and improved hygiene initiatives, particularly in schools. The greatest challenge to ongoing diminution of the outbreak is the recent resumption of the school year; control efforts, especially improved hygiene, will need to be sustained with renewed vigor if we are to extinguish the outbreak.

  9. In the aftermath of State v. Becker: a review of state and federal jury instructions on insanity acquittal disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    An important topic related to the insanity defense is what jurors should be told about the disposition of a defendant found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). In the federal court system, jurors are not instructed about the consequences of an NGRI verdict. State courts, however, are divided on the question. The federal precedent, Shannon v. United States, and the most recent state case to rule on NGRI juror instructions, State v. Becker, are reviewed in detail. What follows is the author's critique of the principal arguments for and against a jury instruction on NGRI disposition. The author argues in favor of a jury instruction on the consequences of an NGRI verdict.

  10. [Early neurological-neurosurgical rehabilitation. Current state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, M; Brandt, T

    2007-10-01

    In German neurorehabilitation, the ambiguous term "early rehabilitation" reflects the multidisciplinary, rehabilitative treatment of severely impaired patients in continuing need of acute and intensive care (including weaning from the respirator in selected cases). The actual definition of this treatment is discussed, which hitherto corresponded to Phase B according to recommendations of the German Federal Study Group for Rehabilitation (BAR) and now has started to be integrated into the diagnosis-related group system. The tasks and aims of early rehabilitation are to support and enhance neuroplastic remission of nervous system functional loss and continued medical care, improve vigilance, establish cooperativity, and evaluate the rehabilitation potential including compensatory and adaptive strategies organizing posthospital care, reducing the need of nursing support, and improving quality of life. Some special aspects of early rehabilitative care are presented here in more detail. To fulfill these tasks, a multidisciplinary team is required including various therapists qualified for neurorehabilition, physicians (including a neurologist), nurses, and social workers. Outcome data were assessed using our 5-year prospective early rehabilitation registry. Fifty-five percent of patients improved to reach the next step of neurorehabilitation (Phase C), with significant gain in function even in the subgroup of aged and most severely disabled patients. The trend to transfer patients very early in the postacute Phase to early rehabilitation facilities, with open medical problems and increased risk of complications, makes close cooperation and interaction with acute medical centers necessary.

  11. 30 CFR 935.30 - State-Federal Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1500. 4. The Endangered Species Act, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq., and implementing regulations... Reclamation Act (Act), 30 U.S.C. 1273(c), which allows a State with a permanent regulatory program approved by... intergovernmental overlap and duplication; and (c) provide uniform and effective application of the approved...

  12. Institutional and Organizational Structure of the Federal Procurement System of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vovchenko Natalya Gennadyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the role of the Federal procurement system of the United States as a regulatory tool of the U.S. economy. The scope of research is focused on organizational and institutional aspects of forming and developing the U.S. Federal procurement system. The main purpose of the paper is to study up-to-date mechanism of government acquisition in the United States and to consider all its structural elements taken in conjunction with each other, such as the President, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP, the General Services Administration (GSA, other executive and regulatory agencies. The methodological background of the research is based on normative, system-wide, statistical and complex approaches to the study of structural elements of the U.S. Federal procurement system. The theoretical and practical material of the present research can be used in teaching and learning activities at economic faculties, for instance, in the course of lectures on government contacting and public procurement management. It also can be used in training and advanced training of specialists who draft public procurement regulations in the Russian Federation. The statutory regulation of the U.S. Federal procurement system constitutes an organizational framework of executive agencies, their functions and responsibilities, specifics of government control over contract performance, competition requirements and contracting methods. The paper considered interrelated components of the U.S. Federal procurement system, which operates in furtherance of efficient utilization of Federal budget.

  13. Electronic money in russia: current state and problems of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Bondarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to urgent problems of non-cash methods of calculation development by using electronic money – as one of the modern economically developed state strategic tasks. On modern economic science strong influence appears informatization process. The control expansion tendency, influence and distribution of commerce due to informatization of society led to emergence of the new phenomenon – information economy. Information economy brought new economic events which owing to their novelty are insufficiently studied to life. It is possible to carry electronic money to such phenomena of modern network economy Relevance and, in our opinion, timeliness of this scientific work, consisting in novelty of this non-cash payment method, its prospects and innovation within non-cash methods of calculations. Authors set as the purpose – studying of problems and the prospects of development of electronic money in the Russian Federation. In article theoretical bases of electronic money functioning are described. Determinations and classifications dismissed non-cash a method, and also the principles of electronic money functioning are considered, the questions of their historical development are raised.Authors analyzed statistical data on development of electronic services and channels of their using. Features, benefits and shortcomings of the current state of the market of electronic money are studied. The emphasis on that fact that in modern conditions considerable number of economic actors perform the activities, both in the real environment of economy, and within the virtual environment that promotes expansion of methods of their customer interaction by means of technical devices of personal computers, mobile phones is placed. In article common problems and tendencies of payments with using an electronic money are designated, the research on assessment of the current state and the prospects of electronic money

  14. Floating Heavy Oil Recovery: Current State Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-27

    have taken place over the past seven years on a series of pumps known as positive displacement Archimedes ’ screw pumps commonly used in the oil spill...current research into containment strategies and equipment for heavy viscous oil was uncovered during this study. General principles used to...rotated in the water, it created small waves that caused the trail of bitumen to “break” and be pushed away from the skimmer. Operating the drum at

  15. Engineering photorespiration: current state and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhansel, C; Krause, K; Braun, H-P; Espie, G S; Fernie, A R; Hanson, D T; Keech, O; Maurino, V G; Mielewczik, M; Sage, R F

    2013-07-01

    Reduction of flux through photorespiration has been viewed as a major way to improve crop carbon fixation and yield since the energy-consuming reactions associated with this pathway were discovered. This view has been supported by the biomasses increases observed in model species that expressed artificial bypass reactions to photorespiration. Here, we present an overview about the major current attempts to reduce photorespiratory losses in crop species and provide suggestions for future research priorities.

  16. Highlights of the 1983 Federal-state cooperative water resources program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B.K.; Buchanan, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State Cooperative Water Resources Program in fiscal year 1983 continued to concentrate on investigations of highest priority to the Nation. Hydrologic data collection and interpretive studies were underway in every State, Puerto Rico, and several U.S. territories with focus on such current concerns as ground-water contamination, floods, impacts of toxic wastes, acid precipitation, and stream quality. During the year, this 50-50 matching program was carried out in working partnership with more than 800 State, regional, and local agencies. Joint funding from all sources totaled approximately $92 million. Details of the program are mutually negotiated at the working level by representatives of the Survey and representatives of the cooperating agencies. The pooling of interests results in a balanced effort that directs combined resources to hydrologic investigations having the most significance to both parties. A few of the highlights for FY 1983, and how the program is developed with other agencies are described. (USGS)

  17. Distribution of mosquito larvae on kosrae island, kosrae state, the federated States of micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Sota; Toma, Takako; Taulung, Livinson

    2013-12-01

    Surveys of mosquito larvae were carried out in six areas of Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, the Federated States of Micronesia in December 2009 and June 2012. A total of 962 larvae of six species were collected from 106 natural and artificial habitats. They were identified as Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. marshallensis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. annulirostris, and Cx. kusaiensis. This is the first report from Kosrae Island for three of these species-Ae. marshallensis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. annulirostris. The most abundant species was Ae. albopictus, followed by Ae. marshallensis, and these two species were found in all areas. Relatively large numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. kusaiensis were found in five areas. Fewer Cx. annulirostris were found, and only in three areas. Aedes aegypti larvae were collected from a single habitat at Tafunsak in 2009. To prevent the outbreak of dengue fever, environmental management should focus on the destruction, alteration, disposal and recycling of containers that produce larger numbers of adult Aedes mosquitoes.

  18. 34 CFR 79.12 - How may a State simplify, consolidate, or substitute federally required State plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may a State simplify, consolidate, or substitute federally required State plans? 79.12 Section 79.12 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 79.12 How may...

  19. USE OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY IN FEDERALLY FUNDED LAND PROCESSES RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, G.A.; McArdle, R.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the use of space technology in federally funded earth science research in the US was carried out in 1985 by the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy. Five departments and three independent agencies, representing the primary earth science research agencies in the Federal government, participated in the review. The review by the subcommittee indicated that, while there is considerable overlap in the legislated missions of the earth science agencies, most of the space-related land processes research is complementary. Summaries are provided of the current and projected uses of space technology in land processes activities within the eight Federal organizations.

  20. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend on ... reported smoking every day or some days. Current Smoking Among Adults in 2015 (Nation) By Gender 2 ...

  1. 26 CFR 44.4422-1 - Doing business in violation of Federal or State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in nowise authorizes the carrying on of any business in violation of a law of the United States or... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Doing business in violation of Federal or State law. 44.4422-1 Section 44.4422-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  2. Spaceflight osteoporosis: current state and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellesso, R; Nicole, L; Guido, A; Pizzol, D

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the established major consequences of long-duration spaceflights in astronauts seriously undermining their health after their returning on Earth. Indeed, astronauts typically lose more bone mass during one month than postmenopausal women on Earth lose in one year. To date, countermeasures mainly consist in exercise and supplementation while pharmacological treatment as those used in postmenopausal women are not routine. However, it is evident that exercise and supplementation alone are not enough to maintain bone homeostasis. In this paper we describe the current countermeasures for bone loss during long-term spaceflight, review the modern treatment which are successfully employed to prevent osteoporosis on Earth and that could be quickly used also for astronauts and finally focus on the recent cellular and molecular understanding of bone homeostasis which might provide the basis for the development of future targeted therapies.

  3. Solar photovoltaics: current state and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milichko, V. A.; Shalin, A. S.; Mukhin, I. S.; Kovrov, A. E.; Krasilin, A. A.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Belov, P. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Basic aspects of current solar photovoltaics (PVs) are reviewed, starting from the recently developed already-on-the-market first-generation solar cells and ending with promising but not yet commercialized third-generation cells and materials possibly leading to new cell designs. The emphasis is on the physical principles of operation of various solar cells, which are divided into several groups according to our classification scheme. To make the picture complete, some technological and economic aspects of the field are discussed. A separate chapter considers antireflection coatings and light-trapping textures — structures which, while not having appeared yet in the PV review literature, are an integral part of the solar cells.

  4. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  5. The current state of Socio-hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viglione, Alberto; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Pande, Saket

    2016-04-01

    Socio-hydrology was introduced 4 years ago into the scientific lexicon, and elicited several reactions about the meaning and originality of the concept. However, there has also been much activity triggered by the original paper, including further commentaries that clarified the definitions, and several papers that acted on the definitions, and through them further clarified and illustrated the meaning and usefulness of socio-hydrology for understanding coupled human-water systems and underpinning sustainable water management. This presentation discusses how useful these recent studies have been towards the need for socio-hydrology to explain phenomena, such as rise and decline of human population or food production in water scarce basins ('pendulum swing'), the levee effect, small scale farmer suicides, anthropogenic droughts, etc… We also discuss its foundation as a Science, its similarities and dissimilarities with other fields that study human-water interactions, such as hydro-sociology and hydro-economics, its foundation as a Science, current gaps and the challenges that lie ahead.

  6. Pulmonary radiofrequency ablation (Part 1): current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasencia Martínez, J M

    2015-01-01

    The risks involved in surgical treatment and conventional radiotherapy in patients with early lung cancer or lung metastases often make these treatments difficult to justify. However, on the other hand, it is also unacceptable to allow these lesions to evolve freely because, left untreated, these neoplasms will usually lead to the death of the patient. In recent years, alternative local therapies have been developed, such as pulmonary radiofrequency ablation, which has proven to increase survival with a minimal risk of complications. There are common recommendations for these treatments, and although the specific indications for using one technique or another have yet to be established, there are clearly defined situations that will determine the outcome of the treatment. It is important to know these situations, because appropriate patient selection is essential for therapeutic success. This article aims to describe the characteristics and constraints of pulmonary radiofrequency ablation and to outline its role in thoracic oncology in light of the current evidence. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A pilot study for the primary prevention of rheumatic fever in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, L A; Alik, T; Kaplan, E L; Anderson, F L

    2010-04-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) and its sequel, Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is a disease of significant medical and public health concern in the Federated States of Micronesia. In this preliminary study the feasibility of a rheumatic heart disease primary prevention strategy was examined. Throat swabs were taken from 667 school-aged children and tested for group A streptococci (GAS) by a rapid antigen detection test (RADT): a subset was also tested by conventional culture, so as to compare the RADT with the reference (conventional culture) test. GAS was detected in 124% of the children tested by either rapid antigen test or conventional culture; for RADT alone the detection rate was 11.5% and for culture alone the detection rate was 9.4%. Detection rate of GAS was analyzed in symptomatic and asymptomatic subgroups. The subgroups were compared using Fisher's exact method. The identification of children with GAS allows for their further examination and treatment so that the prevalence of GAS in this vulnerable population, currently with an annual incidence of rheumatic fever of 50-134/100,000, may be reduced. The routine testing of school-aged children appears to be possible with current resources in Kosrae and can be a cost-effective public health measure.

  8. STATE OF AFFAIRS WITH THE FEDERAL FRAMEWORK OF SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE POPULATION IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Igorevna Falyushina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented the survey of the Public (Federal Social Welfare framework, presented the factors entailing their low efficiency, despite the huge public investment in this institution. The reasons for this lie in the practice of a "blindly delegating" the state powers to the municipal level, that gives rise to lack of control over the budget expenditures. The paper sorted out the main tactics of budget allocations’ "withdrawal" from the target consumer and revealed the gaps in the approaches to the State budget’ allocation, and presented the author’s pattern of this procedure that makes it possible to send significant additional resources to the "challenged" regions.In addition, the study examined operation of the regional social welfare bodies, and highlighted shortcomings in their operation, with the ways to overcome them.The paper also presented the techniques of intensive development of the social welfare network in population that enable increasing significantly the network purposefulness within the current (ongoing funding, that seems to be extremely important while a tough budgetary shortfall incurred.

  9. CURRENT STATE AND PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Shebzukhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to give a current and retrospective assessment of the state of water resources in the South of Russia and identify key problems in their use.Methods. Based on the analysis of dynamic and territorial series of data presented in government reports and the Central Statistical Database of the Federal State Statistics Service, we conducted diagnostic studies of the current and dynamic state of water resources use in the sub-federal units of the Russian Federation.Findings. The key problems in the functioning of the water sector in the southern regions are: natural water scarcity, large-scale transfers and artificial regulation of the river flows, significant loss of water during transport, large-scale discharge of contaminated sewage and poor quality of water. A significant interregional asymmetry in the water sector of the South of Russia is being tested.Conclusions. The key water-related contradiction in the South of the Russian Federation lies in the high water intensity of the meta-regional economy due to agricultural specialization, limited opportunities for the use of circulating systems, as well as significant losses of water during transportation in conditions of naturally caused scarcity and poor quality of potable waters. 

  10. 41 CFR 102-38.185 - May we sell Federal personal property to State or local governments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal property to State or local governments? 102-38.185 Section 102-38.185 Public Contracts and... Federal personal property to State or local governments? Yes, you may sell Federal personal property to State or local governments. Additional guidelines on sales to State or local governments are...

  11. The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    4 FCC Structure .......................................................................................................................6...for additional information on the history of the FCC. The Federal Communications Commission Congressional Research Service 6 FCC Structure The

  12. Tracking federal land management: Report No. 3 on federal land management actions impacting geothermal commecialization at selected target prospects in the five Pacific Rim states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-20

    Generic land management actions affecting geothermal commerializtion in Pacific River states are reviewed. Specific federal land management actions affecting geothermal prospects in California and the Pacific Northwest are described. (MHR)

  13. New York State Health Foundation grant helps health centers win federal expansion funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, David; Cozine, Maureen

    2012-11-01

    With approximately 1.2 million New Yorkers poised to gain health insurance coverage as a result of federal health reform, demand for primary care services is likely to increase greatly. The Affordable Care Act includes $11 billion in funding to enhance primary care access at community health centers. Recognizing a need and an opportunity, in August 2010 the New York State Health Foundation made a grant of nearly $400,000 to the Community Health Care Association of New York State to work with twelve health centers to develop successful proposals for obtaining and using these federal funds. Ultimately, eleven of the twelve sites are expected to receive $25.6 million in federal grants over a five-year period-a sixty-four-fold return on the foundation's investment. This article describes the strategy for investing in community health centers; identifies key project activities, challenges, and lessons; and highlights its next steps for strengthening primary care.

  14. 12 CFR 715.6 - Audit of Federally-insured State-chartered credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of Federally-insured State-chartered credit unions. 715.6 Section 715.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE AUDITS AND VERIFICATIONS § 715.6 Audit of...

  15. Federated States of Micronesia: Pursuing a Sustainable and Resilient Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the work that the Federated States of Micronesia are doing in a variety of renewable energy activities with support from the Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and outlines additional opportunities for involvement by other international donors.

  16. Seeing beyond Silos: How State Education Agencies Spend Federal Education Dollars and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Historically, state departments of education, or SEAs, have--for the most part--been compliance-focused organizations that managed federal education policy. Over the past several decades, these agencies have been education policy implementation entities. Today, while their compliance responsibilities have remained, they are taking on more…

  17. San Diego State U. Defends Its Role in Federal Drug Sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When a freshman at San Diego State University (SDSU) died of a cocaine overdose last May, the campus police chief decided to pursue a full-scale investigation. In December, he summoned undercover agents from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration to pose as students and roam the campus in search of illegal drugs. According to college…

  18. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  19. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Federal Lands of the United States 201412 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. For the most part, only areas of 320...

  20. Joint federal/state motor fuel tax compliance project. Fiscal year 1994 midyear report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-02

    ;Table of Contents: List of Exhibits; Executive Summary: History of the Joint Federal/State Motor Fuel Tax Compliance Project; Update on Motor Fuel Tax Procedures; Joint Project Results; Status of the Regional Task Forces; Future Program Activities; References; Glossary of Acronyms; List of Exhibits.

  1. 42 CFR 485.707 - Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.707... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws. 485.707 Section 485.707 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...

  2. 75 FR 65460 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; United States Military Academy Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Academy Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the United States Military Academy... Academy, including the following: morale and discipline, curriculum, instruction, physical equipment...

  3. 29 CFR 500.133 - Substantive Federal and State safety and health standards defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Housing Safety and Health § 500.133 Substantive Federal and State safety and...

  4. 75 FR 22561 - Federal Advisory Committee; United States Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group; Charter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ..., intelligence, and policy-related matters of interest to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the U.S. Strategic..., communications, intelligence and information operations, or other important aspects of the Nation's strategic... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; United States Strategic Command Strategic Advisory...

  5. Implementation Issues in Federal Reform Efforts in Education: The United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Paige

    Multiple data sources are used in this study of educational change in the United States and Australia. The author considers political issues that may affect the implementation of educational reform efforts at the federal level, such as homogeneity versus heterogeneity, centralization versus decentralization, constitutional responsibility for…

  6. 77 FR 43593 - Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations... control unforeseen pest outbreaks. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: See each emergency exemption for the... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...

  7. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (

  8. Federal state differentials in the efficiency of health production in Germany: an artifact of spatial dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Stefan; Tauchmann, Harald

    2013-02-01

    Due to regional competition and patient migration, the efficiency of healthcare provision at the regional level is subject to spatial dependence. We address this issue by applying a spatial autoregressive model to longitudinal data from Germany at the district ('Kreis') level. The empirical model is specified to explain efficiency scores, which we derive through non-parametric order-m efficiency analysis of regional health production. The focus is on the role of health policy of federal states ('Bundesländer') for district efficiency. Regression results reveal significant spatial spillover effects. Notably, accounting for spatial dependence does not decrease but increases the estimated effect of federal states on district efficiency. It appears that genuinely more efficient states are less affected by positive efficiency spillovers, so that taking into account spatial dependence clarifies the importance of health policy at the state level.

  9. Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Rouse

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of wastewater treatment facilities in the Federated States of Micronesia revealed a lack of fully functional treatment systems and conditions that potentially could lead to adverse environmental impacts and public health concerns. Due to inadequate facilities, the amount and composition of wastewater entering the plants as well as the degree of treatment being achieved is largely unknown. In some cases raw sewage is being discharged directly into the ocean and waste sludge is regularly taken by local residents for agricultural purposes without adequate treatment. In addition, the need to establish best management practices for placement and maintenance of septic tanks is urgent. Furthermore, development of eco-friendly solutions is needed to more effectively treat wastewater from industrial and agricultural sources in an effort to abate current pollution problems. Comparisons of treatment methods being used and problems encountered at different locations in the islands would provide valuable information to aid in the development of sustainable treatment practices throughout Micronesia.

  10. Current state and future prospects of remedial soil protection. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, Joerg

    2009-08-15

    The legal basis for soil protection in the Federal Republic of Germany is: -The Act on Protection against Harmful Changes to Soil and on Rehabilitation of Contaminated Sites (Federal Soil Protection Act) (Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz - BBodSchG) of 1998 [1] -The Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance (BBodSchV) of 1999 [2]. In Germany, the Federal Government has legislative competence in the field of soil protection. The Lander (German federal states), in turn, are responsible for enforcement of the BBodSchG and the BBodSchV; they may also issue supplementary procedural regulations. According to Article 1 BBodschG, the purpose of the Act is inter alia to protect and restore the functions of the soil on a permanent sustainable basis. These actions shall include prevention of harmful soil changes as well as rehabilitating soil, contaminated sites and waters contaminated by such sites in such a way that any contamination remains permanently below the hazard threshold. Whilst prevention aims to protect and preserve soil functions on a long-term basis, the object of remediation is mainly to avert concrete hazards in a spatial, temporal and manageable causative context. ''Remedial soil protection'' encompasses a tiered procedure in which a suspicion is verified successively and with least-possible effort and in which the circumstances of the individual case at hand are taken into account in deciding whether or not a need for remediation exists. It comprises the systematic stages of identifying, investigating and assessing suspect sites and sites suspected of being contaminated with a view to their hazard potential, determining whether remediation is necessary, remediating identified harmful soil changes and contaminated sites, and carrying out, where necessary, aftercare measures following final inspection of the remedial measure. (orig.)

  11. Current state and future prospects of remedial soil protection. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, Joerg

    2009-08-15

    The legal basis for soil protection in the Federal Republic of Germany is: -The Act on Protection against Harmful Changes to Soil and on Rehabilitation of Contaminated Sites (Federal Soil Protection Act) (Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz - BBodSchG) of 1998 [1] -The Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance (BBodSchV) of 1999 [2]. In Germany, the Federal Government has legislative competence in the field of soil protection. The Lander (German federal states), in turn, are responsible for enforcement of the BBodSchG and the BBodSchV; they may also issue supplementary procedural regulations. According to Article 1 BBodschG, the purpose of the Act is inter alia to protect and restore the functions of the soil on a permanent sustainable basis. These actions shall include prevention of harmful soil changes as well as rehabilitating soil, contaminated sites and waters contaminated by such sites in such a way that any contamination remains permanently below the hazard threshold. Whilst prevention aims to protect and preserve soil functions on a long-term basis, the object of remediation is mainly to avert concrete hazards in a spatial, temporal and manageable causative context. ''Remedial soil protection'' encompasses a tiered procedure in which a suspicion is verified successively and with least-possible effort and in which the circumstances of the individual case at hand are taken into account in deciding whether or not a need for remediation exists. It comprises the systematic stages of identifying, investigating and assessing suspect sites and sites suspected of being contaminated with a view to their hazard potential, determining whether remediation is necessary, remediating identified harmful soil changes and contaminated sites, and carrying out, where necessary, aftercare measures following final inspection of the remedial measure. (orig.)

  12. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  13. 77 FR 12069 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... their aircraft against acts of criminal violence or air piracy. With the enactment of Vision 100... collected to assess the qualifications and suitability of prospective and current FFDOs through an...

  14. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  15. Stable and unstable thermo -current states of high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanovskii, V; Lavrov, N; Ozhogina, V [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: vromanovskii@netscape.net

    2008-02-01

    Formation peculiarities of the stable and unstable states of high-T{sub c} superconductors are discussed. To understand the basic physical trends, which are characteristic for the current penetration mechanism in high temperature superconductors, the operating states of Bi2212 slab without stabilizing matrix placed in DC external magnetic fields at low coolant temperature are theoretically investigated. It is proved that the temperature of a high-T{sub c} superconductor is not equals to the coolant temperature before instability onset. Therefore, the voltage-current characteristic of a high-T{sub c} superconductor has only a positive slope during continuous current charging. As a result, it does not allow one to find the boundary between stable and unstable thermo - current states. This peculiarity has to be considered during experiments at which the critical current of high-T{sub c} superconductors is defined.

  16. DoD Current State for Software Technology Readiness Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    DoD Current State for Software Technology Readiness Assessments Systems & Software Technology Conference April 2010 Cynthia Dion-Schwarz, Ph.D...DoD Current State for Software Technology Readiness Assessments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 22nd Systems and Software Technology Conference (SSTC), 26-29 April

  17. Institutional Cooperation: The Role of the Federal, State, and Local Education Agencies in Addressing the Educational Problems of the Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, George T.

    A concerted effort to pool resources and coordinate work by federal, state, and local educational agencies will be necessary to overcome the fragmentation that is occurring due to the current climate of changing demographics, increasing illiteracy, and the social effects of minorities in our schools. California has shown major changes in the…

  18. Internal Variations in Health-care Federalism in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Bhatia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federal systems are prone to dividing health benefits inconsistently across subnational jurisdictions. In this article, we examine how federalism intersects with economic and social factors, particularly gender and immigration status, to create structural barriers to accessing and receiving necessary healthcare. Drawing on insights from the historical institutionalist literature and the experiences of immigrant women in the Canadian and American health systems, we find significant subnational variations in access to health services and insurance coverage. Gaps in service – which are filled (if at all by costly, inaccessible private provision – are the product of piecemeal policymaking, as new programs and services are layered onto existing systems which are themselves outdated and anachronistic. Our analysis demonstrates the need to move beyond analyses of federal state architectures to an intersectional approach to better understand the differential negative impact of subnational variations on equity between social groups and their ability to access to basic health services.

  19. Testing Literature: The Current State of Affairs. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    A synthesis of the report, "The Current State of Assessment in Literature," (produced by the Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature), this digest discusses methods of evaluating students' knowledge of literature. The digest argues that, by and large, the tests that now exist in the United States do not live up to the standards set by…

  20. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ({sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and {sup 219}Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the {sup 222}Rn is produced by the decay series of {sup 238}U and proceeded from {alpha}-decay of {sup 226}Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3} which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average {sup 222}Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost

  1. State-federal relations under subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laswell, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's final regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act distinguish between interim and final authorization under section 3006(b). They further divide interim authorization into Phase I and Phase II, and establish a schedule for state applications for these phases. This article discusses the two forms of authorization. It compares statutory language in changing regulatory interpretations, which have imposed an unnecessary and potentially invalid burden on those states which wish to administer their programs in lieu of the federal hazardous waste program. It recommends an alternate interpretation of section 3006 that will reduce the burden on states and better implement congressional intent. 171 references

  2. Created-by-current states in long Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, T. L.; Andreeva, O. Yu.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2008-08-01

    Critical curves "critical current-external magnetic field" of long Josephson junctions with inhomogeneity and variable width are studied. We demonstrate the existence of regions of magnetic field where some fluxon states are stable only if the external current through the junction is different from zero. Position and size of such regions depend on the length of the junction, its geometry, parameters of inhomogeneity and form of the junction. The noncentral (left and right) pure fluxon states appear in the inhomogeneous Josephson junction with the increase in the junction length. We demonstrate new bifurcation points with change in width of the inhomogeneity and amplitude of the Josephson current through the inhomogeneity.

  3. Mapping current fluctuations of stochastic pumps to nonequilibrium steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotskoff, Grant M.

    2017-03-01

    We show that current fluctuations in a stochastic pump can be robustly mapped to fluctuations in a corresponding time-independent nonequilibrium steady state. We thus refine a recently proposed mapping so that it ensures equivalence of not only the averages, but also optimal representation of fluctuations in currents and density. Our mapping leads to a natural decomposition of the entropy production in stochastic pumps similar to the "housekeeping" heat. As a consequence of the decomposition of entropy production, the current fluctuations in weakly perturbed stochastic pumps are shown to satisfy a universal bound determined by the steady state entropy production.

  4. 28 CFR 1100.29 - The roles and responsibilities of federal law enforcement, immigration, and Department of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The roles and responsibilities of federal law enforcement, immigration, and Department of State officials under the Trafficking Victims... and responsibilities of federal law enforcement, immigration, and Department of State officials...

  5. Multistable current states in high-temperature superconducting composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, V. R.

    2016-09-01

    Conditions for current instabilities that arise in high-temperature superconducting composites with essentially nonlinear dependences of the critical current densities and resistivity on the temperature and magnetic induction have been studied. The analysis has been conducted in terms of zero-dimensional models, which has made it possible to formulate general physical mechanisms behind the formation of currents states in superconducting composites according to the external magnetic field induction, cooling conditions, and the properties of the superconductor and cladding. The possible existence of current and temperature stable steps, as well as stable steps of the electric field strength, in the absence of the superconducting-normal transition, has been demonstrated. Reasons for instabilities under multistable current states have been discussed.

  6. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillermin, Christophe [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rain, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et de Materiaux Dielectriques (LEMD), CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rowe, Stephen W [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-02-07

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm{sup -1} with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T{sub g}, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T{sub g}, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm{sup -1} have been measured.

  7. Using linked federal and state data to study the adequacy of workers' compensation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabury, Seth A; Scherer, Ethan; O'Leary, Paul; Ozonoff, Al; Boden, Leslie

    2014-10-01

    We combined federal and state administrative data to study the long-term earnings losses associated with occupational injuries and assess the adequacy of workers' compensation benefits. We linked state data on workers' compensation claims from New Mexico for claimants injured from 1994 to 2000 to federal earnings records from 1987 to 2007. We estimated earnings losses up to 10 years after injury and computed the fraction of losses replaced by benefits. Workers with lost-time injuries lost an average of 15% of their earnings over the 10 years after injury. On average, workers' compensation income benefits replaced 16% of these losses. Men and women had similar losses and replacement rates. Workers with minor injuries had lower losses but also had lower replacement rates. Earnings losses after an injury are highly persistent, even for comparatively minor injuries. Income benefits replace a smaller fraction of those losses than previously believed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Miscellaneous agreements between the U.S. Department of Energy and Federal, State, and local agencies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meincke, Carol L.

    2010-08-01

    This document identifies and provides access to source documentation for the Site- Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Specifically, it lists agreements between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), DOE/NNSA/Sandia Site Office (SSO), Sandia Corporation, and local and state government agencies, Department of Defense, Kirtland Air Force Base, and other federal agencies.

  9. Altered Standards of Care: An Analysis of Existing Federal, State, and Local Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    surrounding altered standards of care from multiple federal, state, regulatory, and academic sources. Chapter III (Methodology) provides background...standards of care, the legal ramifications must be addressed, or the policies will break down at the caregiver level when malpractice risk is at...suggested that academics can assume clinical roles in providing assistance to patients, but there is no requirement that academic physicians have clinical

  10. Cancer disparities in the Federated States of Micronesia: funding challenges of a developing nation in epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Holden, Debra J

    2010-05-01

    This article describes funding and other challenges to cancer control in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) and examines funding opportunity announcements (FOAs) as a critical facet in implementation of the U.S. Compact of Free Association (COFA). As a health-relevant policy, COFA commits the United States to improve the health of FSM citizens and, specifically, allows the FSM to apply for U.S. federal health FOAs. Emerging research suggests discrepancies in the intent and implementation of COFA and indicates that the capacity of the FSM to secure U.S. health funding may be at least partially hindered by the ways in which FOAs are structured. Current cancer-related FOAs were identified to evaluate their relevance to the FSM. Eligibility requirements of all FOAs were systematically reviewed and compared with FSM infrastructural and human resources. Findings indicate that most FOAs have requirements more likely to be met in fully developed health service entities. Such requirements disadvantage the FSM when competed with the relatively more resource-rich U.S. states and health services systems. This situation predisposes the FSM to increased risk of disparate cancer outcomes. Highlighted is the need for distributive justice and specific efforts that enhance the health services infrastructure in the FSM and increase opportunities for resource-appropriate interventions. Findings provide considerations for those in international social welfare, public health, and other disciplines interested in the advancement of global health partnerships to eliminate cancer disparities in underresourced nations.

  11. An examination of the Total Quality Management (TQM) concept given current Federal/DoD competition initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Michael E.

    1992-06-01

    Quality is vital to our defense and quality improvement is key to increasing productivity. The Department of Defense (DoD) Total Quality Management (TQM) effort has been given top priority by the Secretary of Defense. Many questions exist concerning the problems encountered when implementing TQM throughout DoD. This thesis looks at the compatibility of the TQM philosophy with current Federal Acquisition Regulation competition requirements. The writer concludes that the TQM philosophy implementation is compatible with existing competition policy.

  12. Visualization and data analysis-current state and exascale challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodgers, David [SNL; Springmeyer, Becky [LLNL

    2010-12-21

    Talk about Visualization and Data Analysis Current State and Exascale challenges. The goal is to update with colleagues our current status in our research. What challenges we need to face, and what future possibilities. Our goal is to propose to approach the problems with the visualization approach operating on the supercomputing platform. This presentation is about the L2 Milestone, we intend to discuss further possibilities of enhancing our results and optimizing our solutions.

  13. Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development The paper briefly reviews the first Bulgarian-Polish digital bilingual resources: corpora and dictionaries, which are currently developed under bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS: joint research project “Semantics and contrastive linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary”, coordinated by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska (ISS-PAS.

  14. Federal and State Responses to Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: The Evolution of Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Jini L; Vincent, Melanie

    2017-05-09

    Domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) is a rapidly growing problem in the United States, yet legislative efforts to address victim needs have begun only recently. DMST is an issue that spans several areas of social work practice, as emerging research shows that most children and youths exploited in commercial sex have typically experienced prior abuse, neglect, or other forms of trauma. Many have been involved with the child welfare and juvenile justice systems and are often lured by promises of love, security, protection, and belonging. Policy development to address DMST is still relatively new and evolving at both federal and state levels, but the general trend is to recognize such minors as victims rather than perpetrators of sex crimes. In this article the authors trace the development of legislation addressing DMST at the federal and state levels, with a particular focus on states' "safe harbor laws" that provide limited or total criminal immunity and a varying range of services to victims. Although space limitation precludes a detailed discussion of specific state laws, comparative analysis of representative provisions are discussed, highlighting social work application and further policy and research implications. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  15. FORMATION OF THE STATE POLICY IN PUBLIC HEALTHCARE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Baranov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the legal grounds for the state policy development in public healthcare in the Russian federation. The urgency of this program is well substantiated. The authors introduce the working definition of the governmental policy in public healthcare, which is viewed as a component of the internal policy of the state and which interacts with other trends of the state policy within the framework of its tasks. The adequate state regulation of the legal, social and economic and other relations within the society is necessary to achieve maximum full observance of the citizens' rights for the disease prevention, affordable highly qualified medical care and medical rehabilitation.Key words: public healthcare, medical care.

  16. Job Satisfaction and Expected Turnover Among Federal, State, and Local Public Health Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Elizabeth; Shon, Ji Won; Sellers, Katie; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To use data on the governmental public health workforce to examine demographics and elucidate drivers of job satisfaction and intent to leave one’s organization. Methods. Using microdata from the 2014 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey and 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey, we drew comparisons between federal, state, and local public health staff. We fitted logistic regressions to examine correlates of both job satisfaction and intent to leave one’s organization within the coming year. Results. Correlates of job satisfaction included pay satisfaction, organizational support, and employee involvement. Approximately 40% of federal, state, and local staff said they were either considering leaving their organization in the next year or were planning to retire by 2020. Conclusions. Public health practitioners largely like their jobs, but many are dissatisfied with their pay and are considering working elsewhere. More should be done to understand the determinants of job satisfaction and how to successfully retain high-quality staff. Public Health Implications. Public health is at a crossroads. Significant turnover is expected in the coming years. Retention efforts should engage staff across all levels of public health. PMID:27552269

  17. Quantum quasi-steady states in current transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; Zwolak, Michael; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    We investigate quasi-steady state solutions to transport in quantum systems by finding states which at some time minimize the change in density throughout all space and have a given current density flowing from one part of the system to another [1]. Contrary to classical dynamics, in a quantum mechanical system there are many states with a given energy and particle number which satisfy this minimization criterion. Taking as an example spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice, we explicitly show the phase space of a class of quasi-steady states. We also discuss the possibility of coherent and incoherent mixing of these steady state solutions leading to a new type of noise in quantum transport. [1] M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004).

  18. Current state management of the consumer capital of domestic enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Golysheva

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of the current state of management by consumer business capital is carried out. It is based on three components: system of communications with consumers and external subjects, the history of relationship with them and the database about partners; portfolio management of trade marks (brands); the.

  19. Sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry: current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Marian C; Dillon, Barry; Hamann, Lawrence G; Hughes, Gregory J; Kopach, Michael E; Peterson, Emily A; Pourashraf, Mehrnaz; Raheem, Izzat; Richardson, Paul; Richter, Daniel; Sneddon, Helen F

    2013-08-08

    The medicinal chemistry subgroup of the American Chemical Society's Green Chemistry Institute Pharmaceutical Roundtable (ACS GCI PR) offers a perspective on the current state of environmentally sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry with the aim of sharing best practices more widely and highlighting some potential future developments.

  20. The Current State of Marketing Activity among Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Cynthia M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the current state of marketing, marketing research, and planning practices at four-year higher education institutions. Builds upon previous studies by Blackburn (1979) and Goldgehn (1982 and 1989). Determined whether the use and apparent understanding of marketing and its attendant activities by admissions and enrollment management…

  1. The Current State of Silicone-Based Dielectric Elastomer Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    driving voltages. In this review, the current state of sili- cone elastomers for DETs is summarised and critically discussed, including commercial elastomers, composites, polymer blends, grafted elastomers and complex network structures. For future developments in the field it is essential that all aspects...

  2. Current state management of the consumer capital of domestic enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Golysheva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of the current state of management by consumer business capital is carried out. It is based on three components: system of communications with consumers and external subjects, the history of relationship with them and the database about partners; portfolio management of trade marks (brands; the.

  3. Buscando ayuda economica: Fuentes de informacion federal, estatal y otros recursos (Looking for Student Aid: Federal, State, and Other Sources of Information).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This brochure in Spanish contains information about finding federal, state, and other sources of information about student financial aid for college. The brochure advises that most of the information private college scholarship search companies provide can be obtained for free elsewhere. Students should ensure that they are not paying for free…

  4. Investigating an outbreak of acute fever in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Hoy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In September 2012, there was an unexpected increase of acute febrile illness (AFI in Chuuk State of the Federated States of Micronesia. At the same time, dengue outbreaks were occurring in two of the Federated States of Micronesia’s other three states. The cause of AFI was suspected to be dengue; however, by the end of October, only one of 39 samples was positive for dengue. The objective of the investigation was to establish the cause of the outbreak. Methods: A line list was created and data analysed by time, place, person and clinical features. Reported symptoms were compared with the published symptoms of several diagnoses and laboratory testing undertaken. Results: Of the 168 suspected cases, 62% were less than 20 years of age and 60% were male. The clinical features of the cases were not typical for dengue but suggestive of respiratory illness. Nasopharyngeal swabs were subsequently collected and found to be positive for influenza. Public health measures were undertaken and the AFI returned to expected levels. Discussion: Clinical diagnosis of acute febrile illness (AFI can often be difficult and misleading. This can mean that opportunities for preventive measures early on in an outbreak are missed. In any outbreak, descriptive epidemiological analyses are valuable in helping to ascertain the cause of the outbreak.

  5. Precarious Employment in the Vologda Oblast: Current State and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of precarious employment in Russian regions. Today, the socio-economic sciences lack a single concept of precarious employment applicable to Russian conditions. Despite the considerable amount of scientific and practical works of domestic and foreign authors on the issue of precarious employment, the criteria of its statistical evaluation as applied to Russian conditions have not been determined. At the same time, the development of precarious employment threatens the country’s socio-economic welfare, because it creates the risk of unwanted effects such as poor employment, hidden and open unemployment, lower labor productivity, degradation of human capital, etc. The paper provides a brief review of research on the problem stated, and defines precarious employment. The author makes an attempt to determine and substantiate the list of indicators available in official statistics for assessing precarious employment in the region. The study allocates three blocks of indicators: indicators of institutional regulation, conditions of employment and functioning of the labor market. Based on these indicators, the author analyzes the status and trends of precarious work in the Vologda Oblast in the period from 2001 to 2015. In some cases, the author presents a comparative analysis of the data for the Russian Federation and Northwestern Federal District. The analysis has helped identify positive and negative changes in the field of precarious employment in the Vologda Oblast. In particular, the author identifies the following problems: an increase in the share of those employed in the informal sector, a relative increase in the number of the working poor, an almost three-fold growth of overdue debts on wages in comparable prices per worker. On the basis of this analysis, the author identifies the directions of the state policy that can help reduce precarious employment: development of information

  6. Informing the gestalt: an ethical framework for allocating scarce federal public health and medical resources to states during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Ann R; Sharpe, Virginia A; Danis, Marion; Toomey, Lauren M; Knickerbocker, Deborah K

    2014-02-01

    During catastrophic disasters, government leaders must decide how to efficiently and effectively allocate scarce public health and medical resources. The literature about triage decision making at the individual patient level is substantial, and the National Response Framework provides guidance about the distribution of responsibilities between federal and state governments. However, little has been written about the decision-making process of federal leaders in disaster situations when resources are not sufficient to meet the needs of several states simultaneously. We offer an ethical framework and logic model for decision making in such circumstances. We adapted medical triage and the federalism principle to the decision-making process for allocating scarce federal public health and medical resources. We believe that the logic model provides a values-based framework that can inform the gestalt during the iterative decision process used by federal leaders as they allocate scarce resources to states during catastrophic disasters.

  7. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs. Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, Scott [National Regulatory Research Inst., Silver Spring, MD (United States); Elefant, Carolyn [Law Offices of Carolyn Elefant, Washington, DC (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report details how state feed-in tariff (FIT) programs can be legally implemented and how they can comply with federal requirements. The report describes the federal constraints on FIT programs and identifies legal methods that are free of those constrains.

  8. Phase state dependent current fluctuations in pure lipid membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Wunderlich, B; Idzko, A-L; Keyser, U F; Wixforth, A; Myles, V M; Heimburg, T; Schneider, M F

    2009-01-01

    Current fluctuations in pure lipid membranes have been shown to occur under the influence of transmembrane electric fields (electroporation) as well as a result from structural rearrangements of the lipid bilayer during phase transition (soft perforation). We demonstrate that the ion permeability during lipid phase transition exhibits the same qualitative temperature dependence as the macroscopic heat capacity of a D15PC/DOPC vesicle suspension. Microscopic current fluctuations show distinct characteristics for each individual phase state. While current fluctuations in the fluid phase show spike-like behaviour of short time scales (~ 2ms) with a narrow amplitude distribution, the current fluctuations during lipid phase transition appear in distinct steps with time scales in the order of ~ 20ms. 1 We propose a theoretical explanation for the origin of time scales and permeability based on a linear relationship between lipid membrane susceptibilities and relaxation times in the vicinity of the phase transition.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey federal-state cooperative water-resources program, fiscal year 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Melvin; Dodds, Betty

    1996-01-01

    The Federal-State Cooperative Program is a major U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) activity for the collection, analysis, and reporting of information on the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources. The fundamental characteristic of the program is that most of the work is undertaken by the USGS through joint-funding agreements, with State, regional, and local agencies providing at least one-half the funds. The main objectives of the program are (1) to collect, on a systematic basis, data needed for the continuing determi- nation and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources; and (2) to appraise the availability and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water through data analysis and interpretive water-resources investigations and research. During fiscal year (FY) 1995, Cooperative Program activities were underway in offices in every State, Puerto Rico, and several territories in concert with about 1,100 cooperating agencies. In FY 1995, Federal funding of $62.1 million as matched by cooperating agencies, which also provided more than $28.2 million unmatched for a total program of about $152 million. This amounted to nearly 38 percent of the total funds for the USGS's water-resources activities. This report presents examples of FY 1995 investigations, as well as information on hydrologic data collection and water-use activities.

  10. [Problem mapping by state and federal actors for maternal health attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvier, Mariel; González-Block, Miguel A; Becerril-Montekio, Víctor; Sesia, Paola; Duarte, María Beatriz; Flores-Collins, Estrella

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics of problems in the health system that present barriers to maternal care, according to their representation and rating by officials in different positions and social contexts. Workshops were held with state health system officials from Mexican states with high maternal mortality (Mexico, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Veracruz) as well as with federal officials. A total of 99 health system problems were identified. Using concept mapping, 94 officials rated problems according to importance and feasibility; they were grouped into issues. Data was analyzed according to state/federal levels and the responsibilities of participants. The association was measured between responsibility profile/social context and priority issues. The issues of highest priority for maternal health care are infrastructure, personnel hiring and financial resources. The importance of certain issues depends on context and, to an extent, on the actors' responsibilities. There is consensus among actors to address the principal maternal health problems in Mexico. Important differences correspond to context. The usefulness of concept mapping to analyze problems was demonstrated.

  11. The EarthServer Federation: State, Role, and Contribution to GEOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, Vlad; Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The intercontinental EarthServer initiative has established a European datacube platform with proven scalability: known databases exceed 100 TB, and single queries have been split across more than 1,000 cloud nodes. Its service interface being rigorously based on the OGC "Big Geo Data" standards, Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS), a series of clients can dock into the services, ranging from open-source OpenLayers and QGIS over open-source NASA WorldWind to proprietary ESRI ArcGIS. Datacube fusion in a "mix and match" style is supported by the platform technolgy, the rasdaman Array Database System, which transparently federates queries so that users simply approach any node of the federation to access any data item, internally optimized for minimal data transfer. Notably, rasdaman is part of GEOSS GCI. NASA is contributing its Web WorldWind virtual globe for user-friendly data extraction, navigation, and analysis. Integrated datacube / metadata queries are contributed by CITE. Current federation members include ESA (managed by MEEO sr.l.), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF), Australia's National Computational Infrastructure, and Jacobs University (adding in Planetary Science). Further data centers have expressed interest in joining. We present the EarthServer approach, discuss its underlying technology, and illustrate the contribution this datacube platform can make to GEOSS.

  12. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  13. Federal and state taxation of highway diesel fuel: administration and compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wertz, K.

    1987-10-22

    This report discusses various ways in which highway diesel fuel taxes are structured, administered, and enforced in the United States and Canada. It relates the experiences of tax administrators in California, Illinois, North Carolina, Texas, and Ontario, Canada, regarding diesel-fuel tax compliance. It also discusses attempts to measure the degree of noncompliance with the Federal diesel fuel tax. The report was done as part of a study of the feasibility of a national weight-distance tax, mandated in Section 933 of the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984.

  14. Seasonal trends in acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in the federal state of Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, U; Mikolajczyk, R T; Krämer, A

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge about seasonal trends in acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy may help to understand and avoid risk factors for infection. Analysing regular screening records of 51 754 pregnant women, members of the largest statutory health insurance company in the federal state of Upper Austria from 2000 to 2005, we found a twofold increase of diagnoses of acute toxoplasmosis during winter months. Taking the delay between infection and screening into account, the increased number of detections in winter points towards more frequent infections in autumn. We propose a higher consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruit from gardening as one of the potential explanations.

  15. Current trends in state child labor legislation and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, D

    1993-09-01

    There is much current child labor law activity, none of it reflecting concern with occupational health hazards. The focus of the legislation is on time for and dedication to education as youth's foremost priority. The only areas of state legislative change that could affect children's health and safety in the workplace are a general movement toward monetarily increasing fines and penalties and some minor inclusions of agricultural restrictions on young workers. Enforcement efforts are in all cases a primary indication of state commitment to child labor law protections, and these efforts are decreasing.

  16. 12 CFR 557.11 - To what extent does Federal law preempt deposit-related State laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal law preempt deposit-related State laws? (a) Under sections 4(a), 5(a), and 5(b) of the HOLA, 12 U... purposes of HOLA. (b) To further these purposes without undue regulatory duplication and burden, OTS...

  17. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Federal Lands of the United States - Parkways and Scenic Rivers 201506 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the linear federally owned or administered land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States and...

  18. Federal state educational standards of higher professional education. Discipline «Law»: perspectives of introduction in medical institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erugina М.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the positive and negative impact of the new Federal state educational standards of higher professional education on the quality of studying the discipline «Law» in medical schools

  19. 75 FR 1654 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Minerals Revenue Management. BILLING CODE 4310-MR-P ... Minerals Management Service States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas Marginal Properties AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  20. 18 CFR 401.39 - Form of submission of projects not requiring prior approval by State or Federal agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND... other State or Federal agency, or where such approval is required but an Administrative Agreement is not...

  1. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe......The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer...... to a special descriptive, empirical, experimental approach to translation studies based on close, technology-supported observation of translational (micro)behaviour. Fundamentally, TPR is based on software which logs a translator’s keystrokes on a computer keyboard in time in combination with an eyetracker...

  2. Trilingual aligned corpus – current state and new applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trilingual aligned corpus – current state and new applications This article describes current state of a trilingual parallel corpus consisted of texts in two Slavic (Bulgarian and Polish and one Baltic language (Lithuanian. The corpus contains original literary texts (fiction, novels, and short stories in one of the three languages with translations to the other two, and texts in other languages translated into Bulgarian, Polish, and Lithuanian. A part of the texts are aligned at the sentence level. The authors propose a semantic annotation of verbs appearing in these aligned texts that will facilitate contrastive studies of natural languages. A theoretical background for the proposed semantic annotation is briefly also discussed.

  3. Local Hubble Expansion: Current State of the Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2016-01-01

    We present a brief qualitative overview of the current state of the problem of Hubble expansion at the sufficiently small scales (e.g., in planetary systems or local intergalactic volume). The crucial drawbacks of the available theoretical treatments are emphasized, and the possible ways to avoid them are outlined. Attention is drawn to a number of observable astronomical phenomena that could be naturally explained by the local Hubble expansion.

  4. SYRUPS: COMPOSITION, TECHNOLOGY, CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview data for the syrups formulation, including syrups for children, with synthetic substances were represented: assortment, composition, technological approach. The advantages and disadvantages of this dosage form were described. Details considered flavoring agents and other auxiliaries (stabilizers, preservatives, thickeners comprising syrups were closely examined. The issues of current research state of syrups for children were described.

  5. [The current state and development prospectives of military nephrology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagibovich, O A; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2014-05-01

    This article is dedicated to the current state and prospectives of military nephrology. Using as examples the nephrology services of the armed forces of Serbia, France, Great Britain and USA it is shown that this branch of military healthcare plays an important role abroad. The brief review of military nephrology formation and development history demonstrates the growing significance of military nephrology in the general system of medical care at the battlefield.

  6. Climate change in the federated states of Micronesia: Food and water security, climate risk management, and adaptive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Charles H.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of findings following research and a three-week field assessment (April 2009) of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) in response to nation-wide marine inundation by extreme tides (December 2007, September 2008, December 2008).3 The study was conducted at the request of the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service and the state and federal governments of FSM.

  7. 75 FR 29899 - Withdrawal of Federal Antidegradation Policy for all Waters of the United States Within the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... the United States at a level consistent with the Federal requirements under the Clean Water Act... United States Within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... antidegradation policy for all waters of the United States within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. We...

  8. Acid rain compliance and coordination of state and federal utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaus, R.R. [Van Ness, Feldman, and Curtis, P.C., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new stature. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for review of acid rain compliance strategies if least-cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on rate payers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and spells out possible approaches that utility regulators may take in dealing with it. Topics covered include the following: the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments; acid rain (SO2); acid rain (NOx); costs of compliance; implications for utility regulation - federal and state utility regulatory framework; potential jurisdictional conflicts under existing state/federal utility regulatory scheme - single utility, holding companies, power pools; Utility regulatory issues under the 1990 amendments - planning conflicts, operational conflicts; methods for dealing with potential jurisdictional conflicts; coordination mechanisms - informal consultation, rulemaking,coordination of adjudicatory proceedings, FERC rate filings.

  9. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  10. Current states and perspectives of Czech educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Janík

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review study is to evaluate the current state of Czech educationalresearch and to offer possibilities of its further development. The paper has threeparts. In the first part, the author presents the context of the topic: the current changesin the financing of research and development in the Czech Republic; the avoiding ofthe term (social science is discussed along with the issue of institutional financing ofresearch and the various presently up-to-date methodologies of quality assessment inresearch. In the second part, the author analyses the current state of Czech educationalresearch – previous analyses of J. Pr°ucha, J. Mareš and E. Walterová and those carriedout by the Educational Research Centre are briefly summarised. In the third part, possibilitiesof further development of Czech educational research are offered. Developinga knowledge base of educational sciences is used as an example. First the nature andsubject of knowledge that is produced by research is analysed, then the difference betweenpedagogical research and research in education is discussed. Towards the end,relevant approaches are discussed along with research areas and types of knowledgeacquired by research.

  11. The local property taxes and municipal federalism. Current and future inequity condition of Italian Property Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Argiolas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the current local tax on real estate and the future and assessing criticality. The tax base is calculated by applying calculation methods that differ depending on the type of property you must tax. For buildings used for residential, the tax base is calculated on the basis of the cadastral income; in the case of building land is rather used the market value of land and buildings and, for rent, rural manor. The land property values are always lower than market values, which is because some time trying to implement a revision of the class with the objective of bringing the two values. The reclass procedure has recently been adopted in the municipality of Milano where it was decided to reclass of buildings located within a few micro-climates for the most central, in which houses were originally built affordable housing to meet the housing needs of the social classes poor and that over time turned into mansions in the city center. From 1 January 2012, the Imu will come into force, only municipal tax, which replaces the current Ici; the two taxes differ in the higher fixed rate (7.6 ‰, which does not involve substantial modifications to the old system tax. In this way, the result will be to produce an increase in the tax burden without solving the inequalities of the old system but increasing the gap. The Implementation Act contains provisions which IMU when applied to allow municipalities to solve some problems present in the Ici.

  12. Measles Outbreak Associated with Vaccine Failure in Adults--Federated States of Micronesia, February-August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Moturi, Edna; Helgenberger, Louisa; Gopalani, Sameer V; Hales, Craig; Lam, Eugene; Sharapov, Umid; Larzelere, Maribeth; Johnson, Eliaser; Masao, Carolee; Setik, Eleanor; Barrow, Lisa; Dolan, Samantha; Chen, Tai-Ho; Patel, Minal; Rota, Paul; Hickman, Carole; Bellini, William; Seward, Jane; Wallace, Greg; Papania, Mark

    2015-10-02

    On May 15, 2014, CDC was notified of two laboratory-confirmed measles cases in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), after 20 years with no reported measles. FSM was assisted by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and CDC in investigating suspected cases, identify contacts, conduct analyses to guide outbreak vaccination response, and review vaccine cold chain practices. During February–August, three of FSM’s four states reported measles cases: Kosrae (139 cases), Pohnpei (251), and Chuuk (3). Two thirds of cases occurred among adults aged ≥20 years; of these, 49% had received ≥2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). Apart from infants aged vaccination, measles incidence was lower among children than adults. A review of current cold chain practices in Kosrae revealed minor weaknesses; however, an absence of historical cold chain maintenance records precluded an evaluation of earlier problems. Each state implemented vaccination campaigns targeting children as young as age 6 months through adults up to age 57 years. The preponderance of cases in this outbreak associated with vaccine failure in adults highlights the need for both thorough case investigation and epidemiologic analysis to guide outbreak response vaccination. Routine childhood vaccination coverage achieved in recent years limited the transmission of measles among children. Even in areas where transmission has not occurred for years, maintaining high 2-dose MCV coverage through routine and supplemental immunization is needed to prevent outbreaks resulting from increased measles susceptibility in the population.

  13. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Long

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyaluronic acid (HA is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of β-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and β-1, 4-glucuronic acid with a molecular weight up to 6 million Daltons. With excellent viscoelasticity, high moisture retention capacity, and high biocompatibility, HA finds a wide-range of applications in medicine, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. Traditionally HA was extracted from rooster combs, and now it is mainly produced via streptococcal fermentation. Recently the production of HA via recombinant systems has received increasing interest due to the avoidance of potential toxins. This work summarizes the research history and current commercial market of HA, and then deeply analyzes the current state of microbial production of HA by Streptococcus zooepidemicus and recombinant systems, and finally discusses the challenges facing microbial HA production and proposes several research outlines to meet the challenges.

  14. Voluntary league of peoples vs. coercive world federative state (Völkerstaat/Staatenverein of peoples as states: Kant's and Rawls' considerations concerning international relations: Similarities and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Milorad J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although similar in some respects, Rawls' and Kant' visions of world order fall apart on the question of sovereignty. Rawls never advocates of an international single state with international authority. Kant, on the other hand, inspired by the project of Enlightenment, as a final form of international sovereignty sees federative state of states as a provider for eternal peace among peoples.

  15. Radical Islam in Xinjiang – Evolution and Current State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Suchanek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the evolution and the current state of radical Islam in China’s Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Chinese government considers Islamic radicalism as a serious threat, in particular in the Xinjiang region, which borders on some states in Central Asia as well as Pakistan and Afghanistan. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate roots and historical development of significant groups, in particular the East Turkestan Islamic Movement – ETIM. In its next part, the article deals with the contemporary situation as well as the cooperation between Uyghur radicals and other radical Islamic movements, in particular al-Qaeda and Taliban, and their activities. The article concludes that contemporary Uyghur Islamic radicalism cannot be considered as a major security threat, since the activities of these groups have largely shifted to Pakistan and rather have the nature of a propaganda war.

  16. The current state of molecular cytogenetics in cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Thomas; Othman, Moneeb A K; Rittscher, Katharina; Alhourani, Eyad

    2015-04-01

    Cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetics are and will continue to be indispensable tools in cancer diagnostics. Leukemia and lymphoma diagnostics are still emphases of routine (molecular) cytogenetics and corresponding studies of solid tumors gain more and more prominence. Here, first a historical perspective of molecular tumor cytogenetics is provided, which is followed by the basic principles of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) approach. Finally the current state of molecular cytogenetics in cancer diagnostics is discussed. Nowadays routine diagnostics includes basic FISH approaches rather than multicolor-FISH. The latter together with modern high-throughput methods have their impact on research to identify new tumor-associated genomic regions.

  17. The evolution and current state of emergency care in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Osei-Ampofo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine as a specialty has only recently been introduced to Ghana. This article reviews the overall health and medical care systems as well as the evolution and the current state of emergency care in Ghana and the progress made in establishing Emergency Medicine (EM as a specialty along the Anglo-American model of emergency care. The article also describes the improvements implemented in emergency patient care, and emergency medicine management systems. Although there are challenges to overcome, much optimism remains about the future of this new specialty in Ghana and its ability to transform the face of emergency care.

  18. [Infection for papillomavirus in the man. Current state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez García, I; Gómez Mampaso, E; Conde Someso, S; Maganto Pavón, E; Navío Niño, S; Allona Almagro, A

    2005-04-01

    The Virus of the Human Papiloma (HPV), classically he/she has been related with infections of sexual transmission and processes wicked oncologists of the feminine genital apparatus and with less frequency of the masculine one. The new technical diagnostics, based on molecular biology (by means of polymerase chain reaction), they help to a better epidemic approach, an improvement in the I diagnose viral, and a correct therapeutic focus. The object of this work is to revise the current state of the HPV from the points of view etiopathogenics, epidemic, clinical, diagnosis, therapeutic and preservative.

  19. The 2009 US Federal Cigarette Tax Increase and Quitline Utilization in 16 States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Bush

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. On April 1, 2009, the federal cigarette excise tax increased from 39 cents to $1.01 per pack. Methods. This study describes call volumes to 16 state quitlines, characteristics of callers and cessation outcomes before and after the tax. Results. Calls to the quitlines increased by 23.5% in 2009 and more whites, smokers ≥ 25 years of age, smokers of shorter duration, those with less education, and those who live with smokers called after (versus before the tax. Quit rates at 7 months did not differ before versus after tax. Conclusions. Descriptive analyses revealed that the federal excise tax on cigarettes was associated with increased calls to quitlines but multivariate analyses revealed no difference in quit rates. However, more callers at the same quit rate indicates an increase in total number of successful quitters. If revenue obtained from increased taxation on cigarettes is put into cessation treatment, then it is likely future excise taxes would have an even greater effect.

  20. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE PROVISION FOR RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P.V.Ramzaev”The article is devoted to the actual issues ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety providing at the present stage. The important role of radiation-hygienic passportization is underlined in the process of the obtaining of objective information of radiation situation in the country, of population exposure doses from the all sources: artificial and natural, from the use of ionizing irradiation sources in medicine. The leading role is shown of the natural ionizing irradiation sources in the level of the country population exposure. The main directions of activities are stated aimed on the decreasing of population exposure doses from the natural sources. The brief characteristics is given of the radiation situation on the territories radioactively contaminated after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP, in the Pacific Ocean basin after the accident on the “Fukushima-1”NPP, of the main measures for radiation protection providing and for counteraction to radiation terrorism during the period of international sports and mass actions which were carried out in Russia in the last years (XXVII World Summer Universiade in2013 inKazan, XXII Olympic and XI Winter Paralympics Games in2014 inSochi. The most important tasks are defined for the improvement ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety at the present stage.

  1. From pain to virtue: dysphoric sensations and moral sensibilities in Yap (Waqab), Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, C Jason

    2008-06-01

    This article contributes to the development of a medical anthropology of sensation through providing a thick ethnographic description of pain's significance in the context of a particular community's - Yap (Federated States of Micronesia) - understandings of subjectivity, social action, and morality. After first proposing an attentional-synthetic model of the patterning of sensory experience, the article goes on to describe in some detail the linguistic, moral, and cultural frameworks that serve as the semiotic, existential, and practical resources providing the background against which individual sufferers tend to interpret their dysphoric sensory experiences. Central to the article is an exploration of a local illness category maath'keenil' that is implicated in two, at times competing, models of ethical subjectivity. It is argued that through configuring their subjective experiences in light of these virtues individual sufferers are at times able to transform their experiences of pain from excruciating dysphoric sensations to meaningful, morally valenced, lived experiences.

  2. Migration, markets, and mangrove resource use on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Rosamond L; Bonine, Kimberly M; Ewel, Katherine C; Waguk, Erick

    2002-06-01

    Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, is a prototype of an island economy prone to economic crowding. Average family size is large, the habitable land area is small, economic activity is limited, and household dependence on natural resources for fuel and food is high. We analyze how economic crowding--and its mitigation through trade and migration policies--affects mangrove resource use. A comparison of household survey data from 1996 and 2000 indicates that despite decreases in US aid and public-sector jobs, average household consumption of mangrove resources has not increased. Migration and remittances have allowed the purchase of imported fuel and building materials substituting for mangrove wood. Despite changing preferences and shifts toward import consumption, population growth and further declines in US financial support will likely cause aggregate demand for mangrove and upland wood to rise. Moreover, continued emigration may accelerate the export of mangrove crabs to off-island Kosraeans.

  3. Teachers’ Professional Development in the Framework of the New Federal State Educational Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Sidenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a contradiction between the great demand for teachers’ professional development, induced by the new Federal State Educational Standards, and the lack of relevant training programs for school teachers. The author has conducted a survey to assess teachers’ readiness for innovative activity required by the new educational standards. The survey reveals that 97% of teachers denote either difficulty or disapproval of imple- menting the above standards. Investigating the reasons for teachers’ negative attitude, the author puts forward a hypothesis of their insufficient motivation and commitment. In theoretical part of the research teachers’ motivation is considered as a goal, intention, necessity, and personal quality that can be developed. As a result, a method of teachers’ motivation development is suggested actuating the motivation mechanism of achievements. The method is based on the project technique facilitating teachers’ professional and individual goal-setting ability. The program modules for teachers’ further training and prospective results are given. 

  4. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  5. Judicial demand of medications through the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori; Possebom, Ana Carolina; Borges, Luiza de Martino Cruvinel; Shwetz, Ana Claudia Athanasio; Bettes, Fernanda Francis Benevides

    2017-01-01

    To describe the profile of lawsuits related to drug requests filled at the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná. A cross-sectional study, and the data were obtained through consulting the lawsuits at the online system of the Federal Justice of Paraná. Out of 347 lawsuits included in the study, 55% of plaintiffs were women, with a median age of 56 years. Oncology was the field with more requests (23.6%), and the highest mean costs. A wide variety of diseases and broad variety of requested drugs were found in the lawsuits. Approximately two-thirds of them were requested by the brand name, and the most often requested drugs were palivizumab and tiotropium bromide. Only 14.5% of the requested medicines were registered in the National Medication Register. The Public Defender's Office filled actions in 89.6% of cases and all lawsuits had an interim relief. The mean time for approval was 35 days and 70% of requests were granted. Oncology was the field with the highest demand for medicines at the Federal Justice of Paraná in 2014. A great variety of medications was requested. The Public Defender´s Office represented most lawsuits. All demands had an interim relief, and the majority of requests were granted, within an average of 35 days. Descrever o perfil das ações que solicitam medicamentos ajuizadas na Justiça Federal do Paraná. Estudo transversal descritivo, cujos dados foram obtidos por meio de consulta aos processos no sistema on-line da Justiça Federal do Paraná. Dentre os 347 processos incluídos no estudo, 55% dos autores eram mulheres, com mediana da idade de 56 anos, sendo a área mais procurada a oncologia (23,6%). A área oncológica também foi a que apresentou maiores custos médios. Foi ampla a variedade de doenças geradoras das ações e também foi consequentemente grande a variedade de medicamentos solicitados. Cerca de dois terços dos fármacos foram solicitados pelo nome comercial, e os mais requeridos foram o palivizumabe e brometo de

  6. Considerations on the role of federalism in managing ethnic plurality in multinational states in conflict prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of several ethnic, religious and/or linguistic groups whose rights are not acknowledged or are continuously violated leads to tension with unpredictable consequences. If, in some cases, those groups use peaceful means to ensure that their specificities are acknowledged but, in other cases, there is frequent use of force to attain the same goals. This type of conflict occurred in the western Balkans in the 1990s or still take place in regions such as the Caucasus, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria or Myanmar in which the ethnic element, together with the religious issue, are the main causes. Though it is true that several solutions have been presented to respond to the tensions inherent to ethnic diversity of multinational States, it is also true that the several theoretical practical models have not always met the objectives and, above all, resolved situations of peace, which are often of negative peace. From minority rights to federalism, we may identify principles whose importance and adequacy to contexts may be defined as formal peace. Nevertheless, it remains important to include and frame those elements within specific cases, considering that each case is different and adapting these principles to a specific situation does not prevent them from being inadequate to a situation apparently similar. It is therefore crucial that considerations are raised on the role a political and administrative organization model such as federalism may play, partly as a complement to the law of minorities as a tool to manage ethnic diversity in States that may be defined as multinational, as well as to prevent ethnic conflicts.

  7. Federal Enactment of Healthy Homes Legislation in the United States to Improve Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesia Coralie Ferguson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Not all homes across America are ‘healthy’ homes. This contributes to the poor health of Americans and exacerbates existing health conditions costing millions each year in health care cost. Newer research is being conducted into strategies to alleviate biological, chemical and physical hazards in the home, and various programs exist to assist the homeowner in making improvements in the quality of their home. Not every homeowner or renter nationwide or within community localities has access to these strategies or programs that could potentially improve their home environment and therefore the health of their family. The objective of this article is to propose elements of a policy to address this inconsistency and variation. This proposal centers around the federal enactment of a national policy demanding that each state implements a healthy homes program tailored to fit their specific state housing and health needs. Members of Congress from States that have successfully implemented healthy home programs should champion this policy. Organizations that recognize the impact of housing on health should support the development of a national healthy homes strategy. This article will discuss the need, outcomes, stakeholders, and minimum requirements of such a policy.

  8. 77 FR 71448 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... September 13, 2004 (69 FR 55076), provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal onshore or... Office of Natural Resources Revenue States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief... from certain reporting, accounting, and auditing requirements. States make an annual determination...

  9. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable to...

  10. 34 CFR 675.22 - Employment provided by a Federal, State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public agency, or a private nonprofit organization. 675.22 Section 675.22 Education Regulations of the..., State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit organization. (a) If a student is employed by a Federal, State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit organization, the work that the...

  11. 76 FR 56493 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Loop 375 From Interstate Highway 10 to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Conservation Fund (LWCF), 16 U.S.C. 4601-4604; Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300(f)-300(j)(6... Interstate Highway 10 to the Franklin Mountains State Park in Texas AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration..., upgrades to Texas State Loop 375 from Interstate Highway 10 to 0.479 Mile East of the Tom Mays Unit of the...

  12. 75 FR 65461 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; United States Naval Academy Board of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Academy Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the United States Naval Academy Board... methods and other matters relating to the United States Naval Academy that the Board decides to consider...

  13. The effect of federal and state off-label marketing investigations on drug prescribing: The case of olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Studdert, David M; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Franklin, Jessica M; Landon, Joan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, the federal government has frequently investigated and prosecuted pharmaceutical manufacturers for illegal promotion of drugs for indications not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ("off-label" uses). State governments can choose to coordinate with the federal investigation, or pursue their own independent state investigations. One of the largest-ever off-label prosecutions relates to the atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine (Zyprexa). In a series of settlements between 2008 and 2010, Eli Lilly paid $1.4 billion to the federal government and over $290 million to state governments. We examined the effect of these settlements on off-label prescribing of this medication, taking advantage of geographical differences in states' involvement in the investigations and the timing of the settlements. However, we did not find a reduction in off-label prescribing; rather, there were no prescribing changes among states that joined the federal investigation, those that pursued independent state investigations, and states that pursued no investigations at all. Since the settlements of state investigations of off-label prescribing do not appear to significantly impact prescribing rates, policymakers should consider alternate ways of reducing the prevalence of non-evidence-based off-label use to complement their ongoing investigations.

  14. 75 FR 26780 - State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Families State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2011 State Median Income Estimates for Use Under the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP... Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families, Office of Community Services,...

  15. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Bonnet Acosta, Marisol [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Mobley, Miles [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley

  16. The current state of evidence-based pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlie, Daniel J; St Peter, Shawn D

    2010-10-01

    The efficiency of medical care in the United States has become intensely scrutinized with expectations from patients, families, payors, lawmakers, and, currently, the President. The most effective vehicle to bring more efficient care is the employment of evidence-based medicine whenever possible. Evidence-based medicine is dependent on best evidence, and best evidence is generated from prospective trials. To evaluate current state of evidence based practice in pediatric surgery we reviewed the literature for trials conducted in our field the past 10 years. All randomized controlled trials from January 1999 through December 2009 published in the English literature were identified through a literature search using PubMed (www.pubmed.com). We included only those in pediatric general surgery excluding transplant, oncology, and the other nongeneral subspecialties. The search criteria produced 56 manuscripts, of which 51 described appropriate randomization techniques. A definitive trial design with a sample size calculation was utilized in only 19 studies (34%). A statistically significant difference between treatment arms was identified in 29 of the 56 (52%) trials. There were 26 different journals of publication, with the Journal of Pediatric Surgery being most common (20) followed by Pediatric Surgery International (7). The combined total publications from January 1999 through December 2009 for the 26 journals these randomized trials represent 0.04% of all publications. Appendicitis was the most common condition that was studied (n = 10) followed by pyloric stenosis (n = 4). Trials originated in 19 different countries led by the United States (28%), United Kingdom (14%), and Turkey (12%). There was a generally progressive increase in published trials from 1999 to 2009, however, the percentage of prospective articles published in pediatric surgery was similar to a previous review published in 1999. The current state of evidence-based surgery in pediatric surgery has

  17. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J; Whitmill, Jennifer; Babb, Stephen D; Graffunder, Corinne M

    2016-11-11

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults (1,2). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU1.1),* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 15.1% in 2015, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 11.4%. However, disparities in cigarette smoking persist. In 2015, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male; were aged 25-44 years; were American Indian/Alaska Native; had a General Education Development certificate (GED); lived below the federal poverty level; lived in the Midwest; were insured through Medicaid or were uninsured; had a disability/limitation; were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; or who had serious psychological distress. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and medications, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (3).

  18. Venire Reform-Assessing the State and Federal Efforts to Attain Fair, Cross-Sectional Representation in Jury Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The sixth amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees criminal defendants the right to be tried by an impartial jury of peers and the question of what constitutes an “impartial” jury has spawned constitutional controversies in the last several decades as the population of the United States became more ethnically and racially diverse. The Supreme Court has consistently held that an “impartial” jury is a jury chosen from a venire, or jury pool, fairly representative of the community’s demographics and this became known as the fair, cross-section requirement for the venire. Federal and state governments have traditionally relied on voter registration lists as their venire source and scholars have argued that the venire source must expand beyond voter registration lists in order to better represent minority groups and thus to meet the fair, cross-section requirement mandated by the Supreme Court. In this study, we examined whether state and federal governments have expanded their venire sources to attain a more representative venire. Approach: To determine whether the federal and state governments have expanded their venire source lists we compiled federal and state requirements on jury source lists. To obtain federal source lists, we analyzed the most recent court orders specifying jury sources to be used in the districts. To determine states’ venire sources, we compiled and analyzed the jury venire statutes of fifty states. Results: Interestingly, we found that states were more proactive in expanding their venire source lists. A majority of federal districts continue to solely rely on voter registration lists as their venire source while a majority of states are supplementing voter registration lists with other lists, such as drivers’ license records. Some of the states have completely discarded the usage of voter registration lists as their venire source. Conclusion: Mapping of federal rulings and state

  19. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  20. An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Kosrae: a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; Tolenoa, Nena; Taulung, Livinson; Mongkeya, Maria; Lippwe, Kipier; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Kosrae and describes the burdens due to NCDs, including diabetes, and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been a 13.9% decline in the population between 2000 and 2010. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors lead to overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that are a significant factor in the morbidity and mortality of the population. Leading causes of death were due to nutrition and metabolic diseases followed by diseases of the circulatory system. Data from selected community programs show that the prevalence of overweight and obese participants ranged between 82% and 95% and the rate of reported diabetes ranged from 13% to 14%. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCD. There is no functional data system that is able to identify, register, or track patients with diabetes. Priority administrative and clinical issues were identified that need to be addressed to begin to mitigate the burdens of NCDs among the residents of Kosrae State.

  1. Too Much Too Soon? A Case for Hesitancy in the Passage of State and Federal Password Protection Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Davis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, significant attention has been given to employers’ concern and involvement over employees’ use of social media. The amount of attention given to social media has resulted in a number of proposed federal laws and multiple state laws discussing employers’ involvement and participation in employees’ social media use. The purpose of this note is to advocate for a more hesitant legislative stance toward social media password protection laws in an effort to avoid unnecessarily over-legislating in an area of privacy law that is still developing. While the author does not make an outright rejection of such legislation, the author argues that the speed and political vigor with which lawmakers are moving forward with such statutes raises the risk of statutory ambiguity, confusion amongst affected parties, and unnecessary burdens on employers. The note provides a thorough review of current trends in employers asking for social media login information, current legislation protecting employees’ social media use, and proposed legislation meant to combat an employer’s ability to obtain social media information.

  2. Evaluation of federal and state subsidies for ground-source heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumsack, S.; Kleit, A. [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 213 Hosler Building University Park, PA (United States); Smith, S.W. [Westcott Consulting, 110 Hosler Building, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Energy efficiency can be a powerful way to lower energy bills, as well as the external (social) costs associated with energy consumption. Previous experience and research, however, has demonstrated that consumers are often unwilling to make investments in energy efficiency, even when such investments have relatively short payback periods. Because energy efficiency can contribute to correcting negative externalities associated with energy use, subsidies and other programs have been proposed as a way to increase efficiency investments. Thus, under the right circumstances, such subsidies can improve economic efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the economics of energy-efficient space conditioning using data from an actual household in rural Pennsylvania to evaluate ground-source heat pumps (GHP). GHP technology has been advocated as a potentially appealing energy efficiency measure for rural communities. We find that with current subsidies GHP is economically viable for a wide range of electricity prices. We also find, however, that current subsidies are actually greater than those that can be economically justified. Using the efficient level of subsidies reduces, but does not eliminate, the economic case for GHP technology. We also evaluate the economics of efficiency subsidies using an ambitious program in Pennsylvania as a case study. The program, known as the Alternative Energy Investment Act (AEIA), provides subsidies for GHP among other technologies. We find that the substantial federal subsidies for GHP undercut the economic efficiency arguments for the AEIA with respect to GHP.

  3. Measles Outbreak Associated With Low Vaccine Effectiveness Among Adults in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Craig M; Johnson, Eliaser; Helgenberger, Louisa; Papania, Mark J; Larzelere, Maribeth; Gopalani, Sameer V; Lebo, Emmaculate; Wallace, Greg; Moturi, Edna; Hickman, Carole J; Rota, Paul A; Alexander, Hinden S; Marin, Mona

    2016-03-01

    Background.  A measles outbreak in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia in 2014 affected many persons who had received ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). A mass vaccination campaign targeted persons aged 6 months to 49 years, regardless of prior vaccination. Methods.  We evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of MCV by comparing secondary attack rates among vaccinated and unvaccinated contacts after household exposure to measles. Results.  Among 318 contacts, VE for precampaign MCV was 23.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -425 to 87.3) for 1 dose, 63.4% (95% CI, -103 to 90.6) for 2 doses, and 95.9% (95% CI, 45.0 to 100) for 3 doses. Vaccine effectiveness was 78.7% (95% CI, 10.1 to 97.7) for campaign doses received ≥5 days before rash onset in the primary case and 50.4% (95% CI, -52.1 to 87.9) for doses received 4 days before to 3 days after rash onset in the primary case. Vaccine effectiveness for most recent doses received before 2010 ranged from 51% to 57%, but it increased to 84% for second doses received in 2010 or later. Conclusions.  Low VE was a major source of measles susceptibility in this outbreak; potential reasons include historical cold chain inadequacies or waning of immunity. Vaccine effectiveness of campaign doses supports rapid implementation of vaccination campaigns in outbreak settings.

  4. Characterization of the coccoid cyanobacterium Myxosarcina sp. KIOST-1 isolated from mangrove forest in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Lee, JunMo; Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2017-05-01

    Mangrove forests are known to be inhabited by diverse symbiotic cyanobacterial communities that are capable of N2 fixation. To investigate its biodiversity, root sediments were collected from a mangrove forest in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), and an entangled yellow-brown coccoid cyanobacterium was isolated. The isolated cyanobacterium was reproduced by multiple fission and eventually produced baeocytes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate was most similar to the genera Myxosarcina and Chroococcidiopsis in the order Pleurocapsales. Compositions of protein, lipid and carbohydrate in the cyanobacterial cells were estimated to be 19.4 ± 0.1%, 18.8 ± 0.4% and 31.5 ± 0.1%, respectively. Interestingly, total fatty acids in the isolate were mainly composed of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids were not detected. Based on the molecular and biochemical characteristics, the isolate was finally classified in the genus Myxosarcina, and designated as Myxosarcina sp. KIOST-1. These results will contribute to better understanding of cyanobacterial biodiversity in the mangrove forest in FSM as well as the genus Myxosarcina, and also will allow further exploitation of its biotechnological potential on the basis of its cellular characteristics.

  5. A Model of Federated Evidence Fusion for Real-time Urban Traffic State Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to make full use of heterogeneous multi-sensor data to serve urban intelligent transportation systems, a real-time urban traffic state fusion model was proposed, named federated evidence fusion model. The model improves conventional D-S evidence theory in temporal domain, such that it can satisfy the requirement of real-time processing and utilize traffic detection information more efficaciously. The model frame and computational procedures are given. In addition, a generalized reliability weight matrix of evidence is also presented to increase the accuracy of estimation. After that, a simulation test is presented to explain the advantage of the proposed method in comparison with conventional D-S evidence theory. Besides, the validity of the model is proven by the use of the data of loop detectors and GPS probe vehicles collected from an urban link in Shanghai. Results of the experiment show that the proposed approach can well embody and track traffic state at character level in real-time conditions.

  6. Risk factors for vitamin A deficiency among preschool aged children in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Carrie M; Sullivan, Kevin M; van der Haar, Frits; Auerbach, Steven B; Iohp, Kidsen K

    2004-02-01

    In 1993, the Department of Health of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) conducted a population-based stratified random survey among 355 children aged 24-48 months in Pohnpei, one of the four FSM States. The objective was to determine the prevalence, and explore risk factors for vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Trained field workers collected data from a range of demographic, dietary and socioeconomic variables related to the children. The serum retinol concentration was 19.4 +/- 7.5 microg/dl (mean +/- SD), and the VAD prevalence (serum retinol <20 microg/dl) 53.1 per cent. The significant independent risk factors, determined by logistic regression, were: mother's work at home, sibling <2 years older, rural household located on the main island, early weaning, and child anemia, controlling for pipe water and electricity in the household. If compared with a reference of apparently healthy children of similar age in the USA, the distribution of serum retinol among young Pohnpei children was shifted entirely to low levels. We conclude that eliminating the pervasive VAD problem in Pohnpei would require a multi-pronged tactical approach that combines dietary improvement strategies with the ongoing supplementation effort.

  7. Critical state model with anisotropic critical current density

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwat, K V; Ravikumar, G

    2003-01-01

    Analytical solutions of Bean's critical state model with critical current density J sub c being anisotropic are obtained for superconducting cylindrical samples of arbitrary cross section in a parallel geometry. We present a method for calculating the flux fronts and magnetization curves. Results are presented for cylinders with elliptical cross section with a specific form of the anisotropy. We find that over a certain range of the anisotropy parameter the flux fronts have shapes similar to those for an isotropic sample. However, in general, the presence of anisotropy significantly modifies the shape of the flux fronts. The field for full flux penetration also depends on the anisotropy parameter. The method is extended to the case of anisotropic J sub c that also depends on the local field B, and magnetization hysteresis curves are presented for typical values of the anisotropy parameter for the case of |J sub c | that decreases exponentially with |B|.

  8. Imaging of lumbar degenerative disk disease: history and current state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emch, Todd M. [Cleveland Clinic, Division of Neuroradiology, Imaging Institute, Neuroradiology L-10, Cleveland, OH (United States); Modic, Michael T. [Cleveland Clinic, Division of Neuroradiology, Imaging Institute, Neurological Institute T-13, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-09-15

    One of the most common indications for performing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the lumbar spine is the symptom complex thought to originate as a result of degenerative disk disease. MR imaging, which has emerged as perhaps the modality of choice for imaging degenerative disk disease, can readily demonstrate disk pathology, degenerative endplate changes, facet and ligamentous hypertrophic changes, and the sequelae of instability. Its role in terms of predicting natural history of low back pain, identifying causality, or offering prognostic information is unclear. As available modalities for imaging the spine have progressed from radiography, myelography, and computed tomography to MR imaging, there have also been advances in spine surgery for degenerative disk disease. These advances are described in a temporal context for historical purposes with a focus on MR imaging's history and current state. (orig.)

  9. The current state of industry development in Ukraine: advance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyba Maryna Valeriyivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the industry of Ukraine are considered at the article. The author determined that the stabilization of the situation and further development of the industry need first of all cessation of hostilities. It is necessary to implement effective measures to combat corruption, the development of consistent, constructive and concerted action on the formation of institutions guaranteeing stability, predictability and transparency of the market rules and procedures that minimize the impact of shadow factors, and implementation of professional privatization and limitation of monopoly at the markets, forming a transparent, competitive business environment, the introduction of new energy saving technologies. These measures will help attract investment, increase production and improve enterprise profitability.

  10. The potential versus current state of water splitting with hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Omid; Hamann, Thomas W

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the potential of hematite as a photoanode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The current understanding of key loss-mechanisms of hematite are introduced and correlated to performance enhancement strategies. The significant voltage loss associated with overcoming the competitive water oxidation and surface state recombination has recently been surmounted through a combination of high temperature annealing and surface modification with water oxidation catalysts. Substantial efforts have been made at nanostructuring electrodes to increase the charge separation efficiency without sacrificing light absorption. Even in optimized nanostructured electrodes, however, charge separation continues to be the primary barrier to achieving efficient water splitting with hematite. Specifically, significant depletion region recombination results in voltage dependant photocurrent which constrains the fill factor. Thus, future directions to enhance the efficiency of hematite electrodes are discussed with an emphasis on circumventing depletion region recombination.

  11. The Current State and Perspectives of Systems Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tielui Shi; Yixue Li

    2006-01-01

    Emerging as a new field in biology recently, Systems Biology provides a branch new way to study the biological activities in organisms. In order to decode the complexity of life systematically,systems biology integrates the "-omics" and uses the high throughput methods from transcriptomics,protomics and metabonomics to detect the dynamic activities in cell; and then, it incorporates bioinformatics methods to integrate and analyze those data, and simulate the biological processes based on the model built from those integrated data. In this paper, the current state, the research field and the methods for the Systems Biology are introduced briefly, and then, several ideas about future development in this field are also proposed.

  12. Current state of genome-scale modeling in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2015-01-01

    The group of filamentous fungi contains important species used in industrial biotechnology for acid, antibiotics and enzyme production. Their unique lifestyle turns these organisms into a valuable genetic reservoir of new natural products and biomass degrading enzymes that has not been used to full...... testing them in vivo. The increasing availability of high quality models and molecular biological tools for manipulating filamentous fungi renders the model-guided engineering of these fungal factories possible with comprehensive metabolic networks. A typical fungal model contains on average 1138 unique...... metabolic reactions and 1050 ORFs, making them a vast knowledge-base of fungal metabolism. In the present review we focus on the current state as well as potential future applications of genome-scale models in filamentous fungi....

  13. The Current State of Silicone-Based Dielectric Elastomer Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    driving voltages. In this review, the current state of sili- cone elastomers for DETs is summarised and critically discussed, including commercial elastomers, composites, polymer blends, grafted elastomers and complex network structures. For future developments in the field it is essential that all aspects...... class of transducer due to their inherent lightweight and potentially large strains. For the field to progress towards industrial implementation, a leap in material devel- opment is required, specifically targeting longer lifetime and higher energy densities to provide more efficient transduction at lower...... of the elastomer are taken into account, namely dielectric losses, life- time and the very often ignored polymer network integrity and stability....

  14. Current state of the cotton and textile industry in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfari Azhimetova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry of Kazakhstan is presented basically by enterprises created in period of centrally planned economy and as consequence. Low labor productivity, lacking equipment base and technologies, poor marketing are problems of the current state of industry. But, there are also advantages as a vicinity of potential cotton manufacturers - Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan. A free economic zone (FEZ “Ontustik” has been established and a program of “Ontustik” FEZ development has been adopted for developing the cotton and textile cluster in Kazakhstan. The law “About development of the cotton branch” has been adopted in Kazakhstan to provide the textile enterprises with necessary raw material and to develop the domestic cotton growing.

  15. Trap States in Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films using Photogenerated Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredig, Thomas; Guerra, Jorge; Byrne, Matthew; Silverstein, Evan

    2010-03-01

    The efficiency of organic solar cells is limited by several factors including the photocurrent generation process. Copper phthalocyanine thin films with different grain structures are prepared via thermal evaporation onto interdigitated gold electrodes. The samples are analyzed with atomic force microscopy and then exposed to light pulses to explore the time dependence of photogenerated currents in phthalocyanine thin films. The average grain size is obtained from the correlation length of the height-height correlation function and varies from 30-200nm. The dependence of the recombination of photo-excited, dissociated charge pairs on the electric field is compared with the Onsager mechanism and a simple dual trap state model from which relevant time scales are extracted.

  16. The inequity of the Swiss health care system financing from a federal state perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that Swiss health-care financing is particularly regressive. However, as it has been emphasized in the 2011 OECD Review of the Swiss Health System, the inter cantonal variations of income-related inequities are still broadly unexplored. The present paper aims to fill this gap by analyzing the differences in the level of equity of health-care system financing across cantons and its evolution over time using household data. Methods Following the methodology proposed by Wagstaff et al. (JHE 11:361–387, 1992) we use the Kakwani index as a summary measure of regressivity and we compute it for each canton and for each of the sources that have a role in financing the health care system. We graphed concentration curves and performed relative dominance tests, which utilize the full distribution of expenditures. The microdata come from the Swiss Household Income and Expenditure Survey (SHIES) based on a sample of the Swiss population (about 3500 households per year), for the years 1998 - 2005. Results The empirical evidence confirms that the health-care financing in Switzerland has remained regressive since the major reform of 1996 and shows that the variations in equity across cantons are quite significant: the difference between the most and the least regressive canton is about the same as between two extremely different financing systems like the US and Sweden. There is no evidence, instead, of a clear evolution over time of regressivity. Conclusions The significant variation in equity across cantons can be explained by fiscal federalism and the related autonomy in the design of tax and social policies. In particular, the results highlight that earmarked subsidies, the policy adopted to smooth the regressivity of the premiums, appear to be not enough; in the practice of federal states the combination of allowances with mandatory community-rated health insurance premiums might lead to a modest outcome in terms of equity. PMID

  17. 29 CFR 1471.135 - May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude a person who is not currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude....135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1471.135 May the Federal Mediation...

  18. CURRENT ENVIRONMENT STATE OF COASTAL MARINE WATER OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We analysed current environmental state of the Dagestan coast of the Caspian Sea. Data on the spatial variability of contaminants in the coastal areas of the Dagestan segment of the Caspian Sea from the northern districts (Lopatin to the central (Sulak coastal land and, further, to the southern district (within Russian subsoil management confirm that it is caused by irregular contamination of the sea by above-ground sources. Location. Dagestan coastal area of the Caspian SeaMethods. Concentration analysis of background contamination of chemical agents in the Dagestan coastal water from northern districts (Lopatin to southern (Sulak coastal land during the period between 2004 and 2007.Results. Data on the spatial variability of contaminants in the coastal areas of the Dagestan segment of the Caspian Sea from the northern districts (Lopatin to the central (Sulak coastal land and, further, to the southern district (within Russian subsoil management confirm that it is caused by irregular contamination of the sea by above-ground sources.Main conclusions. The envisaged large-scale hydrocarbon resource development requires regular monitoring of sea currents on Makhachkala, Izberbash and Derbent roads.

  19. Consumer Mobile Health Apps: Current State, Barriers, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Cheng-Kai; Liebovitz, David M

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current state, barriers, and future directions of consumer-facing applications (apps). There are currently more than 165,000 mobile health apps publicly available in major app stores, the vast majority of which are designed for patients. The top 2 categories are wellness management and disease management apps, whereas other categories include self-diagnosis, medication reminder, and electronic patient portal apps. Apps specific to physical medicine and rehabilitation also are reviewed. These apps have the potential to provide low-cost, around-the-clock access to high-quality, evidence-based health information to end users on a global scale. However, they have not yet lived up to their potential due to multiple barriers, including lack of regulatory oversight, limited evidence-based literature, and concerns of privacy and security. The future directions may consist of improving data integration into the health care system, an interoperable app platform allowing access to electronic health record data, cloud-based personal health record across health care networks, and increasing app prescription by health care providers. For consumer mobile health apps to fully contribute value to health care delivery and chronic disease management, all stakeholders within the ecosystem must collaborate to overcome the significant barriers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda

    2016-03-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed.

  1. Relationship between Training Programs being Offered in State and Federal Penal Institutions and the Unfilled Job Openings in the Major Occupations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, John Thomas

    Excluding military installations, training programs in state and federal penal institutions were surveyed, through a mailed checklist, to test the hypotheses that (1) training programs in penal institutions were not related to the unfilled job openings by major occupations in the United States, and (2) that training programs reported would have a…

  2. Steady-state and non-steady state operation of counter-current chromatography devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Ignatova, Svetlana N; Sutherland, Ian A; Hewitson, Peter; Zakhodjaeva, Yulya A; Erastov, Andrey A

    2013-11-01

    Different variants of separation processes based on steady-state (continuous sample loading) and non-steady state (batch) operating modes of CCC columns have been analyzed and compared. The analysis is carried out on the basis of the modified equilibrium cell model, which takes into account both mechanisms of band broadening - interphase mass transfer and axial mixing. A full theoretical treatment of the intermittent counter-current chromatography with short sample loading time is performed. Analytical expressions are presented allowing the simulation of the intermittent counter-current chromatography separations for various experimental conditions. Chromatographic and extraction separations have been compared and advantages and disadvantages of the two methods have been evaluated. Further technical development of the CCC machines to implement counter-current extraction separations is considered.

  3. A look at state-level risk assessment in the United States: making decisions in the absence of federal risk values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effio, Diana G; Kroner, Oliver; Maier, Andrew; Hayes, William; Willis, Alison; Strawson, Joan

    2013-01-01

    State environmental agencies in the United States are charged with making risk management decisions that protect public health and the environment while managing limited technical, financial, and human resources. Meanwhile, the federal risk assessment community that provides risk assessment guidance to state agencies is challenged by the rapid growth of the global chemical inventory. When chemical toxicity profiles are unavailable on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System or other federal resources, each state agency must act independently to identify and select appropriate chemical risk values for application in human health risk assessment. This practice can lead to broad interstate variation in the toxicity values selected for any one chemical. Within this context, this article describes the decision-making process and resources used by the federal government and individual U.S. states. The risk management of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the United States is presented as a case study to demonstrate the need for a collaborative approach among U.S. states toward identification and selection of chemical risk values while awaiting federal risk values to be set. The regulatory experience with TCE is contrasted with collaborative risk science models, such as the European Union's efforts in risk assessment harmonization. Finally, we introduce State Environmental Agency Risk Collaboration for Harmonization, a free online interactive tool designed to help to create a collaborative network among state agencies to provide a vehicle for efficiently sharing information and resources, and for the advancement of harmonization in risk values used among U.S. states when federal guidance is unavailable. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Chuuk: a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; Shomour, Moria; Marar, Julio; Lippwe, Kipier; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Chuuk and describes the burdens due to selected NCDs (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been a 9.2% decline in the total population between 2000 and 2010. Findings of medical and health data reveal that diabetes, myocardial infarction, and septicemia are the leading causes of death and lower limb surgical procedures and amputations was a major problem that was addressed with a foot care education program to prevent amputations. No data were available on the prevalence of diabetes among the population of Chuuk. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCDs. There is a lack of policy and procedure manuals, coordination among providers, and common standards of care. There is no functional data system to identify and track patients with diabetes and other chronic diseases. Priority issues and problems were identified for the clinical, administrative, and data systems.

  5. Estimating the freshwater-lens thickness of atoll islands in the Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. T.; Jenson, J. W.; Taboroši, D.

    2013-03-01

    The water resources of the 32 atolls of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) are under continual threat from El Niño-induced droughts and other natural hazards. With government policies emphasizing sustainable development of atoll-island communities, local managers are in need of tools for predicting changes in the availability of fresh groundwater, which communities depend upon during droughts that incapacitate rain-catchment systems. An application of a recently developed, readily portable algebraic model is demonstrated here, to estimate the freshwater-lens thickness of atoll islands in the FSM, a key component of FSM groundwater resource assessment. Specifically, the model provides estimates of the lens thickness of atoll islands in the FSM during normal and drought conditions. The model was tested for use in the FSM through comparison with available lens data under both average rainfall conditions and intense drought conditions, and then applied to major islands of each atoll within the FSM. Results indicate that out of 105 major islands on FSM atolls, only six would likely retain sufficient groundwater to sustain the local community during an intense drought.

  6. Six New Agelas Species (Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae from Kosrae Island, The Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim, Chung Ja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes six new species of sponges in the genus Agelas from Kosrae Island, The Federated States of Micronesia. Most Agelasid sponges are known from only tropical regions. All the new Agelas species; A. fragum n. sp., A. kosrae n. sp., A. purpurea n. sp., A. bakusi n. sp., A. vansoesti n. sp. and A. incrustans n. sp. are compared with other valid species that were studied. Six new species differ from the other species by morphology, growth form, skeletal fibres, habitats and spicule size. Agelas fragum n. sp. is characterized by its tuberculate surface and primary fibres with brush-like spicules. Agelas kosrae n. sp. is differs in skeletal structure and have tertiary fibres. Agelas purpurea n. sp. is characterized by primary, secondary and tertiary fibres are all cored with spicules. Agelas bakusi n. sp. is similar to Agelas clathrodes in shape, but differs in the primary fibres. Agelas vansoesti n. sp. is characterized by having acanthostrongyles. Agelas incrustans n. sp. is distinguished by its encrusting and not cavernous interior.

  7. Evaluation of a "traditional food for health" intervention in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Laura; Englberger, Lois; Cue, Roger; Lorens, Adelino; Albert, Kiped; Pedrus, Podis; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2010-04-01

    Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) faces increasing rates of non-communicable diseases related to the neglect of the traditional food system and the shift to consumption of imported food and adoption of sedentary lifestyles. To reverse this trend, a two-year, food-based intervention in one Pohnpeian community in FSM promoted local food production and consumption using a variety of approaches including education, training, agriculture and social marketing following a "Go Local" message. Foods promoted were banana, giant swamp taro, breadfruit and pandanus varieties, green leafy vegetables and fruits for their provitamin A and total carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and fiber content. An evaluation was conducted in a random sample of households (n=47) to examine the extent of dietary changes following the intervention. Results indicated increased (110%) provitamin A carotenoid intake; increased frequency of consumption of local banana (53%), giant swamp taro (475%), and local vegetables (130%); and increased dietary diversity from local food. Exposure to intervention activities was high and there were positive changes in attitudes towards local food. The intervention approaches appear to have been successful in this short period. It is likely that similar approaches in additional communities in Pohnpei and other parts of the Pacific would also be successful in promoting local food. Evidence gathering should continue to document the long-term health outcomes of increased reliance on local food.

  8. A comparison of three federal datasets for thermoelectric water withdrawals in the United States for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melissa A.; Diehl, Timothy H.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, thermoelectric water withdrawal has been estimated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) water-use compilations. Recently, the USGS developed models for estimating withdrawal at thermoelectric plants to provide estimates independent from plant operator-reported withdrawal data. This article compares three federal datasets of thermoelectric withdrawals for the United States in 2010: one based on the USGS water-use compilation, another based on EIA data, and the third based on USGS model-estimated data. The withdrawal data varied widely. Many plants had three different withdrawal values, and for approximately 54% of the plants the largest withdrawal value was twice the smallest, or larger. The causes of discrepancies among withdrawal estimates included definitional differences, definitional noise, and various nondefinitional causes. The uncertainty in national totals can be characterized by the range among the three datasets, from 5,640 m3/s (129 billion gallons per day [bgd]) to 6,954 m3/s (158 bgd), or by the aggregate difference between the smallest and largest values at each plant, from 4,014 m3/s (92 bgd) to 8,590 m3/s (196 bgd). When used to assess the accuracy of reported values, the USGS model estimates identify plants that need to be reviewed.

  9. Supporting synergism: Enhancing Federal, State and private sector collaboration in renewable energy and energy efficiency. Second annual report of the State Energy Advisory Board, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The State Energy Advisory Board first convened to counsel the Secretary of Energy and the Congress on the initiation, design, implementation, and evaluation of Federal energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) programs. The Board has developed and delivered a host of recommendations which serve to integrate and foster consistency among Federal, State, local and private sector activities. In fiscal year (FY) 1993, the Board worked closely with Department leadership to provide guidance on the implementation of several National Energy Policy Act (EPACT) provisions pertaining to the enhancement of energy efficiency and renewable energy initiatives, as well as on redefining the mission of the National Laboratories. Through these and other actions -- which also include promoting EE/RE technology deployment efforts -- the Board ensures that the knowledge and experience of program stakeholders, especially State and local governments, community action agencies and also the off-shore territories, are incorporated into Federal activities pertaining to energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  10. Two simultaneous outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis--Federated States of Micronesia, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-20

    In July 2008, CDC responded to a request from the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) to investigate the first documented cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Chuuk State. Compared with drug-susceptible TB disease, MDR TB is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most effective TB medications, making treatment more difficult and outcomes more likely fatal. Second-line TB drugs for treating MDR TB were not available in FSM, and during December 2007-June 2008 four patients with MDR TB had died, including a child aged 2 years. This report describes the investigation by the World Health Organization (WHO) and CDC, which initially identified five confirmed cases in two distinct clusters, characterized by two distinct geographic locations, genotypes, and drug-susceptibility patterns. Extensive transmission has occurred among household contacts; 16 (8%) of the 205 contacts identified have confirmed or suspected MDR TB disease, and 124 (60%) have latent TB infection. Among 21 confirmed and suspected cases of MDR TB identified as of March 13, 2009, 10 have been in persons aged <15 years. With the death of a child aged 4 years in November 2008, a total of five persons have died of MDR TB. Multiple U.S. government agencies and other organizations are assisting local health authorities with resources to procure second-line TB drugs, ensure directly observed therapy (DOT), and identify and evaluate contacts. These simultaneous and continuing outbreaks demonstrate how a lack of basic TB control activities can allow the emergence and spread of drug-resistant TB.

  11. Mass poisoning after consumption of a hawksbill turtle, Federated States of Micronesia, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pavlin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine turtles of all species are capable of being toxic. On 17 October 2010, health authorities in the Federated States of Micronesia were notified of the sudden death of three children and the sickening of approximately 20 other people on Murilo Atoll in Chuuk State. The illnesses were suspected to be the result of mass consumption of a hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata. An investigation team was assembled to confirm the cause of the outbreak, describe the epidemiology of cases and provide recommendations for control. Methods: We conducted chart reviews, interviewed key informants, collected samples for laboratory analysis, performed environmental investigations and conducted a cohort study. Results: Four children and two adults died in the outbreak and 95 others were sickened; 84% of those who ate the turtle became ill (n = 101. The relative risk for developing illness after consuming the turtle was 11.1 (95% confidence inteval: 4.8–25.9; there was a dose-dependent relationship between amount of turtle meat consumed and risk of illness. Environmental and epidemiological investigations revealed no alternative explanation for the mass illness. Laboratory testing failed to identify a causative agent. Conclusion: We concluded that turtle poisoning (also called chelonitoxism was the cause of the outbreak on Murilo. The range of illness described in this investigation is consistent with previously reported cases of chelonitoxism. This devastating incident highlights the dangers, particularly to children, of consuming turtle meat. Future incidents are certain to occur unless action is taken to alter turtle-eating behaviour in coastal communities throughout the world.

  12. A participatory assessment of dietary patterns and food behavior in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Allison; Englberger, Lois; Flores, Rafael; Lorens, Adelino; Fitzgerald, Maureen H

    2008-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are escalating rapidly within the Pacific region, including Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. A shift in dietary patterns from indigenous, high fiber, healthy local food to energy-dense, imported food with low nutritional value, and increased sedentary lifestyles are expediting this process. Essential to counteract this trend is an understanding of how people make food decisions. This participatory assessment utilized a quantitative and qualitative approach to capture diet patterns and knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of food consumption. A structured 7-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to quantify the diets of 293 adult Pohnpeian women attending an island-wide education/disability screening program. An ethnographic approach, including in-depth interviews, informal focus groups and observations documented food behavior practices and contributed to the design of the FFQ. Of those responding to the FFQ, 96% reported eating rice frequently (3-7 days/week) whereas 75% reported eating locally grown carbohydrate foods frequently. Factors associated with culture change, including availability, affordability, convenience, and status of food items were found to determine food decisions. Food-based, culturally sensitive and innovative strategies that utilize existing resources are required to promote local food production and consumption. Prevention programs with an information, education and communication (IEC) approach are needed to provide accurate and available health and nutrition knowledge and to increase the demand for local foods. Behavior modification requires the continued collaboration of the national, state, and community organizations that partnered on this research to strategize programs in order to target individual food choices and to transform the environment to support these decisions.

  13. The current state of water resources of Transcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2015-07-01

    sanitary rules and regulations by the most of indicators of general health and specific indices. 19.0% of total water supply systems fail to meet the sanitary norms and regulations, in particular: 14.2% for the lack of sanitary protection zones; 1.9% because of unavailability of the necessary integrated treatment facilities, and 7.6% by the reason of absence of disinfecting plants. Possible ways of avoiding the depletion of water bodies are preventive water protection measures aimed at preventing or limiting pollution, water contamination and depletion; besides, it is necessary to educate people explaning them the current state and possible consequences of thoughtless water consumption.

  14. United States Federal Health Care Websites: A Multimethod Evaluation of Website Accessibility for Individuals with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The problem addressed by this study is the observed low levels of compliance with federal policy on website accessibility. The study examines the two key federal policies that promote website accessibility, using a side-by-side policy analysis technique. The analysis examines the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Section 508 of the…

  15. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  16. Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration of usability/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey regarding the current state of the integration of agile methods and usability/UCD. A world wide response of 92 practitioners was received. The results show that the majority of practitioners perceive that the integration of agile methods with usability/UCD has added value to their adopted processes and to their teams; has resulted in the improvement of usability and quality of the product developed; and has increased the satisfaction of the end-users of the product developed. The top most used HCI techniques are low-fidelity prototyping, conceptual designs, observational studies of users, usability expert evaluations, field studies, personas, rapid iterative testing, and laboratory usability testing.

  17. Current state of genome-scale modeling in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael R

    2015-06-01

    The group of filamentous fungi contains important species used in industrial biotechnology for acid, antibiotics and enzyme production. Their unique lifestyle turns these organisms into a valuable genetic reservoir of new natural products and biomass degrading enzymes that has not been used to full capacity. One of the major bottlenecks in the development of new strains into viable industrial hosts is the alteration of the metabolism towards optimal production. Genome-scale models promise a reduction in the time needed for metabolic engineering by predicting the most potent targets in silico before testing them in vivo. The increasing availability of high quality models and molecular biological tools for manipulating filamentous fungi renders the model-guided engineering of these fungal factories possible with comprehensive metabolic networks. A typical fungal model contains on average 1138 unique metabolic reactions and 1050 ORFs, making them a vast knowledge-base of fungal metabolism. In the present review we focus on the current state as well as potential future applications of genome-scale models in filamentous fungi.

  18. State of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children: current research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Scheiner, Diane; Westerveld, Michael; Baron, Ida Sue

    2008-09-01

    Scientific attention to cultural considerations in child neuropsychological assessment has not developed parallel to the focus these issues have received in adult and elderly neuropsychological assessment. There are limited data on the presence, magnitude, etiology, and implications of culture-related differences in cognitive test performance among children. This preliminary report reviews the available empirical literature on the current state of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children. The review identified articles by searching PubMed and PsycINFO databases, and the tables of contents of Developmental Neuropsychology and Child Neuropsychology from 2003-2008. Of the 1,834 abstracts reviewed, ten papers met inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies were completed in America; four of these compared performance between ethnic groups while the fifth examined neighborhood level poverty indicators exclusively within African-American children. Of the five international studies, all established local normative data and/or were exploratory investigations of neuropsychological functions in specific cultural groups, including Taiwanese infants, South African youth, and bilingual British children. Taken together, the results yield important clinical and research data that begin to inform many of the complex and fascinating mechanisms by which ethnic identity and culture impact cognitive development and the neuropsychological assessment of children. A critique of the existing literature and directions for future research are provided.

  19. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, "ecopharmacovigilance" (EPV has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia.

  20. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin

    2014-01-01

    In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, "ecopharmacovigilance" (EPV) has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia.

  1. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  2. Computed tomography: acquisition process, technology and current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Javier Espitia Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography is a noninvasive scan technique widely applied in areas such as medicine, industry, and geology. This technique allows the three-dimensional reconstruction of the internal structure of an object which is lighted with an X-rays source. The reconstruction is formed with two-dimensional cross-sectional images of the object. Each cross-sectional is obtained from measurements of physical phenomena, such as attenuation, dispersion, and diffraction of X-rays, as result of their interaction with the object. In general, measurements acquisition is performed with methods based on any of these phenomena and according to various architectures classified in generations. Furthermore, in response to the need to simulate acquisition systems for CT, software dedicated to this task has been developed. The objective of this research is to determine the current state of CT techniques, for this, a review of methods, different architectures used for the acquisition and some of its applications is presented. Additionally, results of simulations are presented. The main contributions of this work are the detailed description of acquisition methods and the presentation of the possible trends of the technique.

  3. Current State of Undergraduate Education in Oral Implantology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Shinya; Sasaki, Hotaka; Furuya, Yoshitaka; Ito, Taichi; Yajima, Yasutomo

    2015-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire-based survey was used to determine the current state of and issues involved in undergraduate education in oral implantology at Tokyo Dental College. The participants comprised 139 students who had received lectures on and practical training in oral implantology in 2013. The results indicate that the overall level of student comprehension was high for both lectures and practical training content; the level of difficulty was appropriate for practical training, but the amount of practice time given requires reconsideration. Over 80% of the students gave positive responses in their overall evaluation of lectures and practical training, and the number of students who had an interest in oral implantology after finishing the course and who wanted to be involved in oral implantology as dentists increased. These results indicate that this undergraduate education program is effective in improving understanding of oral implantology. Improvement is required, however, in lecture methodology and practical training content. It is also suggested that the curriculum should be evaluated by students regularly and that the courses be subject to updating as required.

  4. Current State of Value-Based Purchasing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Tingyin T; Ryan, Andrew M; Wasfy, Jason H; Borden, William B

    2016-05-31

    The US healthcare system is rapidly moving toward rewarding value. Recent legislation, such as the Affordable Care Act and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act, solidified the role of value-based payment in Medicare. Many private insurers are following Medicare's lead. Much of the policy attention has been on programs such as accountable care organizations and bundled payments; yet, value-based purchasing (VBP) or pay-for-performance, defined as providers being paid fee-for-service with payment adjustments up or down based on value metrics, remains a core element of value payment in Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future. This review article summarizes the current state of VBP programs and provides analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for the future. Multiple inpatient and outpatient VBP programs have been implemented and evaluated; the impact of those programs has been marginal. Opportunities to enhance the performance of VBP programs include improving the quality measurement science, strengthening both the size and design of incentives, reducing health disparities, establishing broad outcome measurement, choosing appropriate comparison targets, and determining the optimal role of VBP relative to alternative payment models. VBP programs will play a significant role in healthcare delivery for years to come, and they serve as an opportunity for providers to build the infrastructure needed for value-oriented care.

  5. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever and the current state of vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo Eun; Hong, Kee-Jong; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Yeon Hwa; Jeong, Chung-Hyeon; Cho, Kwang-Il

    2014-12-01

    Current Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa already reached the total number of 1,323 including 729 deaths by July 31st. the fatality is around 55% in the southeastern area of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. The number of patients with Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) was continuously increasing even though the any effective therapeutics or vaccines has not been developed yet. The Ebola virus in Guinea showed 98% homology with Zaire Ebola Virus. Study of the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection and assess of the various candidates of vaccine have been tried for a long time, especially in United States and some European countries. Even though the attenuated live vaccine and DNA vaccine containing Ebola viral genes were tested and showed efficacy in chimpanzees, those candidates still need clinical tests requiring much longer time than the preclinical development to be approved for the practical treatment. It can be expected to eradicate Ebola virus by a safe and efficient vaccine development similar to the case of smallpox virus which was extinguished from the world by the variola vaccine.

  6. Correlates of Academic Performance of Freshman Students at the College of Micronesia--Federated States of Micronesia, Pohnpei Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsis, Pablo H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to correlate the performance of Pohnpei Campus freshman students in the College of Micronesia-Federated States of Micronesia during the fall semester 2009 to students' socio-demographic characteristics, parents'/guardians' socio-demographic characteristics, and school characteristics. The Student Survey Questionnaire gathered data…

  7. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Federal Lands of the United States 201412 FileGDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. For the most part, only areas of 320...

  8. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  9. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  10. Synthesis of Available Research and Databases on the Migrant Education Program. Volume I: Federal, State, and Local Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Babette; And Others

    This report examines federal, state, and local databases containing information on migrant workers and their children, identifies their common characteristics, and assesses their potential utility to inform educational policy analysis. General criteria used to evaluate each database's strengths and weaknesses include standardization, reliability,…

  11. An Investigation of the Awareness and Use of Open Access Initiative at the Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa, A.O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the information environment of lecturers in Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria, in relation to their information seeking behavior, extent of use of the polytechnic library, perceptions of the resources and services of the library, level of awareness and extent of use of the open access model of scholarly communications, as well as the challenges of accessing and using information resources. It adopted the survey research method, using a questionnaire for data collection, while the descriptive statistics method was used to analyse the data, using tabular presentation and simple percentages. From a population of 280 lecturers for the study, a purposive sample of 164 was drawn. The findings showed that the lecturers' information needs are focused on online use; they hardly use the polytechnic library due to their perceptions of the resources and services of the library. They are, to a greater extent, aware of open access initiatives, but do not publish in open access outlets, while various challenges affect their access and use of information resources for teaching and research. A recommendation was made, among others, that the polytechnic management should pay more critical attention to the library especially in the areas of adequate, current and comprehensive collections on all the programmes of the institution, as well as the provision of wireless internet services on the campus through a public-private partnership arrangement.

  12. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  13. 37 CFR 1.983 - Appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in inter partes reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in inter partes reexamination. 1.983 Section 1.983 Patents... for the Federal Circuit in Inter Partes Reexamination § 1.983 Appeal to the United States Court of... Interferences may, subject to § 41.81, appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit and may be...

  14. 31 CFR 205.31 - How does a State or Federal Program Agency appeal a determination made by us and resolve disputes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR EFFICIENT FEDERAL-STATE FUNDS TRANSFERS Rules... Finance, Financial Management Service, (Assistant Commissioner), within 90 days of the date of the...

  15. NOAA Tidal Current Data for the Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knowledge of the timing and strength of tidal currents is extremely important for safe navigation in coastal waters. Tidal currents are almost always the strongest...

  16. NOAA Historical Tidal Current Data for the Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knowledge of the timing and strength of tidal currents is extremely important for safe navigation in coastal waters. Tidal currents are almost always the strongest...

  17. Current state of forest mapping with Landsat data in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Farber, Sergey; Kalinicheva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    We review a current state of a forest type mapping with Landsat data in Siberia. Target algorithm should be based on dynamic vegetation approach to be applicable to the analysis of the forest type distribution for Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping Siberian forest landscapes for applications such as predicting response of forest composition to climate change. We present data for several areas in West Siberian middle taiga, Central Siberia and East Siberia near Yakutsk. Analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data was made to produce forest type classification accounting for several stages for forest succession and variations in habitats and landforms. Supervised classification was applied to the areas were the ground truth and inventory data are available, including several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects. In Laryegan basin in West Siberia the upland forest areas are dominated by mix of Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Abundance of Scots pine decreases to the west due to change in soils. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is generally difficult. Similar problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landform type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information can be a promising way to complement Landsat data.

  18. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics; state of current knowledge and implementation in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Payman; Dubé, Marie-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is the science that examines how an individual's genetic make-up affects the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs. PGx of response to cardiovascular (CV) medications is of the most successfully translated branches of PGx into the clinical workout. However, the clinical implementation of PGx of CV drugs is yet far beyond the growth of our understanding of the role of genetics in drug therapy. A considerable amount of efforts have been devoted by the regulatory agents like the food and drug administration (FDA) as well as the expert-based networks such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) to overcome the existing barriers. This has been done, at least in part, for some of the most widely prescribed CV drugs, including clopidogrel, warfarin and simvastatin for which the PGx knowledge have been satisfactorily robust to provoke the CPIC to issue the guidelines for these drugs and the FDA to update the drugs' labeling, both strongly recommended the use of genotype-guided dosing for these medications, provided that the genetic data are available. For other drugs, however, studies have produced contradictory results and further large and well-designed clinical trials are required to expand and confirm the clinical utility of their PGx data. This review paper presents the current state of knowledge in the field of PGx of CV medications and describes the facilities assisting to the translation of PGx data into the clinical practice. Afterward, the existing body of PGx literature of the most-commonly used CV medications is comprehensively discussed.

  19. The European Drought Observatory (EDO): Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Jürgen; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Magni, Diego; Valentini, Luana; Singleton, Andrew; Micale, Fabio; Barbosa, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    Europe has repeatedly been affected by droughts, resulting in considerable ecological and economic damage and climate change studies indicate a trend towards increasing climate variability most likely resulting in more frequent drought occurrences also in Europe. Against this background, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing methods and tools for assessing, monitoring and forecasting droughts in Europe and develops a European Drought Observatory (EDO) to complement and integrate national activities with a European view. At the core of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) is a portal, including a map server, a metadata catalogue, a media-monitor and analysis tools. The map server presents Europe-wide up-to-date information on the occurrence and severity of droughts, which is complemented by more detailed information provided by regional, national and local observatories through OGC compliant web mapping and web coverage services. In addition, time series of historical maps as well as graphs of the temporal evolution of drought indices for individual grid cells and administrative regions in Europe can be retrieved and analysed. Current work is focusing on validating the available products, developing combined indicators, improving the functionalities, extending the linkage to additional national and regional drought information systems and testing options for medium-range probabilistic drought forecasting across Europe. Longer-term goals include the development of long-range drought forecasting products, the analysis of drought hazard and risk, the monitoring of drought impact and the integration of EDO in a global drought information system. The talk will provide an overview on the development and state of EDO, the different products, and the ways to include a wide range of stakeholders (i.e. European, national river basin, and local authorities) in the development of the system as well as an outlook on the future developments.

  20. Aerobic and anaerobic power characteristics of competitive cyclists in the United States Cycling Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Bassett, D R; Swensen, T C; Sampedro, R M

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the aerobic and anaerobic capabilities of United States Cycling Federation cyclists in different categories. To determine aerobic and anaerobic power, 38 competitive road cyclists (32 males, 6 females) performed a VO2max test and a Wingate anaerobic test, respectively. Male cyclists in category II had the highest VO2max, both in absolute and relative terms. Their VO2max was 6% and 10% higher than category III and IV cyclists, respectively (4.98 +/- 0.14 vs 4.72 +/- 0.15 vs 4.54 +/- 0.12 l/min). A significant difference existed between category II and IV male cyclists (p < 0.05). VO2max for female cyclists (3.37 +/- 0.13 l/min) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those for males. The Wingate anaerobic test revealed that male cyclists in category II also had the highest anaerobic power output. The peak power output in category II, III and IV was 13.86 +/- 0.23, 13.55 +/- 0.25, and 12.80 +/- 0.41 W/kg, respectively. The mean power output in category II, III, and IV was 11.22 +/- 0.18, 11.06 +/- 0.15, and 10.40 +/- 0.30 W/kg, respectively. The difference in the mean power output between category II and IV was significant (p < 0.05). Female cyclists recorded significantly less peak and mean power output than their male counterparts (p < 0.05). However, when expressed relative to lean body mass, anaerobic power was similar for both sexes. No inter-correlation was found in any measurement between the aerobic and anaerobic power values. On the whole, category II male cyclists were characterized by higher aerobic and anaerobic power outputs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. An evaluation of a nutrition intervention in Kapinga Village on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Michelle; Englberger, Lois; Duncan, Burris; Taren, Douglas; Mateak, Henrich; Johnson, Emihner

    2011-03-01

    The people of Kapinga Village are suffering from chronic diseases as a result of their lifestyles and eating habits, similar to many Pohnpeians. Kapinga Village is an urban area on the island of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, settled by people from Kapingamarangi, a remote atoll. The villagers have limited access to traditional staple foods, including breadfruit, banana, and taro, fruits, vegetables, and other healthy foods. The Island Food Community of Pohnpei (IFCP) carried out several nutrition interventions in Kapinga Village to prevent disease, including promotion of physical activity through growing local food, a nutritious diet of local foods, cooking classes, container gardening, and charcoal oven workshops. This study evaluated the effect of those interventions on dietary intake. A 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was administered in June-July, 2010 to participants from 68 households and data were compared to 2009 baseline data. Qualitative data were collected and analyzed to identify salient themes that were associated with changes in dietary intake. The FFQ data indicated that there was an increase in consumption of local fruits and vegetables compared with the baseline. Qualitative data revealed that participants viewed the interventions positively. The data also revealed that some of the new foods and drinks consumed were those already available in the village, but for which their uses had not previously been known (such as banana flower and hibiscus tea). Such improvements are likely to be sustainable. Recommendations are for more education, in the Kapingan language if possible, and future research to determine what culturally appropriate interventions are still needed to improve nutrition in Kapinga Village.

  2. Welfare state: Milestones of development and the current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Zakharyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the evolution of ideas about the social state as a fair state based on the concept of the social contract. L. von Stein argues that the purpose of the welfare state was not changing the class structure of society and the elimination of the contradictions between the classes, but rather balancing and minimizing conflicts with the help of property transformations allowing a person to change one’s class affiliation. The main condition for the existence of the welfare state is its policies compliance with the interests of citizens, which provides political stability and social security. The central idea of the welfare constitutional state is that the rights of citizens are guaranteed by the state. The functions of the state and its social responsibilities were transforming over time mainly due to the erosion of state, private and corporate responsibility for providing social services. In most cases, the social programs are developed by the state, but they can also be provided by commercial organizations in the “consumer society”, in which all things and services have a material value and benefit. The welfare state is based on the principle of social justice in the distribution of wealth among the population, thus, every democratic state seeks to become a welfare state, which implies a high level of confidence in the government.

  3. [THE PRESENT STATE OF EPIZOOTOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE NATURAL FOCI OF INFECTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trankvilevsky, D V; Tsarenko, V A; Zhukov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The facilities of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare play a leading role in epizootological monitoring. The specialists (zoologists and entomologists) of Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers do basic work in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained in the participation of different ministries and departments are used to analyze the results of monitoring. The latter is one of the important steps in the management of the epidemic, process in natural focal infections. In recent years, there has been an unjustified reduction in the volume of studies in the natural foci. This negatively affects the reliability of estimates and predictions of the epidemic activity of the natural foci of infections. Ensuring the national, security of the Russian Federation, epidemiological surveillance, and control of its natural foci requires staffing and appropriate professional training in the zoological and entomological subdivisions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare.

  4. Road and Street Centerlines, Centerlines for all federal, state, county, town and private roads used for addressing in Washburn County were digitized from 1998 Othophotos. This dataset is used to assist county addressing efforts, land use planning activities and general map productio, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Washburn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 2006. Centerlines for all federal, state, county, town and private roads used for addressing in Washburn County...

  5. LEGAL GROUNDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE POLICY IN CHILDREN'S HEALTHCARE PROTECTION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.E. Lapin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific center of children's health, Russian academy of medical sciences the presented article is dedicated to the urgent issue — formation of the legal grounds of the state policy in children's healthcare protection. Based on the logical and scicentometric analysis of the main international documents on the children's rights there have been pointed out the key provisions, which should be taken into account during the development of measures for the state regulation of public relations in the interests of the children under modern conditions of the Russian federation.Key words: children's rights, children's healthcare protection, state policy, international documents.

  6. Current state and future prospects for psychosomatic medicine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masato; Nakai, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe the history and current state of psychosomatic medicine (PSM) in Japan and propose measures that could be considered based on our view of the future prospects of PSM in Japan. The Japanese Society of PSM (JSPM) was established in 1959, and the first Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine in Japan was established at Kyushu University In 1963. PSM in Japan has shown a prominent, unique development, with 3,300 members (as of March 2016), comprised of 71.6% of medical doctors including psychosomatic internal medicine (PIM) specialists, general internists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, obstetricians and gynecologists, dentists, dermatologists, and others. Most of the non-physician members include psychology and nursing staff specialists. The Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine (JSPIM), founded in 1996, is another major society with more than 1,200 physicians that is mainly composed of internists. The first joint congress of the five major PSM societies from each field was held in 2009. They included the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine, Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, Psychosomatic Pediatric Medicine, Psychosomatic Dental Medicine, and Psychosomatic Internal Medicine. Several subdivided societies in related medical fields have also been established for cardiovascular, digestive, dermatological, and oriental medicine and for eating disorders, pain, fibromyalgia, stress science, behavioral medicine, and psycho-oncology. JSPM and JSPIM participate in international activities including publishing BioPsychoSocial Medicine (BPSM) and the establishment of a sister society relationship with the Germany College of PSM. PSM in Japan has adopted a variety of professional psychotherapies, including transactional analysis, autogenic therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Mutual interrelationship has been promoted by the Japanese Union of Associations for Psycho-medical Therapy (UPM). Although PSM in Japan is

  7. State Education Spending: Current Pressures and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila E. Murray; Rueben, Kim; Rosenberg, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Education expenditures are one of the largest spending areas for state and local governments, and per–pupil expenditures have been growing over time. We examine trends in state aid for education and overall education spending and decompose the existing drivers behind growing state costs. We then explore how predicted future demographic trends will affect education spending levels, as the percent of the population that is of school age falls. We conclude that there will continue to be a large ...

  8. Comparison of current density profiles based on particle orbit-driven current in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Md Mahbub, E-mail: m.alam@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuo [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Xia, Fan [CFS, SWIP, P.O. Box 432, 610041 Chengdu (China); Mitarai, Osamu [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Araki, Kuniaki; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki; Nagata, Takahiro [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of QUEST. • Particle guiding center orbit calculation. • Orbit-driven current density profile. • Hollow current density. • Equilibrium condition for steady-state operation of QUEST. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven divertor plasma of QUEST, it has been observed that orbit-driven current flows in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces. To observe this phenomenon and the characteristics of the orbit-driven current, current density profiles have been calculated on two different equilibrium conditions. We calculated current density profiles from particle guiding center orbits both for the fundamental and the second harmonic resonances for the 8.2 GHz electron cyclotron current drive. From this calculation, hollow current density profiles have been obtained with significant characteristics on both conditions. Only positive current distribution has been observed in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces.

  9. What justifies the United States ban on federal funding for nonreproductive cloning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Thomas V

    2013-11-01

    This paper explores how current United States policies for funding nonreproductive cloning are justified and argues against that justification. I show that a common conceptual framework underlies the national prohibition on the use of public funds for cloning research, which I call the simple argument. This argument rests on two premises: that research harming human embryos is unethical and that embryos produced via fertilization are identical to those produced via cloning. In response to the simple argument, I challenge the latter premise. I demonstrate there are important ontological differences between human embryos (produced via fertilization) and clone embryos (produced via cloning). After considering the implications my argument has for the morality of publicly funding cloning for potential therapeutic purposes and potential responses to my position, I conclude that such funding is not only ethically permissible, but also humane national policy.

  10. Comprehensive estimation model of MERGE: adaptation to current state of world economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Vadimovich Digas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimizing interdisciplinary MERGE model meant mainly for quantitative estimation of outcomes of various nature protection strategy is one of the tools used for studying the climate change problems. Components of a model are the economical and power module, climatic module and module of damage assessment. The main attention in work is paid to the MERGE model adaptation to a world economy current state, and analysis of possible trajectories of economic development of Russia and studying of consequences of country participation in initiatives for emission abatement of greenhouse gases at the various assumptions on dynamics of regional economic and power indicators. As a source of model scenarios of development of the Russian economy, the forecast of long-term socioeconomic development of the country for the period up to 2030 is used. They made by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation (namely, the conservative, innovative and forced scenarios defined by different models of state policy for ensuring macroeconomic balance are considered

  11. Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Upton, Jaki F.

    2010-02-01

    On October 9, 2008, federal, state and local policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and public health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about recovery and restoration through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems. The Principal Federal Official (PFO) provided an overview of the role of the PFO in a catastrophic event. A high-level summary of an anthrax scenario was presented. The remainder of the day was focused on interactive discussions among federal, state and local emergency management experts in the areas of: • Decision-making, prioritization, and command and control • Public health/medical services • Community resiliency and continuity of government. Key topics and issues that resulted from discussions included: • Local representation in the Joint Field Office (JFO) • JFO transition to the Long-Term Recovery Office • Process for prioritization of needs • Process for regional coordination • Prioritization - process and federal/military intervention • Allocation of limited resources • Re-entry decision and consistency • Importance of maintaining a healthy hospital system • Need for a process to establish a consensus on when it is safe to re-enter. This needs to be across all jurisdictions including the military. • Insurance coverage for both private businesses and individuals • Interaction between the government and industry. The symposium was sponsored by the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration, a collaborative regional program jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Defense. To aid the program’s efforts and inform the development of blueprint for recovery from a biological incident

  12. An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Yap: a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; Yurow, Julie; Lippwe, Kipier; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Yap, and describes the burdens due to diabetes and other NCDs (heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic renal disease), and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been a 1.2% increase in the population between 2000 and 2010; however, there was a significant increase in the 45-64 year old age group. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors lead to overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that are a significant factor in the morbidity and mortality of the population. The leading causes of death include cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Local household surveys show that 63% to 80% of the adults and 20.5% to 33.8% of the children were overweight or obese. The surveys also showed that 23% of the adult population had diabetes and 35% were hypertensive. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCD. There is a policy and procedure manual that guides the NCD staff. There is no functional data system that is able to identify, register, or track patients with diabetes and other NCDs. Priority administrative and clinical issues were identified.

  13. An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Pohnpei: a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; Anson, Robina; Keller, Elizabeth; Lippwe, Kipier; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Pohnpei and describes the burden due to selected NCD (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifies the issues that need to be addressed. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors lead to overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that are significant factors in the morbidity and mortality of the population. Leading causes of death were due to heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and hypertension. Population survey data show that 32.1% of the adult population had diabetes with a higher rate among women (37.1%) when compared to men (26.4%). The data also showed that 73.1% of the adult population was overweight or obese. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCD. There is no overall planning document for the prevention and control of NCDs or diabetes. There is evidence of little communication among the medical and health care providers which leads to fragmentation of care and loss of continuity of care. Based on some of the findings, priority issues and problems that need to be addressed for the administrative and clinical systems are identified.

  14. Current state of the uranium extraction at the NMMC

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Currently of the uranium mined in NMMC is obtained by means of underground leaching in the Kyzyl-Kum open pits. This method allows to reduce the cost of uranium mining and ensure the environmentally clean production.

  15. Accumulated Growing Degree Days, Contiguous United States, 1981 - Current Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USA National Phenology Network has available a series of gridded products enabling researchers to analyze current year Accumulated Growing Degree Days (AGDD)...

  16. Review of the current state of UAV regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöcker, Elvira Claudia; Bennett, Rohan; Nex, Francesco; Gerke, Markus; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    UAVs-unmanned aerial vehicles-facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the

  17. The Current State of Scholarly Journal Publishing in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    susan

    2014-09-28

    Sep 28, 2014 ... http://www.proquest.com/libraries/academic/databases/ibss-set-c.html ..... North America, and the global North -- according to the Hindawi website, ...... any further comments regarding their journal's current economic situation.

  18. Fault current limiter with solid-state circuit breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălan, H.; Neamț, L.; Buzdugan, M. I.; Varodi, T.; Pop, E.

    2016-08-01

    Switching of power circuit breakers is an important technical issue, especially at short circuit, since the fault current cause thermal and dynamic stresses, and the power quality worsens. Recently, the development of distributed renewable electricity induces the short circuit protection problematic because the distributed production of electric energy cause the transport networks to lose their radial character and disturbs the protective relays coordination. The modern technologies for power switching uses static fault current limiters, which offers a viable solution to remove the problems caused by large fault currents in the system. An appropriate design of the current limiting device reduces the thermal and dynamic stress and limits the fault current to a low value. The static switches are based on high power semiconductor devices that offer advantages compared to mechanical switches. Using a fault current limiter that minimizes the effect of distributed generation of electricity in a radial network on the co-ordination of protective relays is a solution to this problem in terms of switching speed and lifespan of power switches.

  19. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanchuk, John [Cardno ENTRIX, New Castle, DE (United States)

    2010-11-30

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the U.S. ethanol industry and to outline the major forces that will affect the development of the industry over the next decade.

  20. Current Developments in Communications Law in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadl, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Article reviews some of the major developments in communications law in the United States in the past year (1972). Significant events are covered in the areas of cable television, television programming and domestic satelites. (Author)

  1. Creeping Federalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that make taxharmonization difficult to impose. Other types of harmonization have a less clear-cut costbenefitanalysis. A federal commercial code that is uniform across member states reducestransaction and information costs, compared to leaving important code issues to memberstates; further, many states may...

  2. 76 FR 37194 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds; Change in State of Incorportation, Business Address...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...: BUSINESS ADDRESS: One Tower Square, Hartford, CT 06183. PHONE: (860) 277-0111. Federal bond-approving.... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division. BILLING CODE 4810-35-M...

  3. Entering the United States Federal Procurement Market: success factors and barriers for foreign firms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Tim; Ruel, Huub; Telgen, Jan; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The US federal procurement market is the largest procurement market in the world. Therefore, it is an attractive market for foreign companies to enter. Existing literature indicates the success factors and barriers for public procurement market entry in general, however not for the US procurement ma

  4. Barriers to implementation of risk management for federal wildland fire management agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson; Alan A. Ager; Mark Finney

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation we review progress towards the implementation of a risk-based management framework for U.S. Federal wildland fire policy and operations. We first describe new developments in wildfire simulation technology that catalyzed the development of risk-based decision support systems for strategic wildfire management. These systems include new analytical...

  5. 50 CFR 403.05 - State and Federal responsibilities after transfer of management authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the state an opportunity to review all requests for permits to remove live animals from habitat within the state for scientific research or public display purposes. If the state finds that issuance of...

  6. Tri-State Current Source Inverter With Improved Dynamic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wong, Chow Pang

    2008-01-01

    Traditional dc-ac current source inverter (CSI) has a right-half-plane (RHP) zero in its control-to-output transfer function. This RHP zero causes the inverter output to fall before rising when a step increase in command reference is required (commonly known as non-minimum-phase effect). To achieve...... sequence, the inductive boosting and discharging intervals can be decoupled, allowing the RHP zero to be eliminated with only minor circuit modifications (high level control schemes like predictive and multiloop voltage/current control remain unchanged). The designed inverter can be controlled using...

  7. A review of the current geographic distribution of and debate surrounding electronic cigarette clean air regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a systematic review of state, county, and municipal restrictions on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in public spaces within the United States, alongside an overview of the current legal landscape. The lack of federal guidance leaves lower-level jurisdictions to debate the merits of restrictions on use in public spaces without sufficient scientific research. As we show through a geographic assessment of restrictions, this has resulted in an inconsistent patchwork of e-cigarette use bans across the United States of varying degrees of coverage. Bans have emerged over time in a manner that suggests a "bottom up" diffusion of e-cigarette clean air policies. Ultimately, the lack of clinical and scientific knowledge on the risks and potential harm reduction benefits has led to precautionary policymaking, which often lacks grounding in empirical evidence and results in spatially uneven diffusion of policy.

  8. Robots in Education: The Current State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, David; LePage, Pamela

    1996-01-01

    Describes how robots are currently being used in education as well as their future potential. Discusses limitations and effectiveness of robotics technology. Explores three ways robots are being used in the classroom: (1) to teach basic concepts; (2) to assist disabled students; and (3) as objects of study. Contains 60 references. (Author/AEF)

  9. Review of the current state of UAV regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöcker, Elvira Claudia; Bennett, Rohan; Nex, Francesco; Gerke, Markus; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    UAVs-unmanned aerial vehicles-facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the importance

  10. Methodological Approaches in Conducting Overviews: Current State in HTA Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Mathes, Tim; Eikermann, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Overviews search for reviews rather than for primary studies. They might have the potential to support decision making within a shorter time frame by reducing production time. We aimed to summarize available instructions for authors intending to conduct overviews as well as the currently applied methodology of overviews in…

  11. State Child Support Agencies with Programs to Ensure Current Support Orders Reflect Current Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive Program Innovation Map - Click on State or Territory for information about child support agency programs designed to ensure that child support orders...

  12. History and Current Status of Divorce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Explores the remarkable shift in marriage and divorce practices that has occurred in the last third of this century in the United States. Information is presented on trends in this country and other industrialized nations, and some reasons for these changes are explored. (SLD)

  13. Aggression in wild house mice : Current state of affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; vanOortmerssen, GA; deRuiter, AJH; Koolhaas, JM

    This paper reviews our present state of knowledge of genetic variation in (offensive) aggression in wild house mice. The basic tools in this research were lines bidirectionally selected for attack latency (fast attacking SAL and slow attacking LAL males), descended from a feral population. Using

  14. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    freedom. We argue that high levels of trust and trustworthiness are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for societies to develop successful universal welfare states that would otherwise be highly vulnerable to free riding and fraudulent behavior. Our results do not exclude positive feedback from...

  15. 78 FR 18876 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Regulation Supplement: United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement (DFARS Case 2012-D025) AGENCY: Defense... (DFARS) to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already party..., 2012, to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the United States-Korea Free Trade...

  16. DOE Partnerships with States, Tribes and Other Federal Programs Help Responders Prepare for Challenges Involving Transport of Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsha Keister

    2001-02-01

    DOE Partnerships with States, Tribes and Other Federal Programs Help Responders Prepare for Challenges Involving Transport of Radioactive Materials Implementing adequate institutional programs and validating preparedness for emergency response to radiological transportation incidents along or near U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shipping corridors poses unique challenges to transportation operations management. Delayed or insufficient attention to State and Tribal preparedness needs may significantly impact the transportation operations schedule and budget. The DOE Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) has successfully used a cooperative planning process to develop strong partnerships with States, Tribes, Federal agencies and other national programs to support responder preparedness across the United States. DOE TEPP has found that building solid partnerships with key emergency response agencies ensures responders have access to the planning, training, technical expertise and assistance necessary to safely, efficiently and effectively respond to a radiological transportation accident. Through the efforts of TEPP over the past fifteen years, partnerships have resulted in States and Tribal Nations either using significant portions of the TEPP planning resources in their programs and/or adopting the Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation Training (MERRTT) program into their hazardous material training curriculums to prepare their fire departments, law enforcement, hazardous materials response teams, emergency management officials, public information officers and emergency medical technicians for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. In addition, through strong partnerships with Federal Agencies and other national programs TEPP provided technical expertise to support a variety of radiological response initiatives and assisted several programs with integration of the nationally recognized MERRTT program

  17. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  18. OER and MOOCs in the Netherlands: current state of affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Schuwer, R.; Janssen, B; Langhorst, T.

    2017-01-01

    In the fall of 2015 the Research Group Open Educational Resources of Fontys University of Applied Sciences - School of ICT has conducted a survey into the production and/or reuse of OER and MOOCs by Dutch publicly financed Higher Education (HE) institutions: 15 research universities, 38 university of applied sciences and 8 university medical centres. The goal of the survey was to provide an overview of the current situation regarding the creation, sharing and reuse of OER and MOOCs. Until the...

  19. The Current State of Physics in Cuba: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marcelo

    After 40 years of absence I returned twice to Cuba, in January and December of 2000, to participate as a guest lecturer in two international scientific meetings. The first dealt with physics education, and the second with current issues related to quantum mechanics. In addition to a few participants from Europe, the US and Latin America, the two meetings were well attended by Cuban physicists.

  20. Environmental Education--A Future-Oriented Task: Current Situation and Prospects in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education and Science, Bonn (Germany).

    The Federal Republic of Germany has identified the conservation and the protection of the environment as a major challenge of the 1990s. Environmental education is further identified as an important part of anticipatory environmental policy. The document is separated into two parts. The first part presents the aims, content, and organizational…

  1. The current state of FPGA technology in the nuclear domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J.

    2012-07-01

    Field programmable gate arrays are a form of programmable electronic device used in various applications including automation systems. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of FPGA-based systems also for safety automation of nuclear power plants. The interest is driven by the need for reliable new alternatives to replace, on one hand, the aging technology currently in use and, on the other hand, microprocessor and software-based systems, which are seen as overly complex from the safety evaluation point of view. This report presents an overview of FPGA technology, including hardware aspects, the application development process, risks and advantages of the technology, and introduces some of the current systems. FPGAs contain an interesting combination of features from software-based and fully hardware-based systems. Application development has a great deal in common with software development, but the final product is a hardware component without the operating system and other platform functions on which software would execute. Currently the number of FPGA-based applications used for safety functions of nuclear power plants is rather limited, but it is growing. So far there is little experience or common solid understanding between different parties on how FPGAs should be evaluated and handled in the licensing process. (orig.)

  2. Teacher Perspectives on the Current State of Computer Technology Integration into the Public School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Ramiro

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of computers into the public school arena over forty years ago, educators have been convinced that the integration of computer technology into the public school classroom will transform education. Joining educators are state and federal governments. Public schools and others involved in the process of computer technology…

  3. On the Question of the Current State of Autonomy of Higher Educational Institutions in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushchin, V. V.; Gureev, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    There is probably no one who doubts that education is a top-priority interest of the state. The future of the Russian Federation and its economic and legal stability depend on the level of development of the system of education. The right to an education is one of the most fundamental and essential constitutional rights of the citizens of the…

  4. Birds of Pernambuco: Current state of ornithological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Beserra de Farias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the present state of ornithological knowledge is required for the guidance of researchers in their future investigations. This work provides a survey of literature describing the development of ornithological research in the state. Between 1880 and 2008, many lists were organized, which contributed towards the systematization of the knowledge about Pernambuco’s birds. Out if the 535 species recorded, 49 are found in marine environments or wetlands, 450 occur in the Atlantic Rainforest, and 270 reside in the semi-arid Caatinga. We suggest that studies on the birds of the Caatinga are most important and should be prioritized at present, in addition to effective actions for the conservation of endemic species and of species under risk of extinction.

  5. The Supreme Court's surprising decision on the Medicaid expansion: how will the federal government and states proceed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Westmoreland, Timothy M

    2012-08-01

    In National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the US Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the requirement that all Americans have affordable health insurance coverage. But in an unprecedented move, seven justices first declared the mandatory Medicaid eligibility expansion unconstitutional. Then five justices, led by Chief Justice John Roberts, prevented the outright elimination of the expansion by fashioning a remedy that simply limited the federal government's enforcement powers over its provisions and allowed states not to proceed with expanding Medicaid without losing all of their federal Medicaid funding. The Court's approach raises two fundamental issues: First, does the Court's holding also affect the existing Medicaid program or numerous other Affordable Care Act Medicaid amendments establishing minimum Medicaid program requirements? And second, does the health and human services secretary have the flexibility to modify the pace or scope of the expansion as a negotiating strategy with the states? The answers to these questions are key because of the foundational role played by Medicaid in health reform.

  6. THE CURRENT STATE OF LEGAL INSTITUTIONS PROTECTING THE RIGHTS OF JUVENILES IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Hafizovna DAVYDOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the current state of the legislation on protection of the rights of under-aged. Much attention is paid to the formation of the juvenile justice system in the Russian Federation. We present problems related to law infringements by teenagers in various fields and their solutions, highlight the work and the development of juvenile courts in Russia, sum up the results of the implementation of juvenile technologies and their significance, gives the definition of the term «confiscation» of the child, which in accordance with the Family Code is replaced by the «restriction of parental rights». The article considers the cases when the guardianship and trusteeship bodies deprived parents of their children because of their «oppressive love» to the child or because they could not buy more «fashionable» clothes, and stresses the idea that it is inadmissible to deprive children of their family without serious reasons, such as a threat to their life or health. This issue must be given proper public attention; otherwise it can lead to destruction of the family. The article suggests various measures and recommendations for the reform of the judicial system and its adaptation for juveniles, including protection of the rights of disabled children and protection of children from alcohol, drug abuse, and violence. 

  7. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Federated States of Micronesia; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federated States of Micronesia, a sovereign nation and U.S.-associated state in the western Pacific Ocean. The Federated States of Micronesia’s electricity rates for residential customers exceed $0.48 U.S. dollars (USD)/per kilowatt-hour (kWh), nearly four times the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  8. Invited review: Current state of genetic improvement in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, A; Casu, Sara; Salaris, S

    2009-12-01

    Dairy sheep have been farmed traditionally in the Mediterranean basin in southern Europe, central Europe, eastern Europe, and in Near East countries. Currently, dairy sheep farming systems vary from extensive to intensive according to the economic relevance of the production chain and the specific environment and breed. Modern breeding programs were conceived in the 1960s. The most efficient selection scheme for local dairy sheep breeds is based on pyramidal management of the population with the breeders of nucleus flocks at the top, where pedigree and official milk recording, artificial insemination, controlled natural mating, and breeding value estimation are carried out to generate genetic progress. The genetic progress is then transferred to the commercial flocks through artificial insemination or natural-mating rams. Increasing milk yield is still the most profitable breeding objective for several breeds. Almost all milk is used for cheese production and, consequently, milk content traits are very important. Moreover, other traits are gaining interest for selection: machine milking ability and udder morphology, resistance to diseases (mastitis, internal parasites, scrapie), and traits related to the nutritional value of milk (fatty acid composition). Current breeding programs based on the traditional quantitative approach have achieved appreciable genetic gains for milk yield. In many cases, further selection goals such as milk composition, udder morphology, somatic cell count, and scrapie resistance have been implemented. However, the possibility of including other traits of selective interest is limited by high recording costs. Also, the organizational effort needed to apply the traditional quantitative approach limits the diffusion of current selection programs outside the European Mediterranean area. In this context, the application of selection schemes assisted by molecular information, to improve either traditional dairy traits or traits costly to record

  9. FEDERAL AID HANDBOOK, A GUIDE TO FEDERAL PROGRAMS OPERATED IN NEW YORK STATE LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES. PROGRAM AREA GUIDE, 1967 EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'CONNOR, J. FRANCIS

    FEDERAL AID HAS BECOME AN IMPORTANT PART OF EDUCATIONAL FINANCE, AND THERE IS INCREASING INTEREST ON THE PART OF EDUCATORS EVERYWHERE IN PROGRAMS WHICH PROVIDE FEDERAL ASSISTANCE. THIS HANDBOOK WAS PREPARED TO PROVIDE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS AND MEMBERS OF BOARDS OF EDUCATION WITH AN OVERVIEW AND BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE MANY LAWS WHICH APPLY TO…

  10. Azelaic acid in dermatological treatment – current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Reszke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AZA is a naturally occurring substance produced by Malassezia furfur which exerts various effects on the skin. Azelaic acid has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, sebostatic and tyrosinase-inhibiting properties. Topical application of AZA as 20% cream or 15% gel is a well-established therapeutic method in various common dermatoses, mainly acne vulgaris, rosacea and disorders associated with hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid is used as a component of chemical peels as well. The paper summarizes the most relevant issues concerning AZA application in dermatological treatment based on current knowledge.

  11. The current state of clinical interpretation of sequence variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Derick C; Dubuc, Adrian M; Mason-Suares, Heather

    2017-01-31

    Accurate and consistent variant classification is required for Precision Medicine. But clinical variant classification remains in its infancy. While recent guidelines put forth jointly by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and Association of Molecular Pathology (AMP) for the classification of Mendelian variants has advanced the field, the degree of subjectivity allowed by these guidelines can still lead to inconsistent classification across clinical molecular genetic laboratories. In addition, there are currently no such guidelines for somatic cancer variants, only published institutional practices. Additional variant classification guidelines, including disease- or gene-specific criteria, along with inter-laboratory data sharing is critical for accurate and consistent variant interpretation.

  12. The Current State of Medical Malpractice in Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Benjamin A; Coogan, Christopher L

    2015-07-01

    Medical malpractice can present an unwelcome professional, emotional, and economic burden to the practicing urologist. To date, there is a paucity of data specific to urologic malpractice in the literature. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify and evaluate recent studies related to urologic malpractice. We also analyzed 6249 closed urologic claims from the largest available specialty-specific data set gathered by Physician Insurers Association of America from 1985 to 2012. The resulting comprehensive review seeks to raise awareness of current trends in the malpractice environment specific to urologic surgery while also helping urologists identify opportunities for risk management and improved patient care.

  13. Semantic Robot Vision Challenge: Current State and Future Directions

    CERN Document Server

    Helmer, Scott; Viswanathan, Pooja; McCann, Sancho; Dockrey, Matthew; Fazli, Pooyan; Southey, Tristram; Muja, Marius; Joya, Michael; Little, Jim; Lowe, David; Mackworth, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The Semantic Robot Vision Competition provided an excellent opportunity for our research lab to integrate our many ideas under one umbrella, inspiring both collaboration and new research. The task, visual search for an unknown object, is relevant to both the vision and robotics communities. Moreover, since the interplay of robotics and vision is sometimes ignored, the competition provides a venue to integrate two communities. In this paper, we outline a number of modifications to the competition to both improve the state-of-the-art and increase participation.

  14. E-learning: Current State of Art and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Goyal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of the E-learning system according to cognitive characteristics of the students is a relatively new direction of research on the conjunction of technical and pedagogical aspects. It is particularly important that the E-learning systems are able to integrate different paces of content and navigation in order to be able to respond to diverse needs of the students. The goal of this paper is to present the state of art in E-learning and thereafter to highlight some future aspects.

  15. Rural Administration in Romania: Evaluation of Current State

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A large part of Romania’s population lives in the rural environment, in communes and in their composing villages. However, there is an important gap in what concerns the administrative action, access to public services and the general development level, between the urban and the rural environment. The paper at hand aims at performing an assessment of the rural space state, from an administrative perspective, starting from the general characteristics of communes in Romania. This evaluation rep...

  16. TO THE ISSUE OF IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF STATE ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT AT THE REGIONAL AND FEDERAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev S. Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the solution of such actual problem as improving the quality parameters of the state management at the different levels. As an object of study we consider the modern factors and conditions of improving the quality of decisions at the sphere of the state management of the socio-economic development of the national and regional economies. We believe raised questions in the formation of effective anti-crisis actions with government are up-to-date. The basis of the work is the developing of the number of offers to enhance the role of science, small and medium businesses in developing of the new forms of municipal and regional support of the real economy, as well as effective forms of the federal economic policy; the need in the evolution of the actual economic system is also raised, the offers to change banking services at the market are made. The article has a research nature, which is expressed by that authors, relying on different scientific works, practical and theoretical work experience of federal and regional authorities, express their position and offers to improve the quality of making solutions at the sphere of the state management of socio-economic development of the national and regional economies. The article is of interest of specialists of state and municipal management

  17. Current state of herbicides in herbicide-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2014-09-01

    Current herbicide and herbicide trait practices are changing in response to the rapid spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds. Growers urgently needed glyphosate when glyphosate-resistant crops became available because weeds were becoming widely resistant to most commonly used selective herbicides, making weed management too complex and time consuming for large farm operations. Glyphosate made weed management easy and efficient by controlling all emerged weeds at a wide range of application timings. However, the intensive use of glyphosate over wide areas and concomitant decline in the use of other herbicides led eventually to the widespread evolution of weeds resistant to glyphosate. Today, weeds that are resistant to glyphosate and other herbicide types are threatening current crop production practices. Unfortunately, all commercial herbicide modes of action are over 20 years old and have resistant weed problems. The severity of the problem has prompted the renewal of efforts to discover new weed management technologies. One technology will be a new generation of crops with resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate and other existing herbicide modes of action. Other technologies will include new chemical, biological, cultural and mechanical methods for weed management. From the onset of commercialization, growers must now preserve the utility of new technologies by integrating their use with other weed management technologies in diverse and sustainable systems.

  18. Current state of knowledge about nutritional care of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy involves a significant anabolic activity that leads to increased nutritional needs relative to the preconception period. This paper aims to review the current understanding of the energy needs of macro and micronutrients during pregnancy as well as guidelines to address common gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy, the issue of pica and anthropometric assessment to ensure an optimum weight gain. With the exception of iron, most of the nutrients needed by the pregnancy can be provided by a complete and balanced diet. Currently the scientific evidence shows that routine supplementation with iron and folic acid during pregnancy is a practice that prevents iron deficiency anemia, neural tube disorders and preterm births. Intermittent iron supplementation can also be an appropriated intervention. If the diet does not guarantee and adequate support, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements should also be necessaries. The anthropometric assessment by the pattern of weight gain should be present at each prenatal care visit to prevent maternal and fetal complications. In situations where the mother’s weight cannot be assessed, arm muscle circumference is possible to make an overall assessment as it correlates with maternal weight gain alternative. Measurements of biceps, triceps and subscapular skinfolds are another alternative that is useful to evaluate the fatty deposits and their location, in a complementary way to gain weight.

  19. The current state of facial prosthetics – A multicenter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Oliver C; Brom, Jörn; Dunsche, Anton; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Federspil, Philippe; Frerich, Bernhard; Hölzle, Frank; Klein, Martin; Kreppel, Matthias; Kübler, Alexander C; Kübler, Norbert R; Kunkel, Martin; Kuttenberger, Johannes; Lauer, Günter; Mayer, Boris; Mohr, Christopher; Neff, Andreas; Rasse, Michael; Reich, Rudolf H; Reinert, Siegmar; Rothamel, Daniel; Sader, Robert; Schliephake, Henning; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Schramm, Alexander; Sieg, Peter; Terheyden, Hendrik; Wiltfang, Jörg; Ziegler, Christoph M; Mischkowski, Robert A; Zöller, Joachim E

    2015-09-01

    Even though modern surgical techniques are dominating reconstructive facial procedures, the capability to use facial epitheses for reconstruction is still an important skill for the maxillofacial surgeon. We present an international multicenter analysis to clarify which techniques are used to fixate facial prostheses. We contacted all maxillofacial departments in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Norway which were registered with the German society for oral and maxillofacial surgery (DGMKG). These centers were asked via electronical mail to provide information on the type of epithesis fixation systems currently in use. The return rate from 58 departments was 43.1% (n = 25). Overall, implant fixation was the preferred fixation system (92%). Plates were the second most common fixation technique (32%). No centers reported the standard use of non-invasive fixation techniques for permanent epithesis fixation. The main retention systems in use were magnets (24/25), other retention systems are used much less often. The current preferred fixation technique for facial epitheses consists of implant-based, magnet-fixated epitheses. For nasal prostheses, a plate-based, magnet-fixated system is often used.

  20. Imaging of HCC—Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Schraml

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is crucial for optimizing treatment outcome. Ongoing advances are being made in imaging of HCC regarding detection, grading, staging, and also treatment monitoring. This review gives an overview of the current international guidelines for diagnosing HCC and their discrepancies as well as critically summarizes the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT techniques for imaging in HCC. The diagnostic performance of MRI with nonspecific and hepatobililiary contrast agents and the role of functional imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging will be discussed. On the other hand, CT as a fast, cheap and easily accessible imaging modality plays a major role in the clinical routine work-up of HCC. Technical advances in CT, such as dual energy CT and volume perfusion CT, are currently being explored for improving detection, characterization and staging of HCC with promising results. Cone beam CT can provide a three-dimensional analysis of the liver with tumor and vessel characterization comparable to cross-sectional imaging so that this technique is gaining an increasing role in the peri-procedural imaging of HCC treated with interventional techniques.

  1. [Video game and internet addiction. The current state of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, F; Mößle, T; Arnaud, N; Rumpf, H-J

    2013-05-01

    The use of interactive screen media is widespread and for some users leads to pathological symptoms that are phenomenologically similar to signs of addictive disorders. Addictive use of computer games and other Internet applications, such as social media can be distinguished. In the past standard criteria to classify this new disorder were lacking. In DSM-5, nine criteria are proposed for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder. The focus is currently on video games as most studies have been done in this field. Prevalence estimations are difficult to interpret due to the lack of standard diagnostic measures and result in a range of the frequency of Internet addiction between 1 % and 4.2 % in the general German population. Rates are higher in younger individuals. For computer game addiction prevalence rates between 0.9 % and 1.7  % can be found in adolescents. Despite substantial comorbidity among those affected current research points to addictive media use as a stand-alone disorder.

  2. 75 FR 80786 - Solicitation of Applications for the Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program (FSMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... program, to allow applicants sufficient time to leverage financing, submit applications, and give AMS time... individual will not be considered. Proposals that address issues of importance at the State, Multi- State or...

  3. Current state of the art of vision based SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Naveed; Fofi, David; Ainouz, Samia

    2009-02-01

    The ability of a robot to localise itself and simultaneously build a map of its environment (Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping or SLAM) is a fundamental characteristic required for autonomous operation of the robot. Vision Sensors are very attractive for application in SLAM because of their rich sensory output and cost effectiveness. Different issues are involved in the problem of vision based SLAM and many different approaches exist in order to solve these issues. This paper gives a classification of state-of-the-art vision based SLAM techniques in terms of (i) imaging systems used for performing SLAM which include single cameras, stereo pairs, multiple camera rigs and catadioptric sensors, (ii) features extracted from the environment in order to perform SLAM which include point features and line/edge features, (iii) initialisation of landmarks which can either be delayed or undelayed, (iv) SLAM techniques used which include Extended Kalman Filtering, Particle Filtering, biologically inspired techniques like RatSLAM, and other techniques like Local Bundle Adjustment, and (v) use of wheel odometry information. The paper also presents the implementation and analysis of stereo pair based EKF SLAM for synthetic data. Results prove the technique to work successfully in the presence of considerable amounts of sensor noise. We believe that state of the art presented in the paper can serve as a basis for future research in the area of vision based SLAM. It will permit further research in the area to be carried out in an efficient and application specific way.

  4. 77 FR 30355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Regulation Supplement: United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement (DFARS Case 2012-D025) AGENCY: Defense... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already party to the World Trade... provisions and clauses in DFARS part 252 to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the...

  5. 75 FR 57145 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program; Funding Goals for Interest-Free Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... ``reserve ratio'' -- The balance in a State's UTF account on December 31 divided by total wages paid to UC... by dividing the reserve ratio by the AHCR. The resulting AHCM represents the number of years a State..., now is not the time to require States to build and maintain sufficient reserves in their UTF...

  6. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  7. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector. A Review of Federal and State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Gathering, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Elizabeth [Energy Innovation Partners, Seoul (South Korea); Kozak, Tracy G. [Energy Innovation Partners, Seoul (South Korea); Boyd, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bradbury, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Steinberg, D. C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Alaysis, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-04-23

    This report provides an overview of the regulatory frameworks governing natural gas supply chain infrastructure siting, construction, operation, and maintenance. Information was drawn from a number of sources, including published analyses, government reports, in addition to relevant statutes, court decisions and regulatory language, as needed. The scope includes all onshore facilities that contribute to methane emissions from the natural gas sector, focusing on three areas of state and federal regulations: (1) natural gas pipeline infrastructure siting and transportation service (including gathering, transmission, and distribution pipelines), (2) natural gas pipeline safety, and (3) air emissions associated with the natural gas supply chain. In addition, the report identifies the incentives under current regulatory frameworks to invest in measures to reduce leakage, as well as the barriers facing investment in infrastructure improvement to reduce leakage. Policy recommendations regarding how federal or state authorities could regulate methane emissions are not provided; rather, existing frameworks are identified and some of the options for modifying existing regulations or adopting new regulations to reduce methane leakage are discussed.

  8. SOCIAL CHARACTERISTIC OF A CURRENT STATE OF THE VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bokenchina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author researchers the social sphere consisting of the branches’ set creating various products in the form of non-material and material services which finally provide inquiries of the society in Kazakhstan that comes to be very important and authentic for the current matter of fact for this country. Transformations associated with the transition to the market economy caused a sharp decline in the rural population of life quality. In the context of transformational recession social services in the rural areas for a long time operated on prevailing conditions in the planned economy assets, resulting in the quality of its services significantly decreased.At the same time, the social sphere of urban economy is largely felt the benefits of the economic growth and participation in the reconstruction of this sector and took the largest system of corporation, especially in the status of city-companies within the social responsibility of business and regional agreements of social partnership.

  9. Minimally invasive veneers: current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanlıoğlu BA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Burçin Akoğlu Vanlioğlu, Yasemin Kulak-Özkan University of Marmara, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Ceramic veneers are considered a conservative solution for patients requiring improvement of the shape, color, or position of their anterior teeth. Ceramic veneers have been extensively and successfully used to mask intrinsic staining, to give the appearance of straightening, and to correct minor malformations of anterior teeth without the removal of substantial amounts of sound tooth substance. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success and correct application of ceramic veneers. Keywords: ceramic veneers, esthetic treatment

  10. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Martins

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential.

  11. Sediments Contamination with Organic Micropollutants: Current State and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenda, Agnieszka; Włodarczyk-Makuła, Maria

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on the sediment contamination with some organic micropollutants based on the monitoring data together with available literature in Poland. The following persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides (CP) were characterized in sediments with respect to current legislations in force. Based on accessible data, higher PAHs, PCBs and CP concentrations were found in river sediments than in lake sediments. Especially, sediments of the Oder River and its tributary in the southern part of Poland, were highly polluted. In order to minimize the risk of the secondary pollution of surface waters, it is necessary to introduce consolidated management system with sediments proceeding. Furthermore, it is also of great importance to elaborate specific regulations concerning conditions of sediments management.

  12. Occupational Latex Allergy: the Current State of Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Olivier; Raulf, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex (NRL) reached epidemic proportions during the nineties and led to intense preventive efforts. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive compilation of the current status of occupational NRL allergy. Recent advances led to the characterization of 15 NRL allergens and the development of assays for measuring the allergen content of NRL materials and specific IgE antibodies against NRL allergen components. Preventive measures aimed at reducing workplace exposure to NRL allergens were associated with decreasing incidence rates of NRL allergy. However, a pooled analysis of epidemiological surveys published during the last 10 years provided prevalence estimates of NRL sensitization and allergy similar to those derived from studies conducted before 2003. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding and prevention of NRL allergy, although the disease may still remain a worldwide cause of concern.

  13. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-11-13

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential.

  14. Current regulations and state investment in the wind power projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Simeunović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is the objective of this paper to present the path which the wind farm projects have undergone in Croatia from their introduction and expansion since the year 2007 up to the today's date when their development is temporarily stayed. The paper first describes the political and legal framework for renewable energy sources in Croatia, and specifically for wind power plants, as well as the current status of investment in building of wind farms in Croatia. The paper further analyses why the Croatian system of promotion of eligible producers has proven to attract investment, albeit unsustainable for a longer period of time, and which regulatory measures have later contributed to the suspension of wind farm investment in 2014. Legal and factual consequences of such suspension are discussed at the end of the paper, as well as some potential new business models for further exploitation of wind energy in Croatia.

  15. Current state of studying precipitation acidification in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talijan Radomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic relations between the state of air pollution and their effects on chemistry of precipitation were introduced in this paper. Changes in the composition of atmosphere were defined by numerous chemical elements and compounds different in character which also affect the phenomenon of acidification and alkaline processes. The interconnected sources of emission, relations between urban and rural, the regime of rainmeasuring system and climate elements combined as whole give us more complete image of the global phenomenon and its effects on cities as a contemporary social development first of all caused by industrialization, its dependance upon fosil sources of energy and demographic pressure. Characteristics of main pollutants were considered as well as their ability to modify atmospheric conditions, but also the influence of climate elements on those conditions, ph rainfall average value movement, seasonal and daily variations, the influence of industrial zones and agglomeration on the conditions in the area much wider than emitters.

  16. Forest certification in Russia: development, current state and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukashevich Victor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of voluntary forest certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC system in Russia. The article is based on the review of diverse information sources, analysis of the reports of timber processing enterprises, personal observations during certification audits, discussions in workgroups, and information collected at training courses. We evaluated the present state of voluntary forest certification in Russia, analyzed non-compliances of the activity of Russian wood processing enterprises with the national standard FSC-STD-RUS-V6-1-2012 and indicated possible reasons for non-fulfillment of the requirements. We also presented problems in the development of forest certification in Russia and possible ways for its further development.

  17. Computer-assisted Orthopaedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan eZheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopaedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined.

  18. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  19. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Volume 5. Federal Regions VIII, IX, and X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-02-01

    The following material is provided for each state in Federal Regions VIII, IX, and X: state title page (lists nonattainment areas for each pollutant, the number of monitors with valid readings for a particular averaging time for a pollutant, and the number of monitors that recorded a violation of the standard); revised State Implementation Plan (SIP) outline (covers sources of the problems, the proposed strategies for achieving attainment, and new state review procedures); maps of nonattainment areas, as designated; SAROAD (Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data) data; SAROAD data maps; power plant data; power plant maps; and county maps. States in Federal Region VIII are Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. Federal Region IX includes Arizona, California, and Nevada. Federal Region X includes Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. (JGB)

  20. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  1. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  2. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies...

  3. Diagnosis of myocarditis: Current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbroek, P Stefan; Beek, Aernout M; Germans, Tjeerd; Niessen, Hans W M; van Rossum, Albert C

    2015-07-15

    Myocarditis, i.e. inflammation of the myocardium, is one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in young adults, and is an important cause of symptoms such as chest pain, dyspnea and palpitations. The pathophysiological process of disease progression leading to DCM involves an ongoing inflammation as a result of a viral-induced auto-immune response or a persisting viral infection. It is therefore crucial to detect the disease early in its course and prevent persisting inflammation that may lead to DCM and end-stage heart failure. Because of the highly variable clinical presentation, ranging from mild symptoms to severe heart failure, and the limited available diagnostic tools, the evaluation of patients with suspected myocarditis represents an important clinical dilemma in cardiology. New approaches for the diagnosis of myocarditis are needed in order to improve recognition, to help unravel its pathophysiology, and to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat the disease. In this review, we give a comprehensive overview of the current diagnostic strategies for patients with suspected myocarditis, and demonstrate several new techniques that may help to improve the diagnostic work-up.

  4. Precision therapy for lymphoma--current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intlekofer, Andrew M; Younes, Anas

    2014-10-01

    Modern advances in genomics and cancer biology have produced an unprecedented body of knowledge regarding the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma. The diverse histological subtypes of lymphoma are molecularly heterogeneous, and most likely arise from distinct oncogenic mechanisms. In parallel to these advances in lymphoma biology, several new classes of molecularly targeted agents have been developed with varying degrees of efficacy across the different types of lymphoma. In general, the development of new drugs for treating lymphoma has been mostly empiric, with a limited knowledge of the molecular target, its involvement in the disease, and the effect of the drug on the target. Thus, the variability observed in clinical responses likely results from underlying molecular heterogeneity. In the era of personalized medicine, the challenge for the treatment of patients with lymphoma will involve correctly matching a molecularly targeted therapy to the unique genetic and molecular composition of each individual lymphoma. In this Review, we discuss current and emerging biomarkers that can guide treatment decisions for patients with lymphoma, and explore the potential challenges and strategies for making biomarker-driven personalized medicine a reality in the cure and management of this disease.

  5. The current state of ototoxicity monitoring in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Lotte; Venter, Kinau; O'Beirne, Greg A; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca; Gibbs, David; Bird, Philip

    2014-07-18

    To explore medical oncologists' and audiologists' knowledge and attitudes regarding ototoxicity monitoring, and to gain an understanding of monitoring currently being implemented at District Health Boards (DHBs) nationwide. We also aimed to identify ways in which audiological outcomes for patients receiving potentially ototoxic treatments could be improved, including examining whether the formulation and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline is necessary. Complementary telephonic interviews were conducted with 16 senior or charge audiologists and seven senior medical oncologists from DHBs across New Zealand, and their responses analysed. Responses indicate a comprehensive understanding of ototoxicity across both disciplines; however there is limited familiarity with ototoxicity monitoring protocols. Patients across New Zealand undergo significantly variable ototoxicity monitoring; local practices range from no routine monitoring to audiological assessment prior to each cycle of chemotherapy. No routine audiological follow up is conducted post completion of treatment at any DHB, in contrast with international guidelines. Twenty-two of 23 participants were in favour of development of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline. There is significant discrepancy in how ototoxicity monitoring is conducted across New Zealand, and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring protocol may improve audiological outcomes for patients receiving ototoxic chemotherapy.

  6. PHYLLOID TUMORS OF MAMMARY GLANDS. CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Zikiryakhodzhaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylloid (leaf-shaped breast tumors are a rare disease and constitute 0.3–0.5% of all breast tumors. Due to the rare frequency of occurrence, as well as the small number of randomized studies that have been conducted on this pathology, there is currently no standardized approach to the diagnosis and treatment of phylloid tumors. The reports about these rare cases appearing in the literature are, as a rule, descriptive, which only emphasizes the difficulty of differential diagnosis, the development of the correct tactics for treating such patients. In connection with the rarity, it is very difficult to diagnose correctly this pathology, which requires a highly qualified doctor as a diagnostician in the initial contact with such a patient, and a pathologist doctor who establishes the final morphological diagnosis. Often, leaf-shaped tumors are mistaken for mammary fibroadenomas. Such difficulties in correct diagnosis in the preoperative period can lead to errors in the planning of treatment. Also, the recommendations for the treatment of patients with this diagnosis are not fully understood, since up to now there are no accepted treatment standards in both Russian and foreign recommendations. Due to the fact that this pathology of mammary glands is rare, the principles of treatment are based on small retrospective studies and clinical observations. In this review, we will discuss the results of major retrospective studies, including data on epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic approach, strategies and results of treatment of this complex group of breast pathologies.

  7. Current state of biomedical engineering; Biomedical Engineering ha ima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, K. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Kanamori, T. [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-11-05

    Medical science is divided into basic medical science and clinical medicine, and the technology of the medical treatment is established as their aggregate power. This concept can be compared with the presence of industrial engineering as a product of physical science and engineering. Basic medical science has come to be combined with science deeply as a result of the rise of recent molecular biology. As to clinical medicine, current highly advanced medical treatment can be said to be made up of scientific technology. Medical treatment can be considered to include prevention, diagnosis, remedy, and rehabilitation stages. It is closely connected with engineering in each stage. The methods of approaching medical science are elucidation of the functions of internal organs and tissue considering that a living body is a plant, and offering of new therapeutical means by applying chemical devices to a living body. The functions of artificial organs can e divided roughly into convection transport, mass transfer, structural members, and signal transfer from the viewpoint of chemical engineering. Medical treatment will be brought into close relation with scientific technology in the future. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Meditative analgesia: the current state of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    Since the first demonstrations that mindfulness-based therapies could have a positive influence on chronic pain patients, numerous studies have been conducted with healthy individuals in an attempt to understand meditative analgesia. This review focuses explicitly on experimental pain studies of meditation and attempts to draw preliminary conclusions based on the work completed in this new field over the past 6 years. Dividing meditative practices into the broad categories of focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) techniques allowed several patterns to emerge. The majority of evidence for FA practices suggests they are not particularly effective in reducing pain. OM, on the other hand, seems to influence both sensory and affective pain ratings depending on the tradition or on whether the practitioners were meditating. The neural pattern underlying pain modulation during OM suggests meditators actively focus on the noxious stimulation while inhibiting other mental processes, consistent with descriptions of mindfulness. A preliminary model is presented for explaining the influence of mindfulness practice on pain. Finally, the potential analgesic effect of the currently unexplored technique of compassion meditation is discussed.

  9. Prostate biopsy strategies: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Badar M

    2004-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen testing and prostate biopsy have revolutionized our ability to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. The transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy procedure has undergone a number of modifications over the past 10 years to meet our goal of early detection of cancer at a curable stage. Biopsy schemes have evolved from lesion-directed biopsies to systematic mapping of the peripheral zone of the prostate, which harbors almost all of the significant tumor foci. An increase in the number of biopsy cores from 6 to 10 (or 12) has resulted in a significant improvement in the detection of clinically localized cancer, without any appreciable increase in the number of indolent cancers. Current biopsy schemes also have enhanced our ability to determine the true prognostic value of pathologic lesions such as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atypical small acinar proliferation which have been associated with cancer detection in repeat biopsies. I discuss the rationale behind, and the outcomes of, various biopsy strategies. More than 15 years after PSA testing was popularized for early detection, a number of men are presenting for evaluation regarding repeat prostate biopsy for various clinical indications. The indications, biopsy scheme, and cancer detection rates for repeat prostate biopsy are discussed in detail.

  10. Current state of web accessibility of Malaysian ministries websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmi, Aidi; Mohamad, Rosli

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that Malaysian public institutions have progressed considerably on website and portal usage, web accessibility has been reported as one of the issues deserves special attention. Consistent with the government moves to promote an effective use of web and portal, it is essential for the government institutions to ensure compliance with established standards and guidelines on web accessibility. This paper evaluates accessibility of 25 Malaysian ministries websites using automated tools i.e. WAVE and Achecker. Both tools are designed to objectively evaluate web accessibility in conformance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) and United States Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 508). The findings reported somewhat low compliance to web accessibility standard amongst the ministries. Further enhancement is needed in the aspect of input elements such as label and checkbox to be associated with text as well as image-related elements. This findings could be used as a mechanism for webmasters to locate and rectify errors pertaining to the web accessibility and to ensure equal access of the web information and services to all citizen.

  11. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mohammad-Ali; Vuddanda, Venkat; Parikh, Valay; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R

    2017-01-01

    The authors reviewed the seminal and more recent literature surrounding the major modalities for percutaneous left atrial appendage closure used in contemporary practice, with particular emphasis on safety and efficacy, technical challenges, and future developments. Along with the continued practice of surgical left atrial appendage closure, which has evolved substantially with the advent of clipping techniques, a number of percutaneous methods have been developed to close the left atrial appendage with endocardial, epicardial, and hybrid approaches. The last 18 months has seen the Food and Drug Administration approval of the WATCHMAN device for stroke prevention in the United States, the initiation of a randomized controlled trial to further examine the LARIAT device, and an increasing body of literature surrounding use of the AMPLATZER Amulet in Europe. Left atrial appendage closure is a promising alternative to systemic anticoagulation for stroke prevention in appropriate atrial fibrillation patients. The wealth of available data for the various modalities sheds light on the strengths and limitations of each, postprocedural complications and their management, and new areas for exploration. With a plethora of new devices on the horizon, it is a very exciting time in the field of 'appendage-ology' as we pursue new avenues to optimize care for atrial fibrillation patients.

  12. Metabolomics: current state and evolving methodologies and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldiges, Marco; Lütz, Stephan; Pflug, Simon; Schroer, Kirsten; Stein, Nadine; Wiendahl, Christiane

    2007-09-01

    In recent years, metabolomics developed to an accepted and valuable tool in life sciences. Substantial improvements of analytical hardware allow metabolomics to run routinely now. Data are successfully used to investigate genotype-phenotype relations of strains and mutants. Metabolomics facilitates metabolic engineering to optimise mircoorganisms for white biotechnology and spreads to the investigation of biotransformations and cell culture. Metabolomics serves not only as a source of qualitative but also quantitative data of intra-cellular metabolites essential for the model-based description of the metabolic network operating under in vivo conditions. To collect reliable metabolome data sets, culture and sampling conditions, as well as the cells' metabolic state, are crucial. Hence, application of biochemical engineering principles and method standardisation efforts become important. Together with the other more established omics technologies, metabolomics will strengthen its claim to contribute to the detailed understanding of the in vivo function of gene products, biochemical and regulatory networks and, even more ambitious, the mathematical description and simulation of the whole cell in the systems biology approach. This knowledge will allow the construction of designer organisms for process application using biotransformation and fermentative approaches making effective use of single enzymes, whole microbial and even higher cells.

  13. The current state of physical therapy pain curricula in the United States: a faculty survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeger Bement, Marie K; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2015-02-01

    Insufficient pain education is problematic across the health care spectrum. Recent educational advancements have been made to combat the deficits in pain education to ensure that health care professionals are proficient in assessing and managing pain. The purpose of this survey was to determine the extent of pain education in current Doctorate of Physical Therapy schools in the United States, including how pain is incorporated into the curriculum, the amount of time spent teaching about pain, and the resources used to teach about pain. The survey consisted of 10 questions in the following subject areas: basic science mechanisms and concepts about pain, pain assessment, pain management, and adequacy of pain curriculum. The overall response was 77% (167/216) for the first series of responses of the survey (Question 1), whereas 62% completed the entire survey (Questions 2-10). The average contact hours teaching about pain was 31 ± 1.8 (mean ± standard error of the mean) with a range of 5 to 115 hours. The majority of schools that responded covered the science of pain, assessment, and management. Less than 50% of respondents were aware of the Institute of Medicine report on pain or the International Association for the Study of Pain guidelines for physical therapy pain education. Only 61% of respondents believed that their students received adequate education in pain management. Thus, this survey demonstrated how pain education is incorporated into physical therapy schools and highlighted areas for improvement such as awareness of recent educational advancements. This article demonstrates how pain education is incorporated into physical therapy curricula within accredited programs. Understanding the current structure of pain education in health professional curriculum can serve as a basis to determine if recent publications of guidelines and competencies impact education. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and distribution patterns of amphetamine and methamphetamine consumption in a federal state in southwestern Germany using wastewater analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Vollerthun, Tina; Hasselbach, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Wastewater analysis is a new approach developed to estimate drug (of abuse) consumption in large communities, such as cities or even whole countries. This paper presents data on the loads of amphetamine and methamphetamine measured in ten wastewater treatment plants in different parts of a German federal state. It provides an estimation of the intensity of the consumption and a comparison to other regions in Germany and Europe. Consumption of amphetamine and methamphetamine was estimated by analysis of drug residues in composite 24h samples of wastewater after mechanical treatment over one week by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were collected from the inlet of ten wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the federal state of Saarland, representing bigger cities (>200,000 inhabitants), medium sized cities (>50,000 inhabitants), small cities (>25,000 inhabitants), and villages (<25,000 inhabitants). In each WWTP, samples were taken daily for seven consecutive days in July 2014. We observed differences of amphetamine versus methamphetamine loads (expressed as mg/day/1000 inhabitants): Amphetamine loads were much higher in all tested WWTPs indicating a low prevalence of methamphetamine abuse in the federal state of Saarland at the tested period. These findings are in line with previous reports about the distribution of amphetamine and methamphetamine in Germany and Europe. The approach confirms that wastewater analysis can provide valuable data about the abuse pattern of drugs of abuse in cities and larger areas. It can be useful for planning interventions aimed at specific areas and substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Current state and use of biological adhesives in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neil V; Meislin, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Bone and tissue adhesives are common and beneficial supplements to standard methods of musculoskeletal tissue suture repair. Knowledge and development of biologically derived or inspired adhesives useful in orthopedic surgery are rapidly advancing. Recent literature demonstrates the increased adjunct or primary use of biological adhesives in the repair of musculoskeletal soft tissues, chondral fractures, and osteochondral fractures. Adhesives offer more benefits and enhancements to tissue healing than current fixation methods afford, including improved biocompatibility, resorbability, and non-immunogenicity. Further investigation is required to determine the extent of the role that these bioadhesives can play in orthopedic surgery. The largest group of biologically derived adhesives and sealants is fibrin sealants, which include first- and second-generation commercially available fibrin sealants, autologous fibrin sealants, and variants. Other groups include gelatin-resorcin aldehydes, protein-aldehyde systems, collagen-based adhesives, polysaccharide- based adhesives, mussel adhesive proteins, and various biologically inspired or biomimetic glues. Potential uses include applications in orthopedic-related blood conservation, arthroplasty, articular cartilage disorders, sports medicine, spine surgery, trauma, and tumors. The development of an adhesive with universal application is likely unfeasible, given the unique characteristics of various musculoskeletal tissues. However, the literature demonstrates the overall underuse of adhesives and indicates the rising probability of the development of a successful variety of bioadhesives for use in orthopedic surgery. As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the difference between adhesives and sealants. 2. Recognize fibrin adhesives commonly used in practice today and identify other biological adhesives with rising potential. 3. Analyze how fibrin sealants work relative to fibrin and

  16. Current state of the art of medical foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Stephanie; Brito, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the five most prevalent gastrointestinal disease burdens in the US, with an overall health care cost of more than USD 1.7 billion. It commonly requires a lifetime of care, and accounts for more than 700,000 physician visits, 100,000 hospitalizations, and disability in 119,000 patients each year. IBD is a multifactorial disease and comprises genetic susceptibility, uncontrolled immune responses, and environmental factors which play a role in the pathogenesis and course of the disease. IBD patients are lifelong on medication, either for induction or maintenance therapy. Current treatment option (corticosteroids, immune suppressants, biologics), administered in mono- or combination therapy, are still unsatisfactory. Due to the nature of disease, 20-40% of patients relapse within the first 12 months. Although modern treatment algorithms have diminished the risk of surgery, the treatments harbor significant side effects, which impacts patients' quality of life. The role of nutrition in IBD has gathered high interest, especially in pediatric Crohn's disease, where studies have shown that exclusive enteral nutrition can induce remission in mild-to-moderate disease comparable to corticosteroids. Thus, gastroenterologists and patients become increasingly aware that specific nutritional interventions offered in addition to the standard of care are an appealing option for a safe long-term disease management. Such specific nutritional solutions should be based on scientific/clinical evidence and specifically designed to address the patients' distinct nutritional requirements. As per definition, these nutrition products fall under the regulatory framework of a Medical Food (Foods for Special Medical Purposes in Europe).

  17. 77 FR 16899 - Jurisdictional Separations and Referral to the Federal-State Joint Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... jurisdictions. In this document, the Commission seeks comment on extending the current freeze of part 36... interstate jurisdictions. The FNPRM proposes extending the current freeze of part 36 category relationships... universal service and intercarrier compensation, we ask that commenters, in their comments on the...

  18. Resistive current states in wide superconducting films in zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, V M [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Zolochevskii, I V [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2006-04-15

    The temperature dependence of the current-voltage characteristics of high-quality thin films of tin from 7 to 50 {mu}m thick are investigated in the absence of an external magnetic field. For the first time, we have experimentally observed phase slip centres (PSCs) and phase slip lines (PSLs) on the same superconducting tin film with known parameters in the temperature intervals corresponding to the mechanisms of their formation and existence. We have shown that the states of a wide film with increasing transport current appear in the following order: the superconducting state for current less than critical; the resistive vortex state for current more than critical, but less than maximum current for the uniform flux flow (instability current); the critical state due to the onset of instability of the steady pattern of viscous motion of the vortices; a vortex-free resistive state with PSLs for current more than instability current, but less than the upper critical current; and the normal state at a current higher than the upper critical current.

  19. Current State of the Art in High Brightness LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craford, George

    2007-03-01

    LED's have been commercially available since the 1960's. For many years they were used primarily for indicator applications. The remarkable increase in materials technology and efficiency that has been achieved since the early 1990's for AlInGaP red and amber LEDs, and InGaN green and blue LEDs, has enabled the penetration of markets such as outdoor display, signaling, and automotive brake light and turn signal applications. White LEDs, which are either blue LEDs combined with a phosphor, or a combination of red, green, and blue LEDs, are being used in emerging applications such as cell phone flash, television backlights, projection, and automotive headlights. In addition, to efficiency improvements these applications have required the development of higher power packages and, in some of these applications which are etendue limited, higher luminance devices. High power devices are commercially available which are capable of 140 lumens output and have an efficacy of around 70 lm/W for white emission. New package and chip technologies have been demonstrated which have a luminance of 38 mega nits (Mcd/m^2), approximately 50% more luminance than that of an automotive headlamp halogen bulb (˜25 mega nits). The recent progress in materials technology, packaging, and chip technology makes it clear that LED's will become important for general illumination applications. The rate of LED penetration of this market will depend upon continued increases in performance and lower costs as well as better control of the white spectral emission. Efficiency, current density, and costs are closely linked because the cost in dollars/lumen is inversely proportional to how many lumens can be realized from each unit of device area for a given device type. Performance as high as 138 lm/W, and over 40% wall plug efficiency, has been reported for low power research devices and over 90 lm/W for high power research devices. It is clear that high power commercial products with performance in

  20. Citizens, Scholars and the Humanities: An Introduction to State Humanities Programs. Federation Resources 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Steven, Ed.

    This collection of essays seeks to offer a composite portrait of state humanities programs from a wide range of viewpoints. Topics explored include: the role of the National Endowment for the Humanities; the importance of the humanities; origins and new directions for state programs; humanities and the issues of public policy, the arts, science,…

  1. 77 FR 56739 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration... Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already... the Republic of Korea to the definition of ``Free Trade Agreement country'' in multiple locations in...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6361-2 - Judicial and administrative proceedings; Federal representation of State interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... supplemental audits or examinations of tax returns by State audit personnel), but all administrative... supplemental audits or examinations of tax returns by State audit personnel shall provide that the audits and... Seizure of Property for Collection of Taxes § 301.6361-2 Judicial and administrative proceedings;...

  3. 42 CFR 431.865 - Disallowance of Federal financial participation for erroneous State payments (for annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... National mean error rate means the payment weighted average of the eligibility payment error rates for all States. National standard means a 3-percent eligibility payment error rate. State payment error rate... national mean error rate is at or below the 3-percent national standard). If the agency has met......

  4. 78 FR 12655 - Federal-State Unemployment Insurance (UI) Program; Data Exchange Standardization as Required by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... exchange standardization, but to date, no cross-agency data exchange functions have been identified as... States collaborating to jointly establish a project team to oversee the design, development and... State consortia to develop jointly functional requirements and development of modernized UI IT Benefits...

  5. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Federal Lands of the United States - Parkways and Scenic Rivers 201506 FileGDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the linear federally owned or administered land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States and...

  6. Assessing the Current State of Cognitive Frailty: Measurement Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, L; Brown, R

    2017-01-01

    Currently, an estimated 25-30% of people ages 85 or older have dementia, with a projected 115 million people worldwide living with dementia by 2050. With this worldwide phenomenon fast approaching, early detection of at-risk older adults and development of interventions focused on preventing loss in quality of life are increasingly important. A new construct defined by the International Consensus Group (I.A.N.A/I.A.G.G) as «cognitive frailty» combines domains of physical frailty with cognitive impairment and provides a framework for research that may provide a means to identify individuals with cognitive impairment caused by nonneurodegenerative conditions. Using the integrative review method of Whittemore and Knafl., 2005 this study examines and appraises the optimal measures for detecting cognitive frailty in clinical populations of older adults. The integrative review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. From the total 185 articles retrieved, review of titles and key words were conducted. Following the initial review, 168 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria for association of frailty and cognition. Of the 18 fulltext articles reviewed, 11 articles met the inclusion criteria; these articles were reviewed in-depth to determine validity and reliability of the cognitive frailty measures. Predictive validity was established by the studies reviewed in four main areas: frailty and type of dementia MCI (OR 7.4, 95% CI 4.2-13.2), vascular dementia (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.6-27.4) and Alzheimer's dementia (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.2), frailty and vascular dementia (VaAD) is further supported by the rate of change in frailty x macroinfarcts (r = 0.032, p < 0.001); frailty and the individual domains of cognitive function established with the relationship of neurocognitive speed and change in cognition using regression coefficients; individual components of frailty and individual domains of cognitive function

  7. [German practice of involuntary commitment at both federal and state level after introduction of the Guardianship law (1992-2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Stauber, J; Deinert, H; Kilian, R

    2012-05-01

    Given the steady rise of psychiatric coercive measures in Germany, the question arises whether this development is significantly influenced by the corresponding legal basis or through epidemiological, socio-economic or socio-structural factors. Based on full surveys of the Federal Ministry of Justice we examined the development and associations of 10 indicators of coercive psychiatric measures over a period of 18 years. Time trends of all indicators have been descriptively analysed. Statistical associations between time trends and between involuntary and admissions economic indicators were analysed by regression models. All annual involuntary commitment rates have increased, judicial ordered physical restraint measures particularly strongly (848%). The rate of judicial rejections of applied involuntary measures showed the lowest increase. On the other hand, quotas of involuntary admissions remained stable. In former East Germany, the involuntary admission rates are only a third of those in the former West Germany. Results of regression analyses indicate an excess increase of physical coercive measures in psychiatric hospitals in relation to the increase of psychiatric admissions. In former East Germany the rate of involuntary admissions at the federal state level is negatively correlated with the average gross income. The continuous increase of coercive psychiatric measures in consequence to the change in the Guardianship law suggests that this change has influenced the practice. The differences at federal and state levels, and the sharper rise in the former East Germany by lower rates in comparison to the former West Germany need an explanation, as well as the fact that the rate of involuntary admissions is associated at least in the former East Germany with economic conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Mechanism of realisation of state-private entrepreneurship in the social sphere of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratan Dmytro I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article states that the socio-economic development of a region rests on the higher-than-anticipated growth of its infrastructure. Formation of the social infrastructure of a region is based on practical realisation of social priorities directed at a higher satisfaction of needs of the population in social services. One of the mechanisms in development of social infrastructure is the state-private partnership. The article provides theoretical and methodical aspects of development of instruments of managing investment activity in Russian regions and levelling of territorial heterogeneity of availability of social objects on the basis of use of the state-private partnership (SPP. The article conducts assessment of possibilities of use of SPP models in the social sphere, regional economy and management of state property.

  9. The current state of affairs for disaster planning for a nuclear terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The author presents current thinking on the effects of an atomic bomb blast from a medical point of view and will argue that current US Federal plans for a nuclear disaster are simply crude, insufficient, disarticulated, and principally relies on martial law as a means of crowd control. The simple physics of a fusion reaction bomb is discussed along with the plans of other countries, apparently "secret"American plans, which show a poor knowledge of the physics of nuclear bombs as well as poor insight into what will be needed to help the maximum number of citizens. An alternative plan involving computer modeling and educating the public to the effects of a fission explosion are presented. The key issue of statewide planning is discussed, as the Federal government has dumped medical problems on "the local level."

  10. Managing for climate change on federal lands of the western United States: perceived usefulness of climate science, effectiveness of adaptation strategies, and barriers to implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry B. Kemp

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent mandates in the United States require federal agencies to incorporate climate change science into land management planning efforts. These mandates target possible adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, the degree to which climate change is actively being considered in agency planning and management decisions is largely unknown. We explored the usefulness of climate change science for federal resource managers, focusing on the efficacy of potential adaptation strategies and barriers limiting the use of climate change science in adaptation efforts. Our study was conducted in the northern Rocky Mountains region of the western United States, where we interacted with 77 U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management personnel through surveys, semistructured interviews, and four collaborative workshops at locations across Idaho and Montana. We used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate managers' perceptions about adapting to and mitigating for climate change. Although resource managers incorporate general language about climate change in regional and landscape-level planning documents, they are currently not planning on-the-ground adaptation or mitigation projects. However, managers felt that their organizations were most likely to adapt to climate change through use of existing management strategies that are already widely implemented for other non climate-related management goals. These existing strategies, (e.g., thinning and prescribed burning are perceived as more feasible than new climate-specific methods (e.g., assisted migration because they already have public and agency support, accomplish multiple goals, and require less anticipation of the future timing and probability of climate change impacts. Participants reported that the most common barriers to using climate change information included a lack of management-relevant climate change science, inconsistent agency guidance, and insufficient time and resources to access

  11. Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles

    2014-01-01

    State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities.

  12. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In response to the Executive Order for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration (E.O. #13508, May 12, 2009), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) took on the task of acquiring and assessing agricultural conservation practice data records for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, and transferred those datasets in aggregated format to State jurisdictional agencies for use in reporting conservation progress to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership (CBP Partnership). Under the guidelines and regulations that have been developed to protect and restore water-quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the six State jurisdictions that fall within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are required to report their progress in promoting agricultural conservation practices to the CBP Partnership on an annual basis. The installation and adoption of agricultural best management practices is supported by technical and financial assistance from both Federal and State conservation programs. The farm enrollment data for USDA conservation programs are confidential, but agencies can obtain access to the privacy-protected data if they are established as USDA Conservation Cooperators. The datasets can also be released to the public if they are first aggregated to protect farmer privacy. In 2012, the USGS used its Conservation Cooperator status to obtain implementation data for conservation programs sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) for farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three jurisdictions (Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) used the USGS-provided aggregated dataset to report conservation progress in 2012, whereas the remaining three jurisdictions (Maryland, New York, and Virginia) used jurisdictional Conservation Cooperator Agreements to obtain privacy-protected data directly from the USDA. This report reviews the status of conservation data sharing between the USDA and the various jurisdictions, discusses the

  13. THE BECOMING OF INFORMATION CULTURE IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARD OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION’S IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapina Svetlana Nikolaevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the approaches to the definition of “information culture”, its components, the system of personal values needed to succeed in the information and professional activities, the problem of students’ information culture formation in the modern information society. The analysis of the implementation of the Federal state educational standard of vocational education in "teaching in primary schools" is held. The variable part cycles of the basic professional educational programs is distributed on the base of the local professional community’s research and additional competencies. Such subjects as “Russian language and Speech”, “The cultural world of students”, “Ethics in business communication” are introduced through the variable part of the educational standard. The general amount of hours for such subject as «Computer science, information and communication technology in the professional activity" is increased. The results of the special study reveal the level of information culture of the future primary school teachers. According to the results it can be concluded that insufficient level of information culture’s development is impossible for a successful career and self-fulfillment in the present conditions. The article proposes the directions for the formation of future primary school teachers’ information culture in the implementation of the federal state educational standard of vocational education. According to the results of this research it is possible to tell about the effectiveness of these directions’ implementation.

  14. THE BECOMING OF INFORMATION CULTURE IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARD OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION’S IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Николаевна Лапина

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the approaches to the definition of “information culture”, its components, the system of personal values needed to succeed in the information and professional activities, the problem of students’ information culture formation in the modern information society. The analysis of the implementation of the Federal state educational standard of vocational education in "teaching in primary schools" is held. The variable part cycles of the basic professional educational programs is distributed on the base of the local professional community’s research and additional competencies. Such subjects as “Russian language and Speech”, “The cultural world of students”, “Ethics in business communication” are introduced through the variable part of the educational standard. The general amount of hours for such subject as «Computer science, information and communication technology in the professional activity" is increased. The results of the special study reveal the level of information culture of the future primary school teachers. According to the results it can be concluded that insufficient level of information culture’s development is impossible for a successful career and self-fulfillment in the present conditions. The article proposes the directions for the formation of future primary school teachers’ information culture in the implementation of the federal state educational standard of vocational education. According to the results of this research it is possible to tell about the effectiveness of these directions’ implementation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-5-31

  15. Ground-state entanglement in a three-spin transverse Ising model with energy current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yong; Liu Dan; Long Gui-Lu

    2007-01-01

    The ground-state entanglement associated with a three-spin transverse Ising model is studied. By introducing an energy current into the system, a quantum phase transition to energy-current phase may be presented with the variation of external magnetic field; and the ground-state entanglement varies suddenly at the critical point of quantum phase transition. In our model, the introduction of energy current makes the entanglement between any two qubits become maximally robust.

  16. Two Dimensional Steady State Eddy Current Analysis of a Spinning Conducting Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-09

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 855 Technical Report ARMET-TR-16045 TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A ...any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN...August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A SPINNING CONDUCTING CYLINDER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  17. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  18. 75 FR 7284 - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin-Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos... available for public comment entitled ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other..., ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State of...

  19. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.

    1985-04-01

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs.

  20. HIV-INFECTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Smolskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

  1. Mentoring and New Teacher Induction in the United States: A Review and Analysis of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, current practices were reviewed in mentoring and induction across three large states--New York, Texas, and California--and one small state, Utah. Patterns and trends are described in the United States, program results and evolving views of mentoring are discussed, gaps in the research literature are identified, and the future of…

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.700 - Which Federal agencies may solicit applications from eligible State agencies interested in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... replacement housing for persons being displaced by Federal or Federally assisted projects? 102-75.700 Section... Disposal Property for Displaced Persons § 102-75.700 Which Federal agencies may solicit applications from... Federal agency needing property for replacement housing for displaced persons may solicit...

  3. Rehabilitation Counseling in the State or Federal Program: Is There a Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael; Graham, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Rehabilitation counseling has played a significant role in the public rehabilitation program since its inception. Rehabilitation educators have also been critical in this partnership. This article reviews current trends in the relationships between public rehabilitation agencies, university programs, accreditation bodies, and others to discuss…

  4. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters, as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare Services Plan” issued by...

  5. Disability Prototypes in the United States and the Russian Federation: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Erin; Strohmer, Douglas; Fitzgerald, Debra; Daniel, Samantha; Arm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural research is to examine prototypical perspectives about disability groups in the United States and Russia by extending the research on disability prototypes that was conducted by McCaughey and Strohmer. Open-ended questions permitted participants to describe what they thought were prototypical characteristics of…

  6. Federal and State Water Quality Standards/Guidelines for Selected Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    Arsenic, total Barium Benzaldehyde Benzanthrone Biochemical Oxygen Demand 1-(2-Butoxyethoxy) ethanol Cadmium Calcium 4 SUBSTANCE LIST FOR SIX STATES... styphnate Magnes i um Mercury Mercury fulminate Mercury, total Methylcyclohexane Methylene chloride Methyl isopropyl ketone 2-Methyl-2-pentanol Nemagon...dye (1-Methylaminoanthraquinone) Silver Sodium Sodium styphnate Strontium nitrate Strontium oxalate Strontium peroxide Sulfate Tetrachlorobenzene

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State Program (water quality)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, T.J.; Gilbert, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    The program is a partnership between the Geological Survey and State and local agencies for the collection of the hydrologic information needed for the continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the nation's water resources. A number of typical examples of projects within the program are presented. -from ASCE Publications Abstracts

  8. The Role and Place of State of Event-Strategic Megaobjects in the Sustainable Territorial Development of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yuryevich Ivanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is actively trying to raise its image and rating in the international political, sports and social spheres. This can be achieved by hosting major All-Russian and international events such as APEC 2012 summit, the 2013 Summer Universiade, the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014, FIFA 2018, 2019 Winter Universiade etc. We point to the absence of complex scientific approach to managing such event-strategic megaobjects, and this has negative affect on the Russian economy. The subject of the present research is represented by the role of state event-strategic megaobjects in sustainable regional development of Russia. The analysis allowed to identify a number of features of these objects, and to point out key issues and risks in their implementation. We consider the use of innovative crowdfunding technology to be the positive aspect of public megaobjects’ management. The negative aspects include the excessive scale of the financial costs and problems of cost-effective use of megaobjects after the hosting events. The territorial aspect of the analysis revealed the absence of a systemic approach to the selection of regions for hosting international events, as well as the unevenness of the territorial distribution of megaobjects. The largest event-strategic megaobjects were implemented in the Far Eastern Federal district (APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012, the Southern Federal district (Krasnodar region, Sochi – The winter Olympic and Paralympic games in February 2014, Volga Federal district (the Universiade in Kazan in 2013. These districts did not become the leading regions in socio-economic development of Russia neither before nor after these events. The studies of such socio-economic and political phenomena will help to present theoretical and practical aspects of their application algorithm in the future for the purpose of balanced regional development of Russia.

  9. CLINICIAN SENSITIZATION ON INTEGRATED DISEASE SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE IN FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE OWO, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For effective Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR all health care workers involvement is required. Most trainings have often neglected the clinicians. Aim: This study aimed to identify gaps requiring capacity building in preventing infectious disease outbreak among health care workers in Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State. Methods: A cross sectional study of clinicians at the Federal Medical Centre, Owo was done. Data was collected using semi structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Data collected were analysed with SPSS version 21. Summary statistics was conducted to identify training need requirements. Results: The mean age of participant was 43 ± 5.9 years, 14(70% were male. Respondents who have worked for 10 years and above were 12(60%. In all, 5(25% respondent understood disease surveillance to be systematic collection of data and analysis in order to prevent diseases. Regarding respondent’s knowledge of notifiable diseases. Only 4(20% of the respondents knew malaria as a notifiable disease, Cholera knew by 11(55%, Ebola by 15(75% and Lassa by 13(65%. The main factor identified to be affecting prompt disease notification in Federal Medical Centre, Owo was lack of adequate training 12(60% while communication gap was identified by 7(35%. In all, 18(90% felt they do not know all that they needed about disease surveillance. Conclusion: Rapid notification of infectious diseases is essential for prompt public health action and for monitoring of disease trends. Trainings that will improve the level of knowledge of clinician and communication channels will improve disease surveillance and notification.

  10. Granulometry of atmospheric suspension of Zeysky State Reserve (Amur region, Russian Federation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golokhvast, K. S.; Chervova, L. N.; Kodintsev, V. V.; Chaika, V. V.; Lisitskaya, I. G.; Pamirsky, I. E.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the results of granulometry studying of particles of atmospheric suspension contained in snow samples collected in Zeya state reserve (seasons winter 2013/2014 years). Snow samples collected at 5 stations were revealed to contain the particles the size of less than 10 μm in ecologically insignificant concentrations (up to 4%). Generally, the particles of 3rd (10-50 μm) and 6th (400-700 μm) size classes prevail at all sampling stations. The particles at all sampling stations have relatively small specific surface area - from 401, 87 to 4720, 22 cm2/cm3. It is possible to draw an inference that from the point of view of micro size pollution of atmosphere Zeya state reserve is considered to be a territory with farourable conditions.

  11. Granulometry of atmospheric suspension of Norsk State Reserve (Amur Region, Russian Federation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golokhvast, K. S.; Kodintsev, V. V.; Chaika, V. V.; Lisitskaya, I. G.; Pamirsky, I. E.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the results of studying of atmospheric suspensions contained in snow samples of Norsk state reserve (seasons 2013/2014 years). The snow samples gathered at 5 areas were revealed to contain particles size of less than 10 μm in ecologically low concentrations (up to 13 %). Generally the particles of 3rd (10-50 μm), 5th(100-400 μm) and 7th( more700 μm) size classes prevail at all areas. The particles at all screening areas have relatively small area of a specific surface - from 552,95 to 3272,12 cm2/cm3. It may be deducted that from the point of view of microsize atmospheric pollution Norsk State Reserve belongs to territories with favourable conditions.

  12. Energy policy in the new Federal States. Energiepolitik in den neuen Bundeslaendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groener, H. (Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre)

    1991-06-05

    The German unity could be put into effect on 3 October 1990. Although the economic integration of the new states had started earlier already, the process of growing together of the two parts of Germany takes place very slowly and presents enormous problems relating to adaptation. Energy industry is one of those industrial branches which must cope with considerable changes and new economical orientations. (orig.).

  13. Federal and State Responses to the Emergency Response Communications Program. Draft Report, March 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    comentarios relacionados con el informe titulado "Emergency Response Communications Program". Le agradecer6 estudie este informe y favor de enviarle...sus comentarios respecto al mismo directamente al Contraalmirante Venzke. Anexo I State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations EXECUTiVE 04AMBER...unconvinced that user requirements have really been developed. No real distinction is made between the way an emergency creates undue demands on the

  14. A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-21

    A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals Matthew C. Weed Specialist in Foreign...Policy Legislation February 21, 2017 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43760 A New Authorization for Use of Military Force...Against the Islamic State Congressional Research Service Summary Since the United States embarked on a strategy to counter the Islamic State (also

  15. Current State Efforts in Gifted/Talented Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    A survey of 50 state departments of education revealed increased spending for gifted/talented education from 1976/77. Fourteen states reported certification requirements for teaching the gifted, and the problem most frequently identified was funding. The most common teaching topics related to creative thinking development, higher level thinking,…

  16. Recent population adherence to and knowledge of United States federal nutrition guides, 1992-2013: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sarah A; Byker, Carmen J

    2014-10-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans dictates the federal nutrition programs, policies, and recommendations of the United States. Corresponding nutrition guides have been established to help educate the public about the dietary intake patterns recommended in these guidelines as well as to ameliorate the US obesity epidemic and its health-related outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize population adherence to and knowledge of these guiding US nutrition guides issued since 1992, including the Food Guide Pyramid, MyPyramid, and MyPlate. Of the 31 studies included in the review, 22 examined adherence, 6 examined knowledge, and 3 examined both adherence and knowledge. Across studies, adherence to nutrition guides was low, with participants consuming inadequate levels of fruit, vegetables, and dairy in particular. Knowledge of nutrition guides increased over time since publication and decreased with age of the participants. An association between knowledge of and adherence to nutrition guides was not found. Disparities in knowledge and adherence existed across demographic groups. Based on these findings, it is suggested that federal dietary guidance can be strengthened by increasing dissemination of nutrition guides to the public and tailoring promotional activities to specific demographic and socioeconomic groups. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  17. 78 FR 19193 - Richard Phillips, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783-079, FCI Ray Brook Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Richard Phillips, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783- 079, FCI.... District Court, Eastern District of New York, Richard Phillips (``Phillips'') was convicted of violating...)) (``IEEPA''). Specifically, Phillips was convicted of knowingly, intentionally and willfully attempting to...

  18. Federalism, States Sovereignty, and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    century did CRS-6 38 Champion v. Ames (The Lottery Case), 188 U.S. 321 (1903). 39 Hippolite Egg Co. v. United States, 220 U.S. 45 (1911). 40 Hoke v...U.S. at 121. 47 Wickard v. Filburn, 317 U.S. 111 (1942). relate to issues such as the regulation of lottery tickets,38 the transporting of adulterated...case involved the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988, which provided Indian tribes with an opportunity to establish gambling operations. However

  19. Rare species of the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy S. Zheltukhin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on 23 rare species of the Central Forest Reserve included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The state of their populations (groups of populations is assessed. The characteristics of landscape and coenotic confinement are given. Their biological and ecological features are briefly described, and the limiting factors determining the reduction in the number of some species are indicated. Over 85 years, many species have remained their biological positions in the Reserve, and their quantity has remained stable. At the same time, species of sedentary birds (Bubo bubo, Lagopus lagopus rossicus and birds nesting in the Protected Area (representatives of the Accipitridae family are now few in number due to the changes in the main habitats and deterioration of the forage resources. It is noted that the Central Forest Reserve is the largest Protected Area in Central Russia for the rare lichens Lobaria pulmonaria and Menegazzia terebrata.

  20. Encouraging Family and Parent Education: Program Development and Evaluation in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Landhäusser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a European-wide strategy of governance aimed at improving support for parents and families, the following report details the conceptualization and evaluation of a federal state program 4 in Baden-Württemberg (Germany which was launched in 2008 to encourage family and parent education. Two program components, a voucher system for parents with a new-born child and an element that emphasizes educational offers for families with special needs in particular living situations, were started to increase requests for educational courses. The aim was to establish and deepen cooperation between different public and private professional services that are in contact with parents and their children. The results show that main goals of the program were reached.

  1. First occurrence of western corn root worm beetles in the federal states Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke, Dominik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, western corn root worm beetles were detected in the federal states Hesse (Groß-Gerau and Rhineland-Palatinate (Bodenheim for the first time. Control measures based on commission decision 2003/766/EG (Byrne, 2003 were conducted after detection in PAL-traps. Focus and safety zones were established. In Hesse, both focus and safety zones were treated with the insecticide Biscaya, due to the high number of 50 beetles which were detected in the PAL-traps. Since in Rhineland-Palatinate, only one beetle had been captured, only the focus zone was treated with the insecticide. After insecticide treatment, new PAL-traps were arranged like a close grid over the infested areas in both federal states. In each maize field in the focus- and safety zone further traps were placed and checked weekly until September 30th by supporting staff. Until the end of the monitoring in 2011 (September 30th further beetles were detected in the south of the area (district of Groß-Gerau, Hesse, were the first infestation had been discovered. However, in Rhineland-Palatinate no further beetles were detected that year. By the end of the monitoring 354 beetles in Hesse and one beetle in Rhineland-Palatinate had been captured in total. Subsequently the demarked zones in Hesse were extended. Taking into account the local circumstances, the new focus zone was delimited to include all the areas where beetles had been detected as well as the surrounding maize fields. In the focus zones the cultivation of maize was forbidden for the consecutive two years and a crop rotation with at least 50 percent maize was established in the safety zones. In 2012 no further beetles were captured in the infested region.

  2. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  3. Researching corporate social responsibility in the Middle East - the current state and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Taposh, Roy; Ahmed, Al-Abdin; Nicholson, John

    2017-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has the potential to yield economic and social value in the Middle East (ME), especially given the current high environmental flux in the region. Although much scholarly has been paid to CSR issues, a key question remains about how to operate responsibly in the ME, particularly since institutional environments and stakeholders’ needs vary across ME states. The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the current state of CSR in the ME. W...

  4. Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    strength between 190 to 240 MPa and is broadly characterized as a reactive powder concrete (RPC). RPCs have fine aggregates and powders but do not...ER D C/ G SL T R- 17 -1 9 Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber-Reinforced Concrete : Current State-of-the-Art G eo te...Discontinuous Fibers in Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete : Current State-of-the-Art Charles A. Burchfield Geotechnical and

  5. Voltage and Current Regulators Design of Power Converters in Islanded Microgrids based on State Feedback Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In stand-alone microgrids based on voltage source inverters state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current degrades significantly the dynamics performance of voltage and current regulators. The decoupling of the controlled states is proposed, considering the limitations...... introduced by system delays. Moreover, a proportional resonant voltage controller is designed according to Nyquist criterion taking into account application requirements. Experimental tests performed in compliance with the UPS standards verify the theoretical analysis....

  6. Charge Neutral Fermionic States and Current Oscillation in a Graphene-Superconductor Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenye; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Jin, Kuijuan; Ma, Zhongshui

    2016-10-01

    The proximity properties of edge currents in the vicinity of the interface between the graphene and superconductor in the presence of magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the edge states introduced by Andreev reflection at the graphene-superconductor (G/S) interface give rise to the charge neutral states in all Landau levels. We note that in a topological insulator-superconductor (TI/S) hybrid structure, only N = 0 Landau level can support this type of charge neutral states. The different interface states of a G/S hybrid and a TI/S hybrid is due to that graphene consists of two distinct sublattices. The armchair edge consists of two inequivalent atoms. This gives rise to unique electronic properties of edge states when connected to a superconductor. A direct consequence of zero charge states in all Landau levels is that the current density approaches zero at interface. The proximity effect leads to quantum magnetic oscillation of the current density in the superconductor region. The interface current density can also be tuned with a finite interface potential. For sharp δ-type interface potential, the derivative of the wavefunction is discontinuous. As a result, we found that there is current density discontinuity at the interface. The step of the current discontinuity is proportional to the strength of the interface potential.

  7. Thermoelectric power plant water withdrawals and associated attributes for three Federal datasets in the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melissa A.; Diehl, Timothy H.

    2017-01-01

    This dataset combines three Federal datasets of thermoelectric, non-industrial, power plant water withdrawals and associated plant information for the United States in 2010, excluding Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Historically, thermoelectric water withdrawal has been estimated by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) through surveys of plant operator-reported data, and the Department of Interior's U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) 5-year water-use reports including data compiled from state water agencies, plant operators, and the EIA. Recently, the USGS developed models for estimating withdrawal at thermoelectric plants to provide independent estimates from plant operator-reported data. The three Federal datasets include plant-level data for 1,349 plants derived from EIA's 2010 Form EIA-860 and Form EIA-923 databases, USGS 2010 compilation-reported data (hereafter referred to as the USGS-compilation dataset), and USGS 2010 model-estimated data (hereafter referred to as the USGS-model dataset). The plant-level USGS-compilation data provided in this dataset were disaggregated from county-level data published in USGS Circular 1405 (Maupin and others, 2014). The USGS-model data and the EIA data presented in this dataset were previously published in USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5184 (Diehl and Harris, 2014). The year 2010 was chosen because it is the most recent year the USGS 5-year compilation report was published and the only year for which the USGS model estimates have been calculated.Diehl, T.H., and Harris, M.A., 2014, Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014–5184, 28 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145184.Maupin, M.A., Kenny, J.F., Hutson, S.S., Lovelace, J.K., Barber, N.L., and Linsey, K.S., 2014, Estimated use of water in the United States in 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1405, 56 p

  8. State and local levels of preparedness for terrorist incidents : the current and sobering U.S. picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, G. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health; Scott, C.M.; Scott-Dimenna, D. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    An increasing number of professional organizations and foundations have surveyed components of the United States readiness programs concerning preparedness for terrorist attacks. This paper reviews the results of research conducted in 2002 and compares them with subsequent studies, demonstrating a gap between desired and current states of readiness. Weaknesses at the local, federal and state levels were discussed. Results from local needs and preparedness surveys were examined, including details and summaries of surveys sent to representatives within all states and territories. Significant gaps still remained in protecting the public from biological and chemical attacks. Cut-backs and a lack of resources were identified as contributing to a lack of local preparedness. In addition, emergency responders were not receiving appropriate training. An independent task force reported that less than 10 per cent of fire departments in the United States had the resources, training and equipment needed to respond to a building collapse. It was noted that less than one-quarter of the United States are able to respond 24 hours a day to reports from hospitals of possible victims of biological or chemical attacks. Bioterrorism preparedness still lacks strategic direction, well-defined priorities and appropriate levels of resources to match needs. In addition, although facilities have been identified as risk management program sites, local responders remain unprepared for threats and many local fire and police departments have not been informed of specific plant hazards or information regarding exact chemical hazards. It was concluded that as the United States approaches its fourth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, there is is much yet to be done to improve the level of preparedness in cities and towns across the country. 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Vitamin A deficiency among children--Federated States of Micronesia, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-22

    Vitamin A, a fat-soluble, heat-stable nutrient (retinol) derived from animal sources and certain fruits and vegetables, forms the basic component of retinal pigments and plays a vital role in optimal health, growth, and development. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) (serum retinol Micronesia (FSM) (2000 population: 107,008), nutrition surveys during the early 1990s documented VAD prevalences among the highest in the world (CDC, unpublished data, 1991; U.S. Public Health Service, unpublished data, 1994). In response to these findings, FSM health authorities, with support of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), began distributing vitamin A supplements in 1993 and 1998 in Chuuk and Pohnpei, respectively. In November 1999, FSM requested assistance from CDC in VAD assessment surveys of children in Kosrae and Yap, the other two FSM states. This report summarizes levels of serum retinol and prevalence of VAD and other indicators of nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Kosrae and Yap. The findings indicated low serum retinol levels and high VAD prevalences but no substantial stunting or wasting. A comprehensive, long-term national strategy is needed in FSM to promote sustained improvement in vitamin A status.

  10. Steady-State Fully Noninductive Current Driven by Electron Cyclotron Waves in a Magnetically Confined Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, O.; Henderson, M. A.; Hofmann, F.; Goodman, T.; Alberti, S.; Angioni, C.; Appert, K.; Behn, R.; Blanchard, P.; Bosshard, P.; Chavan, R.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Fasel, D.; Favre, A.; Furno, I.; Gorgerat, P.; Hogge, J.-P.; Isoz, P.-F.; Joye, B.; Lavanchy, P.; Lister, J. B.; Llobet, X.; Magnin, J.-C.; Mandrin, P.; Manini, A.; Marlétaz, B.; Marmillod, P.; Martin, Y.; Mayor, J.-M.; Martynov, A. A.; Mlynar, J.; Moret, J.-M.; Nieswand, C.; Nikkola, P.; Paris, P.; Perez, A.; Pietrzyk, Z. A.; Pitts, R. A.; Pochelon, A.; Pochon, G.; Refke, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Rommers, J.; Scavino, E.; Tonetti, G.; Tran, M. Q.; Troyon, F.; Weisen, H.

    2000-04-01

    A steady-state, fully noninductive plasma current has been sustained for the first time in a tokamak using electron cyclotron current drive only. In this discharge, 123 kA of current have been sustained for the entire gyrotron pulse duration of 2 s. Careful distribution across the plasma minor radius of the power deposited from three 0.5-MW gyrotrons was essential for reaching steady-state conditions. With central current drive, up to 153 kA of current have been fully replaced transiently for 100 ms. The noninductive scenario is confirmed by the ability to recharge the Ohmic transformer. The dependence of the current drive efficiency on the minor radius is also demonstrated.

  11. 78 FR 9929 - Current Traumatic Brain Injury State Implementation Partnership Grantees; Non-Competitive One...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ...-Competitive One-Year Extension Funds for Current Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) State Implementation Partnership... Traumatic Brain Injury Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110- 206). Under this authority, the HRSA TBI Program is charged... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Current Traumatic Brain Injury......

  12. Magnetic-field-induced superconducting state in Zn nanowires driven in the normal state by an electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Snyder, S D; Goldman, A M

    2009-09-18

    Four-terminal resistance measurements have been carried out on Zn nanowires formed using electron-beam lithography. When driven resistive by current, these wires reenter the superconducting state upon application of small magnetic fields. The data are qualitatively different from those of previous experiments on superconducting nanowires, which revealed either negative magnetoresistance near T_{c} or high-magnetic-field-enhanced critical currents.

  13. Evaluation of extrapolation methods for actual state expenditures on health care in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Banin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting methods, extrapolation ones in particular, are used in health care for medical, biological and clinical research. The author, using accessible internet space, has not met a single publication devoted to extrapolation of financial parameters of health care activities. This determined the relevance of the material presented in the article: based on health care financing dynamics in Russia in 2000–2010 the author examined possibility of application of basic perspective extrapolation methods - moving average, exponential smoothing and least squares. It is hypothesized that all three methods can equally forecast actual public expenditures on health care in medium term in Russia’s current financial and economic conditions. The study result was evaluated in two time periods: within the studied interval and a five-year period. It was found that within the study period all methods have an average relative extrapolation error of 3–5%, which means high precision of the forecast. The study shown a specific feature of the least squares method which were gradually accumulating results so their economic interpretation became possible only in the end of the studied period. That is why the extrapolating results obtained by least squares method are not applicable in an entire study period and rather have a theoretical value. Beyond the study period, however, this feature was found to be the most corresponding to the real situation. It was the least squares method that proved to be the most appropriate for economic interpretation of the forecast results of actual public expenditures on health care. The hypothesis was not confirmed, the author received three differently directed results, while each method had independent significance and its application depended on evaluation study objectives and real social, economic and financial situation in Russian health care system.

  14. Conservation partnerships between Zoos and Aquariums, federal and state agencies, and nongovernmental organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen N; Shaw, James H; Bettinger, Tammie; Caniglia, Beth; Carter, Tracy

    2007-11-01

    Partnerships are essential for the success of conservation organizations as they strive to achieve the ultimate goal of restoring and preserving biodiversity. Now is a particularly crucial time to develop partnerships owing to increasing financial constraints on all organizations and the urgent need for species recovery and habitat preservation. This study identified characteristics of successful conservation partnerships between Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) accredited institutions and related facilities, US and international governmental agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. One hundred and five AZA accredited zoos and aquariums or related facilities participated in the preliminary survey. Staff at 75 of those zoos and aquariums were interviewed by telephone for a follow-up survey. Respondents were asked which characteristics most contributed to the success of their past and current conservation partnerships. Data were analyzed in two ways: descriptive statistics and principal component analysis. Descriptive statistics showed that effective leadership, clear and consistent communication, and trust between partners were the top three characteristics that led to partnership success. Ineffective leadership by those in charge, lack of clear, consistent communication between partners, and unreliable or insufficient sources of funding were the top three characteristics that inhibited partnership success. Using principal component analysis, the variables for each question on the questionnaire were reduced to a smaller subset of categories. Structure, personalities, process, and commitment were the four principal components of successful conservation partnerships. The three principal components that inhibited conservation partnerships were: communication, partnership personnel, and partner inequality. Results gained from this research are sure to increase the probability of success both for conservation partnerships that have already been established and

  15. High-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focia, Ronald Jeffrey

    2017-08-22

    A high-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch uses a field-effect transistor (e.g., a MOSFET) to trigger a high-voltage stack of thyristors. The switch can have a high hold-off voltage, high current carrying capacity, and high time-rate-of-change of current, di/dt. The fast closing switch can be used in pulsed power applications.

  16. User-Computer Interface Technology: An Assessment of the Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    a model of the current state of the world. A similar effort is underway at the Computing Research Laboratory at New Mexico S-’ State University. One...process by validating or modifying requirements. Rapid prototyping techniques * such as storyboarding offer relatively low cost approaches to bringing the...Research Laboratory, New Mexico State University. Bannon, Liam J. (1986). Issues in design: some notes. In D. A. Norman and S. W. Draper (Eds.), User

  17. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  18. CURRENT STATUS, TRENDS AND CONTRADICTIONS IN ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK OF THE STATE INSPECTION FOR ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF TERRITORIAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERIOR OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda A. ERMOLAEVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the current state, trends and contradictions in organization of the work of the Russian traffic police subdivisions of the Ministry of Interior, following the requirements of the President regarding education of law-abiding citizens. After the road accident that had occurred in Khabarovsk region on August 5, 2015, when 68 people were injured, 15 people died, Vladimir Putin conducted a session of the Government of the Russian Federation. At the session, the President assigned the task to develop additional measures of safety on the roads. The complex plan, proposed by I. Shuvalov and aimed at reducing deaths on the roads, includes some different aspects: interaction with information agencies for publishing the data on dangerous sections of roads; strengthening of requirements to organizations engaged in transporting citizens; the use of helicopters to provide medical aid for victims of traffic accidents. The First Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation paid special attention to education of road users, introduction of norms of driver’s behavior, emergence of the term «dangerous driving» and strengthening of the responsibility for driving while intoxicated. For many years, the educational function has been assigned to police officers, namely to the traffic police. However, in some regions of the Russian Federation there is a reduction of police regular staff officers, including the State Inspection for road traffic safety of territorial subdivisions of the Ministry of Interior of the Russian Federation

  19. Assessing DOE`s success in implementing the FFC Act: A federal and state partnership to develop treatment plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letourneau, M.J.; Bubar, P.M. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Implementation of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) required total cooperation among the Department of Energy (DOE), the involved States and interested stakeholders. Although the effort was time consuming, tedious and (at times) trying, the results obtained [Site Treatment Plans (STP)] were an unprecedented success. Through long-range planning, attention to details and organization of effort, a coordinated, cohesive, focused team was developed that included the DOE Headquarters, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 40 DOE sites, 20 states and multiple interested stakeholders. The efforts of the FFCAct team resulted in the preparation of 37 STPs which outline the methods, locations and schedules for the treatment and disposal of DOE`s mixed wastes. The Plans provided a strong foundation upon which consent orders were prepared and approved. The FFCAct approach also resulted in the development of working relationships that will prove not only useful but vital to the planning and implementation necessary to the successful clean-up and disposal DOE`s mixed wastes.

  20. Argonne National Laboratory study of the transfer of federal computational technology to manufacturing industry in the State of Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a pilot study to develop, initiate the implementation, and document a process to identify computational technology capabilities resident within Argonne National Laboratory to small and medium-sized businesses in the State of Michigan. It is a derivative of a program entitled ``Technology Applications Development Process for the State of Michigan`` undertaken by the Industrial Technology Institute and MERRA under funding from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The overall objective of the latter program is to develop procedures which can facilitate the discovery and commercialization of new technologies for the benefit of small and medium-size manufacturing firms. Federal laboratories such as Argonne, along with universities, have been identified by the Industrial Technology Institute as key sources of technology which can be profitably commercialized by the target firms. The scope of this study limited the investigation of technology areas for technology transfer to that of computational science and engineering featuring high performance computing. This area was chosen as the broad technological capability within Argonne to investigate for technology transfer to Michigan firms for several reasons. First, and most importantly, as a multidisciplinary laboratory, Argonne has the full range of scientific and engineering skills needed to utilize leading-edge computing capabilities in many areas of manufacturing.

  1. Argonne National Laboratory study of the transfer of federal computational technology to manufacturing industry in the State of Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a pilot study to develop, initiate the implementation, and document a process to identify computational technology capabilities resident within Argonne National Laboratory to small and medium-sized businesses in the State of Michigan. It is a derivative of a program entitled Technology Applications Development Process for the State of Michigan'' undertaken by the Industrial Technology Institute and MERRA under funding from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The overall objective of the latter program is to develop procedures which can facilitate the discovery and commercialization of new technologies for the benefit of small and medium-size manufacturing firms. Federal laboratories such as Argonne, along with universities, have been identified by the Industrial Technology Institute as key sources of technology which can be profitably commercialized by the target firms. The scope of this study limited the investigation of technology areas for technology transfer to that of computational science and engineering featuring high performance computing. This area was chosen as the broad technological capability within Argonne to investigate for technology transfer to Michigan firms for several reasons. First, and most importantly, as a multidisciplinary laboratory, Argonne has the full range of scientific and engineering skills needed to utilize leading-edge computing capabilities in many areas of manufacturing.

  2. Limitations Of The Current State Space Modelling Approach In Multistage Machining Processes Due To Operation Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán-Nebot, J. V.; Liu, J.; Romero, F.

    2009-11-01

    The State Space modelling approach has been recently proposed as an engineering-driven technique for part quality prediction in Multistage Machining Processes (MMP). Current State Space models incorporate fixture and datum variations in the multi-stage variation propagation, without explicitly considering common operation variations such as machine-tool thermal distortions, cutting-tool wear, cutting-tool deflections, etc. This paper shows the limitations of the current State Space model through an experimental case study where the effect of the spindle thermal expansion, cutting-tool flank wear and locator errors are introduced. The paper also discusses the extension of the current State Space model to include operation variations and its potential benefits.

  3. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several {mu}s) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution.

  4. [Memorandum on sustainable reinforcement of prevention and health promotion: challenges at the federal, state and local level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Pawils, S; Robra, B-P; Trojan, A; Franz, M; Grossmann, B; Schmidt, T-A; Lehmann, H; Bauer, U; Göpel, E; Janz, A; Kuhn, J; Naegele, G; Müller-Kohlenberg, H; Plaumann, M; Stender, K-P; Stolzenberg, R; Süß, W; Trenker, M; Wanek, V; Wildner, M

    2015-05-01

    Research-based evidence and practice-based experience are core requirements for the effective implementation of preventive interventions. The knowledge gained in the Prevention Research Funding Initiative of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (2004-2013) was therefore amalgamated, reflected and consolidated in the Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research (KNP) meta-project. In annual strategy meetings, researchers and practitioners from the field and other experts developed 3 memoranda providing recommendations for the further development of research and practice in the field of prevention and health promotion. Memorandum III is primarily aimed at decision-makers in politics and administration at the federal, state and local level, in civil society and in the workplace. Its recommendations show that structuring efforts are urgently needed to achieve sustainable policy, particularly in the fields of health, education, employment and social affairs. Memorandum III brings together the knowledge extracted and problems identified in research projects. More so than its 2 predecessors, Memorandum III abstracts knowledge from the individual projects and attempts to derive guidance for action and decision-making, as shown by the 7 recommendations that appear to useful for consensus-building in practice and research. Value judgments are inevitable. Prevention and health promotion are an investment in the future: of social health, social capital and social peace. Improvement of the framework conditions is needed to achieve the harmonized awareness and the sustained effectiveness of these structure-building efforts in different policy areas, spheres of life, fields of action, and groups of actors. This includes the implementation of an overall national strategy as well as the expansion of sources of funding, extension of the legal framework, overarching coordination, and the establishment of a National Center of Excellence to develop and safeguard

  5. Series transformer based diode-bridge-type solid state fault current limiter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir HEIDARY; Hamid RADMANESH; Seyed Hamid FATHI; G B GHAREHPETIAN

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel series transformer based diode-bridge-type solid state fault current limiter (SSFCL). To control the fault current, a series RLC branch is connected to the secondary side of an isolation series transformer. Based on this RLC branch, two current limiting modes are created. In the first mode, R and C are bypassed via a paralleled power electronic switch (insulated-gate bipolar transistor, IGBT) and L remains connected to the secondary side of the transformer as a DC reactor. In the second mode, the series reactor impedance is not enough to limit the fault current. In this case, the fault current can be con-trolled by selecting a proper on-off duration of the parallel IGBT, across the series damping resistor (R) and capacitor, which inserts high impedance into the line to limit the fault current. Then, by controlling the magnitude of the DC reactor current, the fault current is reduced and the voltage of the point of common coupling (PCC) is kept at an acceptable level. In addition, in the new SSFCL, the series RC branch, connected in parallel with the IGBT, serves as a snubber circuit for decreasing the transient recovery voltage (TRV) of the IGBT during on-off states. Therefore, the power quality indices can be improved. The measure-ment results of a built prototype are presented to support the simulation and theoretical studies. The proposed SSFCL can limit the fault current without any delay and successfully smooth the fault current waveform.

  6. State of the art of cattle dehorning in the EU Member States. A quantitative survey of the current practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzi, G.; Gottardo, F.; Brscic, M.; Contiero, B.; Irrgang, N.; Knierim, U.; Pentelescu, O.; Windig, J.J.; Mirabito, L.; Kling Eveillard, F.; Dockes, A.C.; Veissier, I.; Velarde, A.; Fuentes, C.; Dalmau, A.; Winckler, C.

    2015-01-01

    A survey was carried out to describe the extent and current practice of cattle disbudding/dehorning in the EU Member States. Disbudding was defined as removal of horns in calves of up to 2 months of age, whereas dehorning was defined as removal of horns in older animals. Specific questionnaires were

  7. Developments of the climate protection law and the climate change policy 2014-2015. Pt. 2. Federal government, federal states and municipalities; Entwicklungen des Klimaschutzrechts und der Klimaschutzpolitik 2014/2015. T. 2. Bund, Bundeslaender und Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staesche, Uta [Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Recht (HWR), Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Klimaschutz, Energie und Mobilitaet (IKEM)

    2015-08-14

    According to the motto of the energy transition the Federal Government set herself targets in the areas of greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy and energy efficiency. Main emphasis of its climate change policy is the implementation of the 2014/15 Action Programme Climate Protection 2020. A key measure discussed here is the climate contribution of the German electricity sector, is now being implemented in a significantly modified form. With a view on the long-term climate objectives prepares the federal government the national climate change plan 2050; the federal government promote locally climate protection within the framework of the National Climate Protection Initiative (NKI) in a Variety of projects. On the level of the federal states intensifies clearly the trend of the legal protection of federal climate protection targets. In addition to the federal levels are also the municipalities still active in various climate protection projects. [German] Unter dem Leitwort der Energiewende hat sich die Bundesregierung Ziele in den Bereichen Treibhausgasemissionen, erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz gesetzt. Schwerpunkt ihrer Klimaschutzpolitik bildet 2014/15 die Umsetzung des Aktionsprogramms Klimaschutz 2020. Als eine zentrale Massnahme wurde hier der Klimabeitrag des deutschen Stromsektors diskutiert, der nun in deutlich abgewandelter Form umgesetzt wird. Mit Blick auf die langfristigen Klimaschutzziele bereitet die Bundesregierung den nationalen Klimaschutzplan 2050 vor; Klimaschutz vor Ort foerdert sie im Rahmen der Nationalen Klimaschutzinitiative (NKI) in einer Vielzahl von Projekten. Auf Ebene der Bundeslaender verstaerkt sich deutlich der Trend der gesetzlichen Absicherung von Landesklimaschutzzielen. Neben den ueberregionalen Ebenen sind auch die Kommunen weiterhin in vielfaeltigen Klimaschutzprojekten aktiv.

  8. Voltage-gated proton currents in microglia of distinct morphology and functional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, R; Heinemann, U; Eder, C

    1999-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements were performed to investigate voltage-gated proton currents (I(PR)) in cultured murine microglia of distinct morphology and functional state. We studied I(PR) in ameboid microglia of untreated cultures, in ameboid microglia which had been activated by lipopolysaccharide, and in ramified microglia which had been exposed to astrocyte-conditioned medium. Proton currents of these three microglia populations did not differ regarding their activation threshold or the voltage dependence of steady-state activation. Moreover, pharmacological properties of I(PR) were similar: proton currents were sensitive to extracellularly applied Zn2+ or La3+, and could be abolished by each of those at a concentration of 100 microM. In the presence of extracellular Na+, I(PR) was decreased to a similar small extent due to activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger in all microglial populations. In contrast, proton currents of microglia differed between the three cell populations with respect to their current density and their time-course of activation: in comparison with untreated microglia, the current density of I(PR) was reduced by about 50% in microglia after their treatment with either lipopolysaccharide or astrocyte-conditioned medium. Moreover, I(PR) activated significantly more slowly in cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide or astrocyte-conditioned medium than in untreated cells. It can be concluded that the distinct H+ current characteristics of the three microglial populations do not correlate with the functional state of the cells.

  9. Integrated and Inclusive Higher Education in Vladimir State University: Current State and Development Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegorov I.N.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the many years of experience in methodological support and training at the Center of Professional Education for the Disabled and at the “Inclusive Education” Research and Educational Center of the Vladimir State University. At these centers the work is aimed at establishing a system of continuous higher inclusive education for persons with hearing and visual impairments. The paper focuses on the issues concerning the organization of educational process and the adaptation of learning materials for students with hearing and visual impairments; it addresses the problem of creating a system of academic support for students with disabilities and providing psychological and educational assistance to individuals with hearing and visual impairments in the system of higher education.

  10. Dynamics of the current filament formation and its steady-state characteristics in chalcogenide based PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoslovskiy, Nikita; Tsendin, Konstantin

    2017-03-01

    In the phase-change memory (PCM) crystallization occurs in the high-current filament which forms during switching to the conductive state. In the present paper we conduct a numerical modeling of the current filament formation dynamics in thin chalcogenide films using an electronic-thermal model based on negative-U centers tunnel ionization and Joule heating. The key role of inhomogeneities in the filament formation process is shown. Steady-state filament parameters were obtained from the analysis of the stationary heat conduction equation. The filament formation dynamics and the steady-state filament radius and temperature could be controlled by material parameters and contact resistance. Consequently it is possible to control the size of the region wherein crystallization occurs. A good agreement with numerous experimental data leads to the conclusion that thermal effects play a significant role in CGS conduction and high-current filament formation while switching.

  11. A quasi-current representation for information needs inspired by Two-State Vector Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panpan; Hou, Yuexian; Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Yazhou; Song, Dawei; Li, Wenjie

    2017-09-01

    Recently, a number of quantum theory (QT)-based information retrieval (IR) models have been proposed for modeling session search task that users issue queries continuously in order to describe their evolving information needs (IN). However, the standard formalism of QT cannot provide a complete description for users' current IN in a sense that it does not take the 'future' information into consideration. Therefore, to seek a more proper and complete representation for users' IN, we construct a representation of quasi-current IN inspired by an emerging Two-State Vector Formalism (TSVF). With the enlightenment of the completeness of TSVF, a ;two-state vector; derived from the 'future' (the current query) and the 'history' (the previous query) is employed to describe users' quasi-current IN in a more complete way. Extensive experiments are conducted on the session tracks of TREC 2013 & 2014, and show that our model outperforms a series of compared IR models.

  12. Overweight in the Pacific: links between foreign dependence, global food trade, and obesity in the Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassels Susan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM has received considerable attention for their alarming rates of overweight and obesity. On Kosrae, one of the four districts in the FSM, 88% of adults aged 20 or older are overweight (BMI > 25, 59% are obese (BMI > 30, and 24% are extremely obese (BMI > 35. Recent genetic studies in Kosrae have shown that obesity is a highly heritable trait, and more work is underway to identify obesity genes in humans. However, less attention has been given to potential social and developmental causes of obesity in the FSM. This paper outlines the long history of foreign rule and social change over the last 100 years, and suggests that a combination of dietary change influenced by foreigners, dependence on foreign aid, and the ease of global food trade contributed to poor diet and increased rates of obesity in Micronesia. The last section of the paper highlights the Pacific tuna trade as an example of how foreign dependence and global food trade exacerbates their obesity epidemic.

  13. Eight New Species of Genus Coscinoderma (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida: Spongiidae from Chuuk Island, The Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim, Chung Ja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes eight new species of the genus Coscinoderma from Chuuk Island, the Federated States of Micronesia. This genus is characterized by very fine, meandering uncored secondary fibres. All the new Coscinoderma species are compared with eight other valid species from tropical regions. Coscinoderma folium n. sp. is characterized by its large thickly foliate shape, and cored primary fibres are easily found between secondary fibres in choanosome. Coscinoderma lacium n. sp. differs in having round conules and no cored primary fibres. Coscinoderma cavernosa n. sp. is distinguished from other species by its cavernous shape and long sharp conules. Coscinoderma wenoa n. sp. is characterized by long conules and primary fibres. Coscinoderma mappula n. sp. differs in having a thick sand crust in the choanosome. Coscinoderma bakusi n. sp. is characterized by having several oscules at the top of the sponge and color changed grey to dark brown in alcohol. Coscinoderma pollax n. sp. is characterized by having a small thumb shape. Coscinoderma truki n. sp. similar to C. pollax in shape but differs in cored primary fibres with many spicules.

  14. Change of surface critical current in the surface superconductivity and mixed states of superconducting niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburas, Muhamad; Pautrat, Alain; Bellido, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    A systematic study of irreversible magnetization was performed in bulk niobium after different surface treatments. Starting with smooth surfaces and abrading them, a strong increase of the critical current is observed up to an apparent limiting value. An impressive change of the critical current is also observed in the surface superconductivity (SSC) state, reaching values of the same order of magnitude as in the mixed state. We explain also the observation of strong SSC for magnetic fields perpendicular to large facets in terms of nucleation of superconductivity along bumps of a corrugated surface.

  15. High magnetic field science and its application in the United States current status and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    National Research Council of the National Academies

    2013-01-01

    The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States was convened by the National Research Council in response to a request by the National Science Foundation. This report answers three questions: (1) What is the current state of high-field magnet science, engineering, and technology in the United States, and are there any conspicuous needs to be addressed? (2) What are the current science drivers and which scientific opportunities and challenges can be anticipated over the next ten years? (3) What are the principal existing and planned high magnetic field facilities outside of the United States, what roles have U.S. high field magnet development efforts played in developing those facilities, and what potentials exist for further international collaboration in this area? A magnetic field is produced by an electrical current in a metal coil. This current exerts an expansive force on the coil, and a magnetic field is "high" if it challenges the str...

  16. Cost of a measles outbreak in a remote island economy: 2014 Federated States of Micronesia measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Tippins, Ashley; Nyaku, Mawuli; Eckert, Maribeth; Helgenberger, Louisa; Underwood, J Michael

    2017-10-13

    After 20years with no reported measles cases, on May 15, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was notified of two cases testing positive for measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Under the Compact of Free Association, FSM receives immunization funding and technical support from the United States (US) domestic vaccination program managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In a collaborative effort, public health officials and volunteers from FSM and the US government worked to respond and contain the measles outbreak through an emergency mass vaccination campaign, contact tracing, and other outbreak investigation activities. Contributions were also made by United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO). Total costs incurred as a result of the outbreak were nearly $4,000,000; approximately $10,000 per case. Direct medical costs (≈$141,000) were incurred in the treatment of those individuals infected, as well as lost productivity of the infected and informal caregivers (≈$250,000) and costs to contain the outbreak (≈$3.5 million). We assessed the economic burden of the 2014 measles outbreak to FSM, as well as the economic responsibilities of the US. Although the US paid the majority of total costs of the outbreak (≈67%), examining each country's costs relative to their respective economy illustrates a far greater burden to FSM. We demonstrate that while FSM was heavily assisted by the US in responding to the 2014 Measles Outbreak, the outbreak significantly impacted their economy. FSM's economic burden from the outbreak is approximately equivalent to their entire 2016 Fiscal Year budget dedicated to education. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Intentional injury reported by young people in the Federated States of Micronesia, Kingdom of Tonga and Vanuatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havea Drew

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intentional injury presents a threat to the physical and psychological well being of young people, especially in developing countries, which carry the greatest part of the global injury burden. While the importance of this problem is recognized, there are limited population data in low and middle income countries that can guide public health action. The present study investigates the prevalence and distribution of intentional injury among young people in three Pacific Island societies, and examines behavioural and psychosocial factors related to risk of intentional injury. Methods Population surveys were conducted with students aged 11–17 years in Pohnpei State in the Federated States of Micronesia (n = 1495, the Kingdom of Tonga (n = 2808 and Vanuatu (n = 4474. Surveys measured self-reported injury and intentional injury, sources of intentional injury, and the range of behavioural, psychological, educational and social variables that may be related to injury risk. Results Among boys and girls aged 14–17 years the respective period prevalence of intentional injury was 62% and 56% in Pohnpei, 58% and 41% in Tonga, and 33% and 24% in Vanuatu. The prevalence of intentional injury declined with age in Tonga and Vanuatu, but there was little evidence of an age-trend in Pohnpei. Across the three societies, the major sources of intentional injury among boys were 'other persons' followed by boyfriends/girlfriends and fathers. Mothers, boyfriends/girlfriends and other persons were primary sources of injury among girls. An intentional injury was reported more often by those who had been bullied (OR 1.40–1.66, P Conclusion Intentional injury was reported extensively in these three populations. Interventions directed towards the school environment and which take into account the role of bullying and drug use need to be considered.

  18. Non equilibrium steady states: fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current

    OpenAIRE

    Derrida, B.

    2007-01-01

    These lecture notes give a short review of methods such as the matrix ansatz, the additivity principle or the macroscopic fluctuation theory, developed recently in the theory of non-equilibrium phenomena. They show how these methods allow to calculate the fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current in non-equilibrium steady states of systems like exclusion processes. The properties of these fluctuations and large deviation functions in non-equilibrium steady states (fo...

  19. Nutrition support in the United States, what is the current practice?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia S. Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Clinical nutrition in the United States encompasses a vast continuum of nutrition:from the process of identification of malnutition to the management and prevention of obesity. This presentation with focus on the current pratice of nutrition support in the United States. Nutrition support is the provision of specially formulated and/or delivered parenteral or enteral nutrients to maintain or restore optimal nutrition status.

  20. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...