WorldWideScience

Sample records for current dramatic evolution

  1. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Edwige Heitzmann; Hervé Javelot; Luisa Weiner; Bruno Michel

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsi...

  2. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzmann, Edwige; Weiner, Luisa; Michel, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsidering the real risk of tardive dyskinesia associated with aripiprazole, particularly in the elderly. PMID:27818825

  3. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwige Heitzmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsidering the real risk of tardive dyskinesia associated with aripiprazole, particularly in the elderly.

  4. Dramatic role of critical current anisotropy on flux avalanches in MgB2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J; Matveev, A T; Strempfer, J; Habermeier, H-U; Shantsev, D V; Galperin, Y M; Johansen, T H

    2007-03-16

    Anisotropic penetration of magnetic flux in MgB(2) films grown on vicinal sapphire substrates is investigated using magneto-optical imaging. Regular penetration above 10 K proceeds more easily along the substrate surface steps, the anisotropy of the critical current being 6%. At lower temperatures the penetration occurs via abrupt dendritic avalanches that preferentially propagate perpendicular to the surface steps. This inverse anisotropy in the penetration pattern becomes dramatic very close to 10 K where all flux avalanches propagate in the strongest pinning direction. The observed behavior is fully explained using a thermomagnetic model of the dendritic instability.

  5. Scavenging ROS dramatically increase NMDA receptor whole-cell currents in painted turtle cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukoff, David James; Hogg, David William; Hawrysh, Peter John; Buck, Leslie Thomas

    2014-09-15

    Oxygen deprivation triggers excitotoxic cell death in mammal neurons through excessive calcium loading via over-activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. This does not occur in the western painted turtle, which overwinters for months without oxygen. Neurological damage is avoided through anoxia-mediated decreases in NMDA and AMPA receptor currents that are dependent upon a modest rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) originating from mitochondria. Anoxia also blocks mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which is another potential signaling mechanism to regulate glutamate receptors. To assess the effects of decreased intracellular [ROS] on NMDA and AMPA receptor currents, we scavenged ROS with N-2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Unlike anoxia, ROS scavengers increased NMDA receptor whole-cell currents by 100%, while hydrogen peroxide decreased currents. AMPA receptor currents and [Ca(2+)]i concentrations were unaffected by ROS manipulation. Because decreases in [ROS] increased NMDA receptor currents, we next asked whether mitochondrial Ca(2+) release prevents receptor potentiation during anoxia. Normoxic activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mKATP) channels with diazoxide decreased NMDA receptor currents and was unaffected by subsequent ROS scavenging. Diazoxide application following ROS scavenging did not rescue scavenger-mediated increases in NMDA receptor currents. Fluorescent measurement of [Ca(2+)]i and ROS levels demonstrated that [Ca(2+)]i increases before ROS decreases. We conclude that decreases in ROS concentration are not linked to anoxia-mediated decreases in NMDA/AMPA receptor currents but are rather associated with an increase in NMDA receptor currents that is prevented during anoxia by mitochondrial Ca(2+) release.

  6. Rates of projected climate change dramatically exceed past rates of climatic niche evolution among vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Wiens, John J

    2013-08-01

    A key question in predicting responses to anthropogenic climate change is: how quickly can species adapt to different climatic conditions? Here, we take a phylogenetic approach to this question. We use 17 time-calibrated phylogenies representing the major tetrapod clades (amphibians, birds, crocodilians, mammals, squamates, turtles) and climatic data from distributions of > 500 extant species. We estimate rates of change based on differences in climatic variables between sister species and estimated times of their splitting. We compare these rates to predicted rates of climate change from 2000 to 2100. Our results are striking: matching projected changes for 2100 would require rates of niche evolution that are > 10,000 times faster than rates typically observed among species, for most variables and clades. Despite many caveats, our results suggest that adaptation to projected changes in the next 100 years would require rates that are largely unprecedented based on observed rates among vertebrate species.

  7. Dramatic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about…

  8. Current perspectives on the evolution of birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ericson, P.G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current understanding of the evolution and diversification of birds. New insights into this field have mainly come from two fundamentally different, but complementary sources of information: the many newly discovered Mesozoic bird fossils and the wealth of genetic analyses

  9. Current perspectives on the evolution of birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ericson, P.G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current understanding of the evolution and diversification of birds. New insights into this field have mainly come from two fundamentally different, but complementary sources of information: the many newly discovered Mesozoic bird fossils and the wealth of genetic analyses o

  10. Social insect genomes exhibit dramatic evolution in gene composition and regulation while preserving regulatory features linked to sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simola, Daniel F.; Wissler, Lothar; Donahue, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Genomes of eusocial insects code for dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity and social organization. We compared the genomes of seven ants, the honeybee, and various solitary insects to examine whether eusocial lineages share distinct features of genomic organization. Each ant lineage contain...

  11. Cooperatives in Serbia: Evolution and current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chroneos-Krasavac Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperatives in Serbia have long history, evolving from big traditional families to the contemporary social networked organizations and even private companies acting like coops. Current legal framework, on one side, enables many possibilities, but on the other side prevents further development of cooperatives. An interview of key players in the coop sector was one of the research methods. Other methods include historical method, comparative analysis method and case study method. In conclusion, the major obstacle for the further coops development in Serbia is legal status of ownership. Other obstacles are: the level of state interference, the loyalty of primary producers and participants, the average land size per households, etc. The paper includes three parts: historical evolution, successful case study and framework for future development.

  12. Evolution and current challenges of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Dahua.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has evolved into a safe and convenient minimally invasive surgical method, which is now the gold standard therapy for cholelithiasis worldwide. Physicians have continued to improve upon the procedure, creating methods that further minimize the related scarring and pain, such as the laproendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy and the gasless-lift laparoscopy. Additionally, the primary challenge of limited operative space in these procedures remains a key feature requiring improvement. In this review, the development and progression of laparoscopic cholecystectomy over the past 26 years is discussed, highlighting the current advantages and disadvantages that need to be addressed by practicing physicians to maximize the clinical value of this important therapy.

  13. Creative Dramatics. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Julia; Sidlovskaya, Olga; Stotter, Ruth; Haugen, Kirsten; Leithold, Naomi

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on using creative dramatics in early childhood education: (1) "Drama: A Rehearsal for Life" (Julia Gabriel); (2) "Fairy Tales Enhance Imagination and Creative Thinking" (Olga Sidlovskaya); (3) "Starting with a Story" (Ruth Stotter); (4) "Using Creative Dramatics to Include All…

  14. Trends in the exchange current for hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Bligaard, Thomas; Logadottir, Ashildur;

    2005-01-01

    A density functional theory database of hydrogen chemisorption energies on close packed surfaces of a number of transition and noble metals is presented. The bond energies are used to understand the trends in the exchange current for hydrogen evolution. A volcano curve is obtained when measured...... exchange currents are plotted as a function of the calculated hydrogen adsorption energies and a simple kinetic model is developed to understand the origin of the volcano. The volcano curve is also consistent with Pt being the most efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution. (c) 2005...

  15. Reduction of neoclassical polarization current contribution to NTM evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongpeng; Peng, Xiaodong; Wang, Feng; Wang, Aike; Shen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    The neoclassical polarization current, which can be generated by a time-dependent electric field resulting from magnetic island rotation, is believed to play an important role in the initial stage of the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) evolution in tokamak plasmas. In the previous analytical description of the neoclassical polarization current contribution to the evolution of NTMs in the limit of low collision frequency ( νii≪ɛω , νii is ion collision frequency, ɛ is the inverse aspect ratio, and ω is the island propagation frequency in the plasma rest frame), the width of magnetic islands has been assumed to be much larger than the finite-banana-width (FBW) of the trapped ions in order to solve the drift-kinetic equation of ions by using the perturbation method. In this paper, we introduce a new analytical approach to investigate the neoclassical polarization current contribution to the NTM evolution without the assumption of the large island width by solving the drift-kinetic equation in a so-called ion-banana-center coordinate system. The results show that, when the island width is comparable to the FBW of the thermal ion, the neoclassical polarization current term in the equation of the NTM evolution is much smaller than the previous analytical expression but matches well with the empirical anticipation commonly adopted in experiments.

  16. Sinusoidal current and stress evolutions in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Bauer, Christoph; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical breakdown of graphite materials due to diffusion-induced stress (DIS) is a key aging mechanism of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, electrochemical-thermal coupled model along with a DIS model is developed to study the DIS distribution across the anode thickness. Special attention is paid to the evolution behavior of surface tangential stress (STS) in the discharge process for graphite at different locations of the anode. For the first time, we report that the evolution of STS, as well as local current, at all locations of the anode, evolve like sinusoidal waves in the discharge process with several crests and troughs. The staging behavior of graphite active material, in particular the sharp change of open-circuit potential (OCP) of graphite in the region between two plateaus, is found to be the root cause for the sinusoidal patterns of current and stress evolution. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as starting state of charge, discharge C-rate and electrode thickness on the current and stress evolutions are investigated.

  17. Nonlinear Evolution of Magnetic Islands in the Magnetopause Current Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XianminWANG; ZuyinPU

    1996-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution of magnetic islands produced by time-dependent magnetic reconnection in the magnetopause current sheet is studied.It is shown that the magnetic islands are unstable against the interference from external disturbances.Their structure can be destroyed by medium and small-scale solar wind turbulences,leading to stochastic magnetic reconnection and the formation of irregular small0scale structures in magnetospheric boundary regions.

  18. Cross-tail current evolution during substorm dipolarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine evolution of the cross-tail current during substorm current disruption/dipolarization using observations from two satellites in the near-Earth magnetotail at the downtail distances of 8–9 RE. By choosing times when these two satellites are separated, mainly in the north–south distance in the tail current sheet, precise determination of current density in the layer embedded between these satellites can be obtained with Ampère's law. Two such events are examined and several common features are found. The current densities in the layer embedded by the two satellites were reduced by ~ 40–70% during substorm dipolarization. The changes in current densities have the fast kinetic timescale, i.e., in seconds, implying a kinetic process for current disruption/dipolarization. The estimated power within the current layer was mainly dissipative in the dawn–dusk direction and mainly dynamo in the Sun–tail direction that is needed to drive the north–south substorm current system in the ionosphere. Remote sensing of the energization site with the ion sounding technique shows that the energization site was initially earthward of the satellite and moved down the tail at later times. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurred intermittently during the disturbance interval. These features provide important clues to the substorm onset process.

  19. Genesis of return stroke current evolution at the wavefront

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Udaya; Raysaha, Rosy Balaram

    2013-07-01

    The channel dynamics at the wavefront is complex and is primarily responsible for the evolution of return stroke current. The enhancement of channel conductance at the wavefront is necessary for the evolution of current and hence, return stroke. In this regard several questions arise like: (i) what causes the enhancement of conductance, (ii) as the channel core temperature and electrical conductance are closely related, does one support the other and (iii) is the increase in core temperature on the nascent section of the channel the result of free burning arc of the wavefront just below. The present work investigates on these issues with appropriate transient thermal analysis and a macroscopic physical model for the lightning return stroke. Results clearly indicate that the contribution from the thermal field of the wavefront region to the adjacent nascent channel section is negligible as compared to the field enhancement brought in by the same. In other words, the whole process of return stroke evolution is dependent on the local heat generation at the nascent section caused by the enhancement of electric field due to the arrival of the wavefront.

  20. Is frictional heating needed to cause dramatic weakening of nanoparticle gouge during seismic slip? Insights from friction experiments with variable thermal evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli; Niemeijer, André R.; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Platt, John D.

    2016-07-01

    To examine whether faults can be lubricated by preexisting and newly formed nanoparticles, we perform high-velocity friction experiments on periclase (MgO) nanoparticles and on bare surfaces of Carrara marble cylinders/slices, respectively. Variable temperature conditions were simulated by using host blocks of different thermal conductivities. When temperature rises are relatively low, we observe high friction in nano-MgO tests and unexpected slip strengthening following initial weakening in marble slice tests, suggesting that the dominant weakening mechanisms are of thermal origin. Solely the rolling of nanoparticles without significant temperature rise is insufficient to cause dynamic fault weakening. For nano-MgO experiments, comprehensive investigations suggest that flash heating is the most likely weakening mechanism. In marble experiments, flash heating controls the unique evolutions of friction, and the competition between bulk temperature rise and wear-induced changes of asperity contact numbers seems to strongly affect the efficiency of flash heating.

  1. The evolution and current state of emergency care in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Osei-Ampofo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine as a specialty has only recently been introduced to Ghana. This article reviews the overall health and medical care systems as well as the evolution and the current state of emergency care in Ghana and the progress made in establishing Emergency Medicine (EM as a specialty along the Anglo-American model of emergency care. The article also describes the improvements implemented in emergency patient care, and emergency medicine management systems. Although there are challenges to overcome, much optimism remains about the future of this new specialty in Ghana and its ability to transform the face of emergency care.

  2. Spatial-temporal evolution of the current filamentation instability

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, V B; Stockem, A; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O

    2015-01-01

    The spatial-temporal evolution of the purely transverse current filamentation instability is analyzed by deriving a single partial differential equation for the instability and obtaining the analytical solutions for the spatially and temporally growing current filament mode. When the beam front always encounters fresh plasma, our analysis shows that the instability grows spatially from the beam front to the back up to a certain critical beam length; then the instability acquires a purely temporal growth. This critical beam length increases linearly with time and in the non-relativistic regime it is proportional to the beam velocity. In the relativistic regime the critical length is inversely proportional to the cube of the beam Lorentz factor $\\gamma_{0b}$. Thus, in the ultra-relativistic regime the instability immediately acquires a purely temporal growth all over the beam. The analytical results are in good agreement with multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations performed with OSIRIS. Relevance of curr...

  3. Why were alternating-current-driven electrochemiluminescence properties from Ru(bpy)3(2+) dramatically improved by the addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneyasu, Shota; Ichihara, Kazuki; Nakamura, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Norihisa

    2016-06-28

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) is a phenomenon in which light is emitted from the excited state of a redox-active material generated by electrochemical reactions. Among light-emitting devices, ECL devices have various advantages in terms of structure and ease of fabrication, and therefore, they are expected to be next-generation emitting devices. In this study, we introduced rutile-type titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in a Ru(ii)-complex-based electrolyte to improve the emission properties of an alternating current (AC)-driven ECL device. The properties of the ECL device with TiO2 NPs were greatly improved (emission luminescence, 165 cd m(-2); half-life time, 1000 s) compared to a previously reported AC-driven ECL device without nanoparticles. To determine how TiO2 NPs helped in achieving high emission luminescence and long-term stability, we measured the optical and electrochemical properties of the Ru(bpy)3(2+)-based ECL solution in detail. The PL intensity of Ru(bpy)3(2+) was increased by adding TiO2 NPs, which indicated that the suppression of non-radiative quenching of the complex's excited states could improve the ECL intensity. With respect to the enhanced stability, electron transfers between Ru(bpy)3(2+) and TiO2 were suggested by detailed electrochemical measurements. These electron transfers occurred from the reduced Ru(bpy)3(2+) species to the TiO2, and subsequently, from the TiO2 to the oxidized Ru(bpy)3(2+) species. Such electron transfers are thought to improve the balance of the redox reactions in the ECL device, leading to long-term stability.

  4. Radical Islam in Xinjiang – Evolution and Current State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Suchanek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the evolution and the current state of radical Islam in China’s Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Chinese government considers Islamic radicalism as a serious threat, in particular in the Xinjiang region, which borders on some states in Central Asia as well as Pakistan and Afghanistan. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate roots and historical development of significant groups, in particular the East Turkestan Islamic Movement – ETIM. In its next part, the article deals with the contemporary situation as well as the cooperation between Uyghur radicals and other radical Islamic movements, in particular al-Qaeda and Taliban, and their activities. The article concludes that contemporary Uyghur Islamic radicalism cannot be considered as a major security threat, since the activities of these groups have largely shifted to Pakistan and rather have the nature of a propaganda war.

  5. Evolution and current development of Transversal Themes: possibilities and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rosales López

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the evolution and current development of transversal themes in education, considering them basically as important social cuestions with great influence in the overall education of the student. Specifically it seeks to clarify the level of preparation and dedication of teachers and schools to teach them. To do this, legislation used in our country (organics laws and decrees curriculum were analyzed and also the contribution of outstanding educators, institutions and researchers. We analyzed the characteristics of transversal themes in the educational project and the teaching program, its development in the clasroom and its projection out of it through the help of family and community. Conclusions about their current status (possibilities and limitations are derived and future proposals are made on the improvement of initial and ongoing training of teachers, to increase their collegiate or cooperative work of planning, intervention and evaluation, increased media and counseling in use, the need for increased communication and collaboration with families and other community institutions.How to reference this articleRosales López, C. (2015. Evolución y desarrollo actual de los Temas Transversales: posibilidades y límites. Foro de Educación, 13(18, pp. 143-160. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.018.008

  6. Nonlinear evolution of three-dimensional instabilities of thin and thick electron scale current sheets: Plasmoid formation and current filamentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg [Max Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, Göttingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-Von-Liebig-Weg-3, Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Nonlinear evolution of three dimensional electron shear flow instabilities of an electron current sheet (ECS) is studied using electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The dependence of the evolution on current sheet thickness is examined. For thin current sheets (half thickness =d{sub e}=c/ω{sub pe}), tearing mode instability dominates. In its nonlinear evolution, it leads to the formation of oblique current channels. Magnetic field lines form 3-D magnetic spirals. Even in the absence of initial guide field, the out-of-reconnection-plane magnetic field generated by the tearing instability itself may play the role of guide field in the growth of secondary finite-guide-field instabilities. For thicker current sheets (half thickness ∼5 d{sub e}), both tearing and non-tearing modes grow. Due to the non-tearing mode, current sheet becomes corrugated in the beginning of the evolution. In this case, tearing mode lets the magnetic field reconnect in the corrugated ECS. Later thick ECS develops filamentary structures and turbulence in which reconnection occurs. This evolution of thick ECS provides an example of reconnection in self-generated turbulence. The power spectra for both the thin and thick current sheets are anisotropic with respect to the electron flow direction. The cascade towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow.

  7. As it happens: current directions in experimental evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Joyce, Paul; Sniegowski, Paul

    2013-02-23

    Recent decades have seen a significant rise in studies in which evolution is observed and analysed directly-as it happens-under replicated, controlled conditions. Such 'experimental evolution' approaches offer a degree of resolution of evolutionary processes and their underlying genetics that is difficult or even impossible to achieve in more traditional comparative and retrospective analyses. In principle, experimental populations can be monitored for phenotypic and genetic changes with any desired level of replication and measurement precision, facilitating progress on fundamental and previously unresolved questions in evolutionary biology. Here, we summarize 10 invited papers in which experimental evolution is making significant progress on a variety of fundamental questions. We conclude by briefly considering future directions in this very active field of research, emphasizing the importance of quantitative tests of theories and the emerging role of genome-wide re-sequencing.

  8. Current approaches in evolution: from molecules to cells and organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thattai, Mukund; Peisajovich, Sergio G

    2014-11-01

    This is an exciting time to be an evolutionary biologist. Indeed, it is difficult to keep up with all the studies that fall under the broad category of "Evolution" since they span species, traits, and scales of organization. This special issue gives a flavor of exciting new approaches in evolutionary biology, but also emphasizes universal themes. The reviews contained here discuss important aspects of molecular evolution at multiple scales, from individual proteins to complex regulatory networks, as well as from unicellular organisms to macroscopic traits in animals. Though the model systems are diverse, the issues addressed are fundamental: the origin of evolutionary novelties, and the forces that drive them to fixation.

  9. Early steps in plastid evolution: current ideas and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodył, Andrzej; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Stiller, John W

    2009-11-01

    Some nuclear-encoded proteins are imported into higher plant plastids via the endomembrane (EM) system. Compared with multi-protein Toc and Tic translocons required for most plastid protein import, the relatively uncomplicated nature of EM trafficking led to suggestions that it was the original transport mechanism for nuclear-encoded endosymbiont proteins, and critical for the early stages of plastid evolution. Its apparent simplicity disappears, however, when EM transport is considered in light of selective constraints likely encountered during the conversion of stable endosymbionts into fully integrated organelles. From this perspective it is more parsimonious to presume the early evolution of post-translational protein import via simpler, ancestral forms of modern Toc and Tic plastid translocons, with EM trafficking arising later to accommodate glycosylation and/or protein targeting to multiple cellular locations. This hypothesis is supported by both empirical and comparative data, and is consistent with the relative paucity of EM-based transport to modern primary plastids.

  10. Robotics in urological surgery: evolution, current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, A; Sanchez-Salas, R; Prapotnich, D; Barret, E; Mombet, A; Cathala, N; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2015-09-01

    Robotic surgery is rapidly evolving and has become an essential part of surgical practice in several parts of the world. Robotic technology will expand globally and most of the surgeons around the world will have access to surgical robots in the future. It is essential that we are updated about the outcomes of robot assisted surgeries which will allow everyone to develop an unbiased opinion on the clinical utility of this innovation. In this review we aim to present the evolution, objective evaluation of clinical outcomes and future perspectives of robot assisted urologic surgeries. A systematic literature review of clinical outcomes of robotic urological surgeries was made in the PUBMED. Randomized control trials, cohort studies and review articles were included. Moreover, a detailed search in the web based search engine was made to acquire information on evolution and evolving technologies in robotics. The present evidence suggests that the clinical outcomes of the robot assisted urologic surgeries are comparable to the conventional open surgical and laparoscopic results and are associated with fewer complications. However, long term results are not available for all the common robotic urologic surgeries. There are plenty of novel developments in robotics to be available for clinical use in the future. Robotic urologic surgery will continue to evolve in the future. We should continue to critically analyze whether the advances in technology and the higher cost eventually translates to improved overall surgical performance and outcomes. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Hospitality Ethical Growth via Dramatic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherif Haberih

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to find scalable data and statistics for realistic rendering of Ethical and Dramatic English gradual growth based on Thai students within the Hospitality and Tourism Industry. We also intend to prove that Dramatic English serves English improvements for Thai students. Furthermore we intend to better understand students' behaviors and ethical growth processes based on cultural, social, personal and psychological background through Dramatic English for Hospitality Industry. Universities and Educational Organizations today are involved in complex tasks. With the burst of communication through Medias and an ever increasing student’s demand for higher quality education and services, having a competitive advantage is seen as a necessary tool. Education has evolved and its business approach requires a modern and inadequate solution. As of today, Thailand is in need of a new generation of tools applied to modernize the current educational system, and emphasize on new methods.

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Tuca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, there is evidence that suggest that economic globalization has resumed the upward trend that characterized it before the crisis. Despite the fact the global crisis has shaken the process of globalization, we cannot talk of an end of globalization, as some predictions have indicated.

  13. Dramatizing Nonfiction with Emerging Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Lynne

    1991-01-01

    Presents scenarios from a kindergarten classroom in which dramatization is used extensively in conjunction with nonfiction books. Shows how the children acted out topics that ranged from the Pilgrims' first Thanksgiving to the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., showing that they were able to develop rich representations of nonfiction materials.…

  14. Learning through Dramatic Story Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Evie

    2012-01-01

    The use of story with dramatic presentation approaches produces an engaging and powerful instructional choice for today's adult ESL educators. Two engaging and timed-tested approaches are Reader's Theater and Tableau Vivant. Both provide English language learners with content tailored to their abilities in addition to numerable opportunities to…

  15. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT DURING THE FORMATION AND ERUPTION OF ACTIVE-REGION FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jincheng; Yan, Xiaoli; Qu, Zhongquan; Xue, Zhike; Xiang, Yongyuan; Li, Hao, E-mail: egnever@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the electric current related to the formation and eruption of active region filaments in NOAA AR 11884. The vertical current on the solar surface was investigated by using vector magnetograms (VMs) observed by HMI on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. To obtain the electric current along the filament's axis, we reconstructed the magnetic fields above the photosphere by using nonlinear force-free field extrapolation based on photospheric VMs. Spatio-temporal evolutions of the vertical current on the photospheric surface and the horizontal current along the filament's axis were studied during the long-term evolution and eruption-related period, respectively. The results show that the vertical currents of the entire active region behaved with a decreasing trend and the magnetic fields also kept decreasing during the long-term evolution. For the eruption-related evolution, the mean transverse field strengths decreased before two eruptions and increased sharply after two eruptions in the vicinity of the polarity inversion lines underneath the filament. The related vertical current showed different behaviors in two of the eruptions. On the other hand, a very interesting feature was found: opposite horizontal currents with respect to the current of the filament's axis appeared and increased under the filament before the eruptions and disappeared after the eruptions. We suggest that these opposite currents were carried by the new flux emerging from the photosphere bottom and might be the trigger mechanism for these filament eruptions.

  16. The Evolution of the Electric Current during the Formation and Eruption of Active-region Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jincheng; Yan, Xiaoli; Qu, Zhongquan; Xue, Zhike; Xiang, Yongyuan; Li, Hao

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the electric current related to the formation and eruption of active region filaments in NOAA AR 11884. The vertical current on the solar surface was investigated by using vector magnetograms (VMs) observed by HMI on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. To obtain the electric current along the filament's axis, we reconstructed the magnetic fields above the photosphere by using nonlinear force-free field extrapolation based on photospheric VMs. Spatio-temporal evolutions of the vertical current on the photospheric surface and the horizontal current along the filament's axis were studied during the long-term evolution and eruption-related period, respectively. The results show that the vertical currents of the entire active region behaved with a decreasing trend and the magnetic fields also kept decreasing during the long-term evolution. For the eruption-related evolution, the mean transverse field strengths decreased before two eruptions and increased sharply after two eruptions in the vicinity of the polarity inversion lines underneath the filament. The related vertical current showed different behaviors in two of the eruptions. On the other hand, a very interesting feature was found: opposite horizontal currents with respect to the current of the filament's axis appeared and increased under the filament before the eruptions and disappeared after the eruptions. We suggest that these opposite currents were carried by the new flux emerging from the photosphere bottom and might be the trigger mechanism for these filament eruptions.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Density Current Evolution in a Diverging Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Javan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When a buoyant inflow of higher density enters a reservoir, it sinks below the ambient water and forms an underflow. Downstream of the plunge point, the flow becomes progressively diluted due to the fluid entrainment. This study seeks to explore the ability of 2D width-averaged unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS simulation approach for resolving density currents in an inclined diverging channel. 2D width-averaged unsteady RANS equations closed by a buoyancy-modified − turbulence model are integrated in time with a second-order fractional step approach coupled with a direct implicit method and discretized in space on a staggered mesh using a second-order accurate finite volume approach incorporating a high-resolution semi-Lagrangian technique for the convective terms. A series of 2D width-averaged unsteady simulations is carried out for density currents. Comparisons with the experimental measurements and the other numerical simulations show that the predictions of velocity and density field are with reasonable accuracy.

  18. Fine structure of flare ribbons and evolution of electric currents

    CERN Document Server

    Sharykin, I N

    2014-01-01

    Emission of solar flares across the electromagnetic spectrum is often observed in the form of two expanding ribbons. The standard flare model explains the flare ribbons as footpoints of magnetic arcades, emitting due to interaction of energetic particles with the chromospheric plasma. However, the physics of this interaction and properties of the accelerated particles are still unknown. We present results of multiwavelength observations of C2.1 flare of August 15, 2013, observed with New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), GOES and FERMI spacecraft. The observations reveal previously unresolved sub-arcsecond structure of the flare ribbons in regions of strong magnetic field consisting from numerous small-scale bright knots. We observe red-blue asymmetry of H alpha flare ribbons with a width as small as 100 km. We discuss the relationship between the ribbons and vertical electric currents estimated from vector magnetograms, and show that Joule heating can be r...

  19. [Asperger syndrome: evolution of the concept and current clinical data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussilloux, C; Baghdadli, A

    2008-05-01

    Although Asperger syndrome is described by international classifications as a category of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), its validity as a specific entity distinct from autistic disorders remains controversial. The syndrome, first described by Hans Asperger, could not be distinguished from high functioning autism (onset, symptoms, outcome...). However, international classifications propose a distinction between the two syndromes based on a delayed onset, the absence of speech delay, the presence of motor disorders and a better outcome in Asperger syndrome. This categorical differentiation is not confirmed by current studies and in the absence of biological markers, no clinical, neuropsychological or epidemiological criteria makes it possible to distinguish high functioning autism from Asperger syndrome. From a clinical perspective, it is nevertheless of interest to isolate Asperger syndrome from other autistic disorders to propose specific assessment and therapy.

  20. Little Eyolf and dramatic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lysell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.

  1. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described.

  2. Modified pulsar current analysis: probing magnetic field evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Igoshev, A P

    2014-01-01

    We use a modified pulsar current analysis to study magnetic field decay in radio pulsars. In our approach we analyse the flow, not along the spin period axis as has been performed in previous studies, but study the flow along the direction of growing characteristic age, $\\tau=P/(2\\dot P)$. We perform extensive tests of the method and find that in most of the cases it is able to uncover non-negligible magnetic field decay (more than a few tens of per cent during the studied range of ages) in normal radio pulsars for realistic initial properties of neutron stars. However, precise determination of the magnetic field decay timescale is not possible at present. The estimated timescale may differ by a factor of few for different sets of initial distributions of neutron star parameters. In addition, some combinations of initial distributions and/or selection effects can also mimic enhanced field decay. We apply our method to the observed sample of radio pulsars at distances $<10$ kpc in the range of characteristi...

  3. Equilibrium Reconstructions with V3FIT and Current Evolution Modeling for 3-D Stellarator Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Cianciosa, M.; Geiger, J.; Lazerson, S.

    2016-10-01

    V3FIT is a powerful equilibrium reconstruction tool for magnetic confinement fusion experiments which are inherently 3-D in nature (i.e. stellarators) or have 3-D components (tokamaks with 3-D shaping, reversed field pinches with helical states, etc). Here, we present details of the diagnostic modeling, constraints and the user interface for reconstructions of W7-X plasmas. For typical discharges during the OP1.1 run campaign of W7-X, the net toroidal current and current density profile do not reach steady-state. When modeling the current evolution in 3-D plasmas, both poloidal and toroidal currents are linked with both poloidal and toroidal fluxes. In contrast, in toroidally axisymmetric plasmas, the poloidal flux is linked only with the toroidal current and the toroidal current is linked only with the poloidal flux. Compared to an equivalently-sized axisymmetric configuration, the current diffusion in 3-D plasmas is enhanced, leading to a faster relaxation of the current profile to its steady-state. Implications for the time-evolution of the current and rotational transform profiles in stellarator plasmas are discussed. This work is supported by DoE Grant DE-SC00014529.

  4. Evolution of the current system during solar wind pressure pulses based on aurora and magnetometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Kikuchi, Takashi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Akimasa; Imajo, Shun; Li, Wen; Utada, Hisashi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated evolution of ionospheric currents during sudden commencements using a ground magnetometer network in conjunction with an all-sky imager, which has the advantage of locating field-aligned currents much more accurately than ground magnetometers. Preliminary (PI) and main (MI) impulse currents showed two-cell patterns propagating antisunward, particularly during a southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Although this overall pattern is consistent with the Araki (solar wind sources of magnetospheric ultra-low-frequency waves. Geophysical monograph series, vol 81. AGU, Washington, DC, pp 183-200, 1994. doi: 10.1029/GM081p0183) model, we found several interesting features. The PI and MI currents in some events were highly asymmetric with respect to the noon-midnight meridian; the post-noon sector did not show any notable PI signal, but only had an MI starting earlier than the pre-noon MI. Not only equivalent currents but also aurora and equatorial magnetometer data supported the much weaker PI response. We suggest that interplanetary shocks impacting away from the subsolar point caused the asymmetric current pattern. Additionally, even when PI currents form in both pre- and post-noon sectors, they can initiate and disappear at different timings. The PI currents did not immediately disappear but coexisted with the MI currents for the first few minutes of the MI. During a southward IMF, the MI currents formed equatorward of a preexisting DP-2, indicating that the MI currents are a separate structure from a preexisting DP-2. In contrast, the MI currents under a northward IMF were essentially an intensification of a preexisting DP-2. The magnetometer and imager combination has been shown to be a powerful means for tracing evolution of ionospheric currents, and we showed various types of ionospheric responses under different upstream conditions.

  5. The Co-Evolution of Galaxies and Black Holes: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, T M

    2008-01-01

    I begin by summarizing the evidence that there is a close relationship between the evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. They evidently share a common fuel source, and feedback from the black hole may be needed to suppress over-cooling in massive galaxies. I then review what we know about the co-evolution of galaxies and black holes in the modern universe (z 2) the most massive black holes and the progenitors of the most massive galaxies are forming. Here, we currently have a tantalizing but fragmented view of their co-evolution. In the next decade the huge increase in sensitivity and discovery power of our observatories will enable us to analyze the large, complete samples we need to achieve robust and clear results.

  6. Evolution of the Topology, Electric Currents, and Ribbons during an X-class Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savcheva, Antonia; Janvier, Miho; Pariat, Etienne

    2016-05-01

    The standard model for eruptive flares has in the past few years been extended to 3D. It predicts typical J-shaped photospheric footprints of the coronal current layer, forming at similar locations as the Quasi-Separatrix Layers (QSLs). We study the evolution of the photospheric traces of the current density and the flare ribbons observed with SDO. We aim at comparing their morphology and their time evolution, before and during the flare, with the topological features found in a magnetic field model. For this purpose we investigate the photospheric current evolution during the 6 Sep 2011 X-class flare occurring in AR11283 from observational data of the magnetic field obtained with HMI. This evolution is compared with that of the flare ribbons observed with AIA. We also compare the observed electric current density and the flare ribbon morphology with that of the QSLs computed from magnetic field models obtained from the the flux rope insertion method. Both the NLFFF and the unstable (eruptive) model show the presence of a fan-spine configuration of overlying field lines, due to the presence of a parasitic polarity, embedding in elongated flux rope that appears in the observations as two parts of a filament. The magnetofrictional evolution of the unstable model tells a consistent story of the filament eruption in which topology plays an important role. The photospheric QSL traces of the fan configuration appear as an elongated flare ribbon that encircles the J-shaped ribbons related to the filament ejection. The QSLs, evolved via a magnetofrictional method, also show similar morphology and evolution as both the current ribbons and the EUV flare ribbons obtained at several times during the flare. For the first time, we propose a combined analysis of the photospheric traces of an eruptive flare, in a complex topology, with direct measurements of electric currents and QSLs from observational data and a magnetic field model. The results obtained by two independent

  7. Early evolution of electron cyclotron driven current during suppression of tearing modes in a circular tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, J; Westerhof, E

    2016-01-01

    When electron cyclotron (EC) driven current is first applied to the inside of a magnetic island, the current spreads throughout the island and after a short period achieves a steady level. Using a two equation fluid model for the EC current that allows us to examine this early evolution in detail, we analyze high-resolution simulations of a 2/1 classical tearing mode in a low-beta large aspect-ratio circular tokamak. These simulations use a nonlinear 3D reduced-MHD fluid model and the JOREK code. During the initial period where the EC driven current grows and spreads throughout the magnetic island, it is not a function of the magnetic flux. However, once it has reached a steady-state, it should be a flux function. We demonstrate numerically that if sufficiently resolved toroidally, the steady-state EC driven current becomes approximately a flux function. We discuss the physics of this early period of EC evolution and its impact on the size of the magnetic island.

  8. Effects of electron cyclotron current drive on the evolution of double tearing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Guanglan, E-mail: sunguanglan@nciae.edu.cn; Dong, Chunying [Basic Science Section, North China Institute of Aerospace Engineering, Langfang 065000 (China); Duan, Longfang [School of Computer and Remote Sensing Information Technology, North China Institute of Aerospace Engineering, Langfang 065000 (China)

    2015-09-15

    The effects of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) on the double tearing mode (DTM) in slab geometry are investigated by using two-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamics equations. It is found that, mainly, the double tearing mode is suppressed by the emergence of the secondary island, due to the deposition of driven current on the X-point of magnetic island at one rational surface, which forms a new non-complete symmetric magnetic topology structure (defined as a non-complete symmetric structure, NSS). The effects of driven current with different parameters (magnitude, initial time of deposition, duration time, and location of deposition) on the evolution of DTM are analyzed elaborately. The optimal magnitude or optimal deposition duration of driven current is the one which makes the duration of NSS the longest, which depends on the mutual effect between ECCD and the background plasma. Moreover, driven current introduced at the early Sweet-Parker phase has the best suppression effect; and the optimal moment also exists, depending on the duration of the NSS. Finally, the effects varied by the driven current disposition location are studied. It is verified that the favorable location of driven current is the X-point which is completely different from the result of single tearing mode.

  9. Evolution of Wave Energy Deposition Profile in HT-7 Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德; 石跃江; 匡光力; 刘岳修; 沈慰慈; 丁伯江

    2001-01-01

    Lower hybrid waves (LHWs) with a selected n‖ spectrum have been used to control the energy deposition profiles, and then the wave driven current profiles effectively in tokamak discharges. In our lower hybrid current drive experiment in the HT-7 tokamak, it was found that the set-up of the wave energy deposition profile is a graduation process. In the beginning phase of the wave injection duration, the waves (with different n‖ spectra)deposit almost all their energy in the central region of the plasma column, even if their n‖ are very different. Up to around one hundred milliseconds, the wave energy deposition profiles can only take their corresponding shapes according to the n‖ spectra of LHWs. It also shown that this evolution process is affected obviously by the LHW driven current profile, which has been formed early.

  10. Evolution of the magnetospheric storm-ring current with a constant time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cluadegonzalez, A.L.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Detman, T.R.; Joselyn, J.A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Using the energy balance equation for the ring current during magnetic storms, a theoretical study of the response of this current is done, for the case of a constant time decay tau. The input energy function for the balance equation is assumed to be described by a simple time variation during the injection time, such that an analytical response can be obtained. The model is used for 5 of the 10 intense storms in the interval August 1978-December 1979, for which the ISEE-3 interplanetary data are available. The energy input function for these 5 events (those with less data gaps) is assumed to be one of both, the azimuthal interplanetary electric field or the Akasofu`s coupling function. These input functions are approximated by one of the simple mentioned input functions and the solution obtained from the energy balance equation, for different values of tau, is compared to the actual evolution of the ring current (derived from the geomagnetic index Dst). The sets of input functions and tau values that better reproduce the observed storm evolution are adopted as the best approximation. As a conclusion, it is found that the more appropriate values of tau are longer than those determined in previous studies, especially for the case of more intense storms.

  11. A Conceptual Analysis of Current Trends in the Evolution of Risk Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wieczorek-Kosmala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The traditional idea of risk management is continually evolving as it enjoys growing popularity in corporations. The paper reviews the risk management procedure within the traditional concept and then identifies and discusses the main trends currently observed within the organisation and implementation of this procedure. Scientific aim: The paper aims at identyfing and describing the currently observed trends in the evolution of risk management process. To achieve this, it aims at comparative analysis of solutions within traditional risk management concept and the ideas underpinning the current process of risk management standardisation. It also aims at reviewing the validity of clasiffication of risk treatment techniques. Methodology/methods: The paper represents a conceptual analysis of the current state of affairs and uses the method of comparative analysis and deduction based on the literature review and the lecture of standardisation documents. As a viewpoint paper, it represents au-thor’s own ideas and findings. Findings: The two main trends of risk management evolution should be idetified. The first one is related with strategic dimension of risk management as this procedure is often promoted as an integrated concept. It springs from the regulations of standardisation procedures which aim at unifying the terminology and set of activities from practitioners’ perspective. The second direction of risk management concept evolution is observed within the development of risk financing techniques due to the innovations observed within traditional risk retention and trasfer solutions, as a result of continuous convergence of insurance and capital markets. Conclusions: (limits, implications etc The risk management process is constantly evolving toward the strategic dimension as the risk perception changes, concerning both the downside and upside of risk. However, the standards follow similar sequence of

  12. Current views on hunter-gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Schnorr, Stephanie L

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition. Research among the world's few remaining foraging populations is experiencing a resurgence, as they are making the final transition away from diets composed of wild foods, to those dominated by domesticated cultigens and/or processed foods. In an effort to glean as much information as possible, before such populations are no longer hunting and gathering, researchers interested in the evolution of human nutrition are rapidly collecting and accessing new and more data. Methods of scientific inquiry are in the midst of rapid change and scholars are able to revisit long-standing questions using state of the art analyses. Here, using the most relevant findings from studies in ethnography, nutrition, human physiology, and microbiomes, we provide a brief summary of the study of the evolution of human nutrition as it has specifically pertained to data coming from living hunter-gatherers. In doing so, we hope to bridge the disciplines that are currently invested in research on nutrition and health among foraging populations. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  13. Drifter Observations Of Wave-Current Evolution Through The San Francisco Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, D. W.; Herbers, T. H.; Janssen, T. T.; McIntyre, S.; Jessen, P.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean waves approaching the Golden Gate, the narrow strait connecting the San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean, are affected by refraction over the San Francisco Bar and the strong tidal currents in the area. During ebb tides, when currents through the Golden Gate can exceed 2.5 m/s, the approach to San Francisco Bay is characterized by focusing and steepening of the incident wave field on the opposing current jet. These dynamics are not uncommon in coastal inlets and are known to present hazardous navigation conditions. The strong inhomogeneity and enhanced nonlinearity of the waves can result in deviations from non-Gaussian statistics and changes in the likelihood of extreme waves. However, since observations of wave-current dynamics are so difficult to make with conventional instruments, these dynamics remain still poorly understood. In this work we present the development and testing of a compact, low-cost, Wave-Resolving Drifter (WRD), designed to resolve the wave orbital surface motions and surface drifts in high-energy areas. The WRDs consist of a 30cm buoy equipped with an off-the-shelf GPS receiver and a three-axis accelerometer. The combined GPS-accelerometer package is functionally equivalent to a conventional pitch-roll (or PUV) wave height and direction instrument, but at a fraction of the price. In our presentation we will discuss results from several WRD array deployments in the San Francisco Bight during high-energy conditions with strong ebb currents. The buoys are shown to resolve the surface waves and surface drift with remarkable accuracy and allow the analysis of the evolution of the wave group structure over the opposing current. To obtain statistical results for currents and waves, WRDs were released in clusters (ensemble) from which shoaling effects over the bar and wave-current interaction can be identified.

  14. Evolution of Ring Current Protons Induced by Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fu-Liang; TIAN Tian; CHEN Liang-Xu; SU Zhen-Peng; ZHENG Hui-Nan

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the phase space density (PSD) of ring current protons induced by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves at the location L=3.5, calculate the diffusion coefficients in pitch angle and momentum, and solve the standard two-dimensional Fokker-Planck diffusion equation. The pitch angle diffusion coefficient is found to be larger than the momentum diffusion coefficient by a factor of about 10~3 or above at lower pitch angles. We show that EMIC waves can produce efficient pitch angle scattering of energetic (~100 keV) protons, yielding a rapid decrement in PSD, typically by a factor of ~10 within a few hours, consistent with observational data. This result further supports previous findings that wave-particle interaction is responsible for the rapid ring current decay.

  15. Introducing Dramatic Inquiry as Visual Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Mindi; Daiello, Vittoria S.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines dramatic inquiry, exploring its possible contributions to discourses on subjectivity, embodied pedagogy, and relational knowing in art education. As a communal, ensemble endeavor emerging from the discipline of drama education, dramatic inquiry offers strategies for enhancing arts education's critical inquiries by facilitating…

  16. Modelling of sediment transport and morphological evolution under the combined action of waves and currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Franz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coastal defence structures are often constructed to prevent beach erosion. However, poorly designed structures may cause serious erosion problems in the downdrift direction. Morphological models are useful tools to predict such impacts and assess the efficiency of defence structures for different scenarios. Nevertheless, morphological modelling is still a topic under intense research effort. The processes simulated by a morphological model depend on model complexity. For instance, undertow currents are neglected in coastal area models (2DH, which is a limitation for simulating the evolution of beach profiles for long periods. Model limitations are generally overcome by predefining invariant equilibrium profiles that are allowed to shift offshore or onshore. A more flexible approach is described in this paper, which can be generalised to 3-D models. The present work is based on the coupling of the MOHID modelling system and the SWAN wave model. The impacts of different designs of detached breakwaters and groynes were simulated in a schematic beach configuration following a 2DH approach. The results of bathymetry evolution are in agreement with the patterns found in the literature for several existing structures. The model was also tested in a 3-D test case to simulate the formation of sandbars by undertow currents. The findings of this work confirmed the applicability of the MOHID modelling system to study sediment transport and morphological changes in coastal zones under the combined action of waves and currents. The same modelling methodology was applied to a coastal zone (Costa da Caparica located at the mouth of a mesotidal estuary (Tagus Estuary, Portugal to evaluate the hydrodynamics and sediment transport both in calm water conditions and during events of highly energetic waves. The MOHID code is available in the GitHub repository.

  17. Modelling of sediment transport and morphological evolution under the combined action of waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Guilherme; Delpey, Matthias T.; Brito, David; Pinto, Lígia; Leitão, Paulo; Neves, Ramiro

    2017-09-01

    Coastal defence structures are often constructed to prevent beach erosion. However, poorly designed structures may cause serious erosion problems in the downdrift direction. Morphological models are useful tools to predict such impacts and assess the efficiency of defence structures for different scenarios. Nevertheless, morphological modelling is still a topic under intense research effort. The processes simulated by a morphological model depend on model complexity. For instance, undertow currents are neglected in coastal area models (2DH), which is a limitation for simulating the evolution of beach profiles for long periods. Model limitations are generally overcome by predefining invariant equilibrium profiles that are allowed to shift offshore or onshore. A more flexible approach is described in this paper, which can be generalised to 3-D models. The present work is based on the coupling of the MOHID modelling system and the SWAN wave model. The impacts of different designs of detached breakwaters and groynes were simulated in a schematic beach configuration following a 2DH approach. The results of bathymetry evolution are in agreement with the patterns found in the literature for several existing structures. The model was also tested in a 3-D test case to simulate the formation of sandbars by undertow currents. The findings of this work confirmed the applicability of the MOHID modelling system to study sediment transport and morphological changes in coastal zones under the combined action of waves and currents. The same modelling methodology was applied to a coastal zone (Costa da Caparica) located at the mouth of a mesotidal estuary (Tagus Estuary, Portugal) to evaluate the hydrodynamics and sediment transport both in calm water conditions and during events of highly energetic waves. The MOHID code is available in the GitHub repository.

  18. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  19. Evolution of oxygen reduction current and biofilm on stainless steels cathodically polarised in natural aerated seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faimali, Marco [ISMAR-CNR, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genoa (Italy)], E-mail: marco.faimali@ismar.cnr.it; Chelossi, Elisabetta; Garaventa, Francesca; Corra, Christian; Greco, Giuliano; Mollica, Alfonso [ISMAR-CNR, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genoa (Italy)

    2008-12-01

    The aim of a series of works recently performed at ISMAR was to provide new useful information for a better understanding of the mechanisms by which bacteria settlement causes corrosion on Stainless Steels (SS) and similar active-passive alloys exposed to seawater. In this work, the evolutions of cathodic current, bacteria population, and electronic structure of the passive layer were investigated on SS samples polarised at fixed potentials during their exposure to natural seawater. It was found that, during the first phase of biofilm growth, cathodic current increase is proportional to the number of settled bacteria at each fixed potential. However, the proportionality factor between settled bacteria and cathodic current depends on imposed potential. In particular, the proportionality factor strongly decreases when the potential is increased above a critical value close to -150 mV Ag/AgCl. This effect seems to be correlated with the electronic structure of the passive layer. Indeed, the outer part of the passive layer on tested SS was found to behave like a conductor at potentials more active than -150 mV Ag/AgCl, and like an n-type semiconductor at more noble potentials.

  20. Palaeogenomes of Eurasian straight-tusked elephants challenge the current view of elephant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Baleka, Sina; Stiller, Mathias; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Alt, Kurt W; Ishida, Yasuko; Mania, Dietrich; Mallick, Swapan; Meijer, Tom; Meller, Harald; Nagel, Sarah; Nickel, Birgit; Ostritz, Sven; Rohland, Nadin; Schauer, Karol; Schüler, Tim; Roca, Alfred L; Reich, David; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2017-06-06

    The straight-tusked elephants Palaeoloxodon spp. were widespread across Eurasia during the Pleistocene. Phylogenetic reconstructions using morphological traits have grouped them with Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and many paleontologists place Palaeoloxodon within Elephas. Here, we report the recovery of full mitochondrial genomes from four and partial nuclear genomes from two P. antiquus fossils. These fossils were collected at two sites in Germany, Neumark-Nord and Weimar-Ehringsdorf, and likely date to interglacial periods ~120 and ~244 thousand years ago, respectively. Unexpectedly, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses suggest that P. antiquus was a close relative of extant African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis). Species previously referred to Palaeoloxodon are thus most parsimoniously explained as having diverged from the lineage of Loxodonta, indicating that Loxodonta has not been constrained to Africa. Our results demonstrate that the current picture of elephant evolution is in need of substantial revision.

  1. Lean management in the current context of evolution of an organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMALIA VENERA TODORUŢ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have approached issues concerning the importance of Lean Management method in the current context of evolution of an organization. With roots in the just in time method, Lean Management model focuses on the process of changes evolving and adapting to them and regards issues such as: the dimensioning of life cycle, the dimensioning of processes, the dimensioning of ranges of products. I have also presented the relationship between Lean Management method and the human factor as a determinant in forming an organizational culture which leads to the formation and development of Lean thinking. Relevant factors which determine the change and interact with the Lean Management method are: training, motivation, teamwork spirit, communication methods, training and motivation. An important aspect of this paper is to integrate Lean Management with Six Sigma, and with other managerial techniques leading to getting quality products at low costs

  2. CFD-DEM Simulations of Current-Induced Dune Formation and Morphological Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of sediment transport, particularly those during the formation and evolution of bedforms, is of critical scientific importance and has engineering relevance. Traditional approaches of sediment transport simulations heavily rely on empirical models, which are not able to capture the physics-rich, regime-dependent behaviors of the process. With the increase of available computational resources in the past decade, CFD-DEM (computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method) has emerged as a viable high-fidelity method for the study of sediment transport. However, a comprehensive, quantitative study of the generation and migration of different sediment bed patterns using CFD-DEM is still lacking. In this work, current-induced sediment transport problems in a wide range of regimes are simulated, including 'flat bed in motion', `small dune', `vortex dune' and suspended transport. Simulations are performed by using SediFoam, an open-source, massively parallel CFD-DEM solver...

  3. The Evolution of Current Research Impact Metrics: From Bibliometrics to Altmetrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joseph S; Kaye, I David; Sebastian, Arjun S; Wagner, Scott C; Morrissey, Patrick B; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-03-23

    The prestige of publication has been based on traditional citation metrics, most commonly journal impact factor. However, the Internet has radically changed the speed, flow, and sharing of medical information. Furthermore, the explosion of social media, along with development of popular professional and scientific websites and blogs, has led to the need for alternative metrics, known as altmetrics, to quantify the wider impact of research. We explore the evolution of current research impact metrics and examine the evolving role of altmetrics in measuring the wider impact of research. We suggest that altmetrics used in research evaluation should be part of an informed peer-review process such as traditional metrics. Moreover, results based on altmetrics must not lead to direct decision making about research, but instead, should be used to assist experts in making decisions. Finally, traditional and alternative metrics should complement, not replace, each other in the peer-review process.

  4. The diversity, ecology and evolution of extrafloral nectaries: current perspectives and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazzi, Brigitte; Bronstein, Judith L; Koptur, Suzanne

    2013-06-01

    Plants in over one hundred families in habitats worldwide bear extrafloral nectaries (EFNs). EFNs display a remarkable diversity of evolutionary origins, as well as diverse morphology and location on the plant. They secrete extrafloral nectar, a carbohydrate-rich food that attracts ants and other arthropods, many of which protect the plant in return. By fostering ecologically important protective mutualisms, EFNs play a significant role in structuring both plant and animal communities. And yet researchers are only now beginning to appreciate their importance and the range of ecological, evolutionary and morphological diversity that EFNs exhibit. This Highlight features a series of papers that illustrate some of the newest directions in the study of EFNs. Here, we introduce this set of papers by providing an overview of current understanding and new insights on EFN diversity, ecology and evolution. We highlight major gaps in our current knowledge, and outline future research directions. Our understanding of the roles EFNs play in plant biology is being revolutionized with the use of new tools from developmental biology and genomics, new modes of analysis allowing hypothesis-testing in large-scale phylogenetic frameworks, and new levels of inquiry extending to community-scale interaction networks. But many central questions remain unanswered; indeed, many have not yet been asked. Thus, the EFN puzzle remains an intriguing challenge for the future.

  5. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilet, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general. (SR)

  6. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilet, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general. (SR)

  7. The Art of Reading: Dramatizing Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlieb, Evan; Cramer, Neva; Cheek, Earl, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The art of reading refers to the act of representing and interpreting text through oral dramatic reading. To the dismay of many teachers, reading is becoming a "lost art." Students are expected to apply specific literacy techniques rather than use their imagination to learn to enact text. Based on a study of the reading perceptions of natural oral…

  8. The Psychodrama-Social Dramatics Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Richard L.

    Social dramatics is a therapeutic and educational program that can act as a mirror to reflect images of the self in action with others. It is the modality for experiential learning to correct social dysfunction by providing models for imitation, opportunities to practice and develop individual forms from that model, and risk free environments for…

  9. Effect of Current Frequency on Droplet Evolution During Magnetic-Field-Controlled Electroslag Remelting Process Via Visualization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai; Zhong, Yunbo; Li, Qiang; Fang, Yipeng; Ren, Weili; Lei, Zuosheng; Ren, Zhongming

    2017-02-01

    A transparent physical model was set up to investigate the influence of the remelting current frequencies on droplet evolution during the magnetic-field-controlled electroslag remelting process. Physical simulation experiments were done under the remelting current of 8 A with frequencies ranging from 10 to 500 Hz, and a transverse static magnetic field (TSMF) of 0.7 T was superimposed simultaneously. The high-speed camera was used to record the evolution behavior of the droplet. Representative processes of formation and detachment of the droplets were observed under different conditions. The results showed that there was little influence of the current frequencies on the evolution behavior of the droplet without the external magnetic field. Nevertheless, if a TSMF was introduced, the liquid droplet's neck would be smashed into a lot of smaller droplets when the remelting current frequencies were lower than 100 Hz, while the smashing effect disappeared when the frequencies were higher than 100 Hz. The mechanism of the smashing effect was discussed. Statistical work was done to obtain the quantitative data to give a clear result revealing the influence of the remelting current frequencies on droplet evolution. The decrease in the diameter of the liquid droplets would remarkably increase the interface area and shorten the migrating distance of the inclusions in the droplets, which meant that a higher purifying efficiency could be expected.

  10. Assessing the role of oxygen on ring current formation and evolution through numerical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, R.; Liemohn, M. W.; Toth, G.; Yu Ganushkina, N.; Daldorff, L. K. S.

    2015-06-01

    We address the effect of ionospheric outflow and magnetospheric ion composition on the physical processes that control the development of the 5 August 2011 magnetic storm. Simulations with the Space Weather Modeling Framework are used to investigate the global dynamics and energization of ions throughout the magnetosphere during storm time, with a focus on the formation and evolution of the ring current. Simulations involving multifluid (with variable H+/O+ ratio in the inner magnetosphere) and single-fluid (with constant H+/O+ ratio in the inner magnetosphere) MHD for the global magnetosphere with inner boundary conditions set either by specifying a constant ion density or by physics-based calculations of the ion fluxes reveal that dynamical changes of the ion composition in the inner magnetosphere alter the total energy density of the magnetosphere, leading to variations in the magnetic field as well as particle drifts throughout the simulated domain. A low oxygen to hydrogen ratio and outflow resulting from a constant ion density boundary produced the most disturbed magnetosphere, leading to a stronger ring current but misses the timing of the storm development. Conversely, including a physics-based solution for the ionospheric outflow to the magnetosphere system leads to a reduction in the cross-polar cap potential (CPCP). The increased presence of oxygen in the inner magnetosphere affects the global magnetospheric structure and dynamics and brings the nightside reconnection point closer to the Earth. The combination of reduced CPCP together with the formation of the reconnection line closer to the Earth yields less adiabatic heating in the magnetotail and reduces the amount of energetic plasma that has access to the inner magnetosphere.

  11. CFD-DEM simulations of current-induced dune formation and morphological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Xiao, Heng

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of sediment transport, particularly those during the formation and evolution of bedforms, is of critical scientific importance and has engineering relevance. Traditional approaches of sediment transport simulations heavily rely on empirical models, which are not able to capture the physics-rich, regime-dependent behaviors of the process. With the increase of available computational resources in the past decade, CFD-DEM (computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method) has emerged as a viable high-fidelity method for the study of sediment transport. However, a comprehensive, quantitative study of the generation and migration of different sediment bed patterns using CFD-DEM is still lacking. In this work, current-induced sediment transport problems in a wide range of regimes are simulated, including 'flat bed in motion', 'small dune', 'vortex dune' and suspended transport. Simulations are performed by using SediFoam, an open-source, massively parallel CFD-DEM solver developed by the authors. This is a general-purpose solver for particle-laden flows tailed for particle transport problems. Validation tests are performed to demonstrate the capability of CFD-DEM in the full range of sediment transport regimes. Comparison of simulation results with experimental and numerical benchmark data demonstrates the merits of CFD-DEM approach. In addition, the improvements of the present simulations over existing studies using CFD-DEM are presented. The present solver gives more accurate prediction of sediment transport rate by properly accounting for the influence of particle volume fraction on the fluid flow. In summary, this work demonstrates that CFD-DEM is a promising particle-resolving approach for probing the physics of current-induced sediment transport.

  12. Time evolution of secondary electron emission and trapped charge accumulation in polyimide film under various primary electron irradiation currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bai-Peng; Zhou, Run-Dong; Su, Guo-Qiang; Mu, Hai-Bao; Zhang, Guan-Jun; Bu, Ren-An

    2016-12-01

    Time-resolved evolution of secondary electron emission and trapped charge accumulation in polyimide film is investigated during two interval electrons bombardment, derived from the measurement of displacement current and secondary current via a hemispherical detector with the shielded grid. Under various irradiation current, secondary electron yield (SEY σ) at a certain injected energy decreases exponentially from initial amplitude σ0 to self-consistent steady value σ∞ close to 0.93. The time constant τ of charging process is characterized as a function of incident current Ip, and the results indicate that the formula Ip × τ is fitted by a hyperbolical law. The influence of Ip on the amount of trapped charge is studied and no significant change in its saturation value is observed. The evolution of SEY σ and trapped charge is dependent on incident dose Qp but not the incident rate Ip. Furthermore, the trap density and capture cross section are discussed.

  13. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  14. Dramatic Response of Nail Psoriasis to Infliximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Safa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nail psoriasis, affecting up to 50% of psoriatic patients, is an important cause of serious psychological and physical distress. Traditional treatments for nail psoriasis, which include topical or intralesional corticosteroids, topical vitamin D analogues, photochemotherapy, oral retinoids, methotrexate, and cyclosporin, can be time-consuming, painful, or limited by significant toxicities. Biological agents may have the potential to revolutionize the management of patients with disabling nail psoriasis. We present another case of disabling nail psoriasis that responded dramatically to infliximab.

  15. The evolution of parental care in insects: A test of current hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James D J; Manica, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Which sex should care for offspring is a fundamental question in evolution. Invertebrates, and insects in particular, show some of the most diverse kinds of parental care of all animals, but to date there has been no broad comparative study of the evolution of parental care in this group. Here, we test existing hypotheses of insect parental care evolution using a literature-compiled phylogeny of over 2000 species. To address substantial uncertainty in the insect phylogeny, we use a brute force approach based on multiple random resolutions of uncertain nodes. The main transitions were between no care (the probable ancestral state) and female care. Male care evolved exclusively from no care, supporting models where mating opportunity costs for caring males are reduced-for example, by caring for multiple broods-but rejecting the "enhanced fecundity" hypothesis that male care is favored because it allows females to avoid care costs. Biparental care largely arose by males joining caring females, and was more labile in Holometabola than in Hemimetabola. Insect care evolution most closely resembled amphibian care in general trajectory. Integrating these findings with the wealth of life history and ecological data in insects will allow testing of a rich vein of existing hypotheses. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aron J. [Department of Chemistry, Lensfield Rd., University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Mori-Sánchez, Paula, E-mail: paula.mori@uam.es [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-28

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  17. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aron J.; Mori-Sánchez, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  18. The evolution of discharge current and channel radius in cloud-to-ground lightning return stroke process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Xuejuan; Cen, Jianyong; Chang, Xuan; Zhao, Yanyan

    2017-09-01

    The spectra of two negative cloud-to-ground lightning discharge processes with multi-return strokes are obtained by a slit-less high-speed spectrograph, which the temporal resolution is 110 μs. Combined with the synchronous electrical observation data and theoretical calculation, the physical characteristics during return strokes process are analysed. A positive correlation between discharge current and intensity of ionic lines in the spectra is verified, and based on this feature, the current evolution characteristics during four return strokes are investigated. The results show that the time from peak current to the half-peak value estimated by multi point-fitting is about 101 μs-139 μs. The Joule heat in per unit length of four return strokes channel is in the order of 105J/m-106 J/m. The radius of arc discharge channel is positively related to the discharge current, and the more intense the current is, the greater the radius of channel is. Furthermore, the evolution for radius of arc core channel in the process of return stroke is consistent with the change trend of discharge current after the peak value. Compared with the decay of the current, the temperature decreases more slowly.

  19. On the Dramatic Features in Robert Browning’s Poems of Dramatic Monologue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玉文

    2014-01-01

    This paper explored the three dramatic features intrinsic in Robert Browning’s poems of dramatic monologue, name-ly, the employment of first-person point of view, the use of irony, and the intricate psychological exploration and vivid character-ization. Such features are crucial in the successful presentation of various human nature and experience with profundity, making his poems an enduring classic in the English literature.

  20. Evolution of Flare Ribbons, Electric Currents and Quasi-separatrix Layers During an X-class Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Janvier, M; Pariat, E; Tassev, S; Millholland, S; Bommier, V; McCauley, P; McKillop, S; Dougan, F

    2016-01-01

    The standard model for eruptive flares has in the past few years been extended to 3D. It predicts typical J-shaped photospheric footprints of the coronal current layer, forming at similar locations as the Quasi-Separatrix Layers (QSLs). Such a morphology is also found for flare ribbons observed in the EUV band, as well as in non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) magnetic field extrapolations and models. We study the evolution of the photospheric traces of the current density and flare ribbons, both obtained with the SDO instruments. We investigate the photospheric current evolution during the 6 September 2011 X-class flare (SOL2011-09-06T22:20) from observational data of the magnetic field obtained with HMI. This evolution is compared with that of the flare ribbons observed in the EUV filters of the AIA. We also compare the observed electric current density and the flare ribbon morphology with that of the QSLs computed from the flux rope insertion method/NLFFF model. The NLFFF model shows the presence of a fan-...

  1. Past changes, current state and future evolution of the ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin-Beekmann, S.

    2013-05-01

    The ozone layer has been under scrutiny since the discovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica in the mid-eighties (Farman et al., 1985). The rapid disclosure of the main processes involved in polar ozone destruction lead to the signature of the Montreal Protocol that regulates the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS). The objective of this presentation is to review the current understanding of past changes and current state of the ozone layer, the evolution of ODS concentration in the atmosphere and assess the projections of ozone recovery. Satellite measurements revealed a peak of ODS concentration in the mid and end of the nineties and ODS concentrations have started to decrease, albeit at a slower pace than during the increase period due to the atmospheric lifetimes of these compounds. The total ozone content has stabilized at global scale since the beginning of the 21st century. In 2009, integrated ozone content was about 3.5 % smaller in the 60°S-60°N region compared to values prior to 1980 (WMO, 2011). Climate change will influence the recovery of stratospheric. Both ozone depletion and increase of carbon dioxide induce a cooling of the stratosphere. In the winter polar stratosphere, this cooling enhances the formation of polar stratospheric clouds involved in the formation of the ozone hole. In the high stratosphere, it slows the chemical reactions destroying ozone and accelerates its reformation (WMO, 2011). Besides, most chemistry-climate models predict an acceleration of the stratospheric meridional circulation, which would speed up the ozone recovery (Eyring et al., 2010). This recovery is forecasted in periods ranging between 2015 and 2030 and between 2030 and 2040 in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The Antarctic ozone hole will not disappear before 2050. Because of the acceleration of the meridional circulation, models simulate a super-recovery of ozone in the high latitude regions and an under recovery in the tropics. At

  2. Evolution of flare ribbons, electric currents, and quasi-separatrix layers during an X-class flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, M.; Savcheva, A.; Pariat, E.; Tassev, S.; Millholland, S.; Bommier, V.; McCauley, P.; McKillop, S.; Dougan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Context. The standard model for eruptive flares has been extended to three dimensions (3D) in the past few years. This model predicts typical J-shaped photospheric footprints of the coronal current layer, forming at similar locations as the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). Such a morphology is also found for flare ribbons observed in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) band, and in nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) magnetic field extrapolations and models. Aims: We study the evolution of the photospheric traces of the current density and flare ribbons, both obtained with the Solar Dynamics Observatory instruments. We aim to compare their morphology and their time evolution, before and during the flare, with the topological features found in a NLFFF model. Methods: We investigated the photospheric current evolution during the 06 September 2011 X-class flare (SOL2011-09-06T22:20) occurring in NOAA AR 11283 from observational data of the magnetic field obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We compared this evolution with that of the flare ribbons observed in the EUV filters of the Atmospheric Imager Assembly. We also compared the observed electric current density and the flare ribbon morphology with that of the QSLs computed from the flux rope insertion method-NLFFF model. Results: The NLFFF model shows the presence of a fan-spine configuration of overlying field lines, due to the presence of a parasitic polarity, embedding an elongated flux rope that appears in the observations as two parts of a filament. The QSL signatures of the fan configuration appear as a circular flare ribbon that encircles the J-shaped ribbons related to the filament ejection. The QSLs, evolved via a magnetofrictional method, also show similar morphology and evolution as both the current ribbons and the EUV flare ribbons obtained several times during the flare. Conclusions: For the first time, we propose a combined analysis of the photospheric

  3. The Evolution of Surgical Simulation: The Current State and Future Avenues for Plastic Surgery Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan, Roy; Cyr, Shantale; Hemmerling, Thomas M; Lin, Samuel J; Gilardino, Mirko S

    2017-02-01

    Alongside the ongoing evolution of surgical training toward a competency-based paradigm has come the need to reevaluate the role of surgical simulation in residency. Simulators offer the ability for trainees to acquire specific skills and for educators to objectively assess the progressive development of these skills. In this article, the authors discuss the historical evolution of surgical simulation, with a particular focus on its past and present role in plastic surgery education. The authors also discuss the future steps required to further advance plastic surgery simulation in an effort to continue to train highly competent plastic surgery graduates.

  4. Dramatic response to infliximab in refractory neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamaneni Sreekanth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. Neurologic manifestations involving the central and/or peripheral nervous system occur in about 5% of patients. Neurosarcoidosis is often refractory to conventional treatment and therefore more effective treatment options are needed. While the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there is now a better understanding of its pathogenesis on a molecular level. It is clear that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα plays a pivotal role in the development of the granulomas and it is believed to be a key cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Taking advantage of this better understanding of disease pathogenesis, anti-TNFα agents are being increasingly used to treat refractory sarcoidosis. We report a patient with refractory neurosarcoidosis who showed dramatic improvement in the clinical and radiological manifestations following treatment with infliximab; he suffered a relapse upon discontinuation of the medication.

  5. The dramatic extraction construction in French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Abeillé

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relying on spoken corpora (Corpaix, CRFP and on previous studies (Sabio 1995, 1996, we identify a construction common in spoken French, which we analyze as a particular case of extraction:a. dix sept ans il a. (Seventeen years he has [Corpaix]b. deux cigarettes j'ai fumé. (Two cigarettes I smoked [on the fly]The construction can only be a root clause and a declarative clause. Its interpretation is that of a thetic proposition. On the other hand, it is not associated with a unique information structure, since it is compatible with a focus-ground partition, with the extracted constotunet as a narrow focus, or with an all focus interpretation. We call this construction ‘dramatic extraction’, and the extracted element a ‘center’ (i.e. a focus or a figure. We formalize our analysis in the HPSG grammar.

  6. A method to dramatically improve subcarrier tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, William J.; Aguirre, Sergio

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented for achieving a dramatic improvement in phase tracking of square wave subcarriers or other square waves. The method is to set the amplitude of the phase quadrature reference signal to zero except near the zero crossings of the input signal. Without changing the loop bandwidth, the variance of the phase error can be reduced to approximately W sigma(sub 0)(2), where sigma (sub 0)(2) is the phase error variance without windowing, and W is the fraction of cycle in which the reference signal has a nonzero value. Simulation results confirm the analysis and establish minimum W versus signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, the window can be made so narrow as to achieve a phase error variance of 1.5 sigma(sub 0)(4).

  7. The Transformational Qualities of Dramatic Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gardner Salazar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During the International Drama and Education Association (IDEA Congress in Kenya in 1998, the life of two educators crossed roads. Although both are from different geographical contexts (Colombia and the United States, they have shared the same passion: to encourage in their societies the implementation of dramatic arts in different educational settings (schools, universities, communities so children and adults could develop to their fullest, thus enabling them to participate actively in building a more democratic society. Fifteen years after this encounter, they met again in the 2013 IDEA Congress in Paris to reflect on their efforts during their life spans. Through examining their drama practices, they discuss how this human expression functions as a critical thinking art form, changing players, audiences, and communities. Lessons derived from their experiences might be useful for a new generation of transformational drama leaders.

  8. High-Sulfur-Vacancy Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide as a High Current Electrocatalyst in Hydrogen Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Ang-Yu

    2016-08-31

    The remote hydrogen plasma is able to create abundant S-vacancies on amorphous molybdenum sulfide (a-MoSx) as active sites for hydrogen evolution. The results demonstrate that the plasma-treated a-MoSx exhibits superior performance and higher stability than Pt in a proton exchange membrane based electrolyzers measurement as a proof-of-concept of industrial application.

  9. The evolution of parental care in insects: A test of current hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James D J; Manica, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Which sex should care for offspring is a fundamental question in evolution. Invertebrates, and insects in particular, show some of the most diverse kinds of parental care of all animals, but to date there has been no broad comparative study of the evolution of parental care in this group. Here, we test existing hypotheses of insect parental care evolution using a literature-compiled phylogeny of over 2000 species. To address substantial uncertainty in the insect phylogeny, we use a brute force approach based on multiple random resolutions of uncertain nodes. The main transitions were between no care (the probable ancestral state) and female care. Male care evolved exclusively from no care, supporting models where mating opportunity costs for caring males are reduced—for example, by caring for multiple broods—but rejecting the “enhanced fecundity” hypothesis that male care is favored because it allows females to avoid care costs. Biparental care largely arose by males joining caring females, and was more labile in Holometabola than in Hemimetabola. Insect care evolution most closely resembled amphibian care in general trajectory. Integrating these findings with the wealth of life history and ecological data in insects will allow testing of a rich vein of existing hypotheses. PMID:25825047

  10. Currents induced by vertical varied radiation stress in standing waves and evolution of the bed composed of fine sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Xin ZHANG; Hua LIU

    2009-01-01

    This paper extends the conventional concept of radiation stress (Longuet-Higgins and Stewart, 1964)in progressive water waves to standing waves, so that its vertical profile could be defined and calculated in a new technical way. The hydrodynamic numerical model being coupled with the vertically varying radiation stress in standing waves is used to simulate the currents being induced by standing waves in the vertical section. Numerical modeling of suspended sediment transport is then carried out to simulate the evolution of the bed composed of fine sediments by the currents. The scour and deposition patterns simulated are in qualitative agreement with prior laboratory and field observations.

  11. Three-dimensional evolution of a relativistic current sheet: triggering of magnetic reconnection by the guide field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenitani, S; Hoshino, M

    2005-08-26

    The linear and nonlinear evolution of a relativistic current sheet of pair (e(+/-)) plasmas is investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. In a Harris configuration, it is obtained that the magnetic energy is fast dissipated by the relativistic drift kink instability (RDKI). However, when a current-aligned magnetic field (the so-called "guide field") is introduced, the RDKI is stabilized by the magnetic tension force and it separates into two obliquely propagating modes, which we call the relativistic drift-kink-tearing instability. These two waves deform the current sheet so that they trigger relativistic magnetic reconnection at a crossover thinning point. Since relativistic reconnection produces a lot of nonthermal particles, the guide field is of critical importance to study the energetics of a relativistic current sheet.

  12. The evolution of arguments regarding the existence of field-aligned currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present understanding of Birkeland (magnetically-field-aligned) currents was not obtained by a direct, logical course. The story is rather more complex. Starting at the end of the 19th century, the Norwegian scientist Kristian Birkeland laid out a compelling case, supported by both theory and experiment, for the existence of field-aligned currents that cause both the aurora and polar geomagnetic disturbances. Sydney Chapman, the British geophysicist, became the acknowledged leader and opinion maker in the field in the decades following Birkeland's death. Chapman proposed, in contradistinction to Birkeland's ideas, equivalent currents that were restricted to flow in the ionosphere with no vertical or field-aligned components. Birkeland's ideas may have faded completely if it had not been for Hannes Alfven, who became involved well after Chapman's ideas gained predominance. Alfven kept insisting that Birkeland's current system made more sense because field-aligned currents were required to drive most of the ionospheric currents. The author became personally involved when Zmuda et al. (1966) submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research a paper reporting satellite data showing magnetic disturbances above the ionosphere that were consistent with field-aligned Birkeland currents, but which they did not interpret as being due to such currents.

  13. Model-based Optimization and Feedback Control of the Current Density Profile Evolution in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Zeki Okan

    Nuclear fusion research is a highly challenging, multidisciplinary field seeking contributions from both plasma physics and multiple engineering areas. As an application of plasma control engineering, this dissertation mainly explores methods to control the current density profile evolution within the National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U), which is a substantial upgrade based on the NSTX device, which is located in Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ. Active control of the toroidal current density profile is among those plasma control milestones that the NSTX-U program must achieve to realize its next-step operational goals, which are characterized by high-performance, long-pulse, MHD-stable plasma operation with neutral beam heating. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop model-based, feedforward and feedback controllers that can enable time regulation of the current density profile in NSTX-U by actuating the total plasma current, electron density, and the powers of the individual neutral beam injectors. Motivated by the coupled, nonlinear, multivariable, distributed-parameter plasma dynamics, the first step towards control design is the development of a physics-based, control-oriented model for the current profile evolution in NSTX-U in response to non-inductive current drives and heating systems. Numerical simulations of the proposed control-oriented model show qualitative agreement with the high-fidelity physics code TRANSP. The next step is to utilize the proposed control-oriented model to design an open-loop actuator trajectory optimizer. Given a desired operating state, the optimizer produces the actuator trajectories that can steer the plasma to such state. The objective of the feedforward control design is to provide a more systematic approach to advanced scenario planning in NSTX-U since the development of such scenarios is conventionally carried out experimentally by modifying the tokamak's actuator

  14. FEDERAL SUPPORT OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY IN THE UNITED STATES: CURRENT EVOLUTION UNDER THE POLITICAL STRUGGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Istomin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2000’s and 2010’s witnessed diminishing margin of the United States in science and technology. Meanwhile, the U.S. remains a clear leader in this fi eld. Major driving force of the country’s success in the second half of the ХХ century remained assertive federal science policy. The article seeks to identify major trends in evolution of the U.S. science policy and the reasons behind relative decline of the level of budget support of the scientifi c research. The author studies evolution of the policies of George Bush and Barack Obama, as well as the views of Democrats and Republicans in the House of Representatives and the Senate. The article also examines the input into the federal policy of the governmental bodies, which are directly responsible for its implementation, as well as non-governmental organizations, which seek to advocate interests of scientists; it studies rising competition between the executive authorities and legislators for the recognition as a major champion of the academic community as well as American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  15. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    New ESO Observations of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 A few months ago, Periodic Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 underwent a dramatic and completely unexpected, thousand-fold brightening. At that time, the cause for this interesting event was unknown. However, observations with the two largest ESO telescopes have now shown that the ``dirty snowball'' nucleus of this comet has recently split into at least four individual pieces [1]. There is little doubt that the outburst and the splitting event(s) are closely related and that the greatly increased dust and gas production is due to ``fresh'' material of the icy cometary nucleus becoming exposed to the surrounding space for the first time. A Comet with a Troubled History Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 was discovered on May 2, 1930, on a photographic plate obtained at the Hamburg Observatory (Germany) by two astronomers at this institution, Arnold Schwassmann and Arthur Arno Wachmann. The subsequent observations showed that the comet moved in an elliptical orbit with a revolution period of somewhat more than 5 years. Great efforts were expended to observe the comet during the next returns, but it was not recovered until nearly 50 years and eight revolutions later, when its faint image was found of a plate obtained in August 1979 with a telescope at the Perth Observatory in Western Australia. It was missed in 1984, but was sighted again in 1989 and most recently in 1994. Thus this comet has only been observed during four out of thirteen approaches since 1930. While this may be partly due to a less advantageous location in the sky at some returns, it is also a strong indication that the comet behaves unpredictably and must have a quite variable brightness. For the sake of convenience this comet is often referred to as ``SW-3'' by professional astronomers. Recent orbital calculations have shown that it was inserted into the present, short-period orbit by the strong gravitational pull of Jupiter during several, relatively close

  16. Electrodeposition of hierarchically structured three-dimensional nickel-iron electrodes for efficient oxygen evolution at high current densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunyu; Zhao, Chuan

    2015-03-17

    Large-scale industrial application of electrolytic splitting of water has called for the development of oxygen evolution electrodes that are inexpensive, robust and can deliver large current density (>500 mA cm(-2)) at low applied potentials. Here we show that an efficient oxygen electrode can be developed by electrodepositing amorphous mesoporous nickel-iron composite nanosheets directly onto macroporous nickel foam substrates. The as-prepared oxygen electrode exhibits high catalytic activity towards water oxidation in alkaline solutions, which only requires an overpotential of 200 mV to initiate the reaction, and is capable of delivering current densities of 500 and 1,000 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials of 240 and 270 mV, respectively. The electrode also shows prolonged stability against bulk water electrolysis at large current. Collectively, the as-prepared three-dimensional structured electrode is the most efficient oxygen evolution electrode in alkaline electrolytes reported to the best of our knowledge, and can potentially be applied for industrial scale water electrolysis.

  17. Microstructural Evolution and Migration Mechanism Study in a Eutectic Sn-37Pb Lap Joint Under High Current Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Cao, Huijun; Yang, Haifeng; Xiao, Yong; Li, Mingyu; Yu, Yuxi; Yao, Shun

    2017-08-01

    The microstructural evolution in eutectic Sn-37Pb solder under high current density seriously threatens the reliability of solder interconnections, but atomic electromigration has often been confused with thermomigration. In this paper, after decoupling the effect of the non-uniform temperature distribution in a Cu/Sn-37Pb/Cu lap joint from the current stress, the microstructural evolution was investigated under an average current density of 1.84 × 104 A cm-2 for 0-24 h. The decomposition and recombination of the Pb-rich phase occurred at the cathode and the anode, respectively. The corresponding migration mechanism was proposed from the viewpoint of energy and was explained by the interactions among the potential energies of ripening, electron wind force, and back stress. Our study may be helpful for understanding the migration mechanism and reliability of eutectic two-phase solder joints and provides supporting data for interpreting the acceleration tests of Sn-37Pb solder joints under electromigration.

  18. Influence of frontal cyclones evolution on the 2009 (Ekman and 2010 (Franklin Loop Current Eddy detachment events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Androulidakis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The anticyclonic Loop Current Eddy (LCE shedding events are strongly associated with the evolution of Loop Current Frontal Eddies (LCFEs over the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM. A numerical simulation, in tandem with in situ measurements and satellite data, was used to investigate the Loop Current (LC evolution and the surrounding LCFEs formation, structure, growth and migration during the Eddy Ekman and Eddy Franklin shedding events in the summers of 2009 and 2010, respectively. During both events, Northern GoM LCFEs appeared vertically coherent to at least 1500 m in temperature observations. They propagated towards the base of the LC where, together with the migration of Campeche Bank eddies from south of the LC, contributed to its "necking down". Growth of Campeche Bank LCFEs involved in Eddy Franklin was partially attributed to Campeche Bank waters following upwelling events. Slope processes associated with such upwelling include offshore exports of high positive vorticity that may trigger cyclone formation and growth. The advection and growth of LCFEs, originating from the northern and southern GoM, and their interaction with the LC over the LCE detachment area favor shedding conditions and may lead to the final separation of the LCE.

  19. Structure and evolution of the current sheet by multi-spacecraft observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Geophysics; Russell, C.T. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics; Gosling, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    On April 22, 1979, from 0840 to 1018 UT, ISEE 1, ISEE 2 and IMP 8 were all in or near the magnetotail current sheet at 17 Re, 16 Re and 35 Re respectively while ISEE 3 monitored the solar wind 206 Re upstream of the Earth. A global perspective of the four spacecraft observations and of the ground magnetic records is presented in this paper. The hyperbolic tangent current sheet model of Harris has been used to calculate the current sheet thickness and to analyze the plasma distribution in the vertical direction. It is found that during this event the current sheet thickness varied from 2.5 Re to 1.5 Re for northward IMF but thinned abruptly to 0.5 Re when the IMF turned southward.

  20. Evolution of the gate current in 32 nm MOSFETs under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, F.; Debray, M.; Vega, N.; Quinteros, C.; Kalstein, A.; Guarin, F.

    2016-05-01

    Radiation induced currents on single 32 nm MOSFET transistors have been studied using consecutive runs of 16O at 25 MeV. The main feature is the generation of current peaks - in the gate and channel currents - due to the collection of the electro-hole pairs generated by the incident radiation runs. It has been observed that the incident ions cause damage in the dielectric layer and in the substrate affecting the collection of carriers, and hence the radiation-induced current peaks. It has been find out a decrease of the current peak due to the increase of the series resistance by non-ionizing energy loss in the semiconductor substrate, and an increase of the leakage current due to defects in the gate oxide by ionizing energy loss. For low levels of damage in the gate oxide, the main feature is the shift of the VTH. Hot carriers heated by the incident radiation in the depletion region and injected in the gate oxide cause the change of the VTH due to electron or hole trapping for n- or p-channel respectively. The overall results illustrate that these effects must be taken into consideration for an accurate reliability projection.

  1. Feature Profile Evolution During Etching of SiO2 in Radio-Frequency or Direct-Current Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqiang; Dai, Zhongling; Wang, Younian

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a plasma etching simulator to investigate the evolution of pattern profiles in SiO2 material under different plasma conditions. This model focuses on energy and angular dependent etching yield (physical sputtering in this paper), neutral and ion angular distributions, and reflection of ions or neutrals on the surface of a photoresist or SiO2. The effect of positive charge accumulation on the surface of insulated mask or SiO2 is studied and the charge accumulation contributes to a deflection of ion trajectory. The wafer profile evolution has been simulated using a cellular-automata-like method under radio-frequency (RF) bias and direct-current (DC) bias, respectively. On the basis of the critical role of angular distribution of ions or neutrals, the wafer profile evolution has been simulated for different variances of angles. Observed microtrenching has been well reproduced in the simulator. The ratio of neutrals to ions has been considered and the result shows that because the neutrals are not accelerated by an electric field, their energy is much lower compared with ions, so they are easily reflected on the surface of SiO2, which makes the trench shallower.

  2. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  3. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers. Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper aims to briefly outline the trends on the Romanian residential market in the aftermath of the current crisis.

  4. Evolution and variation of the Tsushima warm current during the late Quaternary: Evidence from planktonic foraminifera, oxygen and carbon isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI TieGang; SUN RongTao; ZHANG DeYu; LIU ZhenXia; LI Qing; JIANG Bo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution and variation history of the Tsushima warm current during the late Quaternary was reconstructed based on the quantitative census data of planktonic foraminiferal fauna, together with oxygen and carbon isotope records of mixed layer dweller G ruber and thermocline dweller N. dutertrei in piston core CSH1 and core DGKS9603 collected separately from the Tsushima warm current and the Kuroshio dominated area. The result showed that the Tsushima warm current vanished in the Iowstand period during 40-24 cai ka BP, while the Kuroshio still flowed across the Okinawa Trough, arousing strong upwelling in the northern Trough. Meanwhile, the influence of freshwater greatly increased in the northern Okinawa Trough, as the broad East China Sea continental shelf emerged. The freshwater reached its maximum during the last glacial maximum (LGM), when the upwelling obviously weakened for the lowest sea-level and the depression of the Kuroshio. The modern Tsushima warm current began its development since 16 cai ka BP, and the impact of the Kuroshio increased in the middle and northern Okinawa Trough synchronously during the deglaciation and gradually evolved as the main water source of the Tsushima current. The modern Tsushima current finally formed at about 8.5 cai ka BP,since then the circulation structure has been relatively stable. The water of the modern Tsushima current primarily came from the Kuroshio axis. A short-term wiggle of the current occurred at about 3 cai ka BP, probably for the influences from the enhancement of the winter monsoon and the depression of the Kuroshio. The cold water masses greatly strengthened during the wiggle.

  5. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Scientists have discovered the closest black hole yet, a mere 1,600 light years from Earth. Its discovery was heralded by four of the most dramatic rapid X-ray intensity changes ever seen from one star. Astronomers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta. The black hole in the constellation Sagittarius, along with a normal star dubbed V4641 Sgr, form a violent system that briefly flooded part of our Milky Way Galaxy with X-rays and ejected subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light one day last September. At the peak of its X-ray output, V4641 Sgr was the brightest X-ray emitter in the sky. Astronomers call this type of system an X-ray nova because it suddenly becomes a bright source of X-rays, but this object shows characteristics never seen in an X-ray nova. "V4641 Sgr turns on and off so fast that it seems to represent a new subclass of X-ray novae," said Donald A. Smith, postdoctoral associate in MIT's Center for Space Research. Smith worked on data from this object with MIT principal research scientist Ronald Remillard and NRAO astronomer Robert Hjellming. "In X-rays, the intensity rose by a factor of more than 1,000 in seven hours, then dropped by a factor of 100 in two hours," Remillard said. The radio emission was seen as an image of an expanding "jet" of particles shooting out from the binary system. After reaching a maximum, the radio intensity dropped by a factor of nearly 40 within two days. "Radio telescopes give us a quick glimpse of something moving at a fantastically high velocity," Hjellming said. Black holes harbor enormous gravitational force that can literally rip the gas away from a nearby star. This transfer of gas is visible in many forms of radiation. Both orbiting X-ray telescopes and ground-based radio and optical telescopes saw the outburst of V4641

  6. ORGAN-SPARING SURGERY FOR RECTAL CANCER: EVOLUTION, CURRENT TRENDS, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tamrazov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main stages of the development of sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. An historical look at this issue from the standpoint of research of past years in our country and abroad, as well as analysis of current sphincter-preserving surgery and future directions in this area.

  7. The Current Evolution of Slavic Languages in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of the EU Multilingualism Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Current Evolution of Slavic Languages in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of the EU Multilingualism Policy The respect for and protection of cultural and linguistic diversity have long been guaranteed in various international and European legislative acts. More recently, the European Union has also developed laws aimed at the preservation and promotion of multilingualism. Linguistic diversity has long been seen as an obstacle to the effective functioning of EU institutions. Recently, however, it has been considered as a valuable “heritage” of the EU. In our article, we will present a brief overview of policies promoting multilingualism in Europe, and more specifically, in the EU. Subsequently, we will compare this framework to the changes occurring presently in modern Slavic languages of Central and Eastern Europe. The tendency of these languages towards increased analitism transforms these predominantly synthetic languages into more analytical ones. These conclusions have led us to the following question: What is the current state of modern Slavic languages and how far may their evolution be addressed by policies promoting multilingualism? Our analysis consists of two parts: first, we scrutinised various European legislative acts promoting multilingualism; second, we analysed modern Slavic languages by means of the parallel corpora of chosen languages from the Common Language Resources and Technology Infrastructure project (including UNESCO and EU legislation, etc..

  8. Current evolution and plasma density space distribution in the reflex discharge with ring cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhin, A. A.; Liziakin, G. D.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Usmanov, R. A.; Smirnov, V. P.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper the numerical model of direct current gas discharge in drift-diffusion approximation is considered. For two-component plasma the processes of the gas discharge development in the reflex geometry with ring cathodes at a helium pressure of 35 mTorr are studied. We investigate the influence of: (a) the boundary conditions on the dielectric, (b) the electron temperature and (c) the coefficient of the secondary ion-electron emission on the I-U curve of the discharge. In a magnetic field of 50 Gauss the impact of the discharge voltage U = 300-700 V on the evolutionary process of the discharge is examined. The effect of diffusion on maintaining steady state discharge is researched. The parameters of the existence of a high-current (tens of μA) and low voltage (tens of mA) discharge modes are defined.

  9. The effect of rf pulse pattern on bremsstrahlung and ion current time evolution of an ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Toivanen, V.; Peura, P.; Jones, P.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae FI-40014 (Finland); Noland, J.; Leitner, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Time-resolved helium ion production and bremsstrahlung emission from JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS is presented with different radio frequency pulse lengths. rf on times are varied from 5 to 50 ms and rf off times from 10 to 1000 ms between different measurement sets. It is observed that the plasma breakdown occurs a few milliseconds after launching the rf power into the plasma chamber, and in the beginning of the rf pulses a preglow transient is seen. During this transient the ion beam currents are increased by several factors compared to a steady state situation. By adjusting the rf pulse separation the maximum ion beam currents can be maintained during the so-called preglow regime while the amount of bremsstrahlung radiation is significantly decreased.

  10. [Outpatient thoracic surgery: Evolution of the indications, current applications and limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagan, P; Berna, P; De Dominicis, F; Lafitte, S; Zaimi, R; Dakhil, B; Das Neves Pereira, J-C

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of outpatient surgery are to reduce the risks connected to hospitalization, to improve postoperative recovery and to decrease the health costs. Few studies have been performed in the field of thoracic surgery and there remains great scope for progress in outpatient lung surgery. The purpose of this article is to present a revue of the current situation and the prospects for the development of out patient thoracic surgery.

  11. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-01-01

    The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers). Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper a...

  12. Evolution and variation of the Tsushima warm current during the late Quaternary: Evidence from planktonic foraminifera, oxygen and carbon isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The evolution and variation history of the Tsushima warm current during the late Quaternary was reconstructed based on the quantitative census data of planktonic foraminiferal fauna, together with oxygen and carbon isotope records of mixed layer dweller G. ruber and thermocline dweller N. dutertrei in piston core CSH1 and core DGKS9603 collected separately from the Tsushima warm current and the Kuroshio dominated area. The result showed that the Tsushima warm current vanished in the lowstand period during 40―24 cal ka BP, while the Kuroshio still flowed across the Okinawa Trough, arousing strong upwelling in the northern Trough. Meanwhile, the influence of freshwater greatly increased in the northern Okinawa Trough, as the broad East China Sea continental shelf emerged. The freshwater reached its maximum during the last glacial maximum (LGM), when the upwelling obviously weakened for the lowest sea-level and the depression of the Kuroshio. The modern Tsushima warm current began its development since 16 cal ka BP, and the impact of the Kuroshio increased in the middle and north- ern Okinawa Trough synchronously during the deglaciation and gradually evolved as the main water source of the Tsushima current. The modern Tsushima current finally formed at about 8.5 cal ka BP, since then the circulation structure has been relatively stable. The water of the modern Tsushima cur- rent primarily came from the Kuroshio axis. A short-term wiggle of the current occurred at about 3 cal ka BP, probably for the influences from the enhancement of the winter monsoon and the depression of the Kuroshio. The cold water masses greatly strengthened during the wiggle.

  13. Canonical Transformations can Dramatically Simplify Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, John

    2016-01-01

    A useful way to keep track of the SUSY invariance of a theory is by formulating it with a BRST Poisson Bracket. It turns out that there is a crucial subtlety that is hidden in this formulation. When the theory contains a Chiral Multiplet, the relevant BRST Poisson Bracket has a very important Canonical Transformation that leaves it invariant. This Canonical Transformation takes all or part of the Scalar Field $A$ and replaces it with a Zinn Source $J_A$, and also takes the related Zinn Source $\\Gamma_A$ and replaces it with an `Antighost' Field $\\eta_A$. Naively, this looks like it is just a change of notation. But in fact the interpretation means that one has moved some of the conserved Noether SUSY current from the Field Action, and placed it partly in the Zinn Sources Action, and so the SUSY current in the Field part of the Action is no longer conserved, because the Zinn Sources do not satisfy any equations of motion. They are not quantized, because they are Sources. So it needs to be recognized that SUSY ...

  14. The Coverage of Human Evolution in High School Biology Textbooks in the 20th Century and in Current State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the emphasis given to human evolution in secondary biology textbooks historically and in the current state science standards. Prior to the 1960s, biology textbooks provided little emphasis to human evolution. In the 1970s and early 1980s textbooks reduced the coverage of human evolution. However, in the 1990s the coverage became quite comprehensive again. In 2004, the state science frameworks of only three states had standards concerned with human evolution.

  15. Forced current sheet structure, formation and evolution: application to magnetic reconnection in the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Domrin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available By means of a simulation model, the earlier predicted nonlinear kinetic structure, a Forced Kinetic Current Sheet (FKCS, with extremely anisotropic ion distributions, is shown to appear as a result of a fast nonlinear process of transition from a previously existing equilibrium. This occurs under triggering action of a weak MHD disturbance that is applied at the boundary of the simulation box. In the FKCS, current is carried by initially cold ions which are brought into the CS by convection from both sides, and accelerated inside the CS. The process then appears to be spontaneously self-sustained, as a MHD disturbance of a rarefaction wave type propagates over the background plasma outside the CS. Comparable to the Alfvénic discontinuity in MHD, transformation of electromagnetic energy into the energy of plasma flows occurs at the FKCS. But unlike the MHD case, ``free" energy is produced here: dissipation should occur later, through particle interaction with turbulent waves generated by unstable ion distribution being formed by the FKCS action. In this way, an effect of magnetic field ``annihilation" appears, required for fast magnetic reconnection. Application of the theory to observations at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail is considered.

  16. The treatment of hepatoblastoma: Its evolution and the current status as per the SIOPEL trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Aronson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Review: To describe the significant improvement in the diagnosis, treatment and outcome of children diagnosed with hepatoblastoma (HB that has occurred in the past four decades. Recent findings are mainly focused on lessons learned from the experiences of the Childhood Liver Tumors Strategy Group (SIOPEL. Important milestones were the risk stratification of HB that allowed to tailor down therapy for standard-risk HB and intensify treatment for high-risk HB. The multi-institutional international cooperative SIOPEL trials are reviewed and current treatment guidelines are given. Intensified cooperation between the SIOPEL and the Children′s Oncology Group (COG and the national study groups from Germany (GPOH and Japan (JPLT led to the acceptance and use of one staging system (PRETEXT and the formation of a single robust database containing data of 1605 HB patients. This will allow analysis with enough statistical power of treatment directing factors that will form one of the bases of the next-generation clinical trial that is currently designed by all four collaborating study groups. Summary: Successive SIOPEL trials and increasing international collaboration have improved survival rates of patients with HB through risk stratification, advances in chemotherapy and increased complete resection rates including liver transplantation as a surgical option.

  17. Study on the Evolution of the Current ISO Certifications in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Socaciu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of processes within an organization, ISO standards can help both large enterprises and small companies (SMEs, both in industrialized and in developing countries offering solutions and bringing considerable advantages in almost all existing fields. ISO certification brings a set of measures in the areas of an organization, be it about quality, environmental safety, food or protection and safety of personnel, this certification brings benefits both in the current processes and more importantly, the future development plans. In this paper, graphs showing the distributions of increasing certification, demonstrate that more and more companies in Romania have realized that, only implementing and certifying ISO standards, they will be successful in domestic and international market in terms of competition, in particular against European companies.

  18. Current Experiences with Internet Telepathology and Possible Evolution in the Next Generation of Internet Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Della Mea

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The last five years experience has definitely demonstrated the possible applications of the Internet for telepathology. They may be listed as follows: (a teleconsultation via multimedia e‐mail; (b teleconsultation via web‐based tools; (c distant education by means of World Wide Web; (d virtual microscope management through Web and Java interfaces; (e real‐time consultations through Internet‐based videoconferencing. Such applications have led to the recognition of some important limits of the Internet, when dealing with telemedicine: (i no guarantees on the quality of service (QoS; (ii inadequate security and privacy; (iii for some countries, low bandwidth and thus low responsiveness for real‐time applications. Currently, there are several innovations in the world of the Internet. Different initiatives have been aimed at an amelioration of the Internet protocols, in order to have quality of service, multimedia support, security and other advanced services, together with greater bandwidth.

  19. Energy-dependent evolution of the ring current during the magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporin, Ayako; Ebihara, Yusuke; Fritz, Theodore A.

    The ring current is known to mainly consist of two components of ions; one having energy from keV to tens of keV (low-energy), and the other having energy from 100keV to several hundreds keV(high-energy) in the quiet time. According to the past observations, the low-energy component increases during the storm main phase, and decreases during the storm recovery phase. However, the behavior of the high-energy component and the relationship between the two components are less known. For the purpose of understanding the behavior of the ring current in detail, we use data from the ion mass spectrometer called MICS and the magnetometer called MFE aboard the Polar satellite. We focus on the differential flux of protons with 31-80keV (as a proxy of the low-energy component) and those with 125-173keV (as a proxy of the high-energy component) at a pitch angle of 90 degrees when the Polar satellite crossed the magnetic equatorial plane. Pre-storm condition (t1), intense phase of magnetic storm (t2), and decline phase (t3) are identified based on the Dst index. We selected 27 subsets from January 1997 to March 2000 and from April 2001 to April 2002. We obtained the following major results. (1) In the low-energy component, the proton flux tends to increase during the intense phase, and decrease during the decline phase with an exception in the pre-noon sector. (2) In the high-energy component, the proton flux tends to be stationary during the intense phase. During the decline phase, the flux tends to increase, and occasionally, exceeds that in the pre-storm condition. (3) The magnetic field tends to decrease during the intense phase, and increase during the decline phase. The anti-correlation between the low-energy component and the magnetic field may indicate a diamagnetic response. The weak correlation between the high-energy component and the magnetic field during the decline phase may indicate an adiabatic variation of high-energy component. It is suggested that the high

  20. The Evolution of Cardiovascular Surgery in Elderly Patient: A Review of Current Options and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nicolini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in average life expectancy and the higher incidence of cardiovascular disease with advancing age, more elderly patients present for cardiac surgery nowadays. Advances in pre- and postoperative care have led to the possibility that an increasing number of elderly patients can be operated on safely and with a satisfactory outcome. Currently, coronary artery bypass surgery, aortic and mitral valve surgery, and major surgery of the aorta are performed in elderly patients. The data available show that most cardiac surgical procedures can be performed in elderly patients with a satisfactory outcome. Nevertheless, the risk for these patients is only acceptable in the absence of comorbidities. In particular, renal dysfunction, cerebrovascular disease, and poor clinical state are associated with a worse outcome in elderly patients. Careful patient selection, flawless surgery, meticulous hemostasis, perfect anesthesia, and adequate myocardial protection are basic requirements for the success of cardiac surgery in elderly patients. The care of elderly cardiac surgical patients can be improved only through the strict collaboration of geriatricians, anesthesiologists, cardiologists, and cardiac surgeons, in order to obtain a tailored treatment for each individual patient.

  1. Understanding the Dynamical Evolution of the Earth Radiation Belt and Ring Current Coupled System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Yuri; Usanova, Maria; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Modeling and understanding the ring current and radiation belt-coupled system has been a grand challenge since the beginning of the space age. In this study we show long-term simulations with a 3D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code of modeling the radiation belts with boundary conditions derived from observations around geosynchronous orbit. Simulations can reproduce long term variations of the electron radiation belt fluxes and show the importance of local acceleration, radial diffusion, loss to the atmosphere and loss to the magnetopause. We also present 4D VERB simulations that include convective transport, radial diffusion, pitch angle scattering and local acceleration. VERB simulations show that the lower energy inward transport is dominated by the convection and higher energy transport is dominated by the diffusive radial transport. We also show that at energies of 100s of keV, a number of processes work simultaneously, including convective transport, radial diffusion, local acceleration, loss to the loss cone and loss to the magnetopause. The results of the simulation of the March 2013 storm are compared with Van Allen Probes observations.

  2. Turbulence evolution and transport behavior during current ramp-up in ITER-like plasmas on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, G. R.; Austin, M.; Boedo, J.; Bravenec, R.; Holland, C.; Jackson, G.; Luce, T. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Rudakov, D.; Wang, G.; Yan, Z.; Zeng, L.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Low-wavenumber density fluctuations exhibit unique characteristics during the current ramp-up phase of ITER-like discharges that can partially explain the challenges of correctly modeling transport behavior and predicting global plasma parameters during this period. A strong interaction takes place between the evolving transport, safety factor (q) and kinetic profiles as well as the appearance and evolution of low-order rational surfaces. Density fluctuations from 0.75  qualitative consistency with measured fluctuation levels, but calculations don’t exhibit reduced growth rates near low-order rational surfaces, which is inconsistent with experimental observations. This indicates a mechanism that can contribute to reconciling observed turbulence behavior with transport models, allowing for the development of more accurate predictive tools.

  3. CURRENT STATE AND EVOLUTION PERSPECTIVES FOR MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN THE ENERGY SECTOR BY IMPLEMENTING THE ABC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rof Letitia Maria

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a controversial issue, namely determining and controlling costs in the energy sector, the present study falls within the scope of management accounting and control. This scientific approach was initiated as a result of personal research concerns in the area of accounting, starting from the need to know and quantify costs in a sector of the economy that is less exploited. The main objective of this scientific approach is to address the evolution of the energy sector in a national and international context, in terms of economy and finances, with the aim to underline the need to organize and conduct management accounting in this sector. We will present a few particularities of the energy system, the current status of implementation of a medium and long term strategy aimed at developing the energy sector, as well as the need to adopt modern costing methods in this sector, which ensure operative cost control and performance growth of the entities that operate in this sector. Information on the reviewed topic was conducted by studying the national and international literature in the field, by analyzing the associated legislation, by consulting specialized web-sites and various articles in the database. The main research methods used in this scientific approach were analysis and synthesis, and qualitative research was the type of used research. The results of the research will materialize in providing the necessary conditions for designing an econometric model for implementing the ABC method, the conceptual and ideological delimitation of the ABC method, the deepening of the positive and negative aspects that the implementation of the Activity Based Costing involves. The major implication for the researched field is ensuring success for the implementation of a modern costing method in the energy sector, underlining the shortcomings of the traditional costing methods. The added value of the paper consists in conducting a rigorous study of the

  4. Evolution of the Tore Supra Lower Hybrid Current Drive System for WEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpech, Léna, E-mail: lena.delpech@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Achard, Joelle; Armitano, Arthur; Berger-By, Gilles; Ekedahl, Annika; Gargiulo, Laurent; Goniche, Marc; Guilhem, Dominique; Hertout, Patrick; Hillairet, Julien; Magne, Roland; Mollard, Patrick [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Piluso, P. [CNIM Industrial Systems, 83507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Poli, Serge; Prou, Marc; Saille, Alain; Samaille, Franck [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Describe the state of the Lower Hybrid heating system for the WEST project. • Detailed the experiments to assess the coupling in WEST configuration. • Give the modifications required on the launchers to be adapted to WEST configuration. • Detailed the technical modifications with the CNIM company on the launchers. - Abstract: The WEST-project (W-tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) involves equipping Tore Supra with a full tungsten divertor, capable of withstanding heat load of 10 MW/m{sup 2} in steady-state conditions, in discharges sustained by Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The LHCD generator, recently upgraded to deliver 9.2 MW/1000 s, is equipped with sixteen TH2103C klystrons powering two launchers. The WEST transformation involves reducing the plasma volume, thus moving the launchers ∼10 cm closer to the tokamak centre. The toroidal curvature of the launchers no longer fits the plasma curvature due to the strong magnetic field ripple effect, leading to a degradation of the LH wave coupling, especially with the Full Active Multijunction Launcher (FAM). The toroidal curvature radius of the FAM launcher mouth will therefore be reshaped from 1700 mm to 2300 mm. The machining process is described in this article. In order to improve the coupling of the LH wave, the local gas injection has been modified to help to meet the requirement of 7 MW/1000 s of LH power coupled to the plasma in the WEST scenarios. Finally, the curvature radius of the waveguide septa are rounded to minimize the excitation of suprathermal electrons near the plasma edge, which can induce high power loads on the plasma facing components.

  5. The three-dimensional evolution of ion-scale current sheets: tearing and drift-kink instabilities in the presence of proton temperature anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Gingell, Peter; Matteini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first three-dimensional hybrid simulations of the evolution of ion-scale current sheets, with an investigation of the role of temperature anisotropy and associated kinetic instabilities on the growth of the tearing instability and particle heating. We confirm the ability of the ion cyclotron and firehose instabilities to enhance or suppress reconnection, respectively. The simulations demonstrate the emergence of persistent three-dimensional structures, including patchy reconnection sites and the fast growth of a narrow-band drift-kink instability, which suppresses reconnection for thin current sheets with weak guide fields. Potential observational signatures of the three-dimensional evolution of solar wind current sheets are also discussed. We conclude that kinetic instabilities, arising from non-Maxwellian ion populations, are significant to the evolution of three-dimensional current sheets, and two-dimensional studies of heating rates by reconnection may therefore over-estimate the ability of...

  6. Analysing the development of TV news programmes: from information to dramatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Rodríguez Fidalgo, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The TV news programme is the backbone of all television networks, be they national, regional or local. These types of programmes have been changing over the time. The essence of the information is being modified and has adopted a new format. Based on these principles, this research analyses the evolution of the language used on the Spanish TV news programmes, from their origins until today. This research has been carried out in three different phases: late 1980s, the 1990s and recent years. These stages were thoroughly examined through surveys applied to representative samples of the population. The results showed that TV news programmes have been acquiring a changing narrative style throughout time: they began using an “objective” narrative, followed by a mediated type, and finally dramatized narrative which uses shocking visual content and aims to achieve audience’s sensibilization and identification with news’ protagonists. The spectacularization of information has become the identitary feature of the current TV news programmes as a response to the need of reaching higher audience ratings.

  7. Coal-water slurry fuel production: Its evolution and current status in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    current political, environmental, and economic climates mandate greater efficiency in the production and use of coal. Coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities must establish the actual cost of the CWSF production for the technology to move forward. Coal-fired utilities that own fine coal impoundments and/or operate fine coal cleaning circuits need to determine how these coal fines can be used to reduce operating cost.

  8. Plasma Formation and Evolution on Cu, Al, Ti, and Ni Surfaces Driven by a Mega-Ampere Current Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kevin C.

    Metal alloy mm-diameter rods have been driven by a 1-MA, 100-ns current pulse from the Zebra z-pinch. The intense current produces megagauss surface magnetic fields that diffuse into the load, ohmically heating the metal until plasma forms. Because the radius is much thicker than the skin depth, the magnetic field reaches a much higher value than around a thin-wire load. With the "barbell" load design, plasma formation in the region of interest due to contact arcing or electron avalanche is avoided, allowing for the study of ohmically heated loads. Work presented here will show first evidence of a magnetic field threshold for plasma formation in copper 101, copper 145, titanium, and nickel, and compare with previous work done with aluminum. Copper alloys 101 and 145, titanium grade II, and nickel alloy 200 form plasma when the surface magnetic field reaches 3.5, 3.0, 2.2, and 2.6 megagauss, respectively. Varying the element metal, as well as the alloy, changes multiple physical properties of the load and affects the evolution of the surface material through the multiple phase changes. Similarities and differences between these metals will be presented, giving motivation for continued work with different material loads. During the current rise, the metal is heated to temperatures that cause multiple phase changes. When the surface magnetic field reaches a threshold, the metal ionizes and the plasma becomes pinched against the underlying cooler, dense material. Diagnostics fielded have included visible light radiometry, two-frame shadowgraphy (266 and 532 nm wavelengths), time-gated EUV spectroscopy, single-frame/2ns gated imaging, and multi-frame/4ns gated imaging with an intensified CCD camera (ICCD). Surface temperature, expansion speeds, instability growth, time of plasma formation, and plasma uniformity are determined from the data. The time-period of potential plasma formation is scrutinized to understand if and when plasma forms on the surface of a heated

  9. A simple model for the short-time evolution of near-surface current and temperature profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, A D; Jenkins, Alastair D.; Ward, Brian

    2005-01-01

    A simple analytical/numerical model has been developed for computing the evolution, over periods of up to a few hours, of the current and temperature profile in the upper layer of the ocean. The model is based upon conservation laws for heat and momentum, and employs an eddy diffusion parameterisation which is dependent on both the wind speed and the wind stress applied at the sea surface. Other parameters such as the bulk-skin surface temperature difference and CO$_2$ flux are determined by application of the Molecular Oceanic Boundary Layer Model (MOBLAM) of Schluessel and Soloviev. A similar model, for the current profile only, predicts a temporary increase in wave breaking intensity and decrease in wave height under conditions where the wind speed increases suddenly, such as, for example, during gusts and squalls. The model results are compared with measurements from the lagrangian Skin Depth Experimental Profiler (SkinDeEP) surface profiling instrument made during the 1999 MOCE-5 field experiment in the ...

  10. On the potentially dramatic history of the super-Earth rho 55 Cancri e

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Brad

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that tidal evolution of the inner planet (`e') of the system orbiting the star rho 55 Cancri could have led to passage through two secular resonances with other planets in the system. The consequence of this evolution is excitation of both the planetary eccentricity and inclination relative to the original orbital plane. The large mass ratio between the innermost planet and the others means that these excitations can be of substantial amplitude and can have dramatic consequences for the system organisation. Such evolution can potentially explain the large observed mutual inclination between the innermost and outermost planets in the system, and implies that tidal heating could have substantially modified the structure of planet e, and possibly reduced its mass by Roche lobe overflow. Similar inner secular resonances may be found in many multiple planet systems and suggest that many of the innermost planets in these systems could have suffered similar evolutions.

  11. On the potentially dramatic history of the super-Earth ρ 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bradley M. S.; Zink, Jonathon

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate that tidal evolution of the inner planet (`e') of the system orbiting the star ρ 55 Cancri could have led to passage through two secular resonances with other planets in the system. The consequence of this evolution is excitation of both the planetary eccentricity and inclination relative to the original orbital plane. The large mass ratio between the innermost planet and the others means that these excitations can be of substantial amplitude and can have dramatic consequences for the system organization. Such evolution can potentially explain the large observed mutual inclination between the innermost and outermost planets in the system, and implies that tidal heating could have substantially modified the structure of planet e, and possibly reduced its mass by Roche lobe overflow. Similar inner secular resonances may be found in many multiple planet systems and suggest that many of the innermost planets in these systems could have suffered similar evolutions.

  12. Decidedly Dramatic! The Power of Creative Drama in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczura, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Creative dramatics, a highly effective method for integrating arts education into core curriculum, produces a positive and lasting impact on student learning, in terms of creative and critical thinking, language development, listening, comprehension, retention, cooperation, and empathy and awareness of others. Creative dramatics not only has the…

  13. Evolution, current structure, and role of a primary care clinical pharmacy service in an integrated managed care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.

  14. Internal structure and current evolution of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in alpine permafrost environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste eBosson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the internal structure of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in permafrost environments and their current dynamical responses to short-term climatic variations. Three systems were investigated with electrical resistivity tomography and dGPS monitoring over a 3-year period. Five distinct sectors are highlighted in each system: firn and bare-ice glacier, debris-covered glacier, heavily debris-covered glacier of low activity, rock glacier and ice-free debris. Decimetric to metric movements, related to ice ablation, internal deformation and basal sliding affect the glacial zones, which are mainly active in summer. Conversely, surface lowering is close to zero (-0.04 m yr-1 in the rock glaciers. Here, a constant and slow internal deformation was observed (c. 0.2 m yr-1. Thus, these systems are affected by both direct and high magnitude responses and delayed and attenuated responses to climatic variations. This differential evolution appears mainly controlled by (1 the proportion of ice, debris and the presence of water in the ground, and (2 the thickness of the superficial debris layer.

  15. Halo Evolution of Hypereutectic Al-17.5Si Alloy Treated with High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Halo evolution of an Al-17.5Si alloy surface after treatment with increasing pulse numbers of a high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB was investigated. A halo is a ring microstructure resembling a bull’s eye. SEM results indicate that the nanocrystallization of halo induced by HCPEB treatment leads to gradual diffusion of the Si phase. Multiple pulses numbers cause the Si phase to be significantly refined and uniformly distributed. In addition, nanosilicon particles with a grain size of 30~100 nm were formed after HCPEB treatment, as shown by TEM observation. XRD results indicate that Si diffraction peaks broadened after HCPEB treatment. The microhardness tests demonstrate that the microhardness at the midpoint from the halo edge to center decreased sharply from 9770.7 MPa at 5 pulses to 2664.14 MPa at 25 pulses. The relative wear resistance of a 15-pulse sample is effectively improved by a factor of 6.5, exhibiting optimal wear resistance.

  16. Evolution/Creationism Controversy: Analysis of Past and Current Policies in Public Schools and the Practice of Allowing Students to Opt Out of Learning Evolution Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Jacquelyn Hoffmann

    2011-07-01

    Recent anti-evolution legislation, in the form of Academic Freedom bills, has been introduced in many state legislatures over the last three years. The language in the proposed Academic Freedom bills may allow different interpretations of what can be taught in the science classrooms, and possibly spur parents to take advantage of their perceived parental rights to request their child be opted-out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Five research questions guided the analysis of participant responses to questions and perception statements focusing on secondary school administrators' actions, perceptions, and awareness as they relate to their decision to allow or not allow a student to opt out of academics, specifically evolution, through the collection of data using a web-based survey. Opt out policies are typically invoked to excuse students from activities to which they or their parents may have religious objections (Scott & Branch, 2008). Florida statutes allow parents to opt out their child from human sexuality and animal dissection. The population consisted of 281 Florida public secondary school administrators, who were divided into two subgroups based on whether they have allowed or would allow a student to opt out of evolution, or have not allowed or would not allow a student to opt out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Results found that over 70% of the administrators who completed the survey have allowed or would allow parents to opt out their child from learning about the scientific theory of evolution. There was a significant relationship between the decision to allow opt out and the following variables: (a) Free and Reduced Lunch population, (b) grade level served, (c) support for teaching evolution and alternative theories, and (d) the perception that parent rights supersede state statute requiring students to learn evolution. In Florida, any scientific concept that is based on empirical evidence is

  17. Interaction of ring current and radiation belt protons with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. 2. Time evolution of the distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Miller, R. H.; Villalon, E.

    1995-11-01

    The evolution of the bounce-averaged ring current/radiation belt proton distribution is simulated during resonant interactions with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. The plasmaspheric hiss is assumed to be generated by ring current electrons and to be damped by the energetic protons. Thus energy is transferred between energetic electrons and protons using the plasmaspheric hiss as a mediary. The problem is not solved self-consistently. During the simulation period, interactions with ring current electrons (not represented in the model) are assumed to maintain the wave amplitudes in the presence of damping by the energetic protons, allowing the wave spectrum to be held fixed. Diffusion coefficients in pitch angle, cross pitch angle/energy, and energy were previously calculated by Kozyra et al. (1994) and are adopted for the present study. The simulation treats the energy range, E>=80 keV, within which the wave diffusion operates on a shorter timescale than other proton loss processes (i.e., Coulomb drag and charge exchange). These other loss processes are not included in the simulation. An interesting result of the simulation is that energy diffusion maximizes at moderate pitch angles near the edge of the atmospheric loss cone. Over the simulation period, diffusion in energy creates an order of magnitude enhancement in the bounce-averaged proton distribution function at moderate pitch angles. The loss cone is nearly empty because scattering of particles at small pitch angles is weak. The bounce-averaged flux distribution, mapped to ionospheric heights, results in elevated locally mirroring proton fluxes. OGO 5 observed order of magnitude enhancements in locally mirroring energetic protons at altitudes between 350 and 1300 km and invariant latitudes between 50° and 60° (Lundblad and Soraas, 1978). The proton distributions were highly anisotropic in pitch angle with nearly empty loss cones. The similarity between the observed distributions and those resulting from this

  18. Theodramatic Rehearsal: Fighting Self-Deception through the Dramatic Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Vaden

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to appropriate the insights of dramatic theology for Christian psychology and soul care. According to Kevin Vanhoozer, Scripture is the ‘script’ for human beings’ fitting participation in the acts and deeds of God in the world (i.e., ‘theodrama’. Keeping with this dramatic paradigm, the author will explore what ‘rehearsal’ might entail by drawing from a branch of psychotherapy called ‘psychodrama.’ The main question to be addressed in this appropriation of dramatic theology is, “How might dramatic rehearsal combat self-deception?” The author will only begin to answer this question, but in the attempt it is hoped that further reflection and clarity will be induced.

  19. Drug Overdose Deaths Climb Dramatically in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Overdose Deaths Climb Dramatically in U.S. Prescription painkillers and heroin lead the increase, latest government data ... fatalities linked to the illicit use of prescription painkillers, new government statistics reveal. Drug overdose deaths increased ...

  20. The Effects of Dramatization on English Literature Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周思菡; 周思蕊

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the role that the dramatization of English literature plays in addressing two major difficulties in English literary work comprehension for intermediate English learners in China, namely the linguistic difficulty and the cultural misunderstanding. By taking the dramatization of British writer Jane Austin’s masterpiece Pride and Prejudice as a case study, the first part of the essay examines the role of dramatization in tackling linguistic difficulties based on the interactive reading model de-veloped by David E. Rumelhart(1977) while the second part analyzes how an integral framework for understanding target culture is constructed through the process of dramatization with a reference to Galloway’s(1992) four-stage approach to a cultural read-ing of authentic materials.

  1. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  2. Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. / Alan Blyth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blyth, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. Barbara Bonney, Randi Stene, Hakan Hagegard, Ruth Tellefsen, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi." CD 437 519 - 2GH

  3. Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. / Alan Blyth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blyth, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. Barbara Bonney, Randi Stene, Hakan Hagegard, Ruth Tellefsen, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi." CD 437 519 - 2GH

  4. Tidal current-induced formation——storm-induced change——tidal current-induced recovery——Interpretation of depositional dynamics of formation and evolution of radial sand ridges on the Yellow Sea seafloor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长宽; 张东生; 张君伦; 王震

    1999-01-01

    The results of simulated tidal current field, wave field and storm-induced current field are employed to interpret the depositional dynamic mechanism of formation and evolution of the radial sand ridges on the Yellow Sea seafloor. The anticlockwise rotary tidal wave to the south of Shandong Peninsula meets the following progressive tidal wave from the South Yellow Sea, forming a radial current field outside Jianggang. This current field provides a necessary dynamic condition for the formation and existence of the radial sand ridges on the Yellow Sea seafloor. The results of simulated "old current field (holocene)" show that there existed a convergent-divergent tidal zone just outside the palaeo-Yangtze River estuary where a palaeo-underwater accumulation was developed. The calculated results from wave models indicate that the wave impact on the topography, under the condition of high water level and strong winds, is significant. The storm current induced by typhoons landing in the Yangtze River estuary

  5. Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetto A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network. Since 1997, atmospheric deposition was sampled and analyzed in the permanent plots of the Italian network for the evaluation of forest health (CONECOFOR, under the coordination of the Italian Forest Service. This paper presents the results of the activity carried out in 2009, when the EU-funded LIFE+ “FutMon” project allowed to extend the sampling network to 22 sites. Long-term trends will also be evaluated for the sampling sites with the longest time series. The sampling of open field bulk deposition was performed in a clearance close to the CONECOFOR permanent plots, while throughfall deposition and stemflow (in beech stand, only were sampled in the plot. Deposition samples were collected weekly and sent to the laboratories, where they were analyzed for pH, conductivity, major ions, and total carbon and nitrogen. Most measured variables showed a strong geographical gradient. For example, nitrogen deposition was relatively high in the Po plain (where the emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are the highest and surrounding hills, reaching 10-20 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the open field and 13-25 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the throughfall. Sulphate deposition also showed a marked geographical gradient. Deposition of marine aerosol also had an important impact on the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition in Italy, together with the episodic deposition of Saharan dust, which showed a marked gradient, with highest values in the southernmost plots. Trend analysis was carried out on 10 sites running since the beginning of the program. A general negative trend in sulphate concentration was detected, paralleled in most plots by a positive trend in deposition pH, in good agreement with the strong reduction in the emission of sulphur dioxide recorded in the last decades. Nitrogen concentration also showed a significant decrease

  6. Reply to comment on "A simple model for the short-time evolution of near-surface current and temperature profiles"

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, A D; Jenkins, Alastair D.; Ward, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This is our response to a comment by Walter Eifler on our paper `A simple model for the short-time evolution of near-surface current and temperature profiles' (arXiv:physics/0503186, accepted for publication in Deep-Sea Research II). Although Eifler raises genuine issues regarding our model's validity and applicability, we are nevertheless of the opinion that it is of value for the short-term evolution of the upper-ocean profiles of current and temperature. The fact that the effective eddy viscosity tends to infinity for infinite time under a steady wind stress may not be surprising. It can be interpreted as a vertical shift of the eddy viscosity profile and an increase in the size of the dominant turbulent eddies under the assumed conditions of small stratification and infinite water depth.

  7. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot from Spacecraft Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; de Pater, Imke; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Carlson, Robert W.; Marcus, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nanometers, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nanometers. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  8. Aspects of dramatic communication: action, non-action, interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at describing the dramatic means of important transitional (in the sense of innovative) Russian dramas, such as Chekhovian, Symbolist (Blok) and Absurdist (D. Charms) Drama. The reduction of action and plot, the 'disturbed' communication, the alienation of man and the conveying o

  9. Dramatic interactions: theater work and the formation of learning communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meath-Lang, B

    1997-04-01

    This article examines the relationship of theater and dramatic study to models of learning communities in promoting identity, diversity, and culture. Theater is an example of how learning community can be achieved and levels of theater use in education are presented as ways in which educators can create ensemble and foster community. Strategies for developing learning communities using the performing arts are provided.

  10. The Challenges and Prospects of Teaching and Learning Dramatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    prospects of teaching and learning of Dramatic Arts in tertiary institutions in ... of the founding of the first Secondary School - the C.M.S Grammar School, Bariga, ... between self-discovery and the practical knowledge of life (Umukoro, 2002). In.

  11. Aspects of dramatic communication: action, non-action, interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at describing the dramatic means of important transitional (in the sense of innovative) Russian dramas, such as Chekhovian, Symbolist (Blok) and Absurdist (D. Charms) Drama. The reduction of action and plot, the 'disturbed' communication, the alienation of man and the conveying

  12. On Dramatizing: The Right to Write the Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koste, V. Glasgow

    1995-01-01

    Defines "adaptation" as the transformational process of taking a narrative work and dramatizing it. Stresses the importance of knowing what to leave out and knowing what to leave in. Suggests thinking of "adopting" rather than "adapting." States that artistic freedom is the playwright's right. Emphasizes the…

  13. In operando neutron diffraction study of the temperature and current rate-dependent phase evolution of LiFePO4 in a commercial battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N.; Yu, D. H.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Y.; Peterson, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    In operando NPD data of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries reveal unusual LiFePO4 phase evolution after the application of a thermal step and at high current. At low current under ambient conditions the LiFePO4 to FePO4 two-phase reaction occurs during the charge process, however, following a thermal step and at higher current this reaction appears at the end of charge and continues into the next electrochemical step. The same behavior is observed for the FePO4 to LiFePO4 transition, occurring at the end of discharge and continuing into the following electrochemical step. This suggests that the bulk (or the majority of the) electrode transformation is dependent on the battery's history, current, or temperature. Such information concerning the non-equilibrium evolution of an electrode allows a direct link between the electrode's functional mechanism that underpins lithium-ion battery behavior and the real-life operating conditions of the battery, such as variable temperature and current, to be made.

  14. Quaternary clay mineralogy in the northern South China Sea (ODP Site 1146)--Implications for oceanic current transport and East Asian monsoon evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhifei(刘志飞); Alain Trentesaux; Steven C. Clemens; WANG Pinxian(汪品先)

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of clay mineralogy at ODP Site 1146 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) indicates that illite, chlorite, and kaolinite contents increased during glacials and smectite content increased during interglacials. The smectite/(illite+chlorite) ratio and the smectite abundance were determined as mineralogical indicators for the East Asian monsoon evolution. At a 10 ka timescale, prevailing southeasterly surface oceanic currents during interglacials transported more smectite from the south and east areas to the north, showing a strengthened summer monsoon circulation, whereas dominated counter-clockwise surface currents during glacials carried more illite and chlorite from Taiwan as well as from the Yangtze River via the Luzon Strait to the northern SCS, indicating a strongly intensified winter monsoon. Based on a 100 ka timescale, a linear correlation between the smectite/(illite+chlorite) ratio and the sedimentation rate reflects that the winter monsoon has prevailed in the northern SCS in the intervals 2000-1200 ka and 400-0 ka and the summer monsoon did the same in the interval 1200-400 ka. The evolution of the summer monsoon provides an almost linear response to the summer insolation of Northern Hemisphere, implying an astronomical forcing of the East Asian monsoon evolution.

  15. Dramatic reduction of culture time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodbane, Ramzi; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, a critical technique for routine diagnosis of tuberculosis, takes more than two weeks. Here, step-by-step improvements in the protocol including a new medium, microaerophlic atmosphere or ascorbic-acid supplement and autofluorescence detection dramatically shortened this delay. In the best case, primary culture and rifampicin susceptibility testing were achieved in 72 hours when specimens were inoculated directly on the medium supplemented by antibiotic at the beginning of the culture.

  16. Cotton domestication: dramatic changes in a single cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasburg Jared L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Investigations on the nature of genetic changes underpinning plant domestication have begun to shed light on the evolutionary history of crops and can guide improvements to modern cultivars. A recent study focused on cotton fiber cells tracks the dramatic genome-wide changes in gene expression during development that have accompanied selection for increased fiber yield and quality. See Research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/139

  17. Evolution of the structural and optical properties of silver oxide films with different stoichiometries deposited by direct-current magnetron reactive sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Meng-Ke; Liang Yan; Gao Xiao-Yong; Chen Chao; Chen Xian-Mei; Zhao Xian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen doping of silver oxide (AgχO) film is necessary for its application in transparent conductive film and diodes because intrinsic AgχO film is a p-type semiconductor with poor conductivity.In this work,a series of AgχO films is deposited on glass substrates by direct-current magnetron reactive sputtering at different flow ratios (FRs) of nitrogen to O2.Evolutions of the structure,the reflectivity,and the transmissivity of the film are studied by X-ray diffractometry and sphectrophotometry,respectively.The specular transmissivity and the specular reflectivity of the film decreasing with FR increasing can be attributed to the evolution of the phase structure of the film.The nitrogen does not play the role of an acceptor dopant in the film deposition.

  18. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  19. Sulfur poisoning of emergent and current electrocatalysts: vulnerability of MoS2, and direct correlation to Pt hydrogen evolution reaction kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Min; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The recent surge in interest in the utilisation of transition metal dichalcogenides for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), as well as the long-standing problem of sulfur poisoning suffered by the established Pt HER electrocatalyst, motivated us to examine the impacts of sulfur poisoning on both emergent and current electrocatalysts. Through a comparative study between MoS2 and Pt/C on the effects of sulfur poisoning, we demonstrate that MoS2 is not invulnerable to poisoning. Additionally, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, correlations have also been established between the atomic percentages of Pt-S bonds and normalised HER parameters e.g. Tafel slope and potential at -10 mA cm-2. These findings are of high importance for potential hydrogen evolution catalysis.The recent surge in interest in the utilisation of transition metal dichalcogenides for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), as well as the long-standing problem of sulfur poisoning suffered by the established Pt HER electrocatalyst, motivated us to examine the impacts of sulfur poisoning on both emergent and current electrocatalysts. Through a comparative study between MoS2 and Pt/C on the effects of sulfur poisoning, we demonstrate that MoS2 is not invulnerable to poisoning. Additionally, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, correlations have also been established between the atomic percentages of Pt-S bonds and normalised HER parameters e.g. Tafel slope and potential at -10 mA cm-2. These findings are of high importance for potential hydrogen evolution catalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Survey scan XPS spectra, HER LSV curves and surface atomic compositions of poisoned and unpoisoned Pt/C and MoS2 nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01378j

  20. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  1. Dramatic Decomposition Weakening of Simulated Faults in Carrara Marble at Seismic Slip-rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, R.; Shimamoto, T.; Hirose, T.; Ree, J.

    2005-12-01

    Evolution of fault-zone strength and its weakening mechanisms during an earthquake are critical for understanding of earthquake rupture process. We report dramatic weakening of dry simulated faults in Carrara marble at seismic slip-rates, with frictional coefficient as low as 0.04 (probably the lowest record as rock friction). Calcite decomposition was confirmed by in-situ CO2 detection and other methods and the weakening may require new weakening mechanisms other than currently suggested ones such as frictional melting, thermal pressurization and silica gel formation. We conducted rotary-shear friction experiments on Carrara marble at slip-rates (V) of 0.09-1.24 m/s and normal stresses (σn) of 2.5-13.4 MPa. For preventing a thermal fracturing and applying a high normal load, we used solid cylindrical specimens jacketed with aluminum tubes. Narrow gap was left between the two aluminum tubes to avoid metal-to-metal contact. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (1) Slip weakening occurs in all experiments except for the runs at the lowest V (0.09 m/s); (2) Steady-state friction coefficient (μss) decreases as slip-rate and normal load increase; (3) At the highest V (1.13-1.24 m/s) and σn = 7.3 MPa, the average friction coefficient of initial peak friction (μp) is 0.61 (± 0.02), but the average μss is 0.04! (± 0.01) which is much lower than μp; (4) Decrease in average temperature of sliding surfaces corresponds to increase in friction, and strength recovery occurs very rapidly and completely upon cooling of specimens; (5) XRD and EPMA data show that the gouge for the specimens at V > 0.09 m/s is composed of calcite, lime (CaO) and/or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2); (6) CO2 gas was detected with sensors during the weakening; (7) Decomposed calcite forms a fault zone consisting of ultrafine-grained gouge, but no melt or amorphous material was identified by optical microscopy or XRD analysis. Calcite decomposition clearly indicates that temperature in the fault

  2. Computing Electric Currents in the Martian Ionosphere Using Magnetometer Data from the Mars Atmospheric Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mars does not have a global magnetic field like Earth does. However, due to solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) interactions, electric currents are induced which create an induced magnetosphere. As MAVEN passes through the ionosphere of Mars, the magnetometer on board continuously measures the induced magnetic field in the ionosphere. Using Ampere's Law (∇ × B = µ0j) along with these measurements of the induced magnetic field, we can quantify the electric currents in the ionosphere. We are particularly interested in magnetic field profiles that have a radial component that is less than or equal to 5 nanoteslas in magnitude. By only using measurements where the radial component of the magnetic field satisfies the aforementioned condition and assuming that there are no horizontal gradients in the magnetic field, we will calculate horizontal currents in the ionosphere. Using these calculated currents, we will analyze altitudinal variations in magnitude and direction of the currents. Measuring these horizontal currents can give us insights into how the solar wind and IMF can affect the upper atmosphere of Mars. For example, induced electric currents can cause Joule heating in the atmosphere, which can potentially modify its neutral dynamics.

  3. The evolution of a mountain road network from its original use during the First World War to meeting today’s forestry needs: current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In some mountain areas of northeastern Italy, the present forest road network has been partially developed using the previous military road network built during the First World War (WW I. The current management of the areas of forest considers the road network essential to provide access for forestry activities, but also to increase the value of recreational activities and tourism related to the historical importance of this area. The aim of the study was to investigate the technical evolution of a mountain road network from the beginning of the last century to today. The research consisted in a preliminary reconnaissance of the original road network using the WW I military maps, a further reconnaissance using the technical maps dated to the 1960s, and the survey of the current road network through the differential global positioning system (D-GPS. The study also aimed to evaluate the current condition of the original road network according to the use made of it today in order to highlight how building standards influenced its evolution in terms of transportation systems and traffic management.

  4. Evolution and structure of the plasma of current sheets forming in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line at low initial gas ionization and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of the experimental data obtained by holographic interferometry in our work [1] makes it possible to explain most of the observed specific features of the structure and evolution of the plasma sheets developing in a two-dimensional magnetic field with a null line in a plasma with a low initial degree of ionization (≈10-4). The following two processes are shown to play a key role here: additional gas ionization in an electric field and the peculiarities of plasma dynamics in a current sheet expanding in time.

  5. Dramatic regression of presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma with photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuray Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used for treatment of various intraocular tumors including choroidal hemangioma, vasoproliferative tumor, amelanotic choroidal melanoma and choroidal neovascular membrane due to choroidal osteoma. This case report documents the effect of PDT for a presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma. A 42-year-old female with a juxtapapillary acquired astrocytoma was treated with a single session of PDT using standard parameters. The tumor showed dramatic regression over 6 months into a fibrotic scar. It remained regressed and stable with 20/20 vision after 51 months of follow-up. We believe that PDT can be used as a primary treatment for acquired retinal astrocytoma.

  6. Dramatic response to levetiracetam in post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, P; Elefante, Andrea; Coppola, Antonietta; Tortora, Fabio; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Holmes’ tremor refers to an unusual combination of rest, postural and kinetic tremor of extremities. Common causes of Holmes’ tremor include stroke, trauma, vascular malformations and multiple sclerosis, with lesions involving the thalamus, brain stem or cerebellum. Although some drugs (eg, levodopa and dopaminergic drugs, clonazepam and propranolol) have been occasionally reported to give some benefit, medical treatment of Holmes’ tremor is unsatisfactory, and many patients require thalamic surgery to achieve satisfactory control. We report a patient in whom post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor dramatically responded to levetiracetam treatment. PMID:21686707

  7. Stuttering therapy in 1837 and a young boy's dramatic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preus, A

    1994-01-01

    This is a historical account of the first known case of stuttering therapy in Norway. In his autobiography, school administrator and politician Nils Hertzberg relates how he in 1837 as a 10-year-old boy travelled on horseback, skis and by boat across Norway from west to east and back in order to receive therapy from a travelling German speech teacher C.F. Bansmann. The article provides extracts from the exciting and dramatic journey, describes Bansmann's method and offers some comments on stuttering and stuttering therapy.

  8. Authoring for Engagement in Interactive Dramatic Experiences for Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2013-01-01

    ’s control over communicating a theme. To address this problem, this paper contributes a method for organizing narrative events in a free-roaming virtual environment. The Interactive Dramatic Experience Model (IDEM) retains the freedom of navigation while maintaining the possibility to construct various...... coherent narratives that enable the theme to be communicated. This may be of particular relevance when using digital, interactive, and representational technologies in the mediation of ethically relevant and socially responsible themes. In order to explore the use of the IDEM, we have developed...

  9. A novel diversion protocol dramatically reduces diversion hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah, Osei Kwame; Weiss, Steven J; Ernst, Amy A; Richards, Michael; Sklar, David P

    2008-07-01

    Ambulance diversion is a problem in many communities. When patients are diverted prompt and appropriate medical care may be delayed. Compare diversion hours and drop-off times before and after a dramatic change in diversion policy restricting each hospital to 1 hour out of every 8. This study was a retrospective study in a county of 600,000 people and 10 hospitals from September 2004 to February 2006. A countywide diversion protocol was implemented in March 2005 that limited diversion hours to 1 hour out of every 8 (maximum of 90 h/mo). No other changes were implemented during the study period. Pretrial (9/04-2/05), interim (3/05-8/05), and posttrial (9/05-2/06) periods were compared. The main outcome measures were ambulance diversion hours and emergency medical service (EMS) drop-off times. Results were compared using analysis of variance and a Tukey post hoc analysis. P ambulance diversion hours (difference, 251 hours; 95% CI, 136-368) and significant increase in additional time that EMS crews required to transport patients (drop-off times) (difference, 178 hours; 95% CI, 74-283) were observed. Posttrial diversion hours decreased to 18% of the pretrial values (from 305 to 54). This novel ambulance diversion protocol dramatically reduced diversion hours at the cost of increasing EMS drop-off times in a large community.

  10. Using dramatic role-play to develop emotional aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dinapoli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As university educators, we need to prepare students for the transition from the information age to what Daniel H. Pink (2005 calls the conceptual age, which is governed by artistry, empathy and emotion, by including in the curricula activities that stimulate both hemispheres of the brain. This can be done by promoting activities that energize what Daniel Goleman (1995 refers to as emotional intelligence, and it further maintains that, as Paul Ekman (2003 suggests, the ability to detect feelings improves communication. Recognizing the need to include in the curricula procedures that help develop students’ right brain aptitudes and enhance their communication skills, I have endeavoured to introduce dramatic scene study as a sustained activity in my English for Specific Purposes courses at the Universidad de Valencia. My aim was to energize the students’ creative and emotional aptitudes, as well as to dynamize effective teamwork. This article sustains that dramatic role-play, based on scripted scene study and related improvisational activities, is one way of achieving this.

  11. Effect of current frequency on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during electroplastic rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaopei [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang, Guoyi; Kuang, Jie; Li, Xiaohui [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhu, Jing, E-mail: jzhu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-26

    The effect of electroplastic rolling (ER) on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture in the AZ31 magnesium alloy strips has been investigated by tensile testing and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) methods. It is shown that the mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture are highly current frequency-dependent. Best mechanical properties are obtained from the 500 Hz ER specimen by carrying out tensile tests for all the rolled strips. Besides, the frequencies of twin boundaries, which are reduced to the minimum at 500 Hz, vary with the current frequency. Moreover, it can be seen from the calculated (0001) and (101{sup ¯}0) pole figures that texture evolved into an obvious off-basal texture, and non-basal slip systems are activated under 500 Hz. The mechanisms of twinning growth and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during ER are considered to be responsible for the experimental results.

  12. Three-dimensional evolution of flux rope CMEs and its relation to the local orientation of the heliospheric current sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Isavnin, Alexey; Kilpua, Emilia K J

    2013-01-01

    Flux ropes (FRs) ejected from the Sun may change their geometrical orientation during their evolution which directly affects their geoeffectiveness. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how solar FRs evolve in the heliosphere to improve our space weather forecasting tools. We analyze 15 coronal mass ejections (CMEs), with clear FR signatures, observed during the decay of Solar Cycle 23 and rise of Solar Cycle 24. We estimate initial orientations of the FRs at the origin using extreme ultraviolet observations of post-eruption arcades and/or eruptive prominences. Then we reconstruct multiviewpoint coronagraph observations of the CMEs from ~2 to 30 Rs with a three-dimensional geometric representation of a FR to determine their geometrical parameters. Finally, we propagate the FRs from ~30 Rs to 1 AU through MHD-simulated background solar wind while using in-situ measurements at 1 AU of the associated magnetic cloud as a constraint for the propagation technique. These methodology allows us to estimate the FR or...

  13. Formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea since the last deglaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tiegang; NAN Qingyun; JIANG Bo; SUN Rongtao; ZHANG Deyu; LI Qing

    2009-01-01

    To reconstruct the formation and evolution process of the warm current system within the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) since the last deglaciation, the paleoceangraphic records in core DGKS9603, core CSH1 and core YSDPI02, which were retrieved from the mainstream of the Kuroshio Current (KC), the edge of the modem Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) and muddy region under cold waters accreted with the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) respectively, were synthetically analyzed. The results indicate that the formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the ECS and the YS has been accompanied by the development of the KC and impulse rising of the sea level since the last deglaciation. The influence of the KC on the Okinawa Trough had enhanced since 16 cal kyr BE and synchronously the modem TWC began to develop with the rising of sea level and finally formed at about 8.5 cal kyr BP. The KC had experienced two weakening process during the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Drays event from 16 to 8.5 cal kyr BP. The period of 7-6 cal kyr BP was the strongest stage of the KC and the TWC since the last deglaciation. The YSWC has appeared at about 6.4 cal kyr BP. Thus,the warm current system of the ECS and the YS has ultimately formed. The weakness of the KC,indicated by the occurrence of Pulleniatina minimum event (PME) during the period from 5.3 to 2.8 cal kyr BE caused the main stream of the TWC to shift eastward to the Pacific Ocean around about 3 cal kyr BP. The process resulted in the intruding of continent shelf cold water mass with rich nutrients. Synchronously, the strength of the YSWC was relatively weak and the related cold water body was active at the early-mid stage of its appearance against the PME background, which resulted in the quick formation of muddy deposit system in the southeastern YS. The strength of the warm current system in the ECS and the YS has enhanced evidently, and approached to the modern condition gradually since 3 cal kyr

  14. Barremian-Aptian rudist shells record dramatic shallow-water sea-surface temperature changes in the Tethyan Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Stefan; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The dramatic and stepwise emplacement of large igneous provinces is generally accepted as primary driver of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Although excess output of volcanically induced greenhouse gases should have promoted "super greenhouse phases", several studies provide evidence for transient Cretaceous "cold snaps", particularly during the Barremian-Aptian stage. To date, reconstructions of Cretaceous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are predominantly based either on δ18O analyses of pristine foraminiferal calcite or on crenarchaeotal membrane lipid distributions (TEX86) in pelagic deposits. Both types of proxies provide at best estimates of mean annual SSTs of open ocean settings. In order to better understand the dynamics of Cretaceous global warmth and the impact of fluctuating SSTs on carbonate platform ecosystems, the current study aims at reconstructing the stratigraphic and spatial evolution of subtropical shallow-marine sea-surface temperatures. Well-preserved low-Mg calcite rudist shells hold a strong potential to act as archives for the reconstruction of Cretaceous palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental conditions, as ontogenetic isotopic and trace element variability of these shells also resolve sub-annual (seasonal) temperature fluctuations (Steuber et al., 2005). In the context of the current study, high-resolution sclerochemistry (δ18O, Mg contents) has been performed on rudists derived from chemostratigraphically (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C) well-constrained Barremian-Aptian carbonate platform settings in the subtropical Tethyan realm (France, Croatia, Spain, Portugal). The outcome of this work will be of significance both for those studying the triggering factors of oceanic anoxic events and the palaeoecology of rudist bivalves. Steuber, T., Rauch, M., Masse, J.-P., Graaf, J., Malkoc, M. (2005) Low-latitude seasonality of Cretaceous temperatures in warm and cold episodes. Nature 437: 1341-1344.

  15. Microalloying Boron Carbide with Silicon to Achieve Dramatically Improved Ductility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Goddard, William A

    2014-12-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a hard material whose value for extended engineering applications such as body armor; is limited by its brittleness under impact. To improve the ductility while retaining hardness, we used density functional theory to examine modifying B4C ductility through microalloying. We found that replacing the CBC chain in B4C with Si-Si, denoted as (B11Cp)-Si2, dramatically improves the ductility, allowing a continuous shear to a large strain of 0.802 (about twice of B4C failure strain) without brittle failure. Moreover, (B11C)-Si2 retains low density and high hardness. This ductility improvement arises because the Si-Si linkages enable the icosahedra accommodate additional shear by rotating instead of breaking bonds.

  16. Media and identification processes: a ritual and dramatic construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Sola-Morales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present theoretical paper analyzes the way mediatic communication construct identifications. The thesis proposed is that the media configure ritually and dramatically identifications made by individuals and groups. First of all, we show the limitations of the concept of “identity” and we propose to use “identification” instead. Second, we explore the extent of social drama theory and role theory and we open it to new theoretical challenges and perspectives. Thirdly, it is shown that the concept of "ritual" is very useful to understand and interpret the identity construction through the media. All this leads us to conclude that both the theatricality and rituality are key to understanding the processes of identification that individuals and groups make in relation to the media.

  17. Discrimination, developmental science, and the law: addressing dramatic shifts in civil rights jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Roger J R

    2014-01-01

    The civil rights movement fostered dramatic shifts in legal responses to discrimination based on race, gender, and a host of other group characteristics. The legal system now evinces yet another dramatic shift, as it moves from considering difference to focusing on neutrality, from efforts that seek to counter subjugation to those that adopt a "color-blind" approach. The shifting approach already has reached laws regulating responses to the group that spurred massive civil rights reform: minority youth. The shift requires a different body of empirical evidence to address it and a new look at equality jurisprudence. This article notes the need to turn to the current understanding of prejudice and discrimination for guidance, and uses, as illustration, developmental science to shed light on the development, manifestation, and alleviation of invidious discrimination. Using that understanding, the analysis details how the legal system can benefit from that research and better address discrimination in light of dramatic changes in law. The article articulates the need to address discrimination by recognizing and enlisting the law's inculcative powers through multiple sites of inculcation, ranging from families, schools, health and justice systems to religious and community groups. The discussion concludes with brief suggestions for reform benefiting from understandings of prejudice and its expression.

  18. PROMOTING INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH VERBAL DRAMATIZATION OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looi-Chin Ch’ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that explicit teaching of vocabulary is often practised in English as a Second Language (ESL classrooms, it has been proven to be rather ineffective, largely because words are not taught in context. This has prompted the increasing use of incidental vocabulary learning approach, which emphasises on repeated readings as a source for vocabulary learning. By adopting this approach, this study aims to investigate students’ ability in learning vocabulary incidentally via verbal dramatization of written texts. In this case, readers’ theatre (RT is used as a way to allow learners to engage in active reading so as to promote vocabulary learning. A total of 160 diploma students participated in this case study and they were divided equally into two groups, namely classroom reading (CR and RT groups. A proficiency test was first conducted to determine their vocabulary levels. Based on the test results, a story was selected as the reading material in the two groups. The CR group read the story through a normal reading lesson in class while the RT group was required to verbally dramatize the text through readers’ theatre activity. Then, a post-test based on vocabulary levels was carried out and the results were compared. The findings revealed that incidental learning was more apparent in the RT group and their ability to learn words from the higher levels was noticeable through higher accuracy scores. Although not conclusive, this study has demonstrated the potential of using readers’ theatre as a form of incidental vocabulary learning activity in ESL settings.

  19. Discrepant longitudinal volumetric and metabolic evolution of diffuse intrinsic Pontine gliomas during treatment: implications for current response assessment strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebel, U. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Hwang, S.; Edwards, A.; Patay, Z. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Li, Y.; Li, X. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Broniscer, A. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Pediatrics, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Based on clinical observations, we hypothesized that in infiltrative high-grade brainstem neoplasms, such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), longitudinal metabolic evaluation of the tumor by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be more accurate than volumetric data for monitoring the tumor's biological evolution during standard treatment. We evaluated longitudinal MRS data and corresponding tumor volumes of 31 children with DIPG. We statistically analyzed correlations between tumor volume and ratios of Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cr at key time points during the course of the disease through the end of the progression-free survival period. By the end of RT, tumor volume had significantly decreased from the baseline (P <.0001) and remained decreased through the last available follow-up magnetic resonance imaging study (P =.007632). However, the metabolic profile of the tumor tissue (Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr, and Cho/NAA ratios) did not change significantly over time. Our data show that longitudinal tumor volume and metabolic profile changes are dissociated in patients with DIPG during progression-free survival. Volume changes, therefore, may not accurately reflect treatment-related changes in tumor burden. This study adds to the existing body of evidence that the value of conventional MRI metrics, including volumetric data, needs to be reevaluated critically and, in infiltrative tumors in particular, may not be useful as study end-points in clinical trials. We submit that advanced quantitative MRI data, including robust, MRS-based metabolic ratios and diffusion and perfusion metrics, may be better surrogate markers of key end-points in clinical trials. (orig.)

  20. Hydraulic evolution of high-density turbidity currents from the Brushy Canyon Formation, Eddy County, New Mexico inferred by comparison to settling and sorting experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motanated, Kannipa; Tice, Michael M.

    2016-05-01

    Hydraulic transformations in turbidity currents are commonly driven by or reflected in changes in suspended sediment concentrations, but changes preceding transformations can be difficult to diagnose because they do not produce qualitative changes in resultant deposits. This study integrates particle settling experiments and in situ detection of hydraulically contrasting particles in turbidites in order to infer changes in suspended sediment concentration during deposition of massive (Bouma Ta) sandstone divisions. Because grains of contrasting density are differentially sorted during hindered settling from dense suspensions, relative grading patterns can be used to estimate suspended sediment concentrations and interpret hydraulic evolution of the depositing turbidity currents. Differential settling of dense particles (aluminum ballotini) through suspensions of hydraulically coarser light particles (silica ballotini) with volumetric concentration, Cv, were studied in a thin vessel by using particle-image-velocimetry. At high Cv, aluminum particles were less retarded than co-sedimenting silica particles, and effectively settled as hydraulically coarser grains. This was because particles were entrained into clusters dominated by the settling behavior of the silica particles. Terminal settling velocities of both particles converged at Cv ≥ 25%, and particle sorting was diminished. The results of settling experiments were applied to understand settling of analogous feldspar and zircon grains in natural turbidity flows. Distributions of light and heavy mineral grains in massive sandstones, Bouma Ta divisions, of turbidites from the Middle Permian Brushy Canyon Formation were observed in situ by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (μXRF). Hydraulic sorting of these grains resulted in characteristic patterns of zirconium abundance that decreased from base to top within Ta divisions. These profiles resulted from upward fining of zircon grains with respect to co

  1. A three-phase model proposal for the evolution of scientific communication: from first print periodicals to current electronic communication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bertin

    Full Text Available Scientific communication has undergone deep transformations, since the emergence of Internet. Aiming to provide further thought on the evolution of scientific communication, this paper features a historical overview of the scientific communication advances over the last twenty years through a three-phase model for the evolution of the electronic journal and the preprints services, and presents Brazilian contemporary panorama for scientific communication. The three-phase model presented in this work is an adaptation of that one proposed by Tenopir et al. (2003 to describe the patterns of journal use by scientists since 1990. The early evolutionary phase followed the emergence of the first digital journals and the creation of repositories in the Web for publishing preliminary versions of scientific literature on the author’s initiative; by that time, most academics reproved electronic publishing initiatives. From 1996 and forward, in the consolidation phase, electronic journals were commonly identical to their print counterparts; the acceptance of the electronic format began to increase, and preprint services got underway in several disciplines. The advanced evolutionary phase started with the world discussion on open access to scientific information. The comparison of the current electronic journal with that viewed by enthusiasts in the first years of the 1990s shows that some aspects still remain to be improved in electronic formal and informal communication, towards effective dissemination of scientific information.

  2. Design Rules for Oxygen Evolution Catalysis at Porous Iron Oxide Electrodes: A 1000-Fold Current Density Increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Sandra; Pankin, Dmitrii; Petrov, Yuri; Bochmann, Sebastian; Manshina, Alina; Bachmann, Julien

    2017-09-22

    Nanotubular iron(III) oxide electrodes are optimized for catalytic efficiency in the water oxidation reaction at neutral pH. The nanostructured electrodes are prepared from anodic alumina templates, which are coated with Fe2 O3 by atomic layer deposition. Scanning helium ion microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the morphologies and phases of samples submitted to various treatments. These methods demonstrate the contrasting effects of thermal annealing and electrochemical treatment. The electrochemical performances of the corresponding electrodes under dark conditions are quantified by steady-state electrolysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A rough and amorphous Fe2 O3 with phosphate incorporation is critical for the optimization of the water oxidation reaction. For the ideal pore length of 17 μm, the maximum catalytic turnover is reached with an effective current density of 140 μA cm(-2) at an applied overpotential of 0.49 V. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Francisco; Berthold, Peter

    2010-04-20

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in a population of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) to test for evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Using a common garden experiment in time and captive breeding we demonstrated a genetic reduction in migratory activity and evolutionary change in phenotypic plasticity of migration onset. An artificial selection experiment further revealed that residency will rapidly evolve in completely migratory bird populations if selection for shorter migration distance persists. Our findings suggest that current alterations of the environment are favoring birds wintering closer to the breeding grounds and that populations of migratory birds have strongly responded to these changes in selection. The reduction of migratory activity is probably an important evolutionary process in the adaptation of migratory birds to climate change, because it reduces migration costs and facilitates the rapid adjustment to the shifts in the timing of food availability during reproduction.

  4. New therapies for hereditary angioedema: disease outlook changes dramatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael M; Jiang, Haixiang

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with episodic attacks of nonpitting edema that may affect any external or mucosal body surface. Attacks most often affect the extremities, causing local swelling, the GI tract, leading to severe abdominal pain, and the mouth and throat, at times causing asphyxiation. Most patients with HAE have low levels of the plasma serine protease inhibitor C1 inhibitor. The edema in these patients is caused by unregulated generation of bradykinin. Effective chronic therapy of patients with impeded androgens or plasmin inhibitors has been available for decades, but in the United States, we do not have therapy for acute attacks. Five companies have completed or are in the process of conducting phase 3 clinical trials, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of products designed to terminate acute attacks or to be used in prophylaxis. Two companies, Lev Pharmaceuticals and CSL Behring, have preparations of C1 inhibitor purified from plasma that have been used in Europe for decades (trade names Cinryze and Berinert P, respectively). One company, Pharming, has developed a recombinant C1 inhibitor preparation. One company, Dyax, is testing a kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide), and one company, Jerini, is completing testing of a bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist (Icatibant). Although little has been published thus far, all of these products may prove effective. It is likely that HAE treatment will change dramatically within the next few years.

  5. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μm, while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  6. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianwen; Zhou, Yuanxiang; Zhou, Zhongliu; Liu, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μ m , while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  7. The Ifugao Alim: Chanted Narrated Dramatic Discourse in Ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bona de Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by way of introducing the little-known Ifugao alim, gives the readers an idea of what has been written about it by Ifugao and non-Ifugao writers and scholars, and recounts my own discovery and study of it. It will focus on the Piwong alim, which was the topic of my dissertation (Rosario de Santos del Rosario 2003, and which I recorded during a live performance in 1975 in Piwong, Hingyon, during the ritual called hongan di tagu—a prestige ritual of the kadangyan, for the welfare of a sick woman. In particular, the paper discusses the Piwong alim’s significance, structure, content and voice, and presents illustrations, through excerpts, which give the reader an insight into its ideological direction and unique aesthetics. The Piwong alim uses a mix of ritual genres, external and internal narration and dramatic character dialogues and monologues.The alim has been considered, by varied Ifugaos, as the crown jewel of its elaborate ritual; a sociological charter; and a magical myth that brings wellbeing.

  8. Taming Self-Organization Dynamics to Dramatically Control Porous Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ronan; Sader, John E; Boland, John J

    2016-03-22

    We demonstrate templating of functional materials with unexpected and intricate micro- and nanostructures by controlling the condensation, packing, and evaporation of water droplets on a polymer solution. Spontaneous evaporation of a polymer solution induces cooling of the liquid surface and water microdroplet condensation from the ambient vapor. These droplets pack together and act as a template to imprint an entangled polymer film. This breath figure (BF) phenomenon is an example of self-organization that involves the long-range ordering of droplets. Equilibrium-based analysis provides many insights into contact angles and drop stability of individual drops, but the BF phenomenon remains poorly understood thus far, preventing translation to real applications. Here we investigate the dynamics of this phenomenon to separate out the competing influences and then introduce a modulation scheme to ultimately manipulate the water vapor-liquid equilibrium independently from the solvent evaporation. This approach to BF control provides insights into the mechanism, a rationale for microstructure design, and evidence for the benefits of dynamical control of self-organization systems. We finally present dramatically different porous architectures from this approach reminiscent of microscale Petri dishes, conical flasks, and test tubes.

  9. Confronting a dramatic situation: the charcot foot complicated by osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Paola, Luca

    2014-12-01

    Charcot osteoarthropathy is a serious complication of diabetic neuropathy. Its prevalence in the diabetic population varies in the literature in relation to certain variables, such as the method of assessment, clinical or instrumental; the population studied; and the scope of the selection. This article is intended as a review of the recent literature concerning Charcot osteoarthropathy in its evolution and complications characterized by the development of ulceration and subsequent bone infection. Diagnosis and treatment strategies--either medical or surgical--are discussed both for Charcot arthropathy and osteomyelitis.

  10. Functional Evolution of Influenza Virus NS1 Protein in Currently Circulating Human 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amelia M; Nogales, Aitor; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Topham, David J; DeDiego, Marta L

    2017-09-01

    In 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus emerged in humans, causing a global pandemic. It was previously shown that the NS1 protein from this human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus was an effective interferon (IFN) antagonist but could not inhibit general host gene expression, unlike other NS1 proteins from seasonal human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Here we show that the NS1 protein from currently circulating pH1N1 viruses has evolved to encode 6 amino acid changes (E55K, L90I, I123V, E125D, K131E, and N205S) with respect to the original protein. Notably, these 6 residue changes restore the ability of pH1N1 NS1 to inhibit general host gene expression, mainly by their ability to restore binding to the cellular factor CPSF30. This is the first report describing the ability of the pH1N1 NS1 protein to naturally acquire mutations that restore this function. Importantly, a recombinant pH1N1 virus containing these 6 amino acid changes in the NS1 protein (pH1N1/NSs-6mut) inhibited host IFN and proinflammatory responses to a greater extent than that with the parental virus (pH1N1/NS1-wt), yet virus titers were not significantly increased in cell cultures or in mouse lungs, and the disease was partially attenuated. The pH1N1/NSs-6mut virus grew similarly to pH1N1/NSs-wt in mouse lungs, but infection with pH1N1/NSs-6mut induced lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines, likely due to a general inhibition of gene expression mediated by the mutated NS1 protein. This lower level of inflammation induced by the pH1N1/NSs-6mut virus likely accounts for the attenuated disease phenotype and may represent a host-virus adaptation affecting influenza virus pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs) are among the most common causes of respiratory infections in humans. In addition, occasional pandemics are caused when IAVs circulating in other species emerge in the human population. In 2009, a swine-origin H1N1 IAV (pH1N1) was transmitted to humans, infecting people then and up

  11. EVOLUTION IN THE H I GAS CONTENT OF GALAXY GROUPS: PRE-PROCESSING AND MASS ASSEMBLY IN THE CURRENT EPOCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Kelley M. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Wilcots, Eric M., E-mail: hess@ast.uct.ac.za, E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present an analysis of the neutral hydrogen (H I) content and distribution of galaxies in groups as a function of their parent dark matter halo mass. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey α.40 data release allows us, for the first time, to study the H I properties of over 740 galaxy groups in the volume of sky common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and ALFALFA surveys. We assigned ALFALFA H I detections a group membership based on an existing magnitude/volume-limited SDSS Data Release 7 group/cluster catalog. Additionally, we assigned group ''proximity' membership to H I detected objects whose optical counterpart falls below the limiting optical magnitude—thereby not contributing substantially to the estimate of the group stellar mass, but significantly to the total group H I mass. We find that only 25% of the H I detected galaxies reside in groups or clusters, in contrast to approximately half of all optically detected galaxies. Further, we plot the relative positions of optical and H I detections in groups as a function of parent dark matter halo mass to reveal strong evidence that H I is being processed in galaxies as a result of the group environment: as optical membership increases, groups become increasingly deficient of H I rich galaxies at their center and the H I distribution of galaxies in the most massive groups starts to resemble the distribution observed in comparatively more extreme cluster environments. We find that the lowest H I mass objects lose their gas first as they are processed in the group environment, and it is evident that the infall of gas rich objects is important to the continuing growth of large scale structure at the present epoch, replenishing the neutral gas supply of groups. Finally, we compare our results to those of cosmological simulations and find that current models cannot simultaneously predict the H I selected halo occupation distribution for both low and high mass halos.

  12. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guschanski Katerina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli. Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years. However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years, followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears

  14. Dramatic decrease in muscular fitness in the Czech schoolchildren over the Last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, Dana; Langmajerová, Jana; Sedláček, Pavel; Dvořáková, Jana; Hirschner, Tomáš; Weber, Zdeněk; Müller, Luděk; Brázdová, Zuzana Derflerová

    2015-11-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity had already reached epidemic, becoming one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the current level and a nearly three decades' trend of muscular fitness (MF) and the nutritional state of Czech children. In 2013, cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in schoolchildren with examination of the anthropometric characteristics and measured MF using a UNIFIT test, which normative for MF categories was given as results of national monitoring data collected in 1987. In total 896 current schoolchildren (472 aged 8-9 years and 424 aged 12-13 years) were examined from selected children through stratified sampling from the Czech Republic. Against 31% of children from 1986 there were 74% of current children classified as "poor" or "below normal" in the MF category (pBMI. Poor posture was diagnosed in 24% of children, more frequently in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) children in comparison to normal body weight children (pcut-off points for body mass index references, the current prevalence of OW and OB doubled (19.8%). Current Czech schoolchildren showed a doubled prevalence of OW and OB during the last two decades and simultaneously during nearly three decades there were more than doubled prevalence of "poor" or "under normal" MF of children, with overall dramatic decrease of MF in current schoolchildren. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  15. Evolution of Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle C.; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The ERP industry has undergone dramatic changes over the past decades due to changing market demands, thereby creating new challenges and opportunities, which have to be managed by ERP vendors. This paper inquires into the necessary evolution of business models in a technology-intensive industry (e......, by adopting different value configurations to reflect the convergence of customers, suppliers and vendors....

  16. Evolution of the Coronal Magnetic Configurations Including a Current-Carrying Flux Rope in Response to the Change in the Background Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hong-Juan; Gong, Jian-Cun; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We investigate equilibrium height of the flux rope, and its internal equilibrium in a realistic plasma environment by carrying out numerical simulations of the evolution of systems including a current-carrying flux rope. We find that the equilibrium height of the flux rope is approximately a power-law function of the relative strength of the background field. Our simulations indicate that the flux rope can escape more easily from a weaker background field. This further confirms the catastrophe in the magnetic configuration of interest can be triggered by decrease of strength of the background field. Our results show that it takes some time to reach internal equilibrium depending on the initial state of the flux rope. The plasma flow inside the flux rope due to the adjustment for the internal equilibrium of the flux rope remains small and does not last very long when the initial state of the flux rope commences from the stable branch of the theoretical equilibrium curve. This work also confirms the influence o...

  17. Growing Chinese coal use: Dramatic resource and environmental implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shealy, Malcolm, E-mail: malshealy@embarqmail.co [Senior Energy Analyst, PCI Inc., 16507 Paddock Run Road, Beaverdam, Virginia, 23015 (United States); Dorian, James P., E-mail: jamesdorian@yahoo.co [International Energy Economist, 6201 Benalder Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20816 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Chinese coal consumption continues to rise as the country's economy and industry expand. Coal is particularly critical for China's fast-growing power sector, generating about 80% of electricity output. Notwithstanding the importance of coal and electricity, many international forecasts today underestimate their rising use in China. This paper acknowledges the current world financial crisis and assumes that Chinese GDP growth to 2025 will not again approach double-digit levels. Using the scenario analysis, this paper demonstrates that even with conservative assumptions about Chinese GDP growth and income elasticity of electric demand to 2025, the country will likely experience much higher coal demand and emit much greater volumes of carbon dioxide than forecast by various international energy agencies. The paper also analyzes how China's domestic coal reserves may be threatened within two decades, possibly affecting long-term economic growth in China, as well as world coal prices.

  18. Growing Chinese coal use Dramatic resource and environmental implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shealy, Malcolm [Senior Energy Analyst, PCI Inc., 16507 Paddock Run Road, Beaverdam, Virginia (United States); Dorian, James P. [International Energy Economist, 6201 Benalder Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20816 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Chinese coal consumption continues to rise as the country's economy and industry expand. Coal is particularly critical for China's fast-growing power sector, generating about 80% of electricity output. Notwithstanding the importance of coal and electricity, many international forecasts today underestimate their rising use in China. This paper acknowledges the current world financial crisis and assumes that Chinese GDP growth to 2025 will not again approach double-digit levels. Using the scenario analysis, this paper demonstrates that even with conservative assumptions about Chinese GDP growth and income elasticity of electric demand to 2025, the country will likely experience much higher coal demand and emit much greater volumes of carbon dioxide than forecast by various international energy agencies. The paper also analyzes how China's domestic coal reserves may be threatened within two decades, possibly affecting long-term economic growth in China, as well as world coal prices. (author)

  19. Experimental evolution meets marine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Thorsten B H; Boyd, Philip W

    2013-07-01

    Our perspective highlights potentially important links between disparate fields-biological oceanography, climate change research, and experimental evolutionary biology. We focus on one important functional group-photoautotrophic microbes (phytoplankton), which are responsible for ∼50% of global primary productivity. Global climate change currently results in the simultaneous change of several conditions such as warming, acidification, and nutrient supply. It thus has the potential to dramatically change phytoplankton physiology, community composition, and may result in adaptive evolution. Although their large population sizes, standing genetic variation, and rapid turnover time should promote swift evolutionary change, oceanographers have focussed on describing patterns of present day physiological differentiation rather than measure potential adaptation in evolution experiments, the only direct way to address whether and at which rate phytoplankton species will adapt to environmental change. Important open questions are (1) is adaptation limited by existing genetic variation or fundamental constraints? (2) Will complex ecological settings such as gradual versus abrupt environmental change influence adaptation processes? (3) How will increasing environmental variability affect the evolution of phenotypic plasticity patterns? Because marine phytoplankton species display rapid acclimation capacity (phenotypic buffering), a systematic study of reaction norms renders them particularly interesting to the evolutionary biology research community.

  20. Dynamic Origin of Evolution and Social Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirilyuk, Andrei P

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the unreduced, nonperturbative dynamics of an arbitrary many-body interaction process with the help of the generalised effective potential method and reveal the well-specified universal origin of change (emergence), time and evolution in an a priori conservative, time-independent system. It appears together with the universal dynamic complexity definition, where this unified complexity conservation and transformation constitutes the essence of evolution. We then consider the detailed structure of this universal evolutionary process showing its step-wise, "punctuated" character, now provided with the exact mathematical description. Comparing the expected features of a revolutionary complexity transition near a step-like complexity upgrade with the currently observed behaviour of world's social and economic systems, we prove the necessity of complexity revolution towards the superior civilisation level of well-defined nature, the only alternative being an equally dramatic and irreversible degradation...

  1. The Archean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brasil): Current models and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, F.; Albert, C.; Martínez Dopico, C.; Aguilar Gil, C.; Moreira, H.; Hippertt, J. P.; Cutts, K.; Alkmim, F. F.; Lana, C.

    2016-07-01

    orogeny results from the collision between the nuclei of the present-day São Francisco and Congo cratons, generated the fold-and thrust belt structure of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Afterwards, the post- orogenic collapse resulted in the deposition of the Itacolomi Group and in the genesis of the dome-and-keel structure. In this paper, we review current knowledge about the 1500 Ma long-lasting tectonomagmatic and structural evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero identifying the most compelling open questions and future challenges.

  2. Evidence for the Late Cenozoic Antarctic Ice Sheet evolution and bottom current dynamics in the central-western Ross Sea outer margin, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sookwan; De Santis, Laura; Kuk Hong, Jong; Cottlerle, Diego; Petronio, Lorenzo; Colizza, Ester; Bergamasco, Andrea; Kim, Young-Gyun; Kang, Seung-Goo; Kim, Hyoungjun; Kim, Suhwan; Wardell, Nigel; Geletti, Riccardo; McKay, Robert; Jin, Young Keun; Kang, Sung-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Sedimentary records in polar continental margins provide clues for understanding paleo-depositional environments, related to ice sheet evolution and bottom-water current dynamics, during times of past climate and global sea level changes. Previous seismostratigraphic studies of the Ross Sea embayment, Antarctica, illustrated its general stratigraphic framework and the distribution of glacial sedimentary features over the continental shelf, since the onset of Antarctic ice-sheets at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (~34.0 Ma). In contrast, there are a fewer studies for the outer continental margin, where continuous sedimentary deposits generally preserve the record of past climate cycles with minimum hiatus, comparing to the inner- and mid-continental shelf, where grounding ice streams eroded most of the sediments. Here we present a seismostratigraphic analysis of 2-D multichannel seismic reflection profiles, from the Central Basin located in the central-western Ross Sea outer margin. A glacial prograding wedge developed at the mouth of the Joides Basin since early-middle Miocene times (RSU4: ~14.0 Ma). And the Central Basin was filled with stacked debris-flow deposits and turbidites. The sediment depocenter shifted from the Central Basin toward the slope in the Pliocene (after RSU2: ~3.3 Ma). Pliocene foreset beds are steep and pinch out at the base of the continental slope. Bottom current controlled sediment drifts well developed since the middle Miocene, along the western slope of the central Basin and on the basement highs These areas are far from the mouth of the Joides trough, where most of the glacial sediment is deposited, and they are also more elevated than the basinal areas, where gravity flow maximum thickness accumulated. Along the western slope of the central Basin and over the basement highs, the signature in the sediments of the action of bottom current reworking and shaping the sea floor can be then clearly recognized. We present the sediment drifts

  3. Morphological evolution is accelerated among island mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millien, Virginie

    2006-10-01

    Dramatic evolutionary changes occur in species isolated on islands, but it is not known if the rate of evolution is accelerated on islands relative to the mainland. Based on an extensive review of the literature, I used the fossil record combined with data from living species to test the hypothesis of an accelerated morphological evolution among island mammals. I demonstrate that rates of morphological evolution are significantly greater--up to a factor of 3.1--for islands than for mainland mammal populations. The tendency for faster evolution on islands holds over relatively short time scales--from a few decades up to several thousands of years--but not over larger ones--up to 12 million y. These analyses form the first empirical test of the long held supposition of accelerated evolution among island mammals. Moreover, this result shows that mammal species have the intrinsic capacity to evolve faster when confronted with a rapid change in their environment. This finding is relevant to our understanding of species' responses to isolation and destruction of natural habitats within the current context of rapid climate warming.

  4. Bordetella pertussis evolution in the (functional) genomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Thomas; Preston, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis in many developed countries has risen dramatically in recent years. This has been linked to the use of an acellular pertussis vaccine. In addition, it is thought that B. pertussis is adapting under acellular vaccine mediated immune selection pressure, towards vaccine escape. Genomics-based approaches have revolutionized the ability to resolve the fine structure of the global B. pertussis population and its evolution during the era of vaccination. Here, we discuss the current picture of B. pertussis evolution and diversity in the light of the current resurgence, highlight import questions raised by recent studies in this area and discuss the role that functional genomics can play in addressing current knowledge gaps.

  5. The Coverage of Human Evolution in High School Biology Textbooks in the 20th Century and in Current State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the…

  6. The Coverage of Human Evolution in High School Biology Textbooks in the 20th Century and in Current State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the…

  7. A full quantum analysis of the Stern–Gerlach experiment using the evolution operator method: analyzing current issues in teaching quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez Rodríguez, E.; Arévalo Aguilar, L. M.; Piceno Martínez, E.

    2017-03-01

    To the quantum mechanics specialists community it is a well-known fact that the famous original Stern–Gerlach experiment (SGE) produces entanglement between the external degrees of freedom (position) and the internal degree of freedom (spin) of silver atoms. Despite this fact, almost all textbooks on quantum mechanics explain this experiment using a semiclassical approach, where the external degrees of freedom are considered classical variables, the internal degree is treated as a quantum variable, and Newton's second law is used to describe the dynamics. In the literature there are some works that analyze this experiment in its full quantum mechanical form. However, astonishingly, to the best of our knowledge the original experiment, where the initial states of the spin degree of freedom are randomly oriented coming from the oven, has not been analyzed yet in the available textbooks using the Schrödinger equation (to the best of our knowledge there is only one paper that treats this case: Hsu et al (2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 012109)). Therefore, in this contribution we use the time-evolution operator to give a full quantum mechanics analysis of the SGE when the initial state of the internal degree of freedom is completely random, i.e. when it is a statistical mixture. Additionally, as the SGE and the development of quantum mechanics are heavily intermingled, we analyze some features and drawbacks in the current teaching of quantum mechanics. We focus on textbooks that use the SGE as a starting point, based on the fact that most physicist do not use results from physics education research, and comment on traditional pedagogical attitudes in the physics community.

  8. Dramatic Enhancement in Photoresponse of β-In2S3 through Suppression of Dark Conductivity by Synthetic Control of Defect-Induced Carrier Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nilima; Mandal, Lily; Game, Onkar; Warule, Sambhaji; Phase, Deodatta; Jadkar, Sandesh; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2015-08-19

    We report on the synthesis of dense and faceted indium sulfide (β-In2S3) nano-octahedron films on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass by the hydrothermal method and their photoresponse properties in a flip chip device configuration. We have examined the temporal evolution of the phase constitution, morphology, and optoelectronic properties for films obtained after growth interruption at specific intervals. It is noted that, initially, an In(OH)3 film forms, which is gradually transformed to the β-In2S3 phase over time. In the case of the film wherein most, but not all, of In(OH)3 is consumed, an exceptionally large photoresponse (light to dark current ratio) of ∼10(4) and response time(s) (rise/fall) of ∼88/280 ms are realized. This superior performance is attributed to nearly complete carrier compensation achievable in the system under high pressure growth leading to dramatic reduction of dark conductivity. It is argued that the temporally growth-controlled equilibrium between quasi-In interstitials and cation vacancies dictates the optoelectronic properties.

  9. Dramatic Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta

    2003-01-01

    Presents a creative way to teach photosynthesis. Revolves around the growth of a lily planted and stored in the classroom. Combines the concepts of particle theory, transformation, and changes of phase and mass in a holistic approach. The six-step teaching sequence is founded on the notions of challenge, variation, and drama. (Author/NB)

  10. A review of the irradiation evolution of dispersed oxide nanoparticles in the b.c.c. Fe-Cr system: Current understanding and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharry, Janelle P.; Swenson, Matthew J.; Yano, Kayla H.

    2017-04-01

    Thus far, a number of studies have investigated the irradiation evolution of oxide nanoparticles in b.c.c. Fe-Cr based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. But given the inconsistent experimental conditions, results have been widely variable and inconclusive. Crystal structure and chemistry changes differ from experiment to experiment, and the total nanoparticle volume fraction has been observed to both increase and decrease. Furthermore, there has not yet been a comprehensive review of the archival literature. In this paper, we summarize the existing studies on nanoparticle irradiation evolution. We note significant observations with respect to oxide nanoparticle crystallinity, composition, size, and number density. We discuss four possible contributing mechanisms for nanoparticle evolution: ballistic dissolution, Ostwald ripening, irradiation-enhanced diffusion, and homogeneous nucleation. Finally, we propose future directions to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of irradiation effects on oxide nanoparticles in ODS alloys.

  11. The Effectiveness of Creative Dramatics and Storytelling in a Library Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Anthony; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This 2-year study involving 298 grade school pupils investigates the comparative effectiveness of creative dramatics and storytelling. While the results indicate neither had an effect on children's interests and reading achievement, there is indication that storytelling may have more influence than creative dramatics on self-image and empathy.…

  12. The Impact of Dramatic Play Centre on Promoting the Development of Children's Early Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of dramatic play centre (DPC) on promoting the development of children's early writing skills in the Jordanian context. It also intends to investigate the forms of children's writing skills that emerge through the use of dramatic play. Observations and interviews were conducted to obtain…

  13. On the Major Dramatic Conftict of Shakespeare's the Merchant of Venice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋文

    2000-01-01

    "The Merchant of Venice", a master piece with humanist idea by William Shakespeare, presents readers a dramatic conflict between friendship and greediness, love and cruelty.This essay illustrates briefly how this conflict is created, developed and dramatized. At the same time, the root causes for this conflict is analysed.

  14. "I Did Not Wash My Feet with that Woman": Using Dramatic Performance to Teach Biblical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbett, David

    2010-01-01

    The student dramatic performance is an effective way for undergraduates to learn biblical studies. In this article I will give an example of a dramatic performance assignment that I developed over a number of courses and used most recently and most successfully in an undergraduate course in the Hebrew Bible at a small liberal arts college in the…

  15. Enhancing Creative Dramatic Play and Story Reenactments in a Primary Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholt, Carla G.

    A classroom research project in Alaska explored what role dramatic play and story reenactments have as a teaching/learning method for young childrens' development. A review of the literature identified several common elements that helped teachers elicit successful dramatic story reenactments: choosing a familiar book or story; encouraging…

  16. Use of Dramatization to Teach Cardiac Cycle Physiology to Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlati, Ehsan; Musick, David W.; Zhang, Lin; Thornton, Katherine; Carvalho, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Part of the educator's mission is to develop new methodologies that promote active learning. This study examines the use of dramatization of the cardiac cycle in medical school. Two groups (n = 42, 21 each) of first-year medical students participated. Group A was initially taught through dramatization alone, while Group B was taught through…

  17. The Impact of Dramatic Play Centre on Promoting the Development of Children's Early Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of dramatic play centre (DPC) on promoting the development of children's early writing skills in the Jordanian context. It also intends to investigate the forms of children's writing skills that emerge through the use of dramatic play. Observations and interviews were conducted to obtain…

  18. Guiding the Noticing: Using a Dramatic Performance Experience to Promote Tellability in Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shanetia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her use of dramatic performance to promote tellability in narrative writing within a seventh and eighth grade English and language arts classroom. By experiencing dramatic performance, the students were able to actively and physically perform the writing process: brainstorming, drafting, revising, and editing.…

  19. The origin, evolution, and current status of student guidance competencies in the United States = Origen, evolución y estado actual de las competencias de orientación educativa en EE. UU.

    OpenAIRE

    Gysbers, Norman C.; Henderson, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    The authors provide an exposition of the origin, evolution, and current status of student guidance competencies as a part of comprehensive guidance programs in the United States. The ways in which student guidance competencies are selected, organized, and delivered are described. Finally, examples of how student mastery of guidance competencies is being assessed are presented. El artículo presenta el origen, la evolución y el estado de la cuestión respecto a las competencias orientadoras a...

  20. Evolution of the Architecture of the ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI)

    CERN Document Server

    Odier, Jerome; The ATLAS collaboration; Fulachier, Jerome; Lambert, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) is now a mature application. Over the years, the number of users and the number of provided functions has dramatically increased. It is necessary to adapt the hardware infrastructure in a seamless way so that the quality of service remains high. We describe the evolution from the beginning of the application life, using one server with a MySQL backend database, to the current state in which a cluster of virtual machines on the French Tier 1 cloud at Lyon, an Oracle database also at Lyon, with replication to Oracle at CERN and a back-up server are used.

  1. An Evolution, Present, and Future Changes of Cloud Computing Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Lung Shiau

    2015-01-01

    Abstract⎯This study presents a clear evolution of computing and its key applications. Cloud computing services evolved from distributed, grid, and utility computing. Critical companies such as Salesforce, Amazon, Google, and Microsoft play important roles in cloud computing. Dramatic changes in the technology environment have created new challenges for current information technologies. This study discusses four significant challenges for cloud computing services, including the next-generation Internet, data synchro- nization, cloud security, and competitive advantages. And then it also discusses how managers can learn about the future of cloud computing services.

  2. Atmospheric drying as the main driver of dramatic glacier wastage in the southern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, V.; Verfaillie, D.; Berthier, E.; Menegoz, M.; Jomelli, V.; Kay, J. E.; Ducret, L.; Malbéteau, Y.; Brunstein, D.; Gallée, H.; Park, Y.-H.; Rinterknecht, V.

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing retreat of glaciers at southern sub-polar latitudes is particularly rapid and widespread. Akin to northern sub-polar latitudes, this retreat is generally assumed to be linked to warming. However, no long-term and well-constrained glacier modeling has ever been performed to confirm this hypothesis. Here, we model the Cook Ice Cap mass balance on the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Indian Ocean, 49°S) since the 1850s. We show that glacier wastage during the 2000s in the Kerguelen was among the most dramatic on Earth. We attribute 77% of the increasingly negative mass balance since the 1960s to atmospheric drying associated with a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm track. Because precipitation modeling is very challenging for the current generation of climate models over the study area, models incorrectly simulate the climate drivers behind the recent glacier wastage in the Kerguelen. This suggests that future glacier wastage projections should be considered cautiously where changes in atmospheric circulation are expected.

  3. Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and Accutase dramatically increase mouse embryonic stem cell derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Xinglong; Hu, Chunchao; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Xiangyun

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been 30 yr since the development of derivation methods for mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, the biology of derivation of ES cells is poorly understood and the efficiency varies dramatically between cell lines. Recently, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and the cell dissociation reagent Accutase were reported to significantly inhibit apoptosis of human ES cells during passaging. Therefore, in the current study, C57BL/6×129/Sv mouse blastocysts were used to evaluate the effect of the combination of the two reagents instead of using the conventional 129 line in mouse ES cell derivation. The data presented in this study suggests that the combination of Y-27632 and Accutase significantly increases the efficiency of mouse ES cell derivation; furthermore, no negative side effects were observed with Y-27632 and Accutase treatment. The newly established ES cell lines retain stable karyotype, surface markers expression, formed teratomas, and contributed to viable chimeras and germline transmission by tetraploid complementation assay. In addition, Y-27632 improved embryoid body formation of ES cells. During ES cell microinjection, Y-27632 prevented the formation of dissociation-induced cell blebs and facilitates the selection and the capture of intact cells. The methods presented in this study clearly demonstrate that inhibition of Rho kinase with Y-27632 and Accutase dissociation improve the derivation efficiently and reproducibility of mouse ES cell generation which is essential for reducing variability in the results obtained from different cell lines.

  4. Size Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies and Massive Compact Objects as the Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Totani, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic size evolution of early-type galaxies from z ~ 2 to 0 poses a new challenge in the theory of galaxy formation, which may not be explained by the standard picture. It is shown here that the size evolution can be explained if the non-baryonic cold dark matter is composed of compact objects having a mass scale of ~10^5 M_sun. This form of dark matter is consistent with or only weakly constrained by the currently available observations. The kinetic energy of the dark compact objects is transferred to stars by dynamical friction, and stars around the effective radius are pushed out to larger radii, resulting in a pure size evolution. This scenario has several good properties to explain the observations, including the ubiquitous nature of size evolution and faster disappearance of higher density galaxies.

  5. Evolutionary Medicine and Future of Humanity: Will Evolution Have the Final Word?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Henneberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary medicine in its classical form assumes that since cultural evolution is faster than biological evolution, ailments of modern people are a result of mismatch between adaptations to the past environments and current situations. A core principle is that we, humans, having evolved for millions of years in a specific natural environment (environment of evolutionary adaptation EEA are biologically adapted to this past environment and the ancient lifestyle. This adaptation to the past produces major mismatch of our bodies with the present, highly anthropic and thus “artificial” living conditions. This article provides two areas of possible future evolution, diet and physical activity levels which have been dramatically altered in industrialised societies. Consequently, micro-evolution is an on-going process.

  6. Dramatic capability of the story of Amir Hasanak the vizier in Tarikh-e Beyhaghi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    پروین گلی زاده

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Literary adaptation is recasting literary books such as novels, short stories, or even poems in a new form such as films, stage plays, or even video games. Persian literature abounds with dramatic events. There are many fascinating narratives such as Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, Khmseh of Nezami, Mathnavi of Rumi, and Tarikh-e Beyhaghi of Beyhaghi, which have the dramatic capacity of literary adaptation. In this paper, the writer examines the dramatic capability of “The execution of Amir Hasanak the vizier”. The structure and artistic aspects of the story will be studied in the light of the elements of drama. Keywords: Beyhaghi, Hasanak, narration, dialogue, suspense

  7. A dramatic, objective antiandrogen withdrawal response: case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yiu-Keung; Chadha, Manpreet K; Litwin, Alan; Trump, Donald L

    2008-01-01

    Antiandrogen withdrawal response is an increasingly recognized entity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing a durable radiologic improvement along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with discontinuation of the antiandrogen agent bicalutamide. We report a case in which a dramatic decline of serum PSA levels associated with a dramatic improvement in radiologic disease was achieved with bicalutamide discontinuation. PMID:18986533

  8. Neurocognitive impairment in dramatic personalities: histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J W

    1992-06-01

    Thirty-seven patients with personalities in the dramatic cluster (DSM-III-R histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial) and 40 controls matched for age and gender were evaluated on 16 neurocognitive variables. The evaluation screened for deficits in functions of attention, memory, language, abstraction, and behavior planning/sequencing. Analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in neurocognitive performance among patients with dramatic personalities, particularly in subtests requiring multi-step, multi-element associative operations.

  9. A dramatic, objective antiandrogen withdrawal response: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litwin Alan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antiandrogen withdrawal response is an increasingly recognized entity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing a durable radiologic improvement along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA with discontinuation of the antiandrogen agent bicalutamide. We report a case in which a dramatic decline of serum PSA levels associated with a dramatic improvement in radiologic disease was achieved with bicalutamide discontinuation.

  10. Permeability enhancers dramatically increase zanamivir absolute bioavailability in rats: implications for an orally bioavailable influenza treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Holmes

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (t(max of 5 min and a C(max of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted C(max for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results

  11. Creationism, Evolution, and Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eugenie C. (National Center for Science Education)

    2005-06-22

    Many topics in the curriculum of American schools are controversial, but perhaps the one with the longest tenure is evolution. Three arguments are made against evolution: that it is allegedly weak science ('evolution is a theory in crisis'); that it is incompatible with religion; and that it is only 'fair' to 'balance' evolution with creationism. Regardless of the appropriateness of their application to science education, all three of the arguments are made to try to restrict the teaching of evolution. Variants of the fairness argument such as balancing evolution with 'scientific alternatives to evolution' or balancing evolution with 'arguments against evolution' have in fact become the current predominant antievolutionist strategy. Current events in the creationism/evolution controversy will be reviewed, and suggestions made for how to promote sound science education in the schools.

  12. DRAMATIC INFRARED VARIABILITY OF WISE J1810-3305: CATCHING EARLY-TIME DUST EJECTION DURING THE THERMAL PULSE OF AN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Yamamura, Issei; Takita, Satoshi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2012-05-20

    We present the discovery of a source with broadband infrared photometric characteristics similar to Sakurai's object. WISE J180956.27-330500.2 (hereafter J1810-3305) shows very red WISE colors, but a very blue 2MASS [K] versus WISE [W1 (3.4 {mu}m)] color. It was not visible during the IRAS era, but now has a 12 {mu}m flux well above the IRAS point-source catalog detection limit. There are also indications of variability in historical optical photographic plates as well as in multi-epoch AKARI mid-infrared measurements. The broadband infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shape, post-IRAS brightening, and multiwavelength variability are all characteristics also shared by Sakurai's object-a post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star which underwent a late thermal pulse and recently ejected massive envelopes of dust that are currently expanding and cooling. Optical progenitor colors suggest that J1810-3305 may have been of late spectral class. Its dramatic infrared brightening and the detection of a late-type optical counterpart are consistent with a scenario in which we have caught an extremely massive dust ejection event (in 1998 or shortly before) during the thermal pulse of an AGB star, thus providing a unique opportunity to observe stellar evolution in this phase. J1810-3305 is the only source in the entire WISE preliminary data release with similar infrared SED and variability, emphasizing the rarity of such sources. Confirmation of its nature is of great importance.

  13. Plant STAND P-loop NTPases: a current perspective of genome distribution, evolution, and function : Plant STAND P-loop NTPases: genomic organization, evolution, and molecular mechanism models contribute broadly to plant pathogen defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2017-09-12

    STAND P-loop NTPase is the common weapon used by plant and other organisms from all three kingdoms of life to defend themselves against pathogen invasion. The purpose of this study is to review comprehensively the latest finding of plant STAND P-loop NTPase related to their genomic distribution, evolution, and their mechanism of action. Earlier, the plant STAND P-loop NTPase known to be comprised of only NBS-LRRs/AP-ATPase/NB-ARC ATPase. However, recent finding suggests that genome of early green plants comprised of two types of STAND P-loop NTPases: (1) mammalian NACHT NTPases and (2) NBS-LRRs. Moreover, YchF (unconventional G protein and members of P-loop NTPase) subfamily has been reported to be exceptionally involved in biotic stress (in case of Oryza sativa), thereby a novel member of STAND P-loop NTPase in green plants. The lineage-specific expansion and genome duplication events are responsible for abundance of plant STAND P-loop NTPases; where "moderate tandem and low segmental duplication" trajectory followed in majority of plant species with few exception (equal contribution of tandem and segmental duplication). Since the past decades, systematic research is being investigated into NBS-LRR function supported the direct recognition of pathogen or pathogen effectors by the latest models proposed via 'integrated decoy' or 'sensor domains' model. Here, we integrate the recently published findings together with the previous literature on the genomic distribution, evolution, and distinct models proposed for functional molecular mechanism of plant STAND P-loop NTPases.

  14. Galactic Chemical Evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, Brad K; Fenner, Yeshe; Renda, Agostino; Kawata, Daisuke; Lee, Hyun-chul

    2003-01-01

    .... We review the current state-of-the-art semi-analytical and chemodynamical models for the Milky Way, emphasising the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches. Keywords: Galaxy: abundances — Galaxy: evolution — Galaxy: formation — Galaxy...

  15. DRAMATIC CHANGE IN JUPITER'S GREAT RED SPOT FROM SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Amy A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Code 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wong, Michael H.; De Pater, Imke [Astronomy Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rogers, John H. [British Astronomical Association, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1J 0DU (United Kingdom); Orton, Glenn S.; Carlson, Robert W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Asay-Davis, Xylar [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Marcus, Philip S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, 6121 Etcheverry Hall, Mailstop 1740, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nm, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nm. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  16. On the evolution of the standard genetic code: vestiges of critical scale invariance from the RNA world in current prokaryote genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V José

    Full Text Available Herein two genetic codes from which the primeval RNA code could have originated the standard genetic code (SGC are derived. One of them, called extended RNA code type I, consists of all codons of the type RNY (purine-any base-pyrimidine plus codons obtained by considering the RNA code but in the second (NYR type and third (YRN type reading frames. The extended RNA code type II, comprises all codons of the type RNY plus codons that arise from transversions of the RNA code in the first (YNY type and third (RNR nucleotide bases. In order to test if putative nucleotide sequences in the RNA World and in both extended RNA codes, share the same scaling and statistical properties to those encountered in current prokaryotes, we used the genomes of four Eubacteria and three Archaeas. For each prokaryote, we obtained their respective genomes obeying the RNA code or the extended RNA codes types I and II. In each case, we estimated the scaling properties of triplet sequences via a renormalization group approach, and we calculated the frequency distributions of distances for each codon. Remarkably, the scaling properties of the distance series of some codons from the RNA code and most codons from both extended RNA codes turned out to be identical or very close to the scaling properties of codons of the SGC. To test for the robustness of these results, we show, via computer simulation experiments, that random mutations of current genomes, at the rates of 10(-10 per site per year during three billions of years, were not enough for destroying the observed patterns. Therefore, we conclude that most current prokaryotes may still contain relics of the primeval RNA World and that both extended RNA codes may well represent two plausible evolutionary paths between the RNA code and the current SGC.

  17. Enhancement of anodic current attributed to oxygen evolution on α-Fe2O3 electrode by microwave oscillating electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Fuminao; Matsuhisa, Masayuki; Kawamura, Shinichiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Maitani, Masato M.; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2016-10-01

    Various microwave effects on chemical reactions have been observed, reported and compared to those carried out under conventional heating. These effects are classified into thermal effects, which arise from the temperature rise caused by microwaves, and non-thermal effects, which are attributed to interactions between substances and the oscillating electromagnetic fields of microwaves. However, there have been no direct or intrinsic demonstrations of the non-thermal effects based on physical insights. Here we demonstrate the microwave enhancement of oxidation current of water to generate dioxygen with using an α-Fe2O3 electrode induced by pulsed microwave irradiation under constantly applied potential. The rectangular waves of current density under pulsed microwave irradiation were observed, in other words the oxidation current of water was increased instantaneously at the moment of the introduction of microwaves, and stayed stably at the plateau under continuous microwave irradiation. The microwave enhancement was observed only for the α-Fe2O3 electrode with the specific surface electronic structure evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This discovery provides a firm evidence of the microwave special non-thermal effect on the electron transfer reactions caused by interaction of oscillating microwaves and irradiated samples.

  18. Enhancement of anodic current attributed to oxygen evolution on α-Fe2O3 electrode by microwave oscillating electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Fuminao; Matsuhisa, Masayuki; Kawamura, Shinichiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Maitani, Masato M.; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Various microwave effects on chemical reactions have been observed, reported and compared to those carried out under conventional heating. These effects are classified into thermal effects, which arise from the temperature rise caused by microwaves, and non-thermal effects, which are attributed to interactions between substances and the oscillating electromagnetic fields of microwaves. However, there have been no direct or intrinsic demonstrations of the non-thermal effects based on physical insights. Here we demonstrate the microwave enhancement of oxidation current of water to generate dioxygen with using an α-Fe2O3 electrode induced by pulsed microwave irradiation under constantly applied potential. The rectangular waves of current density under pulsed microwave irradiation were observed, in other words the oxidation current of water was increased instantaneously at the moment of the introduction of microwaves, and stayed stably at the plateau under continuous microwave irradiation. The microwave enhancement was observed only for the α-Fe2O3 electrode with the specific surface electronic structure evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This discovery provides a firm evidence of the microwave special non-thermal effect on the electron transfer reactions caused by interaction of oscillating microwaves and irradiated samples. PMID:27739529

  19. Museums teach evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Judy; Evans, E Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Natural history museums play a significant role in educating the general public about evolution. This article describes Explore Evolution, one of the largest evolution education projects funded by the National Science Foundation. A group of regional museums from the Midwestern United States worked with leading evolutionary scientists to create multiple permanent exhibit galleries and a curriculum book for youth. This program invites the public to experience current evolutionary research on organisms that range in size from HIV to whales. Learning research is being conducted on museum visitors to understand how they reason about evolution and to determine what influences the process of conceptual change.

  20. Didactique du francais langue seconde, dramatisation, et theatre (French Second Language Teaching, Dramatization, and Theater).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Use of dramatics in French second language education is advocated with theoretical and practical arguments, and a four-stage approach to language acquisition through theater is proposed. The approach is based on activities of a bilingual theater troupe that offers Mount Allison University (New Brunswick) students an opportunity to participate in…

  1. Engaging in Dramatic Activities in English as a Foreign Language Classes at the University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarra Carrasco, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how, through dramatic activities, fiction and reality can work together to help the English as a Foreign language learner communicate in a more personal and meaningful way. The kind of activities proposed are designed to help engender a space where students can personally engage with each other in an atmosphere that is…

  2. Art-House Cinema, Avant-Garde Film, and Dramatic Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardullo, Bert

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about art-house cinema, avant-garde film, and dramatic modernism. He believes that the most important modes of film practice are art-house cinema and the avant-garde, both of which contrast with the classical Hollywood mode of film practice. While the latter is characterized by its commercial imperative, corporate…

  3. Collaborative College Playwriting and Performance: A Core Course "Trespassing" onto the Dramatic Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedetti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Arts integration is relevant in the context of the increased demand for creative thinkers in a global economy. However, reaching across disciplinary boundaries is less common in higher education. Arts integration is one way that a literature class can "trespass" onto the dramatic arts. This paper reports on a study of integrating the…

  4. Examining Young Children's Perception toward Augmented Reality-Infused Dramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghye; Jo, Miheon; Hyun, Eunja; So, Hyo-jeong

    2015-01-01

    Amid the increasing interest in applying augmented reality (AR) in educational settings, this study explores the design and enactment of an AR-infused robot system to enhance children's satisfaction and sensory engagement with dramatic play activities. In particular, we conducted an exploratory study to empirically examine children's perceptions…

  5. The Effect of Literacy Intervention in Preschool Children's Dramatic Play on Literacy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily A.

    This study on the effect of participation in field trips as a literacy intervention in play investigated how preschool children incorporated the literacy behaviors emphasized during the field trips into their play activities. Authentic literacy materials were included in two dramatic play centers before and after 15 children participated in…

  6. Creating Intersubjectivity during Socio-Dramatic Play at an Australian Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitington, Victoria; Floyd, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Socio-dramatic play (SDP) creates a zone of proximal development in which optimum cognitive development occurs. To participate successfully in this kind of play children and their partners must create shared meaning, or what is referred to in the socio-cultural literature as intersubjectivity. Based on intersubjectivity and SDP, this study…

  7. Erotic Language as Dramatic Action in Plays by Lyly and Shakespeare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This study closely examines the language of desire in the dramatic works of John Lyly and William Shakespeare, and argues that contemplative and analytical speeches about desire function as modes of action in their plays. Erotic speeches do more than express desire in a purely descriptive or perlocutionary capacity distinct from the action of the…

  8. Athenian and Shakespearean Tragedies in Oceania: Teaching Dramatic Literatures in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anae, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theorised classroom-based narrative discussing the author's interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of English dramatic literatures--in particular, Sophocles' "Oedipus the King" and Shakespeare's "Macbeth"--to i-Taukei, Indo-Fijian and Pacific Islander tertiary students at a South Pacific university.…

  9. Lord Kelvin and the Age-of-the-Earth Debate: A Dramatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Art; Tecihman, Jurgen

    2003-01-01

    Presents a dramatization of a fictitious debate about the age of the earth that takes place at the Royal Institution, London, England, in the year 1872 among Sir William Thomson, T.H. Huxley, Sir Charles Lyell, and Hermann von Helmholtz. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  10. The Effect of Dramatized Instruction on Speaking Ability of Imam Ali University EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Khosronejad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching language as a second or foreign language, undoubtedly, is so demanding and seeking to find methods for facilitating this prominent practice whets the appetite of any practitioner who works in this field. Research shows that using drama in the classroom as a means of teaching helps students learn socially, academically, and developmentally. This study was an attempt to determine the effect of dramatized instruction on the speaking ability of EFL learners of Imam Ali University. Sixty EFL male students at the intermediate level participated in the study. Their age range was 19-22. Two instruments were utilized in this study; pretest, and posttest.  The data were analyzed through t-test. The data analysis indicated that the mean scores of the experimental group students (M = 72.80 were significantly different (3.29>2; df = 58 from the control group students (M = 65.39. In other words, the experimental group outperformed the control group in the posttest significantly. Moreover, the findings indicated that dramatized instruction does have a great effect on the speaking skills. This study supported the idea of effectiveness of dramatized instruction on developing speaking skill and the teachers can help the learners at lower levels promote their speaking skill through dramatized instruction in EFL classes.

  11. Art-House Cinema, Avant-Garde Film, and Dramatic Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardullo, Bert

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about art-house cinema, avant-garde film, and dramatic modernism. He believes that the most important modes of film practice are art-house cinema and the avant-garde, both of which contrast with the classical Hollywood mode of film practice. While the latter is characterized by its commercial imperative, corporate…

  12. Erotic Language as Dramatic Action in Plays by Lyly and Shakespeare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This study closely examines the language of desire in the dramatic works of John Lyly and William Shakespeare, and argues that contemplative and analytical speeches about desire function as modes of action in their plays. Erotic speeches do more than express desire in a purely descriptive or perlocutionary capacity distinct from the action of the…

  13. The Devil and his Dramatic Function in Calderon’s Autos Sacramentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Iglesias Feijoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In some Calderón’s autos sacramentales the character of the Devil draws the plot and establishes the dramatic action as a demiurge. He elaborates plans and strategies to confuse the Man, but he always fails. This function approaches the autos to the metatheater. Finally certain parallels with Shakespeare are suggested.

  14. 炎性肠病外科百年发展历程%Historical evolution and current concepts of surgical treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练磊; 吴小剑; 谢明颢; 兰平

    2016-01-01

    外科治疗是炎性肠病(IBD)出现肠道并发症或内科治疗失败时重要的治疗手段. 对于有手术适应证的患者应及时选择合适的术式进行外科治疗. 随着外科手术操作的不断优化和手术方式的不断创新,IBD 外科治疗的理念和手术方式在一个多世纪的发展期间已发生了翻天覆地的变化. 了解各种治疗理念和手术方式的发展历程, 对深入理解及熟练掌握各类术式的适应证和手术技巧具有十分积极的意义.随着生物制剂、腹腔镜、多学科合作等新的技术和理念的发展,IBD外科医师及时更新知识体系是顺应时代进步的必然要求.%Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may require surgical intervention for refractory disease or complications. Prompt surgery and appropriate surgical procedures are critical when surgery is indicatedd. With continuous optimization and innovation of surgical procedures, there have been significant changes in the concepts and operations of IBD in the past century. Learning the evolution of surgical treatment for IBD could help us understand the rationale, indications, and pertinent techniques of surgical procedures. Innovations are emerging in IBD management including the advent of biological agents, laparoscopy, and multi-disciplinary team approach, it is imperative for IBD specialist to learn the state-of-the-art knowledge.

  15. Dynamic Current Sheet Formation and Evolution with Application to Inter-(Super)granular Flow Lanes and Quasi-Homologous Jet Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Justin K.; Velli, M.

    2011-05-01

    The coronal magnetic field structure is an immensely complex system constantly driven away from equilibrium by global drivers such as photospheric flow, flux emergence/cancellation at the lower boundary, helicity injection and transport, etc. In low-beta plasma systems, such as solar corona, the Maxwell stresses dominate forces and therefore the system dynamics. General Poynting stress injection (i.e., flux injection, helicity injection, translational motions, or any combination thereof) results in (possibly large) geometric deformations of the magnetic field, such that the Maxwell stresses distribute as uniformly as possible, constrained by the distorted geometry and topology of the bounding separatricies. Since the topological connectivity is discontinuous across these separatrix surfaces, the magnetic stresses will be discontinuous there as well, manifesting as current sheets within the field. The solar magnetic field undergoes major geometric expansion passing from the photosphere, through the chromosphere, into the corona. No matter the specific details, a mixed polarity distribution at the lower boundary and the divergence-free condition require invariant topological features such as an X-line and separatricies to exist between fields emanating from separate regions of the photosphere. We present the results of fully-3D numerical simulations of a simplified low-beta model of this field expansion. A symmetric injection of Maxwell stresses into this geometry inflates strongly line-tied fields, generating a region of large current densities and magnetic energy dissipation. Elsewhere the injected stresses accumulate along the existing separatricies. There is no evidence of reconnection dynamics until after the initial left-right parity is broken. Once the symmetry breaks, the X-line deforms explosively into a Syrovatskii-type current sheet, leading to a succession of quasi-homologous jet dynamics. The bursty-oscillations of these jets occur as the stresses within

  16. Influence of electric current on microstructure evolution in Ti/Al and Ti/TiAl{sub 3} during spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3136 (United States); Haley, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-5294 (United States); Kulkarni, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, UP (India); Aindow, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3136 (United States); Lavernia, E.J., E-mail: lavernia@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-5294 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States)

    2015-11-05

    The synthesis of γ-TiAl from elemental metals via solid-state reactive diffusion processing routes involves multiple reaction steps with the formation of various intermediate intermetallic compounds, starting with TiAl{sub 3} because this phase is favored kinetically. To understand the processes by which the TiAl{sub 3} intermediate is eliminated during synthesis of γ-TiAl alloy via spark plasma sintering (SPS), the reaction between Ti and TiAl{sub 3} during SPS was studied with emphasis on the effects of the applied electric current and starting TiAl{sub 3} microstructure on the reaction kinetics and the underlying diffusion mechanisms. The intermediate intermetallic phases Ti{sub 3}Al, TiAl and TiAl{sub 2} were formed between the Ti and TiAl{sub 3} upon SPS processing at 900 °C. The applied electric current did not alter the character of the phases formation in the Ti/TiAl{sub 3} system, but thermodynamic calculations suggest that the activation energy for the nucleation of TiAl{sub 2} is reduced significantly with an electric current flowing. Moreover, the kinetics of the reactions between Ti and TiAl{sub 3} were enhanced when the starting TiAl{sub 3} microstructure was refined. The electric field also had a more significant influence on the grain growth kinetics for TiAl{sub 2} and TiAl in powder blend compacts with refined microstructures. - Highlights: • Reaction between Ti and TiAl{sub 3} during spark plasma sintering was studied. • Refined starting TiAl{sub 3} microstructure enhanced the reactions kinetics. • The nucleation barrier of TiAl{sub 2} was reduced by the applied electric field. • The applied electric field restrained the grain growth of TiAl and TiAl{sub 2}.

  17. Divergent Evolution in Education for Sustainable Development Policy in the United Kingdom: Current Status, Best Practice, and Opportunities for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Scott

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the current status of all aspects of education for sustainable development (ESD across the United Kingdom (UK, drawing on evidence from its political jurisdictions (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, and setting out some characteristics of best practice. The paper analyzes current barriers to progress, and outlines future opportunities for enhancing the core role of education and learning in the pursuit of a more sustainable future. Although effective ESD exists at all levels, and in most learning contexts across the UK, with good teaching and enhanced learner outcomes, the authors argue that a wider adoption of ESD would result from the development of a strategic framework which puts it at the core of the education policy agenda in every jurisdiction. This would provide much needed coherence, direction and impetus to existing initiatives, scale up and build on existing good practice, and prevent unnecessary duplication of effort and resources. The absence of an overarching UK strategy for sustainable development that sets out a clear vision about the contribution learning can make to its goals is a major barrier to progress. This strategy needs to be coupled with the establishment of a pan-UK forum for overseeing the promotion, implementation and evaluation of ESD.

  18. Evolução do conceito e controvérsias atuais sobre o transtorno bipolar do humor Bipolar disorder: evolution of the concept and current controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Del Porto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor revê o conceito de transtorno bipolar como um processo em evolução. Suas raízes podem ser encontradas no trabalho de Araeteus da Capadócia, que assumia serem a melancolia e a mania duas formas da mesma doença. A compreensão atual da doença bipolar começou na França, através dos trabalhos de Falret (1851 e Baillarguer (1854. Os conceitos fundamentais de Kraepelin mudaram as bases da nosologia psiquiátrica, e o conceito unitário de Kraepelin sobre a insanidade maníaco-depressiva passou a ser amplamente aceito. Depois de Kraepelin, no entanto, as idéias de Kleist e Leonhard, na Alemanha, e o trabalho subseqüente de Angst, Perris e Winokur enfatizaram a distinção entre as formas monopolares e bipolares da depressão. Mais recentemente a ênfase mudou novamente para o espectro bipolar, que em suas formas leves expande-se às bordas dos temperamentos normais. Finalizando, o autor sumariza os aspectos polêmicos da nosologia da doença bipolar e seus limites com as esquizofrenias, a doença esquizoafetiva e as psicoses ciclóides.The author reviews the evolution of the concept of bipolar disorder as an ongoing process. Its roots can be found in the work of Araeteus of Capadocia, who assumed that melancholia and mania were two forms of the same disease. The modern understanding of bipolar disorder began in France, through the work of Falret (1851 and Baillarger (1854. The pivotal concepts of Emil Kraepelin changed the basis of psychiatric nosology, and Kraepelin's unitary concept of manic-depressive insanity was largely accepted. Kraepelin and Weigandt's ideas on mixed states were the cornerstone of this unitary concept. After Kraepelin, however, the ideas of Kleist and Leonhard, in Germany, as well as the work of Angst, Perris and Winokur, emphasized the distinction between unipolar and bipolar forms of depression. More recently, the emphasis has shifted again to the bipolar spectrum, which, in its mild forms, expanded to the

  19. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  20. Has human evolution stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  1. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  2. Dramatic Problem Solving: Transforming Community Conflict through Performance in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Hawkins; Alexia Georgakopolous

    2010-01-01

    This study is an examination of how Dramatic ProblemSolving (DPS), an interactive theatre based facilitation wasimplemented in a community with the goal of structuralconflict transformation at a community, interpersonal, andintrapersonal level. By incorporating action research in astudy of a theatre based facilitation model, the study mergesthe fields of conflict resolution with performance studies. Thestudy’s focus is praxis, equally examining theory, processand outcomes. The field of facili...

  3. Dramatic Transcriptional Changes in an Intracellular Parasite Enable Host Switching between Plant and Insect

    OpenAIRE

    Kenro Oshima; Yoshiko Ishii; Shigeyuki Kakizawa; Kyoko Sugawara; Yutaro Neriya; Misako Himeno; Nami Minato; Chihiro Miura; Takuya Shiraishi; Yasuyuki Yamaji; Shigetou Namba

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens that have devastating effects on the yields of crops and plants worldwide. They are intracellular parasites of both plants and insects, and are spread among plants by insects. How phytoplasmas can adapt to two diverse environments is of considerable interest; however, the mechanisms enabling the "host switching" between plant and insect hosts are poorly understood. Here, we report that phytoplasmas dramatically alter their gene expression in response...

  4. Dramatic Decline of Respiratory Illness Among US Military Recruits After the Renewed Use of Adenovirus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Naval Health Research Center Dramatic Decline of Respiratory Illness Among US Military Recruits After the Renewed Use of Adenovirus Vaccines ...Renewed Use of Adenovirus Vaccines Jennifer M. Radin,1,2 Anthony W. Hawksworth,1 Patrick J. Blair,1 Dennis J. Faix,3 Rema Raman,4 Kevin L. Russell,5...hiatus, oral vaccines against adenovirus types 4 (Ad4) and 7 (Ad7) were again produced and administered to US military recruits. This study examined the

  5. Merging of plasma currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Schep, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The merging process of current filaments in a strongly magnetized plasma is described. The evolution is calculated using a contour dynamics method, which accurately tracks piecewise constant distributions of the conserved quantities. In the interaction of two screened currents, both develop dipolar

  6. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Vielzeuf, P.E., E-mail: pvielzeuf@ifae.es [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Martinelli, M., E-mail: martinelli@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Calabrese, E., E-mail: erminia.calabrese@astro.ox.ac.uk [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pandolfi, S., E-mail: stefania@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-04-09

    We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant α in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent α measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying α. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), together with more sensitive α measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  7. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P; Martinelli, M; Calabrese, E; Pandolfi, S

    2015-01-01

    We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$ in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent $\\alpha$ measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying $\\alpha$. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), together with more sensitive $\\alpha$ measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  8. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.A.P. Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant α in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent α measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying α. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT, together with more sensitive α measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  9. Dramatic variability of the carbonate system at a temperate coastal ocean site (Beaufort, North Carolina, USA is regulated by physical and biogeochemical processes on multiple timescales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackary I Johnson

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 from anthropogenic sources is acidifying marine environments resulting in potentially dramatic consequences for the physical, chemical and biological functioning of these ecosystems. If current trends continue, mean ocean pH is expected to decrease by ~0.2 units over the next ~50 years. Yet, there is also substantial temporal variability in pH and other carbon system parameters in the ocean resulting in regions that already experience change that exceeds long-term projected trends in pH. This points to short-term dynamics as an important layer of complexity on top of long-term trends. Thus, in order to predict future climate change impacts, there is a critical need to characterize the natural range and dynamics of the marine carbonate system and the mechanisms responsible for observed variability. Here, we present pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC at time intervals spanning 1 hour to >1 year from a dynamic, coastal, temperate marine system (Beaufort Inlet, Beaufort NC USA to characterize the carbonate system at multiple time scales. Daily and seasonal variation of the carbonate system is largely driven by temperature, alkalinity and the balance between primary production and respiration, but high frequency change (hours to days is further influenced by water mass movement (e.g. tides and stochastic events (e.g. storms. Both annual (~0.3 units and diurnal (~0.1 units variability in coastal ocean acidity are similar in magnitude to 50 year projections of ocean acidity associated with increasing atmospheric CO2. The environmental variables driving these changes highlight the importance of characterizing the complete carbonate system rather than just pH. Short-term dynamics of ocean carbon parameters may already exert significant pressure on some coastal marine ecosystems with implications for ecology, biogeochemistry and evolution and this shorter term variability layers additive effects and

  10. Critical success factors simplified implementing the powerful drivers of dramatic business improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Marvin T

    2010-01-01

    Critical-to-success factors (CSFs) have become essential elements to strategic planning and no business can achieve consistent success without effectively adopting them. To take full advantage of CSFs, however, an organization must first understand what they are and how they can be used to drive organizational initiatives and processes. Critical Success Factors Simplified: Implementing the Powerful Drivers of Dramatic Business Improvement provides a concise manual on CSFs that will teach you how to identify and select the right CSFs, measure their impact, and adjust them as needed to reach your goals.

  11. A case of Lewis-Sumner syndrome showing dramatic improvement after plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Eun; Yook, Ji-Won; Kim, Dae-Seong

    2010-07-01

    We report a patient with Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS) who showed an improvement only with plasma exchange (PE). The patient, 32-yr old man, had progressive multifocal motor-sensory deficits with persistent, multiple conduction blocks and marked slowing of NCVs. Nerve pathology supported a diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy by revealing marked loss of myelinated fibers with inter- and intrafascicular variation. Although the patient was refractory to treatment with corticosteroid and intravenous immunoglobulin, PE produced a dramatic improvement. Our experience strongly proposes that PE should be tried for refractory LSS.

  12. Gorham-Stout Disease of the Skull Base With Hearing Loss: Dramatic Recovery and Antiangiogenic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Akifumi; Ozeki, Michio; Kuze, Bunya; Asano, Takahiko; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. We present a 6-year-old male with GSD involving the skull base who presented with recurrent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, severe hearing loss, and facial palsy secondary to cerebellar herniation into the internal auditory canal. After 2 months of treatment with pegylated interferon (IFN) α-2b (50 μg/week), his hearing recovered dramatically. Two years later, new bone formation appeared radiologically and IFN was switched to sirolimus. One year after the switch, CSF rhinorrhea disappeared. Antiangiogenic therapy might inhibit proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in osteolytic lesions and lead to new bone formation.

  13. Popular culture and romantic sensibility: Mário de Andrade's dramatic dances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The text examines the notion of dramatic dances in the work of the Brazilian modernist writer Mário de Andrade (1893-1945 and investigates the reasons bumba-meu-boi (the ox merriment, or ox-dance - a widespread and popular Brazilian festivity - was so extremely valued by the author. It analyzes the connections found in the use of an ethnographic perspective, a romantic view of popular culture, and the pursuit of authenticity in the construction of aesthetical forms by andradian modernism.

  14. USUAL ERRATIC PHENOMENON AND DRAMATIC OUTCOME A CASE REPORT OF PHENYTOIN TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin is still one of the most commonly used antiepileptic drugs in clinical practice around the globe. It has a range of familiar prejudicious and side effects, which have been reported formerly including ataxia, dizziness, visual disturbance, nystagmus, diplopia and cognitive dysfunctions amongst others. Here we are reporting a rare case of phenytoin toxicity presenting dramatically as a behavioural disorder resulting from underlying primary adverse effects of phenytoin, which were clinically overlooked. Discontinuation of phenytoin resulted in remission of side effects as well as the secondary behavioural manifestations.

  15. Dramatic changes in the magnetic coupling mechanism for La-doped CaMnO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado, E; Moreno, N O; Martinho, H; García, A; Sanjurjo, J A; Torriani, I; Rettori, C; Neumeier, J J; Oseroff, S B

    2001-06-01

    The exchange interactions in polycrystalline samples of Ca1-xLaxMnO3 (0.00< or =x< or =0.05) are studied by means of Raman scattering and electron paramagnetic resonance. Dramatic reductions in the spin-phonon interactions and magnetic correlations are observed for La doping levels as small as approximately 2%-3%. These results show that the charge carriers play an important role in the overall exchange coupling in the electron-doped manganites, even at very low doping levels.

  16. Dramatic Response of a Case ofRecurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma toSystemic Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cancer among humans, and the standard treatment is surgery. Other modalities are reserved as a second line of treatment. Topical chemotherapy may be used in primary BCC. Systemic chemotherapy has no role in the primary treatment of BCC, although it may be efficacious in metastatic cases. We report the case of a patient with persistent recurrent BCC following multiple surgeries and radiotherapy, who achieved a dramatic response with a cisplatinand 5-flourouracil chemotherapy regimen.

  17. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winicour Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to compute waveforms via Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

  18. Robert Browning’s Dramatic Monologue as a Medium of Intransigence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintija Čuljat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probing the dramatic monologue mould of Robert Browning (1812-1899 has maintained a long tradition of portraying this poet as an experimenter and pursuer of the Victorian representation de-norming process. Browning’s narrative verse employs ambiguation through syntactic rendition of his dramatic personae who voice their minds beyond the restraints of dialogic turn-taking and divulge their impulses through verbal dominance. Browning’s bicentenary seems a most auspicious moment to creatively explore the tenacity of his discordant narrative vein in literary translation. Browning’s fixation on engendering a poetic form that would fully sustain the self-projecting techniques of his protagonists resulted in the employment of narrative verse whose dialogic nature is undermined and embedded in his creations’ monologues. The poet utilizes innuendoes which originate not only from the pool of poetic references but also from the syntactic realizations disclosing a disparity between the speakers’ intentions and their verbal acts. Their interlocutors are being gradually drawn into a puzzling locutionary display.

  19. Nitric oxide increases dramatically in air exhaled from lung regions with occluded vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mondéjar, E; Hambraeus-Jonzon, K; Ronéus, A; Hedenstierna, G

    2003-03-01

    We observed dramatic changes in exhaled nitric oxide concentration (DeltaNOE) during wedge measurements, and hypothesised that occlusion and redistribution of pulmonary blood flow affects NOE. We inflated the balloon of the pulmonary artery catheter and measured NOE and central hemodynamics in closed chest anesthetised pigs (n = 11) ventilated with hyperoxic gas (fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] = 0.5), before and during lung injury, and in open chest anesthetised pigs (n = 17) before and during left lower lobar (LLL) hypoxia (FIO2 0.05), and during hyperoxic (FIO2 0.8) ventilation of the other lung regions (HL). In the closed chest pigs NOE increased from 2.0 (0.9) to 3.4 (2.0) p.p.b. (P 0.07). When the balloon was inflated in the right pulmonary artery in the open chest pigs, the perfusion of the HL decreased from 2.57 (0.58) to 2.34 (0.55) l min(-1) (P 0.07) during wedge. The correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.66 between changes in regional blood flow and DeltaNOE, and 0.37 between changes in MPaP and DeltaNOE. Nitric oxide concentration increases dramatically from lung regions with occluded vessels, whereas changes in MPaP have minor effects on NOE. This is an important fact to consider when comparing NOE within or between studies, and indicates a possible marker of diseases with occluded lung vessels.

  20. A dramatic increase of C1q protein in the CNS during normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Alexander H; Madison, Daniel V; Mateos, José María; Fraser, Deborah A; Lovelett, Emilie A; Coutellier, Laurence; Kim, Leo; Tsai, Hui-Hsin; Huang, Eric J; Rowitch, David H; Berns, Dominic S; Tenner, Andrea J; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Barres, Ben A

    2013-08-14

    The decline of cognitive function has emerged as one of the greatest health threats of old age. Age-related cognitive decline is caused by an impacted neuronal circuitry, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible are unknown. C1q, the initiating protein of the classical complement cascade and powerful effector of the peripheral immune response, mediates synapse elimination in the developing CNS. Here we show that C1q protein levels dramatically increase in the normal aging mouse and human brain, by as much as 300-fold. This increase was predominantly localized in close proximity to synapses and occurred earliest and most dramatically in certain regions of the brain, including some but not all regions known to be selectively vulnerable in neurodegenerative diseases, i.e., the hippocampus, substantia nigra, and piriform cortex. C1q-deficient mice exhibited enhanced synaptic plasticity in the adult and reorganization of the circuitry in the aging hippocampal dentate gyrus. Moreover, aged C1q-deficient mice exhibited significantly less cognitive and memory decline in certain hippocampus-dependent behavior tests compared with their wild-type littermates. Unlike in the developing CNS, the complement cascade effector C3 was only present at very low levels in the adult and aging brain. In addition, the aging-dependent effect of C1q on the hippocampal circuitry was independent of C3 and unaccompanied by detectable synapse loss, providing evidence for a novel, complement- and synapse elimination-independent role for C1q in CNS aging.

  1. [The notion of medical responsibility. Current evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J

    1998-01-01

    Medical responsibility can be evaluated from a penal or a civil standpoint. In the first case it is referable to common law or other specific provisions, notably those included in the laws voted on July 29 1994. In the second case it is viewed within the contractual relationship, since the physician's obligation is theoretically one of means and not of results. The circumstances under which medical responsibility is questioned have evolved under the influence of three factors affecting the medical art: it is now characterized by techniques that have often become scientific; team practice; an increase in patients' demands. Nonetheless it is most important to maintain a genuine relationship of trust between physician and patient.

  2. Lossless Conditional Schema Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the reco......The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples...... and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that conditionally evolving schemas, in contrast to current commercial database systems, are lossless when the schema evolves...

  3. Lossless Conditional Schema Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the reco......The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples...... and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that conditionally evolving schemas, in contrast to current commercial database systems, are lossless when the schema evolves...

  4. Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K

    2015-04-26

    Environment has a critical role in the natural selection process for Darwinian evolution. The primary molecular component currently considered for neo-Darwinian evolution involves genetic alterations and random mutations that generate the phenotypic variation required for natural selection to act. The vast majority of environmental factors cannot directly alter DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate genetic processes and can be dramatically altered by environmental factors. Therefore, environmental epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism to directly alter phenotypic variation generationally. Lamarck proposed in 1802 the concept that environment can directly alter phenotype in a heritable manner. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance provide molecular mechanisms for this process. Therefore, environment can on a molecular level influence the phenotypic variation directly. The ability of environmental epigenetics to alter phenotypic and genotypic variation directly can significantly impact natural selection. Neo-Lamarckian concept can facilitate neo-Darwinian evolution. A unified theory of evolution is presented to describe the integration of environmental epigenetic and genetic aspects of evolution.

  5. Adaptation of Lactococcus lactis to high growth temperature leads to a dramatic increase in acidification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Hellgren, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is essential for most cheese making, and this mesophilic bacterium has its growth optimum around 30 °C. We have, through adaptive evolution, isolated a mutant TM29 that grows well up to 39 °C, and continuous growth at 40 °C is possible if pre-incubated at a slightly lower...

  6. Genome evolution of Oryza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieyan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Oryza is composed of approximately 24 species. Wild species of Oryza contain a largely untapped resource of agronomically important genes. As an increasing number of genomes of wild rice species have been or will be sequenced, Oryza is becoming a model system for plant comparative, functional and evolutionary genomics studies. Comparative analyses of large genomic regions and whole-genome sequences have revealed molecular mechanisms involved in genome size variation, gene movement, genome evolution of polyploids, transition of euchromatin to heterochromatin and centromere evolution in the genus Oryza. Transposon activity and removal of transposable elements by unequal recombination or illegitimate recombination are two important factors contributing to expansion or contraction of Oryza genomes. Double-strand break repair mediated gene movement, especially non-homologous end joining, is an important source of non-colinear genes. Transition of euchromatin to heterochromatin is accompanied by transposable element amplification, segmental and tandem duplication of genic segments, and acquisition of heterochromatic genes from other genomic locations. Comparative analyses of multiple genomes dramatically improve the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference than single-genome analyses can provide. Further investigations on the impact of structural variation, lineage-specific genes and evolution of agriculturally important genes on phenotype diversity and adaptation in the genus Oryza should facilitate molecular breeding and genetic improvement of rice.

  7. Dramatic improvement of pyoderma gangrenosum with infliximab in a patient with PAPA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichweh, Dorothee S; Punaro, Marilynn; Pascual, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    Infliximab, a chimeric antitumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody (anti-TNF alpha), has been recently shown to have a beneficial effect on pyoderma gangrenosum associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Patients with the syndromic triad of pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne, an autoinflammatory process caused by mutations in the CD2 binding protein-1 (CD2BP1) gene, can have severe pyoderma gangrenosum. We describe a 14-year-old patient with this syndrome who was unresponsive to multiple therapies. A dramatic improvement in his pyoderma gangrenosum was observed after one infusion of infliximab, and a second infusion led to its resolution. Our observation extends the therapeutic use of infliximab to this component of PAPA syndrome.

  8. Publications on Peripheral Nerve Injuries during World War I: A Dramatic Increase in Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Publications from French (Jules Tinel and Chiriachitza Athanassio-Bénisty), English (James Purves-Stewart, Arthur Henry Evans and Hartley Sidney Carter), German (Otfrid Foerster and Hermann Oppenheim) and American (Charles Harrison Frazier and Byron Stookey) physicians from both sides of the front during World War I (WWI) contributed to a dramatic increase in knowledge about peripheral nerve injuries. Silas Weir Mitchell's original experience with respect to these injuries, and particularly causalgia, during the American Civil War was further expanded in Europe during WWI. Following the translation of one of his books, he was referred to mainly by French physicians. During WWI, several French books were in turn translated into English, which influenced American physicians, as was observed in the case of Byron Stookey. The establishment of neurological centres played an important role in the concentration of experience and knowledge. Several eponyms originated during this period (including the Hoffmann-Tinel sign and the Froment sign). Electrodiagnostic tools were increasingly used.

  9. Acute Otitis Media-Induced Gradenigo Syndrome, a Dramatic Response to Intravenous Antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Kazemi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Petrositis is a rare but severe complication of acute otitis media and mastoiditis. Despite efficient antibiotic therapy, there are still reports of both intratemporal and intracranial complications of otitis media with the potential risk of high morbidity and mortality. Petrositis has traditionally been treated with surgery, but recent advances in imaging, with improved antibiotic treatment, allow more conservative management.   Case Report: In this case report we describe the clinical course and treatment of a 33-year-old man with petrous apicitis who presented with severe otalgia, retro-orbital pain, and sixth cranial nerve palsy Gradenigo syndrome. Our patient showed a dramatic response to intravenous antibiotics only, without need for any surgical intervention, even myringotomy.   Conclusion: It seems that early detection and management of this syndrome before development of other intratemporal or intracranial complications may prevent the need for surgical intervention.

  10. Stabilizing Cloud Feedback Dramatically Expands the Habitable Zone of Tidally Locked Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S

    2013-01-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) is the circumstellar region where a planet can sustain surface liquid water. Searching for terrestrial planets in the HZ of nearby stars is the stated goal of ongoing and planned extrasolar planet surveys. Previous estimates of the inner edge of the HZ were based on one-dimensional radiative-convective models. The most serious limitation of these models is the inability to predict cloud behavior. Here we use global climate models with sophisticated cloud schemes to show that due to a stabilizing cloud feedback, tidally locked planets can be habitable at twice the stellar flux found by previous studies. This dramatically expands the HZ and roughly doubles the frequency of habitable planets orbiting red dwarf stars. At high stellar flux, strong convection produces thick water clouds near the substellar location that greatly increase the planetary albedo and reduce surface temperatures. Higher insolation produces stronger substellar convection and therefore higher albedo, making this phen...

  11. Selections of reality: applying Burke's dramatism to a harm reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Miller, Gale

    2014-09-01

    Kenneth Burke's dramatistic perspective is applied to accounts told by staff members working in methadone maintenance treatment centres in Copenhagen, Denmark. As a harm reduction strategy, methadone maintenance is designed to reduce the costs and dangers of chronic long-term drug use by providing substitution (methadone) treatment to users. Burke's dramatistic perspective calls attention to the recurring relationships among rhetorical elements within accounts of social reality. The elements form a pentad: scene, purpose, agent, agency and acts. Our analysis examines how the ideal of governmentality is constructed by staff members to justify and criticize the operations of the Copenhagen methadone maintenance program. For Burke, social criticism involves rearranging pentadic elements to produce new meanings and justify alternative actions. We discuss how Burke's perspective might be developed by sociologists as a critical dramatism of social policies and programs.

  12. Dramatic Improvement of Diabetes Mellitus Following the Treatment of Coexisting Acromegaly and Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Kyongyoung; Kim, Sungsu; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Jung, Jaehoon

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases are frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus and treatment of an underlying endocrine disease often improves glucose control. The co-occurrence of acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome is extremely rare. We herein describe a patient who showed a dramatic improvement in glucose control following treatment for co-existing acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome. An adrenal mass was incidentally discovered during a routine evaluation of a 56-year-old woman who was subsequently diagnosed with acromegaly and a unilateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma. Her blood glucose was poorly controlled despite receiving high-dose insulin therapy. After undergoing adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome, her insulin dosage was decreased by almost 50%. The insulin treatment was discontinued following the treatment of acromegaly.

  13. Intractable chronic motor tics dramatically respond to Clerodendrum inerme (L) Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Pi-Chuan; Huang, Wei-Jan; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2009-07-01

    Tics are characterized by involuntary, sudden, rapid, repetitive, nonrhythmic, stereotyped movements or phonic productions. Those who suffer from either motor or phonic tics, but not both, for more than 1 year are diagnosed with chronic tic disorder. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed for the treatment of tic disorder. Dopamine D2 receptor blockers and dopamine depletors are thought to be the most effective ones clinically. However, such treatments are suboptimal in terms of effectiveness and side effects, such as body weight gain and extrapyramidal symptoms. We report on a 13-year-old girl, with chronic motor tic disorder refractory to multiple anti-tic therapies, who showed dramatic improvement and remission after taking the crude leaf extract of Clerodendrum inerme (L) Gaertn. No side effects were observed during a follow-up of more than 2 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-tic effect of Clerodendrum inerme.

  14. Polypeptone induces dramatic cell lysis in ura4 deletion mutants of fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzy Matsuo

    Full Text Available Polypeptone is widely excluded from Schizosaccharomyces pombe growth medium. However, the reasons why polypeptone should be avoided have not been documented. Polypeptone dramatically induced cell lysis in the ura4 deletion mutant when cells approached the stationary growth phase, and this phenotype was suppressed by supplementation of uracil. To determine the specificity of this cell lysis phenotype, we created deletion mutants of other genes involved in de novo biosynthesis of uridine monophosphate (ura1, ura2, ura3, and ura5. Cell lysis was not observed in these gene deletion mutants. In addition, concomitant disruption of ura1, ura2, ura3, or ura5 in the ura4 deletion mutant suppressed cell lysis, indicating that cell lysis induced by polypeptone is specific to the ura4 deletion mutant. Furthermore, cell lysis was also suppressed when the gene involved in coenzyme Q biosynthesis was deleted. This is likely because Ura3 requires coenzyme Q for its activity. The ura4 deletion mutant was sensitive to zymolyase, which mainly degrades (1,3-beta-D glucan, when grown in the presence of polypeptone, and cell lysis was suppressed by the osmotic stabiliser, sorbitol. Finally, the induction of cell lysis in the ura4 deletion mutant was due to the accumulation of orotidine-5-monophosphate. Cell wall integrity was dramatically impaired in the ura4 deletion mutant when grown in the presence of polypeptone. Because ura4 is widely used as a selection marker in S. pombe, caution needs to be taken when evaluating phenotypes of ura4 mutants.

  15. Beech leaf colonization by the endophyte Apiognomonia errabunda dramatically depends on light exposure and climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnweg, G; Heller, W; Stich, S; Knappe, C; Betz, G; Heerdt, C; Kehr, R D; Ernst, D; Langebartels, C; Nunn, A J; Rothenburger, J; Schubert, R; Wallis, P; Müller-Starck, G; Werner, H; Matyssek, R; Sandermann Jr, H

    2005-11-01

    Ozone and light effects on endophytic colonization by Apiognomonia errabunda of adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) and their putative mediation by internal defence compounds were studied at the Kranzberg Forest free-air ozone fumigation site. A. errabunda colonization was quantified by "real-time PCR" (QPCR). A. errabunda-specific primers allowed detection without interference by DNA from European beech and several species of common genera of plant pathogenic fungi, such as Mycosphaerella, Alternaria, Botrytis, and Fusarium. Colonization levels of sun and shade leaves of European beech trees exposed either to ambient or twice ambient ozone regimes were determined. Colonization was significantly higher in shade compared to sun leaves. Ozone exhibited a marginally inhibitory effect on fungal colonization only in young leaves in 2002. The hot and dry summer of 2003 reduced fungal colonization dramatically, being more pronounced than ozone treatment or sun exposure. Levels of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic compounds were approximately twice as high in sun than in shade leaves. Acylated flavonol 3- O-glycosides with putatively high UV-B shielding effect were very low in shade canopy leaves. Ozone had only a minor influence on secondary metabolites in sun leaves. It slightly increased kaempferol 3- O-glucoside levels exclusively in shade leaves. The frequently prominent hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid, was tested for its growth inhibiting activity against Apiognomonia and showed an IC50 of approximately 8 mM. Appearance of Apiognomonia-related necroses strongly correlated with the occurrence of the stress metabolite, 3,3',4,4'-tetramethoxybiphenyl. Infection success of Apiognomonia was highly dependent on light exposure, presumably affected by the endogenous levels of constitutive phenolic compounds. Ozone exerted only minor modulating effects, whereas climatic factors, such as pronounced heat periods and drought, were dramatically overriding.

  16. Dramatic transcriptional changes in an intracellular parasite enable host switching between plant and insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenro Oshima

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens that have devastating effects on the yields of crops and plants worldwide. They are intracellular parasites of both plants and insects, and are spread among plants by insects. How phytoplasmas can adapt to two diverse environments is of considerable interest; however, the mechanisms enabling the "host switching" between plant and insect hosts are poorly understood. Here, we report that phytoplasmas dramatically alter their gene expression in response to "host switching" between plant and insect. We performed a detailed characterization of the dramatic change that occurs in the gene expression profile of Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris OY-M strain (approximately 33% of the genes change upon host switching between plant and insect. The phytoplasma may use transporters, secreted proteins, and metabolic enzymes in a host-specific manner. As phytoplasmas reside within the host cell, the proteins secreted from phytoplasmas are thought to play crucial roles in the interplay between phytoplasmas and host cells. Our microarray analysis revealed that the expression of the gene encoding the secreted protein PAM486 was highly upregulated in the plant host, which is also observed by immunohistochemical analysis, suggesting that this protein functions mainly when the phytoplasma grows in the plant host. Additionally, phytoplasma growth in planta was partially suppressed by an inhibitor of the MscL osmotic channel that is highly expressed in the plant host, suggesting that the osmotic channel might play an important role in survival in the plant host. These results also suggest that the elucidation of "host switching" mechanism may contribute to the development of novel pest controls.

  17. Dramatic transcriptional changes in an intracellular parasite enable host switching between plant and insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kenro; Ishii, Yoshiko; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Sugawara, Kyoko; Neriya, Yutaro; Himeno, Misako; Minato, Nami; Miura, Chihiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens that have devastating effects on the yields of crops and plants worldwide. They are intracellular parasites of both plants and insects, and are spread among plants by insects. How phytoplasmas can adapt to two diverse environments is of considerable interest; however, the mechanisms enabling the "host switching" between plant and insect hosts are poorly understood. Here, we report that phytoplasmas dramatically alter their gene expression in response to "host switching" between plant and insect. We performed a detailed characterization of the dramatic change that occurs in the gene expression profile of Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris OY-M strain (approximately 33% of the genes change) upon host switching between plant and insect. The phytoplasma may use transporters, secreted proteins, and metabolic enzymes in a host-specific manner. As phytoplasmas reside within the host cell, the proteins secreted from phytoplasmas are thought to play crucial roles in the interplay between phytoplasmas and host cells. Our microarray analysis revealed that the expression of the gene encoding the secreted protein PAM486 was highly upregulated in the plant host, which is also observed by immunohistochemical analysis, suggesting that this protein functions mainly when the phytoplasma grows in the plant host. Additionally, phytoplasma growth in planta was partially suppressed by an inhibitor of the MscL osmotic channel that is highly expressed in the plant host, suggesting that the osmotic channel might play an important role in survival in the plant host. These results also suggest that the elucidation of "host switching" mechanism may contribute to the development of novel pest controls.

  18. Influence of impulse current frequency on evolution of directionally solidifying organization of Al-Cu alloy%脉冲电流频率对Al-Cu合金定向凝固组织演变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 杨效田

    2013-01-01

    The directional solidification behavior of Al-Cu alloy was investigated with directional solidification device designed by ourselves and the evolution of the microstructure characteristics of Al-5 % Cu alloy was researched under the action of pulse current.The results showed that the solidifying organization form of A1-Cu alloy was obviously changed by the pulse current and the influence would be different if the frequency of pulse current was different:when the frequency was 100 Hz,the directional solidification characteristics of the alloy would be strengthened and the dendrite structure was not obvious,but the columnar crystal radius of directional solidifying organization increased.As the current frequency increased to 200 Hz,the secondary dendrite structure began to emerge,making the organization a dendritic structure.When the current frequency increased to 300 Hz,the organization structure would exhibit skeleton structure of neat rows.As the current frequency continued to increase to 400 Hz,the organization would change into minute dendritic structure and the organization was fine and uniformly distributed as a whole.However,the organization would be bulky,displaying the trend to isometric transformation due to the effect of 500 Hz high frequency current.%采用自行设计的定向凝固装置进行Al-Cu合金定向凝固行为研究,研究Al-5%Cu合金在脉冲电流作用下微观组织的演变特征.结果发现:脉冲电流的导入明显改变了定向凝固的A1-Cu合金凝固组织形态,不同频率的脉冲电流具有不同的影响效果,在100 Hz的小频率电流作用下,合金的定向凝固特征加强,枝晶结构不明显,但定向凝固形成的柱状晶半径加大,随着电流频率增大到200 Hz,二次枝晶结构开始显现,组织呈现树枝状结构特征,当300 Hz电流频率时,组织结构呈现排列整齐的的骨架结构,随着电流频率继续增加到400 Hz时,组织变为细小的树枝状结构特征,组织整体

  19. Allergy in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2012-01-01

    The 'foreignness' of proteins that we encounter in our homes and outdoors is in large part dependent on their evolutionary distance from man. This is relevant to understanding the differences between mammalian allergens, e.g. cats, and arthropod allergens, e.g. mites and cockroaches, as well as to understanding responses to a wide range of food allergens. On the other hand, allergic disease has gone through a major evolution of its own from a prehygiene state where there is minimal production of allergen-specific IgE, to the production of high-titer IgE, and then to the dramatic increase in asthma. The challenge is to understand how changes in both hygiene and lifestyle have contributed to the changes in allergic disease. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Evolution of Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle C.; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The ERP industry has undergone dramatic changes over the past decades due to changing market demands, thereby creating new challenges and opportunities, which have to be managed by ERP vendors. This paper inquires into the necessary evolution of business models in a technology-intensive industry (e.......g., develop new offerings, engage in partnerships, and the utilize new sales channels). This paper draws from strategy process perspective to develop an evolutionary business model (EBM) framework that explains the components and processes involved. The framework is then applied to a longitudinal case study...... of SAP to explain how its success in a technology-intensive industry hinges on its ability to reconfigure its business model. The paper contributes to the extant literature on business models in two ways: first, by identifying and explaining the need for an evolutionary perspective; and second...

  1. A poorly known high-latitude parasitoid wasp community: unexpected diversity and dramatic changes through time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    Full Text Available Climate change will have profound and unanticipated effects on species distributions. The pace and nature of this change is largely unstudied, especially for the most diverse elements of terrestrial communities--the arthropods--here we have only limited knowledge concerning the taxonomy and the ecology of these groups. Because Arctic ecosystems have already experienced significant increases in temperature over the past half century, shifts in community structure may already be in progress. Here we utilise collections of a particularly hyperdiverse insect group--parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera; Braconidae; Microgastrinae--at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the early and mid-twentieth century to compare the composition of the contemporary community to that present 50-70 years ago. Morphological and DNA barcoding results revealed the presence of 79 species of microgastrine wasps in collections from Churchill, but we estimate that 20% of the local fauna awaits detection. Species composition and diversity between the two time periods differ significantly; species that were most common in historic collections were not found in contemporary collections and vice versa. Using barcodes we compared these collections to others from across North America; contemporary Churchill species are most affiliated with more south-western collections, while historic collections were more affiliated with eastern collections. The past five decades has clearly seen a dramatic change of species composition within the area studied coincident with rising temperature.

  2. Dramatic Expression in Opera, and Its Implications for Conversational Agents. Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    This article has discussed principles, techniques, and methods of dramatic portrayal in opera, and their application to the development of embodied conversational agents. Investigations such as this complement studies of natural human behavior, and offer insights as to how to make such behavior understandable and interesting when adapted for use by embodied conversational agents. However, one should use caution in applying such lessons. The unique characteristics of computer-based media are still being identified and explored. In any case, one must always be careful about applying principles blindly to any artistic form. Such principles are post-hoc analysis of the intuitive skill of great artists; this was as true in Aristotle's day as it is today. We should not let structural principles stand in the way of injecting creativity into the design of ECAs. Opera at its best possesses an element of magic that is difficult to describe, much less analytically reconstruct. We can only hope to achieve a similar result with conversational agents.

  3. Dramatic improvement of anti-SS-A/Ro-associated interstitial lung disease after immunosuppressive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Caramaschi; Giuliana, Festi; Giovanni, Orsolini; Cristian, Caimmi; Domenico, Biasi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to report three patients affected by interstitial lung disease associated with positive anti-SS-A/Ro autoantibody who showed a dramatic improvement after immunosuppressive treatment. Medical charts were reviewed to obtain clinical data, laboratory parameters, lung function tests, high-resolution computed tomography results and response to immunosuppressive treatment. The three patients showed a clinical picture of a lung-dominant connective tissue disease characterized by a sudden onset with dyspnea, cough and subtle extrathoracic features together with positive anti-SS-A/Ro antibody and weak titer antinuclear antibodies. All three patients responded favorably to immunosuppressive therapy: Two cases were treated with a combination of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide followed by mycophenolate mofetil; in the third patient, clinical benefit was obtained after rituximab was added to corticosteroid and immunosuppressant drug. In spite of an abrupt onset with significant lung function impairment, all three patients had a favorable clinical response to immunosuppressive therapy. This report may be useful in making therapeutic decisions in case of interstitial lung disease associated with anti-SS-A antibody.

  4. Dramatic variations in emergent wetland area in China's largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Chen, Jiyu

    2016-10-01

    Freshwater wetlands are important ecosystems experiencing rapid degradation around the world. As much as 64% of world's wetland area has been lost since 1900; the situation is even more serious in Asia, where land reclamation and anthropogenic modifications of rivers are increasing the rate of wetland disappearance. In this study, we provide a first complete estimation of daily Emergent Wetland Area (EWA) in Poyang Lake, China's largest freshwater lake, from 1955 to 2012. A wavelet analysis indicates a strong periodicity in the monthly EWA time series with two oscillations having a period of 12 and 60-72 months, respectively. A dramatic increase in mean annual EWA is detected since 2003, when the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) was completed, mainly due to the seasonal drying of 1078 km2 of wetlands in October. It is found that the timing of wetland emergence during the dry season has been anticipated of one month, from November to October, since the establishment of TGD. It is argued that a significant increase in wetland exposure and an observable shift in the seasonal timing of flooding and drying will seriously degrade the wetland system and threaten the endangered migratory birds that inhabit it unless effective countermeasures are implemented.

  5. SAFETY IMPROVES DRAMATICALLY IN FLUOR HANFORD SOIL AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER MS

    2007-12-05

    This paper describes dramatic improvements in the safety record of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington state over the past four years. During a period of enormous growth in project work and scope, contractor Fluor Hanford reduced injuries, accidents, and other safety-related incidents and enhanced a safety culture that earned the SGRP Star Status in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) in 2007. This paper outlines the complex and multi-faceted work of Fluor Hanford's SGRP and details the steps taken by the project's Field Operations and Safety organizations to improve safety. Holding field safety meetings and walkdowns, broadening safety inspections, organizing employee safety councils, intensively flowing down safety requirements to subcontractors, and adopting other methods to achieve remarkable improvement in safety are discussed. The roles of management, labor and subcontractors are detailed. Finally, SGRP's safety improvements are discussed within the context of overall safety enhancements made by Fluor Hanford in the company's 11 years of managing nuclear waste cleanup at the Hanford Site.

  6. Combination of clopidogrel and everolimus dramatically reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis in murine aortic allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckl, Sebastian; Heim, Christian; Abele-Ohl, Silke; Hoffmann, Julia; Ramsperger-Gleixner, Martina; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M

    2010-09-01

    Our group has shown that platelet inhibition with clopidogrel, an antagonist of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor on platelets, reduced the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of cyclosporin or everolimus with clopidogrel has a beneficial effect on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Fully MHC mismatched C57Bl/6 (H2(b)) donor aortas were transplanted into CBA.J (H2(k)) recipients and mice received either clopidogrel alone (1 mg/kg/day) or in combination with cyclosporin (2 mg/kg/day) or everolimus (0.05 mg/kg/day). Grafts were analysed by histology and morphometry on day 30 after transplantation. In mice treated with clopidogrel alone, transplant arteriosclerosis was significantly reduced [intima proliferation 56 +/- 11% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Daily application of everolimus reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis compared with untreated controls [intima proliferation of 29 +/- 9% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Strikingly, combination of clopidogrel and everolimus almost abolished the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis [intima proliferation: 11 +/- 8% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. By contrast, combination of cyclosporin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone showed no additive effect. These results demonstrate that combination of platelet- and mammalian target of Rapamycin-inhibition can dramatically reduce the development of transplant arteriosclerosis.

  7. Zeolite molecular sieves have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Nuno; Partridge, Johann; Halling, Peter J; Barreiros, Susana

    2002-02-05

    Zeolite molecular sieves very commonly are used as in situ drying agents in reaction mixtures of enzymes in nonaqueous media. They often affect enzyme behavior, and this has been interpreted in terms of altered hydration. Here, we show that zeolites can also have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in low water media, resulting from their cation-exchange ability. Initial rates of transesterification catalyzed by cross-linked crystals of subtilisin were compared in supercritical ethane, hexane, and acetonitrile with water activity fixed by pre-equilibration. Addition of zeolite NaA (4 A powder) still caused remarkable rate enhancements (up to 20-fold), despite the separate control of hydration. In the presence of excess of an alternative solid-state acid-base buffer, however, zeolite addition had no effect. The more commonly used Merck molecular sieves (type 3 A beads) had similar but somewhat smaller effects. All zeolites have ion-exchange ability and can exchange H+ for cations such as Na+ and K+. These exchanges will tend to affect the protonation state of acidic groups in the protein and, hence, enzymatic activity. Zeolites pre-equilibrated in aqueous suspensions of varying pH-pNa gave very different enzyme activities. Their differing basicities were demonstrated directly by equilibration with an indicator dissolved in toluene. The potential of zeolites as acid-base buffers for low-water media is discussed, and their ability to overcome pH memory is demonstrated.

  8. STABILIZING CLOUD FEEDBACK DRAMATICALLY EXPANDS THE HABITABLE ZONE OF TIDALLY LOCKED PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jun; Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B., E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2013-07-10

    The habitable zone (HZ) is the circumstellar region where a planet can sustain surface liquid water. Searching for terrestrial planets in the HZ of nearby stars is the stated goal of ongoing and planned extrasolar planet surveys. Previous estimates of the inner edge of the HZ were based on one-dimensional radiative-convective models. The most serious limitation of these models is the inability to predict cloud behavior. Here we use global climate models with sophisticated cloud schemes to show that due to a stabilizing cloud feedback, tidally locked planets can be habitable at twice the stellar flux found by previous studies. This dramatically expands the HZ and roughly doubles the frequency of habitable planets orbiting red dwarf stars. At high stellar flux, strong convection produces thick water clouds near the substellar location that greatly increase the planetary albedo and reduce surface temperatures. Higher insolation produces stronger substellar convection and therefore higher albedo, making this phenomenon a stabilizing climate feedback. Substellar clouds also effectively block outgoing radiation from the surface, reducing or even completely reversing the thermal emission contrast between dayside and nightside. The presence of substellar water clouds and the resulting clement surface conditions will therefore be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  9. Papain-templated Cu nanoclusters: assaying and exhibiting dramatic antibacterial activity cooperating with H₂O₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hong; Zhong, Dan; Zhou, Zinan; Yang, Xiaoming

    2015-12-07

    Herein, papain-functionalized Cu nanoclusters (CuNCs@Papain) were originally synthesized in aqueous solution together with a quantum yield of 14.3%, and showed obviously red fluorescence at 620 nm. Meanwhile, their corresponding fluorescence mechanism was fully elucidated by fluorescence spectroscopy, HR-TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, and XPS. Subsequently, the as-prepared CuNCs were employed as probes for detecting H2O2. Using CuNCs as probes, H2O2 was determined in the range from 1 μM to 50 μM based on a linear decrease of fluorescence intensity as well as a detection limit of 0.2 μM with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. More significantly, it has been proved that CuNCs could convert H2O2 to ˙OH, which exhibited dramatic antibacterial activity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to validate their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive/negative bacteria and actual wound infection, suggesting their potential for serving as one type of promising antibacterial material.

  10. Dramatic regression and bleeding of a duodenal GIST during preoperative imatinib therapy: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwandner Thilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. The majority of GISTs is located in the stomach. Only 3-5% of GISTs are located in the duodenum associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding as primary manifestation. With response rates of up to 90%, but complications like bleeding due to tumor necrosis in 3%, imatinib mesylate dramatically altered the pre- and postoperative therapy for GIST patients. Case presentation A 58-year-old female patient presented with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding 2 weeks after a giant GIST of the duodenum had been diagnosed. Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy had been initiated to achieve a tumor downsizing prior to surgery. During emergency laparotomy a partial duodenopancreatectomy was performed to achieve a complete resection of the mass. Histology revealed a high-malignancy GIST infiltrating the duodenal wall. Adjuvant imatinib therapy was initiated. At follow-up (19 months the patient is still alive and healthy. Conclusion Giant GISTs of the duodenum are rare and - in contrast to other localizations - harbour a higher risk of serious bleeding as primary manifestation. Tumor necrosis and tumor bleeding are rare but typical adverse effects of imatinib therapy especially during treatment of high-malignancy GIST. In GIST patients with increased risk of tumor bleeding neoadjuvant imatinib therapy should thoroughly be performed during hospitalization. In cases of duodenal GIST primary surgery should be considered as treatment alternative.

  11. Lipidomics reveals dramatic lipid compositional changes in the maturing postnatal lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautel, Sydney E.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Clair, Geremy CD; Sontag, Ryan L.; Weitz, Karl K.; Shukla, Anil K.; Nguyen, Son N.; Kim, Young-Mo; Zink, Erika M.; Luders, Teresa; Frevert, Charles; Gharib, Sina A.; Laskin, Julia; Carson, James P.; Metz, Thomas O.; Corley, Richard A.; Ansong, Charles K.

    2017-02-01

    Lung immaturity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving normal lung development could provide insights on how to ameliorate disrupted development. While transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of normal lung development have been previously reported, characterization of changes in the lipidome is lacking. Lipids play significant roles in the lung, such as dipalmitoylcholine in pulmonary surfactant; however, many of the roles of specific lipid species in normal lung development, as well as in disease states, are not well defined. In this study, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the murine lipidome during normal postnatal lung development. Lipidomics analysis of lungs from post-natal day 7, day 14 and 6-8 week mice (adult) identified 928 unique lipids across 21 lipid subclasses, with dramatic alterations in the lipidome across developmental stages. Our data confirmed previously recognized aspects of post-natal lung development and revealed several insights, including in sphingolipid-mediated apoptosis, inflammation and energy storage/usage. Complementary proteomics, metabolomics and chemical imaging corroborated these observations. This multi-omic view provides a unique resource and deeper insight into normal pulmonary development.

  12. Samuel Beckett's "Rockaby": dramatizing the plight of the solitary elderly at life's end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groninger, Hunter; Childress, Marcia Day

    2007-01-01

    Irish playwright Samuel Beckett's spare, compact, and provocative play Rockaby (1981) is a study in old age, isolation, and disengagement from life. In it, an elderly woman rocks in a chair while the audience hears a distant voice remembering her lifelong search for human contact or communion. The play dramatizes the woman's intense physical and psychological isolation and the last sputterings of her impulse to narrate. Such radical isolation may be a necessary precondition for a person relinquishing the narrating that Beckett equates with being, and surrendering unto death. Despite its apparent simplicity, the play powerfully explores the nature of aging in contemporary society, quality-of-life issues for the frail, solitary elderly in our communities and health-care institutions, and how the elderly prepare for life's end in a death-denying culture. Rockaby is thus a text that can help clinicians and other caregivers appreciate the predicament of solitary elderly persons nearing life's end and better understand how we all must manage one day the lonely, self-abnegating yet also paradoxically self-assertive act of dying.

  13. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Bullous Pemphigoid with Dramatic Response to Dapsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Maria Cristina; Corsello, Giovanni; Prinzi, Eugenia; Cimaz, Rolando

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 11 Final Diagnosis: Bullous pemphigoid in systemic lupus erythematosus Symptoms: Bullous lupus • photosensitive rash • synovitis Medication:— Clinical Procedure: Pharmacological treatment Specialty: Rheumatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune blistering disease, with relapses, isolated or associated with other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Joint manifestations rapidly respond to small or moderate doses of corticosteroids, whereas skin manifestations usually respond to antimalarial drugs. Case Report: We describe the clinical case of an 11-year-old girl with SLE. She showed bullous skin lesions with arthralgia, mild proteinuria, resolved after steroid treatment. At the tapering of her prednisone dose, the patient had new skin lesions requiring an increased dose of prednisone. She started dapsone at the dosage of 1 mg/kg/day, maintaining low dose prednisone; this treatment was successfully followed by the dramatic disappearance of skin lesions and limb pain. Conclusions: Bullous skin lesions can represent the first clinical presentation of pediatric SLE and could influence the treatment and the outcome of these patients. This case showed an atypical course as both skin manifestations and arthritis promptly and persistently resolved with dapsone without the use of high-dose glucocorticoids. Only a few cases of patients with SLE associated with bullous pemphigoid have been reported in the literature, and very few in the pediatric population. PMID:28352068

  14. Regulatory Bodies: Dramatic Creativity, Control and the Commodity of Lady Audley's Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Mattacks

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available 'Lady Audley's Secret' resonates with a sense of theatricality grounded in the eponymous heroine's propensity for visual tactics to attract an audience. Repositioning the dramatic exchange between actress and audience within the domestic sphere sensitised the reader to the question of diagnosing morally degenerative artificiality whilst involving the reader in the complicit act of encouraging Lady Audley's performance through consumer demand. This complex relationship between consumerism, theatre and society saw Lady Audley's figure assume an iconic status, but little has been written on the creative interplay between the novel and the theatre itself. Beginning with the way in which aspiring actresses used Lady Audley as a model to display their histrionic variety, I argue that the theatre used her character to engage with the complex connections between drama and commodity culture. Her autophagy in favour of a false identity provided a model for actresses to visualise self-commodification whilst highlighting the tension between the material practices of the theatre and the materiality of commodity culture. The drive for regulation of the theatrical medium finds its locus in the licensing text/published acting edition of William E. Suter's 'Lady Audley's Secret' (1863. Here I move to show how Suter's adaptation functioned as a site where the state regulation of the theatre was explored and contested. These unauthorised images of Lady Audley's containment came to symbolise not only the regulatory processes of licensing and copyright, but also the creative exploitation of a commodity culture critiqued through the dehumanised form of Braddon's original heroine.

  15. Lord Kelvin and the Age-of-the-Earth Debate: A Dramatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Art; Teichmann, Jürgen

    This is a dramatization of a fictitious debate about the age of the earth that takes place in the Royal Institution, London, England, in the year 1872. The debate is among Sir William Thomson (later Kelvin), T.H. Huxley (Darwin's Bulldog), Sir Charles Lyell, and Hermann von Helmholtz. In 1862 Thomson published his celebrated and widely studied The Secular Cooling of the Earth that raised the post-Darwinian debate of the age of the earth above the level of popular controversy. He entered the debate with all the arrogance of a newly established science of the century, namely the recently drafted laws of thermodynamics. The debate is partly based on a lively exchange of comments and arguments that occurred between T.H. Huxley and William Thomson, starting in 1868, when Thomson addressed the Glasgow Geological Society. This long public discussion also involved the ideas and the work of geologist Charles Lyell and those of the celebrated German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz. The confrontation is between the unyielding physicists and the insecure biologists and geologists who required a much longer time for the age of the earth than the physicists were prepared to give them. However, the debate ends on a conciliatory note, suggesting that perhaps Sir William's storehouse of creation may contain a hereto undiscovered source of energy that is more bountiful than gravitational energy.

  16. Dramatic Increases of Soil Microbial Functional Gene Diversity at the Treeline Ecotone of Changbai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Congcong; Shi, Yu; Ni, Yingying; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The elevational and latitudinal diversity patterns of microbial taxa have attracted great attention in the past decade. Recently, the distribution of functional attributes has been in the spotlight. Here, we report a study profiling soil microbial communities along an elevation gradient (500-2200 m) on Changbai Mountain. Using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 5.0), we found that microbial functional gene richness exhibited a dramatic increase at the treeline ecotone, but the bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not exhibit such a similar trend. However, the β-diversity (compositional dissimilarity among sites) pattern for both bacterial taxa and functional genes was similar, showing significant elevational distance-decay patterns which presented increased dissimilarity with elevation. The bacterial taxonomic diversity/structure was strongly influenced by soil pH, while the functional gene diversity/structure was significantly correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This finding highlights that soil DOC may be a good predictor in determining the elevational distribution of microbial functional genes. The finding of significant shifts in functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone could also provide valuable information for predicting the responses of microbial functions to climate change.

  17. Dramatic increases of soil microbial functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone of Changbai Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Shen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The elevational and latitudinal diversity patterns of microbial taxa have attracted great attention in the past decade. Recently, the distribution of functional attributes has been in the spotlight. Here, we report a study profiling soil microbial communities along an elevation gradient (500 to 2200 m on Changbai Mountain. Using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 5.0, we found that microbial functional gene richness exhibited a dramatic increase at the treeline ecotone, but the bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not exhibit such a similar trend. However, the β-diversity (compositional dissimilarity among sites for both bacterial taxa and functional genes was similar, showing significant elevational distance-decay patterns which presented increased dissimilarity with elevation. The bacterial taxonomic diversity/structure was strongly influenced by soil pH, while the functional gene diversity/structure was significantly correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC. This finding highlights that soil DOC may be a good predictor in determining the elevational distribution of microbial functional genes. The finding of significant shifts in functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone could also provide valuable information for predicting the responses of microbial functions to climate change.

  18. Who gets custody now? Dramatic changes in children's living arrangements after divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R; Brown, Patricia R; Cook, Steven T

    2014-08-01

    This article reexamines the living arrangements of children following their parents' divorce, using Wisconsin Court Records, updating an analysis that showed relatively small but significant increases in shared custody in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These changes have accelerated markedly in the intervening years: between 1988 and 2008, the proportion of mothers granted sole physical custody fell substantially, the proportion of parents sharing custody increased dramatically, and father-sole custody remained relatively stable. We explore changes in the correlates of alternative custody outcomes, showing that some results from the earlier analysis still hold (for example, cases with higher total family income are more likely to have shared custody), but other differences have lessened (shared-custody cases have become less distinctive as they have become more common). Despite the considerable changes in marriage and divorce patterns over this period, we do not find strong evidence that the changes in custody are related to changes in the characteristics of families experiencing a divorce; rather, changes in custody may be the result of changes in social norms and the process by which custody is determined.

  19. Patterns and potential drivers of dramatic changes in Tibetan lakes, 1972-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingkui Li

    Full Text Available Most glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are retreating, and glacier melt has been emphasized as the dominant driver for recent lake expansions on the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating detailed changes in lake extents and levels across the Tibetan Plateau from Landsat/ICESat data, we found a pattern of dramatic lake changes from 1970 to 2010 (especially after 2000 with a southwest-northeast transition from shrinking, to stable, to rapidly expanding. This pattern is in distinct contrast to the spatial characteristics of glacier retreat, suggesting limited influence of glacier melt on lake dynamics. The plateau-wide pattern of lake change is related to precipitation variation and consistent with the pattern of permafrost degradation induced by rising temperature. More than 79% of lakes we observed on the central-northern plateau (with continuous permafrost are rapidly expanding, even without glacial contributions, while lakes fed by retreating glaciers in southern regions (with isolated permafrost are relatively stable or shrinking. Our study shows the limited role of glacier melt and highlights the potentially important contribution of permafrost degradation in predicting future water availability in this region, where understanding these processes is of critical importance to drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated areas in South and East Asia.

  20. Motilin and ghrelin gene experienced episodic evolution during primitive placental mammal evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IRWIN; M.; David

    2010-01-01

    Motilin and ghrelin,members of a structure-function-related hormone family,play important roles in gastrointestinal function,regulation of energy homeostasis and growth hormone secretion.We observed episodic evolution in both of their prehormone gene sequences during primitive placental mammal evolution,during which most of the nonsynonymous changes result in radical substitution.Of note,a functional obestatin hormone might have only originated after this episodic evolution event.Early in placental mammal evolution,a series of biology complexities evolved.At the same time the motilin and ghrelin prehormone genes,which play important roles in several of these processes,experienced episodic evolution with dramatic changes in their coding sequences.These observations suggest that some of the lineage-specific physiological adaptations are due to episodic evolution of the motilin and ghrelin genes.

  1. Motilin and ghrelin gene experienced episodic evolution during primitive placental mammal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Irwin, M David; Zhang, YaPing

    2010-06-01

    Motilin and ghrelin, members of a structure-function-related hormone family, play important roles in gastrointestinal function, regulation of energy homeostasis and growth hormone secretion. We observed episodic evolution in both of their prehormone gene sequences during primitive placental mammal evolution, during which most of the nonsynonymous changes result in radical substitution. Of note, a functional obestatin hormone might have only originated after this episodic evolution event. Early in placental mammal evolution, a series of biology complexities evolved. At the same time the motilin and ghrelin prehormone genes, which play important roles in several of these processes, experienced episodic evolution with dramatic changes in their coding sequences. These observations suggest that some of the lineage-specific physiological adaptations are due to episodic evolution of the motilin and ghrelin genes.

  2. Current status of dentin adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinfelder, K F

    1998-12-01

    Undoubtedly, dentin bonding agents have undergone a major evolution during the last several years. The shear bond strength of composite resin to the surface of dentin is actually greater than the inherent strength of the dentin itself under well-controlled conditions. No longer must the clinician depend only upon the bonding to enamel as the sole bonding mechanism. Bonding to both types of dental structure permits even better reinforcement of the tooth itself. Perhaps even more important than the high level of bonding exhibited by the current dentin adhesives is their ability to seal the dentin. So effective is this sealing capability that it is now possible to protect the pulpal tissue from microbial invasion through the dentinal tubules. Further, by enclosing the odontoblastic processes and preventing fluid flow, the potential for postoperative sensitivity is diminished considerably. In fact, so evolutionary is the concept of bonding that the procedures associated with the restoration of teeth has changed dramatically. Undoubtedly, far greater improvements can be anticipated in the future.

  3. Clinical simulation with dramatization: gains perceived by students and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Elaine Cristina; Mazzo, Alessandra; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Pereira, Gerson Alves; Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarães Dos Santos; Pedersoli, César Eduardo

    2017-08-03

    to identify in the literature the gains health students and professionals perceive when using clinical simulation with dramatization resources. integrative literature review, using the method proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). A search was undertaken in the following databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Web of Science, National Library of Medicine, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online. 53 studies were analyzed, which complied with the established inclusion criteria. Among the different gains obtained, satisfaction, self-confidence, knowledge, empathy, realism, reduced level of anxiety, comfort, communication, motivation, capacity for reflection and critical thinking and teamwork stand out. the evidence demonstrates the great possibilities to use dramatization in the context of clinical simulation, with gains in the different health areas, as well as interprofessional gains. identificar na literatura quais os ganhos percebidos pelos estudantes e profissionais da área de saúde, utilizando-se da simulação clínica realizada com recursos da dramatização. revisão integrativa da literatura, com a metodologia proposta pelo Instituto Joanna Briggs (JBI), com busca nas bases de dados: Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Web of Science, National Library of Medicine, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online. foram analisados 53 estudos, que atenderam os critérios de inclusão estabelecidos. Entre os diversos ganhos obtidos, destaca-se a satisfação, autoconfiança, conhecimento, empatia, realismo, diminuição do nível de ansiedade, conforto, comunicação, motivação, capacidade de reflexão e de pensamento crítico e trabalho em equipe. as evidências demonstram a ampla possibilidade de uso da dramatização no contexto de

  4. Investigation of the dramatic changes in lake level of the Bosten Lake in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengjing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaode; Chen, Yongmin; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Bosten Lake, located in the arid region of northwest China, is the largest inland freshwater lake in China. Water resources in Bosten Lake are of great importance for the regional drinking water supply, agricultural irrigation, and economic development of Xinjiang province. In this study, the dynamics of the lake level in Bosten Lake were investigated from 1956 to 2010. We found that the lake level experienced three different periods of change due to the combined influences of climate variation and human activities. Generally, the lake level has shown a significant downward trend since the first observation started in 1956 and dropped to its lowest level in 1987. Thereafter, the lake level presented a continuous upward trend and rose to its highest value in 2002. Then, the level decreased dramatically from 2002 to 2010. A water balance model and the climate elasticity method were used to estimate the reasons for the lake level changes of Bosten Lake. The results showed that an increase in lake evaporation led to the continuous decrease in lake level from 1958 to 1987. Then, human-controlled lake outflow and increasing lake inflow together led to the increase in lake level from 1988 to 2002. During 2003 to 2010, the emergency project of transferring water to Tarim River led to the increase in lake outflow, while the lake inflow obviously decreased because of a decrease in precipitation. These factors resulted in a sharp decrease in the lake level from 2003 to 2010. The changes in lake level indicate changes in available water resources from Bosten Lake. This reason for the analysis of the change in lake level in this study is to support the water resources management of Bosten Lake.

  5. The role of Pacific water in the dramatic retreat of arctic sea ice during summer 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jinlun; MI ke Steele; Rebecca Woodgate

    2008-01-01

    A model study is conducted to examine the role of Pacific water in the dramatic retreat of arctic sea ice during summer 2007. The model generally agrees with the observations in showing considerable seasonal and intcrannual variability of the Pacific water inflow at Bering Strait in response to changes in atmospheric circulation.During summer 2007 anomalously strong southerly winds over the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean strengthen the ocean circulation and bring more Pacific water into the Arctic than the recent (2000-2006) average. The simulated summer (3 months )2007 mean Pacific water inflow at Bering Strait is 1.2 Sv, which is the highest in the past three decades of the simulation and is 20% higher than the recent average. Particularly, the Pacific water inflow in September 2007 is about 0.5 Sv or 50% above the 2000-2006 average. The strengthened warm Pacific water inflow carries an additional 1.0 × 1020 Joules of heat into the Arctic, enough to melt an additional 0. 5 m of ice over the whole Chukchi Sea. In the model the extra summer oceanic heat brought in by the Pacific water mainly stays in the Chukchi and Beaufort region, contributing to the wanning of surface waters in that region. The heat is in constant contact with the ice cover in the region in July through September. Thus the Pacific water plays a role in ice melting in the Chukchi and Beaufort region all summer long in 2007, likely contributing to up to 0.5 m per month additional ice melting in some area of that region.

  6. New Radar Altimeter Missions are Providing a Dramatically Sharper Image of Global Marine Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Müller, D.; Garcia, E.; Matthews, K. J.; Smith, W. H. F.; Zaron, E.; Zhang, S.; Bassett, D.; Francis, R.

    2015-12-01

    Marine gravity, derived from satellite radar altimetry, is a powerful tool for mapping tectonic structures, especially in the deep ocean basins where the topography remains unmapped by ships or is buried by thick sediment. The ability to infer seafloor tectonics from space was first demonstrated in 1978 using Seasat altimeter data but the spatial coverage was incomplete because of the short three-month lifetime of the satellite. Most ocean altimeters have repeat ground tracks with spacings of hundreds of kilometers so they do not resolve tectonic structures. Adequate altimeter coverage became available in 1995 when the United States Navy declassified the Geosat radar altimeter data and the ERS-1 altimeter completed a 1-year mapping phase. These mid-1990's altimeter-derived images of the ocean basins remained static for 15 years because there were no new non-repeat altimeter missions. This situation changed dramatically in 2010 when CryoSat-2, with its advanced radar altimeter, was launched into a non-repeat orbit and continues to collect data until perhaps 2020. In addition the Jason-1 altimeter was placed into a 14-month geodetic phase at the end of its lifetime. More recently the 1.5 times higher precision measurements from the AltiKa altimeter aboard the SARAL spacecraft began to drift away from its 35-day repeat trackline. The Chinese HY-2 altimeter is scheduled to begin a dense mapping phase in early 2016. Moreover in 2020 we may enjoy significantly higher resolution maps of the ocean basins from the planned SWOT altimeter mission with its advanced swath mapping ability. All of this new data will provide a much sharper image of the tectonics of the deep ocean basins and continental margins. During this talk we will tour of the new tectonic structures revealed by CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 and speculate on the tectonic views of the ocean basins in 2020 and beyond.

  7. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET decreased by 23% during 1986–2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  8. Dramatic reduction of dimensionality in large biochemical networks owing to strong pair correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Michael; Mukherjee, Sayak; Jayaprakash, Ciriyam; Das, Jayajit

    2012-01-01

    Large multi-dimensionality of high-throughput datasets pertaining to cell signalling and gene regulation renders it difficult to extract mechanisms underlying the complex kinetics involving various biochemical compounds (e.g. proteins and lipids). Data-driven models often circumvent this difficulty by using pair correlations of the protein expression levels to produce a small number (fewer than 10) of principal components, each a linear combination of the concentrations, to successfully model how cells respond to different stimuli. However, it is not understood if this reduction is specific to a particular biological system or to nature of the stimuli used in these experiments. We study temporal changes in pair correlations, described by the covariance matrix, between concentrations of different molecular species that evolve following deterministic mass-action kinetics in large biologically relevant reaction networks and show that this dramatic reduction of dimensions (from hundreds to less than five) arises from the strong correlations between different species at any time and is insensitive to the form of the nonlinear interactions, network architecture, and to a wide range of values of rate constants and concentrations. We relate temporal changes in the eigenvalue spectrum of the covariance matrix to low-dimensional, local changes in directions of the system trajectory embedded in much larger dimensions using elementary differential geometry. We illustrate how to extract biologically relevant insights such as identifying significant timescales and groups of correlated chemical species from our analysis. Our work provides for the first time, to our knowledge, a theoretical underpinning for the successful experimental analysis and points to a way to extract mechanisms from large-scale high-throughput datasets. PMID:22378749

  9. Dramatic recovery in acute ischemic stroke is associated with arterial recanalization grade and speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazighi, Mikael; Meseguer, Elena; Labreuche, Julien; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Lavallée, Philippa C; Cabrejo, Lucie; Guidoux, Céline; Lapergue, Bertrand; Klein, Isabelle F; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Rouchaud, Aymeric; Desilles, Jean-Philippe; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth; Amarenco, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Dramatic recovery (DR) is a predictor of stroke outcome among others. However, after successful recanalization, systematic favorable outcome is not the rule. We sought to analyze the impact of recanalization on DR in patients with acute ischemic stroke eligible for any revascularization strategies (either intravenous or endovascular). We analyzed data collected between April 2007 and May 2011 in our prospective clinical registry. All patients with acute ischemic stroke with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale≥10 at admission and an identification of arterial status before treatment were included. DR was defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale≤3 at 24 hours or a decrease of ≥10 points within 24 hours. DR occurred in 75 of 255 patients with acute ischemic stroke (29.4%). Patients with persistent occlusion had a low DR rate (11.1%) than those with no documented occlusion (36.5%) and those with occlusion followed by recanalization (35.3%; both P<0.001). Among patients with recanalization monitored by angiography, DR was higher among patients with complete recanalization than among those with partial recanalization (46.8% versus 14.3%; P<0.001) and increased with tertiles of time to recanalization (Ptrend=0.002). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, grade and time to recanalization appeared independently associated with DR; the adjusted ORs were 4.17 (95% CI, 1.61-10.77) for complete recanalization and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.04-1.48) for each 30-minute time decrease. Patients with versus without DR more frequently had modified Rankin Scale≤1 (67.6% versus 9.0%; P<0.001) and less frequently had hemorrhage (17.3% versus 33.9%; P=0.024). DR is strongly associated with favorable clinical outcome and is dependent on complete recanalization and time to recanalization.

  10. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Trp1197Stop causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Nesterovitch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes many peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, including asthma. Previously, a molecular mechanism underlying a 5-fold familial increase of blood ACE was discovered: Pro1199Leu substitution enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Carriers of this mutation were Caucasians from Europe (mostly Dutch or had European roots. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found a family of African-American descent whose affected members' blood ACE level was increased 13-fold over normal. In affected family members, codon TGG coding for Trp1197 was substituted in one allele by TGA (stop codon. As a result, half of ACE expressed in these individuals had a length of 1196 amino acids and lacked a transmembrane anchor. This ACE mutant is not trafficked to the cell membrane and is directly secreted out of cells; this mechanism apparently accounts for the high serum ACE level seen in affected individuals. A haplotype of the mutant ACE allele was determined based on 12 polymorphisms, which may help to identify other carriers of this mutation. Some but not all carriers of this mutation demonstrated airflow obstruction, and some but not all have hypertension. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified a novel Trp1197Stop mutation that results in dramatic elevation of serum ACE. Since blood ACE elevation is often taken as a marker of disease activity (sarcoidosis and Gaucher diseases, it is important for clinicians and medical scientists to be aware of alternative genetic causes of elevated blood ACE that are not apparently linked to disease.

  11. Stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    2013-01-01

    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  12. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology.

  13. Emergence and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really...... are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family...

  14. Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Hemp, James; Johnson, Jena E.

    2016-06-01

    The origin of oxygenic photosynthesis was the most important metabolic innovation in Earth history. It allowed life to generate energy and reducing power directly from sunlight and water, freeing it from the limited resources of geochemically derived reductants. This greatly increased global primary productivity and restructured ecosystems. The release of O2 as an end product of water oxidation led to the rise of oxygen, which dramatically altered the redox state of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and permanently changed all major biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the biological availability of O2 allowed for the evolution of aerobic respiration and novel biosynthetic pathways, facilitating much of the richness we associate with modern biology, including complex multicellularity. Here we critically review and synthesize information from the geological and biological records for the origin and evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Data from both of these archives illustrate that this metabolism first appeared in early Paleoproterozoic time and, despite its biogeochemical prominence, is a relatively late invention in the context of our planet's history.

  15. Simulating Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Robert C.; Allen, Brockenbrough

    1975-01-01

    Described are simulations that can be used to illustrate evolution by natural selection. Suggestions for simulating phenomena such as adaptive radiation, color match to background and vision of predators are offered. (BR)

  16. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...... of economic evolution and added evolutionary contributions to other social sciences. History, which was published by his widow, was based on his evolutionary theory of the history of economic analysis. This sequential analysis of Schumpeter's six books demonstrates the progress he within his research......This draft of a book on Schumpeter is distributed for commenting. It is a stylised intellectual biography that focus on the emergence and extension of the Schumpeterian vision and analysis of economic and social evolution. The draft provides novel interpretations of Schumpeter's six major books. He...

  17. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    This draft of a book on Schumpeter is distributed for commenting. It is a stylised intellectual biography that focus on the emergence and extension of the Schumpeterian vision and analysis of economic and social evolution. The draft provides novel interpretations of Schumpeter's six major books. He...... originally developed his evolutionary research programme in Wesen from 1908 by studying the inherent limitations of Neoclassical Economics. He presented core results on economic evolution and sketched an extension evolutionary analysis to all social sciences in Entwicklung from 1912. He made a partial...... reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...

  18. Intestinal Calcium Absorption Decreases Dramatically After Gastric Bypass Surgery Despite Optimization of Vitamin D Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Anne L; Weaver, Connie M; Black, Dennis M; Wheeler, Amber L; Chang, Hanling; Szefc, Gina V; Stewart, Lygia; Rogers, Stanley J; Carter, Jonathan T; Posselt, Andrew M; Shoback, Dolores M; Sellmeyer, Deborah E

    2015-08-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has negative effects on bone, mediated in part by effects on nutrient absorption. Not only can RYGB result in vitamin D malabsorption, but the bypassed duodenum and proximal jejunum are also the predominant sites of active, transcellular, 1,25(OH)2 D-mediated calcium (Ca) uptake. However, Ca absorption occurs throughout the intestine, and those who undergo RYGB might maintain sufficient Ca absorption, particularly if vitamin D status and Ca intake are robust. We determined the effects of RYGB on intestinal fractional Ca absorption (FCA) while maintaining ample 25OHD levels (goal ≥30 ng/mL) and Ca intake (1200 mg daily) in a prospective cohort of 33 obese adults (BMI 44.7 ± 7.4 kg/m(2)). FCA was measured preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively with a dual stable isotope method. Other measures included calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and BMD by DXA and QCT. Mean 6-month weight loss was 32.5 ± 8.4 kg (25.8% ± 5.2% of preoperative weight). FCA decreased from 32.7% ± 14.0% preoperatively to 6.9% ± 3.8% postoperatively (p < 0.0001), despite median (interquartile range) 25OHD levels of 41.0 (33.1 to 48.5) and 36.5 (28.8 to 40.4) ng/mL, respectively. Consistent with the FCA decline, 24-hour urinary Ca decreased, PTH increased, and 1,25(OH)2 D increased (p ≤ 0.02). Bone turnover markers increased markedly, areal BMD decreased at the proximal femur, and volumetric BMD decreased at the spine (p < 0.001). Those with lower postoperative FCA had greater increases in serum CTx (ρ = -0.43, p = 0.01). Declines in FCA and BMD were not correlated over the 6 months. In conclusion, FCA decreased dramatically after RYGB, even with most 25OHD levels ≥30 ng/mL and with recommended Ca intake. RYGB patients may need high Ca intake to prevent perturbations in Ca homeostasis, although the approach to Ca supplementation needs further study. Decline in FCA could contribute to

  19. Cultural evolution and personalization

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Ning; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    In social sciences, there is currently no consensus on the mechanism for cultural evolution. The evolution of first names of newborn babies offers a remarkable example for the researches in the field. Here we perform statistical analyses on over 100 years of data in the United States. We focus in particular on how the frequency-rank distribution and inequality of baby names change over time. We propose a stochastic model where name choice is determined by personalized preference and social influence. Remarkably, variations on the strength of personalized preference can account satisfactorily for the observed empirical features. Therefore, we claim that personalization drives cultural evolution, at least in the example of baby names.

  20. Dynamics of DNA in vitro evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Yang; Xili Liu; Chunbo Lou; Qi Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    In vitro evolution has become a very important research area in recent years. From a practical point of view, it provides a powerful and reliable tool for engineering functional molecules (DNA, RNA or proteins) in reasonably short periods of time. From a theoretical point of view, since in vitro evolution is analogous to natural evolution in many respects, the study of the dynamic details of in vitro evolution may provide some instructive insights into the process of evolution. In this review, we summarize current theoretical and exper-imental studies, including several efforts made by our group, on the dynamics of DNA in vitro evolution.

  1. Chordate Hox and ParaHox gene clusters differ dramatically in their repetitive element content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter W; Ferrier, David E K

    2010-02-01

    The ParaHox and Hox gene clusters control aspects of animal anterior-posterior development and are related as paralogous evolutionary sisters. Despite this relationship, it is not clear if the clusters operate in similar ways, with similar constraints. To compare clusters, we examined the transposable-element (TE) content of amphioxus and mammalian ParaHox and Hox clusters. Chordate Hox clusters are known to be largely devoid of TEs, possibly due to gene regulation and constraints on clustering in these animals. Here, we describe several novel amphioxus TEs and show that the amphioxus ParaHox cluster is a hotspot for TE insertion. TE contents of mammalian ParaHox loci are at background levels, in stark contrast to chordate Hox clusters. This marks a significant difference between Hox and ParaHox clusters. The presence of so many potentially disruptive elements implies selection constrains these ParaHox clusters as they have not dispersed despite 500 My of evolution for each lineage.

  2. Dramatic undercutting of piedmont rivers after the 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Niannian; Nie, Ruihua; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Xingnian

    2016-11-01

    Changes in river channel erosion or deposition affect the geomorphic evolution, aquatic ecosystems, and river regulation strategies. Fluvial processes are determined by the flow, sediment and boundary conditions, and it has long been expected that increasing sediment supply will induce aggradation. Here, based on thorough field surveys, we show the unexpected undercutting of the piedmont rivers influenced by the 2008 Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) Earthquake. The rivers flow from the Longmen Mountain with significant topographic relief to the flat Chengdu plain. In the upstreams, sediment supply increased because of the landslides triggered by the earthquake, causing deposition in the upstream mountain reaches. However, the downstream plain reaches suffered undercutting instead of deposition, and among those rivers, Shiting River was the most seriously affected, with the largest undercutting depth exceeding 20 m. The reasons for this unexpected undercutting are proposed herein and relate to both natural and anthropogenic causes. In addition, we also demonstrate, at least for certain conditions, such as rivers flowing from large-gradient mountain regions to low-gradient plain regions, that upstream sediment pulses may induce aggradation in upstream and degradation in downstream, causing the longitudinal profile to steepen to accommodate the increasing sediment flux.

  3. Dramatic undercutting of piedmont rivers after the 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Niannian; Nie, Ruihua; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Xingnian

    2016-11-18

    Changes in river channel erosion or deposition affect the geomorphic evolution, aquatic ecosystems, and river regulation strategies. Fluvial processes are determined by the flow, sediment and boundary conditions, and it has long been expected that increasing sediment supply will induce aggradation. Here, based on thorough field surveys, we show the unexpected undercutting of the piedmont rivers influenced by the 2008 Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) Earthquake. The rivers flow from the Longmen Mountain with significant topographic relief to the flat Chengdu plain. In the upstreams, sediment supply increased because of the landslides triggered by the earthquake, causing deposition in the upstream mountain reaches. However, the downstream plain reaches suffered undercutting instead of deposition, and among those rivers, Shiting River was the most seriously affected, with the largest undercutting depth exceeding 20 m. The reasons for this unexpected undercutting are proposed herein and relate to both natural and anthropogenic causes. In addition, we also demonstrate, at least for certain conditions, such as rivers flowing from large-gradient mountain regions to low-gradient plain regions, that upstream sediment pulses may induce aggradation in upstream and degradation in downstream, causing the longitudinal profile to steepen to accommodate the increasing sediment flux.

  4. Convergent evolution of aquatic foraging in a new genus and species (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kevin C; Achmadi, Anang S; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2014-06-17

    The island of Sulawesi, in Indonesia, lies at the crossroads of the Indo-Australian Archipelago and has remained isolated from the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves for at least the last 10 million years. Of the 50 native species of rodents on Sulawesi, all are endemic and represent the evolution of a variety of ecological and morphological forms within the Muridae and Sciuridae. Carnivorous rodents have evolved, perhaps independently, in Muridae from the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul, but semi-aquatic murids are only known from Sahul. Here we describe a new genus and species of insectivorous water rat from Sulawesi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that it is related to the shrew rats of Sulawesi and represents an origin of aquatic carnivory that is independent from the evolution of water rats on Sahul. Many areas of Sulawesi have not been surveyed systematically and current lists of mammal species are likely to dramatically underestimate actual diversity.

  5. The Study of the Rhyme Prose of the Han Dynasty of Dramatic Factors%西汉赋作的戏剧因素考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈章明

    2012-01-01

    The scholar has drawn more attention to the dramatic ol the rhyme prose. Based on the existing research results, proceed reading the text in detail, and make a more systematic study on all the drama of factors existing in the rhyme prose of the Han Dynasty, to think Han dynasty Princes King and emperor comedian and Keeper of the teachers of the law and consider onesell to accelerate dramatize of the rhyme prose of the Han Dynasty. At the same time, some writers of the rhyme prose are unable to adapt to the change of hole from counselor, orator to haiku optimization scribes, had first to regret the rhyme prose, reflected in the rhyme prose, but enhance the dramatic taste of the rhyme prose of the Han Dynasty, enhanced the allegorical function of the rhyme prose of the Western Hart Dynasty. Based on the discussion of the rhyme prose of the Han Dynasty, also can peep spot to know the leopard, observe the relationship of writers mentality and literary evolution, observe the literature development to conscious Eve twists and hardships.%赋的戏剧性已经受到学者的注意,我们在已有研究成果的基础上,进行文本细读,对西汉赋作中存在的戏剧因素进行一次较为系统的考察,发现汉代诸侯王、天子相继以俳优蓄养文士的做法,以及一些文士以俳优自视的心理,加速了汉赋的戏剧化,影响了赋作的质量和格调。与此同时,一些赋家无法适应由策士、辩士到俳优化文士的身份转变,曾经先后悔赋,体现在赋作中,却提升了汉赋戏剧化的品位,增强了西汉赋作的讽谏功能。通过对汉赋戏剧化的探讨,还可以窥斑知豹,体察作家心态与文学演进的关系,体察文学发展到自觉前夜的曲折与艰辛。

  6. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Winicour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial-value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D-axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black-hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black-hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

  7. A proposal to speed translation of healthcare research into practice: dramatic change is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Rodger; Glasgow, Russell E

    2011-06-01

    Efficacy trials have generated interventions to improve health behaviors and biomarkers. However, these efforts have had limited impact on practice and policy. It is suggested that key methodologic and contextual issues have contributed to this state of affairs. Current research paradigms generally have not provided the answers needed for more probable and more rapid translation. A major shift is proposed to produce research with more rapid clinical, public health, and policy impact.

  8. Dramatic changes in DNA Conductance with stretching: Structural Polymorphism at a critical extension

    CERN Document Server

    Bag, Saientan; Goddard, William A; Maiti, Prabal K

    2016-01-01

    In order to interpret recent experimental studies of the dependence of conductance of ds-DNA as the DNA is pulled from the 3'end1-3'end2 ends, which find a sharp conductance jump for a very short (4.5 %) stretching length, we carried out multiscale modeling, to predict the conductance of dsDNA as it is mechanically stretched to promote various structural polymorphisms. We calculate the current along the stretched DNA using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, non-equilibrium pulling simulations, quantum mechanics calculations, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. For 5'end1-5'end2 attachments we find an abrupt jump in the current within a very short stretching length (6 $ \\AA $ or 17 %) leading to a melted DNA state. In contrast, for 3'end1-3'end2 pulling it takes almost 32$ \\AA $ (84 %) of stretching to cause a similar jump in the current. Thus, we demonstrate that charge transport in DNA can occur over stretching lengths of several nanometers. We find that this unexpected behaviour in the B to S...

  9. Unsteady magnetic reconnection in laboratory experiments with current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Anna

    2009-11-01

    According to present notion, unsteady magnetic reconnection in current sheets (CS) is basic to dramatic natural phenomena: solar and stellar flares, substorms in the Earth and other planetary magnetospheres, as well as to disruptive instabilities in tokamak plasmas. We present a review of laboratory experiments studying evolution of CS formed in 3D and 2D magnetic configurations with an X line, in the CS-3D device. Usually CS exists during an extended period in a metastable stage, without essential changes of its structure and parameters. Under certain conditions this stage may be suddenly interrupted by unsteady phase of magnetic reconnection, which manifests itself in a rapid change of the magnetic field topology, current redistribution, excitation of pulsed electric fields, and other dynamic effects. The unsteady phase results in effective conversion of magnetic energy into the energy of plasma and accelerated particles, and may finally bring about the CS disruption. In the context of the solar flares, a metastable CS is associated with a pre-flare situation, while CS disruption -- with the flare itself. The physical mechanisms triggering the unsteady magnetic reconnection in the laboratory produced current sheets are discussed. Supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project # 09-02-00971).

  10. Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, F.

    We review both the observational and theoretical constraints on the evolution of the abundances of heavy elements in gas and stars in galaxies of different morphological type. The main aim of this work is to document the progress made in our understanding of the physical processes regulating the chemical evolution of galaxies during the last sixteen years since the appearance, in this same journal (volume 5, page 287), of the well know review of Beatrice Tinsley, to whom I dedicate this paper. Finally, this article is addressed particularly to readers who do not actively work on galactic chemical evolution and who might use it as a cook book where the main ingredients are discussed and useful recipes can be found.

  11. Universal adhesives: the next evolution in adhesive dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Every so often a new material, technique, or technological breakthrough spurs a paradigm shift in the way dentistry is practiced. The development and evolution of reliable enamel and dentin bonding agents is one such example. Indeed, the so-called "cosmetic revolution" in dentistry blossomed in large part due to dramatic advances in adhesive technology. It is the ability to bond various materials in a reasonably predictable fashion to both enamel and dentin substrates that enables dentists to routinely place porcelain veneers, direct and indirect composites, and a plethora of other restorative and esthetic materials. In fact, the longevity and predictability of many (if not most) current restorative procedures is wholly predicated on the dentist's ability to bond various materials to tooth tissues. Adhesive systems have progressed from the largely ineffective systems of the 1970s and early 1980s to the relatively successful total- and self-etching systems of today. The latest players in the adhesive marketplace are the so-called "universal adhesives." In theory, these systems have the potential to significantly simplify and expedite adhesive protocols and may indeed represent the next evolution in adhesive dentistry. But what defines a universal system, and are all these new systems truly "universal" and everything they are claimed to be? This article will examine the origin, chemistry, strengths, weaknesses, and clinical relevance of this new genre of dental adhesives.

  12. Roles of density-dependent growth and life history evolution in accounting for fisheries-induced trait changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeset, Anne Maria; Dunlop, Erin S; Heino, Mikko; Storvik, Geir; Stenseth, Nils C; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2016-12-27

    The relative roles of density dependence and life history evolution in contributing to rapid fisheries-induced trait changes remain debated. In the 1930s, northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), currently the world's largest cod stock, experienced a shift from a traditional spawning-ground fishery to an industrial trawl fishery with elevated exploitation in the stock's feeding grounds. Since then, age and length at maturation have declined dramatically, a trend paralleled in other exploited stocks worldwide. These trends can be explained by demographic truncation of the population's age structure, phenotypic plasticity in maturation arising through density-dependent growth, fisheries-induced evolution favoring faster-growing or earlier-maturing fish, or a combination of these processes. Here, we use a multitrait eco-evolutionary model to assess the capacity of these processes to reproduce 74 y of historical data on age and length at maturation in northeast Arctic cod, while mimicking the stock's historical harvesting regime. Our results show that model predictions critically depend on the assumed density dependence of growth: when this is weak, life history evolution might be necessary to prevent stock collapse, whereas when a stronger density dependence estimated from recent data is used, the role of evolution in explaining fisheries-induced trait changes is diminished. Our integrative analysis of density-dependent growth, multitrait evolution, and stock-specific time series data underscores the importance of jointly considering evolutionary and ecological processes, enabling a more comprehensive perspective on empirically observed stock dynamics than previous studies could provide.

  13. Software evolution and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach is an accessible textbook for students and professionals, which collates the advances in software development and provides the most current models and techniques in maintenance.Explains two maintenance standards: IEEE/EIA 1219 and ISO/IEC14764Discusses several commercial reverse and domain engineering toolkitsSlides for instructors are available onlineInformation is based on the IEEE SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge)

  14. Galactic Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, B K; Renda, A; Kawata, D; Lee, H; Gibson, Brad K.; Fenner, Yeshe; Renda, Agostino; Kawata, Daisuke; Lee, Hyun-chul

    2003-01-01

    The primary present-day observables upon which theories of galaxy evolution are based are a system's morphology, dynamics, colour, and chemistry. Individually, each provides an important constraint to any given model; in concert, the four represent a fundamental (intractable) boundary condition for chemodynamical simulations. We review the current state-of-the-art semi-analytical and chemodynamical models for the Milky Way, emphasising the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches.

  15. The Development of Evaluation Model for Internal Quality Assurance System of Dramatic Arts College of Bunditpattanasilpa Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthukhot, Kittisak; Srihamongkol, Yannapat; Luanganggoon, Nuchwana; Suwannoi, Paisan

    2013-01-01

    The research purpose was to develop an evaluation model for the internal quality assurance system of the dramatic arts College of Bunditpattanasilpa Institute. The Research and Development method was used as research methodology which was divided into three phases; "developing the model and its guideline", "trying out the actual…

  16. Is there a morphological or physiological explanation for the dramatic increase in hybridization between loblolly and shortleaf pine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; John F. Stewart; C. Dana Nelson; Charles G. Taue

    2015-01-01

    Hybrids between shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) have dramatically increased since the 1950s (Stewart and others 2012). Fire suppression, planting nonnative seed sources, and other anthropogenic activities have the potential to break down ecological barriers that previously kept these species from interbreeding (Tauer and others...

  17. TAR (Theatre as Representation) as a Provocative Teaching Tool in School Administration: A Dramatized Inclusive Classroom Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthew J.; Young, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The following dramatized classroom scenario depicts a teacher struggling with the nature of an inclusive learning environment, with instructional leadership and supervision of instruction as the theoretical and practical backdrop. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the use of a TAR (theatre as representation) case study can be used…

  18. Learning Form and Function by Dance-Dramatizing Cultural Legends to Drum Rhythms Wearing Student-Made Animal Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Phyllis; Rule, Audrey C.; Kirkland Holmes, Gloria; Logan, Stephanie R.; Alert, Andrea L.; Mason, Cynthia A.

    This study examined the self-efficacy in science, art, dance, and music; attitudes concerning contributions of people of various ethnic/cultural groups; and science learning of students involved in an after-school arts-integrated science enrichment project. Students dramatized three traditional animal legends from African, Native American, and…

  19. The Big Glamorous Monster (or Lady Gaga's Adventures at Sea): Improving Student Writing through Dramatic Approaches in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bridget Kiger; Enciso, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on assets-oriented, sociocultural theories of imagination and learning, the authors argue that the improvisational qualities and expanded resources of dramatic approaches to teaching make a positive difference in the quality of and persistence in students' story writing. The authors describe findings from a controlled quasi-experimental…

  20. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  1. Teorias econômicas de oferta de educação: evolução histórica, estado atual e perspectivas Economic theories of the supply of education: historical evolution, current state, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio D. Waltenberg

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo preocupa-se com uma faceta particular (o lado da oferta de uma das duas grandes linhas de pesquisa em economia da educação (aspectos econômicos dos sistemas educacionais. Apresentam-se a evolução histórica, o estado atual do debate e as perspectivas de desenvolvimento das teorias econômicas de oferta de educação, abarcando-se o período compreendido entre o início da década de 1960 e as contribuições mais recentes. Argumenta-se que as teorias tradicionais de economia da educação (capital humano e sinalização não deram tratamento adequado ao lado da oferta da educação. Mais tarde, os conceitos e o instrumental da microeconomia da firma foram mobilizados a fim de se tentar mapear a "tecnologia de produção de educação". A abordagem das funções de produção de educação, baseadas inicialmente apenas em insumos monetários, não foi suficiente para que se apreendesse toda a complexidade envolvida no processo de provisão de educação. Uma análise de artigos mais recentes revela três caminhos promissores para o desenvolvimento das teorias de oferta de educação: (i incluir insumos não monetários às funções de produção; (ii levar em consideração aspectos institucionais e organizacionais do sistema educativo; e (iii aprimorar as técnicas econométricas de estimação das funções de produção. Por fim, o artigo discute mais detidamente o primeiro desses três caminhos.The present article deals with a particular aspect (the side of the supply of one of the two main lines of research in the economics of education (economical aspects of educational systems. It shows the historical evolution, the current state, and the perspectives of development of the economic theories of education supply, covering the period from the early 1960s to the more recent contributions. It argues that the traditional theories of the economics of education (human capital and screening have not dealt adequately with the

  2. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  3. Representing Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    . This article discusses Willumsen's etching in the context of evolutionary theory, arguing that Willumsen is a rare example of an artist who not only let the theory of evolution fuel his artistic imagination, but also concerned himself with a core issue of the theory, namely to what extent it could be applied...

  4. Effect of continuous and pulsed currents on microstructural evolution of stainless steel joined by TIG welding; Einfluss des Einsatzes von Dauerstrom und Impulsstrom auf die Mikrostrukturentwicklung bei durch das WIG-Schweissverfahren gefuegtem rostfreiem Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgutlu, Ahmet; Findik, Tayfun; Guelenc, Behcet [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Cevik, Bekir [Duezce Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Welding Technology; Kaya, Yakup; Kahraman, Nizamettin [Karabuek Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering

    2015-07-01

    In this study, AISI 316L series austenitic stainless steel sheets were joined by tungsten inert gas welding method in continuous and pulsed currents. Regarding microstructural investigation and hardness values of weld metal, samples were welded to investigate the effect of current type on grain structures of weld metal. Results showed that samples welded by using pulsed current had considerable different properties compared to the samples welded by using continuous current. While the weld metals of joinings obtained by using continuous current displayed a coarse-grained and columnar structure, weld metals obtained by using pulsed current had a finer-grained structure. It was also found that hardness values of samples, which were welded with continuous and pulsed current, were quite different.

  5. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  6. Socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention for adolescents with asperger syndrome & high functioning autism: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D; Mikami, Amori Yee; Levine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a novel intervention called 'socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention' (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses. SDARI adapts dramatic training activities to focus on in vivo practice of areas of social skill deficit among this population. SDARI was administered as a six-week summer program in a community human service agency. Nine SDARI participants and eight age- and diagnosis-group matched adolescents not receiving SDARI were compared on child- and parent-report of social functioning at three week intervals beginning six weeks prior to intervention and ending six weeks post-intervention. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to estimate growth trends between groups to assess treatment outcomes and post-treatment maintenance. Results indicated significant improvement and post-treatment maintenance among SDARI participants on several measures of child social functioning. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  7. Dramatic Rewritings of the Spanish Golden Age Theater of Cervantes´s La fuerza de la sangre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Escudero Baztán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Golden age spanish theater recreations of Cervantes’s exemplary novel La fuerza de la sangre. Specifically, the paper reviews three important stages in these recreations: La fuerza de la sangre of Guillen de Castro, El agravio satisfecho de Castillo Solórzano, and No hay cosa como callar de Calderon de la Barca. Different rewrites indicate a close relationship between the three dramatic texts through intertextuality and other influences.

  8. MODELS OF THE SPEECH PORTRAIT AND THE LINGVOPSYCHOLOGICAL PORTRAIT OF DRAMATIC CHARACTERS IN A.P. CHEKHOV'S PLAY "UNCLE VANYA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the problem of the models of the speech portrait and portraying the dramatic characters by studying the lingvopsychological lexicon in terms of a lingvopsychology. In spite of the fact that today a large number of works on the speech portrait was published, poorly studied a problem of the speech portrait of the dramatic characters of Chekhov's play. Moreover, the researchers did not find an effective approach to the description and analysis of the speech portrait of the dramatic character of Chekhov's play. Thus, in our study, we have created firstly the model for the study of the speech portrait of Chekhov's play (based on the play "Uncle Vanya", taking into account the linguistic culture and lingvopsychology. The lingvopsychological portrait consists of the lingvopsychological lexicons that reflect a mental state and a mental activity, in our opinion. Through the research object of a psychology we use the linguistic research methods, carrying out of a comparison analysis the semantiс fields which form lingvopsychological lexicons in the mental state and the mental activity. In the psychosematic fields manifest the opposition of the semantic fields of the lingvopsychological lexicons by the mental state: about passive and active, about pessimism and the optimism. In addition, the estimated-semantic and moral-semantic field of a mental state can reveal the lingvopsychological portrait. Opposition of the semantic fields by the mental activity make up the lingvopsychological lexicons: love ‒ hate, envy, like ‒ bother.

  9. ESL / EFL / SLE THROUGH DRAMA AS QUALITY-ORIENTED EDUCATION: BRAIN RESEARCH, DRAMATIC METHODS AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoyceA.Wilkinson

    2001-01-01

    This paper traces evidence from neurobehavioural researchshowing how language functions occur in the brain and supportthe efficacy of drama as a methodology in all language learning.According to Pribram’s holographic view of the brain, move-ment is integral to the transference of vocabulary from the poste-rior convexity to the frontal cortex where words are transformedinto meaning via pragmatic processing mechanisms and then pro-duced as language in the midbrain motor structure which is alsothe center of emotion. Drama is movement with emotion. Words which become amplified with meaning during the dramat-ic process traverse neuronal pathways from the lexicographic,posterior brain to the right forebrain and converge in vocal ex-pression in the centrencephalic mechanism. Without such move-ment, meaning and output do not occur. Words impregnatedwith meaning in the emotional movement of the dramatic processparallel drama-language movements within the brain so thatlearning becomes deeply embedded, retained and easily recalled.Tested drama methods which reinforce or imprint such intra-brain language functions are briefly reviewed as is selected drama-language research supporting the drama-brain-language concep-tual framework of holistic language learning theory. It is arguedthat learning a second language as well as a first languagethrough drama, the language art form which imbues the narra-tive and language structures of any culture, constitutes qualityeducation.

  10. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  11. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winicour Jeffrey

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this artificial outer boundary via Cauchy-characteristic matching, by which the radiated waveform can be computed at null infinity. Progress in this direction is discussed.

  12. Emergence and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really......The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are essential components of the protein synthesis machinery responsible for defining the genetic code by pairing the correct amino acids to their cognate tRNAs. The aaRSs are an ancient enzyme family believed to have origins that may predate the last common...... are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family...

  13. Evolution of the Human Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Karen R; DeSilva, Jeremy M

    2017-05-01

    No bone in the human postcranial skeleton differs more dramatically from its match in an ape skeleton than the pelvis. Humans have evolved a specialized pelvis, well-adapted for the rigors of bipedal locomotion. Precisely how this happened has been the subject of great interest and contention in the paleoanthropological literature. In part, this is because of the fragility of the pelvis and its resulting rarity in the human fossil record. However, new discoveries from Miocene hominoids and Plio-Pleistocene hominins have reenergized debates about human pelvic evolution and shed new light on the competing roles of bipedal locomotion and obstetrics in shaping pelvic anatomy. In this issue, 13 papers address the evolution of the human pelvis. Here, we summarize these new contributions to our understanding of pelvic evolution, and share our own thoughts on the progress the field has made, and the questions that still remain. Anat Rec, 300:789-797, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Representing Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    A scandal shook Danish art when Jens Ferdinand Willumsen exhibited his etching Fertility in 1891. A heavily pregnant woman—Willumsen's wife, Juliette—and a short text about a new language of art flank a grain, which sprouts in a way that looks less like a plant than some sort of diagram....... This article discusses Willumsen's etching in the context of evolutionary theory, arguing that Willumsen is a rare example of an artist who not only let the theory of evolution fuel his artistic imagination, but also concerned himself with a core issue of the theory, namely to what extent it could be applied...

  15. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  16. Stolen twin: fascination and curiosity/twin research reports: evolution of sleep length; dental treatment of craniopagus twins; cryopreserved double embryo transfer; gender options in multiple pregnancy/current events: appendectomy in one twin; autistic twin marathon runners; 3D facial recognition; twin biathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-02-01

    The story of her allegedly stolen twin brother in Armenia is recounted by a 'singleton twin' living in the United States. The behavioral consequences and societal implications of this loss are considered. This case is followed by twin research reports on the evolution of sleep length, dental treatment of craniopagus conjoined twins, cryopreserved double embryo transfer (DET), and gender options in multiple pregnancy. Current events include the diagnosis of appendectomy in one identical twin, the accomplishments of autistic twin marathon runners, the power of three-dimensional (3D) facial recognition, and the goals of twin biathletes heading to the 2014 Sochi Olympics in Russia.

  17. Evolution in the Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Standish, R K

    2000-01-01

    In the {\\em Many Worlds Interpretation} of quantum mechanics, the range of possible worlds (or histories) provides variation, and the Anthropic Principle is a selective principle analogous to natural selection. When looked on in this way, the ``process'' by which the laws and constants of physics is determined not too different from the process that gave rise to our current biodiversity, i.e. Darwinian evolution. This has implications for the fields of SETI and Artificial Life, which are based on a philosophy of the inevitability of life.

  18. Creative Sound Dramatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Rebecca; Eick, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Sound propagation is not easy for children to understand because of its abstract nature, often best represented by models such as wave drawings and particle dots. Teachers Rebecca Hendrix and Charles Eick wondered how science inquiry, when combined with an unlikely discipline like drama, could produce a better understanding among their…

  19. Inexpensive Dramatic Pneumatic Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    Various experiments and demonstrations relate air pressure and air pressure difference to force and area. Carpenter and Minnix describe a large-scale pneumatic lift in which a person sitting on a board atop a plastic garbage bag is lifted when the bag is connected to the exhaustport of a vacuum cleaner, which easily lifts the person. This article…

  20. Inexpensive Dramatic Pneumatic Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2017-09-01

    Various experiments and demonstrations relate air pressure and air pressure difference to force and area. Carpenter and Minnix describe a large-scale pneumatic lift in which a person sitting on a board atop a plastic garbage bag is lifted when the bag is connected to the exhaustport of a vacuum cleaner, which easily lifts the person. This article describes the construction and use of an inexpensive hand-held pneumatic lift to demonstrate the same principle.

  1. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  2. Thought Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov V.D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The thought evolution is studied by historical reconstruction method that is based on the propositions of the theory of culturalhistorical determination of the psyche development, and the data of the morphological analysis and child development, and the conception of the psyche neuroontogenesis. The grounds for advisability of protothinking are presented. The protothinking is understood as the use of objective thought in cases of awareness absence. It is shown that protothinking is a form of transition from animal thinking to human speech. The particular attention is paid to the process of the word producing and thought generation in that process. The conditions of word producing as cooccurring acoustic pattern served for though expression are discussed. It is emphasized that a word is produced by a particular person. The historical development of the language and the specificity of this development are pointed out

  3. Community Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Having communities extracted, appropriate knowledge and methods for dynamic analysis may be applied in order to identify changes as well as to predict the future of all or some selected groups. Furthermore, knowing the most probably change of a given group some additional steps may be performed in order to change this predicted future according to specific needs. Such ability would be a powerful tool in the hands of human resource managers, personnel recruitment, marketing, telecommunication companies, etc.

  4. Practices and Perspectives of College Instructors on Addressing Religious Beliefs When Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is a core concept of biology, and yet many college biology students do not accept evolution because of their religious beliefs. However, we do not currently know how instructors perceive their role in helping students accept evolution or how they address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution when they teach evolution.…

  5. Chemical evolution of molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sheo S.; Tarafdar, Sankar P.; Villere, Karen R.; Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The principles behind the coupled chemical-dynamical evolution of molecular clouds are described. Particular attention is given to current problems involving the simplest species (i.e., C. CO, O2, and H2) in quiescent clouds. The results of a comparison made between the molecular abundances in the Orion ridge and the hot core (Blake, 1986) are presented.

  6. Observational constraints on cluster evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833347

    2008-01-01

    Current observational constraints on the dynamical evolution of star clusters are reviewed. Theory and observations now agree nicely on the mass dependency and time scales for disruption of young star clusters in galactic disks, but many problems still await resolution. The origin of the mass

  7. Current-sheet formation in 3D ideal incompressible magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer; Marliani

    2000-05-22

    The evolution of current density and vorticity in the ideal, inviscid incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions is studied numerically. Highly effective resolutions are obtained by adaptive structured mesh refinement techniques. We report on results for three different initial conditions showing similar behavior: in the early stage of the evolution a fast increase in vorticity and current density is observed. Thereafter, the evolution towards nearly two-dimensional current sheets results in a depletion of nonlinearity.

  8. Dipolarization front and current disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    2016-10-01

    The modification of current density on the dawn-dusk cross section of the magnetotail with the earthward approach of a dipolarization front (DF) is examined through the recently published results of a three-dimensional (3-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that the current density intensifies by 37% abruptly within 1.5 ion gyrotime as the DF approaches and shows localized regions with north-south extrusions. After reaching its peak value, it undergoes a drastic current reduction (DCR) by 65% within 2 ion gyrotime. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurs in the neutral sheet region in association with DCR, demonstrating the non-MHD behavior of the phenomenon. The evolution of current density from this 3-D PIC simulation bears several similarities to those observed for the current disruption (CD) phenomenon, such as explosive growth and disruption of the current density leading to a breakdown of the frozen-in condition. The evolution is also similar to those from a previous two-dimensional (2-D) PIC simulation specially designed to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the cross-field current instability for CD. One interpretation of these findings is that CD and substorm triggering can be associated with earthward intrusion of a DF into the near-Earth plasma sheet as indicated by previous Cluster and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. An alternative interpretation is that both DF and CD are consequences of a global evolution from an ion-tearing-like instability of the magnetotail.

  9. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Cadell

    2014-01-01

    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

  10. Om religion og evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2011-01-01

    for kulturens kausale virkning på den menneskelige kognition og ikke mindst den hominine evolution. Ud fra, hvad vi ved om den menneskelige evolution, ses det, at den hominine evolution har en dybde, som sjældent medtænkes i teorier og hypoteser om den menneskelige evolution. Den menneskelige evolution er...

  11. 基于改进差分进化算法的潮流发电机组微观选址%Tidal Current Turbines Micrositing Based on Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丛佼; 王锡淮; 陈国初; 陈建民; 陈晶

    2016-01-01

    针对潮流能发电机组布局依赖经验法、缺乏自主优化而导致微观选址难度大的问题,提出了一种基于差分进化算法并结合流场仿真模型的微观选址优化方法。通过对流场的有限元仿真,获取选址区域在原始状态下的流速分布;在充分考虑地形、潮汐和尾流效应等因素的前提下,以仿真结果为依据,以潮流发电机组群输出功率最大为优化目标,以机组间距及水深限制为约束,建立微观选址优化的数学模型;采用差分进化算法进行模型求解,同时为更利于最优解的搜索,提出了对其变异算子及参数设置的改进策略。以龟山水道为例进行微观选址优化计算,验证了所提模型的准确性与算法的高效性。%A micrositing method based on differential evolution algorithm combined with flow field simulation model is proposedfor solving the problems that tidal generator layout depends on experience without optimization technology. This method firstly employsthe finite element simulation to obtain the original flow velocity distribution. Then a mathematical model based on the simulation results is built in full consideration of topography,tide,and wake effect. The objective function is the maximization of the whole tidal turbines’power outputand the free variables are the turbines’coordinates which are subject to the minimum distance conditions and the depth conditions. In order to solve this model,an improved differential evolution algorithmis proposed, in whichthe adaptive mutation operator and parameters increase the global search ability. The micrositing of tidal turbines is performed on the Guishan waterway. Then the optimized results demonstrate the accurateness of the proposed model and the effectiveness of the solving algorithm.

  12. Morphological evolution, ecological diversification and climate change in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Sabrina; Michaux, Jacques; Schmidt, Daniela N; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Mein, Pierre; Auffray, Jean-Christophe

    2005-03-22

    Among rodents, the lineage from Progonomys hispanicus to Stephanomys documents a case of increasing size and dental specialization during an approximately 9 Myr time-interval. On the contrary, some contemporaneous generalist lineages like Apodemus show a limited morphological evolution. Dental shape can be related to diet and can be used to assess the ecological changes along the lineages. Consequently, size and shape of the first upper molar were measured in order to quantify the patterns of morphological evolution along both lineages and compare them to environmental trends. Climatic changes do not have a direct influence on evolution, but they open new ecological opportunities by changing vegetation and allow the evolution of a specialist like Stephanomys. On the other hand, environmental changes are not dramatic enough to destroy the habitat of a long-term generalist like Apodemus. Hence, our results exemplify a case of an influence of climate on the evolution of specialist species, although a generalist species may persist without change.

  13. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, Dulce Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Requirements evolution is a generally known problem in software development. Requirements are known to change all throughout a system's lifecycle. Nevertheless, requirements evolution is a poorly understood phenomenon. Most studies on requirements evolution focus on changes to written specifications

  14. Ring current and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  15. Current problems of close-to-nature silviculture in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paci M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problems of Italian forests are critically reviewed, considering the ecological as well the socio-economic factors that have been responsable of the main evolutionary processes, i.e., the secondary succession under artificial conifer stands, the ageing of the coppice forest, the post-cultivation evolution on abandoned fields and the increase of wild ungulates, which currently represents one of the most dramatic problems to be faced in forest management. Concepts as biodiversity, multifunctionality and sustainable management are the foundations, nowadays, of forest management. The main elements traditionally characterizing the close-to-nature silviculture are discussed and critically examined, warning against ideology and rigidity. Two concepts are more carefully discussed: natural vegetation dynamics and mixed uneven aged forest. An analysis of the priorities of silviculture in Italy concludes the paper, namely: the importance to take advantage of the “natural opportunities” in the cheapest way (the cost of the thinnings is a first rate problem, nowadays; to consider forests ecosystems in the context of surrounding natural and cultural landscape; to define proper management strategies for secondary successions on abandoned fields and pastures; to aim at re-naturalizing artificial conifer stands and increasing/maintaining forest biodiversity; to tackle effectively the wild ungulates problem.

  16. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  17. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    OpenAIRE

    TEMPLETON, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important ...

  18. The coffee planting in Brazil: Evolution, current situation and new challenges facing the future La caficultura en Brasil: Evolución, situación actual y nuevos retos cara al futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coffee production has totally dominated the social, economic, political and cultural scene of Brazil since the first half of the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. In fact, the ups and downs that accompany this culture are mixed with the milestones in the history of this Latin American country. In this paper we analyzed the coffee production in Brazil and its evolution over the last two decades, a period that coincides with profound changes in the global economy and in the way that coffee production is organized in Brazil, with the emergence new dynamics and processes that are presented as major challenges to this important sector of the economy of this country in the near future.El café ha dominado totalmente la escena social, económica, política y cultural de Brasil desde la primera mitad del siglo XIX hasta comienzos del siglo XX. En efecto, los avatares que acompañan dicho cultivo se confunden con los hitos de la historia de este país latinoamericano. En este trabajo se analiza la caficultura en Brasil y su evolución a lo largo de las dos últimas décadas, período que coincide con unos cambios profundos tanto en la economía mundial como en la forma con que se estructura la producción cafetalera de Brasil, con la emergencia de nuevas dinámicas y procesos que se presentan como retos importantes para este importante sector de la economía de dicho país en el futuro inmediato.

  19. Geomagnetically Induced Currents: Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Denny M.; Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.

    2017-10-01

    The geospace, or the space environment near Earth, is constantly subjected to changes in the solar wind flow generated at the Sun. The study of this environment variability is called Space Weather. Examples of effects resulting from this variability are the occurrence of powerful solar disturbances, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The impact of CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere very often greatly perturbs the geomagnetic field causing the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. Such extremely variable geomagnetic fields trigger geomagnetic effects measurable not only in the geospace but also in the ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and on and in the ground. For example, during extreme cases, rapidly changing geomagnetic fields generate intense geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Intense GICs can cause dramatic effects on man-made technological systems, such as damage to high-voltage power transmission transformers leading to interruption of power supply, and/or corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. These space weather effects can in turn lead to severe economic losses. In this paper, we supply the reader with theoretical concepts related to GICs as well as their general consequences. As an example, we discuss the GIC effects on a North American power grid located in mid-latitude regions during the 13-14 March 1989 extreme geomagnetic storm. That was the most extreme storm that occurred in the space era age.

  20. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  1. Biostratigraphic evidence of dramatic Holocene uplift of Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Ridge, SE Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sepúlveda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of Holocene deposits on Robinson Crusoe Island (RCI on the Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR indicates that a~dramatic but localized uplift occurred since 8000 BP, at a rate of about 8.5 mm yr−1. In fact, supratidal flats and sand layers with marine gastropods (mostly Nerita sp. are now exposed ca. 70 m a.s.l., and covered by transitional dunes. The last volcanic activity on RCI occurred at ca. 0.8 Ma (active hotspot located 280 km further west and there is no sign of a compensating bulge that explains this uplift, isobaths of the sea floor instead suggesting general subsidence. However, modeling indicates that large-scale landslides followed by isostatic rebound are a viable explanation, partially reflected in the low-resolution bathymetry of the area.

  2. Primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lung presenting with bilateral, patchy infiltrates dramatically improving after corticosteroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, E S; Graal, M B; van Noord, J A

    1993-10-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with fever and bilateral, peripheral infiltrates. Infectious disease and malignancy seemed to be excluded by fiberoptic diagnostic procedures. Subsequently, respiratory insufficiency developed, making open lung biopsy impossible. The diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) was strongly considered and treatment with corticosteroids was started; this led to dramatic clinical and radiologic improvement for a short time. Eventually, an open lung biopsy specimen disclosed primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of T-cell origin, immunoblastic, of high-grade malignancy according to the Kiel classification. After the first course of chemotherapy, total respiratory insufficiency developed and the patient died. This case is unique in a patient without AIDS.

  3. Moses revisited. August Strindberg’s and Edvard Munch’s dramatic use of the figure of Moses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Storskog

    2011-06-01

     1903 and Den fri Kjærligheds By (The City of Free Love, ca. 1905. In the first case, the focus is on the examination of Moses as an archetypical character. Analogies are subsequently drawn between the biblical hero and other dramatic characters in the production of the Swedish playwright, such as Gustav Vasa or Birger jarl. In the latter case, I outline the strategy for a parodic reuse of the biblical source in Munch’s invention of a modern Moses created to mock his fellow painter and maestro Christian Krohg and the bohemian ideal of free love. Although the qualities of the Moses character take on different and opposite meanings in the two authors, it is of interest that the issue of a return to the common heritage of biblical culture should make itself evident in the years following both Strindberg’s and Munch’s farewell to the secular milieus of the Bohème.

  4. The Doppler effect is not what you think it is: dramatic pitch change due to dynamic intensity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Michael K; Neuhoff, John G

    2002-06-01

    Historically, auditory pitch has been considered to be a function of acoustic frequency, with only a small effect being due to absolute intensity. Yet we found that when tones are Doppler shifted so that frequency drops, the pitch dramatically rises and falls, closely following the pattern of dynamic intensity change. We show that continuous intensity change can produce pitch variation comparable to a frequency change approaching an octave. This effect opposes and is an order of magnitude larger than the well-known effect of discrete intensity change in the frequency range employed. We propose that the perceptual interaction of continuous changes in pitch and loudness reflects a natural correlation between changes in frequency and intensity that is neurally encoded to facilitate the parsing and processing of meaningful acoustic patterns.

  5. Chekhov’s dramatic art and cinematograph: implementation of author’s assumption in active shot mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezrukov Andrei Nikolayevich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the art specificity of Chekhov’s legacy in dramatic art based on implementing in national film industry. Chekhov’s drama is divertive in its interpretation by the reader, the researcher, and in the director’s cut. Eccentricity frequently occurs in his dramaturgy. In literary text this device is not only a part of aesthetic picturing but also the form of overthinking, transformation of reality and changing the attitude to reality. The main division of the text form alters the character’s reality and his life into the moving picture frame, and changes the set visual representation into the symbol. Cinematic art allows to connect Chekhov’s text to the ornamentality of the image.

  6. Biostratigraphic evidence of dramatic Holocene uplift of Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Ridge, SE Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, P.; Le Roux, J. P.; Lara, L. E.; Orozco, G.; Astudillo, V.

    2014-09-01

    A study of the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of Holocene deposits on Robinson Crusoe Island (RCI) on the Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) indicates that a~dramatic but localized uplift occurred since 8000 BP, at a rate of about 8.5 mm yr-1. In fact, supratidal flats and sand layers with marine gastropods (mostly Nerita sp.) are now exposed ca. 70 m a.s.l., and covered by transitional dunes. The last volcanic activity on RCI occurred at ca. 0.8 Ma (active hotspot located 280 km further west) and there is no sign of a compensating bulge that explains this uplift, isobaths of the sea floor instead suggesting general subsidence. However, modeling indicates that large-scale landslides followed by isostatic rebound are a viable explanation, partially reflected in the low-resolution bathymetry of the area.

  7. The recent dramatic decline in road mortality in France: how drivers' attitudes towards road traffic safety changed between 2001 and 2004 in the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, A; Salmi, L R; Lafont, S; Chiron, M; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    A very significant decline in the number of road casualties has been observed recently in France, concomitantly with a dramatic increase in law enforcement. The aim of this study was (i) to assess changes in attitudes about road traffic accident (RTA) prevention initiatives in France from 2001 to 2004 and (ii) to identify factors associated with an increase in positive attitudes towards RTA prevention initiatives. In 2001 and 2004, 9216 participants reported their attitudes towards traffic safety using the same self-administered Driving Behaviour and Road Safety Questionnaire. Sociodemographic, psychological and behavioural data were also available. The mean change in scores analysis showed that support for relaxing existing regulations decreased significantly during this period, while support for heightened enforcement and stricter regulations showed some decrease but remained high overall, especially concerning blood alcohol content and speed controls. Multivariate analyses suggest that highly educated drivers changed their attitudes towards road safety regulations more than other categories. Our results suggest that increased traffic law enforcement measures led to increasing support for current restrictions. Even if support for additional traffic law enforcement began to wane slightly in 2004, a large part of our population remained in favour of strengthening law enforcement related to speeding and drunk driving.

  8. Dramatic infrared variability of WISE J1810-3305: catching early dust ejection during the thermal pulse of an AGB star?

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, Poshak; Takita, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of a source with broadband infrared photometric characteristics similar to Sakurai's Object. WISE J180956.27-330500.2 (hereafter, J1810-3305) shows very red WISE colors, but a very blue 2MASS [K] vs. WISE [W1 (3.4 micron)] color. It was not visible during the IRAS era, but now has a 12 micron flux well above the IRAS point source catalog detection limit. There are also indications of variability in historical optical photographic plates, as well as in multi-epoch AKARI mid-infrared measurements. The broadband infrared spectral energy distribution, post-IRAS brightening and multiwavelength variability are all characteristics also shared by Sakurai's Object - a post asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star which underwent a late thermal pulse and recently ejected massive envelopes of dust that are currently expanding and cooling. Optical progenitor colors suggest that J1810-3305 may have been of late spectral class. Its dramatic infrared brightening, and the detection of a late-type opti...

  9. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion MRI Show Rapid and Dramatic Changes in Tumor Microenvironment in Response to Inhibition of HIF-1α Using PX-478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte F. Jordan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available PX-478 is a new agent known to inhibit the hypoxiaresponsive transcription factor, HIF-1α, in experimental tumors. The current study was undertaken in preparation for clinical trials to determine which noninvasive imaging endpoint(s is sensitive to this drug's actions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE and diffusion-weighted (DW magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used to monitor acute effects on tumor hemodynamics and cellularity, respectively. Mice bearing human xenografts were treated either with PX-478 or vehicle, and imaged over time. DW imaging was performed at three b values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCw maps. For DCE-MRI, a macromolecular contrast reagent, BSA-Gd-DTPA, was used to determine vascular permeability and vascular volume fractions. PX-478 induced a dramatic reduction in tumor blood vessel permeability within 2 hours after treatment, which returned to baseline by 48 hours. The anti-VEGF antibody, Avastin, reduced both the permeability and vascular volume. PX-478 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of a drug-resistant tumor system, A-549. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADCw, was significantly decreased 24 and 36 hours after treatment. This is the earliest significant response of ADC to therapy yet reported. Based on these preclinical findings, both of these imaging endpoints will be included in the clinical trial of PX-478.

  10. Growth arrest in the ribosomopathy, Bowen-Conradi syndrome, is due to dramatically reduced cell proliferation and a defect in mitotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead, Joy; Patel, Nehal; Wu, Xiaoli; Hemming, Richard; Chowdhury, Biswajit; Basra, Gagandeep Singh; Del Bigio, Marc R; Ding, Hao; Triggs-Raine, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is a ribosomopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and growth failure that typically leads to death by one year of age. It is caused by a c.257A>G, p.D86G substitution in the ribosomal biogenesis protein, Essential for Mitotic Growth 1 (EMG1). We generated a knock-in of the D86G substitution in mice to characterize the effects of EMG1 deficiency, particularly in the brain, where EMG1 expression is high. Embryos homozygous for the mutation in Emg1 were small for gestational age with neural tube defects, and died between embryonic days 8.5 and 12.5. These embryos exhibited dramatically reduced cell proliferation, which we also detected in autopsy brain tissue and bone marrow of BCS patients, consistent with a requirement for high levels of EMG1 in tissues with rapid cell proliferation. In fibroblasts derived from the BCS mouse embryos, we detected a high proportion of binucleated cells, indicating that a mitotic defect underlies the growth arrest in BCS. These studies add to growing evidence of a link between ribosome biogenesis, mitotic progression, and brain development that is currently unexplored.

  11. Sexual selection and genital evolution: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Rany; el-Sakka, Ahmed; Bella, Anthony J

    2010-05-01

    Genital morphology (especially male) among the animal kingdom is characterized by extensive differences that even members of closely related species with similar general morphology may have remarkably diverse genitalia. To present the sexual medicine specialist with a basic understanding of the current hypotheses on genital evolution with an emphasis on the sexual selection theories. A review of current literature on the theories of genital evolution. Analysis of the supporting evidence for the sexual selection theories of genital evolution. Several theories have been proposed to explain genital evolution. Currently, the sexual selection theories are being considered to present valid and solid evidence explaining genital evolution. However, other theories, including sexual conflict, are still being investigated. All theories of genital evolution have their own weaknesses and strengths. Given that many complex biological mechanisms, mostly unknown yet, are involved in the process of genital evolution, it is thus reasonable to conclude that not one theory can independently explain genital evolution. It is likely that these mechanisms may prove to have synergistic rather than exclusive effects.

  12. Dramatic secretion of recombinant protein expressed in tobacco cells with a designer glycopeptide tag is highly impacted by medium composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Dolan, Maureen; Wu, Di; Phillips, Gregory C; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    Cell growth medium composition has profound impacts on the O -glycosylation of a "designer" arabinogalactan protein-based module; full glycosylation is essential in directing efficient extracellular secretion of the tagged recombinant protein. Expression of recombinant proteins in plant cells as fusion with a de novo designed hydroxyproline (Hyp)-O-glycosylated peptide (HypGP) tag, termed HypGP engineering technology, resulted in dramatically increased secreted protein yields. This is due to the function of the HypGP tag as a molecular carrier in promoting efficient transport of conjoined proteins into culture media. To optimize the cell culture to achieve the best secreted protein yields, the medium effects on the cell growth and protein secretion were investigated using as a model system the tobacco BY-2 cell expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fused with a (SP)32 tag (32 tandem repeats of "Ser-Pro" motif). The (SP)32 tag was found to undergo two-stage Hyp-O-glycosylation in plant cells with the dramatic secretion of the conjoined EGFP correlating with the triggering of the second-stage glycosylation. The BY-2 cell culture in SH medium generated a high secreted protein yield (125 mg/L) with a low cell biomass accumulation (~7.5 gDW/L). In contrast, very low secreted protein yields (~1.5 mg/L) with a high cell biomass accumulation (13.5 gDW/L) were obtained in MS medium. The macronutrients, specifically, the nitrogen supply greatly impacted the glycosylation of the (SP)32 tag and subsequent protein secretion. Modified MS medium with reduced nitrogen levels boosted the secreted EGFP yields to 168 mg/L. This study demonstrates the profound impacts of medium composition on the secreted yields of a HypGP-tagged protein, and provides a basis for medium design to achieve the highest productivity of the HypGP engineering technology.

  13. Dramatis persona in poetical and practical approach of dramatic text in 17th century French theory of theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bajer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the dramatis persona posited by the first French theatre theorists of the Richelieu circle, Jean Chapelain and Jules de la Mesnardiere, emerges as a quite literał implementation of the Aristotelian concepts unfolded in the sixth and fifteenth chapter of his Poetics. In a later period, the third of the aforementioned group of authors, François Hédelin d’Aubignac, dismisses the Aristotelian categories, erecting his theory upon the elements adopted from the Roman theory of rhetoric. The analysis of the Persona in classical drama theory allows to reconstruct the relation between these two 17th century dramatic approaches. The former is the traditional perspective relying on the postulations of the Aristotelian theory. The latter, which is a practical grasp, is new to the 17th century’s dramatic mindset, and was formulated by abbé d’Aubignac. Whereas the axis of poetics is the structural analysis of a work of art, it is the functioning of that work of art in the theatrical process of communication between the stage and the audience that remains the core interest of the practical approach. In this process, the rhetorical effect of presence of the dramatis persona should by created in the imagination of the spectator-auditor. The subject of analysis is common to both perspectives and the discrepancies concem merely aspects of its description. Therefore poetics and practice are neither competitive nor mutually exclusive, but can both legitimately coexist in the description of the very same work of art.

  14. [A case of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome with dramatic improvement in consciousness immediately after intravenous infusion of thiamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, A; Chida, K; Misu, T; Okita, N; Nomura, H; Konno, H; Takase, S; Takeda, A; Itoyama, Y

    2000-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was hospitalized on March 4, 1998 for disturbances in consciousness. In 1995, he had received proximal subtotal gastrectomy and reconstructive surgery of the jejunal interposition for gastric cancer. Thereafter he had been taking enough food without the habit of taking liquor. In October 1997, his short term memory was becoming gradually worse. On February 12, 1998, he suffered from numbness in the feet, and then dysphagia, unsteady gait, and diplopia developed gradually. On February 26, brain MRI showed no abnormalities. On March 3, he had a fever of 38.5 degrees C and his consciousness became unclear. Neurological examination revealed semi-coma, total ophthalmoplegia, and absence of doll's eye movement. Deep tendon reflexes were absent. The serum thiamine level was 9 ng/ml (normal range: 20-50). Brain MRI demonstrated symmetrical high intensity lesions in the periaqueductal area of the midbrain, dorsomedial nuclei of bilateral thalami, and vestibular nuclei. About 30 seconds after intravenous infusion of thiamine, his consciousness improved dramatically, but returned to semi-coma after about two minutes. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome usually occurs acutely. In the present case, however, the disease showed slow onset, chronic progression, and then rapid worsening after fever. Reconstructive surgery of the jejunal interposition might have caused the slow onset of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, and fever might have facilitated the rapid progression of the disease. An immediate high concentration of thiamine modifies the kinetics of acetylcholine receptor ion channels, thereby maintaining wakefulness, and the level of consciousness may change dramatically.

  15. Noise reduction of a Libbrecht--Hall style current driver

    CERN Document Server

    Seck, Christopher M; Cook, Eryn C; Odom, Brian C; Steck, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The Libbrecht--Hall circuit is a well-known, low-noise current driver for narrow-linewidth diode lasers. An important feature of the circuit is a current limit to protect the laser diode. As the current approaches the maximum limit, however, the noise in the laser current increases dramatically. This paper documents this behavior and explores simple circuit modifications to alleviate this issue.

  16. Exploring possible human influences on the evolution of Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León, Luis Fernando; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Bermingham, Eldredge; Podos, Jeffrey; Herrel, Anthony; Hendry, Andrew P

    2011-08-01

    Humans are an increasingly common influence on the evolution of natural populations. Potential arenas of influence include altered evolutionary trajectories within populations and modifications of the process of divergence among populations. We consider this second arena in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, Ecuador. Our study compared the G. fortis population at a relatively undisturbed site, El Garrapatero, to the population at a severely disturbed site, Academy Bay, which is immediately adjacent to the town of Puerto Ayora. The El Garrapatero population currently shows beak size bimodality that is tied to assortative mating and disruptive selection, whereas the Academy Bay population was historically bimodal but has lost this property in conjunction with a dramatic increase in local human population density. We here evaluate potential ecological-adaptive drivers of the differences in modality by quantifying relationships between morphology (beak and head dimensions), functional performance (bite force), and environmental characteristics (diet). Our main finding is that associations among these variables are generally weaker at Academy Bay than at El Garrapatero, possibly because novel foods are used at the former site irrespective of individual morphology and performance. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the rugged adaptive landscapes promoting and maintaining diversification in nature can be smoothed by human activities, thus hindering ongoing adaptive radiation.

  17. New Residual Stress Mapping Tool Applied to Atlas Current Joint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    use on the Atlas capacitor bank . This new design dramatically changes how the liner, glide planes and current joints of the system are formed. The...A redesigned cylindrical liner system has been implemented for use on the Atlas capacitor bank . This new design dramatically changes how the liner

  18. East African climate pulses and early human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, Mark A.; Brierley, Chris M.; Milner, Alice M.; Shultz, Susanne; Trauth, Martin H.; Wilson, Katy E.

    2014-10-01

    Current evidence suggests that all of the major events in hominin evolution have occurred in East Africa. Over the last two decades, there has been intensive work undertaken to understand African palaeoclimate and tectonics in order to put together a coherent picture of how the environment of East Africa has varied in the past. The landscape of East Africa has altered dramatically over the last 10 million years. It has changed from a relatively flat, homogenous region covered with mixed tropical forest, to a varied and heterogeneous environment, with mountains over 4 km high and vegetation ranging from desert to cloud forest. The progressive rifting of East Africa has also generated numerous lake basins, which are highly sensitive to changes in the local precipitation-evaporation regime. There is now evidence that the presence of precession-driven, ephemeral deep-water lakes in East Africa were concurrent with major events in hominin evolution. It seems the unusual geology and climate of East Africa created periods of highly variable local climate, which, it has been suggested could have driven hominin speciation, encephalisation and dispersal out of Africa. One example is the significant hominin speciation and brain expansion event at ˜1.8 Ma that seems to have been coeval with the occurrence of highly variable, extensive, deep-water lakes. This complex, climatically very variable setting inspired first the variability selection hypothesis, which was then the basis for the pulsed climate variability hypothesis. The newer of the two suggests that the long-term drying trend in East Africa was punctuated by episodes of short, alternating periods of extreme humidity and aridity. Both hypotheses, together with other key theories of climate-evolution linkages, are discussed in this paper. Though useful the actual evolution mechanisms, which led to early hominins are still unclear and continue to be debated. However, it is clear that an understanding of East African

  19. TERMS OF TRADE EVOLUTION, CAUSES AND EFFECTS: CASE STUDY ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrea Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms of trade are meant to show the ratio by which a country is different in the level and dynamics of revenues from the exchange made by different categories of products on the external markets. The level of recorded revenues from the commercialization of products and services varies from country to country, and there is rarely a mutually beneficial exchange situation from these operations. Trade efficiency analysis lies in the determination of the terms of trade. In the current paper, international developments are analyzed based on net terms of trade index used by UNCTAD. Statistical data are provided by the World Bank, where export and import price index and the volume of imports and exports by countries were considered. The classification of the countries has been done according to the geographical orientation and based on the purchasing power parity, thus creating two tables, the first table highlighting seven regions, and the second table with seven categories of states including OPEC and non-OPEC members. The terms of trade evolution are influenced by certain important factors in the production process of goods and services. Some of these factors are mentioned: labour productivity; changes in commodity prices; yet, only the last factor is examined in this paper. Based on World Bank commodity price data, the evolution of major energy inputs such as crude oil, gas, coal, and major industrial raw materials such as aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, zinc, silver, gold, platinum and iron was analysed and interpreted. For Romania, the data on terms of trade evolution shows a dramatic situation. If terms of trade development presented a cyclical evolution, the economy as a whole would send an optimistic message. In contrast, the data presented in the following paper will show that our country has registered continuous depreciation of the terms of trade ratio, with a direct impact on external trade balance deficits, a rising external debt

  20. Nudging Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N. Farrell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature, "Nudging Evolution? Critical Exploration of the Potential and Limitations of the Concept of Institutional Fit for the Study and Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems," aims to contribute toward the development of social theory and social research methods for the study of social-ecological system dynamics. Our objective is to help strengthen the academic discourse concerning if, and if so, how, to what extent, and in what concrete ways the concept of institutional "fit" might play a role in helping to develop better understanding of the social components of interlinkages between the socioeconomic-cultural and ecological dynamics of social-ecological systems. Two clearly discernible patterns provide a map of this Special Feature: (1 One pattern is the authors' positions regarding the place and role of normativity within their studies and assessment of institutional fit. Some place this at the center of their studies, exploring phenomena endogenous to the process of defining what constitutes institutional fit, whereas others take the formation of norms as a phenomenon exogenous to their study. (2 Another pattern is the type of studies presented: critiques and elaborations of the theory, methods for judging qualities of fit, and/or applied case studies using the concept. As a body of work, these contributions highlight that self-understanding of social-ecological place, whether explicit or implicit, constitutes an important part of the study object, i.e., the role of institutions in social-ecological systems, and that this is, at the same time, a crucial point of reference for the scholar wishing to evaluate what constitutes institutional fit and how it might be brought into being.

  1. Back relief geometry of ceramic tiles: historic evolution, current considerations and new design approaches.; Geometria al dorso de baldosa ceramica: evolucion historica, consideraciones actuales y nuevos enfoques de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defez, B.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Santiago, V. M.; Brusola simo, F.

    2010-07-01

    Abstract Bibliography related to the design of ceramic floorings, their historic progression and current background is extensive. The investment in the research of new materials formulations, both for ceramic supports, glazes and dyes has been intensive in the last decades, in order to maximize industrial productivity. Nevertheless, there are very few works engaged with the peculiarities of the geometric and structural configuration of ceramic products, where the back relief of the tile could have an essential role. In this article, we report the development of back relief's along time, according to the technological determinants of the sector. Then, we analyze the current situation of ceramic back relief's, as well as their development opportunities with regard to new design factors, namely, the new sales market, the new environmental requirements, and the accomplishment of the international regulations in the matter of quality production and building safety. Finally, we report the new approaches undertaken in the ceramic cluster of Castellon (Spain), with the collaboration of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, based on computer aided design. (Author)

  2. Explanatory Parent-Child Conversation Predominates at an Evolution Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tare, Medha; French, Jason; Frazier, Brandy N.; Diamond, Judy; Evans, E. Margaret

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how parents support children's learning at an exhibit on evolution, the conversations of 12 families were recorded, transcribed, and coded (6,263 utterances). Children (mean age 9.6 years) and parents visited Explore Evolution, which conveyed current research about the evolution of seven organisms. Families were engaged with the…

  3. Sisyphean evolution in Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Bailey D; Zink, Robert M

    2015-08-01

    The trajectory of speciation involves geographic isolation of ancestral populations followed by divergence by natural selection, genetic drift or sexual selection. Once started, the process may experience fits and starts, as sometimes diverging populations intermittently reconnect. In theory populations might cycle between stages of differentiation and never attain species status, a process we refer to as Sisyphean evolution. We argue that the six putative ground finch species (genus Geospiza) of the Galápagos Islands represent a dramatic example of Sisyphean evolution that has been confused with the standard model of speciation. The dynamic environment of the Galápagos, closely spaced islands, and frequent dispersal and introgression have prevented the completion of the speciation process. We suggest that morphological clusters represent locally adapted ecomorphs, which might mimic, and have been confused with, species, but these ecomorphs do not form separate gene pools and are ephemeral in space and time. Thus the pattern of morphological, behavioural and genetic variation supports recognition of a single species of Geospiza, which we suggest should be recognized as Darwin's ground finch (Geospiza magnirostris). We argue that instead of providing an icon of insular speciation and adaptive radiation, which is featured in nearly every textbook on evolutionary biology, Darwin's ground finch represents a potentially more interesting phenomenon, one of transient morphs trapped in an unpredictable cycle of Sisyphean evolution. Instead of revealing details of the origin of species, the mechanisms underlying the transient occurrence of ecomorphs provide one of the best illustrations of the antagonistic effects of natural selection and introgression.

  4. Trends of Stellar Entropy along Stellar Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    de Avellar, Marcio G B; Horvath, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to discuss the difference in the thermodynamic entropy budget {\\it per baryon} in each type of stellar object found in Universe. We track and discuss the actual {\\it decrease} of the stored baryonic thermodynamic entropy from the most primitive molecular cloud up to the final fate of matter in the black holes, passing through evolved states of matter as found in white dwarfs and neutron stars. We then discuss the case of actual stars of different masses throughout their {\\it evolution}, clarifying the role of virial equilibrium condition for the decrease of the entropy and related issues. Finally, we discuss how gravity ultimately drives composition, hence structural changes along the stellar evolution all the way until the ultimate collapse to black holes, which may increase dramatically their entropy because of the gravitational contribution itself.

  5. Evolution before genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasas, Vera; Fernando, Chrisantha; Santos, Mauro; Kauffman, Stuart; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2012-01-05

    Our current understanding of evolution is so tightly linked to template-dependent replication of DNA and RNA molecules that the old idea from Oparin of a self-reproducing 'garbage bag' ('coacervate') of chemicals that predated fully-fledged cell-like entities seems to be farfetched to most scientists today. However, this is exactly the kind of scheme we propose for how Darwinian evolution could have occurred prior to template replication. We cannot confirm previous claims that autocatalytic sets of organic polymer molecules could undergo evolution in any interesting sense by themselves. While we and others have previously imagined inhibition would result in selectability, we found that it produced multiple attractors in an autocatalytic set that cannot be selected for. Instead, we discovered that if general conditions are satisfied, the accumulation of adaptations in chemical reaction networks can occur. These conditions are the existence of rare reactions producing viable cores (analogous to a genotype), that sustains a molecular periphery (analogous to a phenotype). We conclude that only when a chemical reaction network consists of many such viable cores, can it be evolvable. When many cores are enclosed in a compartment there is competition between cores within the same compartment, and when there are many compartments, there is between-compartment competition due to the phenotypic effects of cores and their periphery at the compartment level. Acquisition of cores by rare chemical events, and loss of cores at division, allows macromutation, limited heredity and selectability, thus explaining how a poor man's natural selection could have operated prior to genetic templates. This is the only demonstration to date of a mechanism by which pre-template accumulation of adaptation could occur.

  6. Evolution before genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasas Vera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our current understanding of evolution is so tightly linked to template-dependent replication of DNA and RNA molecules that the old idea from Oparin of a self-reproducing 'garbage bag' ('coacervate' of chemicals that predated fully-fledged cell-like entities seems to be farfetched to most scientists today. However, this is exactly the kind of scheme we propose for how Darwinian evolution could have occurred prior to template replication. Results We cannot confirm previous claims that autocatalytic sets of organic polymer molecules could undergo evolution in any interesting sense by themselves. While we and others have previously imagined inhibition would result in selectability, we found that it produced multiple attractors in an autocatalytic set that cannot be selected for. Instead, we discovered that if general conditions are satisfied, the accumulation of adaptations in chemical reaction networks can occur. These conditions are the existence of rare reactions producing viable cores (analogous to a genotype, that sustains a molecular periphery (analogous to a phenotype. Conclusions We conclude that only when a chemical reaction network consists of many such viable cores, can it be evolvable. When many cores are enclosed in a compartment there is competition between cores within the same compartment, and when there are many compartments, there is between-compartment competition due to the phenotypic effects of cores and their periphery at the compartment level. Acquisition of cores by rare chemical events, and loss of cores at division, allows macromutation, limited heredity and selectability, thus explaining how a poor man's natural selection could have operated prior to genetic templates. This is the only demonstration to date of a mechanism by which pre-template accumulation of adaptation could occur. Reviewers This article was reviewed by William Martin and Eugene Koonin.

  7. The incomprehensible injury--interpretations of patients' narratives concerning experiences with an acute and dramatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohne, Vibeke

    2009-03-01

    Spinal cord injury is one of the most devastating incidents that can occur to an individual as it results in life being suddenly, dramatically, radically and long lastingly changed. Different studies show that a spinal cord injury is a stressful event, leading to physiological dependence, psychological and social illness and suffering, although the situation tends to improve over time. This study is a part of a larger longitudinal study. The aim of this study was to explore and interpret 10 individuals' experiences in connection with their acute and unexpected spinal cord injury. This qualitative study has a descriptive and explorative design and is a part of a larger study. A phenomenological hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur was used to extract the meaningful content of the patients' narratives. In this study, the findings revealed three main themes: (I) 'the incomprehensible shock', (II) 'brave survivors' and (III) 'miracles, luck or coincidences?' The incomprehensible spinal cord injury was often experienced as a dramatic and unexpected shock in the middle of a pleasant occasion, and every participant felt immediately overwhelmed by emotional suffering, such as despair and panic, but also anxiety, confusion, sorrow, guilt, shame, fear, aggression or depression at the moment of injury. Some individuals immediately understood that they had become completely paralysed and that something was seriously wrong with their body. Many also experienced guilt or shame because of choices or decisions made immediately before the injury. Several of the narratives were illuminating participants that had been brave survivors and heroes and saved others (passengers or friends) during the injury, by preventing the car form driving out or by softening the fall of co-passengers, which also entailed more serious injuries to themselves. However, the fact of having survived was experienced as 'being lucky, after all'. They all repeatedly reflected on the accident, and their

  8. Papain-templated Cu nanoclusters: assaying and exhibiting dramatic antibacterial activity cooperating with H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hong; Zhong, Dan; Zhou, Zinan; Yang, Xiaoming

    2015-11-01

    Herein, papain-functionalized Cu nanoclusters (CuNCs@Papain) were originally synthesized in aqueous solution together with a quantum yield of 14.3%, and showed obviously red fluorescence at 620 nm. Meanwhile, their corresponding fluorescence mechanism was fully elucidated by fluorescence spectroscopy, HR-TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, and XPS. Subsequently, the as-prepared CuNCs were employed as probes for detecting H2O2. Using CuNCs as probes, H2O2 was determined in the range from 1 μM to 50 μM based on a linear decrease of fluorescence intensity as well as a detection limit of 0.2 μM with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. More significantly, it has been proved that CuNCs could convert H2O2 to &z.rad;OH, which exhibited dramatic antibacterial activity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to validate their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive/negative bacteria and actual wound infection, suggesting their potential for serving as one type of promising antibacterial material.Herein, papain-functionalized Cu nanoclusters (CuNCs@Papain) were originally synthesized in aqueous solution together with a quantum yield of 14.3%, and showed obviously red fluorescence at 620 nm. Meanwhile, their corresponding fluorescence mechanism was fully elucidated by fluorescence spectroscopy, HR-TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, and XPS. Subsequently, the as-prepared CuNCs were employed as probes for detecting H2O2. Using CuNCs as probes, H2O2 was determined in the range from 1 μM to 50 μM based on a linear decrease of fluorescence intensity as well as a detection limit of 0.2 μM with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. More significantly, it has been proved that CuNCs could convert H2O2 to &z.rad;OH, which exhibited dramatic antibacterial activity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to validate their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive/negative bacteria and actual wound infection, suggesting their potential for serving as one type of promising

  9. Evolution prediction from tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Shabani, Alireza; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2017-03-01

    Quantum process tomography provides a means of measuring the evolution operator for a system at a fixed measurement time t. The problem of using that tomographic snapshot to predict the evolution operator at other times is generally ill-posed since there are, in general, infinitely many distinct and compatible solutions. We describe the prediction, in some "maximal ignorance" sense, of the evolution of a quantum system based on knowledge only of the evolution operator for finitely many times 0evolution at times away from the measurement times. Even if the original evolution is unitary, the predicted evolution is described by a non-unitary, completely positive map.

  10. Quaternary history and contemporary patterns in a currently expanding species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdelhué, Carole; Zane, Lorenzo; Simonato, Mauro; Salvato, Paola; Rousselet, Jérôme; Roques, Alain; Battisti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Background Quaternary climatic oscillations had dramatic effects on species evolution. In northern latitudes, populations had to survive the coldest periods in refugial areas and recurrently colonized northern regions during interglacials. Such a history usually results in a loss of genetic diversity. Populations that did not experience glaciations, in contrast, probably maintained most of their ancestral genetic diversity. These characteristics dramatically affected the present-day distribution of genetic diversity and may influence the ability of species to cope with the current global changes. We conducted a range-wide study of mitochondrial genetic diversity in the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa/T. wilkinsoni complex, Notodontidae), a forest pest occurring around the Mediterranean Basin and in southern Europe. This species is responding to the current climate change by rapid natural range expansion and can also be accidentally transported by humans. Our aim was to assess if Quaternary climatic oscillations had a different effect across the species' range and to determine if genetic footprints of contemporary processes can be identified in areas of recent introduction. Results We identified three main clades that were spatially structured. In most of Europe, the genetic diversity pattern was typical for species that experienced marked glaciation cycles. Except in refugia, European populations were characterized by the occurrence of one main haplotype and by a strong reduction in genetic diversity, which is expected in regions that were rapidly re-colonized when climatic conditions improved. In contrast, all other sub-clades around the Mediterranean Basin occurred in limited parts of the range and were strongly structured in space, as is expected in regions in which the impact of glaciations was limited. In such places, genetic diversity was retained in most populations, and almost all haplotypes were endemic. This pattern was extreme on remote

  11. Quaternary history and contemporary patterns in a currently expanding species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousselet Jérôme

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quaternary climatic oscillations had dramatic effects on species evolution. In northern latitudes, populations had to survive the coldest periods in refugial areas and recurrently colonized northern regions during interglacials. Such a history usually results in a loss of genetic diversity. Populations that did not experience glaciations, in contrast, probably maintained most of their ancestral genetic diversity. These characteristics dramatically affected the present-day distribution of genetic diversity and may influence the ability of species to cope with the current global changes. We conducted a range-wide study of mitochondrial genetic diversity in the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa/T. wilkinsoni complex, Notodontidae, a forest pest occurring around the Mediterranean Basin and in southern Europe. This species is responding to the current climate change by rapid natural range expansion and can also be accidentally transported by humans. Our aim was to assess if Quaternary climatic oscillations had a different effect across the species' range and to determine if genetic footprints of contemporary processes can be identified in areas of recent introduction. Results We identified three main clades that were spatially structured. In most of Europe, the genetic diversity pattern was typical for species that experienced marked glaciation cycles. Except in refugia, European populations were characterized by the occurrence of one main haplotype and by a strong reduction in genetic diversity, which is expected in regions that were rapidly re-colonized when climatic conditions improved. In contrast, all other sub-clades around the Mediterranean Basin occurred in limited parts of the range and were strongly structured in space, as is expected in regions in which the impact of glaciations was limited. In such places, genetic diversity was retained in most populations, and almost all haplotypes were endemic. This

  12. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's Atmospheric Polar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Irwin, P. G.; Nixon, C. A.; de Kok, R.; Vinatier, S.; Coustenis, A.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Flasar, F. M.

    2013-10-01

    Titan is the largest satellite of Saturn and is the only moon in our solar system to have a significant atmosphere. Titan's middle-atmosphere circulation usually comprises a single hemisphere-to-hemisphere meridional circulation cell, with upwelling air in the summer hemisphere and subsiding air at the winter pole with an associated winter polar vortex. Titan has an axial tilt (obliquity) of 26.7degrees, so during its 29.5 Earth year annual cycle pronounced seasonal effects are expected as the relative solar insolation in each hemisphere changes. The most dramatic of these changes is predicted to be the reversal in global meridional circulation as the peak solar heating switches hemispheres after an equinox. Since northern spring equinox in mid-2009, Titan's atmosphere has demonstrated dramatic changes in temperature, composition, and aerosol distribution. These changes indicate major changes to the atmospheric circulation pattern have indeed occurred. Here we use nine years of Cassini/CIRS infrared spectra to determine the temperature and composition evolution of the atmosphere through northern-fall to northern-spring. Particularly dramatic changes are observed at the poles, where a new south polar hot-spot/vortex has been forming. The north polar vortex also appears to be weakening throughout this period. Furthermore, the meridional circulation reversal, predicted by numerical models, occurred a mere six months after equinox, showing that despite Titan's long annual cycle, rapid changes are possible. This gives us new insight into vortex formation processes and atmospheric dynamics.

  13. Stellar Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This long-awaited second edition of the classical textbook on Stellar Structure and Evolution by Kippenhahn and Weigert is a thoroughly revised version of the original text. Taking into account modern observational constraints as well as additional physical effects such as mass loss and diffusion, Achim Weiss and Rudolf Kippenhahn have succeeded in bringing the book up to the state-of-the-art with respect to both the presentation of stellar physics and the presentation and interpretation of current sophisticated stellar models. The well-received and proven pedagogical approach of the first edition has been retained. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its...

  14. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  15. Dramatic Changes in Thermoelectric Power of Germanium under Pressure: Printing n–p Junctions by Applied Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, Igor V.; Morozova, Natalia V.; Shchennikov, Vladimir V.; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.

    2017-03-01

    Controlled tuning the electrical, optical, magnetic, mechanical and other characteristics of the leading semiconducting materials is one of the primary technological challenges. Here, we demonstrate that the electronic transport properties of conventional single-crystalline wafers of germanium may be dramatically tuned by application of moderate pressures. We investigated the thermoelectric power (Seebeck coefficient) of p– and n–type germanium under high pressure to 20 GPa. We established that an applied pressure of several GPa drastically shifts the electrical conduction to p–type. The p–type conduction is conserved across the semiconductor-metal phase transition at near 10 GPa. Upon pressure releasing, germanium transformed to a metastable st12 phase (Ge-III) with n–type semiconducting conductivity. We proposed that the unusual electronic properties of germanium in the original cubic-diamond-structured phase could result from a splitting of the “heavy” and “light” holes bands, and a related charge transfer between them. We suggested new innovative applications of germanium, e.g., in technologies of printing of n–p and n–p–n junctions by applied stress. Thus, our work has uncovered a new face of germanium as a ‘smart’ material.

  16. Bariatric surgery prior to total joint arthroplasty may not provide dramatic improvements in post-arthroplasty surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, Maria C S; Paxton, Elizabeth W; Fisher, David; Li, Robert A; Barber, Thomas C; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2014-07-01

    This study compared the total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surgical outcomes of patients who had bariatric surgery prior to TJA to TJA patients who were candidates but did not have bariatric surgery. Patients were retrospectively grouped into: Group 1 (n = 69), those with bariatric surgery >2 years prior to TJA, Group 2 (n = 102), those with surgery within 2 years of TJA, and Group 3 (n = 11,032), those without bariatric surgery. In Group 1, 2.9% (95% CI 0.0-6.9%) had complications within 1 year compared to 5.9% (95% CI 1.3%-10.4%) in Group 2, and 4.1% (95% CI 3.8%-4.5%) in Group 3. Ninety-day readmission (7.2%, 95% CI 1.1%-13.4%) and revision density (3.4/100 years of observation) was highest in Group 1. Bariatric surgery prior to TJA may not provide dramatic improvements in post-operative TJA surgical outcomes.

  17. Flux dependent MeV self-ion-induced effects on Au nanostructures: dramatic mass transport and nanosilicide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, J; Umananda Bhatta, M; Sundaravel, B; Nair, K G M; Liou, Sz-Chian; Chen, Cheng-Hsuan; Wang, Yuh-Lin; Satyam, P V

    2008-08-13

    We report a direct observation of dramatic mass transport due to 1.5 MeV Au(2+) ion impact on isolated Au nanostructures of average size ≈7.6 nm and height ≈6.9 nm that are deposited on Si(111) substrate under high flux (3.2 × 10(10)-6.3 × 10(12) ions cm(-2) s(-1)) conditions. The mass transport from nanostructures was found to extend up to a distance of about 60 nm into the substrate, much beyond their size. This forward mass transport is compared with the recoil implantation profiles using SRIM simulation. The observed anomalies with theory and simulations are discussed. At a given energy, the incident flux plays a major role in mass transport and its redistribution. The mass transport is explained on the basis of thermal effects and the creation of rapid diffusion paths in the nanoscale regime during the course of ion irradiation. The unusual mass transport is found to be associated with the formation of gold silicide nano-alloys at subsurfaces. The complexity of the ion-nanostructure interaction process is discussed with a direct observation of melting (in the form of spherical fragments on the surface) phenomena. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy methods have been used.

  18. Bariatric Surgery Prior to Total Joint Arthroplasty May Not Provide Dramatic Improvements In Post Arthroplasty Surgical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Elizabeth W.; Fisher, David; Li, Robert A.; Barber, Thomas C.; Singh, Jasvinder A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surgical outcomes of patients who had bariatric surgery prior to TJA to TJA patients who were candidates but did not have bariatric surgery. Patients were retrospectively grouped into: Group 1 (n=69), those with bariatric surgery >2 years prior to TJA, Group 2 (n=102), those with surgery within 2 years of TJA, and Group 3 (n=11,032), those without bariatric surgery. In Group 1, 2.9% (95%CI 0.0–6.9%) had complications within 1 year compared to 5.9% (95%CI 1.3–10.4%) in Group 2, and 4.1% (95%CI 3.8–4.5%) in Group 3. 90-day readmission (7.2%, 95%CI 1.1–13.4%) and revision density (3.4/100 years of observation) was highest in Group 1. Bariatric surgery prior to TJA may not provide dramatic improvements in post-operative TJA surgical outcomes. PMID:24674730

  19. “Postdramatic” Tendencies in the German Dramatic Art at the End of XX — Beginning of XXI Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharypina T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disintegration and integration processes of German culture of the end of XX and beginning of XXI are analyzed by giving examples of stage interpretations of mythological plots in theatres of present-day Germany. It is stated that pluralism and multidimensionality of the spiritual experience of modern cultural workers, both writers (such as V. Braun, S. Schutz, B. Strauss etc. and leading producers (D. Dorn, S. Nubling and others contribute to the drawing up of a special syncretic style of theatre staging, first of all with the use of the ancient material which is appropriate for it. Ancient myth, as one of the steadiest constants of the European literature, gives a universal key to the interpretation of various cultural and ethic-aesthetic phenomena that are irredundant to nothing else. There is a sociocultural context in which German spectators nowadays try to comprehend these dramaturgy phenomena; and there is a genuine stage director interpretations of them (in Aachen City Theatre, Dramatic Theatre of Hannover, Munich Chamber Theatre etc. that not only lead to the decanonization of the classic model, but also pinpoint problematique of these performances.

  20. Dramatic decrease of pelagic carbonate production by nannoplankton across the Early Toarcian anoxic event (T-OAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Emanuela; Pittet, Bernard; Petitpierre, Laurent; Mailliot, Samuel

    2009-02-01

    In this account we present estimates of nannofossil fluxes in four sections and one borehole all belonging to the Early Jurassic western Tethys. This study aims to map the distribution of pelagic carbonate production across the Early Toarcian anoxic event (T-OAE), and to understand which environmental parameters did control such production. Our results indicate important changes in carbonate production by nannoplankton occurring within the western Tethys and its variations through time. Nannofossil fluxes (specimens per m 2 per year) are extremely low during the T-OAE in all the studied settings. Higher fluxes are encountered in the westernmost part of the Tethys Ocean before the T-OAE, whilst pelagic carbonate production shifted towards the northern margin of the Tethys after the recovery from anoxic conditions. The dramatic decrease in nannoplankton production during the T-OAE has been interpreted in previous works as a biocalcification crisis related to high pCO 2 in the atmosphere/hydrosphere system. Although a high pCO 2 may have lowered the carbonate saturation state of Early Jurassic oceans and finally hampered biocalcification, we speculate that the most important effects of CO 2 increase were indirect, and affected pelagic producers via changes on climate and sea-level. Namely, it seems that precipitation/evaporation budgets and continental runoff that controlled nutrient levels and salinity in surface oceanic waters were important factors for pelagic biocalcifiers.

  1. Intact neurobehavioral development and dramatic impairments of procedural-like memory following neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourtier, L; Antal, M-C; Cosquer, B; Schumacher, A; Samama, B; Angst, M-J; Ferrandon, A; Koning, E; Cassel, J-C; Nehlig, A

    2012-04-05

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) in rats are considered a potent developmental model of schizophrenia. After NVHL, rats appear normal during their preadolescent time, whereas in early adulthood, they develop behavioral deficits paralleling symptomatic aspects of schizophrenia, including hyperactivity, hypersensitivity to amphetamine (AMPH), prepulse and latent inhibition deficits, reduced social interactions, and spatial working and reference memory alterations. Surprisingly, the question of the consequences of NVHL on postnatal neurobehavioral development has not been addressed. This is of particular importance, as a defective neurobehavioral development could contribute to impairments seen in adult rats. Therefore, at several time points of the early postsurgical life of NVHL rats, we assessed behaviors accounting for neurobehavioral development, including negative geotaxis and grip strength (PD11), locomotor coordination (PD21), and open-field (PD25). At adulthood, the rats were tested for anxiety levels, locomotor activity, as well as spatial reference memory performance. Using a novel task, we also investigated the consequences of the lesions on procedural-like memory, which had never been tested following NVHL. Our results point to preserved neurobehavioral development. They also confirm the already documented locomotor hyperactivity, spatial reference memory impairment, and hyperresponsiveness to AMPH. Finally, our rseults show for the first time that NVHL disabled the development of behavioral routines, suggesting dramatic procedural memory deficits. The presence of procedural memory deficits in adult rats subjected to NHVL suggests that the lesions lead to a wider range of cognitive deficits than previously shown. Interestingly, procedural or implicit memory impairments have also been reported in schizophrenic patients.

  2. 英美戏剧对白与口语学习%English Dramatic Dialogue and Oral English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱勤; 张光仕

    2012-01-01

    Oral English is considered as one of the most difficult courses.Many college graduates,after learning English for more than ten years,still cannot speak English fluently,and have an unbalanced development in listening,speaking,reading and writing.There are many factors which may hinder students' oral English development.Using dramatic dialogues as teaching material,through the positive transfer of such some aspects as attention,perceptiveness,imagination,etc.and students' own positive behavior,students can overcome difficulties in learning oral English,and effectively master oral English.%英语口语是最难学的课程之一,许多大学毕业生,学了十多年的英语,在听、说、读、写方面仍然发展不平衡,英语口语不流利。影响其口语能力的因素很多。通过戏剧对白中注意力、感知力、想象力等方面的有效迁移以及学生自己的积极行为,学生们可以克服学习困难,真正有效地掌握英语口语。

  3. Satellite monitoring of dramatic changes at Hawai'i's only alpine lake: Lake Waiau on Mauna Kea volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Waiau is a small, typically 100-meter-long lake, located near the summit of Mauna Kea volcano, on the Island of Hawaiʻi. It is Hawaiʻi’s only alpine lake and is considered sacred in Hawaiian cultural tradition. Over the past few years, the lake has diminished in size, and, by October 2013, surface water had almost completely disappeared from the lake. In this study, we use high-resolution satellite images and aerial photographs to document recent changes at the lake. Based on our reconstructions covering the past 200 years, the historical lake surface area has typically ranged from 5,000 to 7,000 square meters, but in 2010 a dramatic plunge in lake area ensued. The lake area rebounded significantly in early 2014, following heavy winter storms. This near disappearance of the lake, judging from analysis of visitor photographs and field reports, appears to be highly unusual, if not unprecedented, in the historical record. The unusually low water levels in the lake are consistent with a recent severe drought in Hawaiʻi.

  4. The copy number of chloroplast gene minicircles changes dramatically with growth phase in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumandou, V L; Howe, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The chloroplast genome of algae and plants typically comprises a circular DNA molecule of 100-200kb, which harbours approximately 120 genes, and is present in 50-100 copies per chloroplast. However, in peridinin dinoflagellates, an ecologically important group of unicellular algae, the chloroplast genome is fragmented into plasmid-like 'minicircles', each of 2-3kb. Furthermore, the chloroplast gene content of dinoflagellates is dramatically reduced. Only 14 genes have been found on dinoflagellate minicircles, and recent evidence from EST studies suggests that most of the genes typically located in the chloroplast in other algae and plants are located in the nucleus. In this study, Southern blot analysis was used to estimate the copy number per cell of a variety of minicircles during different growth stages in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum. It was found that minicircle copy number is low during the exponential growth stage but increases during the later growth phase to resemble the situation seen in other plants and algae. The control of minicircle replication is discussed in the light of these findings.

  5. Honokiol nanosuspensions: preparation, increased oral bioavailability and dramatically enhanced biodistribution in the cardio-cerebro-vascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meihua; Yu, Xin; Guo, Yifei; Wang, Yanhong; Kuang, Haixue; Wang, Xiangtao

    2014-04-01

    Honokiol is a phytochemical component with multiple pharmacological activities, but Honokiol's wider use has been restricted by its poor solubility. Using bovine serum albumin and polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilisers in a solvent precipitation-ultrasonication method, Honokiol nanosuspensions were prepared with a mean particle size of 116.2 nm (±2 nm), a zeta potential of -44.7 mV (±1.7 mV) and a high drug payload of 50.4 ± 0.6% (w/w). X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that Honokiol was in an amorphous state in the nanosuspensions, in contrast with bulk Honokiol powder. Honokiol was released faster in vitro from nanosuspensions with no burst release, and the highest 98% cumulative release was after 60 h. Honokiol nanosuspensions improved the oral bioavailability of Honokiol in in vivo studies in rats with a 3.94-fold Cmax and a 2.2-fold AUC(0-t). Remarkably, in contrast to oral administration, intraperitoneal administration of Honokiol nanosuspensions could dramatically alter the biodistribution of Honokiol, resulting in a much higher drug level and tissue bioavailability in the blood, heart and brain, benefitting the treatment of cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases.

  6. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  7. Field Independent Cosmic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayem Sk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown earlier that Noether symmetry does not admit a form of corresponding to an action in which is coupled to scalar-tensor theory of gravity or even for pure theory of gravity taking anisotropic model into account. Here, we prove that theory of gravity does not admit Noether symmetry even if it is coupled to tachyonic field and considering a gauge in addition. To handle such a theory, a general conserved current has been constructed under a condition which decouples higher-order curvature part from the field part. This condition, in principle, solves for the scale-factor independently. Thus, cosmological evolution remains independent of the form of the chosen field, whether it is a scalar or a tachyon.

  8. Real-time transmission Mueller polarimetry on hydrogenated polymorphous silicon under current injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ka-Hyun; Haj Ibrahim, Bicher; Johnson, Erik V.; De Martino, Antonello; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the use of an innovative optical characterization technique—real-time Mueller polarimetric imaging in transmission—for the characterization of thin-film silicon solar cells. In this work, we used this technique to monitor the evolution of optical retardance induced by the mechanical stresses in hydrogenated amorphous and polymorphous silicon (a-Si : H and pm-Si : H) p-i-n (PIN) solar cells. Under current injection of 200 mA cm-2, the retardance of the pm-Si : H PIN solar cells decreased, while that of the a-Si : H PIN solar cells showed no significant change. After the current injection, the pm-Si : H PIN solar cells showed dramatic macroscopic changes on a scale of tens of micrometres, such as local peel-off and delamination from the substrate. Our results demonstrate that current injection introduces local stress relaxation, which can be efficiently monitored prior to irreversible damage from a decrease in the retardance of the pm-Si : H PIN solar cells.

  9. Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaford, M F; Ungar, P S

    2000-12-05

    Over the past decade, discussions of the evolution of the earliest human ancestors have focused on the locomotion of the australopithecines. Recent discoveries in a broad range of disciplines have raised important questions about the influence of ecological factors in early human evolution. Here we trace the cranial and dental traits of the early australopithecines through time, to show that between 4.4 million and 2.3 million years ago, the dietary capabilities of the earliest hominids changed dramatically, leaving them well suited for life in a variety of habitats and able to cope with significant changes in resource availability associated with long-term and short-term climatic fluctuations.

  10. Biopharmaceutical Innovation System in China: System Evolution and Policy Transitions (Pre-1990s-2010s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article sets up the initial discussion of the evolution of biopharmaceutical innovation in China through the perspective of sectoral innovation system (SIS. Methods: Two data sources including archival documentary data and field interviews were used in this study. Archival documentary data was collected from China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. In addition, industrial practitioners and leading researchers in academia were interviewed. Results: Biopharmaceutical in China was established through international knowledge transfer. The firms played more active role in commercializing biopharmaceutical in China though universities and research institutes were starting to interact with local firms and make contribution to biopharmaceutical industrialization. The transition of the Chinese government’s policies continuously shapes the evolution of biopharmaceutical sector. Policies have been dramatic changes before and after 1980s to encourage developing biopharmaceutical as a competitive industry for China. Conclusion: A SIS for biopharmaceutical has been shaped in China. However, currently biopharmaceutical is still a small sector in China, and for the further growth of the industry more synthetic policies should be implemented. Not only the policy supports towards the research and innovation of biopharmaceuticals in the early stage of development should be attended, but also commercialization of biopharmaceutical products in the later stage of sales.

  11. Biopharmaceutical Innovation System in China: System Evolution and Policy Transitions (Pre-1990s-2010s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Chung, Chao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: This article sets up the initial discussion of the evolution of biopharmaceutical innovation in China through the perspective of sectoral innovation system (SIS). Methods: Two data sources including archival documentary data and field interviews were used in this study. Archival documentary data was collected from China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). In addition, industrial practitioners and leading researchers in academia were interviewed. Results: Biopharmaceutical in China was established through international knowledge transfer. The firms played more active role in commercializing biopharmaceutical in China though universities and research institutes were starting to interact with local firms and make contribution to biopharmaceutical industrialization. The transition of the Chinese government’s policies continuously shapes the evolution of biopharmaceutical sector. Policies have been dramatic changes before and after 1980s to encourage developing biopharmaceutical as a competitive industry for China. Conclusion: A SIS for biopharmaceutical has been shaped in China. However, currently biopharmaceutical is still a small sector in China, and for the further growth of the industry more synthetic policies should be implemented. Not only the policy supports towards the research and innovation of biopharmaceuticals in the early stage of development should be attended, but also commercialization of biopharmaceutical products in the later stage of sales. PMID:26673466

  12. The non-linear evolution of the tearing mode in electromagnetic turbulence using gyrokinetic simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hornsby, William A; Buchholz, Rico; Grosshauser, Stefan; Weikl, Arne; Zarzoso, David; Casson, Francis J; Poli, Emanuele; Peeters, Artur G

    2015-01-01

    The non-linear evolution of a magnetic island is studied using the Vlasov gyro-kinetic code GKW. The interaction of electromagnetic turbulence with a self-consistently growing magnetic island, generated by a tearing unstable $\\Delta' > 0$ current profile, is considered. The turbulence is able to seed the magnetic island and bypass the linear growth phase by generating structures that are approximately an ion gyro-radius in width. The non-linear evolution of the island width and its rotation frequency, after this seeding phase, is found to be modified and is dependent on the value of the plasma beta and equilibrium pressure gradients. At low values of beta the island evolves largely independent of the turbulence, while at higher values the interaction has a dramatic effect on island growth, causing the island to grow exponentially at the growth rate of its linear phase, even though the island is larger than linear theory validity. The turbulence forces the island to rotate in the ion-diamagnetic direction as o...

  13. The evolution of doses in the IEA-R1 reactor environment and tendencies based on the current results; Evolucao das doses no ambiente do Reator IEA-R1 e tendencias com base nos resultados atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Eduardo Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    The IPEN / CNEN-SP have a Nuclear Research Reactor-NRR named IEA-R1, in operation from 1957. It is an open swimming pool reactor using light water as shielding, moderator and as cooling, the volume of this pool is 273m{sup 3}.Until 1995 the reactor operated daily at a power of 2,0 MW. From June of that year, after a few safety modifications the reactor began operating in continuous way from Monday to Wednesday without shutdown totalizing 64 hours per week and the power was increased to 4,5MW also. Because of these changes, continuous operation and increased power, workers' doses would tend to increase. In the past several studies were conducted seeking ways to reduce the workers' doses. A study was made on the possibility to introduce a shielding at the top of the reactor core with a hot water layer. Studies have shown that a major limitation for operating a reactor at high power comes from the gamma radiation emitted by the sodium-24. Other elements such as magnesium-27, aluminum-28, Argon-51, contribute considerably to the water activity of the pool. The introduction of a hot water layer on the swimming pool would form a layer of surface, stable and free of radioactive elements with a 1.5m to 2m thickness creates a shielding to radiation from radioactive elements dissolved in water. Optimization studies proved that the installation of the hot layer was not necessary for the regime and the current power reactor operation, because other procedures adopted were more effective. From this decision the Radiological Protection Reactor Team, set up a dose assessment program to ensure them remained in low values based on principles established in national and international standards. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the individual doses of OEI (Occupationally Exposed Individual), which will be checked increasing doses resulting from recent changes in reactor operation regime and suggested viable safety and protection options, in the first instance to

  14. Evolution of the rheological structure of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Shintaro; Katayama, Ikuo

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of Mars has been greatly influenced by temporal changes in its rheological structure, which may explain the difference in tectonics between Mars and Earth. Some previous studies have shown the rheological structures of Mars calculated from the flow law of rocks and the predicted thermal structure. However, the Peierls mechanism, which is the dominant deformation mechanism at relatively low temperature, and the evolution of water reservoirs on Mars were not considered in such studies. In this paper, we apply the Peierls mechanism to refine the rheological structure of Mars to show a new history of the planet that considers the most recent reports on its evolution of water reservoirs. Considering the Peierls creep and the evolution of water reservoirs, we attempt to explain why the tectonics of Mars is inactive compared with that of Earth. On early Mars, the lithospheric thickness inferred from the brittle-ductile transition was small, and the lithospheric strength was low ( 200-300 MPa) under wet conditions at 4 Gya. This suggests that plate boundaries could have developed on the early "wet" Mars, which is a prerequisite for the operation of plate tectonics. Our results also imply that the lithospheric strength had significantly increased in the Noachian owing to water loss. Therefore, plate tectonics may have ceased or could no longer be initiated on Mars. At the least, the tectonic style of Mars would have dramatically changed during the Noachian.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Biostratigraphic evidence for dramatic Holocene uplift of Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Ridge, SE Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, P.; Le Roux, J. P.; Lara, L. E.; Orozco, G.; Astudillo, V.

    2015-03-01

    Hotspot oceanic islands typically experience subsidence due to several processes related to migration of the oceanic plate away from the mantle plume and surface flexural loading. However, many other processes can interrupt subsidence, some of which may be associated with catastrophic events. A study of the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of Holocene deposits on Robinson Crusoe Island (RCI) on the Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) indicated that dramatic uplift has occurred since 8000 years BP, at a rate of about 8.5mm yr-1. This is evidenced by supratidal flats with tepee structures and sand layers containing marine gastropods (mostly Nerita sp.) that are now exposed ca. 70 m a.s.l. The active hotspot is located 280 km further west and the last volcanic activity on RCI occurred at ca. 800 000 years BP. Long-term subsidence is evidenced by deep submerged marine abrasion terraces at RCI. As no direct evidence was found for the existence of a compensating bulge generated by the present hotspot upon which RCI would be situated, it must be concluded that subsidence in the wake of the mantle plume beneath the migrating plate was interrupted by very rapid uplift, but on a scale that did not fully compensate for the previous subsidence. This can be attributed to large-scale landslides followed by isostatic rebound, although this is only vaguely reflected in the low-resolution bathymetry of the area. To determine if this mechanism produced the uplift, a detailed bathymetric survey of the area will be required. If such a survey confirms this hypothesis, it may have implications for the short-term dynamics of vertical variations of oceanic edifices and their related effects on ecosystems and human population.

  16. Dramatic mass loss in extreme high-elevation areas of a western Himalayan glacier: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huabiao; Yang, Wei; Yao, Tandong; Tian, Lide; Xu, Baiqing

    2016-08-01

    Rapid climate change at high elevations has accelerated glacier retreat in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. However, due to the lack of long-term glaciological measurements, there are still uncertainties regarding when the mass loss began and what the magnitude of mass loss is at such high elevations. Based on in situ glaciological observations during the past 9 years and a temperature-index mass balance model, this study investigates recent mass loss of the Naimona’nyi Glacier in the western Himalayas and reconstructs a 41-year (1973/74–2013/14) equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and glacier-wide mass loss. The result indicates that even at 6000 m above sea level (a.s.l.), the annual mass loss reaches ~0.73 m water equivalent (w.e.) during the past 9 years. Concordant with the abrupt climate shift in the end of 1980s, the ELA has dramatically risen from ~5969 ± 73 m a.s.l. during 1973/74–1988/89 to ~6193 ± 75 m a.s.l. during 1989/90–2013/14, suggesting that future ice cores containing uninterrupted climate records could only be recovered at least above 6200 m a.s.l. in the Naimona’nyi region. The glacier-wide mass balance over the past 41 years is averaged to be approximately ‑0.40 ± 0.17 m w.e., exhibiting a significant increase in the decadal average from ‑0.01 ± 0.15 to ‑0.69 ± 0.21 m w.e.

  17. ADNP/NAP dramatically increase microtubule end-binding protein-Tau interaction: a novel avenue for protection against tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashko-Pachima, Y; Sayas, C Laura; Malishkevich, A; Gozes, I

    2017-01-24

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), vital for brain formation and cognitive function, is mutated in autism and linked to neurodegenerative/psychiatric diseases. An eight-amino-acid peptide snippet of ADNP, NAP (NAPVSIPQ), identified as a smallest active fragment, includes the SxIP microtubule (MT) end-binding protein (EB) association motif, and enhances ADNP-EB3 interaction. Depletion of EB1 or EB3 abolishes NAP protection against zinc intoxication. Furthermore, NAP enhances Tau-MT interaction, and Tau regulates the localization and function of EB1 and EB3 in developing neuronal cells. Here, we asked how NAP (ADNP) enhances Tau-MT interactions and whether this is mediated by EBs. We showed, for we believe the first time, that NAP augmented endogenous EB1 comet density in the N1E-115 neuroblastoma neuronal model. This finding was substantiated by cell transfection with fluorescent EB1 and live cell imaging. NAP increased comet amounts, length and speed. At the molecular level, NAP enhanced EB3 homodimer formation, while decreasing EB1-EB3 heterodimer content and driving EB1- and EB3-Tau interactions (dramatic 20-fold increases), leading to recruitment of EB1/EB3 and Tau to MTs under zinc intoxication. Our previous results showed that while NAP protected neuronal-like cells against oxidative stress, it did not protect NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Here, NAP did not protect NIH3T3 cells against zinc intoxication, unless these cells were transfected with Tau. Interestingly, other MT associated proteins (MAPs) may replace Tau, thus, EB-Tau (MAPs) interaction is identified as a novel target for endogenous ADNP neuroprotection, and a future target for drug development, with NAP as a prototype.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.255.

  18. Genetic disruption of both tryptophan hydroxylase genes dramatically reduces serotonin and affects behavior in models sensitive to antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina V Savelieva

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT plays an important role in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The biosynthesis of serotonin is regulated by two rate-limiting enzymes, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 and -2 (TPH1 and TPH2. We used a gene-targeting approach to generate mice with selective and complete elimination of the two known TPH isoforms. This resulted in dramatically reduced central 5-HT levels in Tph2 knockout (TPH2KO and Tph1/Tph2 double knockout (DKO mice; and substantially reduced peripheral 5-HT levels in DKO, but not TPH2KO mice. Therefore, differential expression of the two isoforms of TPH was reflected in corresponding depletion of 5-HT content in the brain and periphery. Surprisingly, despite the prominent and evolutionarily ancient role that 5-HT plays in both vertebrate and invertebrate physiology, none of these mutations resulted in an overt phenotype. TPH2KO and DKO mice were viable and normal in appearance. Behavioral alterations in assays with predictive validity for antidepressants were among the very few phenotypes uncovered. These behavioral changes were subtle in the TPH2KO mice; they were enhanced in the DKO mice. Herein, we confirm findings from prior descriptions of TPH1 knockout mice and present the first reported phenotypic evaluations of Tph2 and Tph1/Tph2 knockout mice. The behavioral effects observed in the TPH2 KO and DKO mice strongly confirm the role of 5-HT and its synthetic enzymes in the etiology and treatment of affective disorders.

  19. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_{1.4 GHz} > 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR wavelength range obtained with the current generation of ground- and space-based telescope facilities. Reflecting this progress, here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their nuclear AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest that the triggering mergers are relatively minor in terms of their gas masses in most cases, and would not lead to major growth of the supermassive black holes and stellar bulges; therefore, apart from a minority (<20 %) that show evidence for higher star formation rates and more massive cool ISM reservoirs, the SLRG represent late-time re-triggering of activity in mature giant elliptical galaxies. In contrast, the host and environmental properties of weak-line radio galaxies (WLRG) with Fanaroff-Riley class I radio morphologies are consistent with more gradual fuelling of the activity via gas accretion at low rates onto the supermassive black holes.

  20. Genetic basis of human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallender, Eric J; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Lahn, Bruce T

    2008-12-01

    Human evolution is characterized by a rapid increase in brain size and complexity. Decades of research have made important strides in identifying anatomical and physiological substrates underlying the unique features of the human brain. By contrast, it has become possible only very recently to examine the genetic basis of human brain evolution. Through comparative genomics, tantalizing insights regarding human brain evolution have emerged. The genetic changes that potentially underlie human brain evolution span a wide range from single-nucleotide substitutions to large-scale structural alterations of the genome. Similarly, the functional consequences of these genetic changes vary greatly, including protein-sequence alterations, cis-regulatory changes and even the emergence of new genes and the extinction of existing ones. Here, we provide a general review of recent findings into the genetic basis of human brain evolution, highlight the most notable trends that have emerged and caution against over-interpretation of current data.

  1. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipankar Bhattacharya

    2002-03-01

    This paper reviews the current status of the theoretical models of the evolution of the magnetic fields of neutron stars other than magnetars. It appears that the magnetic fields of neutron stars decay significantly only if they are in binary systems. Three major physical models for this, namely spindown-induced flux expulsion, ohmic evolution of crustal field and diamagnetic screening of the field by accreted plasma, are reviewed.

  2. The Evolution of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, G. Ledyard

    1973-01-01

    Describes the basic logic behind the modern view of evolution theory. Despite gaps in fossil records, evidence is indicative of the origin of life from nonliving molecules and evolution of higher forms of life from simpler forms. (PS)

  3. Cannabis: evolution and ethnobotany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert Connell; Merlin, Mark David

    2013-01-01

    "Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary exploration of the natural origins and early evolution of this famous plant, highlighting its historic role in the development of human societies...

  4. Mistakes and Molecular Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the role mistakes play in the molecular evolution of bacteria. Discusses the interacting physical, chemical, and biological factors that cause changes in DNA and play a role in prokaryotic evolution. (DDR)

  5. The spin evolution of young pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Espinoza, Cristobal M

    2012-01-01

    The current understanding of the spin evolution of young pulsars is reviewed through a compilation of braking index measurements. An immediate conclusion is that the spin evolution of all pulsars with a measured braking index is not purely caused by a constant magnetic dipole. The case of PSR J1734-3333 and its upward movement towards the magnetars is used as a guide to try to understand why pulsars evolve with n < 3. Evolution between different pulsar families, driven by the emergence of a hidden internal magnetic field, appears as one possible picture.

  6. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Eyer@mac.com [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Müller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 μg/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 μg/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 μg/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ► We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ► We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ► We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin

  7. Why did watermills not have a dramatic effect on the Anthropocene sediment record of the Zwalm River, Belgium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; D'Haese, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Different studies demonstrated the dramatic effects of watermills on fluvial geomorphology in the Eastern US. Damming of floodplains and milldam lakes increased sediment deposition. Several authors attribute most of the so called post settlement legacy sediment to those milldam lakes. In Europe the role of milldams in the anthropogenic increased floodplain deposition rates during the last 1000 to 2000 years has gotten little attention until now. Therefore we studied the influence of watermills on Holocene floodplain deposition in the Zwalm catchment, Belgium. The Zwalm River is located in western part of the Belgian loess belt in an undulating landscape that had intensive agriculture for most of the last 2000 years. In total 9 watermills were present along the 17 km long main channel during the 19th century, while many were also present on tributaries. Historical records date several of the mills to the 10th century AD, although they might be older, and most of them remain to some degree active today. The influence of watermills on floodplain deposits was tested through coring transects of the Holocene deposits. Detailed transects were performed pairwise upstream and downstream 5 watermills. Samples were taken for grain size analysis using laser diffraction. A possible influence on floodplain topography was tested on a 5 m resolution DTM. Holocene floodplain architecture is similar to other floodplains in the region: a basal early to mid-Holocene peat and gyttja layer is covered by a fine grained sediment layer of more than 5 m thickness. The change between both can be attributed to increased soil erosion due to human land use, and can be considered to be the local legacy sediment. Comparison of transects upstream and downstream mills shows no significant difference in total Holocene or legacy sediment thickness. Texture analysis indicates that floodplain sediments are significant coarser downstream the mills.F Floodplains are not significant steeper around mills

  8. Dynamical evolution of planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The apparent regularity of the motion of the giant planets of our solar system suggested for decades that said planets formed onto orbits similar to the current ones and that nothing dramatic ever happened during their lifetime. The discovery of extra-solar planets showed astonishingly that the orbital structure of our planetary system is not typical. Many giant extra-solar planets have orbits with semi major axes of $\\sim 1$ AU, and some have even smaller orbital radii, sometimes with orbital periods of just a few days. Moreover, most extra-solar planets have large eccentricities, up to values that only comets have in our solar system. Why such a big diversity between our solar system and the extra-solar systems, as well as among the extra-solar systems themselves? This chapter aims to give a partial answer to this fundamental question....

  9. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  10. A Study of Effect of Dramatic Activities on Improving English Communicative Speaking Skill of Grade 11th Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Prisana; Kerdpol, Sakon

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to reexamine the current EFL communicative speaking skill in high school level in Thailand due to the coming of the entry to ASEAN at the end of the year 2015. Thai students need to be well prepared for workforce in the future since English is used as the working language in ASEAN. The purposes of this paper were to study the…

  11. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kentaro; Reddy, Naveen; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.

    2016-07-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the current status of observational and computational studies on galaxy formation and evolution. In particular, a joint analysis of star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and metallicities of galaxies throughout cosmic time can shed light on the processes by which galaxies build up their stellar mass and enrich the environment with heavy elements. Comparison of such observations and the results of numerical simulations can give us insights on the physical importance of various feedback effects by supernovae and active galactic nuclei. In Sect. 1, we first discuss the primary methods used to deduce the SFRs, stellar masses, and (primarily) gas-phase metallicities in high-redshift galaxies. Then, we show how these quantities are related to each other and evolve with time. In Sect. 2, we further examine the distribution of SFRs in galaxies following the `Main Sequence' paradigm. We show how the so-called `starbursts' display higher specific SFRs and SF efficiencies by an order of magnitude. We use this to devise a simple description of the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population since z ˜3 that can successfully reproduce some of the observed statistics in the infrared (IR) wavelength. We also discuss the properties of molecular gas. In Sect. 3, we highlight some of the recent studies of high-redshift galaxy formation using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We discuss the physical properties of simulated galaxies such as luminosity function and escape fraction of ionizing photons, which are important statistics for reionization of the Universe. In particular the escape fraction of ionizing photons has large uncertainties, and studying gamma-ray bursts (which is the main topic of this conference) can also set observational constraints on this uncertain physical parameter as well as cosmic star formation rate density.

  12. The Functions of Dramatic Elements in John Donne's Poems%论约翰·邓恩诗中的戏剧成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静静

    2007-01-01

    诗歌的戏剧化倾向变得越来越重要,便于诗人传达诗歌奇妙的艺术情感,使得诗歌易在读者中产生共鸣.这里主要介绍了玄虚派代表诗人约翰·邓恩诗中所运用的一些戏剧表现手法以及这些戏剧因素在传达诗歌的戏剧艺术效果方面所起到的作用.%Dramatic tendency in poetry is vital in achieving startling artistic effects among readers. This paper mainly points out the dramatic devices applied in the Metaphysical poet John Donne's poems and how they function in actualizing the dramatization of poems.

  13. The Evolution of Current Command Relationships in Amphibious Operations Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    STUDIES Major Ryan M. Finn, USMC AY 12-13 r. Robert Bruce Approved: ~¥+7""-"--"’.-1--:. Dme =------~~~~~~~------- 2 Executive Summary Title: The...after many years of infighting during the production of Joint Action, the Army abrogated their responsibility to coauthor the document and allowed the

  14. Current status of the tardigrada: evolution and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane R

    2002-07-01

    The Tardigrada are bilaterally symmetrical micrometazoans with four pairs of lobopod legs terminating in claws or sucking disks. They occupy a diversity of niches in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments throughout the world. Some have a cosmopolitan distribution, while others are endemic. About 900 species have been described thus far, but many more species are expected as additional habitats are investigated. Most are less than 1 mm in body length and are opaque or translucent, exhibiting colors such as brown, green, orange, yellow, red, or pink in the cuticle and/or gut. Marine species are more variable in body shape and overall appearance and generally exhibit low population density with high species diversity. Reproductive modes include sexual reproduction and parthenogenesis, but much remains to be known about development. Tardigrades have a hemocoel-type of fluid-filled body cavity, a complete digestive tract, and a lobed dorsal brain with a ventral nerve cord with fused ganglia. Recent molecular analyses and additional morphological studies of the nervous system have confirmed the phylogenetic position of tardigrades as a sister group of the arthropods. The ability of tardigrades to undergo cryptobiosis has long intrigued scientists. Although tardigrades are active only when surrounded by a film of water, they can enter latent states in response to desiccation (anhydrobiosis), temperature (cryobiosis), low oxygen (anoxybiosis), and salinity changes (osmobiosis). Cryptobiotic states aid in dispersal.

  15. the agincourt field site - evolution and current status

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forecast profound changes to the disease profile of middle- and low-income countries over the next quarter century.17 While several country-level studies are ... African context'. I Trap Med 1nl Health 1997; 2: 97..0-923. 5. Kielmann AA.

  16. The Communication Research in Spain. Historical evolution and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Manuel Martínez Nicolás - manuel.martinez.nicolas@urjc.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper an approach to the history of Communication Research in Spain, taking into account the scientific production and the structure and historical context in which the scientific community interested in this field have performed their work. For this task we have established a temporary frame beginning from the moment communication became an autonomous field of research and education in Spain, during the mid-sixties, until present time. This period has been divided into three stages, typically defined as emergence, consolidation and development (or maturing of communication studies in Spain. In each of these stages, the scientific community interested in communication research have worked in different social, academic and epistemic or scientific contexts. These particular conditions contribute to understanding the different orientations which have inspired historical communication research in Spain (research objects, theoretical and methodological approaches, contributions and limitations.Traducción supervisada por la Dda. María Teresa Durán Sánchez (ULPGC.En este trabajo se propone una aproximación a la historia de la investigación sobre comunicación en España poniendo en relación la producción científica con las características, estructura y condiciones históricas en las que ha desempeñado su trabajo la comunidad científica interesada en este ámbito. Para ello, se establece un marco temporal que arranca en el momento de la constitución de la comunicación como campo de investigación (y de docencia autónomo, a mediados de la década de los sesenta, y llega hasta la actualidad. Consideramos que en el curso de este periodo pueden distinguirse no menos de tres etapas, que convencionalmente se han denominado de emergencia, consolidación y desarrollo (o maduración de los estudios sobre comunicación en España. En cada una de estas etapas, la comunidad científica interesada en la investigación comunicativa se ha desenvuelto en contextos sociales, institucionales (esto es, académicos y propiamente epistemológicos o científicos diferentes, y esas particulares condiciones contribuyen a explicar las opciones u orientaciones diversas que históricamente ha ido tomando la investigación sobre comunicación en España (objetos de estudio, enfoques teórico-metodológicos, aportaciones y carencias.

  17. Current Leakage Evolution in Partially Gate Raptured Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif; Edmonds, Larry; Selva, Luis; Chen, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed that power MOSFETs can experience an SEGR and continue to function with altered parameters. We propose that there are three different types of SEGR modes; the micro-break, the thermal runaway, and the avalanche breakdown. Data that demonstrates these stages of device failure are presented as well as a proposed model for the micro-break. Brief discussions of the other modes, based on analysis combined with our interpretations of the older literature, are also given.

  18. JINA-NuGrid Galactic Chemical Evolution Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Côté, Benoit; Herwig, Falk; O'Shea, Brian W; Pignatari, Marco; Silvia, Devin; Jones, Samuel; Fryer, Chris L

    2016-01-01

    Galactic chemical evolution is a topic that involves nuclear physics, stellar evolution, galaxy evolution, observation, and cosmology. Continuous communication and feedback between these fields is a key component in improving our understanding of how galaxies form and how elements are created and recycled in galaxies and intergalactic space. In this proceedings, we present the current state of the JINA-NuGrid chemical evolution pipeline. It is designed to probe the impact of nuclear astrophysics uncertainties on galactic chemical evolution, to improve our knowledges regarding the origin of the elements in a cosmological context, and to create the required interdisciplinary connections.

  19. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmore, Kira E; Fox, James W; Irwin, Darren E

    2012-11-22

    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We attached light-level geolocators to birds at the edges of this contact zone to provide, to our knowledge, the first direct test of a putative divide using data from individual birds over the entire annual cycle. Coastal thrushes migrated along the west coast to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Some of these birds used multiple wintering sites. Inland thrushes migrated across the Rocky Mountains, through central North America to Columbia and Venezuela. These birds migrated longer distances than coastal birds and performed a loop migration, navigating over the Gulf of Mexico in autumn and around this barrier in spring. These findings support the suggestion that divergent migratory behaviour could contribute to reproductive isolation between migrants, advance our understanding of their non-breeding ecology, and are integral to development of detailed conservation strategies for this group.

  20. Biomimetic endodontics: the final evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J

    2007-07-01

    We are seeing a gradual evolution by a small but growing number of endodontists and general dentists toward delicate biomimetic, microscope-based shaping. This old-fashioned respect for periradicular dentin is paired with microscopes, ultrasonics, and an appreciation for root morphology. Although no 2 roots are the same, general anatomic patterns allow the microscope-equipped clinician to search for major pulpal regions that will yield a high probability of cleaning and shaping the clinically available pulpal zones. There are complex, anatomically improbable, and clinically impossible areas of pulp that are beyond the reach of even the most gifted hands. Regardless, the clinician has the responsibility to begin each procedure seeking perfection and joyfully finishing with excellence. The shapes that were introduced during the Schilder (crown-down) era have served as a transitional technique to allow the first real 3-dimensional compaction of gutta-percha. Nonetheless, endodontics is in the end a restoratively driven procedure. Large, arbitrary, round shapes create beautiful endodontics but can dramatically weaken the tooth. The shaping philosophy advanced in this treatise allows perfectly adequate shapes to achieve the hydraulics needed for modern obturation. It will require different skills and materials to shape, pack, and restore the exotic architecture of nature. (See Tables 1 to 3.).

  1. Turbulent lock release gravity current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The time evolution of a turbulent lock release gravity current, formed by a finite volume ofhomogeneous fluid released instantaneously into another fluid of slightly lower density, was studied byexperimental measurements of the density structure via elaborate digital image processing and by a nu-merical simulation of the flow and mixing using a two-equation turbulence model. The essential fact thatthe gravity current passes through an initial slumping phase in which the current head advances steadilyand a second self-similar phase in which the front velocity decreases like the negative third power of thetime after release is satisfactorily presented by the laboratory observation. An overall entrainment ratioproportional to the distance from the release point is found by the numerical simulation. The renormal-ization group (RNG) k- ε model for Reynolds-stress closure is validated to characterize the gravitycurrent with transitional and localized turbulence.

  2. Local thermal pressurization triggered by flash heating causes dramatic weakening in water-saturated gouges at subseismic slip rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Togo, Tetsuhiro; Chen, Jianye; Kitajima, Hiroko; Wang, Yu; He, Honglin

    2017-04-01

    increasing from 10 μm/s to 100 mm/s. At V =0.4 and 1.0 m/s, the evolutions of friction are characterized by sharp weakening, quick strengthening and slight weakening as slip proceeds. It is noteworthy that the sharp initial weakening is always accompanied by a contemporaneous axial dilatancy of 10-20 μm for both gouges, and the latter friction evolutions are accompanied by axial shortening for the granular gouge and by further dilatancy for the clay-rich gouge. Moreover, microstructure observations reveal that only 40% of the gouge layer was involved in shear deformation for the granular gouge at V =10-100 mm/s, as compared to distributed shear over the entire clay-rich gouge layer at all the tested velocities. The observed data, microstructures and modeling results suggest that flash heating probably triggers thermal pressurization at asperity-contacts or within extremely localized slip zones, causing the sudden initial weakening and contemporaneous dilatancy. The difference in the efficiency of flash heating could explain the different frictional behaviors of the two gouges. Given the extremely fast weakening caused by flash heating and the resulting local thermal pressurization, seismic faults could be weakened more rapidly at much lower slip rates below characteristic weakening velocities previously recognized.

  3. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  4. Renal Transplantation Dramatically Reduces IgA Anti-beta-2-glycoprotein I Antibodies in Patients with Endstage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Serrano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgA anti-beta-2-glycoprotein I (aB2GPI antibodies have been related to vascular pathology in the general population and mainly in hemodialyzed patients (prevalence 33% in whom an elevated incidence of thrombosis and mortality is found. In this paper we have studied the presence of IgA aB2GPI antibodies at pretransplant and their evolution after transplantation with a cross-sectional-based follow-up study of a cohort of 288 endstage renal disease (ESRD patients treated with kidney transplantation. Pretransplant IgA aB2GPI levels were elevated 31.7±4.2 U/mL without differences in age or type of dialysis. Patients with different etiologies of ESRD showed higher levels of IgA aB2GPI than blood donors, except the groups of non-IgA glomerular disease and systemic erythematosus lupus, whose nonsignificant differences were observed. IgA aB2GPI antibodies dropped immediately after transplantation (10.7±1.0 U/mL, P<0.0001, coinciding with a high degree of immunosuppression, and remained significantly lower than that observed in pretransplant status. Prevalence of patients with elevated antibodies was also less in transplanted patients (8.9% versus 30.4%, P<0.0001. Among, positivity for IgA aB2GPI was higher than in patients who had received their first transplant that those were retransplanted. This finding could have important clinical implications and can suggest new therapeutic strategies in patients with IgA aB2GPI antibodies.

  5. Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Testi, Leonardo; Ricci, Luca; Andrews, Sean; Blum, Juergen; Carpenter, John; Dominik, Carsten; Isella, Andrea; Natta, Antonella; Williams, Jonathan; Wilner, David

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) In the core accretion scenario for the formation of planetary rocky cores, the first step toward planet formation is the growth of dust grains into larger and larger aggregates and eventually planetesimals. Although dust grains are thought to grow from the submicron sizes typical of interstellar dust to micron size particles in the dense regions of molecular clouds and cores, the growth from micron size particles to pebbles and kilometre size bodies must occur in protoplanetary disks. This step in the formation of planetary systems is the last stage of solids evolution that can be observed directly in young extrasolar systems. In this chapter we review the constraints on the physics of grain-grain collisions as they have emerged from laboratory experiments and numerical computations. We then review the current theoretical understanding of the global processes governing the evolution of solids in protoplanetary disks, including dust settling, growth, and radial transport. The predicted observational...

  6. Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Mark A; Daniel, Andrew S; Meng, Fei; Forticaux, Audrey; Li, Linsen; Jin, Song

    2013-07-17

    Promising catalytic activity from molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is attributed to active sites located along the edges of its two-dimensional layered crystal structure, but its performance is currently limited by the density and reactivity of active sites, poor electrical transport, and inefficient electrical contact to the catalyst. Here we report dramatically enhanced HER catalysis (an electrocatalytic current density of 10 mA/cm(2) at a low overpotential of -187 mV vs RHE and a Tafel slope of 43 mV/decade) from metallic nanosheets of 1T-MoS2 chemically exfoliated via lithium intercalation from semiconducting 2H-MoS2 nanostructures grown directly on graphite. Structural characterization and electrochemical studies confirmed that the nanosheets of the metallic MoS2 polymorph exhibit facile electrode kinetics and low-loss electrical transport and possess a proliferated density of catalytic active sites. These distinct and previously unexploited features of 1T-MoS2 make these metallic nanosheets a highly competitive earth-abundant HER catalyst.

  7. Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, L.; Birnstiel, T.; Ricci, L.; Andrews, S.; Blum, J.; Carpenter, J.; Dominik, C.; Isella, A.; Natta, A.; Williams, J. P.; Wilner, D. J.

    In the core-accretion scenario for the formation of planetary rocky cores, the first step toward planet formation is the growth of dust grains into larger and larger aggregates and eventually planetesimals. Although dust grains are thought to grow up to micrometer-sized particles in the dense regions of molecular clouds, the growth to pebbles and kilometer-sized bodies must occur at the high densities within protoplanetary disks. This critical step is the last stage of solids evolution that can be observed directly in extrasolar systems before the appearance of large planetary-sized bodies. In this chapter we review the constraints on the physics of grain-grain collisions as they have emerged from laboratory experiments and numerical computations. We then review the current theoretical understanding of the global processes governing the evolution of solids in protoplanetary disks, including dust settling, growth, and radial transport. The predicted observational signatures of these processes are summarized. We briefly discuss grain growth in molecular cloud cores and in collapsing envelopes of protostars, as these likely provide the initial conditions for the dust in protoplanetary disks. We then review the observational constraints on grain growth in disks from millimeter surveys, as well as the very recent evidence for radial variations of the dust properties in disks. We also include a brief discussion on the small end of the grain size distribution and dust settling as derived from optical, near-, and mid-infrared observations. Results are discussed in the context of global dust-evolution models; in particular, we focus on the emerging evidence for a very efficient early growth of grains and the radial distribution of maximum grain sizes as the result of growth barriers. We also highlight the limits of the current models of dust evolution in disks, including the need to slow the radial drift of grains to overcome the migration/fragmentation barrier.

  8. Evolution of the chloroplast division machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo GAO; Fuli GAO

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts are photosynthetic organelles derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria during evolution.Dramatic changes occurred during the process of the formation and evolution of chloroplasts,including the large-scale gene transfer from chloroplast to nucleus.However,there are still many essential characters remaining.For the chloroplast division machinery,FtsZ proteins,Ftn2,SulA and part of the division site positioning system- MinD and MinE are still conserved.New or at least partially new proteins,such as FtsZ family proteins FtsZl and ARC3,ARC6H,ARC5,PDV1,PDV2 and MCD1,were introduced for the division of chloroplasts during evolution.Some bacterial cell division proteins,such as FtsA,MreB,Ftn6,FtsW and Ftsl,probably lost their function or were gradually lost.Thus,the chloroplast division machinery is a dynamically evolving structure with both conservation and innovation.

  9. SIM Configuration Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Kim M.

    2000-01-01

    , picometer measurement of wavefront, and others. In order to meet these goals, a significant amount of technological development is required. Although there has been a program operating for about a decade developing technologies specifically to address the challenges of space-based interferometry, there still remains a tremendous effort to achieve the incredible accuracy required of SIM. The projected viability of some of these areas has influenced design choices during the evolution of the many configurations that have been developed. For instance, the perceived complexity of the IR laser metrology system used to measure and control the positions of key optical elements was the strongest discriminator between the two architectures, and led to a decision to select SOS rather than Classic in early 1998. More recently, an appreciation of the sensitivity to beam-walk within the SOS architecture is forcing a reconsideration of that decision. At the time of submission of this abstract, there is some hope that a full-aperture metrology system may alleviate this issue. In addition to describing the current configuration of SIM, the influence of a few selected areas on the evolution of the configuration will be discussed.

  10. John Steinbeck: "The Pearl," Adapted by Warren Frost and Dramatized for the Kennedy Center by Nick Olcott. Cue Sheet for Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John C.

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "The Pearl" by John Steinbeck, adapted by Warren Frost and dramatized for the Kennedy Center by Nick Olcott. It is in the form of a Director's Notebook--a scrapbook/journal of clippings, memos, lists, illustrations, notes, and other…

  11. Molecular clocks and the early evolution of metazoan nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Gregory A

    2015-12-19

    The timing of early animal evolution remains poorly resolved, yet remains critical for understanding nervous system evolution. Methods for estimating divergence times from sequence data have improved considerably, providing a more refined understanding of key divergences. The best molecular estimates point to the origin of metazoans and bilaterians tens to hundreds of millions of years earlier than their first appearances in the fossil record. Both the molecular and fossil records are compatible, however, with the possibility of tiny, unskeletonized, low energy budget animals during the Proterozoic that had planktonic, benthic, or meiofaunal lifestyles. Such animals would likely have had relatively simple nervous systems equipped primarily to detect food, avoid inhospitable environments and locate mates. The appearance of the first macropredators during the Cambrian would have changed the selective landscape dramatically, likely driving the evolution of complex sense organs, sophisticated sensory processing systems, and diverse effector systems involved in capturing prey and avoiding predation. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Hydrogen evolution on Au(111) covered with submonolayers of Pd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björketun, Mårten; Karlberg, Gustav; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    . The energetics of adsorption and desorption of hydrogen on/from different types of sites on the Pd-Au(111) surface are assessed by means of density functional theory calculations combined with thermodynamic modeling. Based on the density functional and Monte Carlo data, the hydrogen evolution activity......A theoretical investigation of electrochemical hydrogen evolution on Au(111) covered with submonolayers of Pd is presented. The size and shape of monoatomically high Pd islands formed on the Au(111) surface are determined using Monte Carlo simulations, for Pd coverages varying from 0.02 to 0.95 ML...... line defects for Pd island formation and hydrogen evolution are discussed. It is argued, with support from theoretical data, that this kind of defects is likely to be responsible for a dramatic increase in activity observed experimentally [ChemPhysChem 7, 985 (2006); Electrochim. Acta 52, 5548 (2007...

  13. Evolution of Force Networks in Dense Particulate Media

    CERN Document Server

    Kramar, Miroslav; Kondic, Lou; Mischaikow, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    We introduce novel sets of measures with the goal of describing dynamical properties of force networks in dense particulate systems. The presented approach is based on persistent homology and allows for extracting precise, quantitative measures that describe the evolution of geometric features of the interparticle forces, without necessarily considering the details related to individual contacts between particles. The networks considered emerge from discrete element simulations of two dimensional particulate systems consisting of compressible frictional circular disks. We quantify the evolution of the networks for slowly compressed systems undergoing jamming transition. The main findings include uncovering significant but localized changes of force networks for unjammed systems, global (system-wide) changes as the systems evolve through jamming, to be followed by significantly less dramatic evolution for the jammed states. We consider both connected components, related in loose sense to force chains, and loop...

  14. Impacts of stellar evolution and dynamics on the habitable zone: The role of rotation and magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, F.; Charbonnel, C.; Amard, L.; Brun, S.; Palacios, A.; Mathis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Context. With the ever growing number of detected and confirmed exoplanets, the probability of finding a planet that looks like the Earth increases continuously. While it is clear that the presence of a planet in the habitable zone does not imply the planet is habitable, a systematic study of the evolution of the habitable zone is required to account for its dependence on stellar parameters. Aims: In this article, we aim to provide the community with the dependence of the habitable zone upon the stellar mass, metallicity, rotation, and for various prescriptions of the limits of the habitable zone. Methods: We use stellar evolution models computed with the code STAREVOL, which includes the most current physical mechanisms of internal transport of angular momentum and external wind braking, to study the evolution of the habitable zone and the continuously habitable zone limits. Results: The stellar parameters mass and metallicity affect the habitable zone limits most dramatically. Conversely, for a given stellar mass and metallicity, stellar rotation has only a marginal effect on these limits and does not modify the width of the habitable zone. Moreover, and as expected in the main-sequence phase and for a given stellar mass and metallicity, the habitable zone limits remain almost constant, and this confirms the usual assumptions of a relative constancy of these limits during that phase. The evolution of the habitable zone limits is also correlated to the evolution of the stellar activity (through the Rossby number), which depends on the stellar mass considered. While the magnetic activity has negligible consequence in the case of more massive stars, these effects may have a strong impact on the habitability of a planet around M-dwarf stars. Thus, stellar activity cannot be neglected and may have a strong impact on the development of life during the early stage of the continuously habitable zone phase of low-mass stars. Using observed trends of stellar magnetic field

  15. Bacterial CRISPR/Cas DNA endonucleases: A revolutionary technology that could dramatically impact viral research and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Edward M.; Cullen, Bryan R., E-mail: bryan.cullen@duke.edu

    2015-05-15

    might be destroyed. In conclusion, we believe that the continued rapid evolution of CRISPR/Cas technology will soon have a major, possibly revolutionary, impact on the field of virology. - Highlights: • Bacterial CRISPR/Cas systems can edit specific DNA sequences in mammalian cells. • CRISPR/Cas systems could eliminate latent or persistent DNA viruses in vivo. • CRISPR/Cas could also be used to screen for viral co-factors or restriction factors.

  16. Bacterial CRISPR/Cas DNA endonucleases: A revolutionary technology that could dramatically impact viral research and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2015-05-01

    might be destroyed. In conclusion, we believe that the continued rapid evolution of CRISPR/Cas technology will soon have a major, possibly revolutionary, impact on the field of virology.

  17. Evolution of urological imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueschen, Anton J; Lockhart, Mark E

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of urological imaging has had a major impact on the diagnosis and treatment of urological diseases since the discovery of the X-ray by Roentgen in 1895. Early developments included plain films of the abdomen, retrograde urographic techniques, development of contrast media, excretory urography, renal mass puncture, renal angiography, cystography and nuclear medicine procedures. These procedures led to the maturation of the specialties of diagnostic radiology and urology, and the development of the subspecialties of pediatric urology and urological radiology during the first seven decades of the 20th century. Subsequently, many imaging advances have occurred leading to changes in diagnosis and management of urological patients. Ultrasound and cross-sectional imaging technologies (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are increasingly applied in urological evaluation, treatment and surveillance. Current developments include dual energy computed tomography, positron emission tomography computed tomography, renal donor and renal transplant imaging, prostate magnetic resonance imaging, and microbubble contrast enhanced ultrasound. Imaging advances will continue. It is the responsibility of all physicians to assess the advantages of new developments while weighing those advantages against the additional radiation exposure and the costs associated with new procedures.

  18. Radio source evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Perucho, Manel

    2015-01-01

    Baldwin (1982) wrote that "the distribution of sources in the radio luminosity, P, overall physical size, D, diagram" could be considered as "the radio astronomer's H-R diagram". However, unlike the case of stars, not only the intrinsic properties of the jets, but also those of the host galaxy and the intergalactic medium are relevant to explain the evolutionary tracks of radio radio sources. In this contribution I review the current status of our understanding of the evolution of radio sources from a theoretical and numerical perspective, using the P-D diagram as a framework. An excess of compact (linear size < 10 kpc) sources could be explained by low-power jets being decelerated within the host galaxy, as shown by recent numerical simulations. These decelerated jets could also explain the population of the radio sources that have been recently classified as FR0. I will discuss the possible tracks that radio sources may follow within this diagram, and some of the physical processes that can explain the d...

  19. Experimental evolution in fungi: An untapped resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kaitlin J; Lang, Gregory I

    2016-09-01

    Historically, evolutionary biology has been considered an observational science. Examining populations and inferring evolutionary histories mold evolutionary theories. In contrast, laboratory evolution experiments make use of the amenability of traditional model organisms to study fundamental processes underlying evolution in real time in simple, but well-controlled, environments. With advances in high-throughput biology and next generation sequencing, it is now possible to propagate hundreds of parallel populations over thousands of generations and to quantify precisely the frequencies of various mutations over time. Experimental evolution combines the ability to simultaneously monitor replicate populations with the power to vary individual parameters to test specific evolutionary hypotheses, something that is impractical or infeasible in natural populations. Many labs are now conducting laboratory evolution experiments in nearly all model systems including viruses, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, and fruit flies. Among these systems, fungi occupy a unique niche: with a short generation time, small compact genomes, and sexual cycles, fungi are a particularly valuable and largely untapped resource for propelling future growth in the field of experimental evolution. Here, we describe the current state of fungal experimental evolution and why fungi are uniquely positioned to answer many of the outstanding questions in the field. We also review which fungal species are most well suited for experimental evolution.

  20. The evolution of general intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith M; Schubiger, Michèle N; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-07-28

    The presence of general intelligence poses a major evolutionary puzzle, which has led to increased interest in its presence in nonhuman animals. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate this puzzle, and to explore the implications for current theories about the evolution of cognition. We first review domain-general and domain-specific accounts of human cognition in order to situate attempts to identify general intelligence in nonhuman animals. Recent studies are consistent with the presence of general intelligence in mammals (rodents and primates). However, the interpretation of a psychometric g-factor as general intelligence needs to be validated, in particular in primates, and we propose a range of such tests. We then evaluate the implications of general intelligence in nonhuman animals for current theories about its evolution and find support for the cultural intelligence approach, which stresses the critical importance of social inputs during the ontogenetic construction of survival-relevant skills. The presence of general intelligence in nonhumans implies that modular abilities can arise in two ways, primarily through automatic development with fixed content and secondarily through learning and automatization with more variable content. The currently best-supported model, for humans and nonhuman vertebrates alike, thus construes the mind as a mix of skills based on primary and secondary modules. The relative importance of these two components is expected to vary widely among species, and we formulate tests to quantify their strength.