WorldWideScience

Sample records for current deployment strategies

  1. Risk assessment with current deployment strategies for fusiform rust-resistant loblolly and slash pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd Bridgwater; Tom Kubisiak; Tom Byram; Steve Mckeand

    2004-01-01

    In the southeastern USA, fusiform rust resistant loblolly and slash pines may be deployed as 1) ulked seed orchard mixes. 2) half-sibling (sib) family mixtures. 3) single half-sib families. 4) full-sib cross seeds or as 6) clones of individual genotypes. These deployment types are respectively greater genetic gains from higher selection intensity. Currently, bulked...

  2. Supply strategy for SMR deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccagna, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides a description of Babcock and Wilcox's deployment strategy for the mPower™ Small Modular Reactor from the perspective of Supply Chain and Manufacturing. A desirable future state of readiness is described as one which leverages and revitalizes an existing supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure, as well as leveraging an existing workforce of engineering, construction, and project management employees. B and W's mPower™ SMR value proposition offers many desired design and operating advantages to the SMR market. (author)

  3. Concurrent engineering: effective deployment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unny Menon

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive insight into current trends and developments in Concurrent Engineering for integrated development of products and processes with the goal of completing the entire cycle in a shorter time, at lower overall cost and with fewer engineering design changes after product release. The evolution and definition of Concurrent Engineering are addressed first, followed by a concise review of the following elements of the concurrent engineering approach to product development: Concept Development: The Front-End Process, identifying Customer Needs and Quality Function Deployment, Establishing Product Specifications, Concept Selection, Product Architecture, Design for Manufacturing, Effective Rapid Prototyping, and The Economics of Product Development. An outline of a computer-based tutorial developed by the authors and other graduate students funded by NASA ( accessible via the world-wide-web . is provided in this paper. A brief discussion of teamwork for successful concurrent engineering is included, t'ase histories of concurrent engineering implementation at North American and European companies are outlined with references to textbooks authored by Professor Menon and other writers. A comprehensive bibliography on concurrent engineering is included in the paper.

  4. Deployment strategies of managed lanes on arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report investigates issues related to planning, financing, deployment, and operation of managed : lanes on arterials. In this report, a strategy for managed lanes refers to a combination of the managed : lane type, the design and implementation,...

  5. Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-05-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop, held on March 12–13, 2014, at Argonne National Laboratory.

  6. 5-Beam ADCP Deployment Strategy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.; Savidge, D. K.; Gargett, A.

    2016-02-01

    With the increasing availability of 5 beam ADCPs and expanding opportunities for their deployment within both observatory and dedicated process study settings, refinements in deployment strategies are needed.Measuring vertical velocities directly with a vertically oriented acoustic beam requires that the instrument be stably mounted and leveled within fractions of a degree. Leveled shallow water deployments to date have utilized divers to jet pipes into the sand for stability, manually mount the instruments on the pipes, and level them. Leveling has been guided by the deployed instrument's pitch and roll output, available in real-time because of the observatory settings in which the deployments occurred. To expand the range of feasible deployments to deeper, perhaps non-real-time capable settings, alternatives to diver deployment and leveling must be considered. To determine stability requirements, mooring motion (heading, pitch and roll) has been sampled at 1Hz by gimballed ADCPs at a range of instrument deployment depths, and in shrouded and unshrouded cages. Conditions under which ADCP cages resting on the bottom experience significant shifts in tilt, roll or heading are assessed using co-located wind and wave measurements. The accuracy of estimating vertical velocities using all five beams relative to a well leveled vertical single beam is assessed from archived high frequency five beam data, to explore whether easing the leveling requirement is feasible.

  7. Market deployment strategies for photovoltaics: an international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade of the 20th century a wide variety of deployment strategies and dissemination programmes for grid-connected PV systems in the built environment has been launched by quite different organizations and institutions. Governmental bodies on national and local levels have launched strategies, as have electric utilities and NGOs. The core objective of this paper is to document and evaluate the most important past and current market deployment strategies for the broader dissemination of grid-connected PV systems in the built environment. (author)

  8. Bomber Deployments: A New Power Projection Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-21

    AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE DISTANCE LEARNING AIR UNIVERSITY BOMBER DEPLOYMENTS: A NEW POWER PROJECTION STRATEGY by...operating base (FOB), main operating base ( MOB ) and intermediate staging base (ISB).10 Each type of base requires certain actions to make it suitable for...closure of many main operating bases ( MOB ) overseas and the reluctance of many nations to permit permanent military bases on their soil.”15 This

  9. Deployment Strategies and Clustering Protocols Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérif Diallo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks face significant design challenges due to limited computing and storage capacities and, most importantly, dependence on limited battery power. Energy is a critical resource and is often an important issue to the deployment of sensor applications that claim to be omnipresent in the world of future. Thus optimizing the deployment of sensors becomes a major constraint in the design and implementation of a WSN in order to ensure better network operations. In wireless networking, clustering techniques add scalability, reduce the computation complexity of routing protocols, allow data aggregation and then enhance the network performance. The well-known MaxMin clustering algorithm was previously generalized, corrected and validated. Then, in a previous work we have improved MaxMin by proposing a Single- node Cluster Reduction (SNCR mechanism which eliminates single-node clusters and then improve energy efficiency. In this paper, we show that MaxMin, because of its original pathological case, does not support the grid deployment topology, which is frequently used in WSN architectures. The unreliability feature of the wireless links could have negative impacts on Link Quality Indicator (LQI based clustering protocols. So, in the second part of this paper we show how our distributed Link Quality based d- Clustering Protocol (LQI-DCP has good performance in both stable and high unreliable link environments. Finally, performance evaluation results also show that LQI-DCP fully supports the grid deployment topology and is more energy efficient than MaxMin.

  10. Strategies to facilitate stakeholder and regulator support for technology deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burford, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    Implementation and deployment of new and innovative environmental technologies is impossible without regulator, enduser and stakeholder support. Technologies being developed for different needs require different strategies to facilitate this endorsement. Areas addressed will include technologies developed to meet site specific cleanup needs and those developed for multiple site applications. A third area deals with using site specific technologies at previously unidentified locations. In order to expand the application of these technologies to other sites a plan to include potential site regulators and stakeholders early in the development process should be considered. The Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area has developed a Stakeholder Communication Plan. This plan, in addition to lessons learned from current technology development projects that have successfully obtained this type of support, will provide the basis for the information provided in this paper. The object of this paper is to suggest strategies that could facilitate the implementation and deployment of technologies at environmental sites by involving regulators and stakeholders at the proper time for various applications

  11. Book Review: Deployment Psychology: Evidence-based strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review: Deployment Psychology: Evidence-based strategies to promote mental health in the Military. AB Adler, PD Bliese, CA Castro. Abstract. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association 2011 294 pages ISBN-13: 978-1-4338-0881-4. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Deployment and Implementation Strategies for Massive MIMO in 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panzner, Berthold; Zirwas, Wolfgang; Dierks, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    for 5G is a successful and cost-efficient integration in the overall network concept. This work highlights deployment and implementation strategies for massive MIMO in the context of 5G indoor small cell scenarios. Different massive MIMO deployment scenarios are analyzed for a standard 3GPP indoor...... to spatial streams is varied stepwise from equality to a factor of ten. For implementation of massive MIMO in 5G networks trends in beamforming techniques, mutually coupled subarrays, over the calibration procedure and estimated ADC performance in 2020 time-frame are discussed. Based on the debate the paper...

  13. Bayesian Lagrangian Data Assimilation and Drifter Deployment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, A.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean currents transport a variety of natural (e.g. water masses, phytoplankton, zooplankton, sediments, etc.) and man-made materials and other objects (e.g. pollutants, floating debris, search and rescue, etc.). Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) or the most influential/persistent material lines in a flow, provide a robust approach to characterize such Lagrangian transports and organize classic trajectories. Using the flow-map stochastic advection and a dynamically-orthogonal decomposition, we develop uncertainty prediction schemes for both Eulerian and Lagrangian variables. We then extend our Bayesian Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-DO filter to a joint Eulerian-Lagrangian Bayesian data assimilation scheme. The resulting nonlinear filter allows the simultaneous non-Gaussian estimation of Eulerian variables (e.g. velocity, temperature, salinity, etc.) and Lagrangian variables (e.g. drifter/float positions, trajectories, LCSs, etc.). Its results are showcased using a double-gyre flow with a random frequency, a stochastic flow past a cylinder, and realistic ocean examples. We further show how our Bayesian mutual information and adaptive sampling equations provide a rigorous efficient methodology to plan optimal drifter deployment strategies and predict the optimal times, locations, and types of measurements to be collected.

  14. An early deployment strategy for carbon capture, utilisation, and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, L.D.

    2012-11-01

    This report describes the current use of CO2 for EOR, and discusses potential expansion of EOR using CO2 from power plants. Analysis of potential EOR development in the USA, where most current CO2-based EOR production takes place, indicates that relatively low cost, traditional sources of CO2 for EOR (CO2 domes and CO2 from natural gas processing plants) are insufficient to exploit the full potential of EOR. To achieve that full potential will require use of CO2 from combustion and gasification systems, such as fossil fuel power plants, where capture of CO2 is more costly. The cost of current CCUS systems, even with the revenue stream for sale of the CO2 for EOR, is too high to result in broad deployment of the technology in the near term. In the longer term, research and development may be sufficient to reduce CO2 capture costs to a point where CCUS would be broadly deployed. This report describes a case study of conditions in the USA to explore a financial incentive to promote early deployment of CCUS, providing a range of immediate benefits to society, greater likelihood of reducing the long-term cost of CCUS, and greater likelihood of broad deployment of CCUS and CCS in the long term. Additionally, it may be possible to craft such an incentive in a manner that its cost is more than offset by taxes flowing from increased domestic oil production. An example of such an incentive is included in this report.

  15. TQM and lean strategy deployment in Italian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Andrea; Baccarani, Claudio

    2016-10-03

    Purpose This paper aims to contribute to the debate concerning total quality management (TQM)-Lean strategy in public healthcare by analyzing the deployment path for implementation, the possible benefits that can be achieved and the encountered pitfalls. Design/methodology/approach Three case studies are drawn from three large Italian hospitals with more than 500 beds each and structured with many departments. The hospitals are located in Tuscany, Italy. These three hospitals have embraced TQM and Lean, starting from strategic objectives and their deployment. At the same time, they have also implemented many TQM-Lean tools. The case studies are based on interviews held with four managers in each of these three public hospitals. Findings Results from the interviews show that there is a specific deployment path for TQM-Lean implementation. The hospitals have also achieved benefits linked to patient satisfaction and improved organizational performances. Problems related to organizational and cultural issues, such as senior managers' commitment, staff management, manufacturing culture and tools adaptation, could affect the benefits. Research limitations/implications The research has been carried out in just three Italian public hospitals. Hence, similar investigations could be managed in other countries. Researchers could also use a larger sample and investigate these issues by means of quantitative inquiry. Practical implications Practitioners could try to apply the deployment path revealed by these case studies in other public and private hospitals. Originality/value The results of this research show that there is a specific, new deployment path for implementing TQM-Lean strategy in some public hospitals.

  16. Deployment and implementation of the Grundfos' sustainability strategy by means of the ecodesign maturity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.; Rozenfeld, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Companies are increasingly realizing the needs and opportunities for implementing sustainability into their business processes and corporate culture. This paper describes the approach followed by Grundfos to deploy its Sustainability Strategy for the development of Sustainable Product Solutions......, by means of the Ecodesign Maturity Model (EcoM2), which included the diagnosis of their current maturity profile, the definition of a strategic roadmap for ecodesign implementation and the implementation of the defined projects....

  17. Strategies to Improve Management of Acute Watery Diarrhea during a Military Deployment: A Cost Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Andrew J; Tribble, David R; Riddle, Mark S

    2017-12-01

    To inform policy and decision makers, a cost-effectiveness model was developed to predict the cost-effectiveness of implementing two hypothetical management strategies separately and concurrently on the mitigation of deployment-associated travelers' diarrhea (TD) burden. The first management strategy aimed to increase the likelihood that a deployed service member with TD will seek medical care earlier in the disease course compared with current patterns; the second strategy aimed to optimize provider treatment practices through the implementation of a Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guideline. Outcome measures selected to compare management strategies were duty days lost averted (DDL-averted) and a cost effectiveness ratio (CER) of cost per DDL-averted (USD/DDL-averted). Increasing health care and by seeking it more often and earlier in the disease course as a stand-alone management strategy produced more DDL (worse) than the base case (up to 8,898 DDL-gained per year) at an increased cost to the Department of Defense (CER $193). Increasing provider use of an optimal evidence-based treatment algorithm through Clinical Practice Guidelines prevented 5,299 DDL per year with overall cost savings (CER -$74). A combination of both strategies produced the greatest gain in DDL-averted (6,887) with a modest cost increase (CER $118). The application of this model demonstrates that changes in TD management during deployment can be implemented to reduce DDL with likely favorable impacts on mission capability and individual health readiness. The hypothetical combination strategy evaluated prevents the most DDL compared with current practice and is associated with a modest cost increase.

  18. US HTGR Deployment Challenges and Strategies HTR 2014 Conference Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhi, Farshid; Lommers, Lewis; Mayer, John III; Southworth, Finis

    2014-01-01

    The NGNP Industry Alliance (NIA), LLC (www.NGNPAliance.org), is a consortium of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designers, utility plant owner/operators, critical plant hardware suppliers, and end-user groups. The NIA is promoting the design and commercialization of a HTGR for industrial process heat applications and electricity generation. In 2012, NIA selected the AREVA Steam Cycle HTGR (SC-HTGR) as its primary reactor design choice for its first implementation in mid -2020s. The SC-HTGR can produce 625 MWth of process steam at 550°C or 275 MWe of electricity in a co-generation configuration. The standard plant is a four-pack of 625MWth modules providing steam and electricity co-generation. The safety characteristics of the HTGR technology allows close colocation of the nuclear plant and the industrial end-user. The plant design also allows the process steam used for the industrial applications to be completely segregated and separate from primary Helium coolant and the secondary nuclear steam supply systems. The process steam at temperatures up to 550°C is provided for a variety of direct or indirect applications. End-user requirements are met for a wide range of steam flow, pressure and temperature conditions. Very high reliability (>99.99%) is maintained by the use of multi-reactor modules and conventional gas-fired back-up. Intermittent steam loads can also be efficiently met through co-generation of electricity for internal use or external distribution and sale. The NIA technology development and deployment challenges are met with strategies that provide investment and partnerships opportunities for plant design and equipment supply, and by cooperative government research, sovereign or private investment, and philanthropic opportunities. Our goal is to create intellectual property (IP) and investor value as the design matures and a license is obtained. The strategy also includes involvement of the initial customer in sharing the value created in

  19. A Multiobjective Fuzzy Inference System based Deployment Strategy for a Distributed Mobile Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P. Bhondekar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor deployment scheme highly governs the effectiveness of distributed wireless sensor network. Issues such as energy conservation and clustering make the deployment problem much more complex. A multiobjective Fuzzy Inference System based strategy for mobile sensor deployment is presented in this paper. This strategy gives a synergistic combination of energy capacity, clustering and peer-to-peer deployment. Performance of our strategy is evaluated in terms of coverage, uniformity, speed and clustering. Our algorithm is compared against a modified distributed self-spreading algorithm to exhibit better performance.

  20. Photovoltaic deployment strategy in Japan and the USA-an institutional appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Kwok L.; Watanabe, Chihiro

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) is a renewable energy technology, along side with other modular energy generation technologies such as micro-turbines, fuel cells, etc., which will enable the alternative distributed generation paradigm compared to the incumbent fossil fuel based centralized generation paradigm. Distributed generation utilizing renewable energy resources offers opportunities for significant carbon dioxide and emissions reductions thus contributing solutions to broader climate change issues. Yet, renewable energy technologies like PV face various barriers for their widespread adoption. Aside from technical and cost issues, renewable technologies have to overcome the so-called carbon lock-in effects. This refers to the techno-institutional complex associated with the fossil-fuel based centralized generation regime that currently dominates energy production and use. Governmental interventions to address these issues usually can be seen as composed of research, development, demonstration and deployment or RD3 [PCAST, 1999. Panel on International Cooperation in Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment]. This paper focused on comparing the deployment aspect of PV technology in Japan and the USA. While both governments promoted PV as part of their larger strategies to address various environmental and energy security issues, Japan has built a PV installation capacity three times that of the USA as of December 2003 with over 90% of PV installation in the grid-connected small residential system category. This is in marked contrast to the case in the USA in which the cumulative installation is spilt among different types of applications involving the grid and off the grid. We put forward two models to explain these differences in deployment strategies and their possible consequences. The first deployment model leverages upon PV as a manufactured technology with minimal customization to achieve massive deployment. The second deployment model leverages upon

  1. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  2. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-01-01

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry

  3. A Small Spacecraft Swarm Deployment and Stationkeeping Strategy for Sun-Earth L1 Halo Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renea Conn, Tracie; Bookbinder, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft orbits about the Sun-Earth librarian point L1 have been of interest since the 1950s. An L1 halo orbit was first achieved with the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) mission, and similar orbits around Sun-Earth L1 were achieved in the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Genesis, and Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) missions. With recent advancements in CubeSat technology, we envision that it will soon be feasible to deploy CubeSats at L1. As opposed to these prior missions where one large satellite orbited alone, a swarm of CubeSats at L1 would enable novel science data return, providing a topology for intersatellite measurements of heliophysics phenomena both spatially and temporally, at varying spatial scales.The purpose of this iPoster is to present a flight dynamics strategy for a swarm of numerous CubeSats orbiting Sun-Earth L1. The presented method is a coupled, two-part solution. First, we present a deployment strategy for the CubeSats that is optimized to produce prescribed, time-varying intersatellite baselines for the purposes of collecting magnetometer data as well as radiometric measurements from cross-links. Second, we employ a loose control strategy that was successfully applied to SOHO and ACE for minimized stationkeeping propellant expenditure. We emphasize that the presented solution is practical within the current state-of-the-art and heritage CubeSat technology, citing capabilities of CubeSat designs that will launch on the upcoming Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) to lunar orbits and beyond. Within this iPoster, we present animations of the simulated deployment strategy and resulting spacecraft trajectories. Mission design parameters such as total Δv required for long-term station keeping and minimum/maximum/mean spacecraft separation distances are also presented.

  4. 76 FR 51431 - Ericsson Services, Inc., Currently Known as Ericsson, Inc., Service Assurance, Deployment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Services, Inc., Currently Known as Ericsson, Inc., Service Assurance, Deployment and Integration, and... Known as Ericsson, Inc., Service Assurance, Deployment and Integration, and Engineering and IS/IT... Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade...

  5. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sendin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.

  6. Domian Transfer as a Strategy Deployed to Portray Massive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also there are variations of public opinion on the intent, content, and context of the epistle, many of which come from the power brokers in Nigeria. What this essay does is to examine cases of domain transfer in the text. In the process, it discovers that the writer deploys lexical items from source domains- religion, military, ...

  7. Designing and Deploying Programming Courses: Strategies, Tools, Difficulties and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinogalos, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    Designing and deploying programming courses is undoubtedly a challenging task. In this paper, an attempt to analyze important aspects of a sequence of two courses on imperative-procedural and object-oriented programming in a non-CS majors Department is made. This analysis is based on a questionnaire filled in by fifty students in a voluntary…

  8. Prostate carcinoma: current diagnostic strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzschild, Monica Maria Agata Stiepcich; Ferraz, Maria Lucia Cardoso Gomes; Oliveira, Jose Marcelo Amatuzzi; Andriolo, Adagmar

    2001-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second cause of cancer death in men in the Western world. Despite progress in the treatment of advanced disease, it is recognized that the only possibility of reduction in prostate cancer death is nearly diagnosis when the disease is localized. In the present study our aim was to review the current strategy for diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable tumor marker and has demonstrated effectiveness in detecting prostate carcinoma, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and disclosing disease recurrence. However, alternative methods are been proposed just as the free to total PSA ratio, PSA density, PSA velocity, which could improve the diagnostic sensibility and the specificity. Image diagnostic methods include transrectal ultra sound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance image, and bone cintigraphy. The ultra sound is the best approach to guide the prostate biopsy and, together with the magnetic resonance is still useful for loco regional graduation. Computerized tomography as magnetic resonance image can be used for identification of linfonodal involvement. Bone cintigraphy is the best method for the identification of metastatic disease. (author)

  9. Integrated Model to Assess Cloud Deployment Effectiveness When Developing an IT-strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikov, S.; Prankevich, D.

    2016-04-01

    Developing an IT-strategy of cloud deployment is a complex issue since even the stage of its formation necessitates revealing what applications will be the best possible to meet the requirements of a company business-strategy, evaluate reliability and safety of cloud providers and analyze staff satisfaction. A system of criteria, as well an integrated model to assess cloud deployment effectiveness is offered. The model makes it possible to identify what applications being at the disposal of a company, as well as new tools to be deployed are reliable and safe enough for implementation in the cloud environment. The data on practical use of the procedure to assess cloud deployment effectiveness by a provider of telecommunication services is presented. The model was used to calculate values of integral indexes of services to be assessed, then, ones, meeting the criteria and answering the business-strategy of a company, were selected.

  10. A Distributed Cache Update Deployment Strategy in CDN

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Xinhua; Zhu, Binjie

    2018-04-01

    The CDN management system distributes content objects to the edge of the internet to achieve the user's near access. Cache strategy is an important problem in network content distribution. A cache strategy was designed in which the content effective diffusion in the cache group, so more content was storage in the cache, and it improved the group hit rate.

  11. Breaking up Romantic Relationships: Costs Experienced and Coping Strategies Deployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Perilloux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences between men and women, and between individuals experiencing rejection (Rejectees and individuals doing the rejecting (Rejectors in romantic relationship break-ups. We tested fourteen evolution-based predictions about romantic breakups using data from 193 participants; ten received support. Women more than men, for example, experienced costly sequelae such as the loss of a mate's physical protection and harmful post-breakup stalking by the ex-partner. Both men and women who were rejected, compared with those who did the rejecting, experienced more depression, loss of self-esteem, and rumination. Rejectors, on the other hand, experienced the reputational cost of being perceived by others as cruel. Exploratory data analyses revealed that women more than men reported experiencing negative emotions after a breakup, particularly feeling sad, confused, and scared. Both sexes used an array of strategies to cope with the breakup, ranging from high base-rate strategies such as discussing the breakup with friends to low base-rate strategies such as threatening suicide. The largest sex difference in coping strategies centered on the act of shopping, used by women Rejectors as well as women Rejectees, likely a strategy of appearance enhancement prior to reentering the mating market. Discussion focuses on the adaptive significance of sex differences and individual differences based on rejection status.

  12. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

    2009-01-01

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program

  13. Interoperability after deployment: persistent challenges and regional strategies in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The European Union has identified Denmark as one of the countries who have the potential to provide leadership and inspiration for other countries in eHealth implementation and adoption. However, Denmark has historically struggled to facilitate data exchange between their public hospitals' electronic health records (EHRs). Furthermore, state-led projects failed to adequately address the challenges of interoperability after deployment. Changes in the organizational setup and division of responsibilities concerning the future of eHealth implementations in hospitals took place, which granted the Danish regions the full responsibility for all hospital systems, specifically the consolidation of EHRs to one system per region. The regions reduced the number of different EHRs to six systems by 2014. Additionally, the first version of the National Health Record was launched to provide health care practitioners with an overview of a patient's data stored in all EHRs across the regions and within the various health sectors. The governance of national eHealth implementation plays a crucial role in the development and diffusion of interoperable technologies. Changes in the organizational setup and redistribution of responsibilities between the Danish regions and the state play a pivotal role in producing viable and coherent solutions in a timely manner. Interoperability initiatives are best managed on a regional level or by the authorities responsible for the provision of local health care services. Cross-regional communication is essential during the initial phases of planning in order to set a common goal for countrywide harmonization, coherence and collaboration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  14. A stowing and deployment strategy for large membrane space systems on the example of Gossamer-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Patric

    2017-09-01

    the Gossamer-1 hardware, it allows an analysis of other geometries. This is of particular interest as Gossamer-1 investigated deployment technology on a relatively small scale of 5m × 5m , while the currently considered solar sail missions require sails that are about one order of magnitude bigger.

  15. Nested Fixed-Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REICH, F.R.

    2000-01-01

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks

  16. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark

    1998-01-01

    .... This runs counter to the popular belief that strategic lift is the limiting constraint. The study begins by highlighting the genesis of the military's current force projection strategy and the resulting importance of rapid force deployments...

  17. Assessment of distribution grid voltage control strategies in view of deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales

    2014-01-01

    Increasing integration of distributed energy resources (DER) and available monitoring devices in the power distribution grid make system services provided by DERs possible and an integral part of distribution grid operation. Numerous publications have proposed various control solutions by utilizing......, it provides some qualitative discussions on the challenges in view of deployment. Several qualifying metrics are listed to specify the challenges from different perspectives. A metrics comparison diagram is proposed to asses deployment of a control strategy. Five case studies are presented to identify...

  18. Advanced nuclear power systems: Design, technology, safety and strategies for their deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the symposium were to provide high level decision makers with an overview of the discussion concerning the need for nuclear power and salient features of advanced nuclear power systems; a forum for discussing the design objectives and safety approaches for such systems and the views of regulatory bodies; a forum for identifying barriers to the deployment of these systems and for reviewing strategies to overcome these barriers; and a forum for reviewing options for international cooperation in the development and deployment of such systems. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler and analysis system. Deployment strategy and plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasper, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Under the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization strategy, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requires the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Team to supply tank wastes to the Privatization Contractor for separation, treatment and immobilization (verification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) envelopes represent the range of the liquid wastes in the large underground waste-storage tank at the Hanford Site. The PHMC Team also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) to the Privatization Contractor. The LAW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration period will extend over 10-plus years. Wastes processed during this period will result in 6% to 13% of the total Hanford Site tank waste being treated. The purpose of this document is to provide a strategy and top-level implementation plan for the demonstration and deployment of an alternative sampling technology as an improvement to the current grab sampling approach to support the TWRS privatization. Included in this work is the addition of the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the use of this technology for meeting the PHMC Team's needs. The first application of this technology is to LAW feed staging, then to HLW feed staging, and finally to cross-site transfer to support feed staging from 200 West Area tanks. The TWRS retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed activities in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 identified the primary uncertainties and risks that must be managed to successfully carry out the support of the TWRS Phase 1 activities. Four of the critical risks could be mitigated, at least partially, by the use of an improved alternative to grab sampling. In addition, eight of the risks with the Waste Feed Delivery Project were associated with the sampling activities. Over 25 logic elements, Technical Basis Reviews (TBR), were reviewed and found to be relevant to risk mitigation using an

  20. Rich: Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head Selection and Node Deployment Strategy in Concentric-based WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN, C.-S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a random deployment, sensor nodes are scattered randomly in the sensing field. Hence, the coverage can not be guaranteed. In contrast, the coverage of uniformly deployment is in general larger than the random deployment. However, uniformly deployment strategy may cause unbalanced traffic pattern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this situation, larger load may be imposed to CHs (cluster heads around the sink. Therefore, CHs close to the sink use up their energy earlier than those farther away from the sink. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel node deployment strategy in the concentric model, namely, Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head selection and node deployment strategy (called Rich. The coverage, energy consumption and data routing issues are well investigated and taken into consideration in the proposed Rich scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed Rich alleviates the unbalanced traffic pattern significantly, prolongs network lifetime and achieves satisfactory coverage ratio.

  1. Current Strategies in Cardiovascular Biomaterial Functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lehle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the coagulation cascade and platelet activation is the foremost demand for biomaterials in contact with blood. In this review we describe the underlying mechanisms of these processes and offer the current state of antithrombotic strategies. We give an overview of methods to prevent protein and platelet adhesion, as well as techniques to immobilize biochemically active molecules on biomaterial surfaces. Finally, recent strategies in biofunctionalization by endothelial cell seeding as well as their possible clinical applications are discussed.

  2. Scientific Packages on Small Bodies, a Deployment Strategy for New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardivel, Simon; Scheeres, D. J.; Michel, P.

    2013-10-01

    The exploration of asteroids is currently a topic of high priority for the space agencies. JAXA will launch its second asteroid explorer, aimed at 1999 JU3, in the second half of 2014. NASA has selected OSIRIS-REx to go to asteroid Bennu, and it will launch in 2016. ESA is currently performing the assessment study of the MarcoPolo-R space mission, in the framework of the M3 (medium) competition of its Cosmic Vision Program, whose objective is now 2008 EV5. In the continuity of these missions, landing for an extended period of time on the ground to perform measurements seems a logical next step to asteroid exploration. Yet, the surface behavior of an asteroid is not well known and landing the whole spacecraft on it could be hazardous, and pose other mission operations problems such as ensuring communication with Earth. Hence, we propose a new approach to asteroid surface exploration. Using a mothership spacecraft, we will present how multiple landers could be deployed to the surface of an asteroid using ballistic trajectories. Combining a detailed simulation of the bouncing and contact dynamics on the surface with numerical and mathematical analysis of the flight dynamics near an asteroid, we show how landing pods could be distributed at the surface of a body. The strategy has the advantages that the mothership always maintains a safe distance from the surface and the landers do not need any GNC (guidance, navigation and control system) or landing apparatus. Thus, it allows for simple operations and for the design of lightweight landers with minimum platform overhead and maximum payload. These pods could then be used as a single measurement apparatus (e.g. seismometers) or as independent and different instruments, using their widespread distribution to gain both global and local knowledge on the asteroid.

  3. A strategy analysis of the fast breeder reactor introduction and nuclear fuel cycle systems deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, Tsunetaka; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Yamashita, Takashi

    1996-01-01

    A study is made on a strategy analysis of the long term nuclear fuel cycle systems deployment in accordance with the nuclear power growth projection and fast breeder reactor (FBR) introduction. In the analysis, the reprocessed plutonium (Pu) is charged into the reactor in such a way that the reprocessed Pu is not stored outside the reactor, i.e., there is no excess Pu outside the reactor. The analysis characterized the fuel cycle systems, and showed the usefulness of the present method to determine future directions for the FBR introduction and nuclear fuel cycle systems deployment. Concerning an intermediate-term strategy, the time of introduction and required capacities of a second commercial LWR reprocessing plant, Pu-thermal, and the first FBR reprocessing plant deployment are evaluated. A long term strategy analysis shows that the two or three large plants are run in parallel for each fuel cycle facility and that FBR related facilities deal with a markedly large amount of Pu. It is concluded that the early stage introduction of FBRs of significant capacities seems necessary to materialize a consistent total FBR/fuel cycle system where Pu balance becomes feasible through its flexible operation of, for instance, adjusting breeding ratio, in order to keep the transparency of the Pu utilization. (author)

  4. The temporal deployment of emotion regulation strategies during negative emotional episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Résibois, Maxime; Verduyn, Philippe; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Time is given a central place in theoretical models of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998, 2015), but key questions regarding the role of time remain unanswered. We investigated 2 such unanswered questions. First, we explored when different emotion regulation strategies were used within the course of an emotional episode in daily life. Second, we investigated the association between the temporal deployment of strategies and negative emotional experience. We conducted a daily diary study in which participants (N = 74) drew an intensity profile depicting the temporal unfolding of their negative emotional experience across daily events (N = 480), and mapped their usage of emotion regulation strategies onto this intensity profile. Strategies varied in their temporal deployment, with suppression and rumination occurring more at the beginning of the episode, and reappraisal and distraction occurring more toward the end of the episode. Strategies also varied in their association with negative emotion: rumination was positively associated with negative emotion, and reappraisal and distraction were negatively associated with negative emotion. Finally, both rumination and reappraisal interacted with time to predict negative emotional experience. Rumination was more strongly positively associated with negative emotions at the end of the episode than the beginning, but reappraisal was more strongly negatively associated with negative emotion at the beginning of the episode than the end. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for timing in the study of emotion regulation, as well as the necessity of studying these temporal processes in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Next Generation Access Network Deployment in Croatia: Optical Access Networks and Current IoT/5G Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breskovic, Damir; Sikirica, Mladen; Begusic, Dinko

    2018-05-01

    This paper gives an overview and background of optical access network deployment in Croatia. Optical access network development in Croatia has been put into a global as well as in the European Union context. All the challenges and the driving factors for optical access networks deployment are considered. Optical access network architectures that have been deployed by most of the investors in Croatian telecommunication market are presented, as well as the architectures that are in early phase of deployment. Finally, an overview on current status of mobile networks of the fifth generation and Internet of Things is given.

  6. Deployment of e-health services - a business model engineering strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijl, Björn; Nieuwenhuis, Lambert J M; Huis in 't Veld, Rianne M H A; Hermens, Hermie J; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R

    2010-01-01

    We designed a business model for deploying a myofeedback-based teletreatment service. An iterative and combined qualitative and quantitative action design approach was used for developing the business model and the related value network. Insights from surveys, desk research, expert interviews, workshops and quantitative modelling were combined to produce the first business model and then to refine it in three design cycles. The business model engineering strategy provided important insights which led to an improved, more viable and feasible business model and related value network design. Based on this experience, we conclude that the process of early stage business model engineering reduces risk and produces substantial savings in costs and resources related to service deployment.

  7. Development and Deployment Strategy for a Small Advanced Light Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modro, S. Michael; Reith, Raymond; Babka, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses development and deployment strategies for the modular Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR). Modularity, small size, capability to transport whole modules including containment on road or by rail, simplicity and safety of this reactor allows innovative deployment strategies for a variety of applications. A larger plant may be constructed of many independent power generation units. The multi-module plant is intended to be operated as a base-load plant. Each reactor is to be operated at full load. However, in response to changes in power demand individual units can brought on line or shut down. A larger plant can be built in small increments to match the power demand balancing capital commitments with revenues from sales of electricity. Also, an unplanned shutdown of a reactor only affects a relatively small portion of the total plant capacity. Simplification of MASLWR design and extensive use of modularization coupled with factory fabrication will result in improved productivity of fieldwork and improved quality achieved in a factory environment. The initial MASLWR design concept development has been completed under the U.S. DOE (Department of Energy) Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project. This paper discusses a strategy for developing and deploying a MASLWR plant by 2015. This schedule is realistic because the plant design relies on existing industrial experience and manufacturing capabilities. The development strategy consists of the following elements: concept confirmation through testing (under the NERI program a scaled integral test facility has been constructed and initial testing performed), design concept optimization, and design certification based on prototype testing. (authors)

  8. Strategy approach for eLearning 2.0 deployment in Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Casquero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The institutionally powered Personal Learning Environment (iPLE constitutes our vision of how Web 2.0 technologies, people arrangement and data sharing could be applied for delivering open, flexible, distributed and learner-centred learning environments to university members. Based on the iPLE, this paper explores a strategy approach that universities could follow in order to deploy eLearning 2.0 tools and services. With that aim in mind, we review the patterns that Web 2.0 has successfully applied, and have been proved to encourage people to interact and to share information. Then, we present an eLearning 2.0 provisioning strategy based on iPLEs. Finally, we explain how this strategy can help translating Web 2.0 patterns to learning, and positioning universities as eLearning 2.0 providers.

  9. A distributed parallel genetic algorithm of placement strategy for virtual machines deployment on cloud platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Shuang; Xu, Gao-Chao; Fu, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The cloud platform provides various services to users. More and more cloud centers provide infrastructure as the main way of operating. To improve the utilization rate of the cloud center and to decrease the operating cost, the cloud center provides services according to requirements of users by sharding the resources with virtualization. Considering both QoS for users and cost saving for cloud computing providers, we try to maximize performance and minimize energy cost as well. In this paper, we propose a distributed parallel genetic algorithm (DPGA) of placement strategy for virtual machines deployment on cloud platform. It executes the genetic algorithm parallelly and distributedly on several selected physical hosts in the first stage. Then it continues to execute the genetic algorithm of the second stage with solutions obtained from the first stage as the initial population. The solution calculated by the genetic algorithm of the second stage is the optimal one of the proposed approach. The experimental results show that the proposed placement strategy of VM deployment can ensure QoS for users and it is more effective and more energy efficient than other placement strategies on the cloud platform.

  10. A Distributed Parallel Genetic Algorithm of Placement Strategy for Virtual Machines Deployment on Cloud Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shuang Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloud platform provides various services to users. More and more cloud centers provide infrastructure as the main way of operating. To improve the utilization rate of the cloud center and to decrease the operating cost, the cloud center provides services according to requirements of users by sharding the resources with virtualization. Considering both QoS for users and cost saving for cloud computing providers, we try to maximize performance and minimize energy cost as well. In this paper, we propose a distributed parallel genetic algorithm (DPGA of placement strategy for virtual machines deployment on cloud platform. It executes the genetic algorithm parallelly and distributedly on several selected physical hosts in the first stage. Then it continues to execute the genetic algorithm of the second stage with solutions obtained from the first stage as the initial population. The solution calculated by the genetic algorithm of the second stage is the optimal one of the proposed approach. The experimental results show that the proposed placement strategy of VM deployment can ensure QoS for users and it is more effective and more energy efficient than other placement strategies on the cloud platform.

  11. Strategies for the deployment of micro-generation: Implications for social acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauter, Raphael; Watson, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Social acceptance of renewable energy innovation has often been discussed in the context of large renewable technology projects, acceptance having been seen as rather passive consent by the public. The potential importance of micro-generation technologies in the future energy supply mix and policymakers' increasing attention to these technologies requires a different approach to the social acceptance of renewable energy innovation and energy infrastructure technologies. Instead of mere consent to an infrastructure project, domestic micro-generation requires active acceptance by homeowners, whereby individual households become part of the electricity supply infrastructure. Acceptance may therefore be expressed in various forms: attitudes, behaviour and-most importantly-investments. This paper argues that different deployment models with varying degrees of company and consumer involvement will have a significant influence on the social acceptance of domestic micro-generation and therefore the market uptake of these technologies. Three deployment models are elaborated and briefly situated in the current UK energy policy context

  12. Current NATO strategy and no first use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkemeier, E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that spurred by the public controversy about the implementation of the NATO dual-track decision, the Western Alliance is currently in the third phase of its strategy debate. The first phase ended in 1967 with the official adoption of the doctrine of massive retaliation whose center-piece was NATO's threat to respond to a Soviet attack in Europe by an early and if need be massive use of nuclear weapons. Soon thereafter this concept was called in question in the US. The critics pointed out that at a time where its vulnerability to Soviet nuclear strikes was growing (the so-called Sputnik shock of 1957 played a special role in this context), it was too risky for the United States to stumble into a nuclear exchange with the USSR over any outbreak of an armed East-West confrontation in Europe. They therefore propounded that the over-reliance of the West's deterrence on nuclear arms be diminished in favor of a stronger conventional deterrent. With the advent of the Kennedy administration in January 1961, this stance became official American policy and was expounded to the European members of the Alliance by then Secretary of Defence McNamara. This second phase of the strategy debate was concluded in 1967 by promulgating the current strategy of Flexible Response

  13. Deployment Strategy for Charging Piles Based on Distribution Network Capacity Planning and Users’ Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Chongyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are the most potential transports in the future. However, the large scale of charging facilities will make a great influence on gird. There is a need to make a research on the construction of charging facilities. Based on the power demand characteristics of electric vehicle charging, distribution network capacity, charging system performance and other aspects, this paper mainly researched the deployment strategy of charging piles. First, the authors built up a model with characteristics of charging power demand of electric vehicle and a model of charging service system. The characteristic of daily load curve is analyzed. Second, based on these works, the authors designed the progress of strategy making. At last, the progress was verified by the actual use case.

  14. The deployment of manufacturing flexibility as a function of company strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Estorilio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility is one of the priorities in manufacturing companies. However, the lack of guidelines for carrying out a critical analysis of the use of resources in manufacturing industry leads to a loss of process performance. This article describes a method to help companies identify the resources needed to provide manufacturing flexibility and meet the demands of their consumers while complying with company strategy. The literature related to flexibility is reviewed and a classification based on four levels is proposed: abilities, dimensions, elements and resources that provide flexibility. Based on this taxonomy and using the principles of QFD (Quality Function Deployment, a method is proposed that shows the correlation between these four levels, starting with customer demand and company strategy. The method was tested in an automobile manufacturing company, showing the applicability of the method. It highlighted the high degree of automation, which’s had serious problems related to restrictions on product mix. It can be inferred that this problem could be minimized by simplifying the tasks involved in the manufacture of car and by hiring more experienced, multi-skilled workers. The proposed method is different from those founded in the literature review because it deploys two levels more of flexibility, considering the QFD structure, and addresses strategic company issues.

  15. Analysis of LTE 800MHz Network Deployment Strategy%LTE 800MHz网络部署策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余扬尧; 陈杨; 杨芙蓉

    2016-01-01

    Starting ifrst with the current mobile user development situation of the three operators, the paper analyzed the necessity of China telecom LTE 800 MHz network construction, the network coverage, terminal market, construction speed, the business competition, and etc., concluded the short-term, mid-term and long-term deployment strategy for LTE 800 MHz.%首先从当前三大运营商的移动业务用户发展情况入手,分析了中国电信LTE 800 MHz网络建设的必要性,对LTE 800 MHz的网络覆盖、终端市场、建设速度、业务竞争等几个方面进行分析,得出了LTE 800 MHz近、中、远期的部署策略。

  16. Current issues and strategies for transmission planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, A.L. [Electranix, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Rajapakse, A. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following the widespread deregulation of the electric power industry in the early 1990s, significant changes occurred in the regulatory and planning environments of the industry. Several regions of North America remain fully or partially regulated in the traditional sense including most Canadian provinces, except for Alberta and Ontario. Although the Mexican system has separate generation and transmission companies and current restructuring efforts are underway, all companies are state-owned, and private investment in energy is heavily constrained by the Mexican constitution. In these regulated regions, traditional generation and transmission expansion planning methods remain in use. This paper presented an overview of current trends in transmission planning strategies that have evolved in response to the restructuring of the power industry, and a conceptual framework of a procedure that would guide planners faced with the challenges of incorporating large scale wind generation in deregulated environments. The paper provided background information on the effect of deregulation on transmission planning. Planning strategies that were discussed included quantifying risk to help identify best alternatives; use of reference systems to estimate generator costs and reduce uncertainty; project based transmission expansion; transmission construction ahead of generation; and generation ahead of transmission. The impact of wind on transmission planning as well as future work addressing challenges posed by wind were also addressed. Research is continuing in this area to illustrate the concepts proposed through a detailed case study. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Designing Growth Strategies for Romanian Offshore Outsourcing Vendors: Deploying Competitive Intelligence from Indian Software Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta SAMTANI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to derive growth strategies for three Romanian software developers involved in offshore outsourcing, by deploying competitive intelligence on the top offshore players from India. The paper revolves around two key assumptions. One is that Romanian companies are growing the way Indian companies did few years ago and so it would be important to analyse the strategies that they had adopted to reach their present potential. Second, there is a set of factors common to all industry players whether in India or Romania as the industry is global in nature, so it would really be important to collect information about how are these global competitors planning to mitigate the environmental threats and to take advantage of the opportunities being presented by the changes in the external environment. For the three Romanian companies whose managers accepted to be included in our study, the main strategic option they want to pursue is market penetration. Taking cue from the strategies adopted by their Indian counterparts, the study recommends growth strategies for these Romanian players.

  18. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pysz, M.A.; Gambhir, S.S.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  19. Deployment strategy for battery energy storage system in distribution network based on voltage violation regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Zhou, L.; Xu, T.; Fang, W. L.; He, W. G.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the situation of voltage violation caused by the grid-connection of photovoltaic (PV) system in a distribution network, a bi-level programming model is proposed for battery energy storage system (BESS) deployment. The objective function of inner level programming is to minimize voltage violation, with the power of PV and BESS as the variables. The objective function of outer level programming is to minimize the comprehensive function originated from inner layer programming and all the BESS operating parameters, with the capacity and rated power of BESS as the variables. The differential evolution (DE) algorithm is applied to solve the model. Based on distribution network operation scenarios with photovoltaic generation under multiple alternative output modes, the simulation results of IEEE 33-bus system prove that the deployment strategy of BESS proposed in this paper is well adapted to voltage violation regulation invariable distribution network operation scenarios. It contributes to regulating voltage violation in distribution network, as well as to improve the utilization of PV systems.

  20. Part I. Alternative fuel-cycle and deployment strategies: their influence on long-term energy supply and resource usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    This report examines the implications of alternative fast breeder fuel cycles and deployment strategies on long-term energy supply and uranium resource utilization. An international-aggregate treatment for nuclear energy demand and resource base assumptions was adopted where specific assumptions were necessary for system analyses, but the primary emphasis was placed on understanding the general relationships between energy demand, uranium resource and breeder deployment option. The fast breeder deployment options studied include the reference Pu/U cycle as well as alternative cycles with varying degrees of thorium utilization

  1. Strategy and criteria for deployment of high speed chargers - Part 1; Strategi og kriteriesett for utplassering av hurtigladere - Del 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    This report was commissioned by Transnova, as a part of their commitment to the electrification of road transport. The project has been conducted by Poeyry and Architect Harald N. Roestvik in close cooperation with representatives of Transnova and Vegdirektoratet. In addition, a number of external experts provided information during the process. The first part of the report describes a strategy and a set of criteria for the deployment of fast charging stations. The purpose of this section is to find out how many charging points are needed and where they should be placed. The second part describes the possible business models for providers of quick chargers. This section is intended to give some ideas to those who are interested in running high speed charging, and evaluate opportunities for commercial operations.(auth)

  2. Current strategy for the imaging of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S.; Edeline, V.; Michon, J.; Zucker, J.M.; Couanet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Advances in the management of neuroblastoma lead radiologists and nuclear medicine specialists to optimize their procedures in order to propose a rational use of their techniques, adjusted to the various clinical presentations and to therapeutic management. The aim of this paper is to assess the imaging procedures for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroblastoma in children according to current therapeutic European protocols. An imaging strategy at diagnosis is first proposed: optimal assessment of local extension of the primary tumour is made with MRI, or spiral-CT when MRI is not available, for all locations except for abdominal tumours for which CT remains the best imaging modality. Metastatic extension is assessed with mlBG scan and liver sonography. Indications for bone metastasis evaluation with either radiological or radionuclide techniques are detailed. Imaging follow-up during treatment for metastatic or unresectable tumours is described. A check-list of radiological main points to be evaluated before surgery is proposed for localized neuroblastoma. The imaging strategy for the diagnosis of 'occult' neuroblastoma is considered. Finally, we explain the management of neuroblastoma detected during the prenatal or neonatal period. (authors)

  3. The impact of spent fuel reprocessing facilities deployment rate on transuranics inventory in alternative fuel cycle strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquien, A.; Kazimi, M.; Hejzlar, P.

    2007-01-01

    The depletion rate of transuranic inventories from spent fuel depends on both the deployment of advanced reactors that can be loaded with recycled transuranics, and on the deployment of the facilities that separate and reprocess spent fuel. In addition to tracking the mass allocation of TRU in the system and calculating a system cost, the fuel cycle simulation tool CAFCA includes a flexible recycling plant deployment model. This study analyses the impact of different recycling deployment schemes for various fuel cycle strategies in the US over the next hundred years under the assumption of a demand for nuclear energy growing at a rate of 2,4%. Recycling strategies explored in this study fall under two categories: recycling in thermal light water reactors using combined non-fertile and UO 2 fuel (CONFU) and recycling in fast reactors (either fertile-free actinide burner reactors, or self-sustaining gas-cooled fast reactors). Preliminary results show that the earlier deployment of recycling in the thermal reactors will limit the stored levels of TRU below those of fast reactors. However, the avoided accumulation of spent fuel interim storage depends on the deployment rate of the recycling facilities. In addition, by the end of the mid century, the TRU in cooling storage will exceed that in interim storage. (authors)

  4. Development Strategies for Deployment of Biomass Resources in the Production of Biomass Power: November 6, 2001--February 28, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, J.

    2004-01-01

    The study analyzes strategies for deployment of biomass resources for biopower generation. It compares biomass supply databases and the projected biopower market penetration for several alternative incentive scenarios. It analyzes the availability of biomass to meet the projected market demands and recommends future research.

  5. Current Evidence Supporting Obstetric Fistula Prevention Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidences from the articles were linked to prevention strategies retrieved from grey literature. The strategies were classified using an innovative target-focused method. Gaps in the literature show the need for fistula prevention research to aim at systematically measuring incidence and prevalence of the disease, identify the ...

  6. The Health and Safety Benefits of New Technologies in Mining: A Review and Strategy for Designing and Deploying Effective User-Centred Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Horberry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining is currently experiencing a rapid growth in the development and uptake of automation and other new technologies (such as collision detection systems; however, they are often developed from a technology-centred perspective that does not explicitly consider the end-user. This paper first presents a review of the technologies currently available (or near-market and the likely human factors issues associated with them. The second part of the paper presents a potential long term strategy for research and development that aims to maximise the safety and health benefits for operators of such new technologies. The strategy includes a four stage research and development process, this covers: better understanding the needs for technology, user requirements and risk/cost analysis; human element design, procurement and deployment processes; evaluation and verification of the strategy; and dissemination of it to relevant stakeholders (including equipment manufacturers, mine site purchasers and regulators. The paper concludes by stressing the importance of considering the human element with respect to new mining technologies and the likely benefits of adopting the type of strategy proposed here. The overall vision is for mining to become safer and healthier through effective user-centred design and deployment of new technologies that serve both operator needs and the demands of the workplace.

  7. Current Immunotherapeutic Strategies to Enhance Oncolytic Virotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Meyers

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses (OV represent a promising strategy to augment the spectrum of cancer therapeutics. For efficacy, they rely on two general mechanisms: tumor-specific infection/cell-killing, followed by subsequent activation of the host’s adaptive immune response. Numerous OV genera have been utilized in clinical trials, ultimately culminating in the 2015 Food and Drug Administration approval of a genetically engineered herpes virus, Talminogene laherparepvec (T-VEC. It is generally accepted that OV as monotherapy have only modest clinical efficacy. However, due to their ability to elicit specific antitumor immune responses, they are prime candidates to be paired with other immune-modulating strategies in order to optimize therapeutic efficacy. Synergistic strategies to enhance the efficacy of OV include augmenting the host antitumor response through the insertion of therapeutic transgenes such as GM-CSF, utilization of the prime-boost strategy, and combining OV with immune-modulatory drugs such as cyclophosphamide, sunitinib, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. This review provides an overview of these immune-based strategies to improve the clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy.

  8. Core Design and Deployment Strategy of Heavy Water Cooled Sustainable Thorium Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Takaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies on water cooled thorium breeder reactor based on matured pressurized water reactor (PWR plant technology concluded that reduced moderated core by arranging fuel pins in a triangular tight lattice array and using heavy water as coolant is appropriate for achieving better breeding performance and higher burn-up simultaneously [1–6]. One optimum core that produces 3.5 GW thermal energy using Th-233U oxide fuel shows a breeding ratio of 1.07 and averaged burn-up of about 80 GWd/t with long cycle length of 1300 days. The moderator to fuel volume ratio is 0.6 and required enrichment of 233U for the fresh fuel is about 7%. The coolant reactivity coefficient is negative during all cycles despite it being a large scale breeder reactor. In order to introduce this sustainable thorium reactor, three-step deployment scenario, with intermediate transition phase between current light water reactor (LWR phase and future sustainer phase, is proposed. Both in transition phase and sustainer phase, almost the same core design can be applicable only by changing fissile materials mixed with thorium from plutonium to 233U with slight modification in the fuel assembly design. Assuming total capacity of 60 GWe in current LWR phase and reprocessing capacity of 800 ton/y with further extensions to 1600 ton/y, all LWRs will be replaced by heavy water cooled thorium reactors within about one century then thorium reactors will be kept operational owing to its potential to sustain fissile fuels while reprocessing all spent fuels until exhaustion of massive thorium resource.

  9. Malaria vector control: current and future strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The recently announced call for malaria eradication represents a new page in the history of this disease. This has been triggered by remarkable reductions in malaria resulting from combined application of effective drugs and vector control. However, this strategy is threatened by development of

  10. Tissue Engineering: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Jennifer L.; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical issues. Currently, patients with diseased and injured organs are often treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue eng...

  11. Wheeling and Banking Strategies for Optimal Renewable Energy Deployment. International Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vora, Ravi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Madrigal, Paola [Energy Regulatory Commission (Mexico); Chatterjee, Sushanta K. [Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (India); Shah, Rakesh [SunEdison, Mumbai (India)

    2016-03-01

    This paper defines the principles of wheeling (i.e., transmission) tariffs and renewable energy (RE) banking provisions and their role in RE deployment in countries with plans for large-scale RE. It reviews experiences to date in the United States, Mexico, and India and discusses key policy and regulatory considerations for devising more effective wheeling and/or banking provisions for countries with ambitious RE deployment targets. The paper addresses the challenges of competing needs of stakeholders, especially those of RE generators, distribution utilities, and transmission network owners and operators. The importance of wheeling and banking and their effectiveness for financial viability of RE deployment is also explored. This paper aims to benefit policymakers and regulators as well as key renewable energy stakeholders. Key lessons for regulators include: creating long-term wheeling and banking policy certainty, considering incentivizing RE through discounted transmission access, and assessing the cost implications of such discounts, as well as expanding access to renewable energy customers.

  12. Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedantam Rajshekhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues.

  13. Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis) can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug) may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues. PMID:28139530

  14. Supporting Middle School Students Whose Parents Are Deployed: Challenges and Strategies for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Middle school students from military families face unique challenges, especially when their parents are deployed. Among the challenges they experience are frequent relocations; issues that affect academic achievement; uncertainty; and changes in roles, responsibilities, and relationships at home. Reunification involves issues of the returning…

  15. Strategies Which Foster Broad Use and Deployment of Earth and Space Science Informal and Formal Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeson, Blanche W.; Gabrys, Robert; Ireton, M. Frank; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Education projects supported by federal agencies and carried out by a wide range of organizations foster learning about Earth and Space systems science in a wide array of venues. Across these agencies a range of strategies are employed to ensure that effective materials are created for these diverse venues. And that these materials are deployed broadly so that a large spectrum of the American Public, both adults and children alike, can learn and become excited by the Earth and space system science. This session will highlight some of those strategies and will cover representative examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the strategies. Invited speakers from selected formal and informal educational efforts will anchor this session. Speakers with representative examples are encouraged to submit abstracts for the session to showcase the strategies which they use.

  16. Antibiotic resistance: current issues and future strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Scarafile

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance (antimicrobial resistance – AMR and the particular emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains, is a problem of clinical relevance involving serious threats to public health worldwide. From early this decade, a lot of studies have demonstrated a significant increase in the rates of antibiotic resistance by bacterial pathogens responsible for nosocomial and community infections all over the world. The AMR leads to a reduced drug efficacy in the treatment options available and therefore, to an increase in mortality rates. The original causes of the phenomenon are: environmental factors which favor a mutation of the genetic bacterial inheritance, thereby inhibiting the active ingredient of the antibiotics; unsuitable administering of antibiotics in veterinary, incorrect taking both in hospitals and at home and, lately, lack of investments in the development of new drugs. The alarming epidemiological data prompted the World Health Organization (WHO in 2011 to coin the slogan "No action today, no cure tomorrow" in order to immediately implement a new strategy to improve the use of available drugs and to accelerate the introduction of new ones through a new phase of research involving private and public institutions. The European Union has stressed that the surveillance is considered an essential factor for an effective response to this problem but it has also highlighted that the results produced have been lower than expectations because of serious shortcomings such as lack of methodological standards, insufficient data sharing and no coordination among European countries. In Italy the situation is much more troubling; in fact, according to the Ministry of Health, 5000-7000 yearly deaths are deemed due to nosocomial infections, with an annual cost of more than 100 million €.These figures explain how the fight against infections is far from being won. The purpose of this review is to analyze the basic causes of the

  17. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  18. Moored current meter data from the Madeira Abyssal Plain (GME). 1. deployment (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Near bottom current have been measured at three closely spaced sites in the N.E. Atlantic for 13 months. Locations were selected in the Great Meteor East study site area, near 31 0 30'N 25 0 W, one on the abyssal plain, one on top of a small abyssal hill about 400 m high and one on its flank just above the plain. Current meters were moored 10, 100, and 1000 m above the local bottom (5438 m, 5398 m and 4999 m) in January 1984 and recovered in February 1985. This report displays the characteristics of the currents in numerous tables and figures. In the mean they ar found to be very weak and though adjacent moorings are separated by only 12 km and 27 km the year-long current directions differ radically. Current variations are principally due to semi-diurnal tides, inertial oscillations and eddies the latter of which migrate over the moorings. The tidal energy meets expectations as does the eddy energy with magnitude 2-3 cm 2 s -2 . Horizontal (isopycnal) diffusivity is estimated as about 2x10 2 m 2 s -1 . Currents 10 m above the bottom exceed 10 cm/s least frequently on the plain and most frequently at the hill-foot. The influence of the hill is surprisingly large. At all three sites the strongest currents are found near the sea bed. Speeds also show a Weibull distribution and rough 50 year return currents are inferred. (author)

  19. Analyzing mobile WiMAX base station deployment under different frequency planning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, M. K.; Ahmad, R. B.; Ali, Ziad G.; Aldhaibani, Jaafar A.; Fayadh, Rashid A.

    2015-05-01

    The frequency spectrum is a precious resource and scarce in the communication markets. Therefore, different techniques are adopted to utilize the available spectrum in deploying WiMAX base stations (BS) in cellular networks. In this paper several types of frequency planning techniques are illustrated, and a comprehensive comparative study between conventional frequency reuse of 1 (FR of 1) and fractional frequency reuse (FFR) is presented. These techniques are widely used in network deployment, because they employ universal frequency (using all the available bandwidth) in their base station installation/configuration within network system. This paper presents a network model of 19 base stations in order to be employed in the comparison of the aforesaid frequency planning techniques. Users are randomly distributed within base stations, users' resource mapping and their burst profile selection are based on the measured signal to interference plus-noise ratio (SINR). Simulation results reveal that the FFR has advantages over the conventional FR of 1 in various metrics. 98 % of downlink resources (slots) are exploited when FFR is applied, whilst it is 81 % at FR of 1. Data rate of FFR has been increased to 10.6 Mbps, while it is 7.98 Mbps at FR of 1. The spectral efficiency is better enhanced (1.072 bps/Hz) at FR of 1 than FFR (0.808 bps/Hz), since FR of 1 exploits all the Bandwidth. The subcarrier efficiency shows how many data bits that can be carried by subcarriers under different frequency planning techniques, the system can carry more data bits under FFR (2.40 bit/subcarrier) than FR of 1 (1.998 bit/subcarrier). This study confirms that FFR can perform better than conventional frequency planning (FR of 1) which made it a strong candidate for WiMAX BS deployment in cellular networks.

  20. Product development strategy with quality function deployment approach: A case study in automotive battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Darmawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is one of the main factors in determining the competitiveness of every industry. Along with the technological advances, it will impact on the increasingly intense competition in the business of providing great opportunities to the consumer to find a quality product at competi-tive rates. The purpose of this study is to develop the quality of automotive battery products that meet consumer needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD method. The application is then analyzed and its results produced a proposal for product development according to the weight and priority development on product attributes that are considered important by customers. There are two main priorities that are most desired by customers, among others for improving the quality of products maintenance free battery in automotive battery industry with quality function deployment according to consumers. Consumers need a car battery with a good durability and great performance, low price, and environment friendly features, which can be achieved by using absorbent glass mat and expanded machine technology. Based on relative weight in House of Quality, Ab-sorbent Glass Mat receives the highest percentage of technical priority that is equal to 31% whereas technology expanded gets the second highest percentage of technical priority that is equal to 19%. It means that both technologies are more important to develop this product. Therefore, the maintenance free battery products are expected to be attractive for consumers and extensive marketing.

  1. Strategies to Prevent Cholera Introduction during International Personnel Deployments: A Computational Modeling Analysis Based on the 2010 Haiti Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Antillón, Marina; Gonsalves, Gregg; Miller, Alice M.; Ko, Albert I.; Pitzer, Virginia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Introduction of Vibrio cholerae to Haiti during the deployment of United Nations (UN) peacekeepers in 2010 resulted in one of the largest cholera epidemics of the modern era. Following the outbreak, a UN-commissioned independent panel recommended three pre-deployment intervention strategies to minimize the risk of cholera introduction in future peacekeeping operations: screening for V. cholerae carriage, administering prophylactic antimicrobial chemotherapies, or immunizing with oral cholera vaccines. However, uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of these approaches has forestalled their implementation by the UN. We assessed how the interventions would have impacted the likelihood of the Haiti cholera epidemic. Methods and Findings We developed a stochastic model for cholera importation and transmission, fitted to reported cases during the first weeks of the 2010 outbreak in Haiti. Using this model, we estimated that diagnostic screening reduces the probability of cases occurring by 82% (95% credible interval: 75%, 85%); however, false-positive test outcomes may hamper this approach. Antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis at time of departure and oral cholera vaccination reduce the probability of cases by 50% (41%, 57%) and by up to 61% (58%, 63%), respectively. Chemoprophylaxis beginning 1 wk before departure confers a 91% (78%, 96%) reduction independently, and up to a 98% reduction (94%, 99%) if coupled with vaccination. These results are not sensitive to assumptions about the background cholera incidence rate in the endemic troop-sending country. Further research is needed to (1) validate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid test approaches for detecting asymptomatic carriage, (2) compare prophylactic efficacy across antimicrobial regimens, and (3) quantify the impact of oral cholera vaccine on transmission from asymptomatic carriers. Conclusions Screening, chemoprophylaxis, and vaccination are all effective strategies to prevent cholera introduction

  2. A smarter plan? A policy comparison between Great Britain and Ireland's deployment strategies for rolling out new metering technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The Irish and British governments have recently mandated the replacement of domestic gas and electricity meters with smart meters. Their deployment strategies differ based on the extent to which deregulation of the gas and electricity market has been successful. A broad debate has been held on the various assumptions justifying the cost-benefit analyses and the permutations of these assumptions. What has been paid less attention is to what end is a smart meter being employed towards. A corollary research question is whether the deployment plan is targeting the correct sector. If the purpose is to introduce automated meter reading across the housing sector then a better strategy would be to legislate for accurate monthly bills, as in Sweden. Allowing suppliers to have greater flexibility will likely reward rather than stifle the design of competition. If the purpose is to manage demand then it may be that it's working with complex tariffs and not the meter per se that counts. The high consuming end-use categories and profile classes would be better placed for that exercise. Innovation theory also supports the targeting of new innovations to larger consumers, allowing metering innovations to proceed along historical trajectories. - Highlights: ► Irish and British metering policies conflate demand management and accurate billing. ► Demand management would be better focused on the high consuming building sectors. ► Accurate billing would be best served by legislation, as was the case in Sweden

  3. The Shrail: A Comparison of a Novel Attachable Rail System With the Current Deployment Operating Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilday, Joshua; Sirkin, Maxwell R; Wertin, Thomas; Bradley, Frances; Hiles, Jason

    The current forward surgical team (FST) operating table is heavy and burdensome and hinders essential movement flexibility. A novel attachable rail system, the Shrail, has been developed to overcome these obstacles. The Shrail turns a North Atlantic Treaty Organization litter into a functional operating table. A local FST compared the assembly of the FST operating table with assembling the Shrail. Device weight, storage space, and assembly space were directly measured and compared. The mean assembly time required for the Shrail was significantly less compared with the operating table (23.36 versus 151.6 seconds; p ≤ .01). The Shrail weighs less (6.80kg versus 73.03kg) and requires less storage space (0.019m3 versus 0.323m3) compared with the current FST operating table. The Shrail provides an FST with a faster, lighter surgical table assembly. For these reasons, it is better suited for the demands of an FST and the implementation of prolonged field care. 2018.

  4. A Synthesis of Language Learning Strategies: Current Issues, Problems and Claims Made in Learner Strategy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…

  5. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    large cohort of trials to spot unusual cases. However, deployment repeatability is inherently a nonlinear phenomenon, which makes modeling difficult...and GEMS tip position were both tracked during ground testing by a laser target tracking system. Earlier SAILMAST testing in 2005 [8] used...recalls the strategy used by SRTM, where a constellation of lights was installed at the tip of the boom and a modified star tracker was used to track tip

  6. Guidelines for deploying connected vehicle-enabled weather responsive traffic management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    State and local Departments of Transportation (DOTs) are interested in providing effective traffic management and operations strategies to mitigate the roadway mobility and safety problems due to adverse weather. Weather Responsive Traffic Management...

  7. Inability to acquire spatial information and deploy spatial search strategies in mice with lesions in dorsomedial striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooters, Tine; Gantois, Ilse; Vermaercke, Ben; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Dorsal striatum has been shown to contribute to spatial learning and memory, but the role of striatal subregions in this important aspect of cognitive functioning remains unclear. Moreover, the spatial-cognitive mechanisms that underlie the involvement of these regions in spatial navigation have scarcely been studied. We therefore compared spatial learning and memory performance in mice with lesions in dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum (DLS) using the hidden-platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Compared to sham-operated controls, animals with DMS damage were impaired during MWM acquisition training. These mice displayed delayed spatial learning, increased thigmotaxis, and increased search distance to the platform, in the absence of major motor dysfunction, working memory defects or changes in anxiety or exploration. They failed to show a preference for the target quadrant during probe trials, which further indicates that spatial reference memory was impaired in these animals. Search strategy analysis moreover demonstrated that DMS-lesioned mice were unable to deploy cognitively advanced spatial search strategies. Conversely, MWM performance was barely affected in animals with lesions in DLS. In conclusion, our results indicate that DMS and DLS display differential functional involvement in spatial learning and memory. Our results show that DMS, but not DLS, is crucial for the ability of mice to acquire spatial information and their subsequent deployment of spatial search strategies. These data clearly identify DMS as a crucial brain structure for spatial learning and memory, which could explain the occurrence of neurocognitive impairments in brain disorders that affect the dorsal striatum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Allocation Anatomy: How District Policies That Deploy Resources Can Support (or Undermine) District Reform Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Marguerite

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the effects of micro-budgeting decisions and show how they might support or hamper district reform strategies. The study draws on public and private sector resource allocation literature to identify key elements of resource allocation decisions. These elements are used to highlight different allocation…

  9. Elements of an analysis for a deployment and integration strategy for electric renewable energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Through a synthesis of research reports and round tables organized by IDDRI in partnership with the German think-tank Agora Energiewende, this study aims to define the issues and contours of a strategic roadmap for the deployment and integration of renewable energy in France: long-term visibility; the need to better take into account the transformation at a regional and European level; regulatory issues, essential for reducing uncertainty and accelerating the deployment of projects; given the capital intensity of RES projects, issues related to instruments aiming at reducing the risks and costs of financing; and finally the challenges for project acceptance at the local level and appropriation of these projects by the different actors. The French Energy Transition Law for Green Growth adopted in 2015 sets a 40% target for the share of renewables in electricity consumption, representing a doubling of their share to be achieved between now and 2030. This implies a need to speed up the development of the renewable sector. An important lever would be the reduction in project implementation time - down from 7 to 8 years in the wind sector - by simplifying administrative procedures and smoothing the grid connection process. Measures such as the single permit and a 18-month deadline for grid connections, provided for in the Energy Transition Law, should be fully enforced, and a consideration of complementary measures aimed at limiting legal disputes and actions could bring additional value. The portfolio-oriented approach to planning - which seeks to establish the share of each technology in the electricity supply - should be eschewed in favor of a more detailed projection of the evolution of the sector and in particular of electricity demand, as new uses for electricity are envisaged and energy efficiency is declared a priority of the transition. A roadmap would thus be available to help improve the credibility of policies implemented as well as the alignment between the

  10. Core Processes Roadmap to Deploy the Higher Education Institution's Internationalization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena FLEACĂ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological development, competition and globalisation are radically changing the landscape of higher education which maintains its crucial role in individual and societal advancement. Many higher education institutions are competing on increasing their attractiveness by providing innovative curricula, excellence in teaching and research opportunities. The paper attempts to tackle the push for stronger international presence which brings favourable conditions for internationalisation strategy at institutional level. Based on useful methods from quality management and business process reengineering, the author proposed a coherent organizational model for a higher education institution strategy, mainstreaming key areas as international mobility for students and staff, internationalization and improvement of curricula and new e-learning methods, and strategic cooperation, partnerships and capacity building with international stakeholders. The findings stress the benefits of a holistic approach in assuring the governance of internationalization strategy composed of three core processes groups - academic, research, and wider business relationships – so as to provide that process architecture is able to deliver a value added internationalised higher education offer.

  11. Licensing strategy for deployment of commercial technologies procured through a service contract in DOE-owned facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Tank Farm Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for the safe storage of waste in 177 underground waste storage tanks. TWRS is also responsible for the cleanup and final closure of these tanks. In the performance of this mission TWRS has historically designed its own equipment. The safety of the equipment for deployment in TWRS facilities has been assured through the development of detailed engineering specifications and close QA/QC monitoring during fabrication and testing. In order to address the complex and costly cleanup mission Hanford is looking for ways to apply private sector technologies to the cleanup mission. The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five year, EM 30/50 expense-funded project with a primary objective of demonstrating the extent to which the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) tanks can be cleaned using commercially available technologies. To accomplish this objective, in August 1996 HTI issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) for services to remove the hard heel waste from tank 241-C-106, following retrieval of the majority of the waste by sluicing. While certain specification guidance was provided in the RFP such as, must be capable of operation in a flammable gas environment, the RFP was careful in avoiding language that would place limitations on the technologies that industry could provide. The challenge for HTI was to develop a licensing strategy that would provide maximum flexibility to the technology vendors while meeting the stringent documentation requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE). This strategy must also provide assurance that the technology can be shown to be within the TWRS authorization basis and be safely deployed. A 35-step process (Figure 1) was developed by HTI to accomplish this objective

  12. Licensing strategy for deployment of commercial technologies procured through a service contract in DOE-owned facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, J.W.

    1998-05-05

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Tank Farm Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for the safe storage of waste in 177 underground waste storage tanks. TWRS is also responsible for the cleanup and final closure of these tanks. In the performance of this mission TWRS has historically designed its own equipment. The safety of the equipment for deployment in TWRS facilities has been assured through the development of detailed engineering specifications and close QA/QC monitoring during fabrication and testing. In order to address the complex and costly cleanup mission Hanford is looking for ways to apply private sector technologies to the cleanup mission. The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five year, EM 30/50 expense-funded project with a primary objective of demonstrating the extent to which the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) tanks can be cleaned using commercially available technologies. To accomplish this objective, in August 1996 HTI issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) for services to remove the hard heel waste from tank 241-C-106, following retrieval of the majority of the waste by sluicing. While certain specification guidance was provided in the RFP such as, must be capable of operation in a flammable gas environment, the RFP was careful in avoiding language that would place limitations on the technologies that industry could provide. The challenge for HTI was to develop a licensing strategy that would provide maximum flexibility to the technology vendors while meeting the stringent documentation requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE). This strategy must also provide assurance that the technology can be shown to be within the TWRS authorization basis and be safely deployed. A 35-step process (Figure 1) was developed by HTI to accomplish this objective.

  13. Discrete Current Control Strategy of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A control strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, which is different from the traditional vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC, is proposed. Firstly, the circular rotating magnetic field is analyzed on the simplified model and discredited into stepping magnetic field. The stepping magnetomotive force will drive the rotor to run as the stepping motor. Secondly, the stator current orientation is used to build the control model instead of rotor flux orientation. Then, the discrete current control strategy is set and adopted in positioning control. Three methods of the strategy are simulated in computer and tested on the experiment platform of PMSM. The control precision is also verified through the experiment.

  14. The Deployment of IPv6 in an IPv4 World and Transition Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, C.; Ganos, P.; Karaliotas, A.

    2003-01-01

    The current version of the IP protocol, IPv4, is the most widely used protocol in computer networks. This article describes mechanisms that can be used to facilitate the transition to the new version of the IP protocol, IPv6, and examines usability, usefulness and manageability. Describes how some of these mechanisms were applied to the Greek…

  15. Smart meter adoption and deployment strategy for residential buildings in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Gusti Ayu Novi Yutami, I

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Limited consumer awareness of smart meters contributes to skepticism. • Data obtained from a survey of energy users are analyzed using SEM. • A CAP index is developed via SEM results to measure consumer propensity for adopting smart meters. • The findings of this study enhance understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviors. • Concrete strategies are proposed to help policy makers and utility companies. - Abstract: For countries pursuing sustainable development and energy efficiency, the use of smart meters is considered a first step in allowing residential consumers to remotely control their energy consumption, and a promising technology for conserving limited energy resources. However, despite the growing interest in smart meters, limited consumer awareness, knowledge, and understanding of these devices contributes to skepticism. This study thus developed an index to measure consumer propensity to adopt smart meters in residential buildings. Data obtained from a survey of energy use by Indonesian households were analyzed using structural equation modeling to determine the interacting factors in consumer acceptance of smart meters. Consumer perceptions, expectations, and intentions regarding the potential use of smart meters in Indonesia were also discussed. The findings of this study enhance understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviors, and can help decision makers and energy utility companies develop policies and strategies for a “one-size-fits-all” program related to smart meter applications in future residential buildings

  16. Current collective engagement stakeholder strategies for South African labour relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popi C. Madlala

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Collective engagement stakeholder strategies are significant for the creation of harmony in the workplace. It is a known fact that the South African (SA labour environment has been dominated by industrial action before and after the 1994 democratic transition. To be precise, the statistics reveals that industrial action has increased and become more destructive post-1994. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to present the current collective engagement stakeholder strategies for South African labour relations. Motivation for the study: The SA mining sector has seen more violent strikes, with a higher number of deaths, injuries, criminal activities, arrests, dismissals and job losses in recent years. This article captures the current mining stakeholder strategies shaping the existing labour relations environment. Research approach, design and method: This is a theoretical article highlighting the recent literature on collective engagement in the mining sector in South Africa. Main findings: This article presents the current labour relations incidents, reflecting the need for more effective collective engagement and stakeholder management strategies. Practical and managerial implications: The current labour relations context has prompted key stakeholders at the National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC to look specifically at promoting employment, labour market stability, the right to strike, minimising violence through collective bargaining and highlighting the role of the state, reducing vulnerability through social protection and increasing the minimum wage. Contribution or value add: This article adds theoretically to the existing body of knowledge regarding collective engagement and stakeholder strategies in the SA mining sector.

  17. Pyramiding, alternating or mixing: comparative performances of deployment strategies of nematode resistance genes to promote plant resistance efficiency and durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djian-Caporalino, Caroline; Palloix, Alain; Fazari, Ariane; Marteu, Nathalie; Barbary, Arnaud; Abad, Pierre; Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Mateille, Thierry; Risso, Sabine; Lanza, Roger; Taussig, Catherine; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2014-02-22

    Resistant cultivars are key elements for pathogen control and pesticide reduction, but their repeated use may lead to the emergence of virulent pathogen populations, able to overcome the resistance. Increased research efforts, mainly based on theoretical studies, explore spatio-temporal deployment strategies of resistance genes in order to maximize their durability. We evaluated experimentally three of these strategies to control root-knot nematodes: cultivar mixtures, alternating and pyramiding resistance genes, under controlled and field conditions over a 3-years period, assessing the efficiency and the durability of resistance in a protected crop rotation system with pepper as summer crop and lettuce as winter crop. The choice of the resistance gene and the genetic background in which it is introgressed, affected the frequency of resistance breakdown. The pyramiding of two different resistance genes in one genotype suppressed the emergence of virulent isolates. Alternating different resistance genes in rotation was also efficient to decrease virulent populations in fields due to the specificity of the virulence and the trapping effect of resistant plants. Mixing resistant cultivars together appeared as a less efficient strategy to control nematodes. This work provides experimental evidence that, in a cropping system with seasonal sequences of vegetable species, pyramiding or alternating resistance genes benefit yields in the long-term by increasing the durability of resistant cultivars and improving the long-term control of a soil-borne pest. To our knowledge, this result is the first one obtained for a plant-nematode interaction, which helps demonstrate the general applicability of such strategies for breeding and sustainable management of resistant cultivars against pathogens.

  18. Evolution of post-deployment indicators of oral health on the Family Health Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Danielle da Costa; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Ramos, Danielle Viana Ribeiro; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Bulgareli, Jaqueline Vilela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the evolution of indicators after the implementation of 21 Oral Healthcare Teams in the Family Health Strategy. Methods We used data from outpatient services of Oral Healthcare Teams to evaluate efficiency, access, percentage of absences and emergencies of oral healthcare professionals who worked in the partnership between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo, during the period 2009-2011. Results Percentages of emergencies, income, and access showed a significant difference during the period analyzed, but no difference for percentage of absences was found. When monthly analysis was made, it is noteworthy that at the beginning of service implementation a fluctuation occurred, which may indicate that the work was consolidated over the months, becoming capable of receiving new professionals and increasing the population served. Comparison of the indicators in that period with the goals agreed upon between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo made it possible to notice that the Oral Health Teams had a good performance. Conclusion The results showed that the goals were achieved reflecting the increasing number of professionals, the maturing of work processes in the Oral Health Teams, and optimization of the manpower available to perform the activities. Understanding these results will be important to guide the actions of Oral Health Teams for the following years and to assess the achievement of goals. PMID:25295445

  19. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. A. Rynearson; M. M. Plum

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE-owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that a treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem

  20. Long-term scenarios and strategies for the deployment of renewable energies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregger, Thomas; Nitsch, Joachim; Naegler, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of the energy supply in Germany (the “Energiewende”) as described in the German Federal government’s ‘Energy Concept’ (Energiekonzept, 2010) is based on a political consensus about long-term targets for energy efficiency and renewable energies. The aim of this article is to present a consistent scenario for this transformation process reflecting the long-term implementation of renewable energies and the possible future structure of the German energy system as a whole. Structural and economic effects of this development are derived and discussed. It summarizes results of scenario analyses done by the department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment of the German Aerospace Center as part of a three-year research project for the German Federal Ministry for the Environment. The underlying study provides a detailed data base reflecting a long-term roadmap for the energy system transformation in Germany. The scenarios show that the policy targets are consistent and can be achieved, if appropriate policy measures are to be implemented. The economic analysis shows the amount of investments and the strong market dynamics required for new generation technologies but also the huge economic benefits that can result from this development path in terms of fuel cost savings and lower fuel imports. - Highlights: • Long-term scenario for the German energy system according to the political targets. • Comparison of three variants with differing developments of the fleets of vehicles. • Analysis of economic effects: investments, generation and differential costs. • Importance of strategies in the sectors electricity, heat, and transportation. • Recommended measures for the successful implementation of the CO 2 reductions

  1. Part 2 -- current program integrating strategies and lubrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the second of two that describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machinery at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The Predictive Maintenance program has been enhanced through organizational changes and improved interdisciplinary usage of technology. This paper will discuss current program strategies that have improved the interaction between the Vibration and Lube Oil programs. The {open_quotes}Lube Oil{close_quotes} view of the combined program along with case studies will then be presented.

  2. Part 2 -- current program integrating strategies and lubrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is the second of two that describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machinery at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The Predictive Maintenance program has been enhanced through organizational changes and improved interdisciplinary usage of technology. This paper will discuss current program strategies that have improved the interaction between the Vibration and Lube Oil programs. The open-quotes Lube Oilclose quotes view of the combined program along with case studies will then be presented

  3. Current and emerging somatic treatment strategies in psychotic major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Gonopolski, Yehudit; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder characterized by severe affective and neurovegetative symptoms together with the presence of delusions and/or hallucinations. It is a common disorder seen in a quarter of consecutively admitted depressed patients and is often associated with severe symptomatology, increased suicide risk, poor acute response to antidepressants and poor acute and long-term treatment outcome. It is possible that poor response in psychotic depression is caused by the fact that we have yet to identify the most efficacious treatment protocol for psychotic MDD. Multiple studies have shown that modifications in the treatment paradigm may increase treatment efficacy in psychotic MDD. It has been generally accepted that, during the acute treatment phase, antidepressant-antipsychotic drug combination therapy is more effective than either treatment alone, although this strategy has recently been challenged. The question of the optimal duration of pharmacotherapy in order to prevent relapse and improve long-term (i.e., 5-year) outcome is a focus of current investigation. This article will review currently recommended treatment strategies for the acute, continuation and maintenance phases of therapy. In particular, it will address the role of newer-generation antidepressants, the role of second-generation antipsychotics, the use of mood stabilizers and indications for electroconvulsive therapy. Other possible treatment strategies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep-brain stimulation and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists will be discussed. Current recommendations for the prevention of relapse and improvement of long-term outcome will be reviewed.

  4. Linguistic Knowledge Aspects in Academic Reading: Challenges and Deployed Strategies by English-Major Undergraduates at a Jordanian Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albashtawi, Abeer H.; Jaganathan, Paramaswari; Singh, Manjet

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the linguistic knowledge aspect in academic reading, the challenges and the deployed strategies by English major undergraduates at a Jordanian institution of higher education. The importance of the study is attributed to the importance of the academic reading at university which is closely related to the academic…

  5. CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Innocente, V

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interactive analysis. CMS is currently developing remote analysis prototypes, including one based on Clarens, a Grid-enabled client-server tool. Use of the prototypes by CMS physicists will guide us in forming a Grid-enriched analysis strategy. The status of this work is presented, as is an outline of how we plan to leverage the power of our existing frameworks in the migration of CMS software to the Grid.

  6. Current status of RCA projects and strategies for future implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong

    1998-12-01

    This report is intended to provide basic overall information about ways to promote technical cooperation within the framework of RCA to accelerate and coordinate cooperative activities in nuclear science and technology in Asia and the Pacific region through a thorough review on the current status and through suggesting future implementation strategies. The contents of this report include an overall introduction of RCA, guidelines and operating rules for RCA programmes, current status and future plans for RCA projects as well as the RCA vision for the next 25 years. By reviewing the current status and future implementation strategies for RCA projects, it will help to set up a national nuclear policy aimed at seeking maximum benefits from participation in RCA projects and to implement programmes for nuclear cooperation with Asian-Pacific countries. It is expected that as a lead country for the energy sector, which is one of five thematic areas for the year 1999 - 2000 cycle programmes, Korea will continue to make significant contributions towards the implementation of RCA programmes in the future. With this report, we plan to keep up with future developments as well as implement an effective cooperation with the countries in the region so that the opinion of Korea, one of the nuclear advanced countries in the region, can be fully reflected in the establishment of future plans for RCA programmes. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Valuable metals - recovery processes, current trends, and recycling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Peter; Lorenz, Tom; Martin, Gunther; Brett, Beate; Bertau, Martin [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Strasse 29, 09599, Freiberg (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    This Review provides an overview of valuable metals, the supply of which has been classified as critical for Europe. Starting with a description of the current state of the art, novel approaches for their recovery from primary resources are presented as well as recycling processes. The focus lies on developments since 2005. Chemistry strategies which are used in metal recovery are summarized on the basis of the individual types of deposit and mineral. In addition, the economic importance as well as utilization of the metals is outlined. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Deploying SHRP2 renewal 10 guidebook for project management strategies for complex projects in the Georgia Department of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) was selected by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) for the Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) Lead Adopter Incentive Implementation Assistance Grant to deploy the Renewal 10 (R10) Guide...

  9. Keeping Current. Using BDA Strategies in the Library Media Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Cynthia A.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses BDA strategies--reading strategies that "good readers" use before, during, and after reading. These strategies are in conjunction with free reading as well as direct reading instruction by reading specialists and/or teachers. An explanation of "Before Reading Strategies," "During Reading Strategies," and "After Reading…

  10. Stereotactic body radiotherapy: current strategies and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as the standard treatment for medically inoperable early-staged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The local control rate after SBRT is over 90%. Some forms of tumour motion management and image-guided radiation delivery techniques are the prerequisites for fulfilment of its goal to deliver a high radiation dose to the tumour target without overdosing surrounding normal tissues. In this review, the current strategies of tumour motion management will be discussed, followed by an overview of various image-guided radiotherapy (RT) systems and devices available for clinical practice. Besides medically inoperable stage I NSCLC, SBRT has also been widely adopted for treatment of oligometastasis involving the lungs. Its possible applications in various other cancer illnesses are under extensive exploration. The progress of SBRT is critically technology-dependent. With advancement of technology, the ideal of personalised, effective and yet safe SBRT is already on the horizon. PMID:27606082

  11. Steam generator degradation: Current mitigation strategies for controlling corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, P.

    1997-01-01

    Steam Generator degradation has caused substantial losses of power generation, resulted in large repair and maintenance costs, and contributed to significant personnel radiation exposures in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) operating throughout the world. EPRI has just published the revised Steam Generator Reference Book, which reviews all of the major forms of SG degradation. This paper discusses the types of SG degradation that have been experienced with emphasis on the mitigation strategies that have been developed and implemented in the field. SG degradation is presented from a world wide perspective as all countries operating PWRs have been effected to one degree or another. The paper is written from a US. perspective where the utility industry is currently undergoing tremendous change as a result of deregulation of the electricity marketplace. Competitive pressures are causing utilities to strive to reduce Operations and Maintenance (O ampersand M) and capital costs. SG corrosion is a major contributor to the O ampersand M costs of PWR plants, and therefore US utilities are evaluating and implementing the most cost effective solutions to their corrosion problems. Mitigation strategies developed over the past few years reflect a trend towards plant specific solutions to SG corrosion problems. Since SG degradation is in most cases an economic problem and not a safety problem, utilities can focus their mitigation strategies on their unique financial situation. Accordingly, the focus of R ampersand D has shifted from the development of more expensive, prescriptive solutions (e.g. reduced impurity limits) to corrosion problems to providing the utilities with a number of cost effective mitigation options (e.g. molar ratio control, boric acid treatment)

  12. Osteoarthritis: detection, pathophysiology, and current/future treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovani, Sujata; Grogan, Shawn P

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the joint, and age is the major risk factor for its development. Clinical manifestation of OA includes joint pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. Currently, no pharmacological treatments are available to treat this specific joint disease; only symptom-modifying drugs are available. Improvement in imaging technology, identification of biomarkers, and increased understanding of the molecular basis of OA will aid in detecting the early stages of disease. Yet the development of interventional strategies remains elusive and will be critical for effective prevention of OA-associated joint destruction. The potential of cell-based therapies may be applicable in improving joint function in mild to more advanced cases of OA. Ongoing studies to understand the basis of this disease will eventually lead to prevention and treatment strategies and will also be a key in reducing the social and economic burden of this disease. Nurses are advised to provide an integrative approach of disease assessment and management in OA patients' care with a focus on education and implementation. Knowledge and understanding of OA and how this affects the individual patient form the basis for such an integrative approach to all-round patient care and disease management.

  13. Reimbursed Price of Orphan Drugs: Current Strategies and Potential Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincarone, Pierpaolo; Leo, Carlo Giacomo; Sabina, Saverio; Sarriá-Santamera, Antonio; Taruscio, Domenica; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro Guillermo; Kanavos, Panos

    2017-01-01

    The pricing and reimbursement policies for pharmaceuticals are relevant to balance timely and equitable access for all patients, financial sustainability, and reward for valuable innovation. The proliferation of high-cost specialty medicines is particularly true in rare diseases (RDs) where the pricing mechanism is characterised by a lack of transparency. This work provides an overall picture of current strategies for the definition of the reimbursed prices of orphan drugs (ODs) and highlights some potential improvements. Current strategies and suggestions are presented along 4 dimensions: (1) comprehensive value assessment, (2) early dialogs among relevant stakeholders, (3) innovative reimbursement approaches, and (4) societal participation in producing ODs. Comprehensive value assessment could be achieved by clarifying the approach of distributive justice to adopt, ensuring a representative participation of stakeholders, and with a broad consideration of value-bearing factors. With respect to early dialogs, cross-border cooperation can be determinant to companies and agencies. The cost-benefit ratio of early dialogs needs to be demonstrated and the "regulatory capture" effect should be monitored. Innovative reimbursement approaches were developed to balance the need for evidence-based decisions with the timely access to innovative drugs. The societal participation in producing ODs needs to be recognised in a collaborating framework where adaptive agreements can be developed with mutual satisfaction. Such agreements could also impact on coverage and reimbursement decisions as additional elements for the determination of a comprehensive societal value of ODs. Further research is needed to investigate the highlighted open challenges so that RDs will not remain, in practical terms, orphan diseases. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. China's spent nuclear fuel management: Current practices and future strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yun

    2011-01-01

    Although China's nuclear power industry is relatively young and the management of its spent nuclear fuel is not yet a concern, China's commitment to nuclear energy and its rapid pace of development require detailed analyses of its future spent fuel management policies. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of China's fuel cycle program and its reprocessing policy, and to suggest strategies for managing its future fuel cycle program. The study is broken into four sections. The first reviews China's current nuclear fuel cycle program and facilities. The second discusses China's current spent fuel management methods and the storage capability of China's 13 operational nuclear power plants. The third estimates China's total accumulated spent fuel, its required spent fuel storage from present day until 2035, when China expects its first commercialized fast neutron reactors to be operational, and its likely demand for uranium resources. The fourth examines several spent fuel management scenarios for the present period up until 2035; the financial cost and proliferation risk of each scenario is evaluated. The study concludes that China can and should maintain a reprocessing operation to meet its R and D activities before its fast reactor program is further developed. - Highlights: → This study provides an overview of China's fuel cycle program and its reprocessing policy.→ This study suggests strategies for managing its future fuel cycle program.→ China will experience no pressure to lessen the burden of spent fuel storage in the next 30 years.→ China should maintain sufficient reprocessing operations to meet its demands for R and D activities.→ China should actively invest on R and D activities of both fuel cycling and fast reactor programs.

  15. Oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: current treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard PJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patrick J Richard, Ramesh Rengan Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: The oligometastatic disease theory was initially described in 1995 by Hellman and Weichselbaum. Since then, much work has been performed to investigate its existence in many solid tumors. This has led to subclassifications of stage IV cancer, which could redefine our treatment approaches and the therapeutic outcomes for this historically “incurable” entity. With a high incidence of stage IV disease, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC remains a difficult cancer to treat and cure. Recent work has proven the existence of an oligometastatic state in NSCLC in terms of properly selecting patients who may benefit from aggressive therapy and experience long-term overall survival. This review discusses the current treatment approaches used in oligometastatic NSCLC and provides the evidence and rationale for each approach. The prognostic factors of many trials are discussed, which can be used to properly select patients for aggressive treatment regimens. Future advances in both molecular profiling of NSCLC to find targetable mutations and investigating patient selection may increase the number of patients diagnosed with oligometastatic NSCLC. As this disease entity increases, it is of utmost importance for oncologists treating NSCLC to be aware of the current treatment strategies that exist and the potential advantages/disadvantages of each. Keywords: oligometastatic, non-small-cell lung cancer, oligoprogressive, treatment

  16. Enhanced Deployment Strategy for Role-based Hierarchical Application Agents in Wireless Sensor Networks with Established Clusterheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Audrey

    Efficient self-organizing virtual clusterheads that supervise data collection based on their wireless connectivity, risk, and overhead costs, are an important element of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This function is especially critical during deployment when system resources are allocated to a subsequent application. In the presented research, a model used to deploy intrusion detection capability on a Local Area Network (LAN), in the literature, was extended to develop a role-based hierarchical agent deployment algorithm for a WSN. The resulting model took into consideration the monitoring capability, risk, deployment distribution cost, and monitoring cost associated with each node. Changing the original LAN methodology approach to model a cluster-based sensor network depended on the ability to duplicate a specific parameter that represented the monitoring capability. Furthermore, other parameters derived from a LAN can elevate costs and risk of deployment, as well as jeopardize the success of an application on a WSN. A key component of the approach presented in this research was to reduce the costs when established clusterheads in the network were found to be capable of hosting additional detection agents. In addition, another cost savings component of the study addressed the reduction of vulnerabilities associated with deployment of agents to high volume nodes. The effectiveness of the presented method was validated by comparing it against a type of a power-based scheme that used each node's remaining energy as the deployment value. While available energy is directly related to the model used in the presented method, the study deliberately sought out nodes that were identified with having superior monitoring capability, cost less to create and sustain, and are at low-risk of an attack. This work investigated improving the efficiency of an intrusion detection system (IDS) by using the proposed model to deploy monitoring agents after a temperature sensing

  17. Enhanced Deployment Strategy for Role-Based Hierarchical Application Agents in Wireless Sensor Networks with Established Clusterheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Efficient self-organizing virtual clusterheads that supervise data collection based on their wireless connectivity, risk, and overhead costs, are an important element of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This function is especially critical during deployment when system resources are allocated to a subsequent application. In the presented research,…

  18. Current knowledge and treatment strategies for grade II gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    World Health Organization grade II gliomas (GIIGs) include diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma. GIIG is a malignant brain tumor for which the treatment outcome can still be improved. Review of previous clinical trials found the following: GIIG increased in size by 3-5 mm per year when observed or treated with surgery alone; after pathological diagnosis, the survival rate was increased by early aggressive tumor removal at an earlier stage compared to observation alone; although the prognosis after total tumor removal was significantly better than that after partial tumor removal, half of the patients relapsed within 5 years; comparing postoperative early radiotherapy (RT) and non-early RT after relapse, early RT prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) but did not affect overall survival (OS); local RT of 45 to 64.8 Gy did not impact PFS or OS; in patients with residual tumors, RT combined with chemotherapy (procarbazine plus lomustine plus vincristine) prolonged PFS compared with RT alone but did not affect OS; and poor prognostic factors included astrocytoma, non-total tumor removal, age ≥40 years, largest tumor diameter ≥4-6 cm, tumor crossing the midline, and neurological deficit. To improve treatment outcomes, surgery with functional brain mapping or intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging or chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide is important. In this review, current knowledge regarding GIIG is described and treatment strategies are explored. (author)

  19. Management strategies of enterovirus D68 outbreaks: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milhano N

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natacha Milhano, Kaja Sverdrup Borge, Karoline Bragstad, Susanne G Dudman Domain for Environmental Health and Infectious Disease Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway Abstract: Following its discovery in California in 1962, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68 was reported only sporadically around the world. In August 2014, a marked increase of EV-D68 cases in young children with severe respiratory infections was reported in the USA and Canada and later in Europe and Asia. Some of these cases were also found to be associated with acute flaccid paralysis, which exacerbated public health concern, and has since triggered international efforts to strengthen both EV-D68 and acute flaccid paralysis surveillance systems. This review summarizes the current knowledge on EV-D68, offering an overview of EV-D68 epidemiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic methodologies, and treatment strategies, as well as surveillance and outbreak management. Keywords: enterovirus D68, AFP, diagnostics, treatment, surveillance, outbreak 

  20. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Folch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC. PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5. Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease.

  1. Sports-related concussions: diagnosis, complications, and current management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jonathan G; Young, Jacob S; Bailes, Julian E

    2016-04-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are traumatic events that affect up to 3.8 million athletes per year. The initial diagnosis and management is often instituted on the field of play by coaches, athletic trainers, and team physicians. SRCs are usually transient episodes of neurological dysfunction following a traumatic impact, with most symptoms resolving in 7-10 days; however, a small percentage of patients will suffer protracted symptoms for years after the event and may develop chronic neurodegenerative disease. Rarely, SRCs are associated with complications, such as skull fractures, epidural or subdural hematomas, and edema requiring neurosurgical evaluation. Current standards of care are based on a paradigm of rest and gradual return to play, with decisions driven by subjective and objective information gleaned from a detailed history and physical examination. Advanced imaging techniques such as functional MRI, and detailed understanding of the complex pathophysiological process underlying SRCs and how they affect the athletes acutely and long-term, may change the way physicians treat athletes who suffer a concussion. It is hoped that these advances will allow a more accurate assessment of when an athlete is truly safe to return to play, decreasing the risk of secondary impact injuries, and provide avenues for therapeutic strategies targeting the complex biochemical cascade that results from a traumatic injury to the brain.

  2. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

  3. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    evaluating the deployment repeatability builds upon the testing or analysis of deployment kinematics (Chapter 6) and adds repetition. Introduction...material yield or failure during a test. For the purposes of this chapter, zero shift will refer to permanent changes in the structure, while reversible ...the content of other chapters in this book: Gravity Compensation (Chapter 4) and Deployment Kinematics and Dynamics (Chapter 6). Repeating the

  4. Current and emerging treatment strategies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jean K

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in childhood. It is caused by mutations of the DMD gene, leading to progressive muscle weakness, loss of independent ambulation by early teens, and premature death due to cardiorespiratory complications. The diagnosis can usually be made after careful review of the history and examination of affected boys presenting with developmental delay, proximal weakness, and elevated serum creatine kinase, plus confirmation by muscle biopsy or genetic testing. Precise characterization of the DMD mutation is important for genetic counseling and individualized treatment. Current standard of care includes the use of corticosteroids to prolong ambulation and to delay the onset of secondary complications. Early use of cardioprotective agents, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and other supportive strategies has improved the life expectancy and health-related quality of life for many young adults with DMD. New emerging treatment includes viral-mediated microdystrophin gene replacement, exon skipping to restore the reading frame, and nonsense suppression therapy to allow translation and production of a modified dystrophin protein. Other potential therapeutic targets involve upregulation of compensatory proteins, reduction of the inflammatory cascade, and enhancement of muscle regeneration. So far, data from DMD clinical trials have shown limited success in delaying disease progression; unforeseen obstacles included immune response against the generated mini-dystrophin, inconsistent evidence of dystrophin production in muscle biopsies, and failure to demonstrate a significant improvement in the primary outcome measure, as defined by the 6-minute walk test in some studies. The long-term safety and efficacy of emerging treatments will depend on the selection of appropriate clinical end points and sensitive biomarkers to detect meaningful changes in disease progression. Correction of the underlying

  5. Enterprise iPhone and iPad Administrator's Guide Strategies for iPhone Deployment, Integration, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Are you an IT professional involved in deploying the iPhone and or iPad in your company or organization? Do you have fellow employees who are eager to use their iPhones and iPads for work? Then this is the book for you. Enterprise iPhone and iPad Administrator's Guide provides step-by-step instructions on how to deploy and integrate the iPhone within a range of professional environments - from large businesses and educational institutions to medium-sized offices. This book ensures that the process is achieved in a streamlined, efficient, and cost-effective manner. The guide begins with an intr

  6. An Economic Evaluation of a Vaccine Acquisition Strategy to Mitigate Acute Diarrheal Illness Among Deployed US Military Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-27

    one cause for hospital admission among troops deployed to Operation Restore Hope in Somalia from 1992 to 1993. [35] These data suggest that not only... Hope , Somalia, 1992-1993. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1995. 52(2): p. 188-93. 124 30. Taylor, S.F., R.H. Lutz, and J.A. Millward, Disease and nonbattle...Hux, C. Attard, and N. Milkovich, Cost- effectiveness of becaplermin for nonhealing neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage, 2003. 49

  7. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ephlas01@phd.ceu.hu; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: elvine@lbl.gov

    2006-09-15

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

  8. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Vine, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms

  9. Strategies for RUN1 Deployment Using RUN2 and REN2 to Manage Grapevine Powdery Mildew Informed by Studies of Race Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feechan, Angela; Kocsis, Marianna; Riaz, Summaira; Zhang, Wei; Gadoury, David M; Walker, M Andrew; Dry, Ian B; Reisch, Bruce; Cadle-Davidson, Lance

    2015-08-01

    The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat gene, "resistance to Uncinula necator 1" (RUN1), from Vitis rotundifolia was recently identified and confirmed to confer resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator (syn. U. necator) in transgenic V. vinifera cultivars. However, sporulating powdery mildew colonies and cleistothecia of the heterothallic pathogen have been found on introgression lines containing the RUN1 locus growing in New York (NY). Two E. necator isolates collected from RUN1 vines were designated NY1-131 and NY1-137 and were used in this study to inform a strategy for durable RUN1 deployment. In order to achieve this, fitness parameters of NY1-131 and NY1-137 were quantified relative to powdery mildew isolates collected from V. rotundifolia and V. vinifera on vines containing alleles of the powdery mildew resistance genes RUN1, RUN2, or REN2. The results clearly demonstrate the race specificity of RUN1, RUN2, and REN2 resistance alleles, all of which exhibit programmed cell death (PCD)-mediated resistance. The NY1 isolates investigated were found to have an intermediate virulence on RUN1 vines, although this may be allele specific, while the Musc4 isolate collected from V. rotundifolia was virulent on all RUN1 vines. Another powdery mildew resistance locus, RUN2, was previously mapped in different V. rotundifolia genotypes, and two alleles (RUN2.1 and RUN2.2) were identified. The RUN2.1 allele was found to provide PCD-mediated resistance to both an NY1 isolate and Musc4. Importantly, REN2 vines were resistant to the NY1 isolates and RUN1REN2 vines combining both genes displayed additional resistance. Based on these results, RUN1-mediated resistance in grapevine may be enhanced by pyramiding with RUN2.1 or REN2; however, naturally occurring isolates in North America display some virulence on vines with these resistance genes. The characterization of additional resistance sources is needed to identify

  10. Balanced Current Control Strategy for Current Source Rectifier Stage of Indirect Matrix Converter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a balanced current control strategy for the current source rectifier (CSR stage of an indirect matrix converter (IMC under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. If the three-phase grid connected to the voltage source inverter (VSI of the IMC has unbalanced voltage conditions, it affects the currents of the CSR stage and VSI stage, and the currents are distorted. Above all, the distorted currents of the CSR stage cause instability in the overall system, which can affect the life span of the system. Therefore, in this paper, a control strategy for balanced currents in the CSR stage is proposed. To achieve balanced currents in the CSR stage, the VSI stage should receive DC power without ripple components from the CSR stage. This is implemented by controlling the currents in the VSI stage. Therefore, the proposed control strategy decouples the positive and negative phase-sequence components existing in the unbalanced voltages and currents of the VSI stage. Using the proposed control strategy under unbalanced grid voltage conditions, the stability and life span of the overall system can be improved. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  11. Improved control strategy for PI-R current of DFIG considering voltage and current harmonics compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S. Y.; Liu, Q. H.; Zhao, Y. N.; Liu, S. Y.

    2016-08-01

    With the rapid development of wind power generation, the related research of wind power control and integration issues has attracted much attention, and the focus of the research are shifting away from the ideal power grid environment to the actual power grid environment. As the main stream wind turbine generator, a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is connected to the power grid directly by its stator, so it is particularly sensitive to the power grid. This paper studies the improvement of DFIG control technology in the power grid harmonic environment. Based on the DFIG dynamic model considering the power grid harmonic environment, this paper introduces the shortcomings of the common control strategy of DFIG, and puts forward the enhanced method. The decoupling control of the system is realized by compensating the coupling between the rotor harmonic voltage and harmonic current, improving the control performance. In addition, the simulation experiments on PSCAD/EMTDC are carried out to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the improved scheme.

  12. Companies on Facebook and Twitter. Current situation and communication strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÁ Pérez Dasilva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Given their influence, companies are being forced to integrate social networks in their communication strategies. Objectives. This article aims to provide an overview of the use of Facebook and Twitter by the main commercial brands in Spain and to analyse the communication strategies of the companies that tend to receive more complaints from the public. Method. The study is based on the examination of the social network accounts of the three brands with the highest advertising investment in each of the 15 industry sectors. A total of 5,433 tweets and 3,000 posts were analysed. Conclusions. The study confirmed the massive presence of these companies is the social networks and demonstrated the extreme variability of the number of followers, the traffic and the nature of the information published. However, it was also demonstrated that the use made of the different social networks and the communication strategies required by the different companies are distinguishable and identifiable.

  13. Current Management Strategy for Active Surveillance in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jamil S; Javier-Desloges, Juan; Tatzel, Stephanie; Bhagat, Ansh; Nguyen, Kevin A; Hwang, Kevin; Kim, Sarah; Sprenkle, Preston C

    2017-02-01

    Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings. Novel tools which include imaging, biomarkers, and genetic assays have been investigated as potential prognostic adjuncts; however, their role in active surveillance remains institutionally dependent. Although 30-50% of patients on active surveillance ultimately undergo delayed treatment, the vast majority will remain free of metastasis with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. The optimal method for patient selection into active surveillance is unknown; however, cancer-specific mortality rates remain excellent. New prognostication tools are promising, and long-term prospective, randomized data regarding their use in active surveillance will be beneficial.

  14. Prevention of OHSS: Current strategies and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano E. Busso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS is an iatrogenic and potentially life threatening condition that affects young healthy patients. Many strategies have been proposed to prevent this syndrome. However, to avoid OHSS without compromising on IVF outcome is still a challenge. The most important action is to identify patients at risk even before ovarian stimulation is initiated and to give them special attention. Coasting is the most popular method to avoid/minimize OHSS. Cycle cancellation, cryopreservation, GnRH antagonists, GnRH agonists, i.v. albumin are other strategies that can provide some kind of benefit but do not completely avoid both early and late forms of OHSS and/or cannot be applied to every patient. Recent studies demonstrate that dopamine agonists can prevent or minimize OHSS without affecting IVF outcome but clinical protocols are not well established yet.

  15. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Current Strategies and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald V. Naccarelli, MD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the most common complication of atrial fibrillation (AF. Guidelines recommend anticoagulant treatment in patients with CHA2DS2VASc scores of >2. Registry data suggests that almost half of patients who should be on therapeutic anticoagulation for stroke prevention in AF (SPAF are not. Warfarin and more recently developed agents, the “novel anticoagulants” (NOACs reduce the risk of embolic strokes. In addition, the NOACs also reduce intracranial hemorrhage (ICH by over 50% compared to warfarin. Anticoagulation and bridging strategies involving cardioversion, catheter ablation, and invasive/surgical procedures are reviewed. The development of reversal agents for NOACs and the introduction of left atrial appendage occluding devices will evolve the use of newer strategies for preventing stroke in high risk AF patients.

  16. Current Strategies to Improve the Bioactivity of PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Tang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic thermoplastic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is becoming a popular component of clinical orthopedic and spinal applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. Although PEEK is biocompatible, chemically stable, radiolucent and has an elastic modulus similar to that of normal human bone, it is biologically inert, preventing good integration with adjacent bone tissues upon implantation. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK to improve the bone-implant interface. Two main strategies have been used to overcome the inert character of PEEK. One approach is surface modification to activate PEEK through surface treatment alone or in combination with a surface coating. Another strategy is to prepare bioactive PEEK composites by impregnating bioactive materials into PEEK substrate. Researchers believe that modified bioactive PEEK will have a wide range of orthopedic applications. PMID:24686515

  17. Book of extended synopses. International symposium on advanced nuclear power systems. Design, technology, safety and strategies for their deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    During the symposium the design, technology, safety and strategy for the development of advanced nuclear power systems were discussed. 20 papers were presented at the symposium. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs

  18. Current Therapeutic Strategies and Novel Approaches in Osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kosei; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; Stresing, Verena; Mori, Kanji; Rédini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor and a main cause of cancer-related death in children and adolescents. Although long-term survival in localized osteosarcoma has improved to about 60% during the 1960s and 1970s, long-term survival in both localized and metastatic osteosarcoma has stagnated in the past several decades. Thus, current conventional therapy consists of multi-agent chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, which is not fully adequate for osteosarcoma treatment. Innovative drugs and approaches are needed to further improve outcome in osteosarcoma patients. This review describes the current management of osteosarcoma as well as potential new therapies

  19. Current strategies in surgical myocardial revascularization: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was carried out of 172 patients who underwent CABG at INHS Asvini between 01 Jan 2008 and 31 May 2013.39% had Left Main Coronary artery disease, 85% patient had triple vessel disease, 56% were diabetics, 12% had undergone stenting in recent past. Beating heart strategy was used in 10%, average no of grafts per patient was 2.3 with LIMA and Radial artery being used as a conduit in 84% and 4% respectively. 4.6% patients succumbed in post-operative period.

  20. Oral insulin delivery: existing barriers and current counter-strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedawy, Ahmed; Martinez, Jorge; Al-Salami, Hani; Dass, Crispin R

    2018-02-01

    The chronic and progressive nature of diabetes is usually associated with micro- and macrovascular complications where failure of pancreatic β-cell function and a general condition of hyperglycaemia is created. One possible factor is failure of the patient to comply with and adhere to the prescribed insulin due to the inconvenient administration route. This review summarizes the rationale for oral insulin administration, existing barriers and some counter-strategies trialled. Oral insulin mimics the physiology of endogenous insulin secreted by pancreas. Following the intestinal absorption of oral insulin, it reaches the liver at high concentration via the portal vein. Oral insulin on the other hand has the potential to protect pancreatic β-cells from autoimmune destruction. Structural modification, targeting a particular tissue/receptor, and the use of innovative pharmaceutical formulations such as nanoparticles represent strategies introduced to improve oral insulin bioavailability. They showed promising results in overcoming the hurdles facing oral insulin delivery, although delivery is far from ideal. The use of advanced pharmaceutical technologies and further research in particulate carrier system delivery predominantly nanoparticle utilization would offer useful tools in delivering insulin via the oral route which in turn would potentially improve diabetic patient compliance to insulin and the overall management of diabetes. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a review of current diagnostic strategies concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Frías-Ordoñez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a state of carbohydrate intolerance that is first recognized during pregnancy. The initial criteria for diagnosis were established more than 50 years ago by O’Sullivan & Mahan, and since then, some modifications have been made. Currently, diagnosis considers two methods: the onestep approach, consisting of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for 2 hours with 75g of glucose, and the two-step approach, which involves an initial screening test with 50g of glucose and OGTT with 100g of glucose if screening is positive. Both diagnostic approaches have been justified by expert consensus; however, an absolute concept about the method to be applied has not been established yet. To select a method, the clinician must take into account various factors. This paper proposes a historical overview and the presentation of the current status of GDM diagnosis.

  2. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Monmasson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

  3. Long-term energy and climate implications of carbon capture and storage deployment strategies in the US coal-fired electricity fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric

    2012-09-04

    To understand the long-term energy and climate implications of different implementation strategies for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the US coal-fired electricity fleet, we integrate three analytical elements: scenario projection of energy supply systems, temporally explicit life cycle modeling, and time-dependent calculation of radiative forcing. Assuming continued large-scale use of coal for electricity generation, we find that aggressive implementation of CCS could reduce cumulative greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O) from the US coal-fired power fleet through 2100 by 37-58%. Cumulative radiative forcing through 2100 would be reduced by only 24-46%, due to the front-loaded time profile of the emissions and the long atmospheric residence time of CO(2). The efficiency of energy conversion and carbon capture technologies strongly affects the amount of primary energy used but has little effect on greenhouse gas emissions or radiative forcing. Delaying implementation of CCS deployment significantly increases long-term radiative forcing. This study highlights the time-dynamic nature of potential climate benefits and energy costs of different CCS deployment pathways and identifies opportunities and constraints of successful CCS implementation.

  4. Current status and some aspects of the future energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D. P.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: dragon@vin.bg.ac.yu; Antic, D.)

    2005-01-01

    Current status of the energy production and of the energy sources in the world, European Union, Serbia and Montenegro and the Balkan states is analyzed. Some trends in the energy consumption and productions in some European states are analyzed. Some problems of the Serbia and Montenegro energy production system are compared with situation in neighbor states, Germany, and European Union. At present, anywhere in the world, the nuclear power in on the defensive. In some countries it has been even outlawed. Some parameters show that nuclear power, on the global scale and during this century at least, is absolutely essential and reasons for revival of nuclear energy are realistic. (author)

  5. Maternal mortality in India: current status and strategies for reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A; Swain, S; Seth, A

    1991-12-01

    The causes (medical, reproductive factors, health care delivery system, and socioeconomic factors) of maternal mortality in India and strategies for reducing maternal mortality are presented. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) are very high in Asia and Africa compared with Northern Europe's 4/100,000 live births. An Indian hospital study found the MMR to be 4.21/1000 live births. 50-98% of maternal deaths are caused by direct obstetric causes (hemorrhage, infection, and hypertensive disorders, ruptured uterus, hepatitis, and anemia). 50% of maternal deaths due to sepsis are related to illegal induced abortion. MMR in India has not declined significantly in the past 15 years. Age, primi and grande multiparity, unplanned pregnancy, and related illegal abortion are the reproductive causes. In 1985 WHO reported that 63-80% of maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes and 88-98% of all maternal deaths could probably have been prevented with proper handling. In India, coordination between levels in the delivery system and fragmentation of care account for the poor quality of maternal health care. Mass illiteracy is another cause. Effective strategies for reducing the MMR are 1) to place a high priority on maternal and child health (MCH) services and integrate vertical programs (e.g., family planning) related to MCH; 2) to give attention to care during labor and delivery, which is the most critical period for complications; 3) to provide community-based delivery huts which can provide a clean and safe delivery place close to home, and maternity waiting rooms in hospitals for high risk mothers; 4) to improve the quality of MCH care at the rural community level (proper history taking, palpation, blood pressure and fetal heart screening, risk factor screening, and referral); 5) to improve quality of care at the primary health care level (emergency care and proper referral); 6) to include in the postpartum program MCH and family planning services; 7) to examine the

  6. Hybrid concentrated solar power (CSP)–biomass plants in a semiarid region: A strategy for CSP deployment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, Rafael; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Szklo, Alexandre; Milani, Rodrigo; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The production of electricity using concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is not yet possible in Brazil due to the technology’s high capital costs and the lack of a local industry. However, this study introduces a low-cost approach to CSP in Brazil by describing and simulating the operation of hybrid CSP plants that use sustainably managed biomass in Brazil’s semiarid northeast. Biomass hybridisation of a CSP plant with a solar multiple (SM) of 1.2 and a biomass fill fraction (BFF) of 30% can generate electricity at 110 USD/MWh. The high direct normal irradiation (DNI) and the availability of local low-cost biomass in Brazil’s semiarid northeast suggest the possibility of developing a CSP industry capable of supplying low-cost components under a national program framework, with the co-benefits of local job and income generation. For example, the deployment of 10 CSP plants of 30 MWe each would generate 760 direct and indirect jobs during the 24 months of plant construction and approximately 2100 annual jobs associated with the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the generating units. These 10 new units would generate additional local income on the order of USD 57 million. - Highlights: • CSP plant with supplementary biomass hybridisation is a strategic option for Brazil. • DNI and biomass availability in Brazil's semiarid can foster local CSP industry. • LCOE of CSP would cost 11 cent USD/kWh becoming competitive at solar auctions. • Co-benefits of local job and income generation due to CSP in Brazil are high.

  7. A Current Limiting Strategy to Improve Fault Ride-Through of Inverter Interfaced Autonomous Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadeghkhani, Iman; Esmail Hamedani Golshan, Mohamad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    With high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER), fault management strategy is of great importance for the distribution network operation. The objective of this paper is to propose a current and voltage limiting strategy to enhance fault ride-through (FRT) capability of inverter...... for both four- and three-wire configurations. The proposed strategy provides high voltage and current quality during overcurrent conditions, which is necessary for sensitive loads. Several time-domain simulation studies are conducted to investigate the FRT capability of the proposed strategy against both...... asymmetrical and symmetrical faults. Moreover, the proposed method is tested on the CIGRE benchmark microgrid to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed limiting strategy....

  8. Current strategies for the treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Tsagozis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign bone tumors that usually present in childhood and early adulthood. They usually manifest as expansile osteolytic lesions with a varying potential to be locally aggressive. Since their first description in 1942, a variety of treatment methods has been proposed. Traditionally, these tumors were treated with open surgery. Either intralesional surgical procedures or en bloc excisions have been described. Furthermore, a variety of chemical or physical adjuvants has been utilized in order to reduce the risk for local recurrence after excision. Currently, there is a shift to more minimally invasive procedures in order to avoid the complications of open surgical excision. Good results have been reported during percutaneous surgery, or the use of embolization. Recently, sclerotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment, showing effective consolidation of the lesions and functional results that appear to be superior to the ones of open surgery. Lastly, non-invasive treatment, such as pharmaceutical intervention with denosumab or bisphosphonates has been reported to be effective in the management of the disease. Radiotherapy has also been shown to confer good local control, either alone or in conjunction to other treatment modalities, but is associated with serious adverse effects. Here, we review the current literature on the methods of treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts. The indication for each type of treatment along reported outcome of the intervention, as well as potential complications are systematically presented. Our review aims to increase awareness of the different treatment modalities and facilitate decision-making regarding each individual patient.

  9. Building Visual Artists’ Resilience Capabilities: Current Educator Strategies and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Maree Siddins

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Enrolments in higher education programs in the creative and performing arts are increasing in many countries. Yet graduates of these degrees, who enter the broad sector known as the creative industries, face particular challenges in terms of securing long-term and sustainable employment. In addition, creative and performing artists face a range of mental challenges, caused by such factors as: the solitary nature of much creative practice, critical feedback by audiences and gatekeepers, or the general pressures associated with maintaining artistic relevance or integrity. The concepts of resilience and professional wellbeing are therefore highly relevant to those who pursue a career in creative industries, and while there has been an emerging body of work in this area, to date it has focussed on the performing arts area (e.g. music, theatre. Hence, in order to expand knowledge relevant to resilience and artists, this paper sets out to explore the extent to which current educators in the Australian context specifically address these issues within higher visual arts curricula; specifically the areas of illustration, design, film and photography. This was achieved via interviews with seventeen current academics working in these areas. The findings propose that higher education providers of programs in the visual arts consider placing a stronger emphasis on the embedded development of resilience and professional wellbeing capacities.

  10. Reference materials for molecular diagnostics: Current achievements and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rongrong; Wang, Huimin; Ju, Shaoqing; Cui, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Molecular diagnoses have become more widespread in many areas of laboratory medicine where qualitative or quantitative approaches are used to detect nucleic acids. The increasing number of assay methods and the targets for molecular diagnostics contribute to variability in the test results among clinical laboratories. Thus, reference materials (RMs) are required to enhance the comparability of results. This review focuses on the definition of RMs as well as the production and characteristics of higher order RMs from different organizations and their future strategies. We describe the recent progress in RMs, including the definition of RMs by the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology, as well as the production and characteristics of higher order RMs by international official bodies. There is an urgent need for RMs in nucleic acid testing, especially higher order RMs. To advance the harmonization and standardization of clinical nucleic acid detection, cooperation between the above organizations is proposed and different approaches to higher order RMs development are also needed. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  12. Oncolytic Immunotherapy: Conceptual Evolution, Current Strategies, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Sheng Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of oncolytic virus (OV-mediated cancer therapy has been shifted from an operational virotherapy paradigm to an immunotherapy. OVs often induce immunogenic cell death (ICD of cancer cells, and they may interact directly with immune cells as well to prime antitumor immunity. We and others have developed a number of strategies to further stimulate antitumor immunity and to productively modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME for potent and sustained antitumor immune cell activity. First, OVs have been engineered or combined with other ICD inducers to promote more effective T cell cross-priming, and in many cases, the breaking of functional immune tolerance. Second, OVs may be armed to express Th1-stimulatory cytokines/chemokines or costimulators to recruit and sustain the potent antitumor immunity into the TME to focus their therapeutic activity within the sites of disease. Third, combinations of OV with immunomodulatory drugs or antibodies that recondition the TME have proven to be highly promising in early studies. Fourth, combinations of OVs with other immunotherapeutic regimens (such as prime-boost cancer vaccines, CAR T cells; armed with bispecific T-cell engagers have also yielded promising preliminary findings. Finally, OVs have been combined with immune checkpoint blockade, with robust antitumor efficacy being observed in pilot evaluations. Despite some expected hurdles for the rapid translation of OV-based state-of-the-art protocols, we believe that a cohort of these novel approaches will join the repertoire of standard cancer treatment options in the near future.

  13. Unresectable liver metastases in colorectal cancer: review of current strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Benjamin; Pellerin, Olivier; Voron, Thibault; Pointet, Anne L; Taieb, Julien; Pernot, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the treatment of colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases should be clearly defined at the outset. Potentially resectable patients should be distinguished from clearly unresectable patients. In defining resectability, it is important to take into account both anatomic characteristics and patient characteristic (comorbidities, symptoms, age). According to this evaluation, treatment should be tailored to each patient. The most widely accepted standard is doublet cytotoxic regimen plus biotherapy (anti-EGFR or anti-VEGF antibodies according to RAS status, but some patients could benefit from an intensified regimen, as triplet chemotherapy ± bevacizumab, or intraarterial treatments (hepatic arterial infusion, radioembolization or chemoembolization), in order to allow resectability. It is therefore very important to discuss the treatments with a multidisciplinary team, including an experienced surgeon, an interventional radiologist and an oncologist. On the other hand, some patients could benefit in terms of quality of life and decreased toxicity from less intense treatment when resection is not an objective. First-line monotherapy or a maintenance strategy with biotherapy and/or cytotoxics could be discussed with these patients, and treatment holidays should be considered in selected patients. Finally, in patients with secondary resection of liver metastases, specificity should be considered in choosing the best adjuvant treatment, such as response to preoperative treatment and individual risk of relapse, which many in some cases justify intensification with hepatic arterial infusion in an adjuvant setting.

  14. A review of current treatment strategies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi W Kelley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 90% of diabetes cases in pregnant women are considered gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. It is well known that uncontrolled glucose results in poor pregnancy outcomes in both the mother and fetus. Worldwide there are many guidelines with recommendations for appropriate management strategies for GDM once lifestyle modifications have been instituted and failed to achieve control. The efficacy and particularly the safety of other treatment modalities for GDM has been the source of much debate in recent years. Studies that have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of both glyburide and metformin in the management of patients with GDM will be reviewed. There is a lack of evidence with other oral and injectable non-insulin agents to control blood glucose in GDM. The role of insulin will be discussed, with emphasis on insulin analogs. Ideal patient characteristics for each treatment modality will be reviewed. In addition, recommendations for postpartum screening of patients will be described as well as recommendations for use of agents to manage subsequent type 2 diabetes in patients who are breastfeeding.

  15. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  16. Ebola virus outbreak, updates on current therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshabrawy, Hatem A; Erickson, Timothy B; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2015-07-01

    Filoviruses are enveloped negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which include Ebola and Marburg viruses, known to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case fatality of up to 90%. There have been several Ebola virus outbreaks since the first outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1976 of which, the recent 2013-2015 epidemic in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone is the largest in recorded history. Within a few months of the start of the outbreak in December 2013, thousands of infected cases were reported with a significant number of deaths. As of March 2015, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there have been nearly 25,000 suspected cases, with 15,000 confirmed by laboratory testing, and over 10,000 deaths. The large number of cases and the high mortality rate, combined with the lack of effective Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments, necessitate the development of potent and safe therapeutic measures to combat the current and future outbreaks. Since the beginning of the outbreak, there have been considerable efforts to develop and characterize protective measures including vaccines and antiviral small molecules, and some have proven effective in vitro and in animal models. Most recently, a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies has been shown to be highly effective in protecting non-human primates from Ebola virus infection. In this review, we will discuss what is known about the nature of the virus, phylogenetic classification, genomic organization and replication, disease transmission, and viral entry and highlight the current approaches and efforts, in the development of therapeutics, to control the outbreak. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus: current strategies and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K. Bhattacharya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to find evidence for primary prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM from epidemiological studies and clinical trials, and the feasibility of applying these interventions in resource limited countries. T2DM, which accounts for more than nine-tenths of all diabetics, results from inadequate insulin secretion or underlying insulin resistance. The prevalence of diabetes, mainly T2DM, has increased rapidly during the last few decades worldwide. Since the genetic background is unlikely to change during this short time period, the growing epidemic of T2DM is more likely due to changes in environmental or lifestyle risk factors including obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and stress. The scope and feasibility for primary prevention of T2DM is based on elimination of these risk factors. This evidence that T2DM is preventable comes from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials of effect of lifestyle changes and drugs in development of T2DM. The positive effects are more profound and safer with lifestyle modifications (LSM compared to medications. This is shown to be effective globally, across various ethnicities and races and sustainable on long-term follow-up. However, there is a major challenge in translating this evidence into economically viable and sustained community programs, as these LSM interventions are expensive, even from western standards point of view. Future plan should focus on health education of the public, improving the national capacity to detect and manage the environmental risks including strategies to reduce stress, and development of innovative, cost effective, and scalable methodologies.

  18. Accelerating the deployment of supply chain strategies through the adoption of standard operations reference model for supply chains producing capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toews, A. [Project Plato Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided information on how to build a procurement organization in the energy sector with reference to aligning supply chain management with corporate objectives to enhance response time in transactions with suppliers and customers. The paper examined the degree to which procurement functions are centralized versus decentralized and which combinations work best. It also examined how e-commerce can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the procurement function and add value to an organization. The author emphasized the importance of a multi-functional team to create a successful sourcing strategy and develop strong purchasing capabilities within the organization. tabs., figs.

  19. Design and deployment strategies for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2007-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs (Small and Medium size Reactor) depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  20. A DC Microgrid Coordinated Control Strategy Based on Integrator Current-Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Liyuan; Liu, Yao; Ren, Huisong

    2017-01-01

    The DC microgrid has become a new trend for microgrid study with the advantages of high reliability, simple control and low losses. With regard to the drawbacks of the traditional droop control strategies, an improved DC droop control strategy based on integrator current-sharing is introduced....... In the strategy, the principle of eliminating deviation through an integrator is used, constructing the current-sharing term in order to make the power-sharing between different distributed generation (DG) units uniform and reasonable, which can reduce the circulating current between DG units. Furthermore......, at the system coordinated control level, a hierarchical/droop control strategy based on the DC bus voltage is proposed. In the strategy, the operation modes of the AC main network and micro-sources are determined through detecting the DC voltage variation, which can ensure the power balance of the DC microgrid...

  1. A Harmonic Current Suppression Control Strategy for Droop-Controlled Inverter Connected to the Distorted Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Feng; Sun, Kai; Guan, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    currents. Therefore, the reason of generation of distorted grid-feeding current of GF-VCI under the distorted grid voltage is investigated firstly in this paper. Then, a harmonic grid-feeding current suppression control strategy for GF-VCI is proposed. Two different filters are compared and analysed before...... voltage component at the point of common coupling. As a result, the difference of harmonic voltage between PCC and GF-VCI is reduced and the THDi of grid feeding-currents is decreased. Finally, the proposed control strategy is verified through simulations and experimental results....

  2. The role of postdeployment social factors in linking deployment experiences and current posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology among male and female veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian N; Wang, Joyce M; Vaughn-Coaxum, Rachel A; Di Leone, Brooke A L; Vogt, Dawne

    2017-01-01

    The postdeployment social context is likely highly salient in explaining mental health symptoms following deployment. The aim of this study was to examine the role of postdeployment social factors (social support and social reintegration difficulty) in linking deployment-related experiences (warfare exposure, sexual harassment, concerns about relationship disruptions, and deployment social support) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in male and female veterans. A survey was administered to 998 potential participants (after accounting for undeliverable mail) who had returned from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq. Completed surveys were received from 469 veterans, yielding a response rate of 47%. Hypotheses were examined using structural equation modeling. For male and female veterans, deployment factors predicted later PTSD symptoms through postdeployment social support and social reintegration, with lower support and higher social reintegration difficulty both associated with higher PTSD symptomatology. While the final models for women and men indicated similar risk mechanisms, some differences in pathways were observed. Sexual harassment presented more of a risk for women, whereas lower social support was a greater risk factor for men. Postdeployment social factors appear to represent potentially important targets for interventions aiming to reduce the potential impact of stressful deployment experiences.

  3. Linguistic Gender Sensitivity Strategies in Current South African Intermediate Phase English Workbooks: Feminisation or Degenderisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Jabulani; Sibanda, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    This study extends research on manifestations of gender insensitivity in learners' reading materials by shifting attention to the linguistic strategies that authors of current texts employ for the realisation of gender sensitivity. We analysed the content of 12 current (2014) English workbooks (Grade 4-6) used in South African government and…

  4. Safe current injection strategies for a STATCOM under asymmetrical grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Medeiros, Gustavo; Luna, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores different strategies to set the reference current of a STATCOM under unbalanced grid voltage conditions and determines the maximum deliverable reactive power in each case to guarantee the injected current is permanently within the STATCOM secure operation limits. The paper...... presents a comprehensive derivation of the proposed STATCOM control strategies to set the reactive current reference under unbalanced grid faults, together with an extensive evaluation using simulation and experimental results from a low-scale laboratory setup in order to verify and validate the dynamic...

  5. A DC Microgrid Coordinated Control Strategy Based on Integrator Current-Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The DC microgrid has become a new trend for microgrid study with the advantages of high reliability, simple control and low losses. With regard to the drawbacks of the traditional droop control strategies, an improved DC droop control strategy based on integrator current-sharing is introduced. In the strategy, the principle of eliminating deviation through an integrator is used, constructing the current-sharing term in order to make the power-sharing between different distributed generation (DG units uniform and reasonable, which can reduce the circulating current between DG units. Furthermore, at the system coordinated control level, a hierarchical/droop control strategy based on the DC bus voltage is proposed. In the strategy, the operation modes of the AC main network and micro-sources are determined through detecting the DC voltage variation, which can ensure the power balance of the DC microgrid under different operating conditions. Meanwhile, communication is not needed between different DG units, while each DG unit needs to sample the DC bus voltage, which retains the plug-and-play feature of the DC microgrid. The proposed control strategy is validated by simulation on a DC microgrid with permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind turbines, solar arrays and energy storage batteries, which can be applied to small commercial or residential buildings.

  6. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Casey, James; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Karavakis, Edward; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Maier, Gerhild; Rodrigues, Daniele Filipe Rocha Da Cuhna; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Sidorova, Irina; Boehm, Max; Belov, Sergey; Tikhonenko, Elena; Dvorak, Frantisek; Krenek, Ales; Mulac, Milas; Sitera, Jiri; Kodolova, Olga; Vaibhav, Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  7. A Coordinate Control Strategy for Circulating Current Suppression in Multiparalleled Three-Phase Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xueguang; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the zero-sequence circulating current control in the multiparalleled three-phase voltage-source inverters. The model of the zero-sequence circulating current in the N-paralleled (N ≥ 3) inverters is derived. It is shown that the circulating current is not only susceptible...... to the mismatches of circuit parameters, but it is also influenced by the interactions of circulating current controllers used by other paralleled inverters. To eliminate these adverse effects on the circulating current control loop, a coordinate control strategy for the N-paralleled inverter is proposed based...... on the zero-vector feedforward method with the space-vector pulse width modulation. Moreover, a virtual inverter method is introduced to facilitate the implementation of the proposed controller, which decouples the interactions of circulating current controllers in the paralleled inverters. Finally...

  8. Delivering Communication Strategy Training for People with Aphasia: What Is Current Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Beeke, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Communication strategy training (CST) is a recognized part of UK speech and language therapists' (SLTs) role when working with a person with aphasia. Multiple CST interventions have been published but, to date, there are no published studies exploring clinical practice in this area. Aims: To investigate UK SLTs' current CST practices.…

  9. Parent Retrospective Recollections of Bullying and Current Views, Concerns, and Strategies to Cope with Children's Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Leigh A.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, parent history of bullying was examined in terms of general involvement with bullying, specific types of bullying experienced, level of hurtfulness associated with the experience, and when bullying occurred. Parent current views, levels of concern, and strategies used to cope with bullying were also evaluated. Finally, the…

  10. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2013-01-01

    in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13...

  11. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alff, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility and costs were determined for a 1 m to 30 m diameter ambient temperature, infrared to submillimeter orbiting astronomical telescope which is to be shuttle-deployed, free-flying, and have a 10 year orbital life. Baseline concepts, constraints on delivery and deployment, and the sunshield required are examined. Reflector concepts, the optical configuration, alignment and pointing, and materials are also discussed. Technology studies show that a 10 m to 30 m diameter system which is background and diffraction limited at 30 micron m is feasible within the stated time frame. A 10 m system is feasible with current mirror technology, while a 30 m system requires technology still in development.

  12. Gossamer-1: Mission concept and technology for a controlled deployment of gossamer spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Patric; Spietz, Peter; Sproewitz, Tom; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hillebrandt, Martin; Hobbie, Catherin; Ruffer, Michael; Straubel, Marco; Tóth, Norbert; Zander, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gossamer structures for innovative space applications, such as solar sails, require technology that allows their controlled and thereby safe deployment. Before employing such technology for a dedicated science mission, it is desirable, if not necessary, to demonstrate its reliability with a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six or higher. The aim of the work presented here is to provide reliable technology that enables the controlled deployment and verification of its functionality with various laboratory tests, thereby qualifying the hardware for a first demonstration in low Earth orbit (LEO). The development was made in the Gossamer-1 project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This paper provides an overview of the Gossamer-1 mission and hardware development. The system is designed based on the requirements of a technology demonstration mission. The design rests on a crossed boom configuration with triangular sail segments. Employing engineering models, all aspects of the deployment were tested under ambient environment. Several components were also subjected to environmental qualification testing. An innovative stowing and deployment strategy for a controlled deployment, as well as the designs of the bus system, mechanisms and electronics are described. The tests conducted provide insights into the deployment process and allow a mechanical characterization of that deployment process, in particular the measurement of the deployment forces. Deployment on system level could be successfully demonstrated to be robust and controllable. The deployment technology is on TRL four approaching level five, with a qualification model for environmental testing currently being built.

  13. Deployment of a Grid-based Medical Imaging Application

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Frate, C; Gálvez, J; Hassan, W; Hauer, T; Manset, D; McClatchey, R; Odeh, M; Rogulin, D; Solomonides, T; Warren, R

    2005-01-01

    The MammoGrid project has deployed its Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)-based Grid application in a real environment comprising actual participating hospitals. The resultant setup is currently being exploited to conduct rigorous in-house tests in the first phase before handing over the setup to the actual clinicians to get their feedback. This paper elaborates the deployment details and the experiences acquired during this phase of the project. Finally the strategy regarding migration to an upcoming middleware from EGEE project will be described. This paper concludes by highlighting some of the potential areas of future work.

  14. A fault-tolerant strategy based on SMC for current-controlled converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Peter M.; Marei, Mostafa I.; Sattar, Ahmed A.

    2018-05-01

    The sliding mode control (SMC) is used to control variable structure systems such as power electronics converters. This paper presents a fault-tolerant strategy based on the SMC for current-controlled AC-DC converters. The proposed SMC is based on three sliding surfaces for the three legs of the AC-DC converter. Two sliding surfaces are assigned to control the phase currents since the input three-phase currents are balanced. Hence, the third sliding surface is considered as an extra degree of freedom which is utilised to control the neutral voltage. This action is utilised to enhance the performance of the converter during open-switch faults. The proposed fault-tolerant strategy is based on allocating the sliding surface of the faulty leg to control the neutral voltage. Consequently, the current waveform is improved. The behaviour of the current-controlled converter during different types of open-switch faults is analysed. Double switch faults include three cases: two upper switch fault; upper and lower switch fault at different legs; and two switches of the same leg. The dynamic performance of the proposed system is evaluated during healthy and open-switch fault operations. Simulation results exhibit the various merits of the proposed SMC-based fault-tolerant strategy.

  15. Quality function deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This book indicates quality function deployment with quality and deployment of quality function, process and prospect of quality function deployment and development, product process and conception of quality table, deployment of quality demand, design of quality table and application of concurrent multi design, progress design and quality development, main safe part and management of important function part, quality development and deployment of method of construction, quality deployment and economics, total system of quality function deployment and task of quality function deployment in the present and future.

  16. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts.

  17. Current challenges and emerging drug delivery strategies for the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Melissa B; Hill, Dane; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disorder associated with physical, social, psychological and financial burden. Over the past two decades, advances in our understanding of pathogenesis and increased appreciation for the multifaceted burden of psoriasis has led to new treatment development and better patient outcomes. Yet, surveys demonstrate that many psoriasis patients are either undertreated or are dissatisfied with treatment. There are many barriers that need be overcome to optimize patient outcomes and satisfaction. This review covers the current challenges associated with each major psoriasis treatment strategy (topical, phototherapy, oral medications and biologics). It also reviews the challenges associated with the psychosocial aspects of the disease and how they affect treatment outcomes. Patient adherence, inconvenience, high costs, and drug toxicities are all discussed. Then, we review the emerging drug delivery strategies in topical, oral, and biologic therapy. By outlining current treatment challenges and emerging drug delivery strategies, we hope to highlight the deficits in psoriasis treatment and strategies for how to overcome them. Regardless of disease severity, clinicians should use a patient-centered approach. In all cases, we need to balance patients' psychosocial needs, treatment costs, convenience, and effectiveness with patients' preferences in order to optimize treatment outcomes.

  18. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13% of the energy saving and 12% of the CO 2 emission reduction can be attained by accomplishing three strategies compared with the reference transport system. However, the energy demand of transport in 2020 with the implementation of three strategies will be about 1.7 times as much as today. The three strategies show the potential of drawing the transport demand to the more energy efficient vehicles; however, more initiatives are needed if the sustainable transport is the long term objective, such as the solutions to stabilise the private vehicle demands, to continuously improve the vehicle efficiency and to boost the alternative fuels produced from the renewable energy sources. - Highlights: • A Chinese transport model was created and three transport strategies were evaluated • Transport is the biggest driver of the oil demand in China not the industry • The energy demand of transport in 2020 will be twice as much as today • Strategies contribute 13% energy saving and 12% CO 2 emission reduction • More initiatives are needed if a sustainable transport is the long-term objective

  19. Rapid Detection Strategies for the Global Threat of Zika Virus: Current State, New Hypotheses and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario regarding the widespread Zika virus (ZIKV has resulted in numerous diagnostic studies, specifically in South America and in locations where there is frequent entry of travelers returning from ZIKV-affected areas, including pregnant women with or without clinical symptoms of ZIKV infection. The World Health Organization, WHO, announced that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the United States of America in the near future. This situation has created an alarming public health emergency of international concern requiring the detection of this life-threatening viral candidate due to increased cases of newborn microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection. Hence, this review reports possible methods and strategies for the fast and reliable detection of ZIKV with particular emphasis on current updates, knowledge and new hypotheses that might be helpful for medical professionals in poor and developing countries that urgently need to address this problem. In particular, we emphasize liposome-based biosensors. Although these biosensors are currently among the less popular tools for human disease detection, they have become useful tools for the screening and detection of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses because of their versatile advantageous features compared to other sensing devices. This review summarizes the currently available methods employed for the rapid detection of ZIKV and suggests an innovative approach involving the application of a liposome-based hypothesis for the development of new strategies for ZIKV detection and their use as effective biomedicinal tools.

  20. Currents, temperature, attenuation, and conductivity from Stellwagen Bank from instruments deployed from the WHITE HEATH from February 17, 1994 to April 10, 1995 (NODC Accession 0067554)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A year-long series of current measurements on the eastern flank of Stellwagen Bank to document the currents at the mouth of Massachusetts Bay driven by the Maine...

  1. A novel harmonic current sharing control strategy for parallel-connected inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    A novel control strategy which enables proportional linear and nonlinear loads sharing among paralleled inverters and voltage harmonic suppression is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is based on the autonomous currents sharing controller (ACSC) instead of conventional power droop control...... to provide fast transient response, decoupling control and large stability margin. The current components at different sequences and orders are decomposed by a multi-second-order generalized integrator-based frequency locked loop (MSOGI-FLL). A harmonic-orthogonal-virtual-resistances controller (HOVR......) is used to proportionally share current components at different sequences and orders independently among the paralleled inverters. Proportional resonance controllers tuned at selected frequencies are used to suppress voltage harmonics. Simulations based on two 2.2 kW paralleled three-phase inverters...

  2. Three years experience with forward-site mass casualty triage-, evacuation-, operating room-, ICU-, and radiography-enabled disaster vehicles: development of usage strategies from drills and deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jane L; Kirby, Neil R; Waterson, James A

    2014-01-01

    Delineation of the advantages and problems related to the use of forward-site operating room-, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-, radiography-, and mass casualty-enabled disaster vehicles for site evacuation, patient stabilization, and triage. The vehicles discussed have six ventilated ICU spaces, two ORs, on-site radiography, 21 intermediate acuity spaces with stretchers, and 54 seated minor acuity spaces. Each space has piped oxygen with an independent vehicle-loaded supply. The vehicles are operated by the Dubai Corporate Ambulance Services. Their support hospital is the main trauma center for the Emirate of Dubai and provides the vehicles' surgical, intensivist, anesthesia, and nursing staff. The disaster vehicles have been deployed 264 times in the last 5 years (these figures do not include deployments for drills). Introducing this new service required extensive initial planning and ongoing analysis of the performance of the disaster vehicles that offer ambulance services and receiving hospitals a large array of possibilities in terms of triage, stabilization of priority I and II patients, and management of priority III patients. In both drills and in disasters, the vehicles were valuable in forward triage and stabilization and in the transport of large numbers of priority III patients. This has avoided the depletion of emergency transport available for priority I and II patients. The successful utilization of disaster vehicles requires seamless cooperation between the hospital staffing the vehicles and the ambulance service deploying them. They are particularly effective during preplanned deployments to high-risk situations. These vehicles also potentially provide self-sufficient refuges for forward teams in hostile environments.

  3. Zero-Axis Virtual Synchronous Coordinate Based Current Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyue Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Unbalanced power has a great influence on the safe and stable operation of the distribution network system. The static power compensator, which is essentially a grid-connected inverter, is an effective solution to the three-phase power imbalance problem. In order to solve the tracking error problem of zero-sequence AC current signals, a novel control strategy based on zero-axis virtual synchronous coordinates is proposed in this paper. By configuring the operation of filter transmission matrices, a specific orthogonal signal is obtained for zero-axis reconstruction. In addition, a controller design scheme based on this method is proposed. Compared with the traditional zero-axis direct control, this control strategy is equivalent to adding a frequency tuning module by the orthogonal signal generator. The control gain of an open loop system can be equivalently promoted through linear transformation. With its clear mathematical meaning, zero- sequence current control can be controlled with only a first-order linear controller. Through reasonable parameter design, zero steady-state error, fast response and strong stability can be achieved. Finally, the performance of the proposed control strategy is verified by both simulations and experiments.

  4. Old Disease and New Challenges: Major Obstacles of Current Strategies in the Prevention of Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Iraj; Karimi, Abdollah; Amanati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context Universal immunization against Bordetella pertussis has partially controlled the burden of the disease and its transmission. However, according to recent data, the epidemiology of this vaccine-preventable disease has changed. Now, younger infants, adolescents, and adults are at greater risk of infection. This article has studied the interaction between the various factors involved in the changing epidemiology of pertussis and the major obstacles faced by the current strategies in its prevention. Evidence Acquisition In this narrative review, the most recently published sources of information on pertussis control measures, consisting of textbooks and articles, have been reviewed. We focused on the more recent data about the changing epidemiology or pertussis in Scopus through the use of the MeSH-term words [pertussis] or [whooping cough] and [epidemiology] or [outbreak] or [resurgence], but our search was not restricted to this particular strategy; we also tried to find all of the most recent available data in the general field through other means. Results Primary and booster doses of the pertussis vaccine seem to partially control transmission of the disease, but despite the different preventive strategies available, pertussis continues to cause mortality and morbidity among high-risk groups. Conclusions Adding booster doses of acellular pertussis vaccine to the current national immunization practices with whole-cell vaccines for young adults and pregnant women seems to be a good option for controlling mortality and morbidity among high-risk groups such as very young infants. PMID:27729960

  5. Regeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament: Current strategies in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Thomas; Teuschl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in the field of musculoskeletal tissue engineering have raised an increasing interest in the regeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). It is the aim of this article to review the current research efforts and highlight promising tissue engineering strategies. The four main components of tissue engineering also apply in several ACL regeneration research efforts. Scaffolds from biological materials, biodegradable polymers and composite materials are used. The main cell sources are mesenchymal stem cells and ACL fibroblasts. In addition, growth factors and mechanical stimuli are applied. So far, the regenerated ACL constructs have been tested in a few animal studies and the results are encouraging. The different strategies, from in vitro ACL regeneration in bioreactor systems to bio-enhanced repair and regeneration, are under constant development. We expect considerable progress in the near future that will result in a realistic option for ACL surgery soon. PMID:25621217

  6. Current Advancements and Strategies in Tissue Engineering for Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jasmine; Walsh, Claire; Yue, Dominic; Dardik, Alan; Cheema, Umber

    2017-06-01

    Significance: With an aging population leading to an increase in diabetes and associated cutaneous wounds, there is a pressing clinical need to improve wound-healing therapies. Recent Advances: Tissue engineering approaches for wound healing and skin regeneration have been developed over the past few decades. A review of current literature has identified common themes and strategies that are proving successful within the field: The delivery of cells, mainly mesenchymal stem cells, within scaffolds of the native matrix is one such strategy. We overview these approaches and give insights into mechanisms that aid wound healing in different clinical scenarios. Critical Issues: We discuss the importance of the biomimetic niche, and how recapitulating elements of the native microenvironment of cells can help direct cell behavior and fate. Future Directions: It is crucial that during the continued development of tissue engineering in wound repair, there is close collaboration between tissue engineers and clinicians to maintain the translational efficacy of this approach.

  7. The deployment of the strategies and structuring of strategic management: the case of a company of international road transport of loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelmar Vaccari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive and globalized environment where the companies are currently inserted in, it has been relevant that the logistic question be adequately valued. Considering the logistic variable, the transport holds a significant weight, due to the representativity of its costs and its influence over other competitive parameters. Being so, the companies in the transport segment need to make use of all the concepts of strategic management, by planning and implementing their strategic actions. In this context, the Balanced Scorecard is a powerful tool for the companies to be able to translate their strategic plans into actions aligned with their objectives. In this work are described the results of an action and research held in a road haulage company. During the process, the company elaborated its strategic planning, showing how the objectives were translated into strategies and actions along with their respective indicators of performance. The construction process of the specific BSC model generated opportunity for growth and valuing of strategic management, discussed in this work.

  8. Rehabilitation strategies for partially edentulous-prosthodontic principles and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Dsj; Dua, Parag

    2011-07-01

    The prosthetic considerations for treatment of partially edentulous patients involve evaluation of important aspects such as presence of certain functional or skeletal deficits, orientation of the occlusal plane, free-way space, size and location of edentulous areas, number, strategic location and quality of the likely abutment teeth, vertical dimension, and the type of occlusion. A comprehensive evaluation, multidisciplinary approach and a sequential treatment plan, worked out in harmony with the patient's perceptions are important factors to ensure a successful outcome. This article discusses the principles, current trends and importance of clinical decisions in designing a treatment strategy when confronted with complex situations of partial edentulism.

  9. Current Therapeutic Strategies for Adipose Tissue Defects/Repair Using Engineered Biomaterials and Biomolecule Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Mahoney

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineered scaffolds for adipose restoration/repair has significantly evolved in recent years. Patients requiring soft tissue reconstruction, caused by defects or pathology, require biomaterials that will restore void volume with new functional tissue. The gold standard of autologous fat grafting (AFG is not a reliable option. This review focuses on the latest therapeutic strategies for the treatment of adipose tissue defects using biomolecule formulations and delivery, and specifically engineered biomaterials. Additionally, the clinical need for reliable off-the-shelf therapies, animal models, and challenges facing current technologies are discussed.

  10. Current Therapeutic Strategies for Adipose Tissue Defects/Repair Using Engineered Biomaterials and Biomolecule Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Christopher M; Imbarlina, Cayla; Yates, Cecelia C; Marra, Kacey G

    2018-01-01

    Tissue engineered scaffolds for adipose restoration/repair has significantly evolved in recent years. Patients requiring soft tissue reconstruction, caused by defects or pathology, require biomaterials that will restore void volume with new functional tissue. The gold standard of autologous fat grafting (AFG) is not a reliable option. This review focuses on the latest therapeutic strategies for the treatment of adipose tissue defects using biomolecule formulations and delivery, and specifically engineered biomaterials. Additionally, the clinical need for reliable off-the-shelf therapies, animal models, and challenges facing current technologies are discussed.

  11. Current technics and management strategy for Pu-contaminated wastes at PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) was designated as a leading organization for the Pu-contaminated waste technology program in Japan. For this purpose, number of efforts in the research and development are proceeding. That is, Pu-contaminated waste technology including volume reduction system and the immobilization of wastes is being developed. The design of a Pu-contaminated waste treatment facility (PWTF) is being made for the demonstration of the technology developed. Studies are in progress to find the criteria for waste products in disposal. The current procedures and strategy for the management of Pu-contaminated wastes at PNC are described as follows: current and future management; technology development including controlled air incineration, acid digestion, immobilization melting, dismantling, and liquid waste treatment; the Pu-contaminated waste treatment facility. (J.P.N.)

  12. Impedance Based Analysis of DFIG Stator Current Unbalance and Distortion Suppression Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    The control strategies of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system output current unbalance and distortion suppression have been well investigated in detail, with the implementation of two kinds of resonant regulators, i.e., conventional Resonance (R) regulator or Vector Proportional Integral...... reshaping though the introduction of R and VPI regulator. It is pointed out that, when implemented in the DFIG system output current unbalance and distortion suppression, the VPI regulator (equivalent to the combination of virtual positive inductor and virtual positive resistor) has two advantages over R...... regulator (equivalent to the combination of virtual positive resistor and virtual negative inductor), i.e., better high order harmonic distortion suppression. The theoretical analysis and MATLAB simulation results have validated the correctness of this conclusion....

  13. A Current Review of the Diagnostic and Treatment Strategies of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Poh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a serious and potentially fatal complication in patients with cirrhotic liver disease. It is a spectrum ranging from minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE without recognizable clinical symptoms or signs, to overt HE with risk of cerebral edema and death. HE results in diminished quality of life and survival. The broad range of neuropsychiatric manifestations reflects the range of pathophysiological mechanisms and impairment in neurotransmission that are purported to cause HE including hyperammonemia, astrocyte swelling, intra-astrocytic glutamine, upregulation of 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO (formerly known as peripheral benzodiazepine receptor or PBTR, and manganese. There is a myriad of diagnostic tools including simple bedside clinical assessment, and more complex neuropsychological batteries and neurophysiological tests available today. Current treatment strategies are directed at reducing ammonia, with newer agents showing some early promise. This paper describes the pathophysiology of the disease and summarises current diagnostic and treatment therapies available.

  14. Classical and modern control strategies for the deployment, reconfiguration, and station-keeping of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo-Lugo, Pedro A.

    Formation flying consists of multiple spacecraft orbiting in a required configuration about a planet or through Space. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation is one of the proposed constellations to be launched in the year 2009 and provides the motivation for this investigation. The problem that will be researched here consists of three stages. The first stage contains the deployment of the satellites; the second stage is the reconfiguration process to transfer the satellites through different specific sizes of the NASA benchmark problem; and, the third stage is the station-keeping procedure for the tetrahedron constellation. Every stage contains different control schemes and transfer procedures to obtain/maintain the proposed tetrahedron constellation. In the first stage, the deployment procedure will depend on a combination of two techniques in which impulsive maneuvers and a digital controller are used to deploy the satellites and to maintain the tetrahedron constellation at the following apogee point. The second stage that corresponds to the reconfiguration procedure shows a different control scheme in which the intelligent control systems are implemented to perform this procedure. In this research work, intelligent systems will eliminate the use of complex mathematical models and will reduce the computational time to perform different maneuvers. Finally, the station-keeping process, which is the third stage of this research problem, will be implemented with a two-level hierarchical control scheme to maintain the separation distance constraints of the NASA Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation. For this station-keeping procedure, the system of equations defining the dynamics of a pair of satellites is transformed to take in account the perturbation due to the oblateness of the Earth and the disturbances due to solar pressure. The control procedures used in this research will be transformed from a continuous

  15. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  17. Regenerating the human heart: direct reprogramming strategies and their current limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiroldi, Andrea; Piccoli, Marco; Ciconte, Giuseppe; Pappone, Carlo; Anastasia, Luigi

    2017-10-27

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Western world. Unfortunately, current therapies are often only palliative, consequently essentially making heart transplantation necessary for many patients. However, several novel therapeutic approaches in the past two decades have yielded quite encouraging results. The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, through the forced expression of stem cell-specific transcription factors, has inspired the most promising strategies for heart regeneration by direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes. Initial attempts at this reprogramming were conducted using a similar approach to the one used with transcription factors, but during years, novel strategies have been tested, e.g., miRNAs, recombinant proteins and chemical molecules. Although preliminary results on animal models are promising, the low reprogramming efficiency, as well as the incomplete maturation of the cardiomyocytes, still represents important obstacles. This review covers direct transdifferentiation strategies that have been proposed and developed and illustrates the pros and cons of each approach. Indeed, as described in the manuscript, there are still many unanswered questions and drawbacks that require a better understanding of the basic signaling pathways and transcription factor networks before functional cells, suitable for cardiac regeneration and safe for the patients, can be generated and used for human therapies.

  18. Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Based Direct-Current Vector Control Strategy for Solar PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAMMALVAR, P.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper projects Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PIPSO based direct current vector control technology for the integration of photovoltaic array in an AC micro-grid to enhance the system performance and stability. A photovoltaic system incorporated with AC micro-grid is taken as the pursuit of research study. The test system features two power converters namely, PV side converter which consists of DC-DC boost converter with Perturbation and Observe (P&O MPPT control to reap most extreme power from the PV array, and grid side converter which consists of Grid Side-Voltage Source Converter (GS-VSC with proposed direct current vector control strategy. The gain of the proposed controller is chosen from a set of three values obtained using apriori test and tuned through the PIPSO algorithm so that the Integral of Time multiplied Absolute Error (ITAE between the actual and the desired DC link capacitor voltage reaches a minimum and allows the system to extract maximum power from PV system, whereas the existing d-q control strategy is found to perform slowly to control the DC link voltage under varying solar insolation and load fluctuations. From simulation results, it is evident that the proposed optimal control technique provides robust control and improved efficiency.

  19. Solar sail deployment experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Shimose, Shigeru; 下瀬 滋

    2006-01-01

    Solar Sail move by receiving momentum of photons in sunlight. This paper presents results of some Spin-Stabilized Solar Sail deployment experiment. ISAS has successfully deployed, for the first time in the world, the polyimide Solar Sail taking advantage of centrifugal force in space. Based on this result, the new deployment mechanism is being developed which retracts the 50 m diameter sail.

  20. HIV cure strategies: how good must they be to improve on current antiretroviral therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Sax

    Full Text Available We examined efficacy, toxicity, relapse, cost, and quality-of-life thresholds of hypothetical HIV cure interventions that would make them cost-effective compared to life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART.We used a computer simulation model to assess three HIV cure strategies: Gene Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT, each compared to ART. Efficacy and cost parameters were varied widely in sensitivity analysis. Outcomes included quality-adjusted life expectancy, lifetime cost, and cost-effectiveness in dollars/quality-adjusted life year ($/QALY gained. Strategies were deemed cost-effective with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios <$100,000/QALY.For patients on ART, discounted quality-adjusted life expectancy was 16.4 years and lifetime costs were $591,400. Gene Therapy was cost-effective with efficacy of 10%, relapse rate 0.5%/month, and cost $54,000. Chemotherapy was cost-effective with efficacy of 88%, relapse rate 0.5%/month, and cost $12,400/month for 24 months. At $150,000/procedure, SCT was cost-effective with efficacy of 79% and relapse rate 0.5%/month. Moderate efficacy increases and cost reductions made Gene Therapy cost-saving, but substantial efficacy/cost changes were needed to make Chemotherapy or SCT cost-saving.Depending on efficacy, relapse rate, and cost, cure strategies could be cost-effective compared to current ART and potentially cost-saving. These results may help provide performance targets for developing cure strategies for HIV.

  1. IPv6 deployment and management

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A guide for understanding, deploying, and managing Internet Protocol version 6 The growth of the Internet has created a need for more addresses than are available with Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)-the protocol currently used to direct almost all Internet traffic. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)-the new IP version intended to ultimately succeed IPv4-will expand the addressing capacity of the Internet to support the explosive growth of users and devices on the Internet as well as add flexibility to allocating addresses and efficiency for routing traffic. IPv6 Deploy

  2. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  3. Retrieving current and wind vectors from ATI SAR data: airborne evidence and inversion strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adrien; Gommenginger, Christine; Chapron, Bertrand; Marquez, José; Doody, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Conventional and along-track interferometric (ATI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sense the motion of the ocean surface by measuring the Doppler shift of reflected signals. Together with the water displacement associated with ocean currents, the SAR measurements are also affected by a Wind-wave induced Artefact Surface Velocity (WASV) caused by the velocity of Bragg scatterers and the orbital velocity of ocean surface gravity waves. The WASV has been modelled theoretically in past studies but has been estimated empirically only once using Envisat ASAR. Here we propose, firstly, to evaluate this WASV from airborne ATI SAR data, secondly, to validate the airborne retrieved surface current after correction of the WASV against HF radar measurements and thirdly to examine the best inversion strategy for a an Ocean Surface Current (OSC) satellite mission to retrieve accurately both the ocean surface current vector (OSCV) and the wind vector in the frame of an OSC satellite mission. The airborne ATI SAR data were acquired in the tidally dominated Irish Sea using a Wavemill-type dual-beam SAR interferometer. A comprehensive collection of airborne Wavemill data acquired in a star pattern over a well-instrumented site made it possible to estimate the magnitude and dependence on azimuth and incidence angle of the WASV. The airborne results compare favourably with those reported for Envisat ASAR, empirical model, which has been used to correct for it. Validation of the current retrieval capabilities of the proof-of-concept has been conducted against HF radar giving a precisions typically better than 0.1 m/s for surface current speed and 7° for direction. Comparisons with POLCOMS (1.8 km) indicate that the model reproduces well the overall temporal evolution but does not capture the high spatial variability of ocean surface currents at the maximum ebb flow. Airborne retrieved currents highlight a short-scale spatial variability up to 100m related to bathymetry channels, which

  4. The risk for marital infidelity across a year-long deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Stanton, Kimberley; Snyder, Douglas K; Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E; Cassidy, Daniel G

    2017-08-01

    Military deployment can create significant relationship strain. Although most couples navigate the challenges of deployment successfully, this period may render some couples more vulnerable to adverse relationship outcomes such as infidelity due to a convergence of factors including geographic separation and reduced emotional and physical intimacy. Despite anecdotal reports of increased rates of infidelity during deployment, empirical findings are lacking. This study used a prospective design to examine the prevalence and risk factors of infidelity across the deployment cycle including a year-long deployment to Iraq. A total of 63 married male Airmen were assessed both pre- and 6-9 months postdeployment. The rate of sexual infidelity prior to deployment (21%) was commensurate with the lifetime rate of sexual involvement outside the marriage in representative community samples of men. Across the deployment period, the prevalence of sexual infidelity was strikingly high (22.6%) compared with annual community estimates (1.5-4%; Allen et al., 2005). Findings demonstrated that service members with a prior history of separation, steps toward divorce, and relationship distress prior to deployment had elevated risk for infidelity over the deployment cycle. Moreover, roughly 75% of Airmen who experienced infidelity over the deployment cycle divorced by 6-9 months postdeployment whereas only 5% of service members without infidelity divorced during this same time period. Considering well-documented adverse impacts of infidelity and divorce, the current findings may assist in identifying military couples at risk for infidelity and informing targeted prevention or early intervention strategies for these couples prior to or immediately following deployment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Brain tumor radiosurgery. Current status and strategies to enhance the effect of radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niranjan, A.; Lunsford, L.D.; Gobbel, G.T.; Kondziolka, D.; Maitz, A.; Flickinger, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    First, the current status of brain tumor radiosurgery is reviewed, and radiosurgery for brain tumors, including benign tumors, malignant tumors, primary glial tumors, and metastatic tumors, is described. Rapid developments in neuroimaging, stereotactic techniques, and robotic technology in the last decade have contributed to improved results and wider applications of radiosurgery. Radiosurgery has become the preferred management modality for many intracranial tumors, including schwannomas, meningiomas, and metastatic tumors. Although radiosurgery provides survival benefits in patients with diffuse malignant brain tumors, cure is still not possible. Microscopic tumor infiltration into surrounding normal tissue is the main cause of recurrence. Additional strategies are needed to specifically target tumor cells. Next, strategies to enhance the effect of radiosurgery are reviewed. Whereas the long-term clinical results of radiosurgery have established its role in the treatment of benign tumors, additional strategies are needed to improve cell killing in malignant brain tumors and to protect normal surrounding brain. The first strategy included the use of various agents to protect normal brain while delivering a high dose to the tumor cells, but finding an effective radioprotective agent has been problematic. Pentobarbital and 21-aminosteroid (21-AS) are presented as examples. The second strategy for radiation protection aimed at the repair of radiation-induced damage to the normal brain. The cause of radiation-induced breakdown of normal tissue is unclear. The white matter and the cerebral vasculature appear to be particularly susceptible to radiation. Oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells may be critical targets of radiation. The authors hypothesize that radiation-induced damage to these cell types can be repaired by neural stem cells. They also describe the use of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and neural stem cells as a means of enhancing the effect of

  6. Periodically Swapping Modulation (PSM) Strategy for Three-Level (TL) DC/DC Converter with Balanced Switch Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Zhang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The asymmetrical modulation strategy is widely used in various types of three-level (TL) DC/DC converters, while the current imbalance among the power switches is one of the important issues. In this paper, a novel periodically swapping modulation (PSM) strategy is proposed for balancing the power...... switches’ currents in various types of TL DC/DC converters. In the proposed PSM strategy, the driving signals of the switch pairs are swapped periodically, which guarantees that the currents through the power switches are kept balanced in every two switching periods. Therefore, the proposed PSM...... strategy can effectively improve the reliability of the converter by balancing the power losses and thermal stresses among the power switches. The operation principle and performances of the proposed PSM strategy are analyzed in detail. Finally, the simulation and experimental results are presented...

  7. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  8. Beam physics design strategy for a high-current rf linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The high average beam power of an rf linac system for transmutation of nuclear waste puts very stringent requirements on beam quality and beam control. Fractional beam losses along the accelerator must be kept at extremely low levels to assure {open_quotes}hands-on{close_quotes} maintenance. Hence, halo formation and large-amplitude tails in the particle distribution due to beam mismatch and equipartitioning effects must be avoided. This implies that the beam should ideally be in near-perfect thermal equilibrium from injection to full energy - in contrast to existing rf linacs in which the transverse temperature, T {sub {perpendicular}}, is higher than the longitudinal temperature, T{sub {parallel}}. The physics and parameter scaling for such a system will be reviewed using the results of recent work on high-intensity bunched beams. A design strategy for a high-current rf linac with equilibrated beam will be proposed.

  9. Overview of current surgical strategies for aortic disease in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Shunsuke; Okita, Yutaka

    2016-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a heritable, systemic disorder of the connective tissue with a high penetrance, named after Dr. Antoine Marfan. The most clinically important manifestations of this syndrome are cardiovascular pathologies which cause life-threatening events, such as acute aortic dissections, aortic rupture and regurgitation of the aortic valve or other artrioventricular valves leading to heart failure. These events play important roles in the life expectancy of patients with this disorder, especially prior to the development of effective surgical approaches for proximal ascending aortic disease. To prevent such catastrophic aortic events, a lower threshold has been recommended for prophylactic interventions on the aortic root. After prophylactic root replacement, disease in the aorta beyond the root and distal to the arch remains a cause for concern. Multiple surgeries are required throughout a patient's lifetime that can be problematic due to distal lesions complicated by dissection. Many controversies in surgical strategies remain, such as endovascular repair, to manage such complex cases. This review examines the trends in surgical strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in patients with Marfan syndrome, and current perspectives in this field.

  10. Classical Ecological Restoration and its Current Challenges: Assisted Migration as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar A. Gómez-Ruiz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is a very active area in ecology and of great importance for ecosystems management. Despite of being a relatively young discipline, the classical concepts of restoration seem, at present, impractical considering the great challenges generated by modification and destruction of ecosystems. This is due to anthropic activities (deforestation, change of land use, pollution and global climate change. In the classic definition of restoration, the objective is to recover the degraded ecosystem to the same conditions of a historical reference state. However, nowadays the ecosystems return to a state prior to the disturbances seems unviable, because the thresholds of resilience have already been overcome. Additionally, climate change is causing environmental changes at an unprecedented rate. For this reason, ecological restoration needs to unite efforts of diverse actors to recover ecosystems that can be sustainable and functional in the future, where the species could be able to tolerate the environmental conditions that will exist in the long term. Assisted migration has been proposed as a conservation strategy; it is defined as the translocation of species to new locations outside their known range of distribution. In the current context of loss of diversity and ecosystems, this strategy could be fundamental for the formation of new communities that can later become novel ecosystems where species that are fundamental to the dynamics of ecosystems can persist and, at the same time, recover function, structure and resilience.

  11. Surgical management of U-shaped sacral fractures: a systematic review of current treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, M A; Jehan, S; Boszczyk, A A; Boszczyk, B M

    2012-05-01

    U-shaped sacral fractures usually result from axial loading of the spine with simultaneous sacral pivoting due to a horizontal fracture which leads to a highly unstable spino-pelvic dissociation. Due to the rarity of these fractures, there is lack of an agreed treatment strategy. A thorough literature search was carried out to identify current treatment concepts. The studies were analysed for mechanism of injury, diagnostic imaging, associated injuries, type of surgery, follow-up times, complications, neurological, clinical and radiological outcome. Sixty-three cases were found in 12 articles. No Class I, II or III evidence was found in the literature. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall or jump from height. Pre-operative neurological deficit was noted in 50 (94.3%) out of 53 cases (not available in 10 patients). The most used surgical options were spino-pelvic fixation with or without decompression and ilio-sacral screws. Post-operative complications occurred in 24 (38.1%) patients. Average follow-up time was 18.6 months (range 2-34 months). Full neurological recovery was noted in 20 cases, partial recovery in 14 and 9 patients had no neurological recovery (5 patients were lost in follow-up). Fracture healing was mentioned in 7 articles with only 1 case of fracture reduction loss. From the current available data, an evidence based treatment strategy regarding outcome, neurological recovery or fracture healing could not be identified. Limited access and minimal-invasive surgery focussing on sacral reduction and restoration seems to offer comparable results to large spino-pelvic constructs with fewer complications and should be considered as the method of choice. If the fracture is highly unstable and displaced, spino-pelvic fixation might offer better stability.

  12. COIN Goes GLOCAL: Traditional COIN With a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-17

    COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles? A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global P ti D th C t US St t R fl t COIN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perspective: Does...Monograph: COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

  13. Current Strategies for the Manufacture of Small Size Tissue Engineering Vascular Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carrabba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Occlusive arterial disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD and peripheral arterial disease (PAD, is the main cause of death, with an annual mortality incidence predicted to rise to 23.3 million worldwide by 2030. Current revascularization techniques consist of angioplasty, placement of a stent, or surgical bypass grafting. Autologous vessels, such as the saphenous vein and internal thoracic artery, represent the gold standard grafts for small-diameter vessels. However, they require invasive harvesting and are often unavailable. Synthetic vascular grafts represent an alternative to autologous vessels. These grafts have shown satisfactory long-term results for replacement of large- and medium-diameter arteries, such as the carotid or common femoral artery, but have poor patency rates when applied to small-diameter vessels, such as coronary arteries and arteries below the knee. Considering the limitations of current vascular bypass conduits, a tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG with the ability to grow, remodel, and repair in vivo presents a potential solution for the future of vascular surgery. Here, we review the different methods that research groups have been investigating to create TEVGs in the last decades. We focus on the techniques employed in the manufacturing process of the grafts and categorize the approaches as scaffold-based (synthetic, natural, or hybrid or self-assembled (cell-sheet, microtissue aggregation and bioprinting. Moreover, we highlight the attempts made so far to translate this new strategy from the bench to the bedside.

  14. Improvement Strategies, Cost Effective Production, and Potential Applications of Fungal Glucose Oxidase (GOD): Current Updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K; Zehra, Andleeb; Aamir, Mohd; Meena, Mukesh; Ahirwal, Laxmi; Singh, Siddhartha; Shukla, Shruti; Upadhyay, Ram S; Bueno-Mari, Ruben; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-01-01

    Fungal glucose oxidase (GOD) is widely employed in the different sectors of food industries for use in baking products, dry egg powder, beverages, and gluconic acid production. GOD also has several other novel applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, and other biotechnological industries. The electrochemical suitability of GOD catalyzed reactions has enabled its successful use in bioelectronic devices, particularly biofuel cells, and biosensors. Other crucial aspects of GOD such as improved feeding efficiency in response to GOD supplemental diet, roles in antimicrobial activities, and enhancing pathogen defense response, thereby providing induced resistance in plants have also been reported. Moreover, the medical science, another emerging branch where GOD was recently reported to induce several apoptosis characteristics as well as cellular senescence by downregulating Klotho gene expression. These widespread applications of GOD have led to increased demand for more extensive research to improve its production, characterization, and enhanced stability to enable long term usages. Currently, GOD is mainly produced and purified from Aspergillus niger and Penicillium species, but the yield is relatively low and the purification process is troublesome. It is practical to build an excellent GOD-producing strain. Therefore, the present review describes innovative methods of enhancing fungal GOD production by using genetic and non-genetic approaches in-depth along with purification techniques. The review also highlights current research progress in the cost effective production of GOD, including key advances, potential applications and limitations. Therefore, there is an extensive need to commercialize these processes by developing and optimizing novel strategies for cost effective GOD production.

  15. Current status and strategies for the control of viral hepatitis A in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eileen L; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Hyun Woong; Kim, Ji Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection, which is closely associated with sanitary conditions and hygienic practices. The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis A is wide, ranging from mild case without any noticeable symptoms to severe case with acute liver failure leading to mortality. The severity and outcome are highly correlated with age at infection. In developing countries, most people are infected in early childhood without significant symptom. Ironically, in area where sanitary condition has improved rapidly, adults who do not have immunity for viral hepatitis A (VH-A) in early childhood is accumulating. Adults without immunity are exposed to risks of symptomatic disease and large outbreaks in society. In Korea, where hygiene has improved rapidly, acute hepatitis A is a significant health burden that needs to be managed with nationwide health policy. The incidence of symptomatic VH-A has increased since 2000 and peaked in 2009. Korea has designated hepatitis A as a group 1 nationally notifiable infectious disease in 2001. Since 2001, mandatory surveillance system has been established to detect every single case of acute hepatitis A. Universal, nationwide vaccination program for newborns was introduced in 2015. In this review, we will present the current epidemiologic status of viral hepatitis A, and evaluate the effectiveness of the current nationwide strategies for the control of viral hepatitis A in Korea. Furthermore, we presented some action proposals that can help eliminate viral hepatitis A, which is a significant health burden in Korea.

  16. CCT deployment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, B.

    1993-01-01

    The deployment of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) is discussed by asserting that in the case of commercializing CCT, the government's involvement should not stop at the demonstration gate. Two areas in this regard are described. First, the need for the domestic DOE CCT Program to focus on the domestic deployment of demonstrated technologies, and second, the need to recognize that to participate in the phenomenal growth of international power markets through use of clean coal or advanced coal technologies an aggressive partnering between the government and industry to demonstrate technologies abroad will be required. The Clean Coal Technology Coalition's (CCT) primary mission has been to promote the development and use of CCTs. The CCT is a strong advocate for the DOE CCT Program and applauds the Department's and industry's success at developing many coal-based technologies. By current design, the DOE program is said to go no further than the initial demonstration of a technology. Since the inception of CCT in 1986, the Coalition has advocated the need to pursue a partnership with government in which more than one demonstration of the same or similar technology is supported by the clean coal program. Only in this way can one be assured of widespread acceptance of any given technology. There exists a gap (call it a open-quotes risk gapclose quotes) between CCTs that have been successfully demonstrated (and presumably available for commercial use) and their widespread commercial use. A technology matrix has been developed in which the developmental status of a variety of clean coal technologies is demonstrated. While still too early to pass judgment, it appears that while success is being achieved in demonstrating advanced coal technologies, the market place - for several reasons - is not, indeed may have no plans, to adopt these technologies

  17. Tether Deployer And Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    Design concept promises speed, control, and reliability. Scheme for deploying tether provides for fast, free, and snagless payout and fast, dependable braking. Developed for small, expendable tethers in outer space, scheme also useful in laying transoceanic cables, deploying guidance wires to torpedoes and missiles, paying out rescue lines from ship to ship via rockets, deploying antenna wires, releasing communication and power cables to sonobuoys and expendable bathythermographs, and in reeling out lines from fishing rods.

  18. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This study uses The Theory Of Constraints (TOC) management methodology and recent military missions to show that RSOI operations are generally the limiting constraint to force deployment operations...

  19. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  20. Deployment Health Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeNicola, Anthony D

    2004-01-01

    .... Gulf War health questions have resulted in controversy over potentially hazardous exposures during the deployment, the possibility of adverse affects from preventive health measures, and the role...

  1. A ZVS PWM control strategy with balanced capacitor current for half-bridge three-level DC/DC converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The capacitor current would be imbalanced under the conventional control strategy in the half-bridge three-level (HBTL) DC/DC converter due to the effect of the output inductance of the power supply and the input line inductance, which would affect the converter's reliability. This paper proposes...... a pulse-wide modulation (PWM) strategy composed of two operation modes for the HBTL DC/DC converter, which can realize the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) for the efficiency improvement. In addition, a capacitor current balancing control is proposed by alternating the two operation modes of the proposed ZVS...... PWM strategy, which can eliminate the current imbalance among the two input capacitors. Therefore, the proposed control strategy can improve the converter's performance and reliability in: 1) reducing the switching losses and noises of the power switches; 2) balancing the thermal stresses...

  2. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

    2013-12-01

    As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement

  3. Analysis and Design of Improved Weighted Average Current Control Strategy for LCL-Type Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Li, Zipeng; Yang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The LCL grid-connected inverter has the ability to attenuate the high-frequency current harmonics. However, the inherent resonance of the LCL filter affects the system stability significantly. To damp the resonance effect, the dual-loop current control can be used to stabilize the system. The grid...... Control Strategy for LCL-Type Grid-Connected Inverters. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313734269_Analysis_and_Design_of_Improved_Weighted_Average_Current_Control_Strategy_for_LCL-Type_Grid-Connected_Inverters [accessed Apr 20, 2017]....... current plus capacitor current feedback system is widely used for its better transient response and high robustness against the grid impedance variations. While the weighted average current (WAC) feedback scheme is capable to provide a wider bandwidth at higher frequencies but show poor stability...

  4. Improvement Strategies, Cost Effective Production, and Potential Applications of Fungal Glucose Oxidase (GOD: Current Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish K. Dubey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal glucose oxidase (GOD is widely employed in the different sectors of food industries for use in baking products, dry egg powder, beverages, and gluconic acid production. GOD also has several other novel applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, and other biotechnological industries. The electrochemical suitability of GOD catalyzed reactions has enabled its successful use in bioelectronic devices, particularly biofuel cells, and biosensors. Other crucial aspects of GOD such as improved feeding efficiency in response to GOD supplemental diet, roles in antimicrobial activities, and enhancing pathogen defense response, thereby providing induced resistance in plants have also been reported. Moreover, the medical science, another emerging branch where GOD was recently reported to induce several apoptosis characteristics as well as cellular senescence by downregulating Klotho gene expression. These widespread applications of GOD have led to increased demand for more extensive research to improve its production, characterization, and enhanced stability to enable long term usages. Currently, GOD is mainly produced and purified from Aspergillus niger and Penicillium species, but the yield is relatively low and the purification process is troublesome. It is practical to build an excellent GOD-producing strain. Therefore, the present review describes innovative methods of enhancing fungal GOD production by using genetic and non-genetic approaches in-depth along with purification techniques. The review also highlights current research progress in the cost effective production of GOD, including key advances, potential applications and limitations. Therefore, there is an extensive need to commercialize these processes by developing and optimizing novel strategies for cost effective GOD production.

  5. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  6. Current Status of Air Toxics Management and Its Strategies for Controlling Emissions in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics, have been of great concern because they can cause serious human health effects and have adverse effects on the environment. More noticeably, some of them are known to be human carcinogens. The objective of this paper is to investigate the regulatory systems and human health effects of air toxics which have been designated by the Taiwan government under the Air Pollution Control Act. These toxic air pollutants include acutely toxic gas (i.e., ammonia, chlorine, fluorides, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, nitric acid, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid, gas containing heavy metals, and carcinogenic chemicals (including formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, asbestos and matter containing asbestos, dioxins and furans, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls. In line with international concern about the carcinogenic risk and environmental persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs and heavy metals in recent years, the current status in monitoring and reducing the emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs from stationary sources was analyzed as a case study in the present study. Furthermore, the control strategies for reducing emissions of air toxics from stationary sources in Taiwan were also addressed.

  7. A review of treatment strategies for hydrofluoric acid burns: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; You, Chuangang; Ye, Chunjiang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Liu, Jia; Han, Chunmao

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF), a dangerous inorganic acid, can cause severe corrosive effects and systemic toxicity. HF enters the human body via where it contacts, such as skin and mucosa, alimentary and respiratory tracts, and ocular surfaces. In the recent years, the incidence of HF burn has tended to increase over time. The injury mechanism of HF is associated primarily with the massive absorption of HF and the release of hydrogen ions. Correct diagnosis and timely treatment are especially important for HF burns. The critical procedure to treat HF burn is to prevent on-going HF absorption, and block the progressive destruction caused by fluoride ions. Due to the distinct characteristics of HF burns, the topical treatment, as well as systemic support, has been emphasised. Whereas, management of patients with HF burns remains a great challenge in some situations. To date, there has been no widely accepted protocol for the rescue of HF burns, partly due to the diversity of HF burns. This paper overviews the current status and problems of treatment strategies for HF burns, for the purpose of promoting the future researches and improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Current therapeutic strategies of anti-HER2 treatment in advanced breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Huszno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The HER2/neu ( ERBB2 oncogene is amplified and/or overexpressed in approximately 20% of breast cancers, and is a strong prognostic factor for relapse and poor overall survival, particularly in node-positive patients. It is also an important predictor for response to trastuzumab, which has established efficacy against breast cancer with overexpression or amplification of the HER2 oncogene. Treatment with the anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody – trastuzumab significantly improves progression-free and overall survival among patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. However, in most patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, the disease progresses occurred, what cause the need for new targeted therapies for advanced disease. In clinical trials, there are tested new drugs to improve the results of treatment for this group of patients. This paper presents new drugs introduced into clinical practice for treatment of advanced breast cancer, whose molecular target are receptors of the HER2 family. In addition, new therapeutic strategies and drugs that are currently in clinical researches are discussed.

  9. Current strategies in multiphasic scaffold design for osteochondral tissue engineering: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra; Hoque, Md Enamul; Prasad, Rangabhatala G S V; Uth, Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    The repair of osteochondral defects requires a tissue engineering approach that aims at mimicking the physiological properties and structure of two different tissues (cartilage and bone) using specifically designed scaffold-cell constructs. Biphasic and triphasic approaches utilize two or three different architectures, materials, or composites to produce a multilayered construct. This article gives an overview of some of the current strategies in multiphasic/gradient-based scaffold architectures and compositions for tissue engineering of osteochondral defects. In addition, the application of finite element analysis (FEA) in scaffold design and simulation of in vitro and in vivo cell growth outcomes has been briefly covered. FEA-based approaches can potentially be coupled with computer-assisted fabrication systems for controlled deposition and additive manufacturing of the simulated patterns. Finally, a summary of the existing challenges associated with the repair of osteochondral defects as well as some recommendations for future directions have been brought up in the concluding section of this article. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  11. Current strategies and future directions for the prevention of transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmon CM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Charles M Harmon, Laura L Cooling Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a pervasive DNA virus that infects a significant portion of individuals worldwide, and may be transmitted through the transfusion of blood products. Although CMV infection is of little consequence in immunocompetent individuals, patients with an impaired immune system are at risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Unlike other blood-borne infectious agents, it is impractical to defer all CMV-positive individuals from blood donation as this would exclude a substantial number of otherwise eligible donors. Other methods such as transfusion of CMV-seronegative and leukoreduced blood products must be employed to prevent the transmission of CMV to at-risk patients. In this study, the widespread use of current strategies for the prevention of transfusion-transmitted CMV (TT-CMV infection and the evidence to support these methods in various at-risk groups were reviewed. In addition, emerging pathogen inactivation technologies that have the potential to eliminate TT-CMV were also discussed. Keywords: blood transfusion, cytomegalovirus, leukoreduction, pathogen inactivation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, very low birth weight infants

  12. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  13. Assessment of Current Knowledge about the Effectiveness of School Desegregation Strategies. Volume II: An Agenda for Further Research on Desegregation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.; Hawley, Willis D.

    This paper agrees that there are inadequacies in school desegregation research and suggests strategies for improving its quality and availability as well as improving current educational policies. It is suggested that the interaction of power and resources determines the post-desegregation changes in school policies. The effects of desegregation…

  14. Coordination of Project and Current Activities on the Basis of the Strategy Alignment Metamodel in the Oil and Gas Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yu. Dashkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of this article is to describe the Strategy Alignment Metamodel of the project and current activities, which allows us to connect the Goals and Strategies for Phases of the project with the Goals and Strategies of the company at all levels of the organization through targeted measurement and application of Interpretive Models. Building Networks of Goals and Strategies, and adopting organizational solutions, you coordinate the interaction of the Project office and departments of the company. This methodology is based on a Logical Rationale of the Contexts and Assumptions for establishing Goals and Strategies both for the project and for the company, and on preparation of Contexts and Assumptions, Goals and Strategies Alignment Matrices, which provides a flexible adaptation to the internal and external environment in the process of selecting the most successful Strategies to achieve the Goals. Methods: this article is based on the concept of Goals-Questions-Metrics+ Strategies, which is adapted as another concept of strategic monitoring and control system of projects: Goals-Phases-Metrics+Strategies. These concepts have formed the basis of the Strategy Alignment Metamodel, where a technology of Phases Earned Value Management is used as a measurement system for the project activity, and Balanced scorecard is applied for current operations. Results: strategy Alignment Metamodel of the project and current activities of the company is proposed hereby. It uses modern strategic monitoring and control systems for projects: Goals-Phases-Metrics+Strategies, and for the company: Goals-Questions-Metrics+ Strategies. The interaction between these systems is based on Contexts and Assumptions, Goals and Strategies Alignment Matrices. The existence of such matrices greatly simplifies management decisions and prevents the risk of delays in the execution of project Phases based on rational participation and coordination of the company

  15. Modeling of novel diagnostic strategies for active tuberculosis - a systematic review: current practices and recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Zwerling

    Full Text Available The field of diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB is rapidly developing. TB diagnostic modeling can help to inform policy makers and support complicated decisions on diagnostic strategy, with important budgetary implications. Demand for TB diagnostic modeling is likely to increase, and an evaluation of current practice is important. We aimed to systematically review all studies employing mathematical modeling to evaluate cost-effectiveness or epidemiological impact of novel diagnostic strategies for active TB.Pubmed, personal libraries and reference lists were searched to identify eligible papers. We extracted data on a wide variety of model structure, parameter choices, sensitivity analyses and study conclusions, which were discussed during a meeting of content experts.From 5619 records a total of 36 papers were included in the analysis. Sixteen papers included population impact/transmission modeling, 5 were health systems models, and 24 included estimates of cost-effectiveness. Transmission and health systems models included specific structure to explore the importance of the diagnostic pathway (n = 4, key determinants of diagnostic delay (n = 5, operational context (n = 5, and the pre-diagnostic infectious period (n = 1. The majority of models implemented sensitivity analysis, although only 18 studies described multi-way sensitivity analysis of more than 2 parameters simultaneously. Among the models used to make cost-effectiveness estimates, most frequent diagnostic assays studied included Xpert MTB/RIF (n = 7, and alternative nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs (n = 4. Most (n = 16 of the cost-effectiveness models compared new assays to an existing baseline and generated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER.Although models have addressed a small number of important issues, many decisions regarding implementation of TB diagnostics are being made without the full benefits of insight from mathematical

  16. Strategies for the Use of Tidal Stream Currents for Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Kadir; Mayerle, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is one of the priority countries in Southeast Asia for the development of ocean renewable energy facilities and The National Energy Council intends to increase the role of ocean energy significantly in the energy mix for 2010-2050. To this end, the joint German-Indonesian project "Ocean Renewable Energy ORE-12" aims at the identification of marine environments in the Indonesian Archipelago, which are suitable for the efficient generation of electric power by converter facilities. This study, within the ORE-12 project, is focused on the tidal stream currents on the straits between the Indian Ocean and Flores Sea to estimate the energy potentials and to develop strategies for producing renewable energy. FLOW module of Delft3D has been used to run hydrodynamic models for site assessment and design development. In site assessment phase, 2D models have been operated for a-month long periods and with a resolution of 500 m. Later on, in design development phase, detailed 3D models have been developed and operated for three-month long periods and with a resolution of 50 m. Bathymetric data for models have been obtained from the GEBCO_08 Grid and wind data from the Global Forecast System of NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. To set the boundary conditions of models, tidal forcing with 11 harmonic constituents was supplied from TPXO Indian Ocean Atlas (1/12° regional model) and data from HYCOM+NCODA Global 1/12° Analysis have been used to determine salinity and temperature on open boundaries. After the field survey is complete, water level time-series supplied from a tidal gauge located in the domain of interest (8° 20΄ 9.7" S, 122° 54΄ 51.9" E) have been used to verify the models and then energy potentials of the straits have been estimated. As a next step, correspondence between model outputs and measurements taken by the radar system of TerraSAR-X satellite (DLR) will be analysed. Also for the assessment of environmental impacts caused by tidal stream

  17. Gender identity disorders in childhood and adolescence: currently debated concepts and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus Michael; Krude, Heiko; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette

    2008-11-01

    Gender identity disorders (GID) can appear even in early infancy with a variable degree of severity. Their prevalence in childhood and adolescence is below 1%. GID are often associated with emotional and behavioral problems as well as a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity. Their clinical course is highly variable. There is controversy at present over theoretical explanations of the causes of GID and over treatment approaches, particularly with respect to early hormonal intervention strategies. This review is based on a selective Medline literature search, existing national and international guidelines, and the results of a discussion among experts from multiple relevant disciplines. As there have been no large studies to date on the course of GID, and, in particular, no studies focusing on causal factors for GID, the evidence level for the various etiological models that have been proposed is generally low. Most models of these disorders assume that they result from a complex biopsychosocial interaction. Only 2.5% to 20% of all cases of GID in childhood and adolescence are the initial manifestation of irreversible transsexualism. The current state of research on this subject does not allow any valid diagnostic parameters to be identified with which one could reliably predict whether the manifestations of GID will persist, i.e., whether transsexualism will develop with certainty or, at least, a high degree of probability. The types of modulating influences that are known from the fields of developmental psychology and family dynamics have therapeutic implications for GID. As children with GID only rarely go on to have permanent transsexualism, irreversible physical interventions are clearly not indicated until after the individual's psychosexual development ist complete. The identity-creating experiences of this phase of development should not be restricted by the use of LHRH analogues that prevent puberty.

  18. Part 8. Deployment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, K.D.; Chang, Y.I.; Daly, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report addresses considerations of fast breeder reactor development and deployment from a national perspective. Nations vary greatly in their expertise and interest relative to nuclear power, and hence a single set of steps to be taken by a nation in decision-making on breeder development and deployment cannot be presented. The approach taken in this report is to present discussions on key factors influencing the breeder development and deployment decisions, especially in non-breeder nations, by drawing upon historical perspectives of the Light Water Reactor for comparison

  19. Virtual resistance-based control strategy for DC link regeneration protection and current sharing in uninterruptible power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    To address the DC link voltage regeneration issue in parallel Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system, a DC link voltage protection (DCVP) method through online virtual resistance regulation is proposed. The proposed control strategy is able to protect the DC link from overvoltage that may...... trigger the protection mechanism of the UPS system. Moreover, a current sharing control strategy by regulating the virtual resistance is proposed to address the circulating current caused by the active power feeding. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is verified by experimental results from...

  20. Deployment Health Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeNicola, Anthony D

    2004-01-01

    ... of stress in causing chronic illness. The lack of comprehensive deployment health surveillance has made it difficult to determine possible causes of adverse health effects reported by Gulf War veterans...

  1. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  2. Deployable Brake for Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, J. R.; Maloney, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Aerodynamic shield that could be opened and closed proposed. Report presents concepts for deployable aerodynamic brake. Brake used by spacecraft returning from high orbit to low orbit around Earth. Spacecraft makes grazing passes through atmosphere to slow down by drag of brake. Brake flexible shield made of woven metal or ceramic withstanding high temperatures created by air friction. Stored until needed, then deployed by set of struts.

  3. Long-term scenarios and strategies for the deployment of renewable energies in Germany in view of European and global developments. Summary of the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, Joachim; Pregger, Thomas; Scholz, Yvonne [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung] [and others

    2012-03-31

    The German Federal government's ''Energy Concept'' [Energiekonzept 2010] of 28 September 2010 and the subsequent energy laws of summer 2011 presented a long-term political timetable for climate protection and the transformation of the energy supply in Germany [the ''Energiewende'']. It calls for emissions of greenhouse gases in Germany to be reduced by 80% to 95% from the 1990 level by the year 2050. For energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions alone, this target requires a reduction of at least 85%, aiming in the final result at a power supply that is almost emission-free. A transformation of the power supply to renewable sources of energy, accompanied by a substantial increase in energy efficiency, is the appropriate strategy for this. The challenges presented by this transformation of the power system are considerable, and their full extent has not yet been grasped. This study presents results of systems-analysis examinations of the transformation of electricity, heat, and fuel generation that were developed as part of a three-year research project for the Federal Ministry of the Environment (final report [Nitsch et al. 2012]). The work is based on projects carried out in previous years by the DLR with varying project partners for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA). In essence, self-consistent energy scenarios for long-term expansion of renewables and for the remaining supply of energy, and the structural and economic effects to be derived from these, were developed. In addition, the project partners, the DLR in Stuttgart and the Fraunhofer Institut fur Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES) in Kassel, performed simulations of the future electricity supply as it develops over time, some of them with spatial resolution. This enabled the scenarios for electricity generation to be validated with respect to load coverage, and also

  4. Novel Differential Current Control Strategy Based on a Modified Three-Level SVPWM for Two Parallel-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zorig, Abdelmalik; Barkat, Said; Belkheiri, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Recently, parallel inverters have been investigated to provide multilevel characteristics besides their advantage to increase the power system capacity, reliability, and efficiency. However, the issue of differential currents imbalance remains a challenge in parallel inverter operation. The distr......Recently, parallel inverters have been investigated to provide multilevel characteristics besides their advantage to increase the power system capacity, reliability, and efficiency. However, the issue of differential currents imbalance remains a challenge in parallel inverter operation....... The distribution of switching vectors of the resulting multilevel topology has a certain degree of self-differential current balancing properties. Nevertheless, the method alone is not sufficient to maintain balanced differential current in practical applications. This paper proposes a closed-loop differential...... current control method by introducing a control variable adjusting the dwell time of the selected switching vectors and thus maintaining the differential currents balanced without affecting the overall system performance. The control strategy, including distribution of switching sequence, selection...

  5. Current management strategies and long-term clinical outcomes of upper extremity venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, S. M.; van Es, N.; Kleinjan, A.; Buller, H. R.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Aggarwal, A.; Beyer-Westendorf, J.; Camporese, G.; Cosmi, B.; Gary, T.; Ghirarduzzi, A.; Kaasjager, K.; Lerede, T.; Marschang, P.; Meijer, Karina; Otten, H. -M.; Porreca, E.; Righini, M.; Verhamme, P.; van Wissen, S.; Di Nisio, M.

    Background: There is scant information on the optimal management and clinical outcome of deep and superficial vein thrombosis of the upper extremity (UEDVT and UESVT). Objectives: To explore treatment strategies and the incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), mortality, postthrombotic

  6. Late-life suicide prevention strategies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kim; Deming, Charlene

    2017-09-08

    Late life suicide prevention differs from suicide prevention for other age groups: first, the number of older adults worldwide is on the rise; second, late-life suicide receives much less attention in all societal spheres, from the media, to federal funding agencies, to healthcare initiatives. Recent findings indicate an association between internalized ageist stereotypes and reduced will to live. Recent research also addresses the role of cognitive control as a contributor to risk and as an intervention target (e.g., through psychotherapies such as problem solving therapy) as well as firearm safety as a promising, though a politicized and challenging strategy to implement. Another strategy that may prove feasible is an approach on upstream prevention strategies in healthcare. One strategy we believe holds great promise is the promotion of high quality geriatric medicine. Geriatricians are trained to work with patients to prioritize the promotion of physical and cognitive functioning (rather than solely absence of disease) and to focus on well-being as a goal. Thus, geriatricians routinely target numerous late-life suicide risk factors-physical illness, functioning, pain, and (dis)satisfaction with life. However, efficacious strategies will not prevent suicide deaths if they are not implemented-addressing ageism as a universal prevention strategy is essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Stressors and Coping Strategies of Older Adults With Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Prior to and Following Direct Current Cardioversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Kathy L; Hatt, Linda; Shay, Matt; Gorman, Nicole; Laberge, Carol G; Reid, R Colin; Wilson, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the stressors and coping strategies of older adults with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) before and after direct current cardioversion. The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Sixteen patients were recruited through an AF clinic to participate in individual interviews prior to the cardioversion and at 6 and 12 weeks post procedure. Pre-cardioversion, older adults experienced symptom and health care-related stressors superimposed on existing non-AF stressors. They used a range of emotion and problem-focused coping. Non-AF stressors increased post procedure at the same time that participants perceived less need for coping strategies with a return to regular rhythm. There was a shift from AF to non-AF related stressors following the cardioversion but a decrease in coping strategies. Older adults with AF should be encouraged to maintain use of coping strategies to manage ongoing stress and reduce the risk of AF recurrence.

  8. Pulse Pattern-Modulated Strategy for Harmonic Current Components Reduction in Three-Phase AC–DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    , which need to be considered in order to be competitive in the market. Therefore, having a flexibility to meet various requirements imposed by the standard recommendations or costumer needs is at most desirable. This makes the generated harmonic current mitigation a challenging task especially with three......-phase diode bridge rectifier, which still is preferred in many power electronic systems. This paper addresses a novel current modulation strategy using a single-switch boost three-phase diode bridge rectifier. The proposed method can selectively mitigate current harmonics, which makes it suitable...

  9. Pulse pattern modulated strategy for harmonic current components reduction in three-phase AC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    , which need to be considered in order to be competitive in the market. Therefore, having a flexibility to meet various requirements imposed by the standard recommendations or costumer needs is at most desirable. This makes the generated harmonic current mitigation a challenging task especially with three......-phase diode bridge rectifier, which still is preferred in many power electronic systems. This paper addresses a novel current modulation strategy using a single-switch boost three-phase diode bridge rectifier. The proposed method can selectively mitigate current harmonics, which makes it suitable...

  10. Event visualisation in ALICE - current status and strategy for Run 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, Jeremi; von Haller, Barthélémy

    2017-10-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is one of the four big experiments running at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which focuses on the study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) being produced in heavy-ion collisions. The ALICE Event Visualisation Environment (AliEve) is a tool providing an interactive 3D model of the detector’s geometry and a graphical representation of the data. Together with the online reconstruction module, it provides important quality monitoring of the recorded data. As a consequence it has been used in the ALICE Run Control Centre during all stages of Run 2. Static screenshots from the online visualisation are published on the public website - ALICE LIVE. Dedicated converters have been developed to provide geometry and data for external projects. An example of such project is the Total Event Display (TEV) - a visualisation tool recently developed by the CERN Media Lab based on the Unity game engine. It can be easily deployed on any platform, including web and mobile platforms. Another external project is More Than ALICE - an augmented reality application for visitors, overlaying detector descriptions and event visualisations on the camera’s picture. For the future Run 3 both AliEve and TEV will be adapted to fit the ALICE O2 project. Several changes are required due to the new data formats, especially so-called Compressed Time Frames.

  11. Currents, temperature, conductivity, attenuation, and sigma-theta data from moorings deployed off the coast of Orange County, CA from platforms ROBERT GORDON SPROUL and YELLOWFIN from June 13, 2001 to January 22, 2003 (NODC Accession 0067572)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A large number of moorings were deployed in the summer of 2001 off Huntington Beach CA to monitor coastal ocean process that transport suspended material across the...

  12. Moored ADCP current data from deployment 2 of the Multi-disciplinary Ocean Sensors for Environmental Analyses and Networks (MOSEAN) project north of Hawaii 2004-2005 (NODC Accession 0116094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ADCP data were collected by sensors from seven deployments within 2004-2007 on the HALE-ALOHA mooring, a location about 100 km north of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. The...

  13. Currents, temperature, conductivity, attenuation, and sigma-theta data from moorings deployed off the coast of Palos Verdes, CA from platforms VICKERS and ROBERT GORDON SPROUL from May 21, 1992 and March 30, 1993 (NODC Accession 0067573)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sediments on the shelf off Palos Verdes CA are contaminated with large amounts of DDT. Moorings were deployed on the shelf in the winter of 1993 in part to...

  14. New strategy for eliminating zero-sequence circulating current between parallel operating three-level NPC voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kai; Dong, Zhenhua; Wang, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    A novel strategy based on a zero common mode voltage pulse-width modulation (ZCMV-PWM) technique and zero-sequence circulating current (ZSCC) feedback control is proposed in this study to eliminate ZSCCs between three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) voltage source inverters, with common AC and DC......, the ZCMV-PWM method is presented to reduce CMVs, and a simple electric circuit is adopted to control ZSCCs and neutral point potential. Finally, simulation and experiment are conducted to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Results show that ZSCCs between paralleled inverters can...

  15. Instantaneous Project Controls: Current Status, State of the Art, Benefits, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Despite advancements in construction and construction-related technology, capital project performance deviations, typically overruns, remain endemic within the capital projects industry. Currently, management is generally unaware of the current status of their projects, and thus monitoring and control of projects are not achieved effectively. In…

  16. Advanced OS deployment system

    OpenAIRE

    Galiano Molina, Sebastián

    2007-01-01

    The main project’s objective is to design and build an OS deployment system taking advantage of the Linux OS and the Open Source community developments. This means to use existing technologies that modularize the system. With this philosophy in mind, the number of developed code lines within the project is keeping as small as possible. As REMBO, the OS deployment system to develop has to be transparent to the user. This means a system with a friendly user interface and no te...

  17. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.

    2007-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to compile information and conclusions gathered as part of three separate tasks undertaken as part of the overall project, “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs,” sponsored by the Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation office within the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address improvements to modeling in the near term, and note gaps in knowledge where future research is needed.

  18. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  19. Biological strategies for enhanced hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass during anaerobic digestion: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shilva; Fonoll, Xavier; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2017-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable bioresource on earth. In lignocellulosic biomass, the cellulose and hemicellulose are bound with lignin and other molecules to form a complex structure not easily accessible to microbial degradation. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic biomass with a focus on improving hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in AD of lignocellulosic feedstocks, has received considerable attention. This review highlights challenges with AD of lignocellulosic biomass, factors contributing to its recalcitrance, and natural microbial ecosystems, such as the gastrointestinal tracts of herbivorous animals, capable of performing hydrolysis efficiently. Biological strategies that have been evaluated to enhance hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass include biological pretreatment, co-digestion, and inoculum selection. Strategies to further improve these approaches along with future research directions are outlined with a focus on linking studies of microbial communities involved in hydrolysis of lignocellulosics to process engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Computational Fragment-Based Drug Design: Current Trends, Strategies, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yuemin; Xie, Xiang-Qun Sean

    2018-04-09

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an effective methodology for drug development for decades. Successful applications of this strategy brought both opportunities and challenges to the field of Pharmaceutical Science. Recent progress in the computational fragment-based drug design provide an additional approach for future research in a time- and labor-efficient manner. Combining multiple in silico methodologies, computational FBDD possesses flexibilities on fragment library selection, protein model generation, and fragments/compounds docking mode prediction. These characteristics provide computational FBDD superiority in designing novel and potential compounds for a certain target. The purpose of this review is to discuss the latest advances, ranging from commonly used strategies to novel concepts and technologies in computational fragment-based drug design. Particularly, in this review, specifications and advantages are compared between experimental and computational FBDD, and additionally, limitations and future prospective are discussed and emphasized.

  1. The cardiometabolic effect of current management of polycystic ovary syndrome: strategies of prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya; Kasum, Miro

    2018-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age, which is characterized by reproductive and cardiometabolic disturbances with long-term health repercussions. Insulin resistance (IR), impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), obesity and dyslipidemia occur more in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Long term data regarding risks or benefits of medical intervention for metabolic dysfunction of PCOS are lacking. Therapies, such as oral contraceptives (OCPs) and anti-androgenic medications used to manage the reproductive manifestations of PCOS, may themselves be the cause of cardiometabolic perturbations. Hence, strategies regarding the management of reproductive issues in PCOS encompass a patient-specific tailored approach. Factors that influence the cardiometabolic side effects arising during treatment of the reproductive manifestations of PCOS (hirsutism/anovulation) are also discussed in this paper in order to build future strategies to minimize the overall cardiometabolic risk.

  2. A review of current strategies to reduce intraoperative bacterial contamination of surgical wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, Pascal M.; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Surgical site infections are a mean topic in cardiac surgery, leading to a prolonged hospitalization, and substantially increased morbidity and mortality. One source of pathogens is the endogenous flora of the patient?s skin, which can contaminate the surgical site. A number of preoperative skin care strategies are performed to reduce bacterial contamination like preoperative antiseptic showering, hair removal, antisepsis of the skin, adhesive barrier drapes, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. Fu...

  3. [Current topics on cancer biology and research strategies for anti-cancer traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-ping; Tang, Zheng-hai; Shi, Zhe; Lu, Jin-jian; Su, Huan-xing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Yi-tao

    2015-09-01

    Cancer, an abnormal cell proliferation resulted from multi-factors,has the highest morbidity and mortality among all the serious diseases. Considerable progress has been made in cancer biology in recent years. Tumor immunology, cancer stem cells (CSCs), autophagy, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have become hot topics of interests in this area. Detailed dissection of these biological processes will provide novel directions, targets, and strategies for the pharmacological evaluation, mechanism elucidation, and new drug development of traditional Chinese medicine.

  4. CURRENT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR VACCINES AND THE ROLE OF REVERSE VACCINOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    RAJU.S , UMA MAHESHWARA RAO.V

    2013-01-01

    The concept of vaccination has been around forcenturies .Vaccines constitutes cost-effective measures forpreventing disease. Advances in biotechnology and anunderstanding of the inductive and effector components ofimmune responses have ushered in a „golden age‟ ofvaccine development and implementation. Many licensedvaccines have one or more ideal characteristics, but nonemanifests them all. Of the generic vaccine technologies andvaccination strategies in different stages of development,some h...

  5. Combining tariffs, investment subsidies and soft loans in a renewable electricity deployment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir-Artigues, Pere; Río, Pablo del

    2014-01-01

    Policy combinations and interactions have received a considerable attention in the climate and energy policy realm. However, virtually no attention has been paid to the analysis of the combination of different deployment instruments for the same renewable energy technology. This neglect is all the more striking given the existence in current policy practice of combinations of deployment instruments either across technologies or for the same technology, both in the EU and elsewhere. What renewable electricity support policies to use and, therefore, how to combine them in order to promote the deployment of renewable energy technologies cost-effectively is a main concern of governments. The aim of this paper is to provide insight on the cost-effectiveness of combinations of deployment instruments for the same technology. A financial model is developed for this purpose, whereby feed-in tariffs (FITs) are combined with investment subsidies and soft loans. The results show that the policy costs of combinations are the same as for the FITs-only option. Therefore, combining deployment instruments is not a cost-containment strategy. However, combinations may lead to different inter-temporal distributions of the same amount of policy costs and, thus, differently affect the social acceptability and political feasibility of renewable energy support. - Highlights: • Insight on the cost-effectiveness of combinations of deployment instruments for the same technology. • A financial model is developed. • Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are combined with investment subsidies and soft loans. • The policy costs of combinations are the same as for the FITs-only option. • Therefore, combining deployment measures is not a cost-containment strategy

  6. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B.

    2007-06-01

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized

  7. Bigger, Brighter, Bluer-Better?Current light-emitting devices- adverse sleep properties and preventative strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGringras

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn an effort to enhance the efficiency, brightness and contrast of light-emitting (LE devices during the day, displays often generate substantial short-wavelength (blue-enriched light emissions that can adversely affect sleep. We set out to verify the extent of such short-wavelength emissions, produced by a tablet (iPad Air, e-reader (Kindle Paperwhite 1st generation and smartphone (iPhone 5s and to determine the impact of strategies designed to reduce these light emissions. SettingUniversity of Surrey dedicated chronobiology facility.MethodsFirstly, the spectral power of all the light-emitting (LE devices was assessed when displaying identical text. Secondly, we compared the text output with that of ‘Angry Birds’-a popular top 100 ‘App Store’ game. Finally we measured the impact of two strategies that attempt to reduce the output of short-wavelength light emissions. The first strategy employed an inexpensive commercially available pair of orange-tinted ‘blue-blocking’ glasses. The second tested an app designed to be ‘sleep-aware’ whose designers deliberately attempted to reduce blue-enriched light emissions.ResultsAll the LE devices shared very similar enhanced blue-light peaks when displaying text. This included the output from the backlit Kindle Paperwhite device. The spectra when comparing text to the Angry Birds game were also very similar, although the

  8. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-06-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized.

  9. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Control Strategy for Three-Phase Grid-Connected PV Inverters Enabling Current Limitation Under Unbalanced Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Ehsan; Moradi, Gholam Reza; Rahimi, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Power quality and voltage control are among the most important aspects of the grid-connected power converter operation under faults. Non-sinusoidal current is injected during unbalanced voltage sag and active or/and reactive power includes double frequency content. This paper introduces a novel...... control strategy to mitigate the double grid frequency oscillations in the active power and dc-link voltage of the two-stage three-phase grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters during unbalanced faults. With the proposed control method, PV inverter injects sinusoidal currents under unbalanced grid...... faults. In addition, an efficient and easy-to-implement current limitation method is introduced, which can effectively limit the injected currents to the rated value during faults. In this case, the fault-ride-through operation is ensured and it will not trigger the overcurrent protection. A non...

  11. Deploying Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an intermediate or advanced developer deploying your Node.js applications, then this book is for you. If you have already built a Node application or module and want to take your knowledge to the next level, this book will help you find your way.

  12. Cooperative Technolgy Deployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.; Velt, R. in 't

    2011-01-01

    After the successful demonstrations of cooperative technology by the CVIS and Safespot projects the question remains how this technology can be successfully deployed. This question is explored by the Field Operational Test project FREILOT, which aims to provide fuel economy applications that must be

  13. Fusion Power Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.; Ogden, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment

  14. Current strategies for improving access and adherence to antiretroviral therapies in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlon ML

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael L Scanlon,1,2 Rachel C Vreeman1,21Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2USAID, Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH Partnership, Eldoret, KenyaAbstract: The rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART significantly reduced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related morbidity and mortality, but good clinical outcomes depend on access and adherence to treatment. In resource-limited settings, where over 90% of the world’s HIV-infected population resides, data on barriers to treatment are emerging that contribute to low rates of uptake in HIV testing, linkage to and retention in HIV care systems, and suboptimal adherence rates to therapy. A review of the literature reveals limited evidence to inform strategies to improve access and adherence with the majority of studies from sub-Saharan Africa. Data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials support home-based, mobile and antenatal care HIV testing, task-shifting from doctor-based to nurse-based and lower level provider care, and adherence support through education, counseling and mobile phone messaging services. Strategies with more limited evidence include targeted HIV testing for couples and family members of ART patients, decentralization of HIV care, including through home- and community-based ART programs, and adherence promotion through peer health workers, treatment supporters, and directly observed therapy. There is little evidence for improving access and adherence among vulnerable groups such as women, children and adolescents, and other high-risk populations and for addressing major barriers. Overall, studies are few in number and suffer from methodological issues. Recommendations for further research include health information technology, social-level factors like HIV stigma, and new research directions in cost-effectiveness, operations, and implementation. Findings from this review make a

  15. Jabs and barbs: ways to address misleading vaccination and immunisation information using currently available strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jon; Stewart, Cameron; Parker, Malcolm

    2013-09-01

    Misleading vaccination information undermines confidence in vaccination and may lead to reductions in the effectiveness of vaccination programs. A number of regulatory techniques can be employed to challenge the spread of false information, including health care complaints, therapeutic goods laws, consumer protection laws and professional discipline. This article examines three case studies involving the publication of anti-vaccination information by non-professionally aligned organisations, by non-registered health professionals, and by registered health professionals under the National Law. The article examines the effectiveness of different regulatory responses and makes suggestions for future strategies to deal with the publication of demonstrably false information regarding vaccination.

  16. Current Capabilities, Requirements and a Proposed Strategy for Interdependency Analysis in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Robin; Chozos, Nick; Salako, Kizito

    The UK government recently commissioned a research study to identify the state-of-the-art in Critical Infrastructure modelling and analysis, and the government/industry requirements for such tools and services. This study (Cetifs) concluded with a strategy aiming to bridge the gaps between the capabilities and requirements, which would establish interdependency analysis as a commercially viable service in the near future. This paper presents the findings of this study that was carried out by CSR, City University London, Adelard LLP, a safety/security consultancy and Cranfield University, defense academy of the UK.

  17. Current strategies for preventing renal dysfunction in patients with heart failure: a heart failure stage approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Andrade, Lúcia; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common during episodes of acute decompensated heart failure, and historical data indicate that the mean creatinine level at admission has risen in recent decades. Different mechanisms underlying this change over time have been proposed, such as demographic changes, hemodynamic and neurohumoral derangements and medical interventions. In this setting, various strategies have been proposed for the prevention of renal dysfunction with heterogeneous results. In the present article, we review and discuss the main aspects of renal dysfunction prevention according to the different stages of heart failure. PMID:23644863

  18. Current scenario of antibiotic resistance and latest strategies to overcome it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohankumar J Megha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in microorganisms has become a critical health issue these days and has evolved to become a worldwide health threat. Over a decade, the resistance level of bacteria has increased many folds due to various factors, accounting to the added pressure on the environmental resistome. Infections that are resistant to these antibiotics show potentially devastating effects on public health, often affecting developing countries. This review focuses on the present scenario of antibiotic resistance and enlists some of the strategies to combat this global community threat.

  19. Astigmatism treatment during phacoemulsification: a review of current surgical strategies and their rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preexisting corneal astigmatism, present at the time of cataract surgery, is reviewed in detail throughout this article on its most important aspects such as occurrence rates, clinical relevance and current treatment options. Special emphasis is given to the latter aspect. Each method's rationale, advantage and limitation ishigh lightened. Comparisons between treatment options, whenever possible, are also provided.

  20. Educating physicians in evidence based medicine: current practices and curricular strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggio, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is “the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.” The practice of EBM is an expectation of professional healthcare and requisite component in many medical school curricula. Yet, despite

  1. Current utilization and long term strategy of the Finnish TRIGA research reactor FiR 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auterinen, Iiro; Salmenhaara, Seppo

    2008-01-01

    certain not too rare types of cancer these new devices will be deployed in the major hospitals all over the world. Development of BNCT to an established treatment for several cancers requires FiR 1 as a demonstration and reference facility at least till year 2016. The basic cost for maintenance and operation of the reactor is about 400 000 euro per year, including licensing administration. The operational costs of the reactor are moderate as one operation shift includes only the reactor operator and the shift supervisor. The aim is to cover a substantial part of the reactor costs with the income from the services. For example the income from the production of isotopes is about 20 % of the turnover. Still financial support from VTT-basic funding or other government sources is required

  2. A Grid Connected Transformerless Inverter and its Model Predictive Control Strategy with Leakage Current Elimination Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fallah Ardashir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new single phase transformerless Photovoltaic (PV inverter for grid connected systems. It consists of six power switches, two diodes, one capacitor and filter at the output stage. The neutral of the grid is directly connected to the negative terminal of the source. This results in constant common mode voltage and zero leakage current. Model Predictive Controller (MPC technique is used to modulate the converter to reduce the output current ripple and filter requirements. The main advantages of this inverter are compact size, low cost, flexible grounding configuration. Due to brevity, the operating principle and analysis of the proposed circuit are presented in brief. Simulation and experimental results of 200W prototype are shown at the end to validate the proposed topology and concept. The results obtained clearly verifies the performance of the proposed inverter and its practical application for grid connected PV systems.

  3. Attentional deployment is not necessary for successful emotion regulation via cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-06-01

    According to appraisal theories of emotion, cognitive reappraisal is a successful emotion regulation strategy because it involves cognitively changing our thoughts, which, in turn, change our emotions. However, recent evidence has challenged the importance of cognitive change and, instead, has suggested that attentional deployment may at least partly explain the emotion regulation success of cognitive reappraisal. The purpose of the current study was to examine the causal relationship between attentional deployment and emotion regulation success. We examined 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies--cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression-because both depend on attention but have divergent behavioral, experiential, and physiological outcomes. Participants were either instructed to regulate emotions during free-viewing (unrestricted image viewing) or gaze-controlled (restricted image viewing) conditions and to self-report negative emotional experience. For both emotion regulation strategies, emotion regulation success was not altered by changes in participant control over the (a) direction of attention (free-viewing vs. gaze-controlled) during image viewing and (b) valence (negative vs. neutral) of visual stimuli viewed when gaze was controlled. Taken together, these findings provide convergent evidence that attentional deployment does not alter subjective negative emotional experience during either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression, suggesting that strategy-specific processes, such as cognitive appraisal and response modulation, respectively, may have a greater impact on emotional regulation success than processes common to both strategies, such as attention.

  4. Current advances and strategies towards fully automated sample preparation for regulated LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Jiang, Hao; Zeng, Jianing

    2014-09-01

    Robotic liquid handlers (RLHs) have been widely used in automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalysis. Automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis offers significantly higher assay efficiency, better data quality and potential bioanalytical cost-savings. For RLHs that are used for regulated bioanalysis, there are additional requirements, including 21 CFR Part 11 compliance, software validation, system qualification, calibration verification and proper maintenance. This article reviews recent advances in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis in the last 5 years. Specifically, it covers the following aspects: regulated bioanalysis requirements, recent advances in automation hardware and software development, sample extraction workflow simplification, strategies towards fully automated sample extraction, and best practices in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis.

  5. Politics and strategies for radioactive waste management: current situation and perspective for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Eliana; Cruz, Paulo Ferruz; Gonzalez, Abel; Telleria, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In some countries of the Latin America Region, policy and national strategy are well established and documented, while in others there is not an explicit formal declaration, although they may be implicit in the content of the laws, regulations and existing guides; but they are not consolidated in a single document, making it difficult to put into practice by the Government institutions, the organisms responsible for the regulation and those responsible for the safe management of waste. For practical reasons, the work concentrates the situation in the Region with the waste from medical, industrial practices, research and production, which generate a common problem in the region. This document also contains some recommendations to improve the situation in this topic in the Region

  6. Current and emerging strategies for organophosphate decontamination: special focus on hyperstable enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Pauline; Daudé, David; Bzdrenga, Janek; Masson, Patrick; Elias, Mikael; Chabrière, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphorus chemicals are highly toxic molecules mainly used as pesticides. Some of them are banned warfare nerve agents. These compounds are covalent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in central and peripheral nervous systems. Numerous approaches, including chemical, physical, and biological decontamination, have been considered for developing decontamination methods against organophosphates (OPs). This work is an overview of both validated and emerging strategies for the protection against OP pollution with special attention to the use of decontaminating enzymes. Considerable efforts have been dedicated during the past decades to the development of efficient OP degrading biocatalysts. Among these, the promising biocatalyst SsoPox isolated from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is emphasized in the light of recently published results. This hyperthermostable enzyme appears to be particularly attractive for external decontamination purposes with regard to both its catalytic and stability properties.

  7. Zero-Sequence Voltage Modulation Strategy for Multiparallel Converters Circulating Current Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu; Liserre, Marco; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    A zero-sequence circulating current (ZSCC) is typically generated among the multiparallel converters that share the common dc link and ac side without isolated transformers under the space vector modulation (SVM), due to the injected third-order zero-sequence voltage (ZSV). This paper analyzes SVM...... references and filter inductances. The simulation and experimental results based on the parallel converters clearly verify the effectiveness of the proposed control....

  8. New Insights into Biology, Prognostic Factors, and Current Therapeutic Strategies in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Smolewski, Piotr; Witkowska, Magdalena; Korycka-Wołowiec, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal proliferation and accumulation of mature B lymphocytes. CLL cells show an antiapoptotic profile, suggesting the important role of apoptosis inhibition in the disease development. However, there is some population of proliferating CLL cells, which may also play a role in progression of the disease. There are several newer, biological prognostic factors in CLL. Currently, cytogenetic abnormalities with different prognostic values...

  9. Simulated Design Strategies for SPECT Collimators to Reduce the Eddy Currents Induced by MRI Gradient Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoudi, Amine M.; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Vermeeren, Günter; Verhoyen, Gregory; Martens, Luc; Van Holen, Roel; Joseph, Wout

    2015-10-01

    Combining single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the insertion of highly conductive SPECT collimators inside the MRI scanner, resulting in an induced eddy current disturbing the combined system. We reduced the eddy currents due to the insert of a novel tungsten collimator inside transverse and longitudinal gradient coils. The collimator was produced with metal additive manufacturing, that is part of a microSPECT insert for a preclinical SPECT/MRI scanner. We characterized the induced magnetic field due to the gradient field and adapted the collimators to reduce the induced eddy currents. We modeled the x-, y-, and z-gradient coil and the different collimator designs and simulated them with FEKO, a three-dimensional method of moments / finite element methods (MoM/FEM) full-wave simulation tool. We used a time analysis approach to generate the pulsed magnetic field gradient. Simulation results show that the maximum induced field can be reduced by 50.82% in the final design bringing the maximum induced magnetic field to less than 2% of the applied gradient for all the gradient coils. The numerical model was validated with measurements and was proposed as a tool for studying the effect of a SPECT collimator within the MRI gradient coils.

  10. Deployable reflector configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.; Woolf, N. J.

    Both the theoretical reasons for considering a non-circular format for the Large Deployable Reflector, and a potentially realizable concept for such a device, are discussed. The optimum systems for diffraction limited telescopes with incoherent detection have either a single filled aperture, or two such apertures as an interferometer to synthesize a larger aperture. For a single aperture of limited area, a reflector in the form of a slot can be used to give increased angular resolution. It is shown how a 20 x 8 meter telescope can be configured to fit the Space Shuttle bay, and deployed with relatively simple operations. The relationship between the sunshield design and the inclination of the orbit is discussed. The possible use of the LDR as a basic module to permit the construction of supergiant space telescopes and interferometers both for IR/submm studies and for the entire ultraviolet through mm wave spectral region is discussed.

  11. Current Strategies for the Detoxification of Jatropha curcas Seed Cake: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Taisa G; Hadi, Sámed I I A; Costa Alves, Gabriel S; Mendonça, Simone; De Siqueira, Felix G; Miller, Robert N G

    2018-03-21

    Jatropha curcas is an important oilseed plant, with considerable potential in the development of biodiesel. Although Jatropha seed cake, the byproduct of oil extraction, is a residue rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and carbon, with high protein content suitable for application in animal feed, the presence of toxic phorbol esters limits its application in feed supplements and fertilizers. This review summarizes the current methods available for detoxification of this residue, based upon chemical, physical, biological, or combined processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each process are discussed, and future directions involving genomic and proteomic approaches for advancing our understanding of biodegradation processes involving microorganisms are highlighted.

  12. E-waste management challenges in Iran: presenting some strategies for improvement of current conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Nowrouz, Parviz; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Nazari, Jalil; Hashemi, Ahmad Asl; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2012-11-01

    E-waste is one of the fastest-growing waste streams in Iran, owing to an increase in consumption of electrical and electronic equipment. Nevertheless, as is the case in some other countries, E-waste management has not received sufficient attention. For the successful implementation of any waste management plan (including an E-waste management plan), the availability of sufficient and accurate information on the quantities and composition of the waste generated and on current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. At present, in Iran, there is no available and accurate information that describes the characteristics and generation rate of E-waste or the actual practice of management and handling of the waste. For this initial study, eight electronic products were selected for the determination of their E-waste generation rate in the country, and two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessment of the current condition of E-waste management. The study found that the amount of E-waste generation in the country for the eight selected electronic items alone was 115,286, 112,914 and 115,151 metric tons in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Of the types of electronic items included in the study, televisions, with an average of 42.42%, and PCs, with an average of 32.66% accounted for the greatest proportions of the total mass of E-waste generated during 2008-2010. Currently, despite the fact that primary legislation for E-waste management (as part of general waste legislation) exists in Iran, this primary legislation has not yet been implemented. In practical terms, there is no definite policy or plan for the allocation of funds to prepare suitable equipment and facilities for the management and recycling of E-waste at the end of the products' useful life. Proposed improvements in current conditions are identified, first by considering other countries' experiences and then suggesting specific practical policies, rules, and regulations that should be

  13. Schistosomiasis in the Amazon region: is the current diagnostic strategy still appropriate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Rodrigo Magalhães de Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study analyzed the performance of the Kato Katz technique in detecting intestinal schistosomiasis in the State of Pará. METHODS: Of three stool samples provided by each of 380 participants, a total of 16 Kato Katz slides were examined to define the reference value (RV of positives for comparisons. RESULTS: The RV revealed 37 (9.7% infected participants in contrast to 10 (2.6% according to a single slide. CONCLUSIONS: This significant underestimation of the infection rate gives reason to discuss if the current classification of prevalence levels reflects the real situation, principally in low transmission areas, like the Amazon region.

  14. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Doi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances, ... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  15. On a numerical strategy to compute gravity currents of non-Newtonian fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vola, D.; Babik, F.; Latche, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the presentation of a numerical scheme for the simulation of gravity currents of non-Newtonian fluids. The two dimensional computational grid is fixed and the free-surface is described as a polygonal interface independent from the grid and advanced in time by a Lagrangian technique. Navier-Stokes equations are semi-discretized in time by the Characteristic-Galerkin method, which finally leads to solve a generalized Stokes problem posed on a physical domain limited by the free surface to only a part of the computational grid. To this purpose, we implement a Galerkin technique with a particular approximation space, defined as the restriction to the fluid domain of functions of a finite element space. The decomposition-coordination method allows to deal without any regularization with a variety of non-linear and possibly non-differentiable constitutive laws. Beside more analytical tests, we revisit with this numerical method some simulations of gravity currents of the literature, up to now investigated within the simplified thin-flow approximation framework

  16. [Development strategy of Paris based on combination of domestic patent and current resource application and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei-Ya; Tao, Ai-En; Xia, Cong-Long

    2018-01-01

    Paris is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and has antitumor, antibacterial, sedative, analgesic and hemostatic effects. It has been used as an ingredient of 81 Chinese patent medicines, with a wide application and large market demand. Based on the data retrieved from state Intellectual Property Office patent database, a comprehensive analysis was made on Paris patents, so as to explore the current features of Paris patents in the aspects of domestic patent output, development trend, technology field distribution, time dimension, technology growth rate and patent applicant, and reveal the development trend of China's Paris industry. In addition, based on the current Paris resource application and development, a sustainable, multi-channel and multi-level industrial development approach was built. According to the results, studies of Paris in China are at the rapid development period, with a good development trend. However, because wild Paris resources tend to be exhausted, the studies for artificial cultivation technology should be strengthened to promote the industrial development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F., E-mail: francois.brechignac@irsn. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, Blg 229, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Doi, Masahiro [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Center for Radiation Protection, Regulatory Sciences Research Group, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances, ... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  18. Improving outcomes of refractory celiac disease – current and emerging treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodward J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy Woodward Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Intestinal inflammation and symptoms of celiac disease (CD usually respond well to gluten withdrawal, but rare cases are refractory to diet. Two types of refractory CD are discriminated on the basis of the presence or absence of an atypical population of mucosal lymphocytes that may progress to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. Challenges remain in the secure diagnosis of both types of refractory disease, and evidence on which to base treatment recommendations is flawed by the small numbers of reported patients and the use of different diagnostic strategies. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the condition in conjunction with the development of immunomodulatory agents for managing other inflammatory diseases are helping to shape future approaches to targeted therapy. Progression will depend on collaboration and recruitment to trials. In the meantime, there is evidence to suggest that earlier diagnosis and better follow-up and management of CD may prevent the development of refractoriness. Keywords: celiac disease, gluten, small intestine, lymphoma, lymphocytes

  19. Regulation of phosphorus uptake and utilization: transitioning from current knowledge to practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Hasan, Md Mainul; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Li, Xuexian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a poorly bioavailable macronutrient that is essential for crop growth and yield. Overuse of phosphorus fertilizers results in low phosphorus use efficiency (PUE), has serious environmental consequences and accelerates the depletion of phosphorus mineral reserves. It has become extremely challenging to improve PUE while preserving global food supplies and maintaining environmental sustainability. Molecular and genetic analyses have revealed the primary mechanisms of phosphorus uptake and utilization and their relationships to phosphorus transporters, regulators, root architecture, metabolic adaptations, quantitative trait loci, hormonal signaling and microRNA. The ability to improve PUE requires a transition from this knowledge of molecular mechanisms and plant architecture to practical strategies. These could include: i) the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbioses for efficient phosphorus mining and uptake; ii) intercropping with suitable crop species to achieve phosphorus activation and mobilization in the soil; and iii) tissue-specific overexpression of homologous genes with advantageous agronomic properties for higher PUE along with breeding for phosphorus-efficient varieties and introgression of key quantitative trait loci. More effort is required to further dissect the mechanisms controlling phosphorus uptake and utilization within plants and provide new insight into the means to efficiently improve PUE.

  20. Changing currents: a strategy for understanding and predicting the changing ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Harry L; Robinson, Carol; Griffiths, Gwyn

    2012-12-13

    Within the context of UK marine science, we project a strategy for ocean circulation research over the next 20 years. We recommend a focus on three types of research: (i) sustained observations of the varying and evolving ocean circulation, (ii) careful analysis and interpretation of the observed climate changes for comparison with climate model projections, and (iii) the design and execution of focused field experiments to understand ocean processes that are not resolved in coupled climate models so as to be able to embed these processes realistically in the models. Within UK-sustained observations, we emphasize smart, cost-effective design of the observational network to extract maximum information from limited field resources. We encourage the incorporation of new sensors and new energy sources within the operational environment of UK-sustained observational programmes to bridge the gap that normally separates laboratory prototype from operational instrument. For interpreting the climate-change records obtained through a variety of national and international sustained observational programmes, creative and dedicated UK scientists should lead efforts to extract the meaningful signals and patterns of climate change and to interpret them so as to project future changes. For the process studies, individual scientists will need to work together in team environments to combine observational and process modelling results into effective improvements in the coupled climate models that will lead to more accurate climate predictions.

  1. The role of tramadol in current treatment strategies for musculoskeletal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Stephan A

    2007-01-01

    Non-selective and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been the mainstay of treatment for musculoskeletal pain of moderate intensity. However, in addition to gastrointestinal and renal toxicity, an increased cardiovascular risk may be a class effect for all NSAIDs. Despite these safety risks and the acknowledged ceiling effect of NSAIDs, many doctors still use them to treat moderate, mostly musculoskeletal pain. Recent guidelines for treating osteoarthritis and low back pain, issued by numerous professional medical societies, recommend NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors only in strictly defined circumstances, at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest possible period of time. These recent guidelines bring more focus to the usage of paracetamol and opioids. But opioids still remain under-utilized, although they are effective with minimal organ toxicity. In this setting, the atypical, centrally acting analgesic tramadol offers important benefits. Its multi-modal effect results from a dual mode of action, ie, opioid and monoaminergic mechanisms, with efficacy in both nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Moreover, fewer instances of side effects such as constipation, respiratory depression, and sedation occur than with traditional opioids, and tramadol has been prescribed for 30 years for a broad range of indications. Tramadol is now regarded as the first-line analgesic for many musculoskeletal indications. In conclusion, it is recommended to better implement the more recent guidelines focusing on pain management and consider the role of tramadol in musculoskeletal pain treatment strategies. PMID:18472996

  2. Current therapeutic vaccination and immunotherapy strategies for HPV-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeate, Joseph G; Woodham, Andrew W; Einstein, Mark H; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2016-06-02

    Carcinomas of the anogenital tract, in particular cervical cancer, remains one of the most common cancers in women, and represent the most frequent gynecological malignancies and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions are immunologically distinct in that they express viral antigens, which are necessary to maintain the cancerous phenotype. The causal relationship between HPV infection and anogenital cancer has prompted substantial interest in the development of therapeutic vaccines against high-risk HPV types targeting the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. This review will focus on the most recent clinical trials for immunotherapies for mucosal HPV-induced lesions as well as emerging therapeutic strategies that have been tested in pre-clinical models for HPV-induced diseases. Progress in peptide- and protein-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, viral/bacterial vector-based vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibition, immune response modifiers, and adoptive cell therapy for HPV will be discussed.

  3. [Current strategies to diminish the impact of cardiovascular diseases in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramba Badiale, Marco; Priori, Silvia G

    2006-11-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently promoted the "Women at Heart" program in order to organize initiatives targeted at promoting research and education in the field of cardiovascular diseases in women. Comparisons of the gender differences in specific disease and treatment trends across Europe are provided by analyzing data from the Euro Heart Surveys. A Policy Conference has been organized with the objective to summarize the state of the art from an European perspective, to identify the scientific gaps and to delineate the strategies for changing the misperception of cardiovascular diseases in women, improving risk stratification, diagnosis, and therapy from a gender perspective and increasing women representation in clinical trials. A Statement from the Policy Conference has been provided and published in the European Heart Journal. Synergic activities should be undertaken at European level with the support of national scientific societies, European institutions, national health care authorities, patients' associations, and foundations. The commitment of the Board of the ESC is that these initiatives contribute to increase the awareness across Europe that cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in women and to improve the knowledge of risk factors, presentation and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in women.

  4. In utero hematopoietic stem cell transfer: current status and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbek, D V; Gratwohl, A; Holzgreve, W

    1999-07-01

    Successful prenatal treatment of severe immunodeficiencies by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in utero has been reported. Though other diseases like hemoglobinopathies or storage diseases are potentially amenable to this novel therapeutic approach, no success has yet been achieved in recipients without severe immunodeficiency. Graft rejection by the developing fetus and/or lack of selective, competitive advantage of donor versus host stem cells preventing stable engraftment seem to be the major obstacles. Several strategies to overcome these hurdles are being explored in preclinical settings, including timing and repeated dosing of stem cell administration to the fetus, ex vivo modification of the transplant, using different fetal compartments as targets for early stem cell transfer, or inducing microchimerism for postnatal transplantation from the same donor. In addition, the exact definition of the basic concept of early fetal immunologic naivete and the understanding of the molecular basics of migration and homing in fetal hematopoiesis system seem mandatory for a successful approach. Gene therapy using ex vivo transduced autologous cord blood cells or direct gene targeting in utero are other potential means to correct hematopoietic and immunologic single gene disorders in utero, though this approach is still away from the stage of clinical trials.

  5. The Impact of Trampling on Reef Macrobenthos in Northeastern Brazil: How Effective are Current Conservation Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gleice S.; Burgos, Douglas C.; Lira, Simone M. A.; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Tropical reefs are used for intensive tourism in various parts of the world. However, few studies have investigated the effect of regular trampling on these fragile ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different conservation strategies (open access, partial protection, and total long-term closure) on intertidal reef tops in Porto de Galinhas and Tamandaré, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Analysis of the macrobenthic community was performed with photo transects and image analysis (CPCe). Twenty-seven transects were surveyed from January to August 2012, in intensively impacted (I) open-access sites, in partially protected (P) sites with occasional, illegal trampling, and in a permanently closed (C) site. In I sites, total live cover was half the cover found in adjacent P sites. The area of bare rock averaged 53.6 and 25.0 % in I and P sites, respectively. In the C site, the area of bare rock was only 19.8 %. In I and P sites, macroalgae ( Palisada perforata) were dominating, while in the C site, the zoanthid Zoanthus sociatus was most abundant. Shell-bearing vermetids ( Petaloconchus varians) and bivalves ( Isognomon bicolor) were more abundant at the C site, being possible bioindicators for areas with zero or little trampling. Twelve years of total closure produced near-pristine communities in the C site, dominated by zoanthids and fragile mollusks. This study showed that trampling has severe and long-lasting consequences for the structure of these ecosystems.

  6. Elicitors as alternative strategy to pesticides in grapevine? Current knowledge on their mode of action from controlled conditions to vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Farace, Giovanni; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Development and optimisation of alternative strategies to reduce the use of classic chemical inputs for protection against diseases in vineyard is becoming a necessity. Among these strategies, one of the most promising consists in the stimulation and/or potentiation of the grapevine defence responses by the means of elicitors. Elicitors are highly diverse molecules both in nature and origins. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these molecules and will highlight their potential efficacy from the laboratory in controlled conditions to vineyards. Recent findings and concepts (especially on plant innate immunity) and the new terminology (microbe-associated molecular patterns, effectors, etc.) are also discussed in this context. Other objectives of this review are to highlight the difficulty of transferring elicitors use and results from the controlled conditions to the vineyard, to determine their practical and effective use in viticulture and to propose ideas for improving their efficacy in non-controlled conditions.

  7. An Optimal PR Control Strategy with Load Current Observer for a Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Dou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inverter voltage control is an important task in the operation of a DC/AC microgrid system. To improve the inverter voltage control dynamics, traditional approaches attempt to measure and feedforward the load current, which, however, needs remote measurement with communications in a microgrid system with distributed loads. In this paper, a load current observer (LCO based control strategy, which does not need remote measurement, is proposed for sinusoidal signals tracking control of a three-phase inverter of the microgrid. With LCO, the load current is estimated precisely, acting as the feedforward of the dual-loop control, which can effectively enlarge the stability margin of the control system and improve the dynamic response to load disturbance. Furthermore, multiple PR regulators are applied in this strategy conducted in a stationary  frame to suppress the transient fluctuations and the total harmonic distortion (THD of the output voltage and achieve faster transient performance compared with traditional dual-loop control in a rotating dq0 frame under instantaneous change of various types of load (i.e., balanced load, unbalanced load, and nonlinear load. The parameters of multiple PR regulators are analyzed and selected through the root locus method and the stability of the whole control system is evaluated and analyzed. Finally, the validity of the proposed approach is verified through simulations and a three-phase prototype test system with a TMS320F28335 DSP.

  8. Alternating current electrical stimulation enhanced chemotherapy: a novel strategy to bypass multidrug resistance in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janigro, Damir; Perju, Catalin; Fazio, Vincent; Hallene, Kerri; Dini, Gabriele; Agarwal, Mukesh K; Cucullo, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Tumor burden can be pharmacologically controlled by inhibiting cell division and by direct, specific toxicity to the cancerous tissue. Unfortunately, tumors often develop intrinsic pharmacoresistance mediated by specialized drug extrusion mechanisms such as P-glycoprotein. As a consequence, malignant cells may become insensitive to various anti-cancer drugs. Recent studies have shown that low intensity very low frequency electrical stimulation by alternating current (AC) reduces the proliferation of different tumor cell lines by a mechanism affecting potassium channels while at intermediate frequencies interfere with cytoskeletal mechanisms of cell division. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that permeability of several MDR1 over-expressing tumor cell lines to the chemotherapic agent doxorubicin is enhanced by low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation. We grew human and rodent cells (C6, HT-1080, H-1299, SKOV-3 and PC-3) which over-expressed MDR1 in 24-well Petri dishes equipped with an array of stainless steel electrodes connected to a computer via a programmable I/O board. We used a dedicated program to generate and monitor the electrical stimulation protocol. Parallel cultures were exposed for 3 hours to increasing concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 μM) of doxorubicin following stimulation to 50 Hz AC (7.5 μA) or MDR1 inhibitor XR9576. Cell viability was assessed by determination of adenylate kinase (AK) release. The relationship between MDR1 expression and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin as well as the cellular distribution of MDR1 was investigated by computerized image analysis immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. By the use of a variety of tumor cell lines, we show that low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy. This effect was due to an altered expression of intrinsic cellular drug resistance mechanisms. Immunohistochemical, Western blot and fluorescence analysis revealed

  9. Tissue engineered vascular grafts: Origins, development, and current strategies for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrashid, Ehsan; McCoy, Christopher C; Youngwirth, Linda M; Kim, Jina; Manson, Roberto J; Otto, James C; Lawson, Jeffrey H

    2016-04-15

    Since the development of a dependable and durable synthetic non-autogenous vascular conduit in the mid-twentieth century, the field of vascular surgery has experienced tremendous growth. Concomitant with this growth, development in the field of bioengineering and the development of different tissue engineering techniques have expanded the armamentarium of the surgeon for treating a variety of complex cardiovascular diseases. The recent development of completely tissue engineered vascular conduits that can be implanted for clinical application is a particularly exciting development in this field. With the rapid advances in the field of tissue engineering, the great hope of the surgeon remains that this conduit will function like a true blood vessel with an intact endothelial layer, with the ability to respond to endogenous vasoactive compounds. Eventually, these engineered tissues may have the potential to supplant older organic but not truly biologic technologies, which are used currently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mycotoxin problem in Africa: current status, implications to food safety and health and possible management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagacha, J M; Muthomi, J W

    2008-05-10

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin and contaminate agricultural commodities before or under post-harvest conditions. They are mainly produced by fungi in the Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera. When ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin, mycotoxins will cause lowered performance, sickness or death on humans and animals. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in Africa include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The socio-economic status of majority of inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa predisposes them to consumption of mycotoxin contaminated products either directly or at various points in the food chain. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. A synergistic effect between mycotoxin exposure and some important diseases in the continent such as malaria, kwashiorkor and HIV/AIDS have been suggested. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. Even with the standards in place, the greatest recorded fatal mycotoxin-poisoning outbreak caused by contamination of maize with aflatoxins occurred in Africa in 2004. Pre-harvest practices; time of harvesting; handling of produce during harvesting; moisture levels at harvesting, transportation, marketing and processing; insect damage all contribute to mycotoxin contamination. Possible intervention strategies include good agricultural practices such as early harvesting, proper drying, sanitation, proper storage and insect management among others. Other possible interventions

  11. European Union's strategy on endocrine disrupting chemicals and the current position of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perharič, Lucija; Fatur, Tanja; Drofenik, Jernej

    2016-06-01

    In view of the European Union regulations 1107/2009 and 528/2012, which say that basic substances in plant protection and biocidal products marketed in the European Union (EU) should not have an inherent capacity to cause endocrine disruption, an initiative was started to define scientific criteria for the identification of endocrine disruptors (EDs). The objectives of the EU strategy on EDs are to protect human health and the environment, to assure the functioning of the market, and to provide clear and coherent criteria for the identification of EDs that could have broad application in the EU legislation. Policy issues were to be addressed by the Ad-hoc group of Commission Services, EU Agencies and Member States established in 2010, whereas the scientific issues were to be addressed by the Endocrine Disruptors Expert Advisory Group (ED EAG), established in 2011. The ED EAG adopted the 2002 World Health Organization (WHO) definition of endocrine disruptor and agreed that for its identification it is necessary to produce convincing evidence of a biologically plausible causal link between an adverse effect and endocrine disrupting mode of action. In 2014, the European Commission proposed four ED identification criteria options and three regulatory options, which are now being assessed for socio-economic, environmental, and health impact. Slovenia supports the establishing of identification criteria and favours option 4, according to which ED identification should be based on the WHO definition with the addition of potency as an element of hazard characterisation. As for regulatory options, Slovenia favours the risk-based rather than hazard-based regulation.

  12. Computationally derived points of fragility of a human cascade are consistent with current therapeutic strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Luan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The role that mechanistic mathematical modeling and systems biology will play in molecular medicine and clinical development remains uncertain. In this study, mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis were used to explore the working hypothesis that mechanistic models of human cascades, despite model uncertainty, can be computationally screened for points of fragility, and that these sensitive mechanisms could serve as therapeutic targets. We tested our working hypothesis by screening a model of the well-studied coagulation cascade, developed and validated from literature. The predicted sensitive mechanisms were then compared with the treatment literature. The model, composed of 92 proteins and 148 protein-protein interactions, was validated using 21 published datasets generated from two different quiescent in vitro coagulation models. Simulated platelet activation and thrombin generation profiles in the presence and absence of natural anticoagulants were consistent with measured values, with a mean correlation of 0.87 across all trials. Overall state sensitivity coefficients, which measure the robustness or fragility of a given mechanism, were calculated using a Monte Carlo strategy. In the absence of anticoagulants, fluid and surface phase factor X/activated factor X (fX/FXa activity and thrombin-mediated platelet activation were found to be fragile, while fIX/FIXa and fVIII/FVIIIa activation and activity were robust. Both anti-fX/FXa and direct thrombin inhibitors are important classes of anticoagulants; for example, anti-fX/FXa inhibitors have FDA approval for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following surgical intervention and as an initial treatment for deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Both in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence is reviewed supporting the prediction that fIX/FIXa activity is robust. When taken together, these results support our working hypothesis that computationally derived points of

  13. Deploying HEP applications using Xen and Globus Virtual Workspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A; Desmarais, R; Gable, I; Grundy, D; P-Brown, D; Seuster, R; Vanderster, D C; Sobie, R; Charbonneau, A; Enge, R

    2008-01-01

    The deployment of HEP applications in heterogeneous grid environments can be challenging because many of the applications are dependent on specific OS versions and have a large number of complex software dependencies. Virtual machine monitors such as Xen could be used to package HEP applications, complete with their execution environments, to run on resources that do not meet their operating system requirements. Our previous work has shown HEP applications running within Xen suffer little or no performance penalty as a result of virtualization. However, a practical strategy is required for remotely deploying, booting, and controlling virtual machines on a remote cluster. One tool that promises to overcome the deployment hurdles using standard grid technology is the Globus Virtual Workspaces project. We describe strategies for the deployment of Xen virtual machines using Globus Virtual Workspace middleware that simplify the deployment of HEP applications

  14. Coming home: A prospective study of family reintegration following deployment to a war zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Osborne, Laura J; Snyder, Douglas K; Talcott, G Wayne; Slep, Amy M Smith; Heyman, Richard E; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott

    2015-08-01

    The consequences of deployment extend beyond the service member to impact the entire family. The current investigation evaluated the unique challenges of family reintegration for partnered service members using a prospective design. In total, 76 partnered service members who deployed on a year-long, high-risk mission to Iraq were assessed across the entirety of the deployment cycle, i.e., pre-, during, and postdeployment. At follow-up, nearly 1 in 5 partnered service members reported moderate to severe difficulties in multiple aspects of family reintegration. Prospective interpersonal indicators such as preparations for deployment as a couple, shared commitment to the military, and predeployment relationship distress predicted postdeployment family reintegration difficulties. Significant interpersonal risk factors were medium to large in their effect sizes. Airmen's willingness to disclose deployment- and combat-related experiences, and postdeployment relationship distress served as concurrent interpersonal correlates of difficulties with family reintegration. Intrapersonal factors, including posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol misuse were concurrently related to challenges with family reintegration; predeployment alcohol misuse also predicted subsequent family reintegration difficulties. Additional analyses indicated that pre- and postdeployment relationship distress, combat disclosure, and postdeployment alcohol misuse each contributed to family reintegration when controlling for other intra- and interpersonal risk factors. Implications for prevention and early intervention strategies as well as future research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager advanced deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Coupland, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    If you are an experienced Configuration Manager administrator looking to advance your career or get more from your current environment, then this book is ideal for you. Prior experience of deploying and managing a Configuration Manager site would be helpful in following the examples throughout this book.

  16. [Current prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis. Fracture-oriented, effective, low side effects and inexpensive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, R; Bartl, C

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is still an underdiagnosed and insufficiently therapied widespread disease in Germany. Of the estimated 7 million osteoporosis patients only 1.5 million receive a guideline conform diagnosis and even less receive appropriate treatment. Some 90 % of patients are provided with analgesics but only 10 % receive an effective therapy, although efficacious, well-tested and affordable medications are available. In addition, approximately one half of the patients terminate treatment after only 1 year although according to the results of recent studies the duration of therapy should be at least 3-5 years. In view of the increasing average life expectancy, a consistent management for prevention of fractures associated with osteoporosis is always most important for society, even if only for reasons of costs. Achievement of this target depends on four circumstances: clarification of the origin of osteoporosis and fractures (bone consciousness), prophylaxis of bone loss and fractures (primary prevention), consistent guideline conform diagnostics and therapy (secondary and tertiary prevention) and cooperation of all disciplines in medicine (bone is everybody's business). This article describes the current state of diagnostics (bone density measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry, FRAX®), prophylaxis of fractures (screening program) and therapy (use of economic and effective medications with low side effects). Novel medications are already undergoing clinical testing and a "healing" of bone reduction with restoration of the normal bone structure is to be expected.

  17. A study on current status of KAERI's international cooperation programs and strategies for effective implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Park, Chun Kab; Noh, In Young; Kim, Young Min

    1998-12-01

    This is a report on the status and analysis of standard agreement for technical cooperation, expert mission service and technical staff attachment. This report comprises a total of six chapters. Chapter II discusses the status of the technical cooperation agreement which took effect late 1998, and various other model agreements for technical cooperation. Chapter III provides information on the status, regulations, procedures for the expert mission service, and Chapter IV details the current status of the technical staff attachment and the related procedures. Chapter V deals with the utilization status and analysis of the English Counselor, and Chapter VI is the Conclusion. This report has tow objectives. First, we have never published reference books related to standard agreement for technical cooperation, expert mission service and technical staff attachment necessary for international joint research until now. As a result, the research divisions have often asked many questions to the office of international cooperation. Therefore, we expect that many difficulties will be removed and procedures simplified if the research divisions use this report as a reference book. Second, we plan to use this report reference book for policy decisions after establishing the database. (author). 5 tabs., 9 figs

  18. Current and future strategy for breast cancer treatment at Nagasaki University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Mariko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Maeda, Shigeto

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer has emerged as the most frequent malignant neoplasm among Japanese women in recent years, raising awareness in society of the issue of breast cancer, including good screening and therapies. In fact, the establishment of breast cancer screening program with mammography in the United States and Western Europe has contributed to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stage, and proper management, including various options of evidence-based treatment has not only reduced mortality but also enhanced patients' quality of life. However, the mortality rate due to breast cancer in Japan has continued to increase, and the number of patients is also increasing rapidly. It is therefore very urgent to develop a good system of breast care in all medical facilities as well as the provision of a national scheme in Japan. In this report, we review the situations of breast surgery at Nagasaki University Hospital from 1975 to 2004 and current management practices for breast disease, and evaluate the possibility of establishing a better system for breast care at our hospital, which could then act as a core medical institute in Nagasaki. (author)

  19. A review of current strategy for rabies prevention and control in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneela Garg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The control of Rabies, a zoonotic viral disease is a major public challenge in several developing countries. Current approaches for rabies control are overwhelmingly directed towards provision of effective post exposure prophylaxis (PEP to animal bite victims. The enormous costs involved in rabies prophylaxis is an important factor precluding its universal application in all animal bite victims especially in those residing in resource constrained settings. The intradermal route of administration has been shown to be cost effective except in peripheral regions with fewer animal bite cases. Nevertheless, rabies control program with their expected emphasis on human rabies prophylaxis have neglected canine vaccination. The feasibility of canine rabies vaccination depends primarily upon allocation of resources through political commitment and effective public private partnerships. However, in large parts of the world including India formal dog ownership constitutes a small minority of the overall canine population while state funded canine vaccination drives often fail to impress policy makers who struggle to maintain budgets for adequate coverage of rabies PEP for animal bite victims. The key to rabies control may therefore rest upon a one health approach with development of newer vaccine technology which is cost effective for vaccination in both, man and animal.

  20. Organ Preservation: Current Concepts and New Strategies for the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, Edgardo E.; Petrenko, Alexander Y.; Balaban, Cecilia L.; Somov, Alexander Y.; Rodriguez, Joaquín V.; Fuller, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Organ transplantation has developed over the past 50 years to reach the sophisticated and integrated clinical service of today through several advances in science. One of the most important of these has been the ability to apply organ preservation protocols to deliver donor organs of high quality, via a network of organ exchange to match the most suitable recipient patient to the best available organ, capable of rapid resumption of life-sustaining function in the recipient patient. This has only been possible by amassing a good understanding of the potential effects of hypoxic injury on donated organs, and how to prevent these by applying organ preservation. This review sets out the history of organ preservation, how applications of hypothermia have become central to the process, and what the current status is for the range of solid organs commonly transplanted. The science of organ preservation is constantly being updated with new knowledge and ideas, and the review also discusses what innovations are coming close to clinical reality to meet the growing demands for high quality organs in transplantation over the next few years. PMID:21566713

  1. CURRENT SITUATION OF CIVIL AWARENESS OF UNDERGRADUATE AND PROMOTION STRATEGY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Mei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted on a questionnaire survey for the current college students’ civic awareness from four aspects of equality consciousness, national consciousness, freedom consciousness and public consciousness. Survey data was analyzed with the SAS® statistical software, the results shown that some of our country’s College Students with a strong national consciousness, and their patriotic feeling is deep at present. They identity the consciousness of equality, but their awareness of fighting for rights is not strong. They have a sense of freedom, but some students are not clear about the relationship between freedom and law. Their enthusiasm to participate in public affairs is not high. Their awareness of social morality is not comprehensive. The reason is that the influence of traditional culture and the political development can’t keep up with the development of economy and the systematic citizenship education is lacked. Finally, we put forward a method of improve the civic awareness of Contemporary College Students in this paper.

  2. Current supply/demand outlook and its impact on gas marketing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffitt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The current supply/demand outlook for natural gas in Canada is discussed, starting with a review of natural gas supply trends since the deregulation of the market in 1985/86. Market demand trends and expansion of export pipeline capacity are summarized to demonstrate how radically the North American gas marketing industry has changed in the last decade. As of January 1st 1993, Canada ranked eleventh in the world with respect to remaining natural gas reserves (96 Tft 3 ), which represents only 2% of global gas reserves. Canada ranks third in gas production (5 Tft 3 /y), behind the USA and former Soviet Union (19 and 29 Tft 3 /y, respectively). In western Canada, gas production rates have increased 75% since deregulation. Canadian domestic demand has grown 24% since 1985 to the 1993 level of 2.1 Tft 3 /y, while exports to the USA have grown 144% to 2.2 Tft 3 /y. The present environment requires a 'just in time' attitude towards developing new gas reserves and arranging transportation and storage. Long term gas marketing transacations are increasingly deliverability-based, firm delivery commitments which include harsh penalties for nonperformance. 7 figs

  3. Herd Immunity to Ebolaviruses Is Not a Realistic Target for Current Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G. Masterson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent West African Ebola virus pandemic, which affected >28,000 individuals increased interest in anti-Ebolavirus vaccination programs. Here, we systematically analyzed the requirements for a prophylactic vaccination program based on the basic reproductive number (R0, i.e., the number of secondary cases that result from an individual infection. Published R0 values were determined by systematic literature research and ranged from 0.37 to 20. R0s ≥ 4 realistically reflected the critical early outbreak phases and superspreading events. Based on the R0, the herd immunity threshold (Ic was calculated using the equation Ic = 1 − (1/R0. The critical vaccination coverage (Vc needed to provide herd immunity was determined by including the vaccine effectiveness (E using the equation Vc = Ic/E. At an R0 of 4, the Ic is 75% and at an E of 90%, more than 80% of a population need to be vaccinated to establish herd immunity. Such vaccination rates are currently unrealistic because of resistance against vaccinations, financial/logistical challenges, and a lack of vaccines that provide long-term protection against all human-pathogenic Ebolaviruses. Hence, outbreak management will for the foreseeable future depend on surveillance and case isolation. Clinical vaccine candidates are only available for Ebola viruses. Their use will need to be focused on health-care workers, potentially in combination with ring vaccination approaches.

  4. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”), Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm”) or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tapeworm”). Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites’ lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a “two-pronged” approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions. PMID:28615981

  5. Analysis of metabolomic data: tools, current strategies and future challenges for omics data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Alice; Ferrario, Manuela; Masseroli, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Metabolomics is a rapidly growing field consisting of the analysis of a large number of metabolites at a system scale. The two major goals of metabolomics are the identification of the metabolites characterizing each organism state and the measurement of their dynamics under different situations (e.g. pathological conditions, environmental factors). Knowledge about metabolites is crucial for the understanding of most cellular phenomena, but this information alone is not sufficient to gain a comprehensive view of all the biological processes involved. Integrated approaches combining metabolomics with transcriptomics and proteomics are thus required to obtain much deeper insights than any of these techniques alone. Although this information is available, multilevel integration of different 'omics' data is still a challenge. The handling, processing, analysis and integration of these data require specialized mathematical, statistical and bioinformatics tools, and several technical problems hampering a rapid progress in the field exist. Here, we review four main tools for number of users or provided features (MetaCoreTM, MetaboAnalyst, InCroMAP and 3Omics) out of the several available for metabolomic data analysis and integration with other 'omics' data, highlighting their strong and weak aspects; a number of related issues affecting data analysis and integration are also identified and discussed. Overall, we provide an objective description of how some of the main currently available software packages work, which may help the experimental practitioner in the choice of a robust pipeline for metabolomic data analysis and integration. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okello A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Okello,1 Lian Francesca Thomas2 1Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland; 2Independent Consultant, Lusaka, Zambia Abstract: Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”, Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm” or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tapeworm”. Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites’ lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a “two-pronged” approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions. Keywords: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, cysticercosis, zoonotic disease, neglected tropical diseases

  8. Changing paradigms in cranio-facial regeneration: current and new strategies for the activation of endogenous stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eMele

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial area represent a unique district of human body characterized by a very high complexity of tissues, innervation and vascularization, and being deputed to many fundamental function such as eating, speech, expression of emotions, delivery of sensations such as taste, sight and earing. For this reasons, tissue loss in this area following trauma or for example oncologic resection, have a tremendous impact on patients’ quality of life. In the last 20 years regenerative medicine has emerged as one of the most promising approach to solve problem related to trauma, tissue loss, organ failure etc. One of the most powerful tools to be used for tissue regeneration is represented by stem cells, which have been successfully implanted in different tissue/organs with exciting results. Nevertheless both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation raise many practical and ethical concerns that make this approach very difficult to apply in clinical practice. For this reason different cell free approaches have been developed aiming to the mobilization, recruitment and activation of endogenous stem cells into the injury site avoiding exogenous cells implant but instead stimulating patients’ own stem cells to repair the lesion. To this aim many strategies have been used including functionalized bioscaffold, controlled release of stem cell chemoattractants, growth factors, BMPs, Platelet–Rich-Plasma and other new strategies such as ultrasound wave and laser are just being proposed. Here we review all the current and new strategies used for activation and mobilization of endogenous stem cells in the regeneration of craniofacial tissue.

  9. Economics of ALMR deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) has the potential to extend the economic life of the nuclear option and of reducing the number of high level waste repositories which will eventually be needed in an expanding nuclear economy. This paper reports on an analysis which models and evaluates the economics of the use of ALMRs as a component of this country's future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel) or from surplus weapons grade material. While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment

  10. ALMR deployment economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This analysis seeks to model and evaluate the economics of the use of Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors (ALMR) as a component of this country's future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel). While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment

  11. Service Creation and Deployment in Converged Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José

    for these experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circuit switched based systems towards packet based ones. The text of this monograph proceeds, unaltered for the most, from the author’s PhD thesis “Framework for Deployment of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current......This monograph (Early Experiences related to Service Creation & Deployment in Converged Networks) presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context...... and Future Converged Networks”, carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in the period [April 2002-April 2005]. Even though the technologies presented in the text have evolved from that period until now, the presented scenarios and setups are still valid as interesting initial steps in the realm....

  12. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  13. Balancing Europe's wind power output through spatial deployment informed by weather regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Christian M; Beerli, Remo; Pfenninger, Stefan; Staffell, Iain; Wernli, Heini

    2017-08-01

    As wind and solar power provide a growing share of Europe's electricity1, understanding and accommodating their variability on multiple timescales remains a critical problem. On weekly timescales, variability is related to long-lasting weather conditions, called weather regimes2-5, which can cause lulls with a loss of wind power across neighbouring countries6. Here we show that weather regimes provide a meteorological explanation for multi-day fluctuations in Europe's wind power and can help guide new deployment pathways which minimise this variability. Mean generation during different regimes currently ranges from 22 GW to 44 GW and is expected to triple by 2030 with current planning strategies. However, balancing future wind capacity across regions with contrasting inter-regime behaviour - specifically deploying in the Balkans instead of the North Sea - would almost eliminate these output variations, maintain mean generation, and increase fleet-wide minimum output. Solar photovoltaics could balance low-wind regimes locally, but only by expanding current capacity tenfold. New deployment strategies based on an understanding of continent-scale wind patterns and pan-European collaboration could enable a high share of wind energy whilst minimising the negative impacts of output variability.

  14. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  15. Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Meeting the identified needs of Earth science requires approaching EOS as an information system and not simply as one or more satellites with instruments. Six elements of strategy are outlined as follows: implementation of the individual discipline missions as currently planned; use of sustained observational capabilities offered by operational satellites without waiting for the launch of new mission; put first priority on the data system; deploy an Advanced Data Collection and Location System; put a substantial new observing capability in a low Earth orbit in such a way as to provide for sustained measurements; and group instruments to exploit their capabilities for synergism; maximize the scientific utility of the mission; and minimize the costs of implementation where possible.

  16. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  17. Logistics analysis to Improve Deployability (LOG-AID): Field Experiment/Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evers, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    .... Under sponsorship of the Air Force Research Laboratory Logistics Readiness Branch (AFRL/HESR), the Synergy team analyzed the current wing-level deployment process as part of the Logistics Analysis to Improve Deployability (LOG-AID) program...

  18. CMS software deployment on OSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B; Avery, P; Thomas, M; Wuerthwein, F

    2008-01-01

    A set of software deployment tools has been developed for the installation, verification, and removal of a CMS software release. The tools that are mainly targeted for the deployment on the OSG have the features of instant release deployment, corrective resubmission of the initial installation job, and an independent web-based deployment portal with Grid security infrastructure login mechanism. We have been deploying over 500 installations and found the tools are reliable and adaptable to cope with problems with changes in the Grid computing environment and the software releases. We present the design of the tools, statistics that we gathered during the operation of the tools, and our experience with the CMS software deployment on the OSG Grid computing environment

  19. CMS software deployment on OSG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B; Avery, P [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Thomas, M [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wuerthwein, F [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: bockjoo@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: thomas@hep.caltech.edu, E-mail: avery@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: fkw@fnal.gov

    2008-07-15

    A set of software deployment tools has been developed for the installation, verification, and removal of a CMS software release. The tools that are mainly targeted for the deployment on the OSG have the features of instant release deployment, corrective resubmission of the initial installation job, and an independent web-based deployment portal with Grid security infrastructure login mechanism. We have been deploying over 500 installations and found the tools are reliable and adaptable to cope with problems with changes in the Grid computing environment and the software releases. We present the design of the tools, statistics that we gathered during the operation of the tools, and our experience with the CMS software deployment on the OSG Grid computing environment.

  20. Mastering Hyper-V Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The only book to take an in-depth look at deploying Hyper-V. Now in its second generation, the popular Hyper-V boasts technical advances that create even more dynamic systems than ever before. This unique resource serves an authoritative guide to deploying Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V comprehensively. Step-by-step instructions demonstrate how to design a Hyper-V deployment, build a Hyper-V host environment, and design a management system with System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2.: Features real-world examples that show you how to design a Hyper-V deployment, build a Hyper-V host env

  1. Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division advances transportation innovation by being leaders in infrastructure technology, including vehicles and...

  2. Final Technical Report: Commercial Advanced Lighting Control (ALC) Demonstration and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Gabe [Efficiency Forward, Inc. / DesignLights Consortium

    2018-02-05

    This three-year demonstration and deployment project sought to address market barriers to accelerating the adoption of Advanced Lighting Controls (ALCs), an underutilized technology with low market penetration. ALCs are defined as networked, addressable lighting control systems that utilize software or intelligent controllers to combine multiple energy-saving lighting control strategies in a single space (e.g., smart-time scheduling, daylight harvesting, task tuning, occupancy control, personal control, variable load-shedding, and plug-load control). The networked intelligent aspect of these systems allows applicable lighting control strategies to be combined in a single space, layered over one another, maximizing overall energy-savings. The project included five real building demonstrations of ALCs across the Northeast US region. The demonstrations provided valuable data and experience to support deployment tasks that are necessary to overcome market barriers. These deployment tasks included development of training resources for building designers, installers, and trades, as well as development of new energy efficiency rebates for the technology from Efficiency Forward’s utility partners. Educating designers, installers, and trades on ALCs is a critical task for reducing the cost of the technology that is currently inflated due to perceived complexity and unfamiliarity with how to design and install the systems. Further, utility and non-utility energy efficiency programs continue to relegate the technology to custom or ill-suited prescriptive program designs that do not effectively deploy the technology at scale. This project developed new, scalable rebate approaches for the technology. Efficiency Forward utilized their DesignLights Consortium® (DLC) brand and network of 81 DLC member utilities to develop and deploy the results of the project. The outputs of the project have included five published case studies, a six-hour ALC technology training curriculum

  3. Abstracting application deployment on Cloud infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiftimiei, D. C.; Fattibene, E.; Gargana, R.; Panella, M.; Salomoni, D.

    2017-10-01

    Deploying a complex application on a Cloud-based infrastructure can be a challenging task. In this contribution we present an approach for Cloud-based deployment of applications and its present or future implementation in the framework of several projects, such as “!CHAOS: a cloud of controls” [1], a project funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Research and Education) to create a Cloud-based deployment of a control system and data acquisition framework, “INDIGO-DataCloud” [2], an EC H2020 project targeting among other things high-level deployment of applications on hybrid Clouds, and “Open City Platform”[3], an Italian project aiming to provide open Cloud solutions for Italian Public Administrations. We considered to use an orchestration service to hide the complex deployment of the application components, and to build an abstraction layer on top of the orchestration one. Through Heat [4] orchestration service, we prototyped a dynamic, on-demand, scalable platform of software components, based on OpenStack infrastructures. On top of the orchestration service we developed a prototype of a web interface exploiting the Heat APIs. The user can start an instance of the application without having knowledge about the underlying Cloud infrastructure and services. Moreover, the platform instance can be customized by choosing parameters related to the application such as the size of a File System or the number of instances of a NoSQL DB cluster. As soon as the desired platform is running, the web interface offers the possibility to scale some infrastructure components. In this contribution we describe the solution design and implementation, based on the application requirements, the details of the development of both the Heat templates and of the web interface, together with possible exploitation strategies of this work in Cloud data centers.

  4. The impact of antecedent trauma exposure and mental health symptoms on the post-deployment mental health of Afghanistan-deployed Australian troops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; Lawrence-Wood, Ellie R; Grace, Blair S; Saccone, Elizabeth J; Davy, Carol P; Lorimer, Michelle; McFarlane, Alexander C

    2017-10-01

    Both traumatic deployment experiences and antecedent traumas increase personnel's risk of developing PTSD and depression. However, only cross-sectional studies have assessed whether antecedent trauma moderates stress reactions to deployment experiences. This study prospectively examines whether antecedent trauma moderates the association between deployment trauma and post-deployment PTSD and depressive symptoms after accounting for antecedent mental health problems, in a large Australian Defence Force (ADF) sample. In the ADF Middle East Area of Operations Prospective Study, currently-serving military personnel deployed to Afghanistan across 2010-2012 (n = 1122) completed self-reported measures at pre-deployment and post-deployment. Within multivariable regressions, associations between deployment trauma and PTSD and depressive symptoms at post-deployment were stronger for personnel with greater antecedent trauma. However, once adjusting for antecedent mental health problems, these significant interaction effects disappeared. Instead, deployment-related trauma and antecedent mental health problems showed direct associations with post-deployment mental health problems. Antecedent trauma was also indirectly associated with post-deployment mental health problems through antecedent mental health problems. Similar associations were seen with prior combat exposure as a moderator. Antecedent and deployment trauma were reported retrospectively. Self-reports may also suffer from social desirability bias, especially at pre-deployment. Our main effects results support the pervasive and cumulative negative effect of trauma on military personnel, regardless of its source. While antecedent trauma does not amplify personnel's psychological response to deployment trauma, it is indirectly associated with increased post-deployment mental health problems. Antecedent mental health should be considered within pre-deployment prevention programs, and deployment-trauma within post

  5. Fowl adenovirus-induced diseases and strategies for their control - a review on the current global situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Anna; Matos, Miguel; Grafl, Beatrice; Hess, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The stand-alone pathogenicity of fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) had long been disputed, given the ubiquity of the viruses versus sporadic outbreaks, and variation between experimental studies. However, a globally emerging trend of FAdV-associated diseases has marked the past two decades, with hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome mainly in Asia besides Arabian and Latin American countries, and geographically more disseminated outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis. Finally, the appearance of FAdV-induced gizzard erosion (AGE) in Asia and Europe completed the range of diseases. Epidemiological studies confirmed serotype FAdV-4 as agent of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome, whereas inclusion body hepatitis is related to FAdV-2, -8a, -8b and -11. Members of the biologically more distant serotype FAdV-1 induce AGE. Urged by increasing problems in the field, numerous pathogenicity studies with FAdVs from outbreaks substantiated the primary aetiologic role of particular strains for distinct clinical conditions. Developments in the poultry industry towards highly specialized genetic breeds and rigorous biosecurity additionally contribute to the growing incidence of FAdV-related diseases. Confirming field observations, recent studies connected a higher susceptibility of broilers with their distinct physiology, implying the choice of bird type as a factor to be considered in infection studies. Furthermore, elevated biosecurity standards have generated immunologically naïve breeding stocks, putting broilers at risk in face of vertical FAdV transmission. Therefore, future prevention strategies should include adequate antibodies in breeders prior to production and - if necessary - vaccination, in order to protect progenies. This review aims to deliver a detailed overview on the current global situation about FAdV-induced diseases, their reproduction in vivo and vaccination strategies.

  6. Gender differences in the effects of deployment-related stressors and pre-deployment risk factors on the development of PTSD symptoms in National Guard Soldiers deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polusny, Melissa A; Kumpula, Mandy J; Meis, Laura A; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul A; Murdoch, Maureen; Thuras, Paul; Kehle-Forbes, Shannon M; Johnson, Alexandria K

    2014-02-01

    Although women in the military are exposed to combat and its aftermath, little is known about whether combat as well as pre-deployment risk/protective factors differentially predict post-deployment PTSD symptoms among women compared to men. The current study assesses the influence of combat-related stressors and pre-deployment risk/protective factors on women's risk of developing PTSD symptoms following deployment relative to men's risk. Participants were 801 US National Guard Soldiers (712 men, 89 women) deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan who completed measures of potential risk/protective factors and PTSD symptoms one month before deployment (Time 1) and measures of deployment-related stressors and PTSD symptoms about 2-3 months after returning from deployment (Time 2). Men reported greater exposure to combat situations than women, while women reported greater sexual stressors during deployment than men. Exposure to the aftermath of combat (e.g., witnessing injured/dying people) did not differ by gender. At Time 2, women reported more severe PTSD symptoms and higher rates of probable PTSD than did men. Gender remained a predictor of higher PTSD symptoms after accounting for pre-deployment symptoms, prior interpersonal victimization, and combat related stressors. Gender moderated the association between several risk factors (combat-related stressors, prior interpersonal victimization, lack of unit support and pre-deployment concerns about life/family disruptions) and post-deployment PTSD symptoms. Elevated PTSD symptoms among female service members were not explained simply by gender differences in pre-deployment or deployment-related risk factors. Combat related stressors, prior interpersonal victimization, and pre-deployment concerns about life and family disruptions during deployment were differentially associated with greater post-deployment PTSD symptoms for women than men. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Current Knowledge about the Effectiveness of School Desegregation Strategies. Summary. Volume I: Strategies for Effective Desegregation: A Synthesis of Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; And Others

    This project report examines strategies for effective school desegregation based on case studies of individual schools, national school surveys, ethnographic studies of classrooms, trend analyses, opinion surveys and conference interviews, and court documents. The strategies identified in the report include the attainment of one or more of the…

  8. Budget impact analysis of rivaroxaban vs. warfarin anticoagulation strategy for direct current cardioversion in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients: the MonaldiVert Economic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Rago, Anna; Papa, Andrea A; Bianchi, Valter; Tavoletta, Vincenzo; DE Vivo, Stefano; Cavallaro, Ciro; Nigro, Gerardo; D'Onofrio, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Rivaroxaban is the first novel oral anticoagulant to receive regulatory approval for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients who require cardioversion. The MonaldiVert real life experience showed positive benefit-risk profile of short term rivaroxaban administration for transesophageal echocardiogram guided cardioversion in patients who had not achieved adequate pre-procedural vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulation. Aim of our study was to perform a budget impact analysis of MonaldiVert anticoagulation strategy for direct current cardioversion in NVAF patients and to compare the following costs borne by the Regional Healthcare System (RHS) with those for a hypothetical cohort of identical patients underwent from the beginning to early rivaroxaban treatment before direct current cardioversion. The mean costs per each NVAF patient treated with VKA strategy and rivaroxaban rescue strategy were € 134.53 and € 189.83, respectively. Considering a hypothetical scenario in which all study population would be treated from the beginning with rivaroxaban (rivaroxaban early strategy), the mean cost per patient would have been € 81.11. The total cost borne by the RHS, including the cost of the cardioversion procedure, for the two therapeutic strategies carried out at Monaldi Hospital (VKA strategy and Rivaroxaban rescue strategy) was € 88,458.53. The total cost would be borne by the RHS for rivaroxaban early strategy, if applied to all study population, would have been € 69,989.15 with a saving of € 18,469.38 compared to the actually applied strategy. Rivaroxaban rescue strategy for transesophageal echocardiography guided direct current cardioversion in NVAF patients, who had not achieved adequate pre-procedural VKA anticoagulation, is an effective and safe strategy, which allows to not delay the procedure, reducing times and wastage of cardioversion slots, without substantial costs increase.

  9. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S Fryer

    Full Text Available Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology.Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12-25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research.We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs.The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults.

  10. Simultaneous improvement in short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor of polymer solar cells through ternary strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Fujun; Li, Lingliang; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Weihua; Deng, Zhenbo

    2015-02-18

    We present a smart strategy to simultaneously increase the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), and the fill factor (FF) of polymer solar cells (PSCs). A two-dimensional conjugated small molecule photovoltaic material (SMPV1), as the second electron donor, was doped into the blend system of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl (PC71BM) to form ternary PSCs. The ternary PSCs with 5 wt % SMPV1 doping ratio in donors achieve 4.06% champion power conversion efficiency (PCE), corresponding to about 21.2% enhancement compared with the 3.35% PCE of P3HT:PC71BM-based PSCs. The underlying mechanism on performance improvement of ternary PSCs can be summarized as (i) harvesting more photons in the longer wavelength region to increase Jsc; (ii) obtaining the lower mixed highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level by incorporating SMPV1 to increase Voc; (iii) forming the better charge carrier transport channels through the cascade energy level structure and optimizing phase separation of donor/acceptor materials to increase Jsc and FF.

  11. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Craig S; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Clark, Rachael S; Plano Clark, Vicki L

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology. Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12-25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research. We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs. The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults.

  12. Transportation system benefits of early deployment of a 75-ton multipurpose canister system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankerl, M.W.; Schmid, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 the US Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) began developing two multipurpose canister (MPC) systems to provide a standardized method for interim storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at commercial nuclear power plants. One is a 75-ton concept with an estimated payload of about 6 metric tons (t) of SNF, and the other is a 125-ton concept with an estimated payload of nearly 11 t of SNF. These payloads are two to three times the payloads of the largest currently certified US rail transport casks, the IF-300. Although is it recognized that a fully developed 125-ton MPC system is likely to provide a greater cost benefit, and radiation exposure benefit than the lower-capacity 75-ton MPC, the authors of this paper suggest that development and deployment of the 75-ton MPC prior to developing and deploying a 125-ton MPC is a desirable strategy. Reasons that support this are discussed in this paper

  13. Techno-Economics of Residential Broadband Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldor Matthias

    2007-01-01

    on account of their existing telecom network (”the raw copper”), and typically they will prefer an xDSL-based strategy (various types of Digital Subscriber Line-technology: ADSL, VDSL, etc.), where the rate of speed of data connections are increased gradually to 10-50 Mbit/s or even more, in order to gain...... broadband deployment strategy is depending on a complexed set of parameters, and there is a demand for precise techno-economic cost models estimating financial feasibility. The existing cost models do not consider the dynamic developments in the market caused by competition. The PhD thesis has a profound...... the general principles from the Danish LRAIC-model (Long Run Average Incremental Cost) and divides Denmark in 4 geografical profiles. Considering the existing copper-infrastructure the most advantageous strategies for the players of each of these profiles are identified. The importance of the time horizon...

  14. Elimination of Guinea Worm Disease in Ethiopia; Current Status of the Disease's, Eradication Strategies and Challenges to the End Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo; Bekele, Abyot; Shifara, Amanu; Ebstie, Yehenew A; Desalegn, Zelalem; Kebede, Zeyede; Mulugeta, Abate; Deribe, Kebede; Tadesse, Zerihun; Abebe, Tamrat; Kebede, Biruck; Abrha, Getaneh; Jima, Daddi

    2017-01-01

    Dracunculiasis, also named Guinea Worm Disease (GWD), is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) caused by a parasitic nematode known as Dracunculus medinensis and has been known since antiquity as 'fiery serpent' from Israelites. It is transmitted to humans via drinking contaminated water containing infective copepods. Given, its feasibility for eradication, the Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) was launched in 1980 with the aim of eradicating the disease. Since its inception, GWEP has made an extraordinary progress in interrupting transmission. Globally, the number of reported cases reduced from 3.5 million in 20 countries in 1986 to only 22 cases in 2015 from only four countries namely South Sudan, Mali, Chad and Ethiopia. Since Mali has interrupted transmission of GWD in 2016, currently, the disease remains endemic in only three sub-Saharan African countries namely, South Sudan, Chad and Ethiopia. Each endemic country has its own national Guinea Worm Eradication Program. In Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (EDEP) which was established in 1993 has made remarkable move towards interruption of disease transmission and now the endgame is fast approaching. The EDEP with support mainly from The Carter Center, WHO, and UNICEF has reduced GWD by more than 99% from 1994 to 2015. In 2015, only 3 indigenous cases in humans and 14 in animals (13 in dogs and 1 in baboon) were reported. In 2016, 3 human cases, 14 dogs and 2 baboon infections were reported.. Refugee influx from the Republic of South Sudan (RSS), increased animal infections with unknown role in transmission of Dracunculiasis, the presence of hard to reach communities and lack of safe water sources in remote non-village areas remain among important challenges at this final stage of GWD eradication in Ethiopia. This paper reviews progress made towards Guinea Worm Eradication with a focus on the experience of the Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (EDEP), and

  15. The Current Status of E-learning and Strategies to Enhance Educational Competitiveness in Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghoon Leem

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of e-Learning in Korean higher education and find ways to encourage the further use and development of e-Learning systems that aim to enhance Korea's academic competitiveness. A total of 201 universities in Korea (27 national and public, 163 private, and 11 national universities of education were examined in this study. At the time of the study, 85 percent of the universities and colleges had investigated implementing e-Learning. There were special e-Learning teams in most national and public universities, as well as private universities and colleges. Findings from this study found that both teachers and learners alike, lacked meaningful support systems and opportunities to actively participate in e-Learning programs. Although such lack of support was found to be endemic, such lack of support and opportunity was found to be more accute in private universities, private colleges, universities of education, than mid-sized, small-sized, and provincial universities and colleges. Except for a few mid- and small-sized universities and colleges, most large universities and colleges were equipped with technical support such as infrastructure and operational platforms. These same schools, however, did not provide institutional support, nor did they employ appropriate policies needed to further the quality and enhancement of e-Learning offerings. Also, there was no meaningful link found between schools and industry, nor was there adequate financial support in place for the implementation of e-Learning systems, simply because many universities failed to allocate sufficient funding for e-Learning.In conclusion, the strategies for enhancing university competitiveness through e-Learning are as follows: 1 establishing support strategies according to the types of universities; 2 developing quality assurance systems for e-Learning; 3 enhancing support systems for professors and learners; 4 developing

  16. Hybrid deployable support truss designs for LDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgepeth, J.

    1988-01-01

    Concepts for a 20-meter diameter Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) deployable truss backup structure, and analytical predictions of its structural characteristics are discussed. The concept shown is referred to as the SIXPAC; It is a combination of the PACTRUSS concept and a single-fold beam, which would make up the desired backup structure. One advantage of retaining the PACTRUSS concept is its packaging density and its capability for synchronous deployment. Various 2-meter hexagonal panel arrangements are possible for this Hybrid PACTRUSS structure depending on the panel-to-structure attachment strategies used. Static analyses of the SIXPAC using various assumptions for truss designs and panel masses of 10 kg sq meters were performed to predict the tip displacement of the structure when supported at the center. The tip displacement ranged from 0.20 to 0.44 mm without the panel mass, and from 0.9 to 3.9 mm with the panel mass (in a 1-g field). The data indicate that the structure can be adequately ground tested to validate its required performance in space, assuming the required performance in space is approximately 100 microns. The static displacement at the tip of the structure when subjected to an angular acceleration of 0.001 rad/sec squared were estimated to range from 0.8 to 7.5 microns, depending on the type of truss elements.

  17. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  18. Family Reintegration Following Guard Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    Somalia Peacekeepers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(5), 909-913. Haas DM . Pazdernik LA. Olsen CH. A cross-sectional survey of the...relationship between partner deployment and stress in pregnancy during wartime. Haas DM . Pazdernik LA. Partner deployment and stress in pregnant...Identify 3-5 key words relating to the proposal. (Required) I used MESH Headings instead of the CRISP Thesaurus for key

  19. Simulation and RTDS Hardware Implementation of SHAF for Mitigation of Current Harmonics with p-q and Id-Iq Control Strategies Using PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Panda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Control strategies for extracting the three-phase reference currents for shunt active power filters are compared, evaluating their performance under different source conditions in MATLAB/Simulink environment and also with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS Hardware. When the supply voltages are balanced and sinusoidal, the two control strategies are converging to the same compensation characteristics but when the supply voltages are distorted and/or un-balanced sinusoidal, these control strategies result in different degrees of compensation in harmonics. The p-q control strategy is unable to yield an adequate solution when source voltages are not ideal. Extensive Simulations are carried out with PI controller for both p-q and Id-Iq control strategies for different voltage conditions and adequate results were presented. The 3-ph 4-wire SHAF system is also implemented on RTDS Hardware to further verify its effectiveness. The detailed simulation and RTDS Hardware results are included.

  20. NATO strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarr, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear weapons are for NATO both the primary instrument for deterring a nuclear attack and the fall-back option if, in the event of a conventional assault, NATO's non-nuclear defence forces cannot hold. The dilemma of depending upon potentially self-destructive nuclear responses if deterrence fails and defence falters has always haunted NATO strategy, but after the Soviets achieved nuclear parity with the United States, this dilemma became more intensely perceived. Now the credibility, viability, acceptability, sensibility and morality of nuclear weapons for deterrence and defence are increasingly at issue. As a result, an increasing variety of non-nuclear (conventional) alternatives are being advanced to replace or supplement nuclear deterrence for the Alliance. The thrust of the author of this paper remarks is to attempt to apply the definitions, requirements, and other key conceptual distinctions of nuclear deterrence found in the body of western strategic literature to three categories of non-nuclear alternatives currently in vogue: strengthened conventional forces; deployment of new, high-technology non-nuclear weapons; and adoption of an offensive manoeuvre strategy. Let me, therefore, begin by listing the basic definitions, concepts and apparent requirements of deterrence which the deterrence theory literature offers

  1. Software, component, and service deployment in computational Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Laszewski, G.; Blau, E.; Bletzinger, M.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Martin, S.; Russell, M.

    2002-01-01

    Grids comprise an infrastructure that enables scientists to use a diverse set of distributed remote services and resources as part of complex scientific problem-solving processes. We analyze some of the challenges involved in deploying software and components transparently in Grids. We report on three practical solutions used by the Globus Project. Lessons learned from this experience lead us to believe that it is necessary to support a variety of software and component deployment strategies. These strategies are based on the hosting environment

  2. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Zika Virus, a Special Focus on Intervention Approaches against Vector Mosquitoes—Current Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is the most recent intruder that acquired the status of global threat creating panic and frightening situation to public owing to its rapid spread, attaining higher virulence and causing complex clinical manifestations including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain Barré Syndrome. Alike other flaviviruses, the principal mode of ZIKV transmission is by mosquitoes. Advances in research have provided reliable diagnostics for detecting ZIKV infection, while several drug/therapeutic targets and vaccine candidates have been identified recently. Despite these progresses, currently there is neither any effective drug nor any vaccine available against ZIKV. Under such circumstances and to tackle the problem at large, control measures of which mosquito population control need to be strengthened following appropriate mechanical, chemical, biological and genetic control measures. Apart from this, several other known modes of ZIKV transmission which have gained importance in recent past such as intrauterine, sexual intercourse, and blood-borne spread need to be checked and kept under control by adopting appropriate precautions and utmost care during sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The virus inactivation by pasteurization, detergents, chemicals, and filtration can effectively reduce viral load in plasma-derived medicinal products. Added to this, strengthening of the surveillance and monitoring of ZIKV as well as avoiding travel to Zika infected areas would aid in keeping viral infection under check. Here, we discuss the salient advances in the prevention and control strategies to combat ZIKV with a focus on highlighting various intervention approaches against the vector mosquitoes of this viral pathogen along with presenting an overview regarding human intervention measures to counter other modes of ZIKV transmission and spread. Additionally, owing to the success of vaccines for a number of infections

  3. Beyond Brooding on Oncometabolic Havoc in IDH-Mutant Gliomas and AML: Current and Future Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumantha Rao Madala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1,2, the key Krebs cycle enzymes that generate NADPH reducing equivalents, undergo heterozygous mutations in >70% of low- to mid-grade gliomas and ~20% of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs and gain an unusual new activity of reducing the α-ketoglutarate (α-KG to D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG in a NADPH-consuming reaction. The oncometabolite D-2HG, which accumulates >35 mM, is widely accepted to drive a progressive oncogenesis besides exacerbating the already increased oxidative stress in these cancers. More importantly, D-2HG competes with α-KG and inhibits a large number of α-KG-dependent dioxygenases such as TET (Ten-eleven translocation, JmjC domain-containing KDMs (histone lysine demethylases, and the ALKBH DNA repair proteins that ultimately lead to hypermethylation of the CpG islands in the genome. The resulting CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP accounts for major gene expression changes including the silencing of the MGMT (O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase repair protein in gliomas. Glioma patients with IDH1 mutations also show better therapeutic responses and longer survival, the reasons for which are yet unclear. There has been a great surge in drug discovery for curtailing the mutant IDH activities, and arresting tumor proliferation; however, given the unique and chronic metabolic effects of D-2HG, the promise of these compounds for glioma treatment is uncertain. This comprehensive review discusses the biology, current drug design and opportunities for improved therapies through exploitable synthetic lethality pathways, and an intriguing oncometabolite-inspired strategy for primary glioblastoma.

  4. Morphing structures using soft polymers for active deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daynes, Stephen; Grisdale, Amy; Trask, Richard; Seddon, Annela

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we take inspiration from morphing strategies observed in nature, origami design and stiffness tailoring principles in engineering, to develop a thin walled, low cost, bistable cell geometry capable of reversibly unfolding from a flat configuration to a highly textured configuration. Finite element analysis was used to model the cell deployment and capture the experimentally observed bistability of the reinforced silicone elastomer. Through the combination of flexible elastomers with locally reinforced regions enables a highly tailorable and controllable deployment response. These cells are bistable allowing them to maintain their shape when either deployed or retracted without sustained actuation. It is proposed that such deployable cells with reversible surfaces and texture change can be used as a means of adaptive camouflage. (fast track communication)

  5. Recruitment Issues and Strategies for Adults Who Are Not Currently Participating in Literacy and Adult Basic Education (ABE) Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Aaron

    Adult basic education (ABE) and literacy programs have used many different strategies and tools to recruit new students. A small sampling of Tennessee ABE programs shows the more effective recruitment strategies are word-of-mouth referrals; newspaper advertisements and articles; fliers; brochures; posters, radio messages, and public service…

  6. Automated Deployment of Advanced Controls and Analytics in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritoni, Marco

    Buildings use 40% of primary energy in the US. Recent studies show that developing energy analytics and enhancing control strategies can significantly improve their energy performance. However, the deployment of advanced control software applications has been mostly limited to academic studies. Larger-scale implementations are prevented by the significant engineering time and customization required, due to significant differences among buildings. This study demonstrates how physics-inspired data-driven models can be used to develop portable analytics and control applications for buildings. Specifically, I demonstrate application of these models in all phases of the deployment of advanced controls and analytics in buildings: in the first phase, "Site Preparation and Interface with Legacy Systems" I used models to discover or map relationships among building components, automatically gathering metadata (information about data points) necessary to run the applications. During the second phase: "Application Deployment and Commissioning", models automatically learn system parameters, used for advanced controls and analytics. In the third phase: "Continuous Monitoring and Verification" I utilized models to automatically measure the energy performance of a building that has implemented advanced control strategies. In the conclusions, I discuss future challenges and suggest potential strategies for these innovative control systems to be widely deployed in the market. This dissertation provides useful new tools in terms of procedures, algorithms, and models to facilitate the automation of deployment of advanced controls and analytics and accelerate their wide adoption in buildings.

  7. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT AS A STRATEGIC PLANNINGTOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu DEVRİM İÇTENBAŞ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality Function Deployment (QFD uses a house of quality to translate customerrequirements into engineering specifications. QFD has been widely used as a toolto develop new products. It has been adopted in thefields of education quality,service quality, software development and marketingplanning. The tool hasrecently been applied in strategic planning .In this study authors reviewed currentresearch which uses QFD as a strategic planning tool and described how QFDmethods can be used as a robust tool in strategic planning. This study provides aninsight for strategic planners to utilize a QFD- based philosophy and the methodsare useful tools for the design of a customer-driven strategy and show how itsystematically translates vision into action, targeting opportunities and creatinginnovative strategies.

  8. Tank Waste Remediation System optimized processing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.; Boldt, A.L.; Boomer, K.D.; Galbraith, J.D.; Leach, C.E.; Waldo, T.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility

  9. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.

    2014-02-01

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  10. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions....... It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method...... is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed...

  11. Zero-Voltage Switching PWM Strategy Based Capacitor Current-Balancing Control for Half-Bridge Three-Level DC/DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Zhang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The current imbalance among the two input capacitors is one of the important issues of the half-bridge threelevel (HBTL) DC/DC converter, which would affect system performance and reliability. In this paper, a zero-voltage switching (ZVS) pulse-wide modulation (PWM) strategy including two operation...

  12. Current and emerging treatment strategies for children with progressive chiasmatic-hypothalamic glioma diagnosed as infants: a web-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azizi, Amedeo A.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.

    2018-01-01

    Treatment of infant hypothalamic chiasmatic glioma (iCHG) is challenging, about 30% of the children progress during chemotherapy. Despite subsequent treatments the 5 year overall-survival rate is only 70%. This study investigates treatment strategies currently applied for progressive iCHG. A

  13. Input-Parallel Output-Parallel Three-Level DC/DC Converters With Interleaving Control Strategy for Minimizing and Balancing Capacitor Ripple Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Gong, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the input-parallel output-parallel (IPOP) three-level (TL) DC/DC converters associated with the interleaving control strategy are proposed for minimizing and balancing the capacitor ripple currents. The proposed converters consist of two four-switch half-bridge three-level (HBTL) DC...

  14. Miniature field deployable terahertz source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Mark G.

    2006-05-01

    Developments in terahertz sources include compacted electron beam systems, optical mixing techniques, and multiplication of microwave frequencies. Although significant advances in THz science have been achieved, efforts continue to obtain source technologies that are more mobile and suitable for field deployment. Strategies in source development have approached generation from either end of the THz spectrum, from up-conversion of high-frequency microwave to down-conversion of optical frequencies. In this paper, we present the design of a THz source which employs an up-conversion method in an assembly that integrates power supply, electronics, and radiative component into a man-portable unit for situations in which a lab system is not feasible. This unit will ultimately evolve into a ruggedized package suitable for use in extreme conditions, e.g. temporary security check points or emergency response teams, in conditions where THz diagnostics are needed with minimal planning or logistical support. In order to meet design goals of reduced size and complexity, the inner workings of the unit ideally would be condensed into a monolithic active element, with ancillary systems, e.g. user interface and power, coupled to the element. To attain these goals, the fundamental component of our design is a THz source and lens array that may be fabricated with either printed circuit board or wafer substrate. To reduce the volume occupied by the source array, the design employs a metamaterial composed of a periodic lattice of resonant elements. Each resonant element is an LC oscillator, or tank circuit, with inductance, capacitance, and center frequency determined by dimensioning and material parameters. The source array and supporting electronics are designed so that the radiative elements are driven in-phase to yield THz radiation with a high degree of partial coherence. Simulation indicates that the spectral width of operation may be controlled by detuning of critical dimensions

  15. Abc-frame complex-coefficient filter and controller based current harmonic elimination strategy for three-phase grid connected inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Current quality is one of the most important issues for operating three-phase grid-connected inverter in distributed generation systems. In practice, the grid current quality is degraded in case of non-ideal utility voltage. A new control strategy is proposed for the three-phase gridconnected...... inverter. Different from the traditional method, our proposal utilizes the unique abc-frame complex-coefficient filter and controller to achieve the balanced, sinusoidal grid current. The main feature of the proposed method is simple and easy to implement without any frame transformation. The theoretical...

  16. Deployment of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria Institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deployment of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria Institutional Digital Repository. ... that repositories are very important to universities in helping them showcase, manage and capture their intellectual assets as a part of their information service strategy and contribution to universal access to knowledge and information.

  17. The Feasibility of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    65mgdouglas

    qualitative case study approach was used with the deployment of ... QFD appears to supersede most models, where it compounds the market, social ... valuable strategy by means of which to align business, industry and ... business models' adoption in the services sector, ..... quality concepts are not effectively translated into.

  18. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO 2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO 2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO 2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO 2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  19. Current strategy for treatment of patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and asymptomatic preexcitation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Dagres, Nikolaos; Dobreanu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    network, covering 20 countries answered the survey questions. All centres were high-volume ablation centres. A younger person with asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern has a higher likelihood of being risk-stratified or receiving ablation therapy compared with an older subject. Two...... of responding centres (61-69%) report that their country lack national guidelines dealing with clinical strategies related to WPW. There is a need for national guidelines dealing with clinical strategy in patients with WPW syndrome. Older individuals with asymptomatic WPW pattern have a higher risk...

  20. When Loved Ones Get Deployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different from hearing about conflicts and violence that break out in the world during our own time. If someone you care about is in the military and is deployed for duty, it's natural to worry about their safety. That's especially true if the person is going ...

  1. Non-traditional Infrasound Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, M. H.; McComas, S.; Simpson, C. P.; Diaz-Alvarez, H.; Costley, R. D.; Hayward, C.; Golden, P.; Endress, A.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, infrasound arrays have been deployed in rural environments where anthropological noise sources are limited. As interest in monitoring low energy sources at local distances grows in the infrasound community, it will be vital to understand how to monitor infrasound sources in an urban environment. Arrays deployed in urban centers have to overcome the decreased signal-to-noise ratio and reduced amount of real estate available to deploy an array. To advance the understanding of monitoring infrasound sources in urban environments, local and regional infrasound arrays were deployed on building rooftops on the campus at Southern Methodist University (SMU), and data were collected for one seasonal cycle. The data were evaluated for structural source signals (continuous-wave packets), and when a signal was identified, the back azimuth to the source was determined through frequency-wavenumber analysis. This information was used to identify hypothesized structural sources; these sources were verified through direct measurement and dynamic structural analysis modeling. In addition to the rooftop arrays, a camouflaged infrasound sensor was installed on the SMU campus and evaluated to determine its effectiveness for wind noise reduction. Permission to publish was granted by Director, Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory.

  2. SATWG networked quality function deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Don

    1992-01-01

    The initiative of this work is to develop a cooperative process for continual evolution of an integrated, time phased avionics technology plan that involves customers, technologists, developers, and managers. This will be accomplished by demonstrating a computer network technology to augment the Quality Function Deployment (QFD). All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  3. Novel management strategy for coronary steal syndrome: case report of occlusion of a LIMA graft side branch with a combination of drug-eluting and covered-stent deployment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hynes, Brian G

    2009-11-01

    We report a novel percutaneous therapeutic approach to the management of suspected coronary artery steal syndrome resulting from a large side branch of the left internal mammary artery bypass graft, using a combination of coated and drug-eluting stents. We demonstrate the feasibility and long-term efficacy of this strategy in a case report.

  4. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  5. Effects of combat deployment on risky and self-destructive behavior among active duty military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Cynthia J; Stander, Valerie A; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S

    2011-10-01

    Although research has documented negative effects of combat deployment on mental health, few studies have examined whether deployment increases risky or self-destructive behavior. The present study addressed this issue. In addition, we examined whether deployment effects on risky behavior varied depending on history of pre-deployment risky behavior, and assessed whether psychiatric conditions mediated effects of deployment on risky behavior. In an anonymous survey, active duty members of the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy (N = 2116) described their deployment experiences and their participation in risky recreational activities, unprotected sex, illegal drug use, self-injurious behavior, and suicide attempts during three time frames (civilian, military pre-deployment, and military post-deployment). Respondents also reported whether they had problems with depression, anxiety, or PTSD during the same three time frames. Results revealed that risky behavior was much more common in civilian than in military life, with personnel who had not deployed, compared to those who had deployed, reporting more risky behavior and more psychiatric problems as civilians. For the current time period, in contrast, personnel who had deployed (versus never deployed) were significantly more likely to report both risky behavior and psychiatric problems. Importantly, deployment was associated with increases in risky behavior only for personnel with a pre-deployment history of engaging in risky behavior. Although psychiatric conditions were associated with higher levels of risky behavior, psychiatric problems did not mediate associations between deployment and risky behavior. Implications for understanding effects of combat deployment on active duty personnel and directions for future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Deployment and Psychological Correlates of Suicide-Related Ideation and Behaviors for a sample of U.S. Airmen and Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    emotional stamina . Efforts to build resilience are considered within the DoD as a strategy to boost social, psychiatric, and behavioral variables that...times were you seen In sick cell during this deployment? OJ No. of times 3. Did you have to spend one or more nights In a hospital as a patient during...AFSC): Com bat specialty: 0 Female Current Contact Information: Point of Contact who can always reach you: Phone: Name: Cell : Phone

  7. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Identifying Key Environmental Concerns This is the second report in the sequence and describes the results of conceptual feasibility studies of tidal power plants deployed in Tacoma Narrows, Washington. The Narrows contain many of the same competing stakeholder interactions identified at other tidal power sites and serves as a representative case study. Tidal power remains at an early stage of development. As such, a wide range of different technologies are being pursued by different manufacturers. In order to properly characterize impacts, it is useful to characterize the range of technologies that could be deployed at the site of interest. An industry survey informs the process of selecting representative tidal power devices. The selection criteria is that such devices are at an advanced stage of development to reduce technical uncertainties and that enough data are available from the manufacturers to inform the conceptual design process of this study. Further, an attempt is made to cover the range of different technologies under development to capture variations in potential environmental effects. A number of other developers are also at an advanced stage of development including Verdant Power, which has demonstrated an array of turbines in the East River of New York, Clean Current, which has demonstrated a device off Race Rocks, BC, and OpenHydro, which has demonstrated a device at the European Marine Energy Test Center and is on the verge of deploying a larger device in the Bay of Fundy. MCT demonstrated their device both at Devon (UK) and Strangford Narrows (Northern Ireland). Furthermore OpenHydro, CleanCurrent, and MCT are the three devices being installed at the Minas Passage (Canada). Environmental effects will largely scale with the size of tidal power development. In many cases, the effects of a single device may not be measurable, while larger scale device arrays may have cumulative impacts that differ significantly from smaller scale deployments. In order to

  8. Nonspecific non-acute low back pain and psychological interventions: A review of evidence and current strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourav Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific persistent and chronic low back pain (LBP is one of the world′s most significant burdens. Its management continues to be challenging despite advancements in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. The purpose of this narrative review is to update evidence-based, multidisciplinary assessment and treatment strategies for nonspecific non-acute LBP with special emphasis on the growing influence of psychological principles in physiotherapists′ (PT practice. An electronic literature search was performed to identify relevant clinical practice guidelines, from which an overarching summary was synthesized. All guidelines were consistent in their recommendations for the assessment of psychosocial factors and psychology-based interventions. In discussion, we underlined psychological processes and psychology-based strategies that are clinically relevant to, and within the professional competency and scope of PT practice.

  9. New strategy for eliminating zero-sequence circulating current between parallel operating three-level NPC voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kai; Dong, Zhenhua; Wang, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    buses, that are operating in parallel. First, an equivalent model of ZSCC in a three-phase three-level NPC inverter paralleled system is developed. Second, on the basis of the analysis of the excitation source of ZSCCs, i.e., the difference in common mode voltages (CMVs) between paralleled inverters......, the ZCMV-PWM method is presented to reduce CMVs, and a simple electric circuit is adopted to control ZSCCs and neutral point potential. Finally, simulation and experiment are conducted to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Results show that ZSCCs between paralleled inverters can...... be eliminated effectively under steady and dynamic states. Moreover, the proposed strategy exhibits the advantage of not requiring carrier synchronization. It can be utilized in inverters with different types of filter....

  10. Intelligent quality function deployment system in concurrent engineering environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhihang; Che, Ada

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes work being undertaken in the development of an intelligent distributed quality function deployment (IDQFD) system, which supports product design team to transfer and deployment the `Voice of Customer' through `House of Quality' into the various stages of product planning, engineering and manufacturing. The requirement modeling of products, the optimization in QFD are indicated. The framework of the system, including QFD tools and platform for distributed collaborative work in QFD, is described. The strategy and methods for the collaboration processing in QFD process are presented. It shows promise for application in practice.

  11. Recombinant Endolysins as Potential Therapeutics against Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Current Status of Research and Novel Delivery Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad Kashani, Hamed; Schmelcher, Mathias; Sabzalipoor, Hamed; Seyed Hosseini, Elahe; Moniri, Rezvan

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens of humans and animals, where it frequently colonizes skin and mucosal membranes. It is of major clinical importance as a nosocomial pathogen and causative agent of a wide array of diseases. Multidrug-resistant strains have become increasingly prevalent and represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel strategies to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens are urgently needed. Bacteriophage-derived enzymes, so-called endolysins, and other peptidoglycan hydrolases with the ability to disrupt cell walls represent possible alternatives to conventional antibiotics. These lytic enzymes confer a high degree of host specificity and could potentially replace or be utilized in combination with antibiotics, with the aim to specifically treat infections caused by Gram-positive drug-resistant bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus . LysK is one of the best-characterized endolysins with activity against multiple staphylococcal species. Various approaches to further enhance the antibacterial efficacy and applicability of endolysins have been demonstrated. These approaches include the construction of recombinant endolysin derivatives and the development of novel delivery strategies for various applications, such as the production of endolysins in lactic acid bacteria and their conjugation to nanoparticles. These novel strategies are a major focus of this review. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Current Opinion on the Role of Neurogenesis in the Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer Disease, Parkinson Disease, and Ischemic Stroke; Considering Neuronal Voiding Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hoon Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and ischemic stroke have increased in occurrence and become important health issues throughout the world. There is currently no effective therapeutic strategy for addressing neurological deficits after the development of these major neurological disorders. In recent years, it has become accepted that adult neural stem cells located in the subventricular and subgranular zones have the ability to proliferate and differentiate in order to replace lost or damaged neural cells. There have been many limitations in the clinical application of both endogenous and exogenous neurogenesis for neurological disorders. However, many studies have investigated novel mechanisms in neurogenesis and have shown that these limitations can potentially be overcome with appropriate stimulation and various approaches. We will review concepts related to possible therapeutic strategies focused on the perspective of neurogenesis for the treatment of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and ischemic stroke based on current reports.

  13. Hybrid solar cells with outstanding short-circuit currents based on a room temperature soft-chemical strategy: the case of P3HT:Ag2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yan; Jia, Huimin; He, Weiwei; Zhang, Yange; Mi, Liwei; Hou, Hongwei; Zhu, Guangshan; Zheng, Zhi

    2012-10-24

    P3HT:Ag(2)S hybrid solar cells with broad absorption from the UV to NIR band were directly fabricated on ITO glass by using a room temperature, low energy consumption, and low-cost soft-chemical strategy. The resulting Ag(2)S nanosheet arrays facilitate the construction of a perfect percolation structure with organic P3HT to form ordered bulk heterojunctions (BHJ); without interface modification, the assembled P3HT:Ag(2)S device exhibits outstanding short-circuit current densities (J(sc)) around 20 mA cm(-2). At the current stage, the optimized device exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.04%.

  14. Applications of Dynamic Deployment of Services in Industrial Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, Gonçalo; Barata, José; Jammes, François; Colombo, Armando W.

    Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) is becoming a de facto paradigm for business and enterprise integration. SOA is expanding into several domains of application envisioning a unified solution suitable across all different layers of an enterprise infrastructure. The application of SOA based on open web standards can significantly enhance the interoperability and openness of those devices. By embedding a dynamical deployment service even into small field de- vices, it would be either possible to allow machine builders to place built- in services and still allow the integrator to deploy on-the-run the services that best fit his current application. This approach allows the developer to keep his own preferred development language, but still deliver a SOA- compliant application. A dynamic deployment service is envisaged as a fundamental framework to support more complex applications, reducing deployment delays, while increasing overall system agility. As use-case scenario, a dynamic deployment service was implemented over DPWS and WS-Management specifications allowing designing and programming an automation application using IEC61131 languages, and deploying these components as web services into devices.

  15. OpenFlow Deployment and Concept Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Hegr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as SDN and OpenFlow (OF are often used in the research and development of data networks. This paper deals with the analysis of the current state of OpenFlow protocol deployment options as it is the only real representative protocol that enables the implementation of Software Defined Networking outside an academic world. There is introduced an insight into the current state of the OpenFlow specification development at various levels is introduced. The possible limitations associated with this concept in conjunction with the latest version (1.3 of the specification published by ONF are also presented. In the conclusion there presented a demonstrative security application addressing the lack of IPv6 support in real network devices since most of today's switches and controllers support only OF v1.0.

  16. Advanced Deployable Structural Systems for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Straubel, Marco; Wilkie, W. Keats; Zander, Martin E.; Fernandez, Juan M.; Hillebrandt, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key challenges for small satellites is packaging and reliable deployment of structural booms and arrays used for power, communication, and scientific instruments. The lack of reliable and efficient boom and membrane deployment concepts for small satellites is addressed in this work through a collaborative project between NASA and DLR. The paper provides a state of the art overview on existing spacecraft deployable appendages, the special requirements for small satellites, and initial concepts for deployable booms and arrays needed for various small satellite applications. The goal is to enhance deployable boom predictability and ground testability, develop designs that are tolerant of manufacturing imperfections, and incorporate simple and reliable deployment systems.

  17. Role of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in current and future HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, David N; Grossman, Cynthia; Turpin, Jim; Elharrar, Vanessa; Veronese, Fulvia

    2014-12-01

    Treatment as prevention is expected to have a major role in reducing HIV incidence, but other prevention interventions will also be required to bring the epidemic under control, particularly among key populations. One or more forms of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) will likely play a critical role. Oral PrEP with emtricitabine-tenofovir (Truvada®) is currently available in the US and some other countries, but uptake has been slow. We review the concerns that have contributed to this slow uptake and discuss current and future research in this critical area of HIV prevention research.

  18. Veterinary medicinal products for the bees - the current situation and future strategies - an important topic discussed at European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Karina Draghici,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the current situation and future issues relating to health and treatment options bees, bee breeders in Europe, agencies and drug manufacturers in Europe have held several meetings. One of thesetook place last year in December at the EMEA (European Medicines Agency in London, United Kingdom. The purpose of this meeting was to consider the current situation of pathology in bees to identify the most common diseases found in this species, identification and lack of treatment options for some diseases, and identifying solutions to improve the situation.

  19. Thermal degradation chemistry of ruthenium complexes in the dye-sensitized solar cell and strategies for reducing the dark current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    on the surface of a semiconductor anode (TiO2). In my lecture, I will present and overview of our degradation investigations of the ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structure RuLL´(NCS)2 and show how detailed degradation mechanistic knowledge is important in the developing of DSC cells...... transfer from the photo anode to the mediator R+ and the oxidized dye S+ we have applied electrochemical grafting strategies to attach an electrical isolation layer of mono and multilayers of organic molecules on the TiO2 photo anode [3]....

  20. Current state of knowledge of hepatic encephalopathy (part I): newer treatment strategies for hyperammonemia in liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Rune Gangsoy

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in interorgan metabolism of ammonia play an important role in the onset of hyperammonemia in liver failure. Glutamine synthetase (GS) in muscle is an important target for ammonia removal strategies in hyperammonemia. Ornithine Phenylacetate (OP) is hypothesized to remove ammonia by providing glutamate as a substrate for increased GS activity and hence glutamine production. The newly generated glutamine conjugates with phenylacetate forming phenylacetylglutamine which can be excreted in the urine, providing an excretion pathway for ammonia. We have also shown that OP targets glycine metabolism, providing an additional ammonia reducing effect.

  1. Military service, deployments, and exposures in relation to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis etiology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John D; Kamel, Freya

    2015-01-01

    Rates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been reported to be higher among US military veterans, who currently number more than 21 million, but the causal factor(s) has not been identified. We conducted a review to examine the weight of evidence for associations between military service, deployments, and exposures and ALS etiology and survival. Thirty articles or abstracts published through 2013 were reviewed. Although the current evidence suggests a positive association with ALS etiology, it is too limited to draw firm conclusions regarding associations between military service and ALS etiology or survival. Some evidence suggests that deployment to the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War may be associated with ALS etiology, but there is currently no strong evidence that any particular military exposure is associated with ALS etiology. Future studies should address the limitations of previous ones, such as reliance on mortality as a surrogate for incidence, a dearth of survival analyses, lack of clinical data, low statistical power, and limited exposure assessment. The Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (GENEVA) Study is one such study, but additional research is needed to determine whether military-related factors are associated with ALS and to assess potential prevention strategies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Immunogenetic factors in the selection of cord blood units for transplantation: current search strategies and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geneugelijk, Kirsten; Spierings, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is currently used as a curative treatment for patients with malignant and non-malignant hematologic diseases. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching is a major determinant for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation outcome. For patients lacking a fully

  3. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method. PMID:28192436

  4. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method.

  5. Current Trends in Exercise Intervention Research, Technology, and Behavioral Change Strategies for People With Disabilities: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Byron; Young, Hui-Ju; Bickel, C Scott; Motl, Robert W; Rimmer, James H

    2017-10-01

    This review synthesized physical activity and exercise intervention literature for the past 10 yrs for people with physical and cognitive disabilities including intervention characteristics, behavior change strategies, and types of technologies used to improve targeted outcomes. Systematic searches yielded 132 eligible studies. The major disability groups were multiple sclerosis (41%), stroke (15%), and spinal cord injury (12%). Research designs primarily involved randomized controlled trials (61%) versus quasi-experimental designs (39%). Approximately 20% of the interventions used some form of the following technology: information and communication technology (48%), interactive technology (37%), or electronic gauges (30%). Eighteen percent of studies used intervention strategies based on behavioral theory, which was typically combined with technology to promote activity and increase adherence in generally larger study samples. The three prevailing theories included social cognitive theory (58%), supportive accountability theory (21%), and transtheoretical model (21%). Upon completing the intervention, studies reported primarily significant outcomes (80%). Exercise research for PWD has grown in both quantity and quality, but several gaps remain. Study findings provide a roadmap for future exercise trials on understudied populations and highlight technology and behavior change theory as drivers of future intervention research.

  6. The development and deployment of electronic personal health records records: a strategic positioning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Baxter, Ryan; Pouder, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of strategic position on the ability of an entrepreneurial firm to successfully develop and deploy electronic personal health records technology within the US healthcare industry. This study uses an in-depth longitudinal case study methodology. The study contributes by juxtaposing a longitudinal view of how the focal firm proposed and acted on different strategic positions in an attempt to achieve development and deployment success. In doing so, the study also elaborates on Porter's recognition that firms need to make trade-offs when choosing a strategic position, as the purposeful limitation of service offerings can protect against the degradation of existing value creating activities. The authors' study highlights the enormous challenge of facilitating the adoption and diffusion of technology enabled interventions in the US healthcare ecosystem. Future research that combines both interdisciplinary and multi-level investigation and analysis is sorely needed to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the phenomenon and to encourage the development and deployment of useful technology enabled interventions within the US healthcare industry. While the fragmented nature of the healthcare industry provides opportunities for entrepreneurial firms, such complexity within the ecosystem should not be underestimated as a reason for concern for small firms. Total economic burden due to chronic diseases and other healthcare-related expenses is massive for the USA. Consequently, prevention and early detection of future disease states has become a core component of the current healthcare reform debate. EPHRs are considered one core component of a broader healthcare strategy to improve health outcomes and lower costs. By deepening our understanding of how best to develop and deploy such interventions, society will surely benefit. The longitudinal nature of the authors' study provides a unique opportunity to understand the

  7. Preparing British Military nurses to deliver nursing care on deployment. An Afghanistan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; Bates, David; Ritsperis, Debra; McCourt, Kath; Thomas, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper forms part of the first British Armed forces qualitative nursing research study undertaken on deployment. To provide an analysis of the impact and effectiveness of the pre-deployment educational preparation and clinical placements provided for military nurses. A Constructivist Grounded Theory was utilised with data collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 nurses based in Camp Bastion Hospital, Afghanistan during 2013. Initial coding indicated 21 educational preparation and clinical placement categories that influenced the delivery of nursing care. Analysis of these elements led to the identification of four major clusters: Military Nursing Care; Military Nurse Education; Unique Hospital Environment and Clinical Placements. Educational preparation consists of completing deployable operational nursing competencies, specialist training and individual tailored courses. This strategy was viewed as proving the appropriate academic requirement. However, training would be enhanced by introducing a formalised military preceptorship programme focussing on fundamental nursing skills. Caring for children was a particular concern, and it was emphasised that educational courses must be combined with a standardised clinical placement policy. Adequate clinical exposure can be challenging as nurses are not routinely exposed to War Zone levels of trauma in the UK. Clinical placements need to be standardised and harmonised, and located in areas where nurses cared for patients with similar injury patterns to those witnessed on deployment. Current NHS Trust placements can reduce the opportunities for employment in suitable clinical environments and diminishing the openings for collective military training. Better use should be made of clinical rotation programmes, including high dependency units, elective surgery, medical assessment units, paediatrics, and outreach teams such as burns and plastic surgery and pain management. Practice Educators should be utilised

  8. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Amjad, Zahra; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Gholampour, Akbar; Norouz, Prviz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of

  9. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghipour, Hassan, E-mail: hteir@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amjad, Zahra [Student Research Committee, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari [Medical Education Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholampour, Akbar [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouz, Prviz [Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of

  10. Control Strategies for Islanded Microgrid using Enhanced Hierarchical Control Structure with Multiple Current-Loop Damping Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Shen, Pan; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the modeling, controller design, and stability analysis of the islanded microgrid (MG) using enhanced hierarchical control structure with multiple current loop damping schemes is proposed. The islanded MG is consisted of the parallel-connected voltage source inverters using LCL...... output filters, and the proposed control structure includes: the primary control with additional phase-shift loop, the secondary control for voltage amplitude and frequency restoration, the virtual impedance loops which contains virtual positive- and negative-sequence impedance loops at fundamental...... frequency, and virtual variable harmonic impedance loop at harmonic frequencies, and the inner voltage and current loop controllers. A small-signal model for the primary and secondary controls with additional phase-shift loop is presented, which shows an over-damped feature from eigenvalue analysis...

  11. Engineering change management report 2012: Survey results on causes and effects, current practice, problems, and strategies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes

    Engineering changes (ECs) are well known for generating additional costs and decreasing de-velopment efficiency. Yet, they are a fundamental part of product and service development and they are necessary to keep up with, for example, competitors, market trends or new technolo-gies. The effective...... management of engineering changes is a crucial precondition for Brazilian companies to successfully compete not only on the fast growing Brazilian market, but also on the world market which becomes more interesting due to the rising industrial power of Brazil. To achieve improvements in engineering change...... management practice, industry and universities need to work together. In this report the main findings of our study on Engineering Change Management (ECM) in Brazilian companies are presented, which indicate possible solution strategies and further research needs. Our survey aimed on the investigation...

  12. Hybrid Microsupercapacitors with Vertically Scaled 3D Current Collectors Fabricated using a Simple Cut-and-Transfer Strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Qiu

    2016-09-08

    By employing 3D current collectors, hybrid coplanar microsupercapacitors are fabricated. These devices show excellent energy density of 200 μW h cm−2 compared to the state-of-the-art microsupercapacitors (1–40 μW h cm−2), and superior power density (4.4 mW cm−2) compared to thin film batteries and microbatteries at comparable energy density.

  13. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: some strategies for improving current conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Amjad, Zahra; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Gholampour, Akbar; Norouz, Prviz

    2014-07-01

    From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products' useful life, a proportion of ARF (for example, 50%) can be refunded. On the other hand, the government and Environmental Protection Agency should support and encourage recycling companies of CFLs both technically and financially in the first place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hybrid Microsupercapacitors with Vertically Scaled 3D Current Collectors Fabricated using a Simple Cut-and-Transfer Strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Qiu; Kurra, Narendra; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    By employing 3D current collectors, hybrid coplanar microsupercapacitors are fabricated. These devices show excellent energy density of 200 μW h cm−2 compared to the state-of-the-art microsupercapacitors (1–40 μW h cm−2), and superior power density (4.4 mW cm−2) compared to thin film batteries and microbatteries at comparable energy density.

  15. [Strategies to ensure careers of young academics in plastic surgery - analysis of the current situation and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, R E; Vogt, P M; Schaller, H E; Stark, G B; Lehnhardt, M; Kneser, U; Giunta, R E

    2013-08-01

    Recruitment problems in surgical disciplines have become an increasingly debated topic. On the one hand current career prospects appear to be less attractive than those were seen for the previous generation. On the other hand the demands for a so-called "work-life balance" have changed and the proportion of female students and colleagues in medicine has risen and will continue to increase. Although Plastic Surgery currently seems to be less affected by these problems than other surgical disciplines, securing a qualified supply of young academics in Plastic Surgery is a prerequisite for the further development of this discipline. The traditional model of mentoring is discussed and the role of coaching in a sense of helping the mentorees examine what they are doing in the light of their intentions and goals is reflected. The present article tries to analyze the current status of academic Plastic Surgery from the viewpoint of German university senior surgeons in academic plastic surgery, and aims to highlight the specific prospects for young academics against the backdrop of an often one-sided and superficial perception of this profession. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Efficient Deployment of Key Nodes for Optimal Coverage of Industrial Mobile Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Li, Di; Dong, Zhijie; Hu, Yage; Liu, Chengliang

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, industrial wireless networks (IWNs) have been transformed by the introduction of mobile nodes, and they now offer increased extensibility, mobility, and flexibility. Nevertheless, mobile nodes pose efficiency and reliability challenges. Efficient node deployment and management of channel interference directly affect network system performance, particularly for key node placement in clustered wireless networks. This study analyzes this system model, considering both industrial properties of wireless networks and their mobility. Then, static and mobile node coverage problems are unified and simplified to target coverage problems. We propose a novel strategy for the deployment of clustered heads in grouped industrial mobile wireless networks (IMWNs) based on the improved maximal clique model and the iterative computation of new candidate cluster head positions. The maximal cliques are obtained via a double-layer Tabu search. Each cluster head updates its new position via an improved virtual force while moving with full coverage to find the minimal inter-cluster interference. Finally, we develop a simulation environment. The simulation results, based on a performance comparison, show the efficacy of the proposed strategies and their superiority over current approaches. PMID:29439439

  17. Efficient Deployment of Key Nodes for Optimal Coverage of Industrial Mobile Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Li, Di; Dong, Zhijie; Hu, Yage; Liu, Chengliang

    2018-02-10

    In recent years, industrial wireless networks (IWNs) have been transformed by the introduction of mobile nodes, and they now offer increased extensibility, mobility, and flexibility. Nevertheless, mobile nodes pose efficiency and reliability challenges. Efficient node deployment and management of channel interference directly affect network system performance, particularly for key node placement in clustered wireless networks. This study analyzes this system model, considering both industrial properties of wireless networks and their mobility. Then, static and mobile node coverage problems are unified and simplified to target coverage problems. We propose a novel strategy for the deployment of clustered heads in grouped industrial mobile wireless networks (IMWNs) based on the improved maximal clique model and the iterative computation of new candidate cluster head positions. The maximal cliques are obtained via a double-layer Tabu search. Each cluster head updates its new position via an improved virtual force while moving with full coverage to find the minimal inter-cluster interference. Finally, we develop a simulation environment. The simulation results, based on a performance comparison, show the efficacy of the proposed strategies and their superiority over current approaches.

  18. Deploying anaerobic digesters: Current status and future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France); Wheeler, P. [ETSU (United Kingdom); Rivard, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Unmanaged pollutants from putrescible farm, industrial, and municipal wastes degrade in the environment, and methane emitted from their decomposition may contribute to global climate change. Under modern environmental regulations, these wastes are becoming difficult to dispose of using traditional means. One waste management system, anaerobic digestion or AD, not only provides pollution prevention but can also convert a disposal problem into a new profit center. This report is drawn from a special session of the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Facilitating ICN deployment with an extended open flow protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuraniewski, P.W.; Adrichem, N.L.M. van; Ravesteijn, D.; IJntema, W.; Papadopoulos, C.; Fan, C.

    2017-01-01

    Named-Data Networking (NDN) is proposed as an approach to evolve the Internet infrastructure from a host- to an informationcentric (ICN) approach, which is better suited to the current usage of the Internet. However, the deployment of a global NDN-based Internet is still a long way out of reach. The

  20. SU-F-J-39: Dose Reduction Strategy Using Attenuation-Based Tube Current Modulation Method in CBCT for IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, K; Lee, H; Kim, C; Cho, S [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J [Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To reduce radiation dose to the patients, tube current modulation (TCM) method has been actively used in diagnostic CT systems. However, TCM method has not yet been applied to a kV-CBCT system on a LINAC machine. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the use of TCM method is desirable in kV-CBCT system for IGRT. We have developed an attenuation-based tube current modulation (a-TCM) method using the prior knowledge of treatment CT image of a patient. Methods: Patients go through a diagnostic CT scan for RT planning; therefore, using this prior information of CT images, one can estimate the total attenuation of an x-ray through the patient body in a CBCT setting for radiation therapy. We performed a numerical study incorporating major factors into account such as polychromatic x-ray, scatter, noise, and bow-tie filter to demonstrate that a-TCM method can produce equivalent quality of images at reduced imaging radiation doses. Using the CT projector program, 680 projection images of the pediatric XCAT phantom were obtained both in conventional scanning condition, i.e., without modulating the tube current, and in the proposed a-TCM scanning condition. FDK reconstruction algorithm was used for image reconstruction, and the organ dose due to imaging radiation has been calculated in both cases and compared using GATE/Geant4 simulation toolkit. Results: Reconstructed CT images in the a-TCM method showed similar SSIM values and noise properties to the reference images acquired by the conventional CBCT. In addition, reduction of organ doses ranged from 12% to 27%. Conclusion: We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility and dosimetric merit of the a-TCM method for kV-CBCT, and envision that it can be a useful option of CBCT scanning that provides patient dose reduction without degrading image quality.

  1. District heating and cogeneration in the EU-28: Current situation, potential and proposed energy strategy for its generalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rosales-Asensio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yearly, EU-28 conventional thermal generating plants reject a greater amount of energy than what ultimately is utilised by residential and commercial loads for heating and hot water. If this waste heat were to be used through district heating networks, given a previous energy valorisation, there would be a noticeable decrease in imported fossil fuels for heating. As a consequence, benefits in the form of an energy efficiency increase, an energy security improvement, and a minimisation of emitted greenhouse gases would occur. Given that it is not expected for heat demand to decrease significantly in the medium term, district heating networks show the greatest potential for the development of cogeneration. However, to make this happen, some barriers that are far from being technological but are mostly institutional and financial need to be removed. The purpose of this review is to provide information on the potential of using waste heat from conventional thermal power plants (subsequently converted into cogeneration plants in district heating networks located in the EU-28. For this, a preliminary assessment is conducted in order to show an estimate of the cost of adopting an energy strategy in which district heating networks are a major player of the energy mix. From this assessment, it is possible to see that even though the energy strategy proposed in this paper, which is based on a dramatic increase in the joint use of district heating networks and cogeneration, is capital-intensive and would require an annual investment of roughly 300 billion euros, its adoption would result in a reduction of yearly fuel expenses in the order of 100 billion euros and a shortening of about 15% of the total final energy consumption, which makes it of paramount interest as an enabler of the legal basis of the “Secure, Clean and Efficient Energy” future enacted by the EU-28 Horizon 2020.

  2. Development of Digital Hysteresis Current Control with PLL Loop Gain Compensation Strategy for PWM Inverters with Constant Switching Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Belhaouchet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis current control is one of the simplest techniques used to control the magnitude and phase angle of motor current for motor drives systems. However, this technique presents several disadvantages such as operation at variable switching frequency which can reveal problems of filtering, interference between the phases in the case of the three-phase systems with insulated neutral connection or delta connection, and irregularity of the modulation pulses which especially causes an acoustic noise on the level of the machine for the high power drive. In this paper, a new technique is proposed for a variable-hysteresis-band controller based on dead beat control applied to three phase voltage source PWM inverters feeding AC motors. Its main aim is firstly ensure a constant switching frequency and secondly the synchronization of modulation pulses using the phase-locked-loop with loop gain compensation in order to ensure a better stability. The behavior of the proposed technique is verified by simulation.

  3. Occupational hand injuries: a current review of the prevalence and proposed prevention strategies for physical therapists and similar healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyer, Giles; Michael, Jimmy; Inklebarger, James

    2018-03-01

    Hand injury is the second most common work-related musculoskeletal injury among physical therapists (PTs) and other manual therapy professionals such as osteopaths, physiotherapists, chiropractors, acupuncturists and massage therapists. However, the nature and extent of this problem have not been fully explored yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to review the existing literature published on the prevalence, risk factors, consequences, and prevention of hand injuries among PTs and similar healthcare professionals. The lifetime prevalence of hand injuries was about 15%-46%, and the annual prevalence was reported as 5%-30%. Thumb injuries were found to be the most prevalent of all injuries, accounting more than 50% of all hand-related problems. The most significant risk factors for job-related hand injuries were performing manual therapy techniques, repetitive workloads, treating many patients per day, continued work while injured or hurt, weakness of the thumb muscles, thumb hypermobility, and instability at the thumb joints. PTs reported modifying treatment technique, taking time off on sick leave, seeking intervention, shifting the specialty area, and decreasing patient contact hours as the major consequences of these injuries. The authors recommend that PTs should develop specific preventive strategies and put more emphasis on the use of aids and equipment to reduce the risk of an unnecessary injury. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diffuse low-grade glioma: a review on the new molecular classification, natural history and current management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-López, P D; Corrales-García, E M; Martino, J; Lastra-Aras, E; Dueñas-Polo, M T

    2017-08-01

    The management of diffuse supratentorial WHO grade II glioma remains a challenge because of the infiltrative nature of the tumor, which precludes curative therapy after total or even supratotal resection. When possible, functional-guided resection is the preferred initial treatment. Total and subtotal resections correlate with increased overall survival. High-risk patients (age >40, partial resection), especially IDH-mutated and 1p19q-codeleted oligodendroglial lesions, benefit from surgery plus adjuvant chemoradiation. Under the new 2016 WHO brain tumor classification, which now incorporates molecular parameters, all diffusely infiltrating gliomas are grouped together since they share specific genetic mutations and prognostic factors. Although low-grade gliomas cannot be regarded as benign tumors, large observational studies have shown that median survival can actually be doubled if an early, aggressive, multi-stage and personalized therapy is applied, as compared to prior wait-and-see policy series. Patients need an honest long-term therapeutic strategy that should ideally anticipate neurological, cognitive and histopathologic worsening.

  5. Industry Perspectives on Advanced Inverters for U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Systems. Grid Benefits, Deployment Challenges, and Emerging Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Edge, Ryan [Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    To clarify current utility strategies and other considerations related to advanced inverter deployment, we interviewed 20 representatives from 11 leading organizations closely involved with advanced inverter pilot testing, protocols, and implementation. Included were representatives from seven utilities, a regional transmission operator, an inverter manufacturer, a leading solar developer, and a consortium for grid codes and standards. Interview data represent geographically the advanced inverter activities identified in SEPA's prior survey results--most interviewed utilities serve California, Arizona, and Hawaii, though we also interviewed others from the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast.

  6. Exploring the post-deployment reintegration experiences of veterans with PTSD and their significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytes, I Magaly; LeLaurin, Jennifer H; Zickmund, Susan L; Resende, Rosana D; Uphold, Constance R

    2017-01-01

    Veterans with family support have better functional recovery and reintegration outcomes. However, families' ability to support the veteran with PTSD's rehabilitation and reintegration oftentimes is hindered by interpersonal challenges. We report findings of a qualitative study that examined OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD/TBI and their significant others' (SOs') perceptions of family functioning. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews with 12 veteran/SO dyads using an adapted version of the Family Assessment Device Structured Interview. Descriptive qualitative analytic methods were used to analyze the data. Data show that the impact of deployment and the resulting changes in the individuals and the family dynamics lingered years after the veterans returned home and had a lasting influence on veterans' and SOs' perceptions of family functioning. Most couples acknowledged growth in their relationships several years postdeployment. However, many continued to struggle with disruptions generated by deployment. Four themes emerged from the data: individual changes, coping strategies, relationship changes, and a "new normal." Postdeployment family functioning was influenced by a dynamic interplay of individual and relationship factors and the development of coping strategies and a new normal. This study contributes to the understanding of the prolonged postdeployment family reintegration experiences of veterans and their SOs. Findings underscore the importance of continuing to advance the current knowledge base about the long-term impact of deployment on veterans and their families, especially factors that contribute to positive postdeployment family functioning. Additional empirical studies are needed to provide more in-depth understanding of the long-term postdeployment reintegration experiences of veterans and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  8. Supporting Knowledge Transfer in IS Deployment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönström, Mikael

    To deploy new information systems is an expensive and complex task, and does seldom result in successful usage where the system adds strategic value to the firm (e.g. Sharma et al. 2003). It has been argued that innovation diffusion is a knowledge integration problem (Newell et al. 2000). Knowledge about business processes, deployment processes, information systems and technology are needed in a large-scale deployment of a corporate IS. These deployments can therefore to a large extent be argued to be a knowledge management (KM) problem. An effective deployment requires that knowledge about the system is effectively transferred to the target organization (Ko et al. 2005).

  9. Multi-centre European study of breakthrough cancer pain: pain characteristics and patient perceptions of current and potential management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Andersen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study involved 320 cancer patients from four Northern European countries. Patients with breakthrough pain were questioned about the characteristics of their pain, the current management of their pain, and the acceptability/utility of alternative routes of administration. The median number...... of episodes was 3/day. Forty-four percent patients reported incident-type pain, 39% spontaneous-type pain, and 17% a combination of these pains. The median duration was 60 min, and the median time to peak intensity was 15 min. Three percent patients reported "mild" pain, 37% "moderate" pain, and 60% "severe......" pain. Ninety percent patients stated that the pain interfered with their daily activities. All patients were using opioids as rescue medication (mainly oral morphine/oxycodone), whilst 28% patients were using non-opioids, and 50% patients were using non-pharmacological interventions. Only 55% patients...

  10. Decentralized energy management strategy based on predictive controllers for a medium voltage direct current photovoltaic electric vehicle charging station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreglosa, Juan P.; García-Triviño, Pablo; Fernández-Ramirez, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electric vehicle charging station supplied by photovoltaic, batteries and grid connection is analyzed. • The bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system by decentralized approach. • Decentralized control approach facilities the enlargement of the system. • Photovoltaic and battery systems are controlled by model predictive controllers. • Response by model predictive controllers improves that by PI controllers. - Abstract: The use of distributed charging stations based on renewable energy sources for electric vehicles has increased in recent years. Combining photovoltaic solar energy and batteries as energy storage system, directly tied into a medium voltage direct current bus, and with the grid support, results to be an interesting option for improving the operation and efficiency of electric vehicle charging stations. In this paper, an electric vehicle charging station supplied by photovoltaic solar panels, batteries and with grid connection is analysed and evaluated. A decentralized energy management system is developed for regulating the energy flow among the photovoltaic system, the battery and the grid in order to achieve the efficient charging of electric vehicles. The medium voltage direct current bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system. The battery is controlled by a model predictive controller in order to keep the bus voltage at its reference value. Depending on the state-of-charge of the battery and the bus voltage, the photovoltaic system can work at maximum power point tracking mode or at bus voltage sustaining mode, or even the grid support can be needed. The results demonstrate the proper operation and energy management of the electric vehicle charging station under study.

  11. Scientific data management challenges, technology and deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Rotem, Doron

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with the volume, complexity, and diversity of data currently being generated by scientific experiments and simulations often causes scientists to waste productive time. Scientific Data Management: Challenges, Technology, and Deployment describes cutting-edge technologies and solutions for managing and analyzing vast amounts of data, helping scientists focus on their scientific goals. The book begins with coverage of efficient storage systems, discussing how to write and read large volumes of data without slowing the simulation, analysis, or visualization processes. It then focuses on the efficient data movement and management of storage spaces and explores emerging database systems for scientific data. The book also addresses how to best organize data for analysis purposes, how to effectively conduct searches over large datasets, how to successfully automate multistep scientific process workflows, and how to automatically collect metadata and lineage information. This book provides a comprehensive u...

  12. Silver nanowires as the current collector for a flexible in-plane micro-supercapacitor via a one-step, mask-free patterning strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lang; Li, Han-Yu; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue

    2018-02-01

    The fabrication of a current collector-contained in-plane micro-supercapacitor (MSC) usually requires the patterning of the current collector first and then subsequent patterning of the active material with the assistance of a photoresist and mask. However, this two-step patterning process is too complicated and the photoresist used is harmful to the properties of nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate a one-step, mask-free strategy to pattern the current collector and the active material at the same time, for the fabrication of an all-solid-state flexible in-plane MSC. Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are used as the current collector. An atmospheric pressure pulsed cold micro-plasma-jet is used to realize the one-step, mask-free production of interdigitated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/AgNW electrodes. Remarkably, the fabricated MWCNT/AgNW-based MSC shows good flexibility and excellent rate capability. Moreover, the performance of properties including cyclic stability, equivalent series resistance, relaxation time and energy/power densities of the MWCNT/AgNW-based MSC are significantly enhanced by the presence of the AgNW current collector.

  13. Current strategies for monitoring men with localised prostate cancer lack a strong evidence base: observational longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, C; Tilling, K; Davis, M; Lane, J A; Martin, R M; Kynaston, H; Powell, P; Neal, D E; Hamdy, F; Donovan, J L

    2009-08-04

    The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends conservative management of men with 'low-risk' localised prostate cancer, monitoring the disease using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and re-biopsy. However, there is little evidence of the changes in PSA level that should alert to the need for clinical re-assessment. This study compares the alerts resulting from PSA kinetics and a novel longitudinal reference range approach, which incorporates age-related changes, during the monitoring of 408 men with localised prostate cancer. Men were monitored by regular PSA tests over a mean of 2.9 years, recording when a man's PSA doubling time fell below 2 years, PSA velocity exceeded 2 ng ml(-1) per year, or when his upper 10% reference range was exceeded. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time and PSA velocity alerted a high proportion of men initially but became unresponsive to changes with successive tests. Calculating doubling time using recent PSA measurements reduced the decline in response. The reference range method maintained responsiveness to changes in PSA level throughout the monitoring. The increasing unresponsiveness of PSA kinetics is a consequence of the underlying regression model. Novel methods are needed for evaluation in cohorts currently being managed by monitoring. Meanwhile, the NICE guidance should be cautious.

  14. A study on current status of KAERI's international cooperation programs and strategies for effective implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Park, Chun Kab; Noh, In Young; Kim, Young Min

    1998-12-01

    This is a report on the status and analysis of standard agreement for technical cooperation, expert mission service and technical staff attachment. This report comprises a total of six chapters. Chapter II discusses the status of the technical cooperation agreement which took effect late 1998, and various other model agreements for technical cooperation. Chapter III provides information on the status, regulations, procedures for the expert mission service, and Chapter IV details the current status of the technical staff attachment and the related procedures. Chapter V deals with the utilization status and analysis of the English Counselor, and Chapter VI is the Conclusion. This report has tow objectives. First, we have never published reference books related to standard agreement for technical cooperation, expert mission service and technical staff attachment necessary for international joint research until now. As a result, the research divisions have often asked many questions to the office of international cooperation. Therefore, we expect that many difficulties will be removed and procedures simplified if the research divisions use this report as a reference book. Second, we plan to use this report reference book for policy decisions after establishing the database. (author). 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  15. Mold spoilage of bread and its biopreservation: A review of current strategies for bread shelf life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Claudia; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-11-02

    Microbial spoilage of bread and the consequent waste problem causes large economic losses for both the bakery industry and the consumer. Furthermore the presence of mycotoxins due to fungal contamination in cereals and cereal products remains a significant issue. The use of conventional chemical preservatives has several drawbacks, necessitating the development of clean-label alternatives. In this review, we describe current research aiming to extend the shelf life of bread through the use of more consumer friendly and ecologically sustainable preservation techniques as alternatives to chemical additives. Studies on the in situ-production/-expression of antifungal compounds are presented, with special attention given to recent developments over the past decade. Sourdough fermented with antifungal strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is an area of increasing focus and serves as a high-potential biological ingredient to produce gluten-containing and gluten-free breads with improved nutritional value, quality and safety due to shelf-life extension, and is in-line with consumer's demands for more products containing less additives. Other alternative biopreservation techniques include the utilization of antifungal peptides, ethanol and plant extracts. These can be added to bread formulations or incorporated in antimicrobial films for active packaging (AP) of bread. This review outlines recent progress that has been made in the area of bread biopreservation and future perspectives in this important area.

  16. Military Children’s Perceptions of Parents’ Frequent Missile Base Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP); Defense Medical Research & Development Program (DMRDP): NIH; Congressionally Directed Medical Research ...Medics - Mission Ready- Patient Focused +Past and Current Research +Parent Reported + Quantitative vs. Qualitative +Combat vs. Peacetime Deployments...Base Deployments presented at/published to TSNRP Research /EBP Dissemination Course, Ellicott City, MD, 25-26 April 2017 in accordance with MDWI 41

  17. Quantifying and Understanding Effects from Wildlife, Radar, and Public Engagement on Future Wind Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2017-05-24

    This presentation provides an overview of findings from a report published in 2016 by researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, An Initial Evaluation of Siting Considerations on Current and Future Wind Deployment. The presentation covers the background for research, the Energy Department's Wind Vision, research methods, siting considerations, the wind project deployment process, and costs associated with siting considerations.

  18. The Long War and Parental Combat Deployment: Effects on Military Children and At-Home Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Peterson, Kris; Reeves, James; Knauss, Larry; Glover, Dorie; Mogil, Catherine; Duan, Naihua; Saltzman, William; Pynoos, Robert; Wilt, Katherine; Beardslee, William

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the growing number of military service members with families and the multiple combat deployments characterizing current war time duties, the impact of deployments on military children requires clarification. Behavioral and emotional adjustment problems were examined in children (aged 6 through 12) of an active duty Army or Marine…

  19. Perceptions of Individual and Family Functioning Among Deployed Female National Guard Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Cheng, An-Lin; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    Females currently make up 15% of U.S. military service members. Minimal attention has been paid to families of female National Guard members who have been deployed and their subsequent reintegration challenges. This cross-sectional Internet-based survey of female members of four National Guard units compared those who were and were not deployed. Instruments, guided by the variables of the Family Resilience Model, measured individual, family, and deployment-related factors. Bivariate analysis and ordinal logistic regression were done to assess differences between the groups. Of the 239 National Guard members surveyed, deployed women (n = 164) had significantly higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; p family functioning were higher among deployed when compared with never deployed women. Results indicate community interventions that focus on strengthening coping skills of female Guard members would be useful for this population. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Management and disposal of alpha-contaminated wastes. A survey of current practices, strategies and R and D activities in some EC countries and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannone, F.

    1983-01-01

    In view of the rationalization of radwaste treatment, conditioning and storage procedures so far applied at the Ispra Establishment, a survey of alpha-waste management practices and strategies currently in use or under development in some EC countries and in the USA has been carried out. In considering radwastes arising at nuclear research centres and nuclear plants, the most importance has been attached here to their alpha- rather than to their beta- or gamma-contamination degree. Various process technologiques currently practised for pre-treatment, conditioning, storage and/or disposal of alpha-waste at several European nuclear centres and plants, as well as at some US DOE laboratories, have been scrutinized, including also process operations aimed at recovering Pu, both for economical and ecological reasons. The present alpha-waste management and disposal scenario has been completed by the survey of research, development and demonstration work underway in Europe and in the USA in this field. Finally, national organizations, policies and strategies for radwastes management and disposal have been briefly outlined. As main source of information, the proceeding of several technical seminars, symposia, meetings and conferences, individually and jointly organized by the NEA (OECD), IAEA, CEC and published during about the last 20 years have been utilized. This report is intended to give the necessary background for the critical review of waste management practices so far applied at the Ispra Establisment, as well as for their possible modifications according to more up-to-date management schemes

  1. Current challenges of Germany’s energy transition project and competing strategies of challengers and incumbents: The case of direct marketing of electricity from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassermann, Sandra; Reeg, Matthias; Nienhaus, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generated by renewable energies (RES-E) already accounts for 25% of Germany’s electricity supply. This has led to recent discussions for a better market integration of RES-E. The paper examines how competing actors and their ideas on market integration developed new services for direct marketing according to their respective origins and tried to shape the regulatory framework. The paper analyses this process and explains the current shape of the field of direct marketing. Medium-sized structured actors, who favoured RES-E integration via the conventional wholesale power markets, and who formed early close coalitions with RES-E power producers at the same time, have been most successful in terms of market shares. Moreover, they have been very successful for different reasons in building-up coalitions with governance units and influencing the field rules and routines. Based on those findings, the paper will conclude with some policy advices for the future adjustment of the current regulative frameworks. As long as there is no evidence of how RES-E can be integrated most effectively and efficiently, policies should maintain a competition between different direct marketing strategies to find out which strategies serve the best in terms of achieving a successful energy transition. - Highlights: • Innovation sociological analysis of the market integration of electricity from renewables in the German electricity markets. • Direct marketing of RES-E seen as a new strategic action field in the German “Energiewende”. • Strategies of incumbent and challenger actors to shape the rules of the field. • Suggestions for the future design of policy instruments for direct marketing of RES-E

  2. Control strategy minimizing the converter-alternating current motor losses: application to electric traction; Strategies de commande minimisant les pertes d'un ensemble convertisseur - machine alternative: application a la traction electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiani, Ph.

    2001-02-01

    Improving the efficiency of the converter-alternating current motor system is a major task in electric traction. Global energy optimisation implies a specific approach at system scale. To reach this goal, we have chosen an algebraic method using sub-system models. To start with, a synchronous machine Park model is developed to take account magnetic saturation and iron losses. Then, an averaged model of the voltage inverter is used in order to obtain a simplified model of the losses to be implemented in our optimisation method. This is how the global model is built including losses in the synchronous machine along with the losses of the power converter. Experimental results are there to validate our approach. This study proposes a method based on algebraic formulation of the general laws to control torque. Algorithms take into account magnetic circuits saturation and power losses in both the machine and its converter. Here again, experimental results validate the algorithm on several test benches. Achieved efficiency improvement is important compared to existing usual control strategies. The proposed method can be generalised to other machine-converter systems. As a matter of fact we have extended our study to the induction machine. As a complement ti this study we have looked at the effects natural limitations of voltages and currents in the torque-speed plane. Therefore algebraic formulation of the torque-speed plane and optimisation strategies are proposed including those constraints. (author)

  3. Energy storage deployment and innovation for the clean energy transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittner, Noah; Lill, Felix; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2017-09-01

    The clean energy transition requires a co-evolution of innovation, investment, and deployment strategies for emerging energy storage technologies. A deeply decarbonized energy system research platform needs materials science advances in battery technology to overcome the intermittency challenges of wind and solar electricity. Simultaneously, policies designed to build market growth and innovation in battery storage may complement cost reductions across a suite of clean energy technologies. Further integration of R&D and deployment of new storage technologies paves a clear route toward cost-effective low-carbon electricity. Here we analyse deployment and innovation using a two-factor model that integrates the value of investment in materials innovation and technology deployment over time from an empirical dataset covering battery storage technology. Complementary advances in battery storage are of utmost importance to decarbonization alongside improvements in renewable electricity sources. We find and chart a viable path to dispatchable US$1 W-1 solar with US$100 kWh-1 battery storage that enables combinations of solar, wind, and storage to compete directly with fossil-based electricity options.

  4. Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Response rate for Wave 8 = 88% Our final sample contained 554 men and 556 women (n = 554 cross- sex couples, 1 same- sex couple). Individuals were...story in the Killeen Daily Herald (10 April 2016) http://kdhnews.com/news/local/ kids -deployments-when-a-parent-deploys-children-face- tough...years old), and (c) “Me getting sick and having to go to sick call.” (deployed Army husband, 25 years old). Sex and fidelity. Comments fell into

  5. Security Support in Continuous Deployment Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Faheem; Raft, Adam Johannes; Shahin, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Deployment (CD) has emerged as a new practice in the software industry to continuously and automatically deploy software changes into production. Continuous Deployment Pipeline (CDP) supports CD practice by transferring the changes from the repository to production. Since most of the CDP...... penetration tools. Our findings indicate that the applied tactics improve the security of the major components (i.e., repository, continuous integration server, main server) of a CDP by controlling access to the components and establishing secure connections....

  6. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protective systems (TPS) panels to...

  7. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protection system (TPS) panels to...

  8. Economic assessment of strategies to deploy publicly accessible charging infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Madina, Carlos; Barlag, Heike; Coppola, Giovanni; Gómez-Arriola, Inés; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Raúl; Zabala, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    From the end user perspective, the main barriers for widespread electric vehicle (EV) adoption are high purchase cost and range anxiety, both regarding battery capacity and availability of accessible EV charging infrastructure. Governments and public bodies in general are taking steps towards overcoming these barriers by, among others, setting up regulatory requirements regarding standardisation, customer information and recommending objectives of publicly accessible charging infrastructure. ...

  9. Current strategies for mobilome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tue Sparholt Jørgensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile genetic elements (MGE are pivotal for bacterial evolution and adaptation, allowing shuffling of genes even between distantly related bacterial species. The study of MGEs is biologically interesting as the mode of genetic propagation is kaleidoscopic and important, as MGEs are the main vehicles of the increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance that causes thousands of human deaths each year. The study of MGEs has previously focused on plasmids from individual isolates, but the revolution in sequencing technology has allowed the study of mobile genomic elements of entire communities using metagenomic approaches. The problem in using metagenomic sequencing for the study of MGEs is that plasmids and other mobile elements only comprise a small fraction of the total genetic content that are difficult to separate from chromosomal DNA based on sequence alone. Several different approaches have been proposed that specifically enrich plasmid DNA from community samples. Here, we review recent approaches used to study entire plasmid pools from complex environments, and point out possible future developments for and pitfalls of these approaches. Further, we discuss the use of the PacBio long-read sequencing technology for MGE discovery.

  10. Current strategies for mobilome research

    OpenAIRE

    J?rgensen, Tue S.; Kiil, Anne S.; Hansen, Martin A.; S?rensen, S?ren J.; Hansen, Lars H.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are pivotal for bacterial evolution and adaptation, allowing shuffling of genes even between distantly related bacterial species. The study of these elements is biologically interesting as the mode of genetic propagation is kaleidoscopic and important, as MGEs are the main vehicles of the increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance that causes thousands of human deaths each year. The study of MGEs has previously focused on plasmids from individual isolates, but the...

  11. Current strategies for mobilome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Tue S; Kiil, Anne S; Hansen, Martin A; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H

    2014-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are pivotal for bacterial evolution and adaptation, allowing shuffling of genes even between distantly related bacterial species. The study of these elements is biologically interesting as the mode of genetic propagation is kaleidoscopic and important, as MGEs are the main vehicles of the increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance that causes thousands of human deaths each year. The study of MGEs has previously focused on plasmids from individual isolates, but the revolution in sequencing technology has allowed the study of mobile genomic elements of entire communities using metagenomic approaches. The problem in using metagenomic sequencing for the study of MGEs is that plasmids and other mobile elements only comprise a small fraction of the total genetic content that are difficult to separate from chromosomal DNA based on sequence alone. The distinction between plasmid and chromosome is important as the mobility and regulation of genes largely depend on their genetic context. Several different approaches have been proposed that specifically enrich plasmid DNA from community samples. Here, we review recent approaches used to study entire plasmid pools from complex environments, and point out possible future developments for and pitfalls of these approaches. Further, we discuss the use of the PacBio long-read sequencing technology for MGE discovery.

  12. Stochastic Optimization for Nuclear Facility Deployment Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ross Daniel

    Single-use, low-enriched uranium oxide fuel, consumed through several cycles in a light-water reactor (LWR) before being disposed, has become the dominant source of commercial-scale nuclear electric generation in the United States and throughout the world. However, it is not without its drawbacks and is not the only potential nuclear fuel cycle available. Numerous alternative fuel cycles have been proposed at various times which, through the use of different reactor and recycling technologies, offer to counteract many of the perceived shortcomings with regards to waste management, resource utilization, and proliferation resistance. However, due to the varying maturity levels of these technologies, the complicated material flow feedback interactions their use would require, and the large capital investments in the current technology, one should not deploy these advanced designs without first investigating the potential costs and benefits of so doing. As the interactions among these systems can be complicated, and the ways in which they may be deployed are many, the application of automated numerical optimization to the simulation of the fuel cycle could potentially be of great benefit to researchers and interested policy planners. To investigate the potential of these methods, a computational program has been developed that applies a parallel, multi-objective simulated annealing algorithm to a computational optimization problem defined by a library of relevant objective functions applied to the Ver ifiable Fuel Cycle Simulati on Model (VISION, developed at the Idaho National Laboratory). The VISION model, when given a specified fuel cycle deployment scenario, computes the numbers and types of, and construction, operation, and utilization schedules for, the nuclear facilities required to meet a predetermined electric power demand function. Additionally, it calculates the location and composition of the nuclear fuels within the fuel cycle, from initial mining through

  13. Secondary influences and ectopic causes of canine hip dysplasia. Critical constructive thoughts to hip dysplasia diagnostics and to current breeding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schawalder, P.; Spreng, D.; Dietschi, E.; Dolf, G.; Gaillard, C.

    1996-01-01

    This article questions the stagnation of breeding results by hip dysplasia screening and its current etiology. The ''Coxa Valga Antetorta'', anteversion of the hip joint and ''soft tissue displasia'' are discussed besides a multitude of primary diseases leading to growth deformities and other diseases in the hip. Ectopic primary causes like malformation of the spine leading to a secondary ''dysplatic'' osteoarthritis of the hip (functional secondary dysplasia) are also discussed in this article. Recent and very promising breeding strategies (estimation of the breeding value) in the battle against hip dysplasia are presented. Biochemical, immunological and structural aspects are presented as a not totally utopic perspecitive. Molecular genetic markers for hip dysplasia will offer in the near future a possibility to detect carriers ct the disease by a blood sample ion before clinical manifestation

  14. Matching of heavy-light flavour currents between HQET at order 1/m and QCD. I. Strategy and tree-level study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Morte, Michele [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular IFIC (CSIC), Paterna (Spain); Dooling, Samantha; Heitger, Jochen [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Hesse, Dirk [Parma Univ. degli Studi (Italy); Simma, Hubert [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We present a strategy how to match the full set of components of the heavy-light axial and vector currents in Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET), up to and including 1/m{sub h}-corrections, to QCD. While the ultimate goal is to apply these matching conditions non-perturbatively, in this study we first have implemented them at tree-level, in order to find good choices of the matching observables with small O(1/m{sup 2}{sub h}) contributions. They can later be employed in the non-perturbative matching procedure which is a crucial part of precision HQET computations of semileptonic decay form factors in lattice QCD.

  15. Amoeba-related health risk in drinking water systems: could monitoring of amoebae be a complementary approach to current quality control strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codony, Francesc; Pérez, Leonardo Martín; Adrados, Bárbara; Agustí, Gemma; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Morató, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Culture-based methods for fecal indicator microorganisms are the standard protocol to assess potential health risk from drinking water systems. However, these traditional fecal indicators are inappropriate surrogates for disinfection-resistant fecal pathogens and the indigenous pathogens that grow in drinking water systems. There is now a range of molecular-based methods, such as quantitative PCR, which allow detection of a variety of pathogens and alternative indicators. Hence, in addition to targeting total Escherichia coli (i.e., dead and alive) for the detection of fecal pollution, various amoebae may be suitable to indicate the potential presence of pathogenic amoeba-resisting microorganisms, such as Legionellae. Therefore, monitoring amoeba levels by quantitative PCR could be a useful tool for directly and indirectly evaluating health risk and could also be a complementary approach to current microbial quality control strategies for drinking water systems.

  16. The deployment of routing protocols in distributed control plane of SDN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies.

  17. The Deployment of Routing Protocols in Distributed Control Plane of SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Software defined network (SDN provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo’s two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform. Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies.

  18. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program phase 1, concept of operations (ConOps) - New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the New York City Department of Transportation (NYC) Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment (CVPD) Project. This ConOps describes the current state of operations, establishes the reasons for ...

  19. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: Utilization of Oral Medicine-specific software for support of clinical care, research, and education: current status and strategy for broader implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Firriolo, Francis John; Tanaka, Takako Imai; Varoni, Elena; Sykes, Rosemary; McCullough, Michael; Hua, Hong; Sklavounou, Alexandra; Jensen, Siri Beier; Lockhart, Peter B; Mattsson, Ulf; Jontell, Mats

    2015-08-01

    To assess the current scope and status of Oral Medicine-specific software (OMSS) utilized to support clinical care, research, and education in Oral Medicine and to propose a strategy for broader implementation of OMSS within the global Oral Medicine community. An invitation letter explaining the objectives was sent to the global Oral Medicine community. Respondents were interviewed to obtain information about different aspects of OMSS functionality. Ten OMSS tools were identified. Four were being used for clinical care, one was being used for research, two were being used for education, and three were multipurpose. Clinical software was being utilized as databases developed to integrate of different type of clinical information. Research software was designed to facilitate multicenter research. Educational software represented interactive, case-orientated technology designed for clinical training in Oral Medicine. Easy access to patient data was the most commonly reported advantage. Difficulty of use and poor integration with other software was the most commonly reported disadvantage. The OMSS presented in this paper demonstrate how information technology (IT) can have an impact on the quality of patient care, research, and education in the field of Oral Medicine. A strategy for broader implementation of OMSS is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Designing a total data solution technology, implementation, and deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Burkey, Roxanne

    2000-01-01

    Your company's global competitiveness depends on the utilization and maintenance of information. Current data handling practices-storing, updating, and accessing data-can be either a problem or a significant strategic advantage for your company. Designing a Total Data Storage Solution: Technology, Implementation, and Deployment gives you the information you need to compare current technologies and determine which is best suited to your enterprise.This book defines and explains the components that make up total cost of ownership along with the impact of integrating current changes in technology

  1. Neutral beam deployment on DEMO and its influence on design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrey, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.surrey@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); King, Damian; Lister, Jonathan; Porton, Michael; Timmis, William; Ward, David [EURATOM/CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The demands on the neutral beam heating and current drive system of a DEMO device exceed those of existing fusion experiments by several orders of magnitude. By predicting possible power waveforms it is possible to analyse the technological advances necessary to achieve a system relevant to deployment on a power plant. Achieving the necessary efficiency will require simultaneous improvements in beam current density, neutralization efficiency and beam transmission. Considering the deployment on the tokamak vessel shows no major disruption to the tritium breeder blanket and no requirement to reach a high packing density of injectors. The thermal management of components subjected to low heat flux for many hours is considered and it is shown that radiation cooling can be exploited to control the temperature of such items.

  2. Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    reintegration. Communication and Generalized Anxiety The emotional cycle of deployment model provides a descrip- tive framework for understanding the...counseling. Thus, communication can have a reciprocal influence on the very appraisals and emotions that motivate interaction in the first place. Communication...of service members back into family life after deployment can be extremely challenging for military couples. Understanding the factors that

  3. CoalFleet for tomorrow. An industry initiative to accelerate the deployment of advanced coal-based generation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J. [Electric Power Research Institute (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The industry initiative 'CoalFleet for tomorrow' was launched in November 2004 to accelerate the deployment and commercialization of clean, efficient, advanced coal power systems. This paper discusses the structure of CoalFleet and its strategy for reducing the cost, leadtime and risk of deploying advanced coal technologies such as combined-cycle power plants. 6 figs.

  4. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  5. Light Duty Utility Arm deployment in Tank WM-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) was successfully deployed in Tank WM-188 during February and March of 1999 at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Some equipment problems were identified, but most were indicative of any first time activity. Deployment during cold weather imposed additional equipment risks, but in general, equipment response to the winter conditions was better than expected. Three end effectors were demonstrated during the deployment. All performed as expected, although the limited resolution of the Alternating Current Field Measurement end effector cannot absolutely confirm tank integrity, which is necessary for future tank inspections. Four heel samples were taken with the sampler end effector and a broad spectrum of analyses were performed. A detailed inspection of the tank interior was performed with the High Resolution Stereo Video System end effector. The sample information is proving invaluable to the development of new treatment flowsheets and waste forms. It is expected that the LDUA will be deployed for tank inspections through the next several years to support other Notice of Non-Compliance (NON) Consent Order requirements and several other ongoing initiatives

  6. Light Duty Utility Arm deployment in Tank WM-188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M.W.

    1999-12-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) was successfully deployed in Tank WM-188 during February and March of 1999 at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Some equipment problems were identified, but most were indicative of any first time activity. Deployment during cold weather imposed additional equipment risks, but in general, equipment response to the winter conditions was better than expected. Three end effectors were demonstrated during the deployment. All performed as expected, although the limited resolution of the Alternating Current Field Measurement end effector cannot absolutely confirm tank integrity, which is necessary for future tank inspections. Four heel samples were taken with the sampler end effector and a broad spectrum of analyses were performed. A detailed inspection of the tank interior was performed with the High Resolution Stereo Video System end effector. The sample information is proving invaluable to the development of new treatment flowsheets and waste forms. It is expected that the LDUA will be deployed for tank inspections through the next several years to support other Notice of Non-Compliance (NON) Consent Order requirements and several other ongoing initiatives.

  7. Light Duty Utility Arm Deployment in Tank WM-188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Michael W

    2000-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) was successfully deployed in Tank WM-188 during February and March of 1999 at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Some equipment problems were identified, but most were indicative of any first time activity. Deployment during cold weather imposed additional equipment risks, but in general, equipment response to the winter conditions was better than expected. Three end effectors were demonstrated during the deployment. All performed as expected, although the limited resolution of the Alternating Current Field Measurement end effector cannot absolutely confirm tank integrity, which is necessary for future tank inspections. Four heel samples were taken with the sampler end effector and a broad spectrum of analyses were performed. A detailed inspection of the tank interior was performed with the High Resolution Stereo Video System end effector. The sample information is proving invaluable to the development of new treatment flowsheets and waste forms. It is expected that the LDUA will be deployed for tank inspections through the next several years to support other Notice of NonCompliance (NON) Consent Order requirements and several other ongoing initiatives.

  8. Relationships between soldiers' PTSD symptoms and spousal communication during deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard

    2011-06-01

    Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT AS A STRATEGIC PLANNING TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    DEVRİM İÇTENBAŞ, Burcu; ERYILMAZ, Hande

    2011-01-01

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) uses a house of quality to translate customer requirements into engineering specifications. QFD has been widely used as a tool to develop new products. It has been adopted in the fields of education quality, service quality, software development and marketing planning. The tool has recently been applied in strategic planning .In this study authors reviewed current research which uses QFD as a strategic planning tool and described how QFD methods can be ...

  10. Japanese FR Deployment Scenario Study after the Fukushima Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki; Ohtaki, Akira; Mukaida, Kyoko; Abe, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: • The results revealed a need for the implementation of reprocessing and development of FR from the view point of reducing waste, etc. in the medium to long term. • JAEA’s contribution to international cooperation and standardization focusing on the enhancement of safety and reduction of the radioactive waste burden will be increasingly important in current situation. • JAEA intend to continue to build and propose FR deployment scenarios and identify their characteristics

  11. A Novel Sensorless Control Strategy for Brushless Direct Current Motor Based on the Estimation of Line Back Electro-Motive Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengde Tong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel sensorless control strategy based on the estimation of line back electro-motive force (BEMF is proposed. According to the phase relationship between the ideal commutation points of the brushless direct current motor (BLDCM and the zero-crossing points (ZCPs of the line BEMF, the calculation formula of line BEMF is simplified properly and the commutation rule for different positions of the rotor is presented. The estimation error of line BEMF caused by the freewheeling current of silent phase is analyzed, and the solution is given. With the phase shift of the low-pass filter considered, a compensation method using “60°-α” and “120°-α” is studied in this paper to eliminate the error. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that the rotor-position-detection error is reduced effectively and the motor driven by the accurate commutation signal can work well at low and high speed.

  12. Deploying Renewables -- principles for effective policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-29

    Renewable energy can play a fundamental role in tackling climate change, environmental degradation and energy security. As these challenges have become ever more pressing, governments and markets are seeking innovative solutions. Yet, what are the key factors that will determine the success of renewable energy policies? How can current policies be improved to encourage greater deployment of renewables? What impact can more effective policies have on renewables' share in the future global energy mix and how soon? This publication addresses these questions. Responding to the Gleneagles G8 call for a clean and secure energy future, it highlights key policy tools to fast-track renewables into the mainstream. This analysis illustrates good practices by applying the combined metrics of effectiveness and efficiency to renewable energy policies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors. It highlights significant barriers to accelerating renewables penetration, and argues that the great potential of renewables can be exploited much more rapidly and to a much larger extent if good practices are adopted. Carefully designed policy frameworks, customised to support technologies at differing stages of maturity, will deliver a strong portfolio of renewable energy technologies. The document provides recommendations on key principles for policy design as a template for decision makers.

  13. New technologies deployment for advanced power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyoshi, Yamauchi

    2007-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been the total engineering and manufacturing company of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in Japan since the commencement of commercial operations of Mihama Unit 1 of the Kansai Electric Power Company in 1970. Over these decades, MHI has endeavored to develop a broad spread of nuclear technology, from design, manufacturing, and construction, to plant maintenance services. More recently, with the ever rising need for nuclear power generation around the world to prevent global warming and to cope with surging oil prices, MHI is striving to expand its nuclear power business in the world market, such as US-APWR (Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor) in the U.S., as well as to develop technology for advanced reactors and nuclear fuel cycles to ensure energy security in the future. This paper introduces these approaches, especially focused on new technologies deployment for the global needs, and clarifies the current status and future prospects of MHI as the world's leading nuclear company. (author)

  14. Quality function deployment in launch operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, P. L.; Tomei, E. J., Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The goal of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a more efficient launch capability that provides a highly reliable and operable system at substantially lower cost than current launch systems. Total Quality Management (TQM) principles are being emphasized throughout the ALS program. A continuous improvement philosophy is directed toward satisfying users' and customer's requirements in terms of quality, performance, schedule, and cost. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is interpreted as the voice of the customer (or user), and it is an important planning tool in translating these requirements throughout the whole process of design, development, manufacture, and operations. This report explores the application of QFD methodology to launch operations, including the modification and addition of events (operations planning) in the engineering development cycle, and presents an informal status of study results to date. QFD is a technique for systematically analyzing the customer's (Space Command) perceptions of what constitutes a highly reliable and operable system and functionally breaking down those attributes to identify the critical characteristics that determine an efficient launch system capability. In applying the principle of QFD, a series of matrices or charts are developed with emphasis on the one commonly known as the House of Quality (because of its roof-like format), which identifies and translates the most critical information.

  15. Rover deployment system for lunar landing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Masataku; Hoshino, Takeshi; Wakabayashi, Sachiko

    2017-09-01

    For lunar surface exploration, a deployment system is necessary to allow a rover to leave the lander. The system should be as lightweight as possible and stored retracted when launched. In this paper, two types of retractable deployment systems for lunar landing missions, telescopic- and fold-type ramps, are discussed. In the telescopic-type system, a ramp is stored with the sections overlapping and slides out during deployment. In the fold-type system, it is stored folded and unfolds for the deployment. For the development of these ramps, a design concept study and structural analysis were conducted first. Subsequently, ramp deployment and rover release tests were performed using the developed ramp prototypes. Through these tests, the validity of their design concepts and functions have been confirmed. In the rover release test, it was observed that the developed lightweight ramp was sufficiently strong for a 50-kg rover to descend. This result suggests that this ramp system is suitable for the deployment of a 300-kg-class rover on the Moon, where the gravity is about one-sixth that on Earth. The lightweight and sturdy ramp developed in this study will contribute to both safe rover deployment and increase of lander/rover payload.

  16. Scalable and fail-safe deployment of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system Rucio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, M.; Vigne, R.; Beermann, T.; Barisits, M.; Garonne, V.; Serfon, C.

    2015-12-01

    This contribution details the deployment of Rucio, the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system. The main complication is that Rucio interacts with a wide variety of external services, and connects globally distributed data centres under different technological and administrative control, at an unprecedented data volume. It is therefore not possible to create a duplicate instance of Rucio for testing or integration. Every software upgrade or configuration change is thus potentially disruptive and requires fail-safe software and automatic error recovery. Rucio uses a three-layer scaling and mitigation strategy based on quasi-realtime monitoring. This strategy mainly employs independent stateless services, automatic failover, and service migration. The technologies used for deployment and mitigation include OpenStack, Puppet, Graphite, HAProxy and Apache. In this contribution, the interplay between these components, their deployment, software mitigation, and the monitoring strategy are discussed.

  17. Scalable and fail-safe deployment of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system Rucio

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario; The ATLAS collaboration; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Garonne, Vincent; Serfon, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    This contribution details the deployment of Rucio, the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system. The main complication is that Rucio interacts with a wide variety of external services, and connects globally distributed data centres under different technological and administrative control, at an unprecedented data volume. It is therefore not possibly to create a duplicate instance of Rucio for testing or integration. Every software upgrade or configuration change is thus potentially disruptive and requires fail-safe software and automatic error recovery. Rucio uses a three-layer scaling and mitigation strategy based on quasi-realtime monitoring. This strategy mainly employs independent stateless services, automatic failover, and service migration. The technologies used for deployment and mitigation include OpenStack, Puppet, Graphite, HAProxy and Apache. In this contribution, the interplay between these component, their deployment, software mitigation, and the monitoring strategy are discussed.

  18. Histological Diagnoses of Military Personnel Undergoing Lung Biopsy After Deployment to Southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Cristian S; Lewin-Smith, Michael R; Franks, Teri J; Harley, Russell A; Klaric, John S; Morris, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    The current understanding of associations between lung disease and military deployment to Southwest Asia, including Iraq and Afghanistan, is both controversial and limited. We sought to clarify the relation between military deployment and biopsy-proven lung disease. Retrospective data were analyzed for military personnel with non-neoplastic lung biopsies evaluated at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology or Joint Pathology Center (January 2005 to December 2012). Of 391 subjects, 137 (35.0%) had deployed to Southwest Asia prior to biopsy. Compared to non-deployed subjects, those deployed were younger (median age 37 vs. 51 years) with higher representation of African Americans (30.0 vs. 16.9%). Deployed patients were more likely diagnosed with non-necrotizing granulomas (OR 2.4). Non-deployed subjects had higher frequency of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, particularly organizing pneumonia. Prevalence of small airways diseases including constrictive bronchiolitis was low. This study provides a broader understanding of diversity of biopsy-proven non-neoplastic lung disease as it relates to military deployment to Southwest Asia and importantly did not show an increased prevalence of small airway disease to include constrictive bronchiolitis.

  19. Work stressors, depressive symptoms and sleep quality among US Navy members: a parallel process latent growth modelling approach across deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Kelley, Michelle L; Swinkels, Cindy M; Ulmer, Christi S

    2017-11-03

    The present study examined whether work stressors contribute to sleep problems and depressive symptoms over the course of deployment (i.e. pre-deployment, post-deployment and 6-month reintegration) among US Navy members. Specifically, we examined whether depressive symptoms or sleep quality mediate the relationships between work stressors and these outcomes. Participants were 101 US Navy members who experienced an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Using piecewise latent growth models, we found that increased work stressors were linked to increased depressive symptoms and decreased sleep quality across all three deployment stages. Further, increases in work stressors from pre- to post-deployment contributed to poorer sleep quality post-deployment via increasing depressive symptoms. Moreover, sleep quality mediated the association between increases in work stressors and increases in depressive symptoms from pre- to post-deployment. These effects were maintained from post-deployment through the 6-month reintegration. Although preliminary, our results suggest that changes in work stressors may have small, but significant implications for both depressive symptoms and quality of sleep over time, and a bi-directional relationship persists between sleep quality and depression across deployment. Strategies that target both stress and sleep could address both precipitating and perpetuating factors that affect sleep and depressive symptoms. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Reactor Technology Options Study for Near-Term Deployment of GNEP Grid-Appropriate Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, Daniel T [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to significantly increase over the coming decades. The International Energy Agency projects that electricity demand will increase 50% by 2015 and double by 2030, with most of the increase coming in developing countries as they experience double-digit rates of economic growth and seek to improve their standards of living. Energy is the necessary driver for human development, and the demand for energy in these countries will be met using whatever production technologies are available. Recognizing this inevitable energy demand and its implications for the United States, the U.S. National Security Strategy has proposed the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to work with other nations to develop and deploy advanced nuclear recycling and reactor technologies. This initiative will help provide reliable, emission-free energy with less of the waste burden of older technologies and without making available separated plutonium that could be used by rogue states or terrorists for nuclear weapons. These new technologies will make possible a dramatic expansion of safe, clean nuclear energy to help meet the growing global energy demand. In other words, GNEP seeks to create an international regime to support large-scale growth in the worldwide use of nuclear energy without increasing the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. This global expansion of nuclear power is strategically important to the United States for several reasons, including the following: (1) National security, by reducing the competition and potential for conflict over increasingly scarce fossil energy resources; (2) Economic security, by helping maintain stable prices for nonrenewable resources such as oil, gas, and coal; (3) Environmental security, by replacing or off-setting large-scale burning of greenhouse gas-emitting fuels for electricity production; and (4) Regaining technical leadership, through deployment of innovative U.S. technology-based reactors. Fully meeting

  1. Reactor Technology Options Study for Near-Term Deployment of GNEP Grid-Appropriate Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, Daniel T.; Poore, Willis P. III

    2007-01-01

    World energy demand is projected to significantly increase over the coming decades. The International Energy Agency projects that electricity demand will increase 50% by 2015 and double by 2030, with most of the increase coming in developing countries as they experience double-digit rates of economic growth and seek to improve their standards of living. Energy is the necessary driver for human development, and the demand for energy in these countries will be met using whatever production technologies are available. Recognizing this inevitable energy demand and its implications for the United States, the U.S. National Security Strategy has proposed the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to work with other nations to develop and deploy advanced nuclear recycling and reactor technologies. This initiative will help provide reliable, emission-free energy with less of the waste burden of older technologies and without making available separated plutonium that could be used by rogue states or terrorists for nuclear weapons. These new technologies will make possible a dramatic expansion of safe, clean nuclear energy to help meet the growing global energy demand. In other words, GNEP seeks to create an international regime to support large-scale growth in the worldwide use of nuclear energy without increasing the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. This global expansion of nuclear power is strategically important to the United States for several reasons, including the following: (1) National security, by reducing the competition and potential for conflict over increasingly scarce fossil energy resources; (2) Economic security, by helping maintain stable prices for nonrenewable resources such as oil, gas, and coal; (3) Environmental security, by replacing or off-setting large-scale burning of greenhouse gas-emitting fuels for electricity production; and (4) Regaining technical leadership, through deployment of innovative U.S. technology-based reactors. Fully meeting

  2. A regulations’ survey for the wireless telecommunications deployment in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gustavo Morales-Guarín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the current wireless telecommunications infrastructure deployment regulations in Colombia. It also refers to the possible effects that this infrastructure could cause to the country`s health and environment. similarly, the results obtained show a comparison between the Argentina’s current regulations, one of the most relevant researches carried out and the Colombian case. finally, some recommendations are proposed that can be considered in the project of regulations applicable in Colombia for the ensuring purpose that the non-ionizing radiation generated by wireless communications systems do not have effects on health and the environment.

  3. Forward Deployed Naval Forces in the Republic of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    French prior to World War II. The United States has also stationed naval forces in areas that were previously colonized such as the Philippines after the...Forward Deployed Naval Forces is not a new concept or strategy. In fact, it was utilized by other nations such as the British and French prior to World...the west, to the Cook Islands in the east, and from Russia in the north, to New Zealand in the south The region covers an area from Mongolia in the

  4. Quality Function Deployment – QFD As a Strategic Marketing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeninng Abrantes dos Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Quality Function Deployment (QFD is a structured method that aims to convert the needs and desires of customers in product quality characteristics. From its origins, more than forty years ago, it has been applied in various organizations in product development and improvement of existing products. This paper aims to show how QFD can be used as a strategic marketing tool. The research method is qualitative with bibliographical research. The results indicate that the use of the attributes of the "House of Quality" in the various sales stages is a market differentiation strategy and a wide applicability of QFD in marketing, transcending the boundaries of product design and production areas.

  5. On the VPP and current administrative strategies of US OSHA; Beikoku OSHA ni okeru jishuteki anzen eisei kanri program (VPP) oyobi saikin no seisaku doko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanayasu, S [Research Inst. of Industrial Safety, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-15

    This paper describes VPP (Voluntary Protection Programs) and current administrative strategies of US Department of Labor, OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). Although VPP is conducted by the Federal Government or the state governments with original VPP, it is properly a voluntary program in which entrepreneurs independently participate. OSHA inspects the content and execution condition of every program based on a VPP standard, and after certifying a business establishment satisfying the standard as excellent one, OSHA excludes it from inspection objects for a certain period. After such a period, reinspection and renewal are repeated. This system is derived from that a voluntary program proposed by constructor of Calif. in 1978 was markedly effective to protect workers from damages. Safety and health problem includes various keywords such as internationalization, new technology, risk assessment, process control, self responsibility, information opening, and diverse policies. Although uniform regal safety and health measures are important, promotion and establishment of activities by workers and entrepreneurs themselves in a field are also important. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Current strategies for the diagnosis and management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, with a focus on poor-risk CLL: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Mc Clanahan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial advancement in the understanding and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, a standard curative approach does not exist. The choice of treatment is generally based on the existence of biological and genetic factors associated with the prediction of prognosis, individual response to therapy, and duration of remission. About 20% of patients that require treatment have an aggressive disease course and die within a few years, despite early initiation of intensive therapy (poor-risk CLL. Poor-risk CLL can be predicted by the presence of genomic markers, and the quality and duration of response to purine-analogue-based treatment. Within this patient subgroup alternative treatment approaches such as alemtuzumab or new substances such as flavopiridol or IMiDs® should be considered. To date, the only treatment bearing curative potential is allogeneic stem cell transplantation; in contrast to conventional immunochemotherapy, it can provide long-term disease control, even in patients with del 17p or other unfavorable biological and clinical risk factors. The aim of this review was to outline the current strategies for the diagnosis and management of CLL, with a focus on high-risk CLL.

  7. Current strategies for the diagnosis and management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with a focus on poor-risk CLL: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanahan, Fabienne Mc; Dreger, Peter

    2011-06-05

    Despite substantial advancement in the understanding and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a standard curative approach does not exist. The choice of treatment is generally based on the existence of biological and genetic factors associated with the prediction of prognosis, individual response to therapy, and duration of remission. About 20% of patients that require treatment have an aggressive disease course and die within a few years, despite early initiation of intensive therapy (poor-risk CLL). Poor-risk CLL can be predicted by the presence of genomic markers, and the quality and duration of response to purine-analogue-based treatment. Within this patient subgroup alternative treatment approaches such as alemtuzumab or new substances such as flavopiridol or IMiDs® should be considered. To date, the only treatment bearing curative potential is allogeneic stem cell transplantation; in contrast to conventional immunochemotherapy, it can provide long-term disease control, even in patients with del 17p or other unfavorable biological and clinical risk factors. The aim of this review was to outline the current strategies for the diagnosis and management of CLL, with a focus on high-risk CLL.

  8. Cost-effectiveness in the management of Dupuytren's contracture. A Canadian cost-utility analysis of current and future management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, H; Binhammer, P A

    2013-08-01

    In Canada, Dupuytren's contracture is managed with partial fasciectomy or percutaneous needle aponeurotomy (PNA). Injectable collagenase will soon be available. The optimal management of Dupuytren's contracture is controversial and trade-offs exist between the different methods. Using a cost-utility analysis approach, our aim was to identify the most cost-effective form of treatment for managing Dupuytren's contracture it and the threshold at which collagenase is cost-effective. We developed an expected-value decision analysis model for Dupuytren's contracture affecting a single finger, comparing the cost-effectiveness of fasciectomy, aponeurotomy and collagenase from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness, one-way sensitivity and variability analyses were performed using standard thresholds for cost effective treatment ($50 000 to $100 000/QALY gained). Percutaneous needle aponeurotomy was the preferred strategy for managing contractures affecting a single finger. The cost-effectiveness of primary aponeurotomy improved when repeated to treat recurrence. Fasciectomy was not cost-effective. Collagenase was cost-effective relative to and preferred over aponeurotomy at $875 and $470 per course of treatment, respectively. In summary, our model supports the trend towards non-surgical interventions for managing Dupuytren's contracture affecting a single finger. Injectable collagenase will only be feasible in our publicly funded healthcare system if it costs significantly less than current United States pricing.

  9. A randomised controlled trial evaluating IGF1 titration in contrast to current GH dosing strategies in children born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with a GH dose based on body size, but treatment may lead to high levels of IGF1. The objective was to evaluate IGF1 titration of GH dose in contrast to current dosing strategies. METHODS: In the North European Small......-for-Gestational-Age Study (NESGAS), 92 short pre-pubertal children born SGA were randomised after 1 year of high-dose GH treatment (67 μg/kg per day) to three different regimens: high dose (67 μg/kg per day), low dose (35 μg/kg per day) or IGF1 titration. RESULTS: The average dose during the second year of the randomised...... trial did not differ between the IGF1 titration group (38 μg/kg per day, s.d. 0.019) and the low-dose group (35 μg/kg per day, s.d. 0.002; P=0.46), but there was a wide variation in the IGF1 titration group (range 10-80 μg/kg per day). The IGF1 titration group had significantly lower height gain (0...

  10. Project implementation plan: ASTD remote deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CRASS, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the project implementation plan for the ASTD Remote Deployment Project. The Plan identifies the roles and responsibilities for the project and defines the integration between the ASTD Project and the B-Cell Cleanout Project

  11. Office of Civilian Response Deployment Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The purpose of OCR DTS is to establish, manage and track relevant Civilian Response Corps teams for deployment by sector experience, training, education etc.

  12. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  13. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. These...

  14. Small cell networks deployment, management, and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Claussen, Holger; Ho, Lester; Razavi, Rouzbeh; Kucera, Stepan

    2018-01-01

    Small Cell Networks: Deployment, Management, and Optimization addresses key problems of the cellular network evolution towards HetNets. It focuses on the latest developments in heterogeneous and small cell networks, as well as their deployment, operation, and maintenance. It also covers the full spectrum of the topic, from academic, research, and business to the practice of HetNets in a coherent manner. Additionally, it provides complete and practical guidelines to vendors and operators interested in deploying small cells. The first comprehensive book written by well-known researchers and engineers from Nokia Bell Labs, Small Cell Networks begins with an introduction to the subject--offering chapters on capacity scaling and key requirements of future networks. It then moves on to sections on coverage and capacity optimization, and interference management. From there, the book covers mobility management, energy efficiency, and small cell deployment, ending with a section devoted to future trends and applicat...

  15. Community integration after deployment to Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the years following military deployment, soldiers may experience problems integrating into the community. However, little is known about the nature and prevalence of these problems and if they relate to posttraumatic symptomatology. METHODS: In a prospective, longitudinal study...

  16. Deploying Missile Defense: Major Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M

    2004-01-01

    By October 2004, the United States will have begun initial deployment of a missile defense capability albeit a modest, limited, and not completely proven one to defend the homeland against a limited...

  17. Deployable structures for a human lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Petra; Häuplik, Sandra; Imhof, Barbara; Özdemir, Kürsad; Waclavicek, Rene; Perino, Maria Antoinetta

    2007-06-01

    The study Lunar exploration architecture—deployable structures for a lunar base was performed within the Alcatel Alenia Space “Lunar Exploration Architecture” study for the European Space Agency. The purpose of the study was to investigate bionic concepts applicable to deployable structures and to interpret the findings for possible implementation concepts. The study aimed at finding innovative solutions for deployment possibilities. Translating folding/unfolding principles from nature, candidate geometries were developed and researched using models, drawings and visualisations. The use of materials, joints between structural elements and construction details were investigated for these conceptual approaches. Reference scenarios were used to identify the technical and environmental conditions, which served as design drivers. Mechanical issues and the investigation of deployment processes narrowed the selection down to six chosen concepts. Their applicability was evaluated at a conceptual stage in relation to the timescale of the mission.

  18. Military Families: Child Care Support During Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... temporary caregiver far in advance will make your children feel more secure. Try to have the caregiver connect prior to deployment through visits, phone calls, or social media. If you will be relocating to a family ...

  19. Concept of Deployable Network Operations Center (DNOC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bordetsky, Alex; Thiry, Jeff; Johnson, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    .... The increasing use of expeditionary and special operations forces in ad hoc, dynamic, and tactical environments poses a need for an adaptable, flexible, and responsive deployable network operations center (DNOC...

  20. In-Flight Suppressant Deployment Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Donald

    2006-01-01

    .... An assessment is made of the model output versus some aircraft measurement data, fire suppressant boiling point criterion, as well as the history of altitude/temperature at which fire suppressants have been deployed...