Sabin, Matthew A; Kiess, Wieland
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over the last fifty years by approximately 5% per decade, and approximately a quarter of all children are now either overweight or obese. These children have a significantly increased risk of many future health problems including adult obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Despite this relentless increase, common-sense approaches aimed at prevention and treatment have failed to solve the problem. Current approaches at prevention have faced major challenges with some progress in implementing smaller scale programs and social marketing, but little action on broad public policy approaches which often appears unpalatable to society or individual governments. Meanwhile, treatment approaches have mainly focused on lifestyle change, and novel approaches are urgently needed. Prevention needs to shift to improving maternal health prior to conception, with more research focussed on the impact of early years in programming offspring to future overweight/obesity. Likewise, treatment paradigms need to move from simply thinking that obesity can be solved by readdressing diet and activity levels. Novel approaches are needed which take into consideration the complex physiology which regulates early childhood growth and the development of obesity in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The early origins of overweight and obesity and the opportunities for early prevention are explored. Overweight and obesity prevalence globally has increased at an alarming rate. No single intervention can halt the rise of the obesity epidemic. Particular attention is given to exploring causative factors and preventive measures in early life, when biological determinants of risk trajectories, feeding behaviour and dietary preferences are shaped. Some lifestyle and nutrition modifications in pregnancy and infancy can reduce subsequent obesity risk. Also postnatal infant gut colonisation may modify later obesity risk, but currently available evidence does not allow firm conclusions. Surprisingly, about 3.2 times more systematic reviews (SR) than randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were published on "probiotics" and health, and even 7.9 times more SR than RCTs on "probiotics" and obesity, which is not helpful. Multiple research opportunities exist for exploring the early origins of obesity to contribute towards halting the rise in obesity prevalence. Exploring the early development of the microbiome in its complexity, its dependence on dietary and other exogenous factors, and its metabolic and regulatory functions is promising. Meaningful progress for obesity prevention can most likely be achieved by combining several strategies.
Paes, Santiago Tavares; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza
To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. A search was performed in Pubmed/Medline and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies have found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of the effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. Regardless of type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in combating obesity. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Blüher, S; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Graf, C; Grünewald-Funk, D; Widhalm, K; Korsten-Reck, U; Markert, J; Güssfeld, C; Müller, M J; Moss, A; Wabitsch, M; Wiegand, S
Current guidelines for the prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence are presented. A literature search was performed in Medline via PubMed, and appropriate studies were analysed. Programs to prevent childhood obesity were to date mainly school-based. Effects were limited to date. Analyses tailored to different age groups show that prevention programs have the best effects in younger children (adolescence, school-based interventions were most effective when adolescents were directly addressed. To date, obesity prevention programs have mainly focused on behavior oriented prevention. Recommendations for condition oriented prevention have been suggested by the German Alliance of Non-communicable Diseases and include one hour of physical activity at school, promotion of healthy food choices by taxing unhealthy foods, mandatory quality standards for meals at kindergarten and schools as well as a ban on unhealthy food advertisement addressing children. Behavior oriented prevention programs showed hardly any or only limited effects in the long term. Certain risk groups for the development of obesity are not reached effectively by available programs. Due to the heterogeneity of available studies, universally valid conclusions cannot be drawn. The combination with condition oriented prevention, which has to counteract on an obesogenic environment, is crucial for sustainable success of future obesity prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith
Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...
Sabin, M A; Shield, J P H
The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase worldwide. Its presence is associated with significant adverse effects on health including an increased propensity to type II diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disease. In the vast majority of children, obesity is lifestyle-related, yet there is a dearth of evidence on how to best develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. This review outlines the importance of childhood and adolescent growth on long-term health, the definitions used to define obesity in children (along with up-to-date prevalence data), causes and consequences, and aspects of prevention and management.
Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M
Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.
US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...
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... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...
Grow, H. Mollie; Fernandez, Cristina; Lukasiewicz, Gloria J.; Rhodes, Erinn T.; Shaffer, Laura A.; Sweeney, Brooke; Woolford, Susan J.; Estrada, Elizabeth
Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes have increased in prevalence among overweight and obese children, with significant implications for long-term health. There is little published evidence on the best approaches to care of prediabetes among overweight youth or the current practices used across pediatric weight management programs. Methods: This article reviews the literature and summarizes current practices for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of prediabetes at childhood obesity treatment centers. Findings regarding current practice were based on responses to an online survey from 28 pediatric weight management programs at 25 children's hospitals in 2012. Based on the literature reviewed, and empiric data, consensus support statements on prediabetes care and T2DM prevention were developed among representatives of these 25 children's hospitals' obesity clinics. Results: The evidence reviewed demonstrates that current T2DM and prediabetes diagnostic parameters are derived from adult-based studies with little understanding of clinical outcomes among youth. Very limited evidence exists on preventing progression of prediabetes. Some evidence suggests that a significant proportion of obese youth with prediabetes will revert to normoglycemia without pharmacological management. Evidence supports lifestyle modification for children with prediabetes, but further study of specific lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatments is needed. Conclusion: Evidence to guide management of prediabetes in children is limited. Current practice patterns of pediatric weight management programs show areas of variability in practice, reflecting the limited evidence base. More research is needed to guide clinical care for overweight youth with prediabetes. PMID:25055134
Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...
The prevalence of obesity among US children and adolescents has rapidly increased in the past several decades, and the epidemic of childhood obesity is currently a serious public health concern in the United States. This dissertation consists of three studies examining individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of childhood obesity. The study area was Los Angeles County in California. Our first study examined the effects of maternal employment, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and ...
Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman
The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reilly, John J.
This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…
Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.
Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung
This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) t...
In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...
Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...
Sevil İnal; Nejla Canbulat
Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in T...
Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia
The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....
Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia
The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....
Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.
Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children′s physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.
Full Text Available The global epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and its immediate as well as long-term consequences for obese individuals and society as a whole cannot be overemphasized. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and clinically significant consequences affecting the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, obesity is additionally complicated by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, occurring in up to 60% of obese children. OSA, which is diagnosed using the gold standard polysomnogram (PSG, is characterised by snoring, recurrent partial (hypopneas or complete (apneas obstruction of the upper airway. OSA is frequently associated with intermittent oxyhemoglobin desaturations, sleep disruption, and sleep fragmentation. There is emerging data that OSA is associated with cardiovascular burden including systemic hypertension, changes in ventricular structure and function, arterial stiffness, and metabolic syndromes. Thus, OSA in the context of obesity may independently or synergistically magnify the underlying cardiovascular and metabolic burden. This is of importance as early recognition and treatment of OSA in obese children are likely to result in the reduction of cardiometabolic burden in obese children. This paper summarizes the current state of understanding of obesity-related OSA. Specifically, this paper will discuss epidemiology, pathophysiology, cardiometabolic burden, and management of obese children and adolescents with OSA.
Huang, Jeannie S; Barlow, Sarah E; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P; Xanthakos, Stavra A
Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology.
Papoutsi, Georgia; Drichoutis, Andreas; Nayga, Rodolfo
Childhood obesity rates are rapidly rising in many countries. Since it is highly likely that obesity will persist into adulthood, current rates undermine the health and future of people in developed as well as developing countries. This public health epidemic carries significant economic, social as well as individual-level consequences and has become a research topic of significant interest for various disciplines including economics. We survey the literature in economics and related discipli...
Primary childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in industrialized countries particularly in North America. Twenty five percent of children and adolescents in the United States are overweight and 14% are obese. However, the prevalence of obesity is alarmingly rising in other less developed parts of the world, like Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa. Overweight and obesity in childhood extend to adulthood and the majority of obese children grew as obese adults. Obesity has sig...
Wang, Liang; Collins, Candice; Ratliff, Melanie; Xie, Bin; Wang, Youfa
The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.
To date, obesity represents a major public health challenge. Obesity is at any age a concern but in pediatric populations it is particularly alarming because of its immediate biomedical and psychosocial consequences and the expectation that it will lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality and
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done. Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/6/2013.
Toschke, André M; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger
Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse association between meal frequency and the prevalence of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between meal frequency and childhood obesity. Stature and weight of 4,370 German children ages 5 to 6 years were determined in six Bavarian (Germany) public health offices during the obligatory school entry health examination in 2001/2002. An extensive questionnaire on risk factors for obesity was answered by their parents. Obesity was defined according to sex- and age-specific BMI cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The main exposure was daily meal frequency. The prevalence of obesity decreased by number of daily meals: three or fewer meals, 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8 to 6.1]; four meals, 2.8% (95% CI, 2.1 to 3.7); and 5 or more meals, 1.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4). These effects could not be explained by confounding due to a wide range of constitutional, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. The adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.21) for four meals and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.89) for five or more meals. Additional analyses pointed to a higher energy intake in nibblers compared with gorgers. A protective effect of an increased daily meal frequency on obesity in children was observed and appeared to be independent of other risk factors for childhood obesity. A modulation of the response of hormones such as insulin might be instrumental.
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: 1) current definitions of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 2) demography of childhood and adolescent obesity both in the US and globally; 3) current topics in the physiology of f...
Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...
Saha, Anindya Kumar; Sarkar, Neille; Chatterjee, Tapabrata
To evaluate the cardiovascular and endocrine effects of childhood obesity as well as prevalence of metabolic syndrome associated with it. 49 obese and overweight children aged between 6 and 11 years as study group and 45 healthy non-obese controls of same age were selected for the study. Both the groups were evaluated for height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting serum lipid fractions, insulin level, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose and C-reactive protein. Screening for metabolic syndrome was performed following most acceptable criteria. The study group children had significantly higher blood pressure, altered lipid fractions and high C-reactive Protein. Criteria-wise insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein also were found at significantly higher rate among obese children. The metabolic syndrome existed at a high prevalence of 14.1% in the study group. Obesity in childhood causes cardiovascular and endocrine dysregulation with onset of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome even in absence of significant evidence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in this age group.
Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung
This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) than the European (20–30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10–20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity–SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639
Kleij, van der M.J.J.
Childhood obesity remains a major public health concern. To successfully address the childhood obesity epidemic, intersectoral community interventions that take into account the multifactorial aetiology of childhood obesity are needed. However, the implementation of such interventions has proved to
Hurtado-López, Erika F; Macías-Rosales, Rocío
The prevalences of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in the last two decades in the adult and children population. The Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development reported in 2010 that Mexico ranks first worldwide in childhood obesity. The 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey reported that one of every three teenagers are overweight and obese. In the last decades, pediatric hospitals in different parts of the world reported the prevalence of secondary malnutrition, since in those days overweight and obesity did not represent health problems. Currently, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been scarcely studied in pediatric hospitals. In the Hospital de Pediatría (Children's Hospital) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente it is reported a prevalence of overweight of 15.4 % and obesity of 12.2 %, which reflects a nutritional transition.Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in this pediatric hospital of reference, one could conclude that the pediatrician should be able to make a correct evaluation of the nutritional state, because, if he does not detect these problems, we will be condemning children to suffer from a chronic disease for the rest of their lives, and with all the implications in the short, medium and long term.
Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim
The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.
Juli, Maria Rosaria
The eating disorders are a group of situations which are very complex that include abnormal feeding patterns, too much worry about the physical aspect, no real perception of the body image and a strong link between all these factors and the levels of self-esteem (Fairburn & Harrison 2003, Sigel 2008, American Academy of Pediatrics 2010, Dalle Grave 2011). From the '50s of the previous century we had a continuous increase of the Eating Disorders (Dalle Grave 2011). Indeed, in the National Program of the Prevention is stated that: "The spread of the eating disorders is very fast and relevant; there is no other disease with the same propagation and that looks like a real social epidemic" (The Ministry of Health 2010). At the same time, there was a reduction of the time of onset (Favaro et al. 2009) with cases of girls 8/9 years old, before having their first period (Dalla Ragione 2012). This means that the pediatricians should pay more attention to the eating disorders because there is a big delay in the diagnosis that can have a negative impact on the therapy to apply and on the prognosis (American Academy of Pediatrics 2010). Overweight and eating disorders are the main problems of public health among adolescents and many works show a direct link between eating disorders and child obesity (Babio et al. 2009). In the case of children, the diagnosis is very complex, especially during the early adolescence (-12 years) due to the large heterogeneity of the somatic expressions that make difficult a precise nosographic study. Therefore, it is necessary that the pediatrician has a good knowledge about the eating disorders in order to identify them quickly and to start a multidisciplinary path and to promote an improvement in the long term.
Gerards, Sanne M P L; Sleddens, Ester F C; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
Observational studies increasingly emphasize the impact of general parenting on the development of childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of the current literature review was to provide an overview of interventions addressing general parenting in order to prevent or treat childhood obesity. Electronic literature databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Seven studies were eligible for inclusion. The studies described four different general parenting programs, which were supplemented with lifestyle components (i.e., physical activity and nutrition). All studies showed significant small to moderate intervention effects on at least one weight-related outcome measure. The current review shows that despite the emerging observational evidence for the role of parenting in children's weight-related outcomes, few interventions have been developed that address general parenting in the prevention of childhood obesity. These interventions provide evidence that the promotion of authoritative parenting is an effective strategy for the prevention and management of childhood obesity.
Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Seidell, J.C.; Visscher, T.L.S.
Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multistakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'ObésitéDes Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for
Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.
Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…
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Firstly, essential developmental aspects of the focused periods of life, namely childhood and adolescence, are discussed. Furthermore, different issues of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are highlighted. Besides the definition and the assessment, possibilities of classification and epidemiological aspects are of interest. Physical and psychiatric consequences, which can be associated with obesity are also presented. In the context of a model of multifactorial genesis of obesity, different causing and maintaining factors are described. In addition to genetic and biological risk factors, the significance of several psychosocial factors is illustrated. Finally, the focus is on the therapy of obesity in childhood and adolescence.
While it is expected that childhood obesity affects only developed, affluent countries, the current trend shows a gradually shift in dimension towards low income, developing countries like Nigeria. Although, causes of obesity differ intrinsically among nations, the health outcomes appear to be similar, which include, renal, ...
Liang, Yajun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Liang; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Yan, Yinkun; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Mi, Jie
We seek to observe the association between childhood obesity by different measures and adult obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes. Thousand two hundred and nine subjects from "Beijing Blood Pressure Cohort Study" were followed 22.9 ± 0.5 years in average from childhood to adulthood. We defined childhood obesity using body mass index (BMI) or left subscapular skinfold (LSSF), and adult obesity as BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2). MetS was defined according to the joint statement of International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association with modified waist circumference (≥ 90/85 cm for men/women). Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or blood glucose 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or currently using blood glucose-lowering agents. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. The incidence of adult obesity was 13.4, 60.0, 48.3, and 65.1 % for children without obesity, having obesity by BMI only, by LSSF only, and by both, respectively. Compared to children without obesity, children obese by LSSF only or by both had higher risk of diabetes. After controlling for adult obesity, childhood obesity predicted independently long-term risks of diabetes (odds ratio 2.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.2-6.3) or abdominal obesity (2.7, 1.6-4.7) other than MetS as a whole (1.2, 0.6-2.4). Childhood obesity predicts long-term risk of adult diabetes, and the effect is independent of adult obesity. LSSF is better than BMI in predicting adult diabetes.
Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore
This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…
Domínguez-Vásquez, P; Olivares, S; Santos, J L
Eating behavior involves all actions that define the relation between human beings and food. It is accepted that feeding habits are acquired through eating experiences and practices learned from the familiar and social context in early childhood. Besides the role of the social context, it is also assumed that familiar factors, both common family environment and genetic inheritance, have an important influence on food intake and eating behavior linked with childhood obesity. Research on food intake and childhood obesity has been traditionally focused on the amount and type of foods in the usual diet. However, it is an increasing interest to understand the link between eating behavior and obesity using questionnaires. There are several psychometric tools that have been developed specifically to deal with human eating behavior. This review summarizes the family influences, both genetic and non-genetic, on childhood feeding behavior and their relation to childhood obesity.
Han, Joan C.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kimm, Sue Y.S.
Summary The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly over the past 3 decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from this, the elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us only limited lessons on how to prevent or reverse obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need to be re-assessed and better quantified, on a population level, given the more sedentary life of children today. For individual treatment, the currently recommended calorie prescriptions may be too conservative given the evolving insight on the “energy gap.” Whilst quality of research in both prevention and treatment has improved, there is still a need for high-quality multi-centre trials with long-term follow-up. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches that aim to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake need to continue. Most recently, the spiralling increase in obesity prevalence may be abating for children. Thus, even greater efforts need to be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244
Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva
Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee...... on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped...
Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran
Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics.
Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Chandak, Aastha; Smith, Patti; Carlton, Erik L; Duncan, Kenric; Gentry, Daniel
Childhood obesity, with its growing prevalence, detrimental effects on population health and economic burden, is an important public health issue in the United States and worldwide. There is need for expansion of the role of primary care physicians in obesity interventions. The primary aim of this review is to explore primary care physician (PCP) mediated interventions targeting childhood obesity and assess the roles played by physicians in the interventions. A systematic review of the literature published between January 2007 and October 2014 was conducted using a combination of keywords like "childhood obesity", "paediatric obesity", "childhood overweight", "paediatric overweight", "primary care physician", "primary care settings", "healthcare teams", and "community resources" from MEDLINE and CINAHL during November 2014. Author name(s), publication year, sample size, patient's age, study and follow-up duration, intervention components, role of PCP, members of the healthcare team, and outcomes were extracted for this review. Nine studies were included in the review. PCP-mediated interventions were composed of behavioural, education and technological interventions or a combination of these. Most interventions led to positive changes in Body Mass Index (BMI), healthier lifestyles and increased satisfaction among parents. PCPs participated in screening and diagnosing, making referrals for intervention, providing nutrition counselling, and promoting physical activity. PCPs, Dietitians and nurses were often part of the healthcare team. PCP-mediated interventions have the potential to effectively curb childhood obesity. However, there is a further need for training of PCPs, and explain new types of interventions such as the use of technology. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood and…
Kostovski, Marko; Tasic, Velibor; Laban, Nevena; Polenakovic, Momir; Danilovski, Dragan; Gucev, Zoran
Obesity and excess weight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. Childhood obesity is also widespread in Macedonia. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and carbohydrate intolerance are found in significant numbers. Parents and grandparents are often obese. Some of the children are either dysmorphic, or slightly retarded. We have already described patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome or WAGR syndrome. A genetic screening for mutations in monogenic obesity in children with early, rapid-onset or severe obesity, severe hyperphagia, hypogonadism, intestinal dysfunction, hypopigmentation of hair and skin, postprandial hypoglycaemia, diabetes insipidus, abnormal leptin level and coexistence of lean and obese siblings in the family discovers many genetic forms of obesity. There are about 30 monogenic forms of obesity. In addition, obesity is different in ethnic groups, and the types of monogenic obesity differ. In brief, an increasing number of genes and genetic mechanisms in children continue to be discovered. This sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms of obesity and potentially gives a target for new forms of treatment.
Mancino, Lisa; Todd, Jessica E; Guthrie, Joanne; Lin, Biing-Hwan
Childhood obesity is associated with a number of serious health risks that can persist into adulthood. While trends in food away from home and fast-food consumption have paralleled trends in childhood obesity, it is important to identify whether this is a causal relationship. This paper reviews recent literature in this area to summarize if there is a consensus in research findings. We group the literature into two areas - consumption of and access to food away from home (FAFH). While no consensus findings have been reached in either area, the evidence of an association between FAFH consumption and childhood obesity has gained strength. Further, there is evidence that FAFH meals add calories to children's diets. The literature on the role of FAFH access and childhood obesity has continued producing mixed results.
Childhood obesity is a worldwide pandemic that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and multiple cancers, and reduces quality of life and functional ability. Fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable (FJV) intake, and physical activity (PA) are behaviors related to childhood obesit...
Louise Aas Nielsen
Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached alarming rates world-wide. The aetiology seems to be an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and a surrogate measure of this complex interaction is suggested as familial predisposition. Familial predisposition to obesity and related cardiovascular disease (CVD complications constitute the presence of obesity and/or obesity-related complications in primarily blood-related family members. The approaches of its measurement and applicability vary, and the evidence especially of its influence on obesity and obesity treatment in childhood is limited. Studies have linked a familial predisposition of obesity, CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and thromboembolic events, and type 2 diabetes mellitus to BMI as well as other adiposity measures in children, suggesting degrees of familial aggregation of metabolic derangements. A pattern of predispositions arising from mothers, parents or grandparents as being most influential have been found, but further comprehensive studies are needed in order to specify the exact implications of familial predisposition. In the scope of childhood obesity this article reviews the current literature regarding familial predisposition to obesity and obesity-related complications, and how these familial predispositions may impact obesity in the offspring.
Nielsen, Louise Aas; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Holm, Jens-Christian
The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached alarming rates world-wide. The aetiology seems to be an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and a surrogate measure of this complex interaction is suggested as familial predisposition. Familial predisposition to obesity and related cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications constitute the presence of obesity and/or obesity-related complications in primarily blood-related family members. The approaches of its measurement and applicability vary, and the evidence especially of its influence on obesity and obesity treatment in childhood is limited. Studies have linked a familial predisposition of obesity, CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and thromboembolic events), and type 2 diabetes mellitus to BMI as well as other adiposity measures in children, suggesting degrees of familial aggregation of metabolic derangements. A pattern of predispositions arising from mothers, parents or grandparents as being most influential have been found, but further comprehensive studies are needed in order to specify the exact implications of familial predisposition. In the scope of childhood obesity this article reviews the current literature regarding familial predisposition to obesity and obesity-related complications, and how these familial predispositions may impact obesity in the offspring. PMID:26465142
Waters, Elizabeth; Swinburn, Boyd A.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Uauy, Ricardo
Obesity is one of the biggest public health challenges in the 21st century. Devising effective policy and practice to combat childhood obesity is a high priority for many governments and health professionals internationally. This book brings together contributors from around the world and showcases
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy
Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…
Childhood obesity rates in America have tripled in the last three decades. Almost one in three children are considered overweight or obese. Pediatricians are now treating children for adult diseases like type II diabetes and hypertension. All parents want the best for their children. They want children to succeed in school, fulfill their dreams,…
Huang, Jennifer S; Lee, Tiffany A; Lu, Michael C
To review the scientific evidence for prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity, and discuss its implications for MCH research, practice, and policy. A systematic review of observational studies examining the relationship between prenatal exposures and childhood overweight and obesity was conducted using MOOSE guidelines. The review included literature posted on PubMed and MDConsult and published between January 1975 and December 2005. Prenatal exposures to maternal diabetes, malnutrition, and cigarette smoking were examined, and primary study outcome was childhood overweight or obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) for children ages 5 to 21. Four of six included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes found higher prevalence of childhood overweight or obesity among offspring of diabetic mothers, with the highest quality study reporting an odds ratio of adolescent overweight of 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9). The Dutch famine study found that exposure to maternal malnutrition in early, but not late, gestation was associated with increased odds of childhood obesity (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4). All eight included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking showed significantly increased odds of childhood overweight and obesity, with most odds ratios clustering around 1.5 to 2.0. The biological mechanisms mediating these relationships are unknown but may be partially related to programming of insulin, leptin, and glucocorticoid resistance in utero. Our review supports prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity. MCH research, practice, and policy need to consider the prenatal period a window of opportunity for obesity prevention.
Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri
Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...
Campbell, M Karen
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased globally over the past three decades, with evidence of recent leveling off in developed countries. Reduction in the, currently high, prevalence of obesity will require a full understanding of the biological and social pathways to obesity in order to develop appropriately targeted prevention strategies in early life. Determinants of childhood obesity include individual level factors, including biological, social, and behavioral risks, acting within the influence of the child's family environment, which is, in turn, imbedded in the context of the community environment. These influences act across childhood, with suggestions of early critical periods of biological and behavioral plasticity. There is evidence of sex and gender differences in the responses of boys and girls to their environments. The evidence that determinants of childhood obesity act at many levels and at different stages of childhood is of policy relevance to those planning early health promotion and primary prevention programs as it suggests the need to address the individual, the family, the physical environment, the social environment, and social policy. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize current, and emerging, literature in a multilevel, life course framework.
Atkinson, Richard L
There is increasing evidence that obesity in humans is associated with infection with human adenovirus-36 (Adv36). Infection of experimental animals with Adv36 demonstrates that this virus causes obesity. Human studies have shown a prevalence of Adv36 infection of 30% or greater in obese adult humans, but a correlation with obesity has not always been demonstrated. In contrast, three published studies and one presented study with a total of 559 children all show that there is an increase in prevalence of Adv36 infection in obese children (28%) compared to non-obese children (10%). The explanation for the apparently more robust correlation of Adv36 infection with obesity in children vs. adults is not clear. The data in animals and people suggests that Adv36 has contributed to the worldwide increase in childhood obesity. More research is needed to identify prevalences and consequences of Adv36 infection in people of all age groups and geographic locations.
Carmen Pérez Rodrigo
Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced ...
Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit
Worldwide, the public health community has recognized the growing problem of childhood obesity. But, unlike tobacco control policy, there is little evidence about what public policies would work to substantially reduce childhood obesity. Public health leaders currently tend to support traditional "command and control" schemes that order private enterprises and governments to stop or start doing specific things that, is it hoped, will yield lower childhood obesity rates. These include measures such as 1) taking sweetened beverages out of schools, 2) posting calorie counts on fast-food menu boards, 3) labeling foods with a "red light" if they contain high levels of fat or sugar, 4) limiting the density of fast food restaurants in any neighborhood, 5) requiring chain restaurants to offer "healthy" alternatives, and 6) eliminating junk food ads on television shows aimed at children. Some advocates propose other regulatory interventions such as 1) influencing the relative prices of healthy and unhealthy foods through taxes and/or subsidies and 2) suing private industry for money damages as a way of blaming childhood obesity on certain practices of the food industry (such as its marketing, product composition, or portion size decisions). The food industry generally seeks to deflect blame for childhood obesity onto others, such as parents and schools.
Ariza, Carles; Ortega-Rodríguez, Eduard; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Valmayor, Sara; Juárez, Olga; Pasarín, M Isabel
The percentage of failure and relapse in the treatment of obesity is high. Where possible, the preferred strategy for preventing obesity is to modify eating habits and lifestyles. This article aims to provide a framework for evidence on the most effective interventions for addressing childhood obesity, both from a prevention point of view, as well as reducing it, when it is already established. After a review of the scientific literature, the issues that must be considered both in the universal and selective prevention of childhood obesity are presented. Also, in light of the controversy over the tools for measuring and controlling the problem, some clarification is provided on the criteria. Finally, the approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity with a community perspective is separated, with two short protocols being offered with diagrams of the basic procedure to follow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Greydanus, Donald E; Agana, Marisha; Kamboj, Manmohan K; Shebrain, Saad; Soares, Neelkamal; Eke, Ransome; Patel, Dilip R
This discussion reflects on concepts of obesity in children and adolescents in the early 21st century. It includes reflections on its history, definition, epidemiology, diagnostic perspectives, psychosocial considerations, musculoskeletal complications, endocrine complications and principles of management. In addition to emphasis on diet and exercise, research and clinical applications in the second decade of the 21 st century emphasize the increasing use of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery for adolescent and adult populations with critical problems of overweight and obesity. We conclude with a discussion of future directions in pediatric obesity management. Copyright © 2018 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc., little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems; psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape, and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors. We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status.
South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 93, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The epidemic of childhood obesity. G du Toit, M-T van der Merwe. Abstract.
Background: The increasing number of children defined as overweight or obeseis causing concern among politicians and health advocates; several countries havelaunched policies addressing the issue.Method: The paper presents an analysis of how the childhood obesity is defined,explained and suggested...... policies to address the problem from the WHO, the EU,Canada, England and New Zealand.Results: Considering the dramatic language used when describing childhood obe-sity, the proposed interventions are modest. Either the politicians do not considerthe problem that great after all, or other concerns...... by evidence, and the evidence cited is sometimesmisinterpreted or disregarded.Conclusion: There is a discrepancy between how the problem of childhood obe-sity is presented as alarming and the modest measures suggested....
Darren M. Allcock
Full Text Available The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults.
... of February 9, 2010 Establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Across our country, childhood obesity has reached epidemic rates and, as... is committed to redoubling our efforts to solve the problem of childhood obesity within a generation...
Kiess, W; Galler, A; Reich, A; Müller, G; Kapellen, T; Deutscher, J; Raile, K; Kratzsch, J
common chronic disorder in industrialized societies, its impact on individual lives as well as on health economics has to be recognized more widely. This review is aimed towards defining the clinical problem of childhood obesity on the basis of current knowledge and towards outlining future research areas in the field of energy homoesostasis and food intake in relation to child health. Finally, one should aim to increase public awareness of the ever increasing health burden and economic dimension of the childhood obesity epidemic that is present around the globe.
Full Text Available Jean Rankin,1 Lynsay Matthews,2 Stephen Cobley,3 Ahreum Han,3 Ross Sanders,3 Huw D Wiltshire,4 Julien S Baker5 1Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, 2MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 4Cardiff School of Sport/Ysgol Chwaraeon Caerdydd, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; 5School of Science and Sport, Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, Scotland Abstract: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW or obese (OB, and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings
Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy
Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on BMI, obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth-graders. Unlike previous studies, we address the endogeneity of the school food environment by controlling for children’s BMI at school entry and estimating instrumental variables regressions that leverage vari...
John Cawley; C. Katharina Spiess
This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various measures of weight (including body mass index and obesity) controlling for a rich set of child, parent, and family characteristics. The findings indicate...
Marcio C. Mancini
Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.
Childhood obesity arises from dysregulation of energy balance; however, the energetics for the development of childhood obesity are poorly delineated. We therefore developed a mathematical model based on empirical data and current understanding of energy balance to predict the total energy cost of w...
Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Gamborg, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann
Childhood obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing. This intervention study assessed the associations between weight changes and lipidemia in obese children and adolescents.......Childhood obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing. This intervention study assessed the associations between weight changes and lipidemia in obese children and adolescents....
Ward, Zachary J; Long, Michael W; Resch, Stephen C; Giles, Catherine M; Cradock, Angie L; Gortmaker, Steven L
Although the current obesity epidemic has been well documented in children and adults, less is known about long-term risks of adult obesity for a given child at his or her present age and weight. We developed a simulation model to estimate the risk of adult obesity at the age of 35 years for the current population of children in the United States. We pooled height and weight data from five nationally representative longitudinal studies totaling 176,720 observations from 41,567 children and adults. We simulated growth trajectories across the life course and adjusted for secular trends. We created 1000 virtual populations of 1 million children through the age of 19 years that were representative of the 2016 population of the United States and projected their trajectories in height and weight up to the age of 35 years. Severe obesity was defined as a body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 35 or higher in adults and 120% or more of the 95th percentile in children. Given the current level of childhood obesity, the models predicted that a majority of today's children (57.3%; 95% uncertainly interval [UI], 55.2 to 60.0) will be obese at the age of 35 years, and roughly half of the projected prevalence will occur during childhood. Our simulations indicated that the relative risk of adult obesity increased with age and BMI, from 1.17 (95% UI, 1.09 to 1.29) for overweight 2-year-olds to 3.10 (95% UI, 2.43 to 3.65) for 19-year-olds with severe obesity. For children with severe obesity, the chance they will no longer be obese at the age of 35 years fell from 21.0% (95% UI, 7.3 to 47.3) at the age of 2 years to 6.1% (95% UI, 2.1 to 9.9) at the age of 19 years. On the basis of our simulation models, childhood obesity and overweight will continue to be a major health problem in the United States. Early development of obesity predicted obesity in adulthood, especially for children who were severely obese. (Funded by the JPB
Keen, Valencia Browning; Potts, Claudia Sealey
Remedying childhood obesity cannot take place without first identifying relevant issues commonly influencing gatekeepers of food for children as well as the role modeling for encouraging or discouraging daily activities. Children cannot drive to the store, form grocery lists or complete menu management tasks without adult assistance. Excessive…
Shin Hye Kim
Full Text Available Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of phthalate on obesity development in humans, some work has shown that phthalates affect humans and animals similarly. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of phthalate-induced obesity, and discuss evidence supporting the role of phthalates in the development of obesity in humans.
Childhood obesity has been rising steadily in most parts of the world. Popular speculation attributes some of that increase to rising maternal employment. Employed mothers spend less time at home and thus less time with their children, whose diets and physical activity may suffer. Also, children...
Döring, Nora; Ghaderi, Ata; Bohman, Benjamin
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate a manualized theory-driven primary preventive intervention aimed at early childhood obesity. The intervention was embedded in Swedish child health services, starting when eligible children were 9 to 10 months of age and continuing until the children reached...... 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics....
The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project evaluation will determine the extent to which the CORD model of linking primary care (PC) interventions to public health (PH) interventions in multiple community sectors affects BMI and behavior in children (2 to 12 years). The evaluation c...
Bevelander, K.E.; Kaipainen, K.; Swain, R.; Dohle, S.; Bongard, J.C.; Hines, P.D.H.; Wansink, B.
Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is one of the most dangerous pathologies; it can lead to serious illness in the absence of medical support. In this article we give an overview of the use of videogames for reducing and normalizing the weight of overweight and obese children. We discuss the categorization of the existing games and their limits, and we outline the perspectives of psychopedagogical research in the domain of game design for treating obese and overweight children. The role of long-term motivation in the treatment of obesity is one of the crucial questions we discuss. We try to understand how videogames can help children and parents maintain motivation during weight-loss treatment. The role of parents is undeniable in ensuring the success of weight-loss programs for overweight or obese children. Perhaps videogames can be the instrument for families’ lifestyle changes.
Garver, William S; Newman, Sara B; Gonzales-Pacheco, Diana M; Castillo, Joseph J; Jelinek, David; Heidenreich, Randall A; Orlando, Robert A
The genes contributing to childhood obesity are categorized into three different types based on distinct genetic and phenotypic characteristics. These types of childhood obesity are represented by rare monogenic forms of syndromic or non-syndromic childhood obesity, and common polygenic childhood obesity. In some cases, genetic susceptibility to these forms of childhood obesity may result from different variations of the same gene. Although the prevalence for rare monogenic forms of childhood obesity has not increased in recent times, the prevalence of common childhood obesity has increased in the United States and developing countries throughout the world during the past few decades. A number of recent genome-wide association studies and mouse model studies have established the identification of susceptibility genes contributing to common childhood obesity. Accumulating evidence suggests that this type of childhood obesity represents a complex metabolic disease resulting from an interaction with environmental factors, including dietary macronutrients. The objective of this article is to provide a review on the origins, mechanisms, and health consequences of obesity susceptibility genes and interaction with dietary macronutrients that predispose to childhood obesity. It is proposed that increased knowledge of these obesity susceptibility genes and interaction with dietary macronutrients will provide valuable insight for individual, family, and community preventative lifestyle intervention, and eventually targeted nutritional and medicinal therapies.
Yang, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Wein, Lawrence M.
Due to the health and economic costs of childhood obesity, coupled with studies suggesting the benefits of comprehensive (dietary, physical activity and behavioral counseling) intervention, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended childhood screening and intervention for obesity beginning at age six. Using a longitudinal data set consisting of the body mass index of 3164 children up to age 18 and another longitudinal data set containing the body mass index at ages 18 and 40 and the presence or absence of disease (hypertension and diabetes) at age 40 for 747 people, we formulate and numerically solve – separately for boys and girls – a dynamic programming problem for the optimal biennial (i.e., at ages 2, 4, …, 16) obesity screening thresholds. Unlike most screening problem formulations, we take a societal viewpoint, where the state of the system at each age is the population-wide probability density function of the body mass index. Compared to the biennial version of the task force’s recommendation, the screening thresholds derived from the dynamic program achieve a relative reduction in disease prevalence of 3% at the same screening (and treatment) cost, or – due to the flatness of the disease vs. screening tradeoff curve – achieves the same disease prevalence at a 28% relative reduction in cost. Compared to the task force’s policy, which uses the 95th percentile of body mass index (from cross-sectional growth charts tabulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) as the screening threshold for each age, the dynamic programming policy treats mostly 16 year olds (including many who are not obese) and very few males under 14 years old. While our results suggest that adult hypertension and diabetes are minimized by focusing childhood obesity screening and treatment on older adolescents, the shortcomings in the available data and the narrowness of the medical outcomes considered prevent us from making a
Pulgarón, Elizabeth R
Worldwide estimates of childhood overweight and obesity are as high as 43 million, and rates continue to increase each year. Researchers have taken interest in the childhood obesity epidemic and the impact of this condition across health domains. The consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity are extensive, including both medical and psychosocial comorbidities. The purpose of this review was to consolidate and highlight the recent literature on the comorbidities associated with childhood obesity, both nationally and internationally. PubMed and PsychINFO searches were conducted on childhood obesity and comorbidities. The initial search of the terms obesity and comorbidity yielded >5000 published articles. Limits were set to include studies on children and adolescents that were published in peer-reviewed journals from 2002 to 2012. These limits narrowed the search to 938. Review of those articles resulted in 79 that are included in this review. The major medical comorbidities associated with childhood obesity in the current literature are metabolic risk factors, asthma, and dental health issues. Major psychological comorbidities include internalizing and externalizing disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and sleep problems. The high prevalence rates of childhood obesity have resulted in extensive research in this area. Limitations to the current childhood obesity literature include differential definitions of weight status and cut-off levels for metabolic risk factors across studies. Additionally, some results are based on self-report of diagnoses rather than chart reviews or physician diagnosis. Even so, there is substantial support for metabolic risk factors, internalizing disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and decreased health-related quality of life as comorbidities to obesity in childhood. Additional investigations on other diseases and conditions that might be associated with childhood obesity are warranted and
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child′s food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child′s lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on ′junk′ food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity.
Costley, Kevin C.; Leggett, Timothy
The youth of today are faced with a big problem; they are becoming more obese every day. The time of children playing outside all day and being extremely active has been overtaken by the television and video games. The days of sitting down as a family and eating a good healthy meal has been replaced by the rush to the nearest fast food…
Larrier, Yvonne I.; Bakerson, Michelle A.; Linton, Jeremy M.; Walker, Lynne R.; Woolford, Susan J.
Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Since 1960, the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States increased dramatically from 5% to 16.9%. To date many interventions to address obesity in schools have focused on healthy changes to the content of vending machines, school lunches, and the addition of after school…
Pulgarón, Elizabeth R.
Background Worldwide estimates of childhood overweight/obesity are as high as 43 million and rates continue to increase each year. Researchers have taken interest in the childhood obesity epidemic and the impact of this condition across health domains. The consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity are extensive, including both medical and psychosocial comorbidities. Objective The purpose of this review was to consolidate and highlight the recent literature on the comorbidities associated with childhood obesity, both nationally and internationally. Methods PubMed and PsychINFO searches were conducted on childhood obesity and co-morbidities. Results The initial search of the terms “obesity” and “comorbidity” yielded over 5000 published articles. Limits were set to include studies on children and adolescents that were published in peer-reviewed journals from 2002 to 2012. These limits narrowed the search to 938. Review of those articles resulted in 79 that are included in this review. The major medical comorbidities associated with childhood obesity in the current literature are metabolic risk factors, asthma, and dental health issues. Major psychological comorbidities include internalizing and externalizing disorders, ADHD, and sleep problems. Conclusions The high prevalence rates of childhood obesity have resulted in extensive research in this area. Limitations to the current childhood obesity literature include differential definitions of weight status and cut off levels for metabolic risk factors across studies. Additionally, some results are based on self-report of diagnoses rather than chart reviews or physician diagnosis. Even so, there is substantial support for metabolic risk factors, internalizing disorders, ADHD, and decreased health related quality of life as comorbidities to obesity in childhood. Additional investigations on other diseases and conditions that may be associated with childhood obesity are warranted and intervention research
Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang
Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within...... the framework of the IDEFICS study, the present research was conducted in 609 German resident children aged 2–9 years with information on fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and cortisol levels next to anthropometric measurements and parental questionnaires. Emphasising methodological aspects, an age......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...
Full Text Available Background: Community-based initiatives show promise for preventing childhood obesity. They are characterized by community leaders and members working together to address complex local drivers of energy balance. Objectives: To present a protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial in ten communities in the Great South Coast Region of Victoria, Australia to test whether it is possible to: (1 strengthen community action for childhood obesity prevention, and (2 measure the impact of increased action on risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods: The WHO STOPS intervention involves a facilitated community engagement process that: creates an agreed systems map of childhood obesity causes for a community; identifies intervention opportunities through leveraging the dynamic aspects of the system; and, converts these understandings into community-built, systems-oriented action plans. Ten communities will be randomized (1:1 to intervention or control in year one and all communities will be included by year three. The primary outcome is childhood obesity prevalence among grade two (ages 7–8 y, grade four (9–10 y and grade six (11–12 y students measured using our established community-led monitoring system (69% school and 93% student participation rate in government and independent schools. An additional group of 13 external communities from other regions of Victoria with no specific interventions will provide an external comparison. These communities will also allow us to assess diffusion of the intervention to control communities during the first three years of the trial. Conclusion: This trial will test effectiveness, over a five-year period, of community-owned, -supported and -led strategies designed to address complex and dynamic causes of childhood obesity.
Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine
Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Huerta, Michael; Zarka, Salman; Bibi, Haim; Haviv, Jacob; Scharf, Shimon; Gdalevich, Michael
Identification of children at risk for adolescent overweight can assist in targeting interventions. Uncertainty remains regarding the validity of current body mass index (BMI) reference values in predicting future risk on a population basis. This study aimed to assess the validity of current childhood adiposity classifications in predicting adolescent overweight and obesity among Israeli youth. Historical cohort study. School-based childhood health studies and adolescent physical examinations. A total of 3 163 subjects surveyed first at age 8-15 and again at age 17-19. Age, sex, height, weight and BMI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and relative risk of childhood adiposity classification. Childhood overweight and obesity showed low sensitivity and high specificity for predicting adolescent overweight and obesity. Positive predictive values were low and varied by age and sex, but negative predictive values were consistently high in both sexes and all ages (range 0.85-0.99). After adjusting for age and sex, both childhood overweight and obesity substantially increased the risk of adolescent overweight (relative risk [RR] 7.03 and 7.20, respectively) and adolescent obesity (RR 24.34 and 28.41, respectively). Childhood overweight and obesity are strong risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity among Israeli youth. Normal weight children were at very low risk for adolescent overweight. These findings suggest that population-based health promotion aimed at maintaining normal weight among children should be given preference over risk-guided approaches targeting weight reduction among obese children.
Gao, Xiao-Lin; Wan, Chao-Min
In recent years, more and more studies have noted the close association between gut microbiota and the development and progression of obesity. Gut microbiota may act on obesity by increasing energy intake, affecting the secretion of intestinal hormones, inducing chronic systemic inflammation, and producing insulin resistance. This article reviews the association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota, as well as possible mechanisms, in an attempt to provide a reference for the etiology, prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.
The purpose of the 3rd national survey on childhood obesity was conducted not only to understand the present status and trends of childhood obesity in China since the last survey conducted 10 years ago, but also to reveal the health status of preschool children at nutrition transit period and to evaluate the efficacy and sensitivity of cited reference population, criteria and cut-off point of body mass index (BMI), adiposity rebound age, waist/hip ratio and other parameters relevant to the diagnosis of obesity made by the national task force on childhood obesity of China (NTFCOC). A total of 84,766 children aged 0 - 7 years were recruited in the survey by the random cluster sampling which represented a 1, 414, 220 children's population from 11 cities covered north, central, south and west regions of China. The criteria of screening overweight/obesity was more than 1 Z-score/2 Z-score of the medium of reference value of weight for height made by WHO. Length-height/weight for all subjects and waist/hip/thigh circumference and blood pressure data for children 3 - 6 years of age were measured. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, overweight-obesity ratio, adiposity rebound age and BMI were calculated. The enumeration and measurement data were statistically managed by chi-square test and T-test, respectively using SPSS version 12.0 and the significance level was 0.05. (1) The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 7.2% and 19.8% for all; 8.9% and 22.2% for boys, and 5.3% and 17.0% for girls, respectively, which is 3.6/4.7 times higher than that of 1996 respectively, the annual increase rate of obesity and overweight was in average 156% and 52%, respectively. The distribution pattern of prevalence of overweight and obesity in geographic areas and gender was that the northern regions had higher prevalence than the west and the central regions and the prevalence in boys was higher than in girls. The obesity/overweight ratio (OOR) was still at a high risk level. (2
Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K
Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts.
Wein, Lawrence M.; Yang, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.
To address growing concerns over childhood obesity, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently recommended that children undergo obesity screening beginning at age 6 . An Expert Committee recommends starting at age 2 . Analysis is needed to assess these recommendations and investigate whether there are better alternatives. We model the age- and sex-specific population-wide distribution of body mass index (BMI) through age 18 using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data . The impact of treatment on BMI is estimated using the targeted systematic review performed to aid the USPSTF . The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes at age 40 are estimated from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics . We fix the screening interval at 2 years, and derive the age- and sex-dependent BMI thresholds that minimize adult disease prevalence, subject to referring a specified percentage of children for treatment yearly. We compare this optimal biennial policy to biennial versions of the USPSTF and Expert Committee recommendations. Compared to the USPSTF recommendation, the optimal policy reduces adult disease prevalence by 3% in relative terms (the absolute reductions are disease prevalence at a 28% reduction in treatment referral rate. If compared to the Expert Committee recommendation, the reductions change to 6% and 40%, respectively. The optimal policy treats mostly 16 year olds and few children under age 14. Our results suggest that adult disease is minimized by focusing childhood obesity screening and treatment on older adolescents. PMID:22240724
Cockrell Skinner, Asheley; Foster, E Michael
As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four general areas of systems science in obesity: (1) translating interventions to a large scale, (2) the effect of obesity on other health or economic outcomes, (3) the effect of geography on obesity, and (4) the effect of social networks on obesity. In general, little research addresses obesity from a true, integrated systems science perspective, and the available research infrequently focuses on children. This shortcoming limits the ability of that research to inform public policy. However, we believe that the largely incremental approaches used in current systems science lay a foundation for future work and present a model demonstrating the system of childhood obesity. Systems science perspective and related methods are particularly promising in understanding the link between childhood obesity and adult outcomes. Systems models emphasize the evolution of agents and their interactions; such evolution is particularly salient in the context of a developing child.
Asheley Cockrell Skinner
Full Text Available As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four general areas of systems science in obesity: (1 translating interventions to a large scale, (2 the effect of obesity on other health or economic outcomes, (3 the effect of geography on obesity, and (4 the effect of social networks on obesity. In general, little research addresses obesity from a true, integrated systems science perspective, and the available research infrequently focuses on children. This shortcoming limits the ability of that research to inform public policy. However, we believe that the largely incremental approaches used in current systems science lay a foundation for future work and present a model demonstrating the system of childhood obesity. Systems science perspective and related methods are particularly promising in understanding the link between childhood obesity and adult outcomes. Systems models emphasize the evolution of agents and their interactions; such evolution is particularly salient in the context of a developing child.
Gorisek, Aleksandra Sasa
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure
Beatriz García Cortés
It is expected to clarify agreements and dissonances in the proposals to combat and prevent childhood obesity. Furthermore, this study aims to project recommendations for future studies involving childhood obesity throw the causes that have been associated disease in the reviewed literature.
The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which th...
Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy
Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on BMI, obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth-graders. Unlike previous studies, we address the endogeneity of the school food environment by controlling for children's BMI at school entry and estimating instrumental variables regressions that leverage variation in the school's grade span. Our main finding is that junk food availability does not significantly increase BMI or obesity among this fifth grade cohort despite the increased likelihood of in-school junk food purchases. The results are robust to alternate measures of junk food availability including school administrator reports of sales during school hours, school administrator reports of competitive food outlets, and children's reports of junk food availability. Moreover, the absence of any effects on overall food consumption and physical activity further support the null findings for BMI and obesity.
Cunningham, Solveig A; Datar, Ashlesha; Narayan, K M Venkat; Kramer, Michael R
Given the high levels of obesity among U.S. children, we examine whether obesity in childhood is a passing phenomenon or remains entrenched into adolescence. Data are from the prospective nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (analytic sample = 6600). Anthropometrics were measured six times during 1998-2007. Overweight and obesity were defined using CDC cut-points. Entrenched obesity was defined as obesity between ages 5-9 coupled with persistent obesity at ages 11 and 14. Almost 30% of children experienced obesity at some point between ages 5.6 and 14.1 years; 63% of children who ever had obesity between ages 5.6 and 9.1 and 72% of those who had obesity at kindergarten entry experienced entrenched obesity. Children with severe obesity in kindergarten or who had obesity at more than 1 year during early elementary were very likely to experience obesity through age 14, regardless of their sex, race, or socioeconomic backgrounds. Prevention should focus on early childhood, as obesity at school entry is not often a passing phenomenon. Even one timepoint of obesity measured during the early elementary school years may be an indicator of risk for long-term obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simmonds, M; Llewellyn, A; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N
A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. BMI was the only measure of obesity reported in any study, with 200,777 participants followed up. Obese children and adolescents were around five times more likely to be obese in adulthood than those who were not obese. Around 55% of obese children go on to be obese in adolescence, around 80% of obese adolescents will still be obese in adulthood and around 70% will be obese over age 30. Therefore, action to reduce and prevent obesity in these adolescents is needed. However, 70% of obese adults were not obese in childhood or adolescence, so targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children needs to be considered carefully as this may not substantially reduce the overall burden of adult obesity. © 2015 World Obesity.
Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris
Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in the…
Childhood obesity in the United States has doubled over the last three decades and currently affects 17% of children and adolescents. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous che...
Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M
Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child's diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children.
Silva, Fabiana Brito
Obesity is one of the most pressing global population health issues, and importantly one that affects racial/ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status disproportionately. Obesity tracks from childhood into adulthood and is related to serious medical and economic consequences throughout the life course. Childhood obesity is well recognized as a complex and multifaceted problem influenced by broader social, geographic and environmental factors. A social ecological framework that i...
Simmonds, M.; Llewellyn, A.; Owen, C. G.; Woolacott, N.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included ...
Feb 24, 2015 ... critical period of opportunity when exposure of the fetus could predict ..... under – or over-estimate the risk of childhood obesity in ... are all diseases arising in obese adults, efforts should be ... School absenteeism: Owing to prolonged period of ill – .... obesity by increasing energy expenditure and resting.
Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith
U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…
Caballero, B; Vorkoper, S; Anand, N; Rivera, J A
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America poses a major public health challenge to the region. In response, many countries are implementing obesity prevention programmes aimed at modifying known risk factors. However, the limited scientific evidence inhibits the development and implementation of novel, effective interventions across the region. To address these gaps, the NIH Fogarty International Center convened a workshop of researchers, policymakers, programme implementers and public health advocates who are actively engaged in the region to prevent childhood obesity. Major aims of the meeting were to define the current status of childhood obesity, identify the scientific gaps in our understanding of the epidemic, point out the barriers and opportunities for research and outline a plan for capacity building in the region in the area of childhood obesity. This series of articles reflects the key outcome of the meeting and offers an analysis of the knowledge translation needed for evidence-based policy initiatives, a review of the research agenda and an evaluation of research capacity in the region. The goal of the papers is to inform the development of multidisciplinary and multisector research collaborations, which are essential to the implementation of successful childhood obesity prevention strategies in the region. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.
Miller, Alison L
Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States, but current childhood obesity prevention approaches have limited efficacy. Self-regulation processes organize behavior to achieve a goal and may shape health behaviors and health outcomes. Obesity prevention approaches that focus on the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms that underlie self-regulation early in life may therefore lead to better outcomes. This article reviews the development of executive functioning (EF), identifies influences on EF development, discusses aspects of EF relating to increased risk for childhood obesity, and considers how EF-weight associations may change across development. Implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Bille, Dorthe Sadowa; Nässlund, Ida
UNLABELLED: Recent evidence has demonstrated the prenatal initiation of childhood obesity as epidemiological studies and animal studies have illustrated the effect of the intrauterine milieu for subsequent development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between severe...... childhood obesity and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight and birth length, birth-weight-for-gestational-age and neonatal ponderal index in a Danish cohort of 1,171 severely obese children (median age 11.48 years, range 3.13 to 17.98 years) with a mean body mass index...... that the prenatal period can be considered as a potential window of opportunity for prevention of childhood overweight and obesity and anthropological measurements may in theory be used to help identify neonates at high risk for developing childhood obesity....
Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre
Objective Disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionate burden of childhood obesity and show low participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. This study aims to examine the level of readiness of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Methods Using the community readiness model, 95 semi-structured interviews were conducted among communities in four disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness analysis and paired t-tests were performed to assess the readiness levels of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Results The results showed that disadvantaged communities demonstrated low levels of readiness (readiness score=4/9, 44%) to engage with the existing childhood obesity prevention initiatives, lacked knowledge of childhood obesity and its prevention, and reported facing challenges in initiating and sustaining participation in obesity prevention initiatives. Conclusion This study highlights the need to improve community readiness by addressing low obesity-related literacy levels among disadvantaged communities and by facilitating the capacity-building of bicultural workers to deliver obesity prevention messages to these communities. Integrating these needs into existing Australian health policy and practice is of paramount importance for reducing obesity-related disparities currently prevailing in Australia. What is known about the topic? Childhood obesity prevalence is plateauing in developed countries including Australia; however, obesity-related inequalities continue to exist in Australia especially among communities living in disadvantaged areas, which experience poor engagement in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Studies in the USA have found that assessing disadvantaged communities' readiness to participate in health programs is a critical initial step in reducing the disproportionate obesity burden among these communities
Weihrauch-Blüher, Susann; Koormann, Stefanie; Brauchmann, Jana; Wiegand, Susanna
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is - amongst other factors - due to changed leisure time habits with decreased physical activity and increased media consumption. However, electronic media such as tablets and smartphones might also provide a novel intervention approach to prevent obesity in childhood and adolescence. A summary of interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity is provided to investigate short term effects as well as long term results of these interventions. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/Web of Science to identify randomized and/or controlled studies that have investigated the efficacy of electronic media for obesity prevention below the age of 18. A total of 909 studies were identified, and 88 studies were included in the analysis. Active video games did increase physical activity compared to inactive games when applied within a peer group. Interventions via telephone had positive effects on certain lifestyle-relevant behaviours. Interventions via mobile were shown to decrease dropout rates by sending regular SMS messages. To date, interventions via smartphones are scarce for adolescents; however, they might improve cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from internet-based interventions showed a trend towards positive effects on lifestyle-relevant behaviors. The combination of different electronic media did not show superior results compared to interventions with only one medium. Interventions via TV, DVD or video-based interventions may increase physical activity when offered as an incentive, however, effects on weight status were not observed. Children and adolescents currently grow up in a technology- and media-rich society with computers, tablets, smartphones, etc. used daily. Thus, interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity are contemporary. Available studies applying electronic media are however heterogeneous in terms of applied medium and duration
Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna
The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the "authoritative discipline type," the "generous home meal focused type," and the "home meal based on household financial situation type." The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity.
Friis Pihl, Andreas; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius; Stjernholm, Theresa
Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The pathogenesis of obesity is complex and multifactorial, in which genetic and environmental contributions seem important. The gut microbiota is increasingly documented to be involved in the dysmetabolism...... associated with obesity. Methods: We conducted a systematic search for literature available before October 2015 in the PubMed and Scopus databases, focusing on the interplay between the gut microbiota, childhood obesity, and metabolism. Results: The review discusses the potential role of the bacterial...... component of the human gut microbiota in childhood and adolescent-onset obesity, with a special focus on the factors involved in the early development of the gut bacterial ecosystem, and how modulation of this microbial community might serve as a basis for new therapeutic strategies in combating childhood...
Praveen, Pradeep A; Tandon, Nikhil
India is witnessing an increase in the burden of childhood obesity, especially among the upper socioeconomic strata and in urban areas. Emerging literature suggests a link between childhood obesity and the diabetes epidemic in India. Asian-Indian children and adolescents are increasingly susceptible to a high percentage of body fat and abdominal adiposity. Further, they are exposed to an obesogenic environment, created by rapid urbanization and nutrition transition in India. Obese children have a higher risk of developing abnormalities that are recognized as precursors to diabetes, such as subclinical inflammation, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, which often track to adulthood. A review of the literature suggests the need for more longitudinal studies to improve understanding of the long-term consequences of childhood obesity in India. A life-course approach with a combination of population- and risk-based strategies is warranted, to prevent childhood obesity and curtail its consequences in adulthood.
Bevelander, Kirsten E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C; Hines, Paul D H; Wansink, Brian
Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age = 26.5±6.7; BMI = 29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.
Kirsten E Bevelander
Full Text Available Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age = 26.5±6.7; BMI = 29.0±7.0 registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.
Ranjani, Harish; Mehreen, T.S.; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Garg, Renu; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan
Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern. PMID:27121514
Obesity in our country is a growing concern. There are several different options for weight loss; however, individuals must be self-motivated and amendable to change in order to achieve success with their weight loss goals. Several strategies used by professionals in the US today to treat overweight and obesity, include diet therapy, exercise, behavior modification, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. The focus of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) Weight Management Position Statement is no longer just on weight loss but now on weight management. Reaching one's ideal body weight is recommended but not often realistic. Frequently, the goal of treatment shifts to maintenance of ones current weight or attempts at moderate weight loss. Lifestyle modification or behavioral modification interventions rely on analyzing behavior to identify events that are associated with appropriate vs. inappropriate eating, exercise, or thinking habits. Certain primary strategies that have been found to be useful for helping people change their behaviors so that they can lose weight and maintain their weight loss, include self-monitoring, stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, stress management, social support, physical activity, and relapse prevention. Weight loss programs should strive to combine a nutritionally balanced dietary regimen with exercise and lifestyle modifications at the lowest possible cost. There are several different methods used for dietary modifications; low calorie diets, very low calorie diets, fasting, formula diets and meal replacement programs, and popular diets. Bariatric surgery is gaining popularity as it has been an effective way to treat obesity. Following gastric bypass surgery, the patients must be prepared to modify their eating behaviors and dietary selections to assist with weight loss and prevent potential complications. Patients should be educated on the dietary guidelines extensively prior to surgery and again post-operatively.
Koshy, Gibby; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J.
ADHD prevalence has risen in parallel with rising prevalence of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity. The objective was to determine the epidemiological association of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity with ADHD. A cross-sectional community study was conducted in 2006 using a parental
Parra, Diana C; Vorkoper, Susan; Kohl, Harold W; Caballero, Benjamin; Batis, Carolina; Jauregui, Alejandra; Mason, Jessica; Pratt, Michael
The rise of childhood obesity in Latin America calls for research capacity to understand, monitor and implement strategies, policies and programmes to address it. The objective of the study was to assess current research capacity in Latin America related to childhood obesity, nutrition and physical activity. We conducted a search of peer-reviewed articles on childhood obesity in Latin America with at least one Latin American author from 2010 to May 2015. We coded 484 published articles for author affiliation, study subjects' nationality, research topic and study design and extracted a series of networks per research topic, study design and collaborating country for each of the countries. Obesity is the most frequently explored topic. Nutrition and obesity are somewhat better developed compared with physical activity and sedentary behaviour. There are numerous observational and cross-sectional studies, indicating either a lack of capacity required for more complex research or the extent of the problem and associated factors is still unknown. The low number of intervention studies and the near absence of policy articles suggest a void in research capacity. For childhood obesity, there is a clear need to build research capacity that documents the current state of the problem and design evidence-based prevention and intervention efforts. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.
Gerards Sanne MPL
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–8 years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Methods/Design Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children’s body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds. Secondary outcome measures are children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings. Discussion Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured
Gerards, Sanne M P L; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Jansen, Maria W J; van der Goot, Lidy O H M; de Vries, Nanne K; Sanders, Matthew R; Kremers, Stef P J
Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4-8 years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children's body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds). Secondary outcome measures are children's dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings). Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured outcomes. Current Controlled Trials NTR 2555 MEC AZM/UM: NL 31988
As the incidence of childhood obesity increases, there is a need to promote leisure time physical activity. Traditional approaches to promote the population physical activity levels have shown at best moderate improvements. High percentage of children today carry a cell phone, thus the use of this portable device seems promising for enhancing physical activity. Pokémon Go, is a smartphone game that uses augmented reality, where players are incentivized to get out and walk significant distances to catch the Pokémon. Initial reports suggested increases in the number of steps that players performed, yet this effect of the game was not sustained. Incorporating physical activity into modern technology seems promising, clearly there is need to explore creative ways to achieve a longer term effect.
Full Text Available Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services.We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia.Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers.This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD
Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M.; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M. N.
Background Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers’ perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities’ participation in these services. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Results Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. Conclusion This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health
Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M N
Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services. We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD communities to ensure
Perryman, Mandy; Sidoti,Kara
Mandy L Perryman,1 Kara A Sidoti,2 1Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, University of Mississippi, MS, USA; 2Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA, USA Abstract: Rates of obesity in children and adolescents appear to be stabilizing, though the prevalence of extreme obesity in this population remains fairly consistent at 4%. Childhood obesity contributes to serious health complications, such as hypertension, orthopedic problems, hormonal imbalances, and adult obesity. Psychological, ...
Keustermans, G C; Kofink, Daniel; Eikendal, A.L.; de Jager, W.; Meerding, J.; Nuboer, R.; Waltenberger, J.; Kraaijeveld, A.O.; Jukema, J Wouter; Sels, J.W.; Garssen, J; Prakken, Berent J.; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Kalkhoven, E.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Pasterkamp, G.; Schipper, Henk S
Childhood obesity coincides with increased numbers of circulating classical CD14++CD16- and intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes. Monocytes are key players in the development and exacerbation of atherosclerosis, which prompts the question as to whether the monocytosis in childhood obesity contributes
Carrillo Aguilera, Sonia
Full Text Available This paper aims to review the current worrying situation in terms of physical activity in our country and the problem that leads us to be below the European average, with the attendant problems of obesity, particularly among children, which follow from this. We analyzed the intervention programs that are being used as PIOBIN plan (The Andalusian Plan for Childhood Obesity, effective from 2007-12, based on a national strategy called Naos Strategy and how different studies support that some intrinsic motivation toward physical activity helps to create lasting habits to the practice. We also carry out an analysis of the different Motivation theories and we base our study on the Self-determination Theory of Deci and Ryan (1985, 2000
Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna
This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…
Pihl, Andreas Friis; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Stjernholm, Theresa; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Holm, Jens-Christian
Childhood and adolescent obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The pathogenesis of obesity is complex and multifactorial, in which genetic and environmental contributions seem important. The gut microbiota is increasingly documented to be involved in the dysmetabolism associated with obesity. We conducted a systematic search for literature available before October 2015 in the PubMed and Scopus databases, focusing on the interplay between the gut microbiota, childhood obesity, and metabolism. The review discusses the potential role of the bacterial component of the human gut microbiota in childhood and adolescent-onset obesity, with a special focus on the factors involved in the early development of the gut bacterial ecosystem, and how modulation of this microbial community might serve as a basis for new therapeutic strategies in combating childhood obesity. A vast number of variables are influencing the gut microbial ecology (e.g., the host genetics, delivery method, diet, age, environment, and the use of pre-, pro-, and antibiotics); but the exact physiological processes behind these relationships need to be clarified. Exploring the role of the gut microbiota in the development of childhood obesity may potentially reveal new strategies for obesity prevention and treatment.
Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S
The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.
Childhood obesity prevention and improved nutrition through farm-to-school food ... Increased demand for healthy foods will be evaluated by comparing dietary ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to draw attention to obesity in adolescence and its potential risks and put forward its consequences in terms of public health as well as offer solutions. Today, obesity has become one of the most frequent chronic diseases of childhood. The tendency to obesity is at an alarming level and the annual increase in this age group is gradually rising. In the 2003 report of the International Obesity Commission, it was stated that one out of ten children aged between 5-17 worldwide was overweight or obese. In addition to social and psychological problems resulting from obesity, it is known to be closely related with very serious diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It is also known that obesity shortens life expectancy and that the process starts in the childhood period of many obese adults. Struggling with obesity actually means struggling with many other diseases. It is also of major significance for the future of our country to struggle with especially childhood obesity. In terms of public health, it is of primary importance to detect, avoid and cure obesity in this period. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 223-230
Gibbs, B G; Forste, R
Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Pratt, Charlotte A; Arteaga, Sonia; Loria, Catherine
This paper describes ongoing National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-initiated childhood obesity research. It calls on clinicians, researchers, and cardiologists to work with other healthcare providers, community agencies, schools and caregivers to foster better cardiovascular health in children by intervening on multiple levels of influence on childhood obesity. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Üner, Abdurrahman; Doğan, Murat; Epcacan, Zerrin; Epçaçan, Serdar
Obesity is a metabolic disorder defined as excessive accumulation of body fat, which is made up of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors and has various social, psychological, and medical complications. Childhood obesity is a major indicator of adult obesity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac functions via electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography (ECHO), and treadmill test in childhood obesity. A patient group consisting of 30 obese children and a control group consisting of 30 non-obese children were included in the study. The age range was between 8 and 17 years. Anthropometric measurements, physical examination, ECG, ECHO, and treadmill test were done in all patients. P-wave dispersion (PD) was found to be statistically significantly high in obese patients. In ECHO analysis, we found that end-diastolic diameter, end-systolic diameter, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, and interventricular septum were significantly greater in obese children. In treadmill test, exercise capacity was found to be significantly lower and the hemodynamic response to exercise was found to be defective in obese children. Various cardiac structural and functional changes occur in childhood obesity and this condition includes important cardiovascular risks. PD, left ventricle end-systolic and end-diastolic diameter, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness, exercise capacity, and hemodynamic and ECG measurements during exercise testing are useful tests to determine cardiac dysfunctions and potential arrhythmias even in early stages of childhood obesity. Early recognition and taking precautions for obesity during childhood is very important to intercept complications that will occur in adulthood.
Maintaining a healthy weight in childhood can prevent many health-related problems later in life. In this podcast, Dr. Jackson Sekhobo discusses the importance of avoiding obesity in childhood. Created: 1/31/2013 by MMWR. Date Released: 1/31/2013.
Maintaining a healthy weight in childhood can prevent many health-related problems later in life. This podcast discusses what can be done to prevent childhood obesity. Created: 1/31/2013 by MMWR. Date Released: 1/31/2013.
Li Yanping,; Zhai, F.; Yang, X.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.; He, Y.; Luan, D.; Ma, Guansheng
In order to investigate the determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was compared according to different dietary and physical activity patterns and parental body weight status. A total of 6826 children aged 7-17 years from the 2002
This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.
Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hanson, Carrie; Doty, Jennifer; Jagaraj, Kimberly; Braaten, Kent; Doherty, William J
To date there has been limited success with childhood obesity prevention interventions. This may be due in part, to the challenge of reaching and engaging parents in interventions. The current study used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to engage parents in cocreating and pilot testing a childhood obesity prevention intervention. Because CBPR approaches to childhood obesity prevention are new, this study aims to detail the creation, including the formation of the citizen action group (CAG), and implementation of a childhood obesity prevention intervention using CBPR methods. A CBPR approach was used to recruit community members to partner with university researchers in the CAG (n = 12) to create and implement the Play It Forward! childhood obesity intervention. The intervention creation and implementation took 2 years. During Year 1 (2011-2012), the CAG carried out a community needs and resources assessment and designed a community-based and family focused childhood obesity prevention intervention. During Year 2 (2012-2013), the CAG implemented the intervention and conducted an evaluation. Families (n = 50; 25 experimental/25 control group) with children ages 6-12 years participated in Play It Forward! Feasibility and process evaluation data suggested that the intervention was highly feasible and participants in both the CAG and intervention were highly satisfied. Specifically, over half of the families attended 75% of the Play It Forward! events and 33% of families attended all the events. Equal collaboration between parents and academic researchers to address childhood obesity may be a promising approach that merits further testing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Casado de Frías, Enrique
In the last years there has been a growing interest in chilhood obesity in all developed countries. There is a great concern that is prevalence has raised 2-3 fold during the last 20 years. In the spanish chilhood population the obesity prevalence is estimated around 13%. Of note also, a number of other pathologies develop concomitantly with obesity during chilhood. These include type 2 diabetes, a range of respiratory problems, a metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis and seudotumor cerebri among others. Taking for granted that chilhood obesity in its roots is an exogenous disorder, preventive interventions should focus on modifying those ethiologies, improving the ways and nature of chilhood nutrition and its social and ludic behaviours.
Harris, Jenine K; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Tabak, Rachel G; Ruhr, Lindsay R; Maier, Ryan C
Little is known about the use of social media as a tool for health communication. We used a mixed-methods design to examine communication about childhood obesity on Twitter. NodeXL was used to collect tweets sent in June 2013 containing the hashtag #childhoodobesity. Tweets were coded for content; tweeters were classified by sector and health focus. Data were also collected on the network of follower connections among the tweeters. We used descriptive statistics and exponential random graph modeling to examine tweet content, characteristics of tweeters, and the composition and structure of the network of connections facilitating communication among tweeters. We collected 1110 tweets originating from 576 unique Twitter users. More individuals (65.6%) than organizations (32.9%) tweeted. More tweets focused on individual behavior than environment or policy. Few government and educational tweeters were in the network, but they were more likely than private individuals to be followed by others. There is an opportunity to better disseminate evidence-based information to a broad audience through Twitter by increasing the presence of credible sources in the #childhoodobesity conversation and focusing the content of tweets on scientific evidence.
Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.
The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745
Okihiro, May; Pillen, Michelle; Ancog, Cristeta; Inda, Christy; Sehgal, Vija
Obesity, the most common chronic disease of childhood, is prevalent among economically disadvantaged children. The Chronic Care and Obesity Care Models are comprehensive health care strategies to improve outcomes by linking primary care best practices and community-based programs. Pediatric providers and community health centers are well positioned to design and implement coordinated and synergistic programs to address childhood health disparities. This article describes a comprehensive project based on the Obesity Care Model initiated at a rural community health center in Hawaii to address childhood obesity including: (1) the health care delivery changes constituting the quality improvement project; (2) capacity and team-building activities; (3) use of the project community level data to strengthen community engagement and investment; and (4) the academic-community partnership providing the project framework. We anticipate that these efforts will contribute to the long-term goal of reducing the prevalence of obesity and obesity associated morbidity in the community.
Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua
Currently, public health practitioners are analyzing the role that caregivers play in childhood obesity efforts. Assessing African American caregiver's perceptions of childhood obesity in rural communities is an important prevention effort. This article's objective is to describe the development and psychometric testing of a survey tool to assess childhood obesity perceptions among African American caregivers in a rural setting, which can be used for obesity prevention program development or evaluation. The Childhood Obesity Perceptions (COP) survey was developed to reflect the multidimensional nature of childhood obesity including risk factors, health complications, weight status, built environment, and obesity prevention strategies. A 97-item survey was pretested and piloted with the priority population. After pretesting and piloting, the survey was reduced to 59-items and administered to 135 African American caregivers. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test how well the survey items represented the number of Social Cognitive Theory constructs. Twenty items were removed from the original 59-item survey and acceptable internal consistency of the six factors (α=0.70-0.85) was documented for all scales in the final COP instrument. CFA resulted in a less than adequate fit; however, a multivariate Lagrange multiplier test identified modifications to improve the model fit. The COP survey represents a promising approach as a potentially comprehensive assessment for implementation or evaluation of childhood obesity programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reilly, John J
Obesity is now the most common disorder of childhood in the developed world, and its prevalence is still increasing. A large body of high-quality and consistent evidence shows that it is best defined using the body mass index (BMI) percentile relative to national BMI reference data. This definition diagnoses excessive fatness adequately, and denotes increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Future research may provide improved obesity definitions for epidemiological use, so that the obesity epidemic can be monitored more effectively. Paediatric obesity causes ill health in both childhood and adulthood, though further research is required on the economic consequences, on some of the co-morbidities in childhood (notably psychological morbidity), and in adulthood where the amount of empirical evidence on long-term effects is limited. The combination of high prevalence with adverse consequences has created a public health crisis.
Stanhope, Kaitlyn K; Kay, Christi; Stevenson, Beth; Gazmararian, Julie A
The incidence of childhood obesity is highest among children entering kindergarten. Overweight and obesity in early childhood track through adulthood. Programs increasingly target children in early life for obesity prevention. However, the published literature lacks a review on tools available for measuring behaviour and environmental level change in child care. The objective is to describe measurement tools currently in use in evaluating obesity-prevention in preschool-aged children. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed using the keywords "early childhood obesity," "early childhood measurement," "early childhood nutrition" and "early childhood physical activity." Inclusion criteria included a discussion of: (1) obesity prevention, risk assessment or treatment in children ages 1-5 years; and (2) measurement of nutrition or physical activity. One hundred thirty-four publications were selected for analysis. Data on measurement tools, population and outcomes were abstracted into tables. Tables are divided by individual and environmental level measures and further divided into physical activity, diet and physical health outcomes. Recommendations are made for weighing advantages and disadvantages of tools. Despite rising numbers of interventions targeting obesity-prevention and treatment in preschool-aged children, there is no consensus for which tools represent a gold standard or threshold of accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Barrios, Vicente; Muñoz-Calvo, María T; Pozo, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús
Obesity is currently the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in Western countries. It is one of the most frequent consultations in general pediatrics and is even more common in pediatric endocrinology. As might be predicted, the prevalence of obesity-associated comorbidities is also increasing in children and adolescents. It is widely accepted that this increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the current lifestyle in Western countries. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual's genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. The physiologic mechanisms controlling appetite and energy expenditure are being revealed in part because of the identification of new causes of human monogenic, syndromic, and endocrine-related obesity. Thus, it is no longer appropriate to talk about obesity, but rather about "obesities" or "different diseases causing obesity," because their pathophysiologic bases differ. Moreover, these obesities require different diagnostic and management approaches. The pediatrician must be aware of this issue and focus the clinical history and physical examination toward specific clinical signs and symptoms to better exploit the available diagnostic and therapeutic resources when facing a child with obesity. Genetic, genomic, and metabolomic studies are often necessary to obtain a more appropriate diagnosis. Cognitive behavioral therapy is fundamental in obese children. The identification of potential targets will hopefully result in new pharmacologic approaches for translational and personalized medicine for obesity in the near future. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
The domestication and urbanization of dogs and cats has dramatically altered their environment and behavior. Human and pet obesity is a global concern, particularly in developed countries. An increased incidence of chronic disease is associated with obesity secondary to low-grade systemic inflammation. This article reviews current research into the genetic, dietary, and physiologic factors associated with obesity, along with use of "omics" technology to better understand and characterize this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Donovan, Sharon M; Hillman, Charles H
The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has tripled since the 1980s and is strongly linked to the early onset of several metabolic diseases. Recent studies indicate that lower cognitive function may be another complication of childhood obesity. This review considers the research to date on the role of obesity and nutrition on childhood cognition and brain health. Although a handful of studies point to a maladaptive relationship between obesity and aspects of cognitive control, remarkably little is known regarding the impact of fat mass on brain development and cognitive function. Further, missing from the literature is the role of nutrition in the obesity-cognition interaction. Nutrition may directly or indirectly influence cognitive performance via several pathways including provision of key substrates for optimal brain health, modulation of gut microbiota, and alterations in systemic energy balance. However, in the absence of malnutrition, the functional benefits of specific nutrient intake on particular cognitive domains are not well characterized. Here, we examine the literature linking childhood obesity and cognition while considering the effects of nutritional intake. Possible mechanisms for these relationships are discussed and suggestions are made for future study topics. Although childhood obesity prevalence rates in some developed countries have recently stabilized, significant disparities remain among groups based on sex and socioeconomic status. Given that the elevated prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity may persist for the foreseeable future, it is crucial to develop a comprehensive understanding of the influence of obesity and nutrition on cognition and brain health in the pediatric population. © 2014 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Chen, Alex Y.; Escarce, Jos? J.
Introduction Little is known about the effect of family structure on childhood obesity among US children. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on children's body mass index and risk of obesity. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. Our analyses included 2 cross-sectio...
Lichtveld, Kim; Thomas, Kent; Tulve, Nicolle S
Childhood obesity in the United States has doubled over the last three decades and currently affects 17% of children and adolescents. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous chemical and non-chemical stressors found in a child's environment and how these interactions affect a child's health and well-being. The objectives of this systematic scoping review were to (1) identify potential chemical stressors in the context of non-chemical stressors that impact childhood obesity; and, (2) summarize our observations for chemical and non-chemical stressors in regards to child-specific environments within a community setting. A review was conducted to identify chemical and non-chemical stressors related to childhood obesity for the childhood life stages ranging from prenatal to adolescence. Stressors were identified and grouped into domains: individual behaviors, family/household behaviors, community stressors, and chemical exposures. Stressors were related to the child and the child's everyday environments and used to characterize child health and well-being. This review suggests that the interactions of chemical and non-chemical stressors are important for understanding a child's overall health and well-being. By considering these relationships, the exposure science research community can better design and implement strategies to reduce childhood obesity.
Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C
The objective of this study is to critically review the literature on early life stress in relation to obesity in humans, including the multiple biological and behavioral mechanisms through which early life stress exposure (birth to the age of 5 years) may associate with obesity risk during childhood. A review of the literature was conducted to identify studies on associations between early childhood stress and risk for obesity and the mechanisms of association. Multiple databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Google Scholar) were used in the search as well as a "snowball" search strategy. All study designs were included. Early life stress and adverse childhood experiences are associated with obesity and overweight in adults. Evidence is less consistent in children. Studies vary in the nature of the stress examined (e.g., chronic vs. acute), sample characteristics, and study designs. Longitudinal studies are needed, as the effects of early life stress exposure may not emerge until later in the life-span. Early life stress exposure is associated with biological and behavioral pathways that may increase risk for childhood obesity. There is evidence that early life stress is associated with multiple biological and behavioral pathways in children that may increase risk for later obesity. Little work has detailed the interconnections among these mechanisms across development or identified potential moderators of the association. Mapping the mechanisms connecting early life stress exposure to obesity risk in young children longitudinally should be a priority for obesity researchers. Recommendations for developmentally sensitive approaches to research that can inform obesity prevention strategies are presented. © 2018 The Obesity Society.
Cole, Doreen Dawn M; Boyd, Linda D; Vineyard, Jared; Giblin-Scanlon, Lori J
Purpose: Increasing childhood obesity rates present a significant threat to public health. The purpose of this study was to explore dental hygienists' (DH) beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, current practices, and barriers for assessing and educating patients about childhood obesity. Methods: A random sample of DHs (n=13,357) was selected and emailed a link to the validated survey. Of the 1046 respondents who accessed the survey, 919 completed the survey for a completion rate of 89%. Results: A majority of the respondents understood the risk of chronic disease and obesity (99%), role sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) play as added sugar content in the diet (76%), and the amount of SSBs consumed by youth (91%). Participants felt current research showed an association between obesity and periodontal disease (62%), but were unsure of the association between obesity and dental caries (51%). Most respondents never measure height and weight (91%) or plot BMI (94%). Fifty-one percent always provide nutritional counseling to reduce consumption of SSBs, but only sometimes provide nutritional counseling for healthy eating (61%). Respondents had a slightly positive attitude (mean score=4.15, SD=14.58) about assessing and educating for childhood obesity. Major barriers reported were time constraints (63%), and fear of offending the patient or parent (47%). Regression showed attitudes towards patient's nutrition, exercise, and weight predicted the dental hygienist behavior. Conclusion: DHs have some understanding of the risks of obesity and general/oral health, but lack adequate training, knowledge, and confidence to provide obesity counseling in clinical practice settings. There is a need for further education to address the lack of knowledge about nutritional guidelines and practitioners' beliefs regarding addressing childhood obesity without offending the patient or parent. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Andersen, Lise Geisler; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
Prevalence of obesity is the result of preceding incidence of newly developed obesity and persistence of obesity. We investigated whether increasing incidence and/or persistence during childhood drove the prevalence of childhood obesity during the emerging epidemic....
Okihiro, May; Pillen, Michelle; Ancog, Cristeta; Inda, Christy; Sehgal, Vija
Obesity, the most common chronic disease of childhood, is prevalent among economically disadvantaged children. The Chronic Care and Obesity Care Models are comprehensive health care strategies to improve outcomes by linking primary care best practices and community-based programs. Pediatric providers and community health centers are well positioned to design and implement coordinated and synergistic programs to address childhood health disparities. This article describes a comprehensive proje...
Heerman, William J; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Barkin, Shari L; McPheeters, Melissa
To evaluate the association between adverse family experiences (AFEs) during childhood and adolescent obesity and to determine populations at highest risk for AFEs. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, including children aged 10-17 years. Weighted estimates of 31,258,575 children were based on interviews with 42,239 caregivers. Caregiver reports of nine psychosocial risk factors measured AFEs during childhood. Adolescent overweight and obesity were derived by caregiver-reported child height and weight. Nearly one-third (30.5%) of children had experienced ≥2 AFEs, with geographic variation by state. The prevalence of obesity among children experiencing ≥2 AFEs was 20.4%, when compared with 12.5% among children with 0 AFEs. Adjusted survey regression models were controlled for child, parent, household, and neighborhood characteristics. Children with ≥2 AFEs in childhood were more likely to have obesity (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.47-2.17; P Adolescents in this national sample who were exposed to greater numbers of AFEs in childhood also had higher rates of overweight and obesity. Geographic variation and differential associations based on race/ethnicity identified children at greatest risk. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Obesity in the United States and throughout the world remains highly prevalent, especially among children and adolescents. Innumerable child obesity prevention trials emphasizing diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and recently sleep have been designed, implemented, and evaluated with the b...
Appleton, Jessica; Fowler, Cathrine; Brown, Nicola
Childhood obesity is an increasing concern for parents and health professionals alike. Parents' perception of obesity as a current health issue for their children is important for the everyday parenting and health choices parents make. As parents are frequently going online to seek and exchange information about parenting and child health, asynchronous online discussion forums provide an opportunity to investigate their perceptions and concerns. Understanding parents' perceptions, beliefs and attitudes is important in any childhood obesity prevention and intervention. To explore parents' perceptions, perspectives and concerns regarding childhood obesity expressed on asynchronous online discussion forums. A qualitative descriptive approach using template analysis to analyse a novel data collection strategy of 34 purposefully sampled threads from two Australian-based asynchronous online discussion forums. Parents on the discussion forum displayed an understanding of childhood obesity as a public health concern, the discussion incorporated issues such as providing a healthy diet and lifestyle for children. Parents shared their own opinions and experiences that challenged or conceded to the status quo of the discussion. Parents discussed the role of health professionals in obesity prevention. There were varied opinions on the relevance of health professionals, particularly nurses, monitoring of growth and risk of obesity. This exploratory study highlights that parents perceive childhood obesity as an important public health concern, and that they understand the key public health messages of prevention and intervention. Yet, for many it is difficult to successfully implement these messages into their everyday lives. Health professionals need to play a key role in providing non-judgemental, innovative support and advice to parents to successfully implement prevention and intervention strategies.
Obesity is the most prevalent health problem among children in the United States and globally, leading to diverse health problems and staggering costs. Most child obesity prevention interventions are not working well, or not at all. Part of the problem is that the causes of child obesity are not cle...
Knai, Cécile; McKee, Martin
Recommendations to tackle major health problems such as childhood obesity may not be appropriate if they fail to take account of the prevailing socio-political, cultural and economic context. We describe the development and application of a qualitative risk analysis approach to identify non-scientific considerations framing the policy response to obesity in Denmark and Latvia. Interviews conducted with key stakeholders in Denmark and Latvia, undertaken following a review of relevant literature on obesity and national policies. A qualitative risk analysis model was developed to help explain the findings in the light of national context. Non-scientific considerations that appeared to influence the response to obesity include the perceived relative importance of childhood obesity; the nature of stakeholder relations and its impact on decision-making; the place of obesity on the policy agenda; the legitimacy of the state to act for population health and views on alliances between public and private sectors. Better recognition of the exogenous factors affecting policy-making may lead to a more adequate policy response. The development and use of a qualitative risk analysis model enabled a better understanding of the contextual factors and processes influencing the response to childhood obesity in each country.
Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop
Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG').
Moreno, Luis A; Rodríguez, Gerardo
Controversial information exists on the contribution of several dietary factors for overweight development in childhood, but there is no doubt that obesity prevalence is increasing. We review the most up-to-date information in order to clarify the evidence-based dietary aspects influencing obesity development in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are the preferred method for analysing the relationship between dietary factors and obesity development. With the exception of infants, there are no conclusive associations between energy intake or diet composition and later overweight development in children. Among formula or mixed-fed infants, the increase in energy intake has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight during childhood. Breastfeeding seems to be a protective factor for later obesity development. In terms of food intake, longitudinal studies have only found a clear and positive association between obesity development and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; this is not the case with snacking, fast food or food portion sizes. Cross-sectional studies have found correlations between being overweight in childhood and buying lunch at school, eating supper while watching television or without family supervision, consuming less energy at breakfast or more at dinner, and missing breakfast. Results from longitudinal studies must be taken into account in order to design preventive strategies to counteract the increased prevalence of obesity and its consequences in children. Lack of breastfeeding, high early energy intake and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages seem to be the main dietary factors contributing to obesity development.
Mahmood, Hashum; Lowe, Susan
The aims of this study are threefold: (1) to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (inequality) and childhood obesity prevalence within Birmingham local authority, (2) to identify any change in childhood obesity prevalence between deprivation quintiles and (3) to analyse individualised Birmingham National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) data using a population segmentation tool to better inform obesity prevention strategies. Data from the NCMP for Birmingham (2010/2011 and 2014/2015) were analysed using the deprivation scores from the Income Domain Affecting Children Index (IDACI 2010). The percentage of children with excess weight was calculated for each local deprivation quintile. Population segmentation was carried out using the Experian's Mosaic Public Sector 6 (MPS6) segmentation tool. Childhood obesity levels have remained static at the national and Birmingham level. For Year 6 pupils, obesity levels have increased in the most deprived deprivation quintiles for boys and girls. The most affluent quintile shows a decreasing trend of obesity prevalence for boys and girls in both year groups. For the middle quintiles, the results show fluctuating trends. This research highlighted the link in Birmingham between obesity and socio-economic factors with the gap increasing between deprivation quintiles. Obesity is a complex problem that cannot simply be addressed through targeting most deprived populations, rather through a range of effective interventions tailored for the various population segments that reside within communities. Using population segmentation enables a more nuanced understanding of the potential barriers and levers within populations on their readiness for change. The segmentation of childhood obesity data will allow utilisation of social marketing methodology that will facilitate identification of suitable methods for interventions and motivate individuals to sustain behavioural change. Sequentially, it will also inform
Kauh, Tina J; Dawkins-Lyn, Nicola; Dooyema, Carrie; Harris, Carole; Jernigan, Jan; Kettel Khan, Laura; Ottley, Phyllis; Young-Hyman, Deborah
Recent findings show that national childhood obesity prevalence overall is improving among some age groups, but that disparities continue to persist, particularly among populations that have historically been at higher risk of obesity and overweight. Over the past several years, many jurisdictions at the city or county level across the nation have also reported declines. Little evaluation has focused on understanding the factors that influence the implementation of efforts to reduce childhood obesity rates. This article summarizes the rationale, aims, and overall design of the Childhood Obesity Declines Project (COBD), which was the first of its kind to systematically study and document the what, how, when, and where of community-based obesity strategies in four distinct communities across the nation. COBD was initiated by the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR), was led by a subset of NCCOR advisors and a research team at ICF, and was guided by external advisors made up of researchers, decision makers, and other key stakeholders. The research team used an adapted version of the Systematic Screening and Assessment method to review and collect retrospective implementation data in four communities. COBD found that sites implemented strategies across the many levels and environments that impact children's well being (akin to the social-ecological framework), building a Culture of Health in their communities. COBD demonstrates how collaboratives of major funders with the support of other experts and key stakeholders, can help to accelerate progress in identifying and disseminating strategies that promote healthy eating and physical activity.
In Canada, forces such as the media, medical discourse, and public policy work to position childhood obesity as increased body fat content or excess adiposity due to various personal, social, and economic factors. Drawing on Barad's "agential realist ontology", this article aims to inhabit-with obesity in an effort to disrupt dominant…
Mansego, M L; Garcia-Lacarte, M; Milagro, F I; Marti, A; Martinez, J A
Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in obesity onset and its consequences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether DNA methylation status in microRNA (miRNA) coding regions is associated with childhood obesity. DNA isolated from white blood cells of 24 children (identification sample: 12 obese and 12 non-obese) from the Grupo Navarro de Obesidad Infantil study was hybridized in a 450 K methylation microarray. Several CpGs whose DNA methylation levels were statistically different between obese and non-obese were validated by MassArray® in 95 children (validation sample) from the same study. Microarray analysis identified 16 differentially methylated CpGs between both groups (6 hypermethylated and 10 hypomethylated). DNA methylation levels in miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A coding regions significantly correlated with body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and explained up to 40% of the variation of BMI-SDS. The network analysis identified 19 well-defined obesity-relevant biological pathways from the KEGG database. MassArray® validation identified three regions located in or near miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A coding regions differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children. The current work identified three CpG sites located in coding regions of three miRNAs (miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A) that were differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children, suggesting a role of miRNA epigenetic regulation in childhood obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health video games are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health video games on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health video ames published betwee...
Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eiben, Gabriele; M Fernandéz-Alvira, Juan; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin
The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Woo, Jessica G; Martin, Lisa J
Human milk is the optimal feeding choice for infants, as it dynamically provides the nutrients, immunity support, and other bioactive factors needed for infants at specific stages during development. Observational studies and several meta-analyses have suggested that breastfeeding is protective against development of obesity in childhood and beyond. However, these findings are not without significant controversy. This review includes an overview of observational findings to date, then focuses on three specific pathways that connect human milk and infant physiology: maternal obesity, microbiome development in the infant, and the development of taste preference and diet quality. Each of these pathways involves complex interactions between mother and infant, includes both biologic and non-biologic factors, and may have both direct and indirect effects on obesity risk in the offspring. This type of integrated approach to examining breastfeeding and childhood obesity is necessary to advance research in this area beyond observational findings.
Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028
Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop
Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society
Guran, T; Bereket, A
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity.
Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Posa, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Henauw, Stefaan de; Eiben, Gabriele; Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Kovacs, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin
The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measure...
This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding. Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/2/2011.
Salvy, S-J; de la Haye, K; Galama, T; Goran, M I
Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: (i) short duration and low intensity; (ii) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; (iii) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and (iv) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (i) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health because of socio-economic and structural conditions; (ii) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (iii) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Abrams, Pamela; Levitt Katz, Lorraine E
Childhood obesity is rising to epidemic proportions throughout the world, and much emphasis has been placed on the long-term consequences that can result later, in adulthood. This article reviews the metabolic consequences of obesity that can manifest as disease during the childhood years. Obese children suffer from many disease processes once thought to affect only adults. They can have type 2 diabetes mellitus, and potentially early β cell failure with rapid progression to an insulin requirement. There is a high prevalence of fatty liver disease in obese children, and complications such as steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis can develop during childhood. Visceral fat has been shown to have many different properties than subcutaneous fat, and children with central adiposity can develop the metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Hyperandrogenism, sleep disturbances, and many types of orthopedic complications can also develop in young children. Physicians should not only warn obese children and their families about the long-term consequences of obesity for which they are at risk in adulthood, they should also screen for the many diseases that may already be present.
Koirala, M; Khatri, R B; Khanal, V; Amatya, A
Childhood overweight/obesity is a global health problem because of adverse health and nutrition consequences worldwide. Currently, there is a paucity of information on childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of, and the factors associated with, childhood overweight/obesity among primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-December, 2013. We collected data using the structured self-administered questionnaire with parents of children aged 6-13 years in grades 1-6 studying at private schools of the Lalitpur district of Nepal. Height and weight measurements of 986 children were taken, and the corresponding body mass index (BMI)-for-age was calculated. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity was reported in proportion. Factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity were examined using the Chi-square tests followed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Of 986 children, 144 (14.6%) were overweight and 111 (11.3%) were obese. Overall, 255 (25.9%) children were found to be overweight/obese. Children from families, having ≤2 siblings (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.958, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.163-3.296), upper class family (aOR=3.672; 95% CI: 1.154-11.690), and advantaged ethnic group (aOR=1.561; 95% CI: 1.00-2.437) and children who were of larger birth weight (>4.0kg) had a greater likelihood of being (aOR=2.557, 95% CI: 1.222-5.349) overweight/obese. A quarter of children were found to be overweight/obese in private primary schools. Preventive interventions should focus on the advantaged ethnic groups, families with fewer siblings, and upper class families. A greater emphasis ought to be placed on formulation and implementation of policies aimed at addressing the newly emerging problems of childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. New school health programs are to be launched and strengthened including avoidance of high energy junk food, and promoting outdoor
Gurnani, Muskaan; Birken, Catherine; Hamilton, Jill
One-third of North American children are overweight or obese. Pathologic obesity accounts for only a small percentage of these cases. The vast majority are the result of a complex interaction of genetic and hormonal, nutritional, physical activity, and physical and social environmental factors. Obesity increases the risk for various cardiometabolic, pulmonary, and psychosocial complications for children, which often continues into adulthood. Multidisciplinary care, focusing on family-centered behavior change, is an evidence-based, essential part of the treatment, along with pharmacologic and surgical options for more complex cases. Prevention and early intervention strategies are key to reversing the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
To review the currently available pharmacotherapies for obesity management with a particular focus on the United States. Narrative review based on literature searches and the latest prescribing information (up to July 2017). Obesity pharmacotherapies may assist those individuals who have obesity, or overweight with comorbidities, who have failed to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modifications alone (caloric restriction and increased physical activity). Currently approved options in the United States include phentermine for short-term use and five obesity pharmacotherapies that can be used long-term (orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine-topiramate, naltrexone-bupropion, and liraglutide 3.0 mg). If the use of an obesity pharmacotherapy is indicated, treatment should be selected to provide the most appropriate option for each individual and their circumstances. Variables such as contraindications, individual comorbidities, patient choice, patient readiness to incorporate additional behavioral changes (e.g., alcohol prohibition), and cost should guide choices. Each of the obesity pharmacotherapies has advantages and disadvantages that can help guide treatment choice. Those receiving treatment may also have individual preferences based on factors such as administration route, frequency of dosing, and/or safety profile. In addition, some options may be particularly appropriate for patients with common obesity-related complications such as depression or diabetes. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. It is related to several chronic diseases such as essential hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and renal disease. The relationship between the degree of obesity and lung functions is well defined in adults, but limited information is available about the childhood period. Aims: This study aims to determine the impact of the degree of obesity on the pulmonary functions of school children and adolescents. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Included in the study were a total of 170 school children and adolescents (9-17 years old referred to our paediatric outpatient clinic. Of these subjects, 42 were lean and non-obese (BMI % <85, 30 subjects were overweight (BMI % ˃85, <95, 34 subjects were obese (BMI % ˃95, <97, and 64 subjects were morbidly obese (BMI % ˃97. Anthropometric measurements were taken and spirometry was performed on all subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity 25-75 (FEV25-75 and peak expiratory flow (PEF were used to measure the ventilatory functions for all the subjects. Results: The groups showed no significant differences in age or gender. Despite no statistically significant differences in FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC, there were significant reductions in PEF (p<0.001 and FEV25-75 (p<0.001 in the overweight, obese and morbidly obese subjects, when compared with those who were non-obese. Conclusion: Overweight, obese and morbidly obese children have no obstructive abnormalities compared with healthy lean subjects.
Full Text Available Catherine A Peterson Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency and childhood obesity have been classified as epidemics throughout the world, and both share some common risk factors including poor diet and inactivity. Observational and clinical studies show that vitamin D status and fat mass are inversely correlated. It is not clear whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to, or is a consequence of obesity, or whether there are regulatory interactions between excess adiposity and vitamin D activity. The effects of this deficiency in childhood obesity appear to have negative influences on overall health, including insulin resistance, inflammation, and impeded bone mineralization, as well as increased future risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. The rather ubiquitous distribution of the vitamin D receptor and the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1a-hydroxylase throughout the body, including evidence for a role of vitamin D in adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism, may in part explain these widespread effects. Most of the findings to date suggest that the vitamin D needs of obese children are greater than the nonobese. Although ultraviolet B-induced skin synthesis is a main source of vitamin D, its use is neither feasible nor prudent due to limited sun availability for many and concerns for skin cancer. Likewise, obtaining adequate vitamin D from natural food sources alone is generally not achievable, and even in countries that allow fortification, vitamin D intakes are low. Therefore, in obese children, vitamin D supplementation is warranted. Weight loss interventions using energy restriction and physical activity may also improve the poor vitamin D status associated with obesity. More research is needed to define optimal vitamin D status in this vulnerable population, including investigations to determine the efficacy of vitamin D
Tinanoff, Norman; Holt, Katrina
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has worked to ensure that all children have healthy weights. To promote this goal, the RWJF has supported the Healthy Futures: Engaging the Oral Health Community in Childhood Obesity Prevention National Conference, held on November 3-4, 2016, and the proceeding of this conference. The goals of the conference were to increase understanding of the science focusing on oral health and childhood obesity, increase understanding of how to prevent childhood obesity, and provide opportunities to network and plan activities to prevent childhood obesity. The papers prepared for the conference identified through systematic reviews or scoping reviews the state of the science related to preventing childhood obesity and reducing children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and strategies that oral health professionals and organizations can employ prevent childhood obesity. Causes of childhood obesity are multifactorial and include genetic components, environmental and lifestyle variables, and nutritional factors. Dental caries also is caused by a combination of factors, including cariogenic diet, inadequate fluoride exposure, a susceptible host, and the presence of caries-causing bacteria in the oral cavity. One key risk factors for both obesity and caries is excessive sugar consumption. To reduce the risk of obesity and dental caries in children, health professionals and parents need to be aware of the sugar content of processed foods and beverages as well as of current daily sugar-consumption recommendations. Additionally, oral health professionals must become more engaged in identifying children who are at risk for obesity and dental caries; and provide education, screening and referral to reduce these risks. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Wang, Jun; Freire, Daniel; Knable, Lindsay; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Levine, Samara; Pasinetti, Giulio M
The prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance has reached an epidemic level. Obesity's immediate clinical impacts have been extensively studied; however, current clinical evidence underscores the long-term implications. The current study explored the impacts of brief childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance on cognitive function in later life. To mimic childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance, we exposed 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, after which the mice exhibited diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We then put these mice back on a normal low-fat diet, after which the mice exhibited normal body weight and glucose tolerance. However, a spatial memory test in the forms of the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning at 85 weeks of age showed that these mice had severe deficits in learning and long-term memory consolidation. Mechanistic investigations identified increased expression of histone deacetylases 5, accompanied by reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the brains 61 weeks after the mice had been off the high-fat diet. Electrophysiology studies showed that hippocampal slices isolated from these mice are more susceptible to synaptic impairments compared with slices isolated from the control mice. We demonstrated that a 15-week occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance during childhood/adolescence induces irreversible epigenetic modifications in the brain that persist following restoration of normal metabolic homeostasis, leading to brain synaptic dysfunction during aging. Our study provides experimental evidence that limited early-life exposure to obesity and insulin resistance may have long-term deleterious consequences in the brain, contributing to the onset/progression of cognitive dysfunction during aging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sweeting Helen N
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Methods Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms. In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. Results The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Conclusion This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field.
Sweeting, Helen N
The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms). In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field.
Background: Childhood obesity is a complex condition resulting from an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors and socio-economic status. The prevalence has been increasing all over the world, probably due to economic transition and rapid urbanization as well as globalisation. This relationship should ...
Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon E.; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Dolinsky, Diana H.; Kemper, Alex R.
The relationship between childhood obesity and aspects of the built environment characterizing neighborhood social context is understudied. We evaluate the association between seven built environment domains and childhood obesity in Durham, NC. Measures of housing damage, property disorder, vacancy, nuisances, and territoriality were constructed using data from a 2008 community assessment. Renter-occupied housing and crime measures were developed from public databases. We linked these measures to 2008–2009 Duke University Medical Center pediatric preventive care visits. Age- and sex-specific body mass index percentiles were used to classify children as normal weight (>5th and ≤ 85th percentile), overweight (>85th and ≤ 95th percentile), or obese (> 95th percentile). Ordinal logistic regression models with cluster-corrected standard errors evaluated the association between weight status and the built environment. Adjusting for child-level socioeconomic characteristics, nuisances and crime were associated with childhood overweight/obesity (Penvironment characteristics appear important to childhood weight status in Durham, NC. PMID:22563061
A.-M. Hendriks (Anna-Marie); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); J.S. Gubbels (Jessica); H. Raat (Hein); N.K. de Vries (Nanne); M.W.J. Jansen (Maria W.)
textabstractThe childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from
... make more informed choices about the foods they eat. As part of my Administration's comprehensive... affect our children's well-being, but its associated health risks also impose great costs on families... broad strategies to address childhood obesity, including providing healthier food in schools, ensuring...
Full Text Available Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the last decades, representing one of the most serious public health hazards of the 21st century. Efforts must be made by healthcare professionals to prevent it, as it is associated with short- and long-term risks for physical and mental health and because of the increased possibility to persist during adulthood. From antiquity human breast milk was considered the ideal nourishment for the newborn. Breastfeeding is beneficial for the mother-child dyad. Among others, existing data suggest that it reduces the risk for childhood and adolescence obesity. The mechanisms for this are numerous and include the feeding behavior breastfeeding infants acquire, their growth rate, the ‘early protein hypothesis’, the role of leptin that is found in increased levels in human milk, the dietary choices the breastfed infants make during childhood and adolescence and finally the differences in their bowel flora. Meta-analyses provide sufficient evidence for this protective effect, with a dose-response effect as to the duration of breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals involved in the care of the mother-infant dyad must encourage and support mothers to breastfeed their infants for a long period of time, if obesity were to be prevented. Aim of this review is to provide an account of existing data on the association of breastfeeding and the reduced risk of obesity in childhood and adulthood.
Beedle, Lisa M; Maldonado, Maria G; Forest, Christopher P
Traditional video games contribute to a sedentary lifestyle. Active video games that include physical activity may help reduce childhood obesity and have found an unconventional niche in medical treatment and training. This article offers providers practical information on how to evaluate popular active video games and how to encourage patients to make them part of a more healthful lifestyle.
Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven
As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker…
Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna
Given the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on more than 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…
Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Dannison, Linda; Morris, Joseph R.; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; McGowan, Judy; Michael, Timothy
This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the…
Wolfrom, Sean E.
The purpose of this study was to determine Pennsylvania principals' perceptions and understanding of the physical and psychosocial impact of childhood obesity, whether they believe schools should be addressing the issue, who they feel should be leading efforts within schools, what actions they believe are taking place to address the issue within…
This article explores the growing problem of childhood obesity and suggests guidelines for professionals to recommend to parents. Research has shown that an overweight child at 3 years is nearly eight times as likely to become an overweight young adult as is a typically developing 3-year-old. More of America's children are becoming overweight, and…
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.
Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984
Davison, K K; Kitos, N; Aftosmes-Tobio, A; Ash, T; Agaronov, A; Sepulveda, M; Haines, J
Despite recognition that parents are critical stakeholders in childhood obesity prevention, obesity research has overwhelmingly focused on mothers. In a recent review, fathers represented only 17% of parent participants in >600 observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity. The current study examined the representation of fathers in family interventions to prevent childhood obesity and characteristics of interventions that include fathers compared with those that only include mothers. Eligible studies included family-based interventions for childhood obesity prevention published between 2008 and 2015 identified in a recent systematic review. Data on intervention characteristics were extracted from the original review. Using a standardized coding scheme, these data were augmented with new data on the number of participating fathers/male caregivers and mothers/female caregivers. Out of 85 eligible interventions, 31 (37%) included mothers and fathers, 29 (34%) included only mothers, 1 (1%) included only fathers, and 24 (28%) did not provide information on parent gender. Of the interventions that included fathers, half included 10 or fewer fathers. Across all interventions, fathers represented a mere 6% of parent participants. Father inclusion was more common in interventions targeting families with elementary school-aged children (6-10 years) and those grounded in Ecological Systems Theory, and was less common in interventions focused on very young children (0-1 years) or the prenatal period and those targeting the sleep environment. This study emphasizes the lack of fathers in childhood obesity interventions and highlights a particular need to recruit and engage fathers of young children in prevention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jin Taek Kim
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity around the world has increased sharply. Strong evidence has emerged over the last decades that human exposure to numerous endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is the cause of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Many EDCs are manmade chemicals that are released into the environment. EDCs are exogenous compounds that interfere with hormonal regulation and normal endocrine systems, thereby affecting the health of animals and humans. The number of chemicals belonging to EDCs is increasing and some of them are very stable; they persist in the environment (persistent organic pollutants. Although they are banned, their concentrations have been continuously increasing over time. This review gives a brief introduction to common EDCs, and evidence of harmful effects of EDCs on obesity-related diseases; we focus in particular on EDCs’ role in causing mitochondrial dysfunction.
Apr 27, 2016 ... This initiative built an international, multidisciplinary team of researchers who ... and implemented innovative approaches for health and development. ... article on links between physical activity and obesity in Mexican children ...
Narayanaswami, Vidya; Dwoskin, Linda P.
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior. Dysregulation of one or more of these homeostatic components results in obesity. Coincident with obesity, reward mechanisms that regulate hedonic aspects of food intake override the homeostatic regulation of eating. In addition to functional interactions between homeostatic and reward systems in the regulation of food intake, homeostatic signals have the ability to alter vulnerability to drug abuse. Regarding the treatment of obesity, pharmacological monotherapies primarily focus on a single protein target. FDA-approved monotherapy options include phentermine (Adipex-P®), orlistat (Xenical®), lorcaserin (Belviq®) and liraglutide (Saxenda®). However, monotherapies have limited efficacy, in part due to the recruitment of alternate and counter-regulatory pathways. Consequently, a multi-target approach may provide greater benefit. Recently, two combination products have been approved by the FDA to treat obesity, including phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia®) and naltrexone/bupropion (Contrave®). The current review provides an overview of homeostatic and reward mechanisms that regulate energy balance, potential therapeutic targets for obesity and current treatment options, including some candidate therapeutics in clinical development. Finally, challenges in anti-obesity drug development are discussed. PMID:27773782
Franco, Manuel; Sanz, Belén; Otero, Laura; Domínguez-Vila, Adrián; Caballero, Benjamín
Obesity is currently a global public health problem. Obesity in early life increases the risk of long-term energy imbalance and adult obesity and its comorbidities, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Since infancy and childhood are critical periods for the adoption of food preferences and physical activity, prevention strategies must intervene in these early periods to promote healthy habits and reduce risk behaviors. Trends in the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Spain have continuously increased in the last three decades. Obesity and overweight currently affect 15 and 20% of Spanish children, respectively, and these percentages are among the highest in Europe. Childhood obesity is determined by social and economic factors pertaining to sectors other than the health system, such as advertising, the built environment, education and the school environment, transportation and the food environment. Following the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach, the authors identified a series of multisector policy changes that may help to prevent and control the current rising trend of childhood obesity in Spain. The HiAP approach acknowledges that social factors including socioeconomic status, gender differences and the work-life balance are important to develop effective policy changes in the prevention of childhood obesity. A key to success in the prevention of childhood obesity in Spain through policy changes will depend on the ability to establish a policy with the explicit and primary goal of improving health outcomes, despite the anticipated resistance from various sectors and stakeholders. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Hammad Ali Qazi
Full Text Available The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES, gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.
Ridolfi, Danielle R.; Hayes, Jacqueline F.; St Paul, Michelle; Wilfley, Denise E.
Opinion Statement Family-based behavioral intervention has been demonstrated to be an effective and safe treatment for childhood obesity and should be considered a first-line treatment option. However, access to such intensive evidence-based treatment is limited and, currently, obesity care is dominated by high intensity behavioral treatment implemented in specialty clinics or less effective, low intensity treatments implemented in primary care. However, capitalizing on the established and ongoing relationship between primary care providers and families, primary care providers hold an invaluable role in early identification of overweight and obesity, and subsequent referral to an evidence-based treatment. key aspects of effective treatment include: early intervention, moderate- to high-intensity intervention of sufficient duration, multi-component intervention targeting dietary modification, physical activity and behavioral strategies, family involvement and goals targeting family members, and follow-up contact during maintenance. The purpose of this review is to present the current empirically supported treatment options for pediatric obesity including primary care-based interventions and diagnostic tools, multi-component behavioral intervention with a focus on family-based behavioral intervention, immersion treatment, and pharmacologic and surgical management. PMID:25205083
Keser, Alev; Yüksel, Ayşegül; Yeşiltepe-Mutlu, Gül; Bayhan, Asuman; Özsu, Elif; Hatun, Şükrü
Uncontrolled eating behavior in obese subjects is very similar to behavior in food addiction, suggesting a relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and food addiction and to determine the frequency of food addiction among obese children and adolescents. The study included 100 overweight and obese children. Food addiction was evaluated by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The cutoff value for food addiction was defined as the presence of 3 or more symptoms. Participants were between 10 and 18 years of age; 63% were girls. Of the participants, 71% had food addiction. The most addictive foods were chocolate, ice cream, carbonated beverages, French fries, white bread, rice, candy, chips and pasta, in decreasing order of frequency. Experiencing a frequent feeling of hunger was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in food addiction risk, while consumption of French fries ≥1-2 times per week was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (pfood addiction plays an important role in childhood obesity. Evaluation of food addiction in more detail may open a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of obesity.
Maziak, W; Ward, K D; Stockton, M B
Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, raising alarm about future trends of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This article discusses what may underlie our failure to respond effectively to the obesity epidemic, and presents a wider perspective for future research and public health agendas. So far targeting individual-level determinants and clinical aspects of childhood obesity has produced limited success. There is growing interest in understanding the wider determinants of obesity such as the built environment (e.g. walkability), social interactions, food marketing and prices, but much needs to be learned. Particularly, we need to identify distal modifiable factors with multiple potential that would make them attractive for people and policymakers alike. For example, walking-biking-friendly cities can reduce obesity as well as energy consumption, air pollution and traffic delays. Such agenda needs to be driven by strong evidence from research involving multi-level influences on behaviour, as well as the study of wider politico-economic trends affecting people's choices. This article highlights available evidence and arguments for research and policy needed to curb the obesity epidemic. The upstream approach underlying these arguments aims to make healthy choices not only the most rational, but also the most feasible and affordable.
Wisniewski, Amy B; Chernausek, Steven D
The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States represents a pool of latent morbidity. Though the prevalence of obesity has increased in both boys and girls, the causes and consequences differ between the sexes. Thus, interventions proposed to treat and prevent childhood obesity will need to account for these differences. This review examines gender differences in the presentation of obesity in children and describes environmental, hormonal, and genetic factors that contribute to observed gender differences. A search of peer-reviewed, published literature was performed with PubMed for articles published from January 1974 through October 2008. Search terms used were obesity, sex, gender, hormones, family environment, body composition, adiposity, and genes. Studies of children aged 0 to 18 years were included, and only articles published in English were reviewed for consideration. Articles that illustrated gender differences in either the presentation or underlying mechanisms of obesity in children were reviewed for content, and their bibliographies were used to identify other relevant literature. Gender differences in childhood obesity have been understudied partially because of how we define the categories of overweight and obesity. Close examination of studies revealed that gender differences were common, both before and during puberty. Boys and girls differ in body composition, patterns of weight gain, hormone biology, and the susceptibility to certain social, ethnic, genetic, and environmental factors. Our understanding of how gender differences in pediatric populations relate to the pathogenesis of obesity and the subsequent development of associated comorbid states is critical to developing and implementing both therapeutic and preventive interventions.
Kiess, W; Reich, A; Müller, G; Meyer, K; Galler, A; Bennek, J; Kratzsch, J
recognized more widely. This review is aimed towards defining the clinical problem of childhood obesity on the basis of current knowledge and towards outlining future research areas in the field of energy homoeostasis and food intake control.
Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Rodríguez-González, Arturo; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio
Excess weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth, and the negative effect on the population who suffers it. Overweight and obesity increases significantly the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, and premature mortality, as well as the social cost of health. Today, Mexico has the second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population (30 %), which is ten times higher than Korea's or Japan's (4 %). Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults were overweight, and 22 million, obese. This implies a major challenge for the health sector. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and cost-effective actions for the prevention and control of obesity in children, adolescents, and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight demands to formulate and coordinate efficient multi-sectoral strategies for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.
Yeste, D; Carrascosa, A
Obesity is the most frequent nutritional disorder in childhood and adolescence. The rise in its prevalence and severity has underlined the numerous and significant obesity-related metabolic disorders. Altered glucose metabolism, manifested as impaired glucose tolerance, appears early in severely obese children and adolescents. Obese young people with glucose intolerance are characterized by marked peripheral insulin resistance and relative beta-cell failure. Lipid deposition in muscle and the visceral compartment, and not only obesity per se, is related to increased peripheral insulin resistance, the triggering factor of the metabolic syndrome. Other elements of the metabolic syndrome, such as dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, are already present in obese youngsters and worsen with the degree of obesity. The long-term impact of obesity-related insulin resistance on cardiovascular morbidity in these patients is expected to emerge as these youngsters become young adults. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Hollensted, Mette; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Have, Christian Theil
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a highly heritable disorder, for which the underlying genetic architecture is largely unknown. Four common variants involved in inflammatory-adipokine triggering (IL6 rs2069845, LEPR rs1137100, NAMPT rs3801266, and AMD1 rs2796749) have recently been associated...... with obesity and related traits in Indian children. The current study aimed to examine the effect of these variants on risk of childhood/juvenile onset obesity and on obesity-related quantitative traits in two Danish cohorts. METHODS: Genotype information was obtained for 1461 young Caucasian men from...... the Genetics of Overweight Young Adults (GOYA) study (overweight/obese: 739 and normal weight: 722) and the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank (TDCOB; overweight/obese: 1022 and normal weight: 650). Overweight/obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2); among children and youths, this cut...
Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K
A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Opalinski, Andra; Dyess, Susan; Grooper, Sareen
Pediatric obesity is a multifaceted phenomenon. A partnership with faith-based communities to address the issue has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural beliefs of faith community leaders regarding childhood obesity and to examine attitudes about their role in addressing the issue. A qualitative descriptive design informed by ethnographic methods and triangulation of multiple data sources was utilized to assess the cultural beliefs of faith community leaders. A purposive sample of 13 leaders (nine females, four males) from seven multicultural and multigenerational local faith communities participated in the study. No more than three participants from any one faith community were enrolled in the study. Twenty-first century lifestyle challenges, accountability of behaviors (a dichotomy that fluctuated between individual responsibility to community and/or social responsibility), and the need for intentionality emerged as themes from the data. Faith community leaders envisioned a role for faith communities in addressing childhood obesity. Findings support the ongoing development of population based health promotion programs through faith community engagement. The findings provide a foundation for nurses partnering with faith communities on health promotion programs targeting childhood obesity to address family health issues in a holistic way. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wabitsch, Martin; Moss, Anja; Kromeyer-Hauschild, Katrin
Surveys performed in the past 10 to 15 years show a yet unexplained stabilization or decline in prevalence rates of childhood obesity in developed countries. The projected continuous increase in obesity prevalence throughout future decades seems not to occur at present. Apparently, saturation has been reached, which might be related to societal adjustments. Hence, we postulate a cumulative effect of public health programs for obesity prevention resulting, for example, in an increase in physical activity, and a decline in television viewing and in the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by children. Effective public health programs are urgently needed for developing countries, where obesity rates in children still continued to increase during the past decade.
Sharifi, Mona; Franz, Calvin; Horan, Christine M; Giles, Catherine M; Long, Michael W; Ward, Zachary J; Resch, Stephen C; Marshall, Richard; Gortmaker, Steven L; Taveras, Elsie M
To estimate the cost-effectiveness and population impact of the national implementation of the Study of Technology to Accelerate Research (STAR) intervention for childhood obesity. In the STAR cluster-randomized trial, 6- to 12-year-old children with obesity seen at pediatric practices with electronic health record (EHR)-based decision support for primary care providers and self-guided behavior-change support for parents had significantly smaller increases in BMI than children who received usual care. We used a microsimulation model of a national implementation of STAR from 2015 to 2025 among all pediatric primary care providers in the United States with fully functional EHRs to estimate cost, impact on obesity prevalence, and cost-effectiveness. The expected population reach of a 10-year national implementation is ∼2 million children, with intervention costs of $119 per child and $237 per BMI unit reduced. At 10 years, assuming maintenance of effect, the intervention is expected to avert 43 000 cases and 226 000 life-years with obesity at a net cost of $4085 per case and $774 per life-year with obesity averted. Limiting implementation to large practices and using higher estimates of EHR adoption improved both cost-effectiveness and reach, whereas decreasing the maintenance of the intervention's effect worsened the former. A childhood obesity intervention with electronic decision support for clinicians and self-guided behavior-change support for parents may be more cost-effective than previous clinical interventions. Effective and efficient interventions that target children with obesity are necessary and could work in synergy with population-level prevention strategies to accelerate progress in reducing obesity prevalence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cheng, J; East, P; Blanco, E; Sim, E Kang; Castillo, M; Lozoff, B; Gahagan, S
Poor motor skills have been consistently linked with a higher body weight in childhood, but the causal direction of this association is not fully understood. This study investigated the temporal ordering between children's motor skills and weight status at 5 and 10 years. Participants were 668 children (54% male) who were studied from infancy as part of an iron deficiency anaemia preventive trial and follow-up study in Santiago, Chile. All were healthy, full-term and weighing 3 kg or more at birth. Cross-lagged panel modelling was conducted to understand the temporal precedence between children's weight status and motor proficiency. Analyses also examined differences in gross and fine motor skills among healthy weight, overweight, and obese children. A higher BMI at 5 years contributed to declines in motor proficiency from 5 to 10 years. There was no support for the reverse, that is, poor motor skills at 5 years did not predict increases in relative weight from 5 to 10 years. Obesity at 5 years also predicted declines in motor proficiency. When compared with normal weight children, obese children had significantly poorer total and gross motor skills at both 5 and 10 years. Overweight children had poorer total and gross motor skills at 10 years only. The differences in total and gross motor skills among normal weight, overweight and obese children appear to increase with age. There were small differences in fine motor skill between obese and non-obese children at 5 years only. Obesity preceded declines in motor skills and not the reverse. Study findings suggest that early childhood obesity intervention efforts might help prevent declines in motor proficiency that, in turn, may positively impact children's physical activity and overall fitness levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
News reports calling attention to the steady increase in the number of overweight adults have become an accepted part of our media landscape. Worse still, warnings continue that more and more young children, like the adults who care for them, are carrying too much weight. Unfortunately, this bad news about our growing obesity problem isn't just…
The current study examined the relationships between the specific strategies that preschool children use to regulate their emotions and childhood weight status to see if emotion regulation strategies would predict childhood weight status over and above measures of eating self-regulation. 185 4- to 5...
Kimberly J. Rask
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans and employers are beginning new tactics including removing enrollment requirements, piloting enhanced outreach to selected physician practices, and educating providers on effective care coordination and use of obesity-specific billing codes through professional organizations. The voluntary initiative successfully increased private health insurance coverage for obesity services, but the interviews described variability in implementation with both best practices and barriers identified. Increasing utilization of obesity-related health services in the long term will require both family- and provider-focused interventions in partnership with improved health insurance coverage.
Simmonds, Mark; Burch, Jane; Llewellyn, Alexis; Griffiths, Claire; Yang, Huiqin; Owen, Christopher; Duffy, Steven; Woolacott, Nerys
It is uncertain which simple measures of childhood obesity are best for predicting future obesity-related health problems and the persistence of obesity into adolescence and adulthood. To investigate the ability of simple measures, such as body mass index (BMI), to predict the persistence of obesity from childhood into adulthood and to predict obesity-related adult morbidities. To investigate how accurately simple measures diagnose obesity in children, and how acceptable these measures are to children, carers and health professionals. Multiple sources including MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library were searched from 2008 to 2013. Systematic reviews and a meta-analysis were carried out of large cohort studies on the association between childhood obesity and adult obesity; the association between childhood obesity and obesity-related morbidities in adulthood; and the diagnostic accuracy of simple childhood obesity measures. Study quality was assessed using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) and a modified version of the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. A systematic review and an elicitation exercise were conducted on the acceptability of the simple measures. Thirty-seven studies (22 cohorts) were included in the review of prediction of adult morbidities. Twenty-three studies (16 cohorts) were included in the tracking review. All studies included BMI. There were very few studies of other measures. There was a strong positive association between high childhood BMI and adult obesity [odds ratio 5.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.50 to 6.02]. A positive association was found between high childhood BMI and adult coronary heart disease, diabetes and a range of cancers, but not stroke or breast cancer. The predictive accuracy of childhood BMI to predict any adult morbidity was very low, with most morbidities occurring in adults who were of healthy weight in childhood. Predictive accuracy of childhood obesity was moderate for
Hayati Adilin; Ajau Danis; Siti Khuzaimah Ahmad Sharoni; Mastura Khalid
The schools environment might be one of the factors that contribute to childhood obesity since children spent most of their time at school. This study aimed to identify the compliance of selected schools in Selangor, Malaysia with whole-school mapping framework and prevalence of obesity among primary school children in rural and urban environmental settings. A total of 1200 children aged 10-11 years from 60 schools in rural and urban area in Selangor involved in this study and their BMI was c...
Full Text Available The schools environment might be one of the factors that contribute to childhood obesity since children spent most of their time at school. This study aimed to identify the compliance of selected schools in Selangor, Malaysia with whole-school mapping framework and prevalence of obesity among primary school children in rural and urban environmental settings. A total of 1200 children aged 10-11 years from 60 schools in rural and urban area in Selangor involved in this study and their BMI was calculated. The compliance of each school environmental factors was determined by using whole-school environmental mapping framework's questionnaires.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.
Reilly, J J
A global epidemic of paediatric obesity occurred in recent years, and prevalence of obesity is continuing to rise. In the developed world obesity is now the most common disease of childhood and adolescence. Paediatric obesity is not a cosmetic issue, being associated with a significant burden of ill health both for obese children and for adults who were obese as children. Health professionals tend to underestimate the impact of paediatric obesity, and lack the skills, knowledge, and time to t...
Li, Ji; Hooker, Neal H.
Background: The international prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related diseases has received increasing attention. Applying data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we explore relationships between childhood obesity and school type, National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) eligibility,…
Mulheron, Joyal; Vonasek, Kara
Studies show that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Today, more than 23 million American children--or nearly one in every three--are overweight or obese. If childhood obesity is left unaddressed, a generation of individuals could face health, social, and economic challenges that promise to stress government…
Obesity is becoming the leading negative health outcome for the current generation of children to a greater degree than for any previous generation. Pediatric orthopaedic nurses encounter many patients and families with concerns about obesity and need the ability to promote parenting capacity in order to detect, prevent, or treat childhood obesity. Parenting is a complex process with numerous two-way interactions between the parent and child. Pediatric orthopaedic nurses affect parenting capacity daily as they care for families in all care settings. Many family researchers use Baumrind's parenting typologies (styles) and their correlations to child health outcomes in research. Understanding Baumrind's theories can help pediatric orthopaedic nurses understand the mechanisms parents use to affect the health outcomes related to the obesity of their children. Baumrind's is one parenting theory that can help demonstrate how parental behaviors and practices affect a child's self-concept and self-care development and ultimately a child's health promotion beliefs and practices related to obesity prevention and care that continue into adulthood. Nurses can use reviews of literature and application to practice of parenting styles to expand their repertoire of parent guidance and anticipatory teaching directed to the prevention and care of childhood obesity.
Samuel N Uwaezuoke
Full Text Available Background: The pattern of infant feeding during the first 1000-day period—from conception to the second birthday—has a significant influence on the child’s growth trajectory. The relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and lower risk of childhood obesity has elicited much scientific interest, given the fact that this form of malnutrition is becoming a global epidemic. Aim: This narrative review aims to examine the evidence in the literature linking exclusive breastfeeding with reduction in obesity in children. Literature search: Using appropriate search terms, PubMed database was searched for relevant articles that met the review objective. Results: Evidence for the protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against childhood obesity have been provided by studies which explored 5 physiologic mechanisms and those that established the causality between breastfeeding and lower risk of obesity. The few studies that disputed this relationship highlighted the influence of confounding factors. A new insight on molecular mechanisms, however, points to a direct and indirect effect of human milk oligosaccharides on the prevention of overweight and obesity. Conclusions: The preponderance of current evidence strongly suggests that exclusivity in breastfeeding can prevent the development of obesity in children.
Uwaezuoke, Samuel N; Eneh, Chizoma I; Ndu, Ikenna K
The pattern of infant feeding during the first 1000-day period-from conception to the second birthday-has a significant influence on the child's growth trajectory. The relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and lower risk of childhood obesity has elicited much scientific interest, given the fact that this form of malnutrition is becoming a global epidemic. This narrative review aims to examine the evidence in the literature linking exclusive breastfeeding with reduction in obesity in children. Using appropriate search terms, PubMed database was searched for relevant articles that met the review objective. Evidence for the protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against childhood obesity have been provided by studies which explored 5 physiologic mechanisms and those that established the causality between breastfeeding and lower risk of obesity. The few studies that disputed this relationship highlighted the influence of confounding factors. A new insight on molecular mechanisms, however, points to a direct and indirect effect of human milk oligosaccharides on the prevention of overweight and obesity. The preponderance of current evidence strongly suggests that exclusivity in breastfeeding can prevent the development of obesity in children.
Full Text Available A number of studies have previously assessed the impact of antibiotic exposure in early life on the risk of childhood obesity, but no systematic assessment is currently available. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to comprehensively and quantitatively elucidate the risk of childhood obesity caused by antibiotic exposure in early life. Literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Random-effect meta-analysis was used to pool the statistical estimates. Fifteen cohort studies involving 445,880 participants were finally included, and all those studies were performed in developed countries. Antibiotic exposure in early life significantly increased risk of childhood overweight [relative risk (RR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.13–1.35, P < 0.001] and childhood obesity (RR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.13–1.30, P < 0.001. Antibiotic exposure in early life also significantly increased the z-score of childhood body mass index (mean difference: 0.07, 95% CI 0.05–0.09, P < 0.00001. Importantly, there was an obvious dose–response relationship between antibiotic exposure in early life and childhood adiposity, with a 7% increment in the risk of overweight (RR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.15, P = 0.03 and a 6% increment in the risk of obesity (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.09, P < 0.001 for each additional course of antibiotic exposure. In conclusion, antibiotic exposure in early life significantly increases risk of childhood obesity. Moreover, current analyses are mainly taken from developed countries, and therefore the impact of antibiotic exposure on risk of childhood obesity in vulnerable populations or developing countries still needs to be evaluated in future studies.
Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K
Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.
Valladares-Salgado, Adán; Suárez-Sánchez, Fernando; Burguete-García, Ana I; Cruz, Miguel
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from sedentary lifestyle, high-carbohydrate diets and genetic predisposition. Epigenetics is a form of genetic regulation in specialized cells that does not involve changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence, but it can be inherited to one or more generations through mitosis or meiosis. Children whose mothers develop gestational diabetes are more likely to become obese and diabetic in adult life. DNA methylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of transcription and gene expression of several genes. High levels of glucose and insulin during pregnancy modify the risk of developing T2DM, suggesting that the expression pattern is modified due to cell memory in a specific tissue. If T2DM is linked to adaptation in utero, the obvious primary prevention is to protect the fetal development. Future epidemiological studies need to employ more accurate indicators or markers of development to show the relationship between a specific disease and the exposure to environmental factors. The mechanisms by which malnutrition, and intrauterine growth retardation produce changes in the metabolism of glucose and insuline are worth to explore in order to control obesity and T2DM.
Toschke, André Michael; Koletzko, Berthold; Slikker, William; Hermann, Monika; von Kries, Rüdiger
Overweight and obesity are major public health issues. Childhood obesity often persists throughout adulthood. Recently a higher prevalence of obesity in adults whose mothers smoked during pregnancy was reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether this association is also detectable in pre-school children in a different setting and to identify the critical period for intrauterine exposure to inhaled smoke products in pregnancy. We analysed questionnaire data on early feeding and lifestyle factors of 8,765 German children aged 5.00 to 6.99 years. Obesity was defined as a body mass index >97th percentile. The prevalence estimates for obesity were: mother never smoked 2.8% (95% CI 2.4%-3.2%), smoked after pregnancy only 1.6% (95%CI 0.4%-4.1%), smoked throughout pregnancy 6.2% (95% CI 4.5%-8.3%), smoked before pregnancy, but not throughout 4.5% (95%CI 3.6%-5.7%). These associations could not be explained by confounding due to a number of constitutional, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios were: smoked during pregnancy: 2.32 (95% CI 1.63%-3.30%)/1.92 (95% CI 1.29%-2.86%); smoked before, but not throughout pregnancy: 1.67 (95%CI 1.26%-2.22%)/1.74 (95%CI 1.29%-2.34%). the association of maternal smoking in pregnancy and obesity was also detectable in children at school entry. Since smoking after pregnancy was not associated with childhood obesity, intrauterine exposure rather than family lifestyle factors associated with smoking appears to be instrumental. There appears to be a role for early intrauterine exposure.
Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua; Wright, Alesha R
Objectives African American maternal caregiver support for prevention of childhood obesity may be a factor in implementing, monitoring, and sustaining children's positive health behaviors. However, little is known about how perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors and health complications influence caregivers' support of childhood obesity prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine if childhood obesity risk factors and health complications were associated with maternal caregivers' support for prevention initiatives. Methods A convenience sample of maternal caregivers (N = 129, ages 22-65 years) completed the childhood obesity perceptions (COP) survey. A linear regression was conducted to determine whether perceptions about childhood obesity risk factors and subsequent health complications influenced caregivers' support for prevention strategies. Results Caregivers' perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors were moderate (M = 3.4; SD = 0.64), as were their perceptions of obesity-related health complications (M = 3.3; SD = 0.75); however, they perceived a high level of support for prevention strategies (M = 4.2; SD = 0.74). In the regression model, only health complications were significantly associated with caregiver support (β = 0.348; p obesity prevention efforts should emphasize health complications by providing education and strategies that promote self-efficacy and outcome expectations among maternal caregivers.
Jones, Gary L; McClellan, Wendy; Raman, Sripriya; Sherman, Ashley; Guest, Erin; August, Keith
The prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is well established and ranges anywhere from 29% to 69% depending on the study. We sought to explore the awareness of parents of survivors of childhood ALL regarding the increased risk of obesity and their perceptions regarding the overall health of their child. One hundred twenty-one parents of 99 survivors of pediatric ALL completed surveys regarding perceptions of obesity risk in survivors. Eighty percent of parents of overweight and obese survivors correctly identified their child as "a little overweight" or "overweight." Few parents recalled discussing weight gain (21%) or obesity risk (36%) with their practitioner. Parents that did recall having these discussions and/or reported a decreased level of posttherapy activity in their child were more likely to be concerned about their child's weight status. Improved awareness and education regarding the risk of obesity and associated comorbid conditions may provide an avenue for future prevention of obesity in survivors of pediatric ALL. Discussion and education regarding a healthy lifestyle, including proper diet and exercise, should be incorporated early in routine patient visits.
Children Now, 2011
Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…
Full Text Available Nan Zeng, Zan Gao College of Education and Human Development, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Although exergaming has been used as a physical activity modality among various populations, the evidence regarding its effectiveness on health-related outcomes in overweight/obese individuals remains unclear. The current study systematically reviewed literature and summarized findings of exergame-based interventions in overweight/obese populations with the goal of clarifying the current perspectives on exergaming and obesity. The initial search yielded 202 articles from six databases; 12 studies were included after evaluating for inclusion criteria and removing duplicates. Among these studies, seven were randomized controlled trials, two were control trials, and three were comparison studies. Overall, exergaming has the potential to attenuate weight gain and shows promise when used for physical activity and physical fitness promotion. Further, exergame play is positively associated with psychological well-being, but its effects on physiological outcomes are inconclusive. Finally, effects of exergaming on energy intake are not clear. Existing evidence supports that exergaming may elicit some health benefits in people who are overweight or/and obese. The limited number of available randomized controlled trials, however, restrict the ability to draw a conclusion that exergaming can trigger a change in all health-related outcomes. More research is warranted to make definitive conclusions regarding the effects of exergaming on health-related outcomes in such populations. Keywords: active video game, weight loss, children and adolescents, systematic review
Huang, Hui; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah bt; Salarzadeh Jenatabadi, Hashem
The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM) concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among ...
The incidence of chronic disease is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries than in industrialized countries. A potential emerging public health issue may be the increasing incidence of childhood obesity in developing countries and the resulting socioeconomic and public health burden faced by these countries in the near future. In a systematic review carried out through an electronic search of the literature from 1950-2007, the author compared data from surveys on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome among children living in developing countries. The highest prevalence of childhood overweight was found in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, whereas India and Sri Lanka had the lowest prevalence. The few studies conducted in developing countries showed a considerably high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among youth. These findings provide alarming data for health professionals and policy-makers about the extent of these problems in developing countries, many of which are still grappling with malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Time trends in childhood obesity and its metabolic consequences, defined by uniform criteria, should be monitored in developing countries in order to obtain useful insights for primordial and primary prevention of the upcoming chronic disease epidemic in such communities.
Rasmussen, Sara H; Shrestha, Sarita; Bjerregaard, Lise G
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies investigating the association between antibiotic exposure in infancy and risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Thirteen studies counting a total of 527,504 children were included in the systematic review and eight were...... included in meta-analyses. Exposure to antibiotics in infancy was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of childhood overweight and obesity (OR = 1.11 [95% CI 1.02-1.20]). Whereas exposure to one treatment only and exposure between 6 and 24 months were not associated with increased risk of childhood...... overweight and obesity, exposure to more than one treatment was associated with an OR of 1.24 (95% CI 1.09-1.43) and exposure within the first six months of life was associated with an OR of 1.20 (95% CI 1.04-1.37). In conclusion, antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with a slightly increased risk...
Klesges, Lisa M; Dzewaltowski, David A; Glasgow, Russell E
The translation and dissemination of prevention intervention evidence into practice is needed to address significant public health issues such as childhood obesity. Increased attention to and reporting of external validity information in research publications would allow for better understanding of generalizability issues relevant to successful translation. To demonstrate this potential, recent reports of childhood obesity prevention interventions were evaluated on the extent to which external validity dimensions were reported. Childhood obesity prevention studies that were controlled, long-term research trials published between 1980 and 2004 that reported a behavioral target of physical activity and/or healthy eating along with at least one anthropometric outcome were identified in 2005. Studies were summarized between 2005 and 2006 using review criteria developed by Green and Glasgow in 2006. Nineteen publications met selection criteria. In general, all studies lacked full reporting on potential generalizability and dissemination elements. Median reporting over all elements was 34.5%; the mode was 0% with a range of 0% to 100%. Most infrequent were reports of setting level selection criteria and representativeness, characteristics regarding intervention staff, implementation of intervention content, costs, and program sustainability. The evidence base for future prevention interventions can be improved by enhancing the reporting of contextual and generalizability elements central to translational research. Such efforts face practical hurdles but could provide additional explanation for variability in intervention outcomes, insights into successful adaptations of interventions, and help guide policy decisions.
Schmidt, M D; Magnussen, C G; Rees, E; Dwyer, T; Venn, A J
The objective of this study was to examine whether childhood cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates or modifies the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity. The study consisted of a 20-year follow-up of 1792 adults who participated in the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey when they were 7-15 years of age. Baseline measures included a 1.6-km run to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference to assess abdominal adiposity. At follow-up, participants attended study clinics where indicators of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids) were measured and cardiorespiratory fitness was reassessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were significant independent predictors of MetS in early adulthood. The mutually adjusted relative risk of adult MetS was 3.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-4.89) for children in the highest (vs lowest) third of waist circumference and 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.96) for children with high (vs low) cardiorespiratory fitness. No significant interaction between waist circumference and fitness was observed, with higher levels of childhood fitness associated with lower risks of adult MetS among those with either low or high childhood waist circumference values. Participants who had both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were 8.5 times more likely to have MetS in adulthood than those who had low waist circumference and high cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood. Regardless of childhood obesity status, participants with low childhood fitness who increased their relative fitness by adulthood had a substantially lower prevalence of MetS than those who remained low fit. Childhood waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are both strongly associated with cardiometabolic health in later life. Higher levels of
Moss, A; Kunze, D; Wabitsch, M
Obesity in childhood and adolescence has increased worldwide in recent years. A consensus guideline (S2) for treating obesity in childhood and adolescence in Germany was first published by the German Working Group on Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence (AGA) in 2000. The intention is to gradually replace this consensus-based (S2) guideline with an evidence-based (S3) guideline. Following a systematic literature search, 21 recommendations were predominantly approved with "strong consensus" (agreement >95%). Body weight and body fat mass can be significantly influenced by conventional behavior-based measures and also by the currently available drug therapies. However, the extent of the achieved weight reduction is small. Surgical measures (unproven, experimental therapy) to reduce body weight, in contrast, are very successful. In addition to the long version of this evidence-based guideline, an abbreviated version exists and a practice guideline is planned. This guideline should be further developed within the competence network on obesity of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The guideline will be published in the scholarly journals of the professional associations concerned, will be available via the Internet, and will also be distributed through periodicals, congress events, and information at facilities.
Dunton, G F; Kaplan, J; Wolch, J; Jerrett, M; Reynolds, K D
Increasing rates of childhood obesity in the USA and other Western countries are a cause for serious public health concern. Neighborhood and community environments are thought to play a contributing role in the development of obesity among youth, but it is not well understood which types of physical environmental characteristics have the most potential to influence obesity outcomes. This paper reports the results of a systematic review of quantitative research examining built and biophysical environmental variables associated with obesity in children and adolescents through physical activity. Literature searches in PubMed, PsychInfo and Geobase were conducted. Fifteen quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional and published after 2005. Overall, few consistent findings emerged. For children, associations between physical environmental variables and obesity differed by gender, age, socioeconomic status, population density and whether reports were made by the parent or child. Access to equipment and facilities, neighborhood pattern (e.g. rural, exurban, suburban) and urban sprawl were associated with obesity outcomes in adolescents. For most environmental variables considered, strong empirical evidence is not yet available. Conceptual gaps, methodological limitations and future research directions are discussed.
Baur, Louise A; Hazelton, Briony; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A
The increased prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence highlights the need for effective treatment approaches. Initial assessments of these patients should include taking a careful history (investigating comorbidities, family history and potentially modifiable behaviors) and physical examination with BMI plotted on a BMI-for-age chart. The degree of investigation is dependent on the patient's age and severity of obesity, the findings on history and physical examination, and associated familial risk factors. There are several broad principles of conventional management: management of comorbidities; family involvement; taking a developmentally appropriate approach; the use of a range of behavior change techniques; long-term dietary change; increased physical activity; and decreased sedentary behaviors. Orlistat can be useful as an adjunct to lifestyle changes in severely obese adolescents and metformin can be used in older children and adolescents with clinical insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery should be considered in those who are severely obese, with recognition of the need for management in centers with multidisciplinary weight management teams and for surgery to be performed in tertiary institutions experienced in bariatric surgery. Finally, given the high prevalence and chronic nature of obesity, coordinated models of care for health-service delivery for the management of pediatric obesity are needed.
The increasing prevalence of obesity or overweight at all ages, their associated morbidity and mortality associated, and the increased perception of the problem by the society have generated several hypotheses in response to the scientific and the international community. Investigate the preventive interventions in childhood obesity so far. Integrative review during the study period from April 2013 to November 2014. The MEDLINE international database was used, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 4 2002), the national database Isooc (CSIC) national database, as well as the Internet. The review included health articles published in Spanish and English between 1990 and 2014 that focused on or included education, prevention, diagnostic, and treatment of obesity interventions. Of the 726 articles identified, 34 of most relevant (peer reviewed) were selected. It was noted that there is limited generisable evidence on interventions that could be implemented in Primary Care or referral services available, although numerous studies suggest that improvements in the overweight are possible. Despite the abundant literature and that many institutions place childhood obesity as one of the priorities of Public Health, we face the paradox that the evidence on cost-effectiveness of prevention interventions is sparse. Knowing these gaps in knowledge should lead to filling them with rigorous and well-designed studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonios; Koutsias, Stilianos; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis
Childhood obesity is increasing alarmingly, and a strong association with chronic diseases has been established. Specific adipokines are released from the adipose tissue and relate with chronic diseases even in the pediatric population. Adiponectin levels are lower in obesity and increase with decreasing body weight. A few pediatric studies examining a possible relationship between resistin and obesity do not provide a clear picture. Most studies agree that visfatin levels appear elevated in childhood obesity. Exercise seems to increase adiponectin levels whereas resistin levels are reduced. The lack of data on the effects of acute and chronic exercise on visfatin levels precludes us from making safe conclusions as to what the effects of exercise (acute or chronic) would be on visfatin levels in children. Clearly, exercise has an impact on the adipose tissue and the release of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin. However, other factors affect the secretion rate of these adipokines from the adipose tissue; these factors should also be taken into consideration when examining the effects of exercise on adipokines. Gender, age, body composition, physical activity levels, mode and intensity of exercise are some of the factors that should be looked into in future studies.
The rising tide of obesity and its related disorders is one of the most pressing health concerns worldwide, yet existing medicines to combat the problem are disappointingly limited in number and effectiveness. Recent advances in mechanistic insights into the neuroendocrine regulation of body weight have revealed an expanding list of molecular targets for novel, rationally designed antiobesity pharmaceutical agents. Antiobesity drugs act via any of four mechanisms: 1) decreasing energy intake, 2) increasing energy expenditure or modulating lipid metabolism, 3) modulating fat stores or adipocyte differentiation, and 4) mimicking caloric restriction. Various novel drug candidates and targets directed against obesity are currently being explored. A few of them are also in the later phases of clinical trials. This review discusses the development of novel antiobesity drugs based on current understanding of energy homeostasis.
Poskitt, E M E
Overweight and obesity in childhood is an increasing problem for the less affluent countries of the world. The prevalence of overweight/obesity varies, not only between countries but across countries, depending on the environments in which children live. Changes in physical activity and diet are having adverse effects on children's nutrition. Greater affluence and urbanisation with more technology such as television in homes are associated with overweight. Affluence also brings the ability to purchase commercial, prepared 'fast-food' items, leading too often to disadvantageous effects on children's diets. The solutions to this rising tide of overweight/obesity seem to lie with broad-based programmes initiated at central government level or at more local community level but which are designed to reach across and throughout societies to enable families and communities to modify the unhealthy lifestyle which too often accompanies increasing affluence and development.
Full Text Available Overweight in children is more prevalent than ever before. What can parents do to try to promote health and prevent obesity in their own children? The present paper reviews research related to parenting and childhood obesity. The review describes what food-related parenting practices may be helpful: modeling healthy eating behaviors, making time for family meals, making sure healthy food is available and accessible, becoming aware of appropriate portion sizes, encouraging children to eat breakfast, and limiting soda and fast food intake. The paper also discusses food-related parenting practices that may not work to help prevent obesity: pressure to eat, food rewards, restriction, permissiveness, and modeling of unhealthy eating behaviors. Additional parenting practices such as supporting and engaging in physical activity, encouraging an adequate amount of sleep, and limiting television and other screen-media may also help children to maintain healthy weights. Suggestions are also given for professionals working with youth.
Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Rubinfeld, Rachel E; Bhattacharya, Jay; Robinson, Thomas N; Wise, Paul H
High childhood obesity prevalence has raised concerns about future adult health, generating calls for obesity screening of young children. To estimate how well childhood obesity predicts adult obesity and to forecast obesity-related health of future US adults. Longitudinal statistical analyses; microsimulations combining multiple data sets. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Population Study of Income Dynamics, and National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys. The authors estimated test characteristics and predictive values of childhood body mass index to identify 2-, 5-, 10-, and 15 year-olds who will become obese adults. The authors constructed models relating childhood body mass index to obesity-related diseases through middle age stratified by sex and race. Twelve percent of 18-year-olds were obese. While screening at age 5 would miss 50% of those who become obese adults, screening at age 15 would miss 9%. The predictive value of obesity screening below age 10 was low even when maternal obesity was included as a predictor. Obesity at age 5 was a substantially worse predictor of health in middle age than was obesity at age 15. For example, the relative risk of developing diabetes as adults for obese white male 15-year-olds was 4.5 versus otherwise similar nonobese 15-year-olds. For obese 5-year-olds, the relative risk was 1.6. Main results do not include Hispanics due to sample size. Past relationships between childhood and adult obesity and health may change in the future. Early childhood obesity assessment adds limited information to later childhood assessment. Targeted later childhood approaches or universal strategies to prevent unhealthy weight gain should be considered.
Sanja Klobučar Majanović
Full Text Available Obesity represents a major global challenge from both healthcare and economic perspectives. Although lifestyle modifications aimed at reducing calorie intake and increasing energy expenditure remain the cornerstone of obesity management, pharmacotherapy can serve as a useful adjunct. Until recently, orlistat was the only medication registered for the treatment of obesity in the European Union (EU. A deeper understanding of the complexity of energy homeostasis has resulted in new pharmacological options for weight reduction. In 2015, two new antiobesity drugs were approved in the EU. These are a fixed combination of naltrexone/bupropion (Mysimba® and liraglutide at a dose of 3.0 mg (Saxenda®. In addition, lorcaserin (Belviq® and a fixed combination of phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia® were introduced into the US market in 2012. However, the European Medicines Agency did not approve their use in the EU. The burden of previous weight loss agents that have been withdrawn due to safety concerns underlines the need for caution and close follow-up of patients undergoing pharmacological interventions for obesity treatment. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and safety of currently available weight loss pharmacotherapies.
Gray, L.A.; Hernandez Alava, M.; Kelly, M.P.; Campbell, M.
Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study, we investigate the dynamic relationship between underlying family lifestyle and childhood obesity during early childhood. We use a dynamic latent factor model, an approach that allows us to identify family lifestyle, its evolution over time and its influence on childhood obesity and other observable outcomes. We find that family lifestyle is persistent and has a significant influence on childhood weight status as well as other outcomes for all fami...
Llewellyn, A; Simmonds, M; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N
Obese children are at higher risk of being obese as adults, and adult obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the ability of childhood body mass index (BMI) to predict obesity-related morbidities in adulthood. Thirty-seven studies were included. High childhood BMI was associated with an increased incidence of adult diabetes (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.30-2.22), coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.10-1.31) and a range of cancers, but not stroke or breast cancer. The accuracy of childhood BMI when predicting any adult morbidity was low. Only 31% of future diabetes and 22% of future hypertension and CHD occurred in children aged 12 or over classified as being overweight or obese. Only 20% of all adult cancers occurred in children classified as being overweight or obese. Childhood obesity is associated with moderately increased risks of adult obesity-related morbidity, but the increase in risk is not large enough for childhood BMI to be a good predictor of the incidence of adult morbidities. This is because the majority of adult obesity-related morbidity occurs in adults who were of healthy weight in childhood. Therefore, targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children may not substantially reduce the overall burden of obesity-related disease in adulthood. © 2015 World Obesity.
Bell, A Colin; Simmons, Anne; Sanigorski, Andrea M; Kremer, Peter J; Swinburn, Boyd A
In spite of greater awareness of the need for action to reduce obesity, the evidence on sustainable community approaches to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity is surprisingly sparse. This paper describes the design and methodological components of the Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention, a demonstration site in the Barwon-South West region of Victoria, Australia, that aims to build the programs, skills and evidence necessary to attenuate and eventually reverse the obesity epidemic in children and adolescents. The Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention is based on a partnership between the region's university (Deakin University) and its health, education and local government agencies. The three basic foundations of the Sentinel Site are: multi-strategy, multi-setting interventions; building community capacity; and undertaking program evaluations and population monitoring. Three intervention projects have been supported that cover different age groups (preschool: 2-5 years, primary school: 5-12 years, secondary school: 13-17 years), but that have many characteristics in common including: community participation and ownership of the project; an intervention duration of at least 3 years; and full evaluations with impact (behaviours) and outcome measures (anthropometry) compared with regionally representative comparison populations. We recommend the Sentinel Site approach to others for successfully building evidence for childhood obesity prevention and stimulating action on reducing the epidemic.
Wu, Nan; Chen, Yulu; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Fei
The present study examined the role of working memory in the association between childhood obesity and academic performance, and further determined whether memory deficits in obese children are domain-specific to certain tasks or domain-general. A total of 227 primary school students aged 10-13 years were analyzed for weight and height, of which 159 children (44 "obese," 23 "overweight," and 92 "normal weight") filled out questionnaires on school performance and socioeconomic status. And then, all subjects finished three kinds of working memory tasks based on the digit memory task in 30 trials, which were image-generated with a series of numbers recall trial sets. After each trial set, subjects were given 5 s to recall and write down the numbers which hand appeared in the trial, in the inverse order in which they had appeared. The results showed there were significant academic performance differences among the three groups, with normal-weight children scoring higher than overweight and obese children after Bonferroni correction. A mediation model revealed a partial indirect effect of working memory in the relationship between obesity and academic performance. Although the performance of obese children in basic working memory tests was poorer than that of normal-weight children, they recalled more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks involving with food/drink. Working memory deficits partially explain the poor academic performance of obese children. Those results indicated the obese children show domain-specific working memory deficits, whereas they recall more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks associated with food/drink.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among latent and measurement variables that lead to the child weight indicator. To illustrate the accuracy, fit, reliability and validity of the introduced framework, real data collected from 630 families from Urumqi (Xinjiang, China were considered. The framework includes two categories of data comprising the normal body mass index (BMI range and obesity data. The comparison analysis between two models provides some evidence that in obesity modeling, obesity data must be extracted from the dataset and analysis must be done separately from the normal BMI range. This study may be helpful for researchers interested in childhood obesity modeling based on family environment.
Full Text Available Growing childhood obesity rates are increasingly putting the lives of Canadian children at risk. Using schools as the foundation for tackling childhood obesity is significantly more achievable than attempting to place blanket measures that intrude into Canadian homes. Measures should be taken to address childhood obesity by promoting healthy eating, education and exercise. Yet it is important to recognise obesity both as a medical and as a pyschosocial problem in order to construct these preventative policies: by doing so we can begin to understand the potential challenges such as stigma along with negative exogenous influences in the home and as consumers. Les taux croissants d’obésité juvénile montrent que les enfants canadiens sont de plus en plus exposés à un risque pour leur santé. Il est beaucoup plus réaliste de passer par les écoles pour s’attaquer au problème de l’obésité juvénile que de tenter de mettre en œuvre des mesures générales qui constituent une ingérence dans les foyers canadiens. Il faut prendre des mesures pour lutter contre l’obésité juvénile en encourageant les saines habitudes alimentaires, l’éducation et l’exercice. Il importe aussi de reconnaître l’obésité comme un problème d’ordre tant médical que psychosocial avant d’élaborer ces politiques préventives : de cette façon, nous pourrons commencer à comprendre les difficultés possibles telles que l’ostracisme et les influences exogènes négatives dans les foyers et comme consommateurs.
Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Foster, E. Michael
As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four ge...
Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri
OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups of chil......: Parent-child resemblance in childhood overweight showed small changes during the development of the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the obesogenic environment inducing the epidemic in Denmark influenced children irrespective of their familial predisposition.......OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups...
Blake-Lamb, Tiffany L; Locks, Lindsey M; Perkins, Meghan E; Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Cheng, Erika R; Taveras, Elsie M
The "first 1,000 days"-conception through age 24 months-are critical for the development and prevention of childhood obesity. This study systematically reviews existing and ongoing interventions during this period, identifies gaps in current research, and discusses conceptual frameworks and opportunities for future interventions. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify completed and ongoing interventions implemented during pregnancy through age 24 months that aimed to prevent overweight/obesity between ages 6 months and 18 years. English-language, controlled interventions published between January 1, 1980 and December 12, 2014, were analyzed between December 13, 2014 and March 15, 2015. Of 34 completed studies from 26 unique identified interventions, nine were effective. Effective interventions focused on individual- or family-level behavior changes through home visits, individual counseling or group sessions in clinical settings, a combination of home and group visits in a community setting, and using hydrolyzed protein formula. Protein-enriched formula increased childhood obesity risk. Forty-seven ongoing interventions were identified. Across completed and ongoing interventions, the majority target individual- or family-level changes, many are conducted in clinical settings, and few target early-life systems and policies that may impact childhood obesity. Obesity interventions may have the greatest preventive effect if begun early in life. Yet, few effective interventions in the first 1,000 days exist, and many target individual-level behaviors of parents and infants. Interventions that operate at systems levels and are grounded in salient conceptual frameworks hold promise for improving future models of early-life obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income. Both unadjusted and adjusted variability across neighborhoods and schools suggest place-based policies have the potential to meaningfully reduce child obesity, but under most realistic scenarios the improvement would be modest.
Elbel, Brian; Corcoran, Sean P.; Schwartz, Amy Ellen
A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI) of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income). Both unadjusted and adjusted variability across neighborhoods and schools suggest place-based policies have the potential to meaningfully reduce child obesity, but under most realistic scenarios the improvement would be modest. PMID:27309533
Full Text Available ObjectivesThe objectives were to evaluate (1 the metabolic profile and cardiometabolic risk in overweight/obese children at first assessment, stratifying patients according to severity of overweight and age; and (2 to investigate the relationship between family history (FH for obesity and cardiometabolic diseases and severity of childhood obesity.MethodsIn this cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study, 260 children (139 female, aged between 2.4 and 17.2 years, with overweight and obesity were recruited. Data regarding FH for obesity and cardiometabolic diseases were collected. Each patient underwent clinical and auxological examination and fasting blood sampling for metabolic profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and atherogenic index of plasma were calculated. To evaluate the severity of obesity, children were divided into two groups for BMI standard deviation (SD ≤2.5 and BMI SD >2.5. Moreover, study population was analyzed, dividing it into three groups based on the chronological age of patient (<8, 8–11, >11 years.ResultsBMI SD was negatively correlated with chronological age (p < 0.005 and significantly higher in the group of children <8 years. BMI SD was positively associated with FH for obesity. Patients with more severe obesity (BMI SD >2.5 were younger (p < 0.005, mostly prepubertal, presented a significantly higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.04, and had a significantly higher prevalence of FH for arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease than the other group.Conclusion(1 Family history of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases are important risk factors for precocious obesity onset in childhood and are related to the severity of obesity. (2 Metabolic profile, especially HOMA-IR, is altered even among the youngest obese children at first evaluation. (3 Stratification of obesity severity
Chan, Christine; Deave, Toity; Greenhalgh, Trisha
Childhood obesity is particularly prevalent in areas that have seen rapid economic growth, urbanisation, cultural transition, and commodification of food systems. Structuration theory may illuminate the interaction between population and individual-level causes of obesity. We conducted in-depth ethnographies of six overweight/obese and four non-overweight preschool children in Hong Kong, each followed for 12-18 months. Analysis was informed by Stones' strong structuration theory. Risk factors played out differently for different children as social structures were enacted at the level of family and preschool. The network of caregiving roles and relationships around the overweight/obese child was typically weak and disjointed, and the primary caregiver appeared confused by mixed messages about what is normal, expected and legitimate behaviour. In particular, external social structures created pressure to shift childcare routines from the logic of nurturing to the logic of consumption. Our findings suggest that threats to what Giddens called ontological security in the primary caregiver may underpin the poor parenting, family stress and weak mealtime routines that mediate the relationship between an obesogenic environment and the development of obesity in a particular child. This preliminary study offers a potentially transferable approach for studying emerging epidemics of diseases of modernity in transition societies.
Ickes, Melinda J; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj
The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.
Melinda J. Ickes
Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.
Karacabeyli, D; Allender, S; Pinkney, S; Amed, S
Multi-setting, multi-component community-based interventions have shown promise in preventing childhood obesity; however, evaluation of these complex interventions remains a challenge. The objective of the study is to systematically review published methodological approaches to outcome evaluation for multi-setting community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions and synthesize a set of pragmatic recommendations. MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched from inception to 6 July 2017. Papers were included if the intervention targeted children ≤18 years, engaged at least two community sectors and described their outcome evaluation methodology. A single reviewer conducted title and abstract scans, full article review and data abstraction. Directed content analysis was performed by three reviewers to identify prevailing themes. Thirty-three studies were included, and of these, 26 employed a quasi-experimental design; the remaining were randomized control trials. Body mass index was the most commonly measured outcome, followed by health behaviour change and psychosocial outcomes. Six themes emerged, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of active vs. passive consent, quasi-experimental vs. randomized control trials, longitudinal vs. repeat cross-sectional designs and the roles of process evaluation and methodological flexibility in evaluating complex interventions. Selection of study designs and outcome measures compatible with community infrastructure, accompanied by process evaluation, may facilitate successful outcome evaluation. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.
Shahid, Rizwan; Bertazzon, Stefania
Body weight is an important indicator of current and future health and it is even more critical in children, who are tomorrow's adults. This paper analyzes the relationship between childhood obesity and neighbourhood walkability in Calgary, Canada. A multivariate analytical framework recognizes that childhood obesity is also associated with many factors, including socioeconomic status, foodscapes, and environmental factors, as well as less measurable factors, such as individual preferences, that could not be included in this analysis. In contrast with more conventional global analysis, this research employs localized analysis and assesses need-based interventions. The one-size-fit-all strategy may not effectively control obesity rates, since each neighbourhood has unique characteristics that need to be addressed individually. This paper presents an innovative framework combining local analysis with simulation modeling to analyze childhood obesity. Spatial models generally do not deal with simulation over time, making it cumbersome for health planners and policy makers to effectively design and implement interventions and to quantify their impact over time. This research fills this gap by integrating geographically weighted regression (GWR), which identifies vulnerable neighbourhoods and critical factors for childhood obesity, with simulation modeling, which evaluates the impact of the suggested interventions on the targeted neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood walkability was chosen as a potential target for localized interventions, owing to the crucial role of walking in developing a healthy lifestyle, as well as because increasing walkability is relatively more feasible and less expensive then modifying other factors, such as income. Simulation results suggest that local walkability interventions can achieve measurable declines in childhood obesity rates. The results are encouraging, as improvements are likely to compound over time. The results demonstrate that the
Full Text Available Body weight is an important indicator of current and future health and it is even more critical in children, who are tomorrow’s adults. This paper analyzes the relationship between childhood obesity and neighbourhood walkability in Calgary, Canada. A multivariate analytical framework recognizes that childhood obesity is also associated with many factors, including socioeconomic status, foodscapes, and environmental factors, as well as less measurable factors, such as individual preferences, that could not be included in this analysis. In contrast with more conventional global analysis, this research employs localized analysis and assesses need-based interventions. The one-size-fit-all strategy may not effectively control obesity rates, since each neighbourhood has unique characteristics that need to be addressed individually. This paper presents an innovative framework combining local analysis with simulation modeling to analyze childhood obesity. Spatial models generally do not deal with simulation over time, making it cumbersome for health planners and policy makers to effectively design and implement interventions and to quantify their impact over time. This research fills this gap by integrating geographically weighted regression (GWR, which identifies vulnerable neighbourhoods and critical factors for childhood obesity, with simulation modeling, which evaluates the impact of the suggested interventions on the targeted neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood walkability was chosen as a potential target for localized interventions, owing to the crucial role of walking in developing a healthy lifestyle, as well as because increasing walkability is relatively more feasible and less expensive then modifying other factors, such as income. Simulation results suggest that local walkability interventions can achieve measurable declines in childhood obesity rates. The results are encouraging, as improvements are likely to compound over time. The results
Trier, C; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, C
. There were no associations between the baseline intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks, and/or fast food and BMI SDS at baseline or the change in BMI SDS during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food when entering a childhood obesity treatment program......BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of sweetened beverages has previously been linked to the degree of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food at baseline in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity...... treatment program was associated with the baseline degree of obesity or the treatment effect. METHODS: This prospective study included 1349 overweight and obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) ≥ 1.64) enrolled in treatment at The Children's Obesity Clinic, Copenhagen University...
Lissner, L; Wijnhoven, T M A; Mehlig, K; Sjöberg, A; Kunesova, M; Yngve, A; Petrauskiene, A; Duleva, V; Rito, A I; Breda, J
Excess risk of childhood overweight and obesity occurring in socioeconomically disadvantaged families has been demonstrated in numerous studies from high-income regions, including Europe. It is well known that socioeconomic characteristics such as parental education, income and occupation are etiologically relevant to childhood obesity. However, in the pan-European setting, there is reason to believe that inequalities in childhood weight status may vary among countries as a function of differing degrees of socioeconomic development and equity. In this cross-sectional study, we have examined socioeconomic differences in childhood obesity in different parts of the European region using nationally representative data from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Portugal and Sweden that were collected in 2008 during the first round of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Heterogeneity in the association between parental socioeconomic indicators and childhood overweight or obesity was clearly observed across the five countries studied. Positive as well as negative associations were observed between parental socioeconomic indicators and childhood overweight, with statistically significant interactions between country and parental indicators. These findings have public health implications for the WHO European Region and underscore the necessity to continue documenting socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in all countries through international surveillance efforts in countries with diverse geographic, social and economic environments. This is a prerequisite for universal as well as targeted preventive actions.
Evaluation of the overweight/obese child--practical tips for the primary health care provider: recommendations from the Childhood Obesity Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity
Baker, Jennifer L; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Nowicka, Paulina
of obese children have no underlying medical disorder causing their obesity yet a significant proportion might suffer from obesity-related co-morbidities. This text is aimed at providing simple and practical tools for the identification and management of children with or at risk of overweight and obesity...... in the primary care setting. The tips and tools provided are based on data from the recent body of work that has been published in this field, official statements of several scientific societies along with expert opinion provided by the members of the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF) of the European...... Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO). We have attempted to use an evidence-based approach while allowing flexibility for the practicing clinician in domains where evidence is currently lacking and ensuring that treating the obese child involves the entire family as well....
Bua, J; Prescott, E; Schack-Nielsen, L
) and who participated in a follow-up examination in 1981-1983 (age range: 25-48 y). Birth weight, childhood weight and height measurements from 7 to 13 y of age were obtained from school health records. Current BMI and lung function were assessed at follow-up. SETTING: Copenhagen and adjacent regions......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of birth weight, body mass index (BMI) during childhood and youth, and current BMI with adult lung function. DESIGN: Population-based longitudinal study of juvenile obese and non-obese men, who were identified at draft board examination (age range: 19-27 y......, Denmark. SUBJECTS: In total, 193 juvenile obese men at draft board examination and 205 randomly selected nonobese controls from the same population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lung function measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC), adjusted for age and height...
Grønbæk, Helle Nergaard; Madsen, Svend Aage Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of a family-based childhood obesity treatment on anthropometry and predictors of dropout and successful weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 18-month treatment consisted of a intensive period (IP) including physical exercise...... had limited education and in immigrant families. CONCLUSIONS: This treatment with a psychological approach is feasible and results in significant weight loss during the programme. Future research should focus on how to improve the results of families with limited education and immigrants with non...
Vámosi, Marianne; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
that one of the twins should have a BMI between 20 and 25 kg/m² (normal weight) and the co-twin a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m² (obesity). In total 236 out of 289 (81.7%) eligible twin individuals participated in an interview and a physical examination. A part of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse, the parental...... care and neglect questionnaire, by Bifulco et al, was used to assess perceived parental antipathy and neglect. Data were analyzed by means of intra-pair comparisons. Our results showed that recalled maternal antipathy (p = 0.04) and maternal neglect (p= 0.01) were both associated with adult obesity...
Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M
As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.
Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; Jebb, S.A.; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C.; Richard, D.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S.; Swinburn, B.
Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for
In recent years, multinational food and drink corporations and their marketing practices have been blamed for the global childhood obesity 'crisis'. Unsurprisingly, these corporations have been quick to refute these claims and now position themselves as 'part of the solution' to childhood obesity. In this paper, I examine how and why corporations…
Papoutsakis, Constantina; Vidra, Nikoleta V; Hatzopoulou, Ioanna; Tzirkalli, Maria; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Evagelidaki, Evagelia; Kapravelou, Garifallia; Kontele, Ioanna G; Skenderi, Katerina P; Yannakoulia, Mary; Dedoussis, George V; Vidra, Nikoletta
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the role of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of childhood obesity, a major health problem worldwide. METHODS: The Gene-Diet Attica Investigation on childhood obesity (GENDAI) evaluates the contributions to and pivotal interactions of genetic,
Guindon, John R., Sr.
This quantitative causal comparative study looked to see if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement. Because of the many conflicting results in the research available, it was not known if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement among inner-city middle school students in a school…
Sosa, Erica T.
Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…
Zhang, Gang; Wu, Lei; Zhou, Lingling; Lu, Weifeng; Mao, Chunting
Over the last few decades, there has been a worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity. An important step in successful prevention in paediatrics is the identification of modifiable risk factors of childhood obesity. Many studies have evaluated the associations between television (TV) watching and childhood obesity but yielded inconsistent results. To help elucidate the role of TV watching, PubMed and Embase databases were searched for published studies on associations between TV watching and childhood obesity. Random-effects models and dose-response meta-analyses were used to pool study results. Fourteen cross-sectional studies with 24 reports containing 106 169 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted by the available characteristics of studies and participants. The multivariable-adjusted overall OR of the childhood obesity for the highest vs. the lowest time of TV watching was 1.47 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.33-1.62]. A linear dose-response relationship was also found for TV watching and childhood obesity (P childhood obesity. And restricting TV time and other sedentary behaviour of children may be an important public health strategy to prevent childhood obesity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Belser, Christopher T.; Morris, Jessica A.; Hasselbeck, Jennifer M.
The need for school-based interventions targeting the childhood obesity epidemic has been well documented. The risk factors associated with childhood obesity are physical, mental, psychosocial, academic, and economic. With training in developing comprehensive programs and interventions, professional school counselors are positioned to assist…
Tripp, Paula J.; Choi, Jin Young
The purposes of this exploratory qualitative research were to describe perceptions related to childhood obesity of rural parents, teachers, and school administrators and to examine how their perceptions shape their choices and behaviors for children's eating and physical exercise. The results showed that the perceptions of childhood obesity in the…
In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."
Foster, Byron Alexander; Farragher, Jill; Parker, Paige; Hale, Daniel E.
Objective: Positive deviance methodology has been applied in the developing world to address childhood malnutrition and has potential for application to childhood obesity in the United States. We hypothesized that among children at high-risk for obesity, evaluating normal weight children will enable identification of positive outlier behaviors and practices.
Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I
The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk o...
Gray, Laura A; Hernandez Alava, Monica; Kelly, Michael P; Campbell, Michael J
Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has been increasing but the causes are not fully understood. Recent public health interventions and guidance aiming to reduce childhood obesity have focused on the whole family, as opposed to just the child but there remains a lack of empirical evidence examining this relationship. Methods Using data from the ...
Dugan, T M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Carroll, A; Downs, S
This paper aims to predict childhood obesity after age two, using only data collected prior to the second birthday by a clinical decision support system called CHICA. Analyses of six different machine learning methods: RandomTree, RandomForest, J48, ID3, Naïve Bayes, and Bayes trained on CHICA data show that an accurate, sensitive model can be created. Of the methods analyzed, the ID3 model trained on the CHICA dataset proved the best overall performance with accuracy of 85% and sensitivity of 89%. Additionally, the ID3 model had a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 88%. The structure of the tree also gives insight into the strongest predictors of future obesity in children. Many of the strongest predictors seen in the ID3 modeling of the CHICA dataset have been independently validated in the literature as correlated with obesity, thereby supporting the validity of the model. This study demonstrated that data from a production clinical decision support system can be used to build an accurate machine learning model to predict obesity in children after age two.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present. The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US. The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2 intervention arm schools received a combination of (1 implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers; (2 implementing a daily curricula for children; (3 technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4 creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment
Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah, Sarah E; Schrack, Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan
Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children's nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity
Blüher, Susann; Schwarz, Peter
Up to 30% of obese people do not display the "typical" metabolic obesity-associated complications. For this group of patients, the term "metabolically healthy obese (MHO)" has been established during the past years and has been the focus of research activities. The development and severity of insulin resistance as well as (subclinical) inflammations seems to play a key role in distinguishing metabolically healthy from metabolically non-healthy individuals. However, an internationally consistent and accepted classification that might also include inflammatory markers as well as features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is missing to date, and available data - in terms of prevalence, definition and severity - are heterogeneous, both during childhood/adolescence and during adulthood. In addition, the impact of MHO on future morbidity and mortality compared to obese, metabolically non-healthy as well as normal weight, metabolically healthy individuals is absolutely not clear to date and even conflicting. This review summarizes salient literature related to that topic and provides insight into our current understanding of MHO, covering all age spans from childhood to adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amy L. Beck; Melvin Heyman; Cewin Chao; Janet Wojcicki
Consumption of non- or low-fat dairy products is recommended as a strategy to lower the risk of childhood obesity. However, recent evidence suggests that consumption of whole fat dairy products may, in fact, be protective against obesity. Our objective was to determine the association between milk fat consumption and severe obesity among three-year-old Latino children, a population with a disproportionate burden of obesity and severe obesity. 24-hour-dietary recalls were conducted to determin...
Franks, Paul W; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Sievers, Maurice L; Bennett, Peter H; Looker, Helen C
The effect of childhood risk factors for cardiovascular disease on adult mortality is poorly understood. In a cohort of 4857 American Indian children without diabetes (mean age, 11.3 years; 12,659 examinations) who were born between 1945 and 1984, we assessed whether body-mass index (BMI), glucose tolerance, and blood pressure and cholesterol levels predicted premature death. Risk factors were standardized according to sex and age. Proportional-hazards models were used to assess whether each risk factor was associated with time to death occurring before 55 years of age. Models were adjusted for baseline age, sex, birth cohort, and Pima or Tohono O'odham Indian heritage. There were 166 deaths from endogenous causes (3.4% of the cohort) during a median follow-up period of 23.9 years. Rates of death from endogenous causes among children in the highest quartile of BMI were more than double those among children in the lowest BMI quartile (incidence-rate ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 3.62). Rates of death from endogenous causes among children in the highest quartile of glucose intolerance were 73% higher than those among children in the lowest quartile (incidence-rate ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.74). No significant associations were seen between rates of death from endogenous or external causes and childhood cholesterol levels or systolic or diastolic blood-pressure levels on a continuous scale, although childhood hypertension was significantly associated with premature death from endogenous causes (incidence-rate ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.24). Obesity, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in childhood were strongly associated with increased rates of premature death from endogenous causes in this population. In contrast, childhood hypercholesterolemia was not a major predictor of premature death from endogenous causes. 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society
Full Text Available The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.
Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Kremers, Stef P J; Gubbels, Jessica S; Raat, Hein; de Vries, Nanne K; Jansen, Maria W J
The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.
Mozhdeh B Bruss
Full Text Available This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the development of a cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI, a U.S. commonwealth. This project demonstrated that in populations with health disparity, teachers can be a valuable and accessible resource for identifying key health issues of concern to communities and a vital partner in the development of parent and child interventions. Teachers also benefited by gaining knowledge and skills to facilitate student and parent learning and impact on personal and familial health. Successful community-school-higher education partnerships require consideration of local culture and community needs and resources. Moreover, within any community-school–higher education partnership it is essential that a time sensitive and culturally appropriate feedback loop be designed to ensure that programs are responsive to the needs and resources of all stakeholders, and that leaders and policymakers are highly engaged so they can make informed policy decisions.
Svensson, V; Jacobsson, J A; Fredriksson, R; Danielsson, P; Sobko, T; Schiöth, H B; Marcus, C
To explore the relationship between severity of obesity at age 7 and age 15, age at onset of obesity, and parental body mass index (BMI) in obese children and adolescents. Longitudinal cohort study. Obese children (n = 231) and their parents (n = 462) from the Swedish National Childhood Obesity Centre. Multivariate regression analyses were applied with severity of obesity (BMI standard deviation score (BMI SDS)) and onset of obesity as dependent variables. The effect of parental BMI was evaluated and in the final models adjusted for gender, parental education, age at onset of obesity, severity of obesity at age 7 and obesity treatment. For severity of obesity at age 7, a positive correlation with maternal BMI was indicated (P = 0.05). Severity of obesity at this age also showed a strong negative correlation with the age at onset of obesity. Severity of obesity at age 15 was significantly correlated with both maternal and paternal BMI (P obesity at age 7 and negatively correlated with treatment. Also, a negative correlation was indicated at this age for parental education. No correlation with age at onset was found at age 15. For age at onset of obesity there was no relevant correlation with parental BMI. Children within the highest tertile of the BMI SDS range were more likely to have two obese parents. The impact of parental BMI on the severity of obesity in children is strengthened as the child grows into adolescence, whereas the age at onset is probably of less importance than previously thought. The influence of parental relative weight primarily affects the severity of childhood obesity and not the timing.
Kamalaporn, Harutai; Chawalitdamrong, Pongpan; Preutthipan, Aroonwan
Childhood asthma is a substantial health burden in Thailand. Due to a lack of pediatric respiratory specialists (pediatric pulmonologists and allergists; RS), most Thai children are cared for by general pediatricians (pediatric primary care providers (PCP)). We investigated whether current practices of Thai pediatricians complied with asthma guidelines and compared practices (diagnosis and treatments) provided by PCP and RS. A cross-sectional study was conducted using electronic surveys including four case scenarios of different asthma phenotypes distributed to Thai pediatricians. Asthma diagnosis and management were evaluated for compliance with standard guidelines. The practices of PCP and RS were compared. From 800 surveys distributed, there were 405 respondents (51%). Most respondents (81%) were PCP, who preferred to use clinical diagnosis rather than laboratory investigations to diagnose asthma. For acute asthmatic attacks, 58% of the pediatricians prescribed a systemic corticosteroid. For uncontrolled asthma, 89% of the pediatricians prescribed at least one controller. For exercise-induced bronchospasm, 55% of the pediatricians chose an inhaled bronchodilator, while 38% chose a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA). For virus-induced wheeze, 40% of the respondents chose an LTRA, while 15% chose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators (31% vs. 18%, p = 0.02), antibiotics (20% vs. 6%, p attack. Most of the Thai pediatricians' practices toward diagnosis and treatment of acute asthmatic attack and uncontrolled asthma conform to the guidelines. PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators, antibiotics, and antihistamines than RS.
Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M.
Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child’s diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children. PMID:22332105
Wong, Michelle S; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thorpe, Roland J; Bleich, Sara N; Chan, Kitty S
Fathers have increased their involvement in child caregiving; however, their changing role in childhood obesity is understudied. This study assessed the longitudinal association between changes in obesity among children aged 2 to 4 years and changes in fathers' involvement with raising children. Longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort were used to conduct child fixed-effects linear and logistic regression analyses to assess the association between changes in childhood obesity-related outcomes (sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, screen time, BMI z score, overweight/obesity, obesity) and fathers' involvement with raising children (caregiving and influencing child-related decisions). Fixed-effects models control for all time-invariant characteristics. Analyses were controlled for time-varying confounders, including child age, maternal and paternal employment, and family poverty status. Children whose fathers increased their frequency of taking children outside and involvement with physical childcare experienced a decrease in their odds of obesity from age 2 to age 4. Obesity-related outcomes were not associated with fathers' decision-making influence. Increases in fathers' involvement with some aspects of caregiving may be associated with lower odds of childhood obesity. Encouraging fathers to increase their involvement with raising children and including fathers in childhood obesity prevention efforts may help reduce obesity risk among young children. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette
Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.
Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Rubinfeld, Rachel E.; Bhattacharya, Jay; Robinson, Thomas N.; Wise, Paul H.
The high prevalence of childhood obesity has raised concerns regarding long-term patterns of adult health and has generated calls for obesity screening of young children. This study examined patterns of obesity and the predictive utility of obesity screening for children of different ages in terms of adult health outcomes. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the Population Study of Income Dynamics, and National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of childhood BMI to identify 2, 5, 10, or 15 year-olds who will become obese adults. We constructed models assessing the relationship of childhood BMI to obesity-related diseases through middle age stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. 12% of 18 year-olds were obese. While 50% of these adolescents would not have been identified by screening at age 5, 9% would have been missed at age 15. Approximately 70% of obese children at age 5 became non-obese at age 18. The predictive utility of obesity screening below the age of 10 was low, even when maternal obesity was also included. The elevated risk of diabetes, obesity, and hypertension in middle age predicted by obesity at age 15 was significantly higher than at age 5 (e.g., the RR of diabetes for obese white male 15 year-olds was 4.5; for 5 year-olds, it was 1.6). Early childhood obesity assessment adds limited predictive utility to strategies that also include later childhood assessment. Targeted approaches in later childhood or universal strategies to prevent unhealthy weight gain should be considered. PMID:22647830
Davison, Kirsten K; Falbe, Jennifer; Taveras, Elsie M; Gortmaker, Steve; Kulldorff, Martin; Perkins, Meghan; Blaine, Rachel E; Franckle, Rebecca L; Ganter, Claudia; Baidal, Jennifer Woo; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Buszkiewicz, James; Smith, Lauren; Land, Thomas
The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) project is a 2-year, multilevel, multisector community intervention to prevent and control obesity among children 2-12 years of age from two predominantly low-income communities in Massachusetts. MA-CORD includes evidence-based interventions in multiple sectors, including community health centers, early care and education centers, schools, afterschool programs, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children, and the broader community. Currently, implementation of MA-CORD is complete and the final year of data collection is in progress. Here, the MA-CORD evaluation plan is described and baseline data are presented. The impact of MA-CORD on children's BMI, lifestyle behaviors, obesity-related care, and quality of life will be assessed using sector-specific, pre/post, time-series, and quasi-experimental designs. Change in the primary outcomes will be compared for intervention and comparison communities. Additionally, change in mean BMI and obesity prevalence in intervention school districts will be compared to similar districts throughout the state. At baseline in 2012, approximately 16% of preschool-aged and 25% of school-aged children were obese. Moreover, 15-40% of children consumed no vegetables on the previous day, 25-75% drank a sugar-sweetened beverage on the previous day, up to 87% had insufficient physical activity, 50-75% had a television in the room where they slept, and 50-80% obtained insufficient sleep. There is ample room for improvement in BMI and health behaviors in children in MA-CORD communities. If successful, MA-CORD may serve as a model for multilevel, multisector approaches to childhood obesity prevention and control.
Leonard, Stephanie A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; King, Janet C; Abrams, Barbara
Background: Prepregnancy body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 )], gestational weight gain, and postpartum weight retention may have distinct effects on the development of child obesity, but their combined effect is currently unknown. Objective: We described longitudinal trajectories of maternal weight from before pregnancy through the postpartum period and assessed the relations between maternal weight trajectories and offspring obesity in childhood. Design: We analyzed data from 4436 pairs of mothers and their children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (1981-2014). We used latent-class growth modeling in addition to national recommendations for prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and postpartum weight retention to create maternal weight trajectory groups. We used modified Poisson regression models to assess the associations between maternal weight trajectory group and offspring obesity at 3 age periods (2-5, 6-11, and 12-19 y). Results: Our analysis using maternal weight trajectories based on either latent-class results or recommendations showed that the risk of child obesity was lowest in the lowest maternal weight trajectory group. The differences in obesity risk were largest after 5 y of age and persisted into adolescence. In the latent-class analysis, the highest-order maternal weight trajectory group consisted almost entirely of women who were obese before pregnancy and was associated with a >2-fold increase in the risk of offspring obesity at ages 6-11 y (adjusted RR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.97, 2.89) and 12-19 y (adjusted RR: 2.74; 95% CI: 2.13, 3.52). In the analysis with maternal weight trajectory groups based on recommendations, the risk of child obesity was consistently highest for women who were overweight or obese at the beginning of pregnancy. Conclusion: These findings suggest that high maternal weight across the childbearing period increases the risk of obesity in offspring during childhood, but high prepregnancy BMI has a stronger
Bell, Andrew Colin; Wolfenden, Luke; Sutherland, Rachel; Coggan, Lucy; Young, Kylie; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hodder, Rebecca; Orr, Neil; Milat, Andrew J; Wiggers, John
Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005-2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2-15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p awareness of the program and each of its messages over time in HNE compared to no change over time in NSW (p Awareness was significantly higher (p awareness levels were sustained for each campaign until the end of the program. At the end of the program participants without a tertiary education were significantly more likely (p = 0.04) to be aware of the brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the region.
Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa
OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099
Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005–2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2–15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. Results At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p campaign (except the vegetable one) and significantly higher awareness levels were sustained for each campaign until the end of the program. At the end of the program participants without a tertiary education were significantly more likely (p = 0.04) to be aware of the brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. Conclusions The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the region. PMID:24090174
Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S
Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada--TARGet Kids!--to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity.
Catherine S. Birken
Full Text Available Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada—TARGet Kids!—to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity.
Gibson, Lisa Y; Allen, Karina L; Davis, Elizabeth; Blair, Eve; Zubrick, Stephen R; Byrne, Susan M
There is evidence that overweight and obese children tend to remain overweight or obese into adolescence and adulthood. However, little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of childhood overweight and obesity. This study aimed to investigate the course of psychosocial difficulties over a 2-year period for children who were overweight or obese at baseline, and a sample of children who were a healthy weight at baseline. Participants were 212 children aged 8 to 13 years at baseline, who were participating in the Childhood Growth and Development (GAD) Study. Questionnaire and interview measures were used to assess children's self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body image, eating disorder symptoms, experiences with bullying, family satisfaction and quality of life. Linear mixed models were used to consider longitudinal changes in psychosocial variables. Overweight and obese children reported greater psychosocial distress than healthy weight children, and these differences were more pronounced for girls than boys. Weight and psychosocial impairment showed stability from baseline to 2-year follow-up. The results of this study suggest that psychosocial difficulties show considerable stability in childhood, for overweight/obese and healthy weight children. What is Known: • Childhood obesity tracks into adolescence and adulthood. • Physical health problems associated with childhood obesity also persist to adulthood. What is New: • Overweight and obese children are at risk of ongoing psychosocial distress from childhood into early adolescence.
Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff
To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. A survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally representative sample (N = 1,677) was conducted. Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. It was examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: (1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; (2) responsibility for addressing obesity; (3) support for prevention policies, and (4) stigma toward obese children. Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Taal, H. Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Scherag, Andre; Lecoeur, Cecile; Warrington, Nicole M.; Hypponen, Elina; Holst, Claus; Valcarcel, Beatriz; Thiering, Elisabeth; Salem, Rany M.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Sleiman, Patrick M. A.; Zhao, Jianhua; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Jarick, Ivonne; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Berry, Diane J.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van der Valk, Ralf J. P.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Gauderman, W. James; Hassanein, Mohamed T.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Magi, Reedik; Boreham, Colin A. G.; Neville, Charlotte E.; Moreno, Luis A.; Elliott, Paul; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Li, Mingyao; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimaki, Terho; Eriksson, Johan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; Deloukas, Panos; McMahon, George
Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of
Bradfield, J.P.; Taal, H.R.; Timpson, N.J.; Scherag, A.; Lecoeur, C.; Warrington, N.M.; Hypponen, E.; Holst, C.; Valcarcel, B.; Thiering, E.; Salem, R.M.; Schumacher, F.R.; Cousminer, D.L.; Sleiman, P.M.A.; Zhao, J.; Berkowitz, R.I.; Vimaleswaran, K.S.; Jarick, I.; Pennell, C.E.; Evans, D.M.; St Pourcain, B.; Berry, D.J.; Mook-Kanamori, D.O.; Hofman, A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; van Duijn, C.M.; van der Valk, R.J.P.; de Jongste, J.C.; Postma, D.S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Gauderman, W.J.; Hassanein, M.T.; Lindgren, C.M.; Mägi, R.; Boreham, C.A.G.; Neville, C.E.; Moreno, L.A.; Elliott, P.; Pouta, A.; Hartikainen, A.-L.; Li, M.; Raitakari, O.; Lehtimäki, T.; Eriksson, J.G.; Palotie, A.; Dallongeville, J.; Das, S.; Deloukas, P.; McMahon, G.; Ring, S.M.; Kemp, J.P.; Buxton, J.L.; Blakemore, A.I.F.; Bustamante, M.; Guxens, M.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Gillman, M.W.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Bisgaard, H.; Gilliland, F.D.; Heinrich, J.; Wheeler, E.; Barroso, I.; O'Rahilly, S.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Power, C.; Palmer, L.J.; Hinney, A.; Widen, E.; Farooqi, I.S.; McCarthy, M.I.; Froguel, P.; Meyre, D.; Hebebrand, J.; Järvelin, M.J.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Smith, G.D.; Hakonarson, H.; Grant, S.F.A.
Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of
Bradfield, Jonathan P; Taal, H Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J
Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta...
Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.
The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…
Gibson, S Jo
The purpose of this project was to implement clinic system changes that support evidence-based guidelines for childhood obesity prevention. Adherence rates for prevention and screening of children in a rural Midwest primary care setting were used to measure the success of the program. Retrospective chart reviews reflected gaps in current practice and documentation. An evidence-based toolkit for childhood obesity prevention was used to implement clinic system changes for the identified gaps. The quality improvement approach proved to be effective in translating knowledge of obesity prevention guidelines into rural clinic practices with significant improvements in documentation of prevention measures that may positively impact the childhood obesity epidemic. Primary care providers, including nurse practitioners (NPs), are at the forefront of diagnosing, educating, and counseling children and families on obesity prevention and need appropriate resources and tools to deliver premier care. The program successfully demonstrated how barriers to practice, even with the unique challenges in a rural setting, can be overcome. NPs fulfill a pivotal primary care role and can provide leadership that may positively impact obesity prevention in their communities. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Swift Judy A
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong rationale for intervening in early childhood to prevent obesity. Over a quarter of infants gain weight more rapidly than desirable during the first six months of life putting them at greater risk of obesity in childhood. However, little is known about UK healthcare professionals' (HCPs approach to primary prevention. This study explored obesity-related knowledge of UK HCPs and the beliefs and current practice of general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses in relation to identifying infants at risk of developing childhood obesity. Method Survey of UK HCPs (GPs, practice nurses, health visitors, nursery, community and children's nurses. HCPs (n = 116 rated their confidence in providing infant feeding advice and completed the Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (ORK-10. Semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 12 GPs and 6 practice nurses were audio recorded, taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results GPs were less confident about giving advice about infant feeding than health visitors (p = 0.001 and nursery nurses (p = 0.009 but more knowledgeable about the health risks of obesity (p Six main themes emerged from the interviews: 1 Attribution of childhood obesity to family environment, 2 Infant feeding advice as the health visitor's role, 3 Professional reliance on anecdotal or experiential knowledge about infant feeding, 4 Difficulties with recognition of, or lack of concern for, infants "at risk" of becoming obese, 5 Prioritising relationship with parent over best practice in infant feeding and 6 Lack of shared understanding for dealing with early years' obesity. Conclusions Intervention is needed to improve health visitors and nursery nurses' knowledge of obesity risk and GPs and practice nurses' capacity to identify and manage infants' at risk of developing childhood obesity. GPs value strategies that maintain relationships with
Archenti, Anna; Pasqualinotto, Lucia
Italy is the European country with the most obese and overweight children and teenagers. Most of them have a family history of obesity and this condition may increase the risk of many diseases. This study involved 52 patients (32 females and 20 males) between 6 and 17 years of age with an average BMI of31.5. The patients underwent a three-month treatment which included an overview of individual caloric intake and creation of a suitable diet, an exercise program and counselling sessions with a psychologist in order to support the patients and families. Anthropometric changes were evaluated at the end of the three months and during follow-up to assess the effectiveness of the treatment. Before starting the treatment the average weight of the patients was 81.8 kg, after the treatment it decreased to 79.4 kg. Likewise, the average BMI of the patients was 31.3 before the treatment and 30.4 after the treatment. Both of these results are statistically significant. This study confirms the importance of teamwork in the treatment of childhood obesity and the importance of approaching the problem with the entire family. A real problem exists for patients who are strongly dependent on the habits, determination and flexibility of their family. In conclusion, the success of this treatment is strongly related to the psychological attitude of the family.
Gibson, Lisa Y; Byrne, Susan M; Davis, Elizabeth A; Blair, Eve; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R
To investigate the relationship between a child's weight and a broad range of family and maternal factors. Cross-sectional data from a population-based prospective study, collected between January 2004 and December 2005, for 329 children aged 6-13 years (192 healthy weight, 97 overweight and 40 obese) and their mothers (n=265) recruited from a paediatric hospital endocrinology department and eight randomly selected primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children and mothers; demographic information; maternal depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem; general family functioning; parenting style; and negative life events. In a multilevel model, maternal BMI and family structure (single-parent v two-parent families) were the only significant predictors of child BMI z scores. Childhood obesity is not associated with adverse maternal or family characteristics such as maternal depression, negative life events, poor general family functioning or ineffective parenting style. However, having an overweight mother and a single-parent (single-mother) family increases the likelihood of a child being overweight or obese.
Vámosi, M; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, K O
The prevalence of obesity is on a global-wide increase, but still the aetiology of adult obesity is poorly understood. It has been shown that overweight children suffer from adverse psychological events, but less is known about the potential effects of adverse psychological factors among normal...... weight children for later development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review current literature on associations between psychological factors in childhood and development of obesity in adulthood. A systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases MEDLINE...... (silverplatter 1977-2008), PsycINFO (1972-2008) and PsycINFO Weekly (week 1 January 2007-week 3 July 2008) to identify studies of interest. Six prospective and two retrospective studies were identified. Psychosocial factors related to adult obesity were lack of childhood care, abuse and childhood anxiety...
Lee, H J; Lee, S Y; Park, E C
The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing worldwide and this trend is no exception for South Korea. A multidisciplinary approach is needed for the prevention and management of childhood obesity. To do so, among many other strategies, managing the family unit can be a very effective strategy. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between frequency of family meals and overweight/obesity in elementary students and to suggest the management and prevention strategies of childhood obesity. Data from a total of 2904 elementary students were analyzed from the 2008-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between overweight/obesity and family meals. Of the total 2904 elementary students, 573 (19.4%) were overweight or obese. The odds ratio of overweight or obese students who had family dinner only was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.89-1.64), that of those who had family breakfast only was 3.20 (95% CI: 1.70-6.02), and that of those who had neither family breakfast nor family dinner was 4.17 (95% CI: 1.98-8.78) compared with those who had both family breakfast and family dinner. The frequency of family meals was strongly an inverse association with childhood overweight or obesity. Therefore, we suggest that the intervention of childhood obesity should include family meals. © 2015 World Obesity.
This paper responds to Michael Merry's recent contribution on childhood obesity. Merry's analysis highlights the difficulties in finding an appropriate balance between children's and parents' interests in antiobesity interventions and emphasizes the importance of weight stigma and its effects on the obesity debate. He concludes by recommending…
Newby, P K
The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans, legumes, and soy; fiber; and plant-based dietary patterns are inconsistent or generally null. The evidence base is limited, and most studies are fraught with methodologic limitations, including cross-sectional design, inadequate adjustment for potential confounders, and lack of consideration of reporting errors, stage of growth, and genetic influences. Well-designed prospective studies are needed. The lack of evidence showing an association between plant-based diets and childhood obesity does not mean that such diets should not be encouraged. Plant foods are highlighted in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and children do not meet the current recommendations for most plant foods. Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense diet is sound, ethical questions arise concerning the relatively high price of these diets in the United States and the way in which such diets are perceived in other parts of the world. Reducing the burden of childhood obesity, eliminating health disparities, and preventing the further spread of the disease around the globe will require not only policy interventions to ensure that plant foods are affordable and accessible to children of all income levels but also awareness of sociocultural norms that affect consumption.
Historically, hypertension in childhood was thought to be an uncommon diagnosis, usually related to an underlying condition, most often parenchymal renal disease. Primary hypertension in childhood was felt to be quite rare. However, the worldwide childhood obesity epidemic has had a profound impact on the frequency of hypertension and other obesity-related conditions with the result that primary hypertension should now be viewed as one of the most common health conditions in the young. This review will present updated data on the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents, the impact of the childhood obesity epidemic on hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels, shifts in how often primary hypertension is being diagnosed in childhood, and an overview of the pathophysiology of obesity-related hypertension. It is hoped that improved understanding of the significance of these issues will lead to improved recognition and treatment, which will be the key to averting an epidemic of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.
Barry, Colleen L; Jarlenski, Marian; Grob, Rachel; Schlesinger, Mark; Gollust, Sarah E
The American public holds mixed views about the desirability of government action to combat childhood obesity. The framing of coverage by news media may affect citizens' views about the causes of childhood obesity and the most appropriate strategies for addressing the problem. We analyzed the content of a 20% random sample of news stories on childhood obesity published in 18 national and regional news sources in the United States over a 10-year period (2000-2009). News media coverage patterns indicated that by 2003, childhood obesity was firmly on the news media's agenda and remained so until 2007, after which coverage decreased. We identified changes in news media framing over time and significant differences according to news source. News coverage of causes of childhood obesity that were linked to the food and beverage industry increased in the early years of the study but then decreased markedly in later years. Similarly, mention of solutions to the problem of childhood obesity that involved restrictions on the food and beverage industry followed a reverse U-shaped pattern over the 10-year study period. News stories consistently mentioned individual behavioral changes most often as a solution to the problem of childhood obesity. Television news was more likely than other news sources to focus on behavior change as a solution, whereas newspapers were more likely to identify system-level solutions such as changes that would affect neighborhoods, schools, and the food and beverage industry. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Jortberg, Bonnie T; Rosen, Raquel; Roth, Sarah; Casias, Luke; Dickinson, L Miriam; Coombs, Letoynia; Awadallah, Nida S; Bernardy, Meaghann K; Dickinson, W Perry
Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over several decades, and the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended primary care practices as ideal sites for the identification, education, and implementation of therapeutic interventions. The objective of this study was to describe the implementation and results for the Fit Family Challenge (FFC), a primary care-based childhood obesity intervention. A single-intervention pilot project that trains primary care practices on childhood obesity guidelines and implementation of a family-focused behavior modification curriculum. A total of 29 family medicine and pediatric community practices in Colorado participated. Participants included 290 patients, aged 6 to 12 years, with a body mass index (BMI) above the 85th percentile. The main outcome measure included the feasibility of implementation of a childhood obesity program in primary care; secondary outcomes were changes in BMI percentile, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, and changes in lifestyle factors related to childhood obesity. Implementation of FFC is feasible, statically significant changes were seen for decreases in BMI percentile and BMI z-scores for participants who completed 9 to 15 months of follow-up; lifestyle factors related to childhood obesity in proved Spanish-speaking families and food insecurity were associated with less follow-up time (P childhood obesity intervention may result in significant clinical and lifestyle changes. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante
Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…
Full Text Available Background: During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods: Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC were measured, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force [IOTF], World Health Organization [WHO], United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] and a Korean national reference standard (Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [KCDC] to calculate age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Results: Despite differences in absolute prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity according to the four different criteria, the time trends of prevalence were generally similar across criteria. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity generally stabilized from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls. WC decreased from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls aged 2–19. Conclusions: Further studies exploring the factors causing plateaued trends of childhood obesity measures are needed to implement effective policies for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity.
Bahk, Jinwook; Khang, Young-Ho
Background During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force [IOTF], World Health Organization [WHO], United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) and a Korean national reference standard (Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [KCDC]) to calculate age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Results Despite differences in absolute prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity according to the four different criteria, the time trends of prevalence were generally similar across criteria. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity generally stabilized from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls. WC decreased from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls aged 2–19. Conclusions Further studies exploring the factors causing plateaued trends of childhood obesity measures are needed to implement effective policies for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. PMID:26686881
Subica, Andrew M.; Douglas, Jason A.; Villanueva, Sandra
Ethnic and racial health disparities present an enduring challenge to community-based health promotion, which rarely targets their underlying population-level determinants (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, health care inequity). We present a novel 3-lens prescription for using community organizing to treat these determinants in communities of color based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative, the first national project to combat childhood obesity in communities of color using community organizing strategies. The lenses—Social Justice, Culture–Place, and Organizational Capacity–Organizing Approach—assist health professional–community partnerships in planning and evaluating community organizing–based health promotion programs. These programs activate community stakeholders to alter their community’s disease-causing, population-level determinants through grassroots policy advocacy, potentially reducing health disparities affecting communities of color. PMID:26562108
Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Birken, Catherine S.
Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and de...
WOLFSON, JULIA A; GOLLUST, SARAH E; NIEDERDEPPE, JEFF; BARRY, COLLEEN L
Policy PointsThe American public—both men and women and those with and without children in the household—holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity.High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity.Americans who viewed sectors outs...
Costacurta, M; DiRenzo, L; Sicuro, L; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Docimo, R
meals (p=0.436), frequency of starch intake limited to the main meals (p=0.867), home oral hygiene (p=0.905), dental hygiene performed at school (p=0.389), habit of eating after brushing teeth (p=0.196), participation in extracurricular sport activities (p=0.442) and educational level of parents: father (p=0.454), mother (p=0.978). In contrast, there was a statistically significant difference between Groups A, B, C and D in terms of intake of sugar-sweetened drinks (p=0.005), frequency of sugar intake limited to the main meals (pfood intake between meals (p=0.038) and sedentary lifestyle (p=0.012). Successive analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between Group A and D in terms of intake of sugar-sweetened drinks (p=0.001), frequency of sugar intake limited to the main meals (p=0.008), and frequency of food intake between meals (p=0.018), and between Group C and D in terms of frequency of sugar intake limited to the main meals (pfood intake between meals (p=0.040). This study shows a direct association between dental caries and obesity evident from a correlation between prevalence of dental caries and FM%. The analysis of food intake, dmft/DMFT, FM%, measured by DXA, demonstrates that specific dietary habits (intake of sugar-sweetened drinks, frequency of sugar intake limited to main meals, frequency of food intake between meals) may be considered risk factors that are common to both dental caries and childhood obesity.
Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C
To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were transcribed and common themes were identified using the constant comparative method and NVivo software. Mothers often described their parents' feeding style as authoritarian or neglectful, and their own current style as comparatively indulgent and better. Mothers described parents of overweight children as inept or neglectful, but they never described their own parenting as such. Encouraging mothers to reflect on how they were fed as children, how it may influence their current parenting, and how the relationship between mothering and child obesity is complex are important nutrition education opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fenske, Nora; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Hothorn, Torsten; Rzehak, Peter; Höhle, Michael
Childhood obesity and the investigation of its risk factors has become an important public health issue. Our work is based on and motivated by a German longitudinal study including 2,226 children with up to ten measurements on their body mass index (BMI) and risk factors from birth to the age of 10 years. We introduce boosting of structured additive quantile regression as a novel distribution-free approach for longitudinal quantile regression. The quantile-specific predictors of our model include conventional linear population effects, smooth nonlinear functional effects, varying-coefficient terms, and individual-specific effects, such as intercepts and slopes. Estimation is based on boosting, a computer intensive inference method for highly complex models. We propose a component-wise functional gradient descent boosting algorithm that allows for penalized estimation of the large variety of different effects, particularly leading to individual-specific effects shrunken toward zero. This concept allows us to flexibly estimate the nonlinear age curves of upper quantiles of the BMI distribution, both on population and on individual-specific level, adjusted for further risk factors and to detect age-varying effects of categorical risk factors. Our model approach can be regarded as the quantile regression analog of Gaussian additive mixed models (or structured additive mean regression models), and we compare both model classes with respect to our obesity data.
Trier, C; Fonvig, C E; Bøjsøe, C; Mollerup, P M; Gamborg, M; Pedersen, O; Hansen, T; Holm, J-C
Increased consumption of sweetened beverages has previously been linked to the degree of childhood obesity. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food at baseline in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program was associated with the baseline degree of obesity or the treatment effect. This prospective study included 1349 overweight and obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) ≥ 1.64) enrolled in treatment at The Children's Obesity Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital Holbaek. The children were evaluated at baseline and after up to 5.9 years of treatment (median 1.3 years). Both boys and girls decreased their BMI SDS during treatment with a mean decrease in boys of 0.35 (p fast food and BMI SDS at baseline or the change in BMI SDS during treatment. The intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food when entering a childhood obesity treatment program was not associated with the degree of obesity at baseline or the degree of weight loss during treatment. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
McCarthy, H David
The dramatic rise in childhood obesity has driven the demand for tools better able to assess and define obesity and risk for related co-morbidities. In addition, the early life origins of non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes are associated with subtle alterations in growth and body composition, including total and regional body fatness, limb/trunk length and skeletal muscle mass (SMM). Consequently improved tools based on national reference data, which capture these body components must be developed as the limitations of BMI as a measure of overweight and obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk are now recognised. Furthermore, waist circumference as a measure of abdominal fatness in children is now endorsed by the International Diabetes Federation and National Institute for Clinical and Health Excellence for diagnostic and monitoring purposes. The present paper aims to review the research on growth-related variations in body composition and proportions, together with how national references for percentage body fat, SMM and leg/trunk length have been developed. Where collection of these measures is not possible, alternative proxy measures including thigh and hip circumferences are suggested. Finally, body ratios including the waist:height and muscle:fat ratios are highlighted as potential measures of cardiometabolic disease risk. In conclusion, a collection of national references for individual body measures have been produced against which children and youths can be assessed. Collectively, they have the capacity to build a better picture of an individual's phenotype, which represents their risk for cardiometabolic disease beyond that of the capability of BMI.
Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Zucker, Nancy L; Østbye, Truls
In this study, the independent and combined associations between childhood appetitive traits and parental obesity on weight gain from 0 to 24 months and body mass index (BMI) z-score at 24 months in a diverse community-based sample of dual parent families (n = 213) were examined. Participants were mothers who had recently completed a randomized trial of weight loss for overweight/obese postpartum women. As measures of childhood appetitive traits, mothers completed subscales of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, including Desire to Drink (DD), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR), and a 24-h dietary recall for their child. Heights and weights were measured for all children and mothers and self-reported for mothers' partners. The relationship between children's appetitive traits and parental obesity on toddler weight gain and BMI z-score were evaluated using multivariate linear regression models, controlling for a number of potential confounders. Having two obese parents was related to greater weight gain from birth to 24 months independent of childhood appetitive traits, and although significant associations were found between appetitive traits (DD and SR) and child BMI z-score at 24 months, these associations were observed only among children who had two obese parents. When both parents were obese, increasing DD and decreasing SR were associated with a higher BMI z-score. The results highlight the importance of considering familial risk factors when examining the relationship between childhood appetitive traits on childhood obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija
The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.
Balvanz, Peter; Dodgen, Leilani; Quinn, Jeff; Holloway, Tameiya; Hudspeth, Sandra; Eng, Eugenia
Childhood obesity continues to be a prominent health concern in the United States. Certain demographics of youth have a higher prevalence of obesity, including those living in rural settings, and African American females. Multiple determinants contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic, yet few studies have partnered with youth to investigate community-level determinants and solutions. This study involved youth to assess contextual determinants of childhood obesity in a community, create an action plan for the community, and report findings and actions pursued in partnership with a community-based organization (CBO) and a university. Seven African American female high school students were recruited to investigate factors that contribute to childhood obesity using photovoice, a methodology used in community-based participatory research (CBPR). Through photography and guided discussion, youth partners found a lack of access to healthy food and lack of safe recreation as primary contributors to obesity within their community. Social support from friends was believed to help prevent obesity. In response to findings, two projects were envisioned and implemented in the community, a walkability assessment and an intergenerational community garden. Throughout this study, youth proved to be reliable partners in research, provided unique perspectives while examining local factors perceived to contribute to childhood obesity, and offered thoughtful solutions.
Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija
The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558
Huang, David Y C; Lanza, H Isabella; Anglin, M Douglas
This study examined longitudinal associations of prenatal exposures as well as childhood familial experiences with obesity status from ages 10 to 18. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) was applied to examine 5,156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). Higher maternal weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, lower maternal education, and lack of infant breastfeeding were contributors to elevated adolescent obesity risk in early adolescence. However, maternal age, high birth weight of child, and maternal annual income exhibited long-lasting impact on obesity risk over time throughout adolescence. Additionally, childhood familial experiences were significantly related to risk of adolescent obesity. Appropriate use of family rules in the home and parental engagement in children's daily activities lowered adolescent obesity risk, but excessive television viewing heightened adolescent obesity risk. Implementation of consistent family rules and parental engagement may benefit adolescents at risk for obesity.
Wylie, Ann; Furmedge, Daniel S; Appleton, Amber; Toop, Helen; Coats, Tom
The study aimed to firstly provide a small self-selecting group of medical students with the opportunity to explore current approaches and opportunities addressing the prevention of childhood obesity and, secondly, to consider what aspects could be part of the taught curriculum. Medical students in their third and fourth year were invited to self-design special study modules (SSMs) exploring interventions and processes addressing the growing concern about childhood obesity. One student looked at the role of the primary care teams, two looked at community-based opportunities to improve physical activity in urban areas where there is significant deprivation and one student explored the complex role of the media as a social determinant of dietary patterns and sedentary behaviour. Primary care health professionals questioned their role in regard to raising the topic of obesity in the consultation and had limited awareness of current NICE guidelines and local interventions for referral. Local authority physical activity programmes have an important role in preventing and tackling obesity and although the media are regulated, there is limited impact on reducing obesity. Conversely, the influence of the media is complex and enables medical students and teachers to be aware of some of the social determinants influencing health-related behaviour. About a third of UK GP practices have some role in medical undergraduate education. It will therefore be inevitable that students will encounter GPs working with prevention and management of childhood obesity, however limited, and this will increasingly be part of the teaching agenda, whether formal and planned or opportunistic. Curricula could include being familiar with the evidence that informs NICE guidelines, observing these guidelines being implemented and their limitations, awareness of local schemes for referral to prevent or treat obesity and the influence of wider determinants on diet and physical activity behaviour
Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L
There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forno, Erick; Young, Omar M; Kumar, Rajesh; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C
Environmental or lifestyle exposures in utero may influence the development of childhood asthma. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess whether maternal obesity in pregnancy (MOP) or increased maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) increased the risk of asthma in offspring. We included all observational studies published until October 2013 in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, The Cochrane Database, and Ovid. Random effects models with inverse variance weights were used to calculate pooled risk estimates. Fourteen studies were included (N = 108 321 mother-child pairs). Twelve studies reported maternal obesity, and 5 reported GWG. Age of children was 14 months to 16 years. MOP was associated with higher odds of asthma or wheeze ever (OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.49) or current (OR = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.07-1.37); each 1-kg/m(2) increase in maternal BMI was associated with a 2% to 3% increase in the odds of childhood asthma. High GWG was associated with higher odds of asthma or wheeze ever (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.001-1.34). Maternal underweight and low GWG were not associated with childhood asthma or wheeze. Meta-regression showed a negative association of borderline significance for maternal asthma history (P = .07). The significant heterogeneity among existing studies indicates a need for standardized approaches to future studies on the topic. MOP and high GWG are associated with an elevated risk of childhood asthma; this finding may be particularly significant for mothers without asthma history. Prospective randomized trials of maternal weight management are needed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cortese, Samuele; Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A; Klein, Rachel G; Castellanos, F Xavier; Proal, Erika; Mannuzza, Salvatore
To compare BMI and obesity rates in fully grown men with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We predicted higher BMI and obesity rates in: (1) men with, versus men without, childhood ADHD; (2) men with persistent, versus men with remitted, ADHD; and (3) men with persistent or remitted ADHD versus those without childhood ADHD. Men with childhood ADHD were from a cohort of 207 white boys (referred at a mean age of 8.3 years), interviewed blindly at mean ages 18 (FU18), 25 (FU25), and 41 years (FU41). At FU18, 178 boys without ADHD were recruited. At FU41, 111 men with childhood ADHD and 111 men without childhood ADHD self-reported their weight and height. Men with childhood ADHD had significantly higher BMI (30.1 ± 6.3 vs 27.6 ± 3.9; P = .001) and obesity rates (41.4% vs 21.6%; P = .001) than men without childhood ADHD. Group differences remained significant after adjustment for socioeconomic status and lifetime mental disorders. Men with persistent (n = 24) and remitted (n = 87) ADHD did not differ significantly in BMI or obesity rates. Even after adjustment, men with remitted (but not persistent) ADHD had significantly higher BMI (B: 2.86 [95% CI: 1.22 to 4.50]) and obesity rates (odds ratio: 2.99 [95% CI: 1.55 to 5.77]) than those without childhood ADHD. Children with ADHD are at increased risk of obesity as adults. Findings of elevated BMI and obesity rates in men with remitted ADHD require replication.
Veerman, J. Lennert; Van Beeck, Eduard F.; Barendregt, Jan J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.
Background: There is evidence suggesting that food advertising causes childhood obesity. The strength of this effect is unclear. To inform decisions on whether to restrict advertising opportunities, we estimate how much of the childhood obesity prevalence is attributable to food advertising on television (TV). Methods: We constructed a mathematical simulation model to estimate the potential effects of reducing the exposure of 6- to 12-year-old US children to TV advertising for food on the pre...
Abreu, Joana Carolina Rochinha
Thesis abstract: Nowadays, childhood obesity is a major worldwide public health problem. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in the last years seems to be due to changes in lifestyles and eating habits. The family has a great impact on developing healthy eating habits and physical activity and consequently the appropriateness of the child´s weight. Since a large proportion of parents do not have perception of overweight of their children, sets up a barrier to the child achieve a he...
Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria
Objective The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during......, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Conclusion Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition...... childhood obesity treatment. Methods 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6±21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3±5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0...
Hidalgo, Catalina González; Samur, Eduardo Atalah
Obesity is a serious global epidemic and the prevention strategies implemented have been insufficient. Numerous environmental factors have been associated with risk of obesity and their full consideration in prevention policies is important. The connection between food advertising on television and childhood obesity has been demonstrated. The large number of advertisements for unhealthy foods targeted at children through television and its possible impact on health has led some countries to legislate on this matter. However, a conceptual framework of reference enabling legislation must be internationally defined in order to achieve a real impact in preventing childhood obesity. This paper reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between food advertising and childhood obesity as a basis for developing public policies to regulate food marketing on television.
Toemen, L; Gishti, O; van Osch-Gevers, L; Steegers, E A P; Helbing, W A; Felix, J F; Reiss, I K M; Duijts, L; Gaillard, R; Jaddoe, V W V
Maternal obesity may affect cardiovascular outcomes in the offspring. We examined the associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with childhood cardiac outcomes and explored whether these associations were explained by parental characteristics, infant characteristics or childhood body mass index. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4852 parents and their children, we obtained maternal weight before pregnancy and in early, mid- and late pregnancy. At age 6 years, we measured aortic root diameter (cm) and left ventricular dimensions. We calculated left ventricular mass (g), left ventricular mass index (g m(-2.7)), relative wall thickness ((2 × left ventricular posterior wall thickness)/left ventricular diameter), fractional shorting (%), eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy and concentric remodeling. A one standard deviation score (SDS) higher maternal prepregnancy body mass index was associated with higher left ventricular mass (0.10 SDS (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08, 0.13)), left ventricular mass index (0.06 SDS (95% CI 0.03, 0.09)) and aortic root diameter (0.09 SDS (95% CI 0.06, 0.12)), but not with relative wall thickness or fractional shortening. A one SDS higher maternal prepregnancy body mass index was associated with an increased risk of eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio 1.21 (95% CI 1.03, 1.41)), but not of concentric remodeling. When analyzing the effects of maternal weight in different periods simultaneously, only maternal prepregnancy weight and early pregnancy weight were associated with left ventricular mass, left ventricular mass index and aortic root diameter (P-valuesMaternal prepregnancy body mass index and weight gain in early pregnancy are both associated with offspring cardiac structure in childhood, but these associations seem to be fully explained by childhood body mass index.
Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit
That childhood obesity is an alarming public health problem is clear and widely appreciated. What is altogether unclear is what our society should do about it. Some people think the solution lies in using tort law to sue McDonald's, Coca-Cola, and other corporations. We reject that notion. Others believe that government should order specific changes in the behavior of food companies and school officials--and yet, there is little reason for confidence that these "command and control" strategies will make a difference. Instead, we propose "performance-based regulation" of the food industry. This is analogous to the approach our country is now taking with respect to elementary and secondary education (most prominently in the No Child Left Behind legislation). Schools are not told how to achieve better educational results, but better outcomes are demanded of them. This strategy has also been used in the environmental context to reduce harmful power plant emissions, and it has been briefly proposed as a way of regulating cigarette companies. In this Article, we propose that large firms selling food and drink that is high in sugar or fat will be assigned the responsibility of reducing obesity rates in a specific pool of children. A firm's share of the overall responsibility will be based on its share of the "bad' food market, and the children assigned to it will be organized by geographically proximate schools where obesity rates are currently above the plan's nationwide target rate of 8 percent (the actual childhood obesity rate today is approximately 16 percent). Firms that fail to achieve their goals will be subject to serious financial penalties.
Papoutsou, Stalo; Savva, Savvas C; Hunsberger, Monica; Jilani, Hannah; Michels, Nathalie; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Molnár, Dénes; Siani, Alfonso; Moreno, Luis A; Hadjigeorgiou, Charis
This study investigated associations between timing of solid food introduction and childhood obesity and explored maternal characteristics influencing early feeding practices. Cross-sectional data from children 2-9 years (n = 10,808; 50.5% boys) residing in 8 European countries of the IDEFICS study (2007-2008) were included. Late solid food introduction (≥7 months of age) was associated with an increased prevalence of later childhood overweight/obesity among exclusively breastfed children (OR [odds ratio]: 1.38, 95% CI [confidence interval] [1.01, 1.88]). In contrast, early solid food introduction (associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity among children that ceased exclusive breastfeeding earlier than 4 months (OR: 0.63, 95% CI [0.47, 0.84]). Children that were introduced to solids right after 6 months exclusive breastfeeding and continued to receive breastmilk (≥12 months) were less likely to become overweight/obese (OR: 0.67, 95% CI [0.51, 0.88]) compared to children that discontinued to receive breastmilk. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, country, birth weight, parental education level, parental body mass index, tobacco use in pregnancy, gestational weight gain, and gestational diabetes. Underweight mothers, overweight mothers, mothers who reported daily smoking during pregnancy, and low-educated mothers were less likely to follow recommendations on breastfeeding and timely solids introduction. Future studies should examine whether guidelines for solid food introduction timing have to distinguish between exclusively breastfed, formula fed, and too early exclusive breastfeeding-ceased infants. There is also need for more prospective studies; recall bias was an important current limitation. In conclusion, health professionals should emphasize benefits of breastfeeding and appropriate solid food introduction, especially to mothers that are less likely to follow recommendations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van Hooft, J; Patterson, C; Löf, M; Alexandrou, C; Hilton, S; Nimegeer, A
Despite lower prevalence than most European countries, childhood obesity is a Swedish public health priority due to its lasting health impacts and socioeconomic patterning. Mass media content influences public and political perceptions of health issues, and media framing of childhood obesity may influence perceptions of its solutions. This study examines framing of childhood obesity in Swedish morning and evening newspapers from 1996 to 2014. Content analysis of 726 articles about childhood obesity published in the five most-circulated Swedish newspapers. Article content coded quantitatively and subjected to statistical analysis, describing relationships between themes and trends over time. Childhood obesity was consistently problematised, primarily in health terms, and linked to socio-economic and geographical factors. The yearly frequency of articles peaked in 2004, followed by a decline, corresponding with evidence about prevalence. Childhood obesity was framed as being driven by individual behaviours more frequently than structural or environmental factors. Structural framings increased over time, but constructions of the problem as driven by individual behaviours, particularly parenting, remained prominent. A relative growth in structural framings of causes and solutions over time, combined with prominent coverage of socio-economic inequalities, might be indicative of public and political amenability towards societal-level solutions, but individual behaviours remain prominent in framing of the issue. Health advocates might incorporate these insights into media engagement.
Howard-Drake, E J; Halliday, V
Headteachers of primary schools in England are a crucial partner for childhood obesity prevention. Understanding how this works in practice is limited by their views being underrepresented or missing from the evidence base. The aim of this study was to explore primary school headteachers' perspectives on childhood obesity and the perceived barriers and facilitators of prevention. A qualitative study with a purposive sample of 14 primary school headteachers from the Yorkshire and Humber region of England was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using an inductive thematic approach. An extensive range of barriers and facilitators emerged within four key themes; understanding childhood obesity, primary school setting, the role of parents and external partners. A lack of knowledge, awareness and skills to deal with the sensitivity and complexity of childhood obesity across all school stakeholders presents the most significant barrier to effective action. Headteachers recognize primary schools are a crucial setting for childhood obesity prevention; however their school's often do not have the capability, capacity and confidence to make a meaningful and sustainable impact. To increase headteachers' ability and desire to prevent childhood obesity, schools require specialist and tailored training, resources and support from external partners such as public health teams and school nursing services. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Piskáčková, Zlata; Forejt, Martin; Martykánová, Lucie
Disruption of circadian rhythms negatively affects regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis. Disrupted metabolism in response to disrupted biological rhythms might lead, together with genetic background, to obesity and to other health complications. Results of epidemiologic surveys are consistent with mechanistic theory showing the interconnection between the biological rhythms, sleep and metabolism. Epidemiologic surveys confirm that sleep duration of less than 6 hours increases significantly the risk of obesity. Systematic reviews of epidemiologic surveys examining association of sleep and obesity refer to large heterogeneity in involved subjects, methodological approaches of measuring obesity and sleep, and confounders. Design of study plays also essential role in interpretation and definition of causal relationship. Reduced sleep duration in relation to obesity is in the literature discussed from different points of view: 1. as a possible primary cause of obesity, 2. as a result of comorbidities resulting from obesity and 3. as an accompanied part of the third factor contributing to obesity (e.g. long working hours, chronic emotional stress, overusing of media). Causal relationship between sleep and obesity is not yet fully elucidated, however the association is supposed to be bidirectional. The article gives an overview of current knowledge concerning the influence of sleep on the development of obesity and points to the critical points of current research.
Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B
Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Bygdell, M; Ohlsson, C; Célind, J; Saternus, J; Sondén, A; Kindblom, J M
Childhood obesity increases the risk for adult obesity and diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate secular changes of childhood body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity in boys born during 1946-2006, using the population-based BMI Epidemiology STudy (BEST) cohort in Gothenburg, Sweden. We collected height and weight from archived school health records for boys born every 5 years 1946-2006 (birth cohort 1946 n=1584, each birth cohort 1951-2006 n=425). Childhood BMI at 8 years of age was obtained for all the participants. Childhood BMI increased 0.18 kg m -2 (95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.20) per decade increase in birth year, during 1946-2006. The increase was significant from birth year 1971, peaked 1991 and was then followed by a stabilization or tendency to a reduction. Next, we aimed to thoroughly explore the trend after birth year 1991 and therefore expanded birth cohorts 1991 (n=1566), 2001 (n=6478) and 2006 (n=6515). Importantly, decreases in mean BMI (Pobesity (Pobesity (-44.3%, Pchildhood obesity. As childhood obesity is strongly associated with subsequent adult obesity, we anticipate a similar reduction in adult obesity during the coming decades in Swedish men.
Frisvold, David E.; Lumeng, Julie C.
Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, significantly expanded to increase the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified…
Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...
Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth
The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…
Childhood obesity is not a new notion but it is a growing epidemic around the world. There is approximately 42 million children under 5 around the world who are considered overweight or obese and here in the united states that is 12.7 million children between the ages of 2 and 19...
Genetic variants responsible for susceptibility to obesity and its comorbidities among Hispanic children have not been identified. The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and associated biological processes in the Hispanic population. A genome-wide association stu...
Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.
Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…
Penny, Mary E; Jimenez, M Michelle; Marin, R Margot
Rapid postnatal weight gain is associated with risk of overweight and obesity, but it's unclear whether this holds in populations exposed to concurrent obesogenic risk factors and for children who have been extensively breastfed. This study investigates whether an increase in weight for age from birth to 1 year (infancy) and from 1 to 5 years (early childhood) predicts overweight and obesity, and waist circumference at 8 years, using data from a longitudinal cohort study in Peru. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were constructed for overweight and obesity, obesity alone and waist circumference at 8 years versus rapid weight gain in infancy, and early childhood including adjusted models to account for confounders. Rapid weight gain in both periods was associated with double the risk of overweight and obesity, obesity alone at 8 years and increased waist circumference even after controlling for maternal BMI and education level, sex of child, height-for-age at 8 years, consumption of "fast food" and number of days of active exercise. The association was significant, with some differences, for children in both rural and urban environments. Rapid weight gain in infancy and in early childhood in Peru is associated with overweight and obesity at age 8 years even when considering other determinants of childhood obesity.
Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.
Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108
R. Gaillard (Romy); S.M.S. Santos (Susana); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.F. Felix (Janine)
textabstractBackground: Obesity is a major public health problem among women of reproductive age. In a narrative review, we examined the influence of maternal obesity during pregnancy on fetal outcomes and childhood adiposity, cardio-metabolic, respiratory and cognitive-related health outcomes. We
Evans, D S
Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.
This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.
Dattilo, Anne M
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity. Promising obesity prevention interventions include those beginning during the first 1,000 days, using a multicomponent approach, with roots in nutrition education theories or behavior change communication that can continue over time. However, the limited number of completed interventions to date (within pediatric clinics or in home-based or community settings) may not be scalable to the magnitude needed for sustainable obesity prevention. Scale-up interventions that can be maintained for the durations needed, addressing infant and young child feeding and other modifiable risk factors associated with childhood obesity are needed. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Powell, Darren; Gard, Michael
In this paper, we examine the emergence of what might seem an unexpected policy outcome--a large multinational corporation, frequently blamed for exacerbating childhood obesity, operating as an officially sanctioned driver of anti-obesity initiatives in primary schools across the globe. We draw on Foucault's notion of governmentality to examine…
Kim, Sonia A.; Sherry, Bettylou; Blanck, Heidi M.
Introduction States and communities are considering policy and environmental strategies, including enacting legislation, to reduce and prevent childhood obesity. One legislative approach has been to create task forces to understand key issues and develop a course of action. The goal of this study was to describe state-level, childhood obesity task forces in the United States created by legislation from 2001 through 2010. Methods We used the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity database to identify state-level childhood obesity task forces created through legislation from 2001 through 2010. Results We identified 21 states that had enacted legislation creating childhood obesity task forces of which 6 had created more than one task force. Most task forces were charged with both gathering and reviewing information and making recommendations for obesity-prevention actions in the state. Most legislation required that task forces include representation from the state legislature, state agencies, community organizations, and community members. Conclusion Evaluation of the effectiveness of obesity-prevention task forces and the primary components that contribute to their success may help to determine the advantages of the use of such strategies in obesity prevention. PMID:23987250
Piontak, Joy Rayanne; Schulman, Michael D.
Background: Schools are important sites for interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This study examines how variables measuring the socioeconomic and racial composition of schools and counties affect the likelihood of obesity among third to fifth grade children. Methods: Body mass index data were collected from third to fifth grade public…
Guillemette, L; Durksen, A; Rabbani, R; Zarychanski, R; Abou-Setta, A M; Duhamel, T A; McGavock, J M; Wicklow, B
Hyperglycemia in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of offspring childhood obesity. Treatment reduces macrosomia; however, it is unclear if this effect translates into a reduced risk of childhood obesity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intensive glycemic management in pregnancy in preventing childhood obesity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov up to February 2016 and conference abstracts from 2010 to 2015. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials evaluating intensive glycemic management interventions for hyperglycemia in pregnancy and included four of the 383 citations initially identified. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and evaluated internal validity of the studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using the I 2 test. The primary outcome was age- and sex-adjusted childhood obesity. Secondary outcomes included childhood weight and waist circumference and maternal hypoglycemia during the trial (safety outcome). The four eligible trials (n=767 children) similarly used lifestyle and insulin to manage gestational hyperglycemia, but only two measured offspring obesity and waist circumference and could be pooled for these outcomes. We found no association between intensive gestational glucose management and childhood obesity at 7-10 years of age (relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.22; two trials; n=568 children). Waist circumference also did not differ between treatment and control arms (mean difference, -2.68 cm; 95% CI, -8.17 to 2.81 cm; two trials; n=568 children). Intensive gestational glycemic management is not associated with reduced childhood obesity in offspring, but randomized data is scarce. Long-term follow-up of trials should be prioritized and comprehensive
Young-Hyman, Deborah; Morris, Kathryn; Kettel Khan, Laura; Dawkins-Lyn, Nicola; Dooyema, Carrie; Harris, Carole; Jernigan, Jan; Ottley, Phyllis; Kauh, Tina
Childhood obesity remains prevalent and is increasing in some disadvantaged populations. Numerous research, policy and community initiatives are undertaken to impact this pandemic. Understudied are natural experiments. The need to learn from these efforts is paramount. Resulting evidence may not be readily available to inform future research, community initiatives, and policy development/implementation. We discuss the implications of using an adaptation of the Systematic Screening and Assessment (SSA) method to evaluate the Childhood Obesity Declines (COBD) project. The project examined successful initiatives, programs and policies in four diverse communities which were concurrent with significant declines in child obesity. In the context of other research designs and evaluation schemas, rationale for use of SSA is presented. Evidence generated by this method is highlighted and guidance suggested for evaluation of future studies of community-based childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for the role of stakeholder collaboratives, in particular the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research, as a synergistic vehicle to accelerate research on childhood obesity is discussed. SSA mapped active processes and provided contextual understanding of multi-level/component simultaneous efforts to reduce rates of childhood obesity in community settings. Initiatives, programs and policies were not necessarily coordinated. And although direct attribution of intervention/initiative/policy components could not be made, the what, by who, how, to whom was temporally associated with statistically significant reductions in childhood obesity. SSA provides evidence for context and processes which are not often evaluated in other data analytic methods. SSA provides an additional tool to layer with other evaluation approaches.
The objective of the study is to review the current knowledge on the problems associated with obesity, as well as the measures and strategies that have evolved in its management. A review of the literature on the subject of obesity, its epidemiology, risk factors, clinical complications and treatment (using Medline computer ...
Silventoinen, K; Rokholm, B; Kaprio, J
a substantial effect in mid-childhood, but this effect disappeared at adolescence. Adoption studies supported the role of family environment in childhood obesity as correlations were found between adoptees and adoptive parents; however, correlations were substantially stronger between parents......In this systematic review, we aimed to collect together all previous twin and adoption studies on childhood and adolescent obesity up to the age of 18 years. Using several sources, we identified nine twin and five adoption studies; all of these studies had used relative weight as an indicator...
Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K
A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or del...
Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M.
Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the presch...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. Methods This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5–16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height. Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between weight status and home-based weight-related behaviors. Results Both children and adolescents who did not consume breakfast daily were more likely to be overweight/obese OR (95% CI = 1.39 (1.07–1.81 p = 0.015, OR (95% CI =1.42 (1.16–1.74 p = 0.001, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence and physical activity. There was also a significant positive association with higher waist-to-height ratio in both children and adolescents. Among children, having a TV in the bedroom was also associated with overweight and obesity OR (95% CI = 1.54 (1.13–2.09 p = 0.006 and higher waist-to-height ratio. For adolescents, parenting practices such as having no rules on screen-time, OR (95% CI = 1.29 (1.07–1.55 p = 0.008, and rewarding good behavior with sweets, OR (95% CI = 2.18 (1.05–4.52 p = 0.036, were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of these obesogenic behaviors were higher in certain sub-groups of children
Johnsen, Kyle; Ahn, Sun Joo; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Robertson, Thomas P; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata
Novel approaches are needed to reduce the high rates of childhood obesity in the developed world. While multifactorial in cause, a major factor is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle of children. Our research shows that a mixed reality system that is of interest to children can be a powerful motivator of healthy activity. We designed and constructed a mixed reality system that allowed children to exercise, play with, and train a virtual pet using their own physical activity as input. The health, happiness, and intelligence of each virtual pet grew as its associated child owner exercised more, reached goals, and interacted with their pet. We report results of a research study involving 61 children from a local summer camp that shows a large increase in recorded and observed activity, alongside observational evidence that the virtual pet was responsible for that change. These results, and the ease at which the system integrated into the camp environment, demonstrate the practical potential to impact the exercise behaviors of children with mixed reality.
Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Santero, Marilina; Azañedo, Diego
Childhood obesity is a global problem, sociodemographic and cultural factors influence its presence. An analysis of disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity in Peru was made by sex and region in 2015. Analysis of the information reported by the Sistema de Información del Estado Nutricional of the number of obesity cases in 2,336,791 children under five years, evaluated in public health facilities during 2015. The distribution of obesity cases was analyzed by sex and region of residence, also a spatial projection of the regional prevalence of obesity and the prevalence differences between men and women was performed. Data from 2,336,791 children under five was analyzed. An obesity prevalence of 1.52% (girls: 1.3% and boys: 1.7%) was found; the highest prevalence were observed in urban areas (girls: 1.5% and boys: 1.9%) and on the Costa (girls: 1.9% and boys: 2.5%). Highest prevalence of obesity were in Tacna (girls: 3.2% y boys: 3.9%), Moquegua (girls: 2.4% y boys: 3.1%) and Callao (girls: 2.3% y boys: 2.8%). Childhood obesity predominates on the coast and in urban areas of Peru particularly among boys. The regions of higher prevalence of obesity were Tacna Moquegua and Callao.
... Obesity Causes & Consequences CDC Reports Improvement in Childhood Obesity among Young Children Participating in WIC Data & Statistics Adult Obesity Facts Childhood Obesity Facts Data, Trends and ...
Height and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other physical and mental health conditions. Their association with childhood socioeconomic position has been demonstrated in studies among European and a few third world populations. In a random sample of adult Greenland Inuit (N...... = 2302) we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic conditions and height as well as prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30) in a cross sectional design. In block recursive graphical independence models, height was associated with mother's place of birth, birth cohort, childhood residence......, alcohol problems in childhood home, and education among both men and women. Obesity was associated with mother's place of birth (for men) and with alcohol problems (for women). In General Linear Models, men with an all rural background and no education beyond primary school measured on average 165.1 cm...
Kelishadi, Roya; Roufarshbaf, Mohammad; Soheili, Sina; Payghambarzadeh, Farzaneh; Masjedi, Mohsen
The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a serious health problem over the past decades. As the immune system is greatly affected by excess weight, in this review of reviews, we discuss the findings of review articles about the relationship between childhood/maternal obesity and children's immune system. We searched English-language articles in PubMed, Scopus, ISI Thomson Reuters, and Google Scholar databases. All relevant reviews, either systematic or narrative, were retrieved. Then their quality was assessed by using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews and International Narrative Systematic Assessment tools, respectively. In the final step, 26 reviews were included. Our review suggests that childhood obesity is associated with extensive changes in the serum levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and proteins, as well as the number of immune cells and their behavior. Therefore, it might cause or exacerbate diseases such as asthma, allergy, atopic dermatitis (AD), and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Moreover, childhood obesity may reduce the immune system responsiveness to vaccines and microorganisms. Furthermore, studies suggest that maternal obesity increases the risk of asthma in offspring. Future studies are needed to determine different associations of childhood obesity with allergy, atophic dermatitis, and autoimmune diseases.
El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Galea, Sandro
Childhood obesity, a growing epidemic, is associated with greater risk of several chronic diseases in adulthood. Children of immigrant mothers are at higher risk for obesity than children of non-immigrant mothers. High birth weight is the most important neonatal predictor of childhood obesity in the general population. To understand the etiology of obesity in children of immigrant mothers, we assessed the relation between maternal immigrant status and risk for high birth weight. Data about all births in Michigan (N = 786,868) between 2000-2005 were collected. We used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between maternal immigrant status and risk for neonatal high birth weight. The prevalence of high birth weight among non-immigrant mothers was 10.6%; the prevalence among immigrant mothers was 8.0% (P maternal age, education, marital status, parity, and tobacco use, children of immigrant mothers had lower odds (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.70) of high birth weight compared to those of non-immigrant mothers. Although maternal immigrant status has been shown to be associated with greater childhood obesity, surprisingly, children of immigrant mothers have lower risk of high birth weight than children of non-immigrant mothers. This suggests that factors in early childhood, potentially cultural or behavioral factors, may play a disproportionately important role in the etiology of childhood obesity in children of immigrant vs non-immigrant mothers.
Bider-Canfield, Z; Martinez, M P; Wang, X; Yu, W; Bautista, M P; Brookey, J; Page, K A; Buchanan, T A; Xiang, A H
Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breastfeeding are four important factors associated with childhood obesity. The objective of the study was to assess the interplay among these four factors and their independent contributions to childhood overweight in a cohort with standard clinical care. The cohort included 15 710 mother-offspring pairs delivered in 2011. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between maternal exposures and childhood overweight (body mass index >85th percentile) at age 2 years. Mothers with pre-pregnancy obesity or overweight were more likely to have EGWG, GDM and less likely to breastfeed ≥6 months. Mothers with GDM had 40-49% lower EGWG rates and similar breastfeeding rates compared with mothers without GDM. Analysis adjusted for exposures and covariates revealed an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with childhood overweight at age 2 years of 2.34 (2.09-2.62), 1.50 (1.34-1.68), 1.23 (1.12-1.35), 0.95 (0.83-1.10) and 0.76 (0.69-0.83) for maternal obesity, overweight, EGWG, GDM and breastfeeding ≥6 months vs. maternal pre-pregnancy obesity or overweight and EGWG were independently associated with an increased risk, and breastfeeding ≥6 months was associated with a decreased risk of childhood overweight at age 2 years. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Ho, Mandy; Garnett, Sarah P; Baur, Louise A
Concomitant with the rise in global pediatric obesity in the past decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of children and adolescents with clinical signs of insulin resistance. Given insulin resistance is the important link between obesity and the associated metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk, clinicians should be aware of high risk groups and treatment options. As there is no universally accepted biochemical definition of insulin resistance in children and adolescents, identification and diagnosis of insulin resistance usually relies on clinical features such as acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Treatment for reducing insulin resistance and other obesity-associated comorbidities should focus on changes in health behaviors to achieve effective weight management. Lifestyle interventions incorporating dietary change, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behaviors, with the involvement of family and adoption of a developmentally appropriate approach, should be used as the first line treatment. Current evidence suggests that the primary objective of dietary interventions should be to reduce total energy intake and a combination of aerobic and resistance training should be encouraged. Metformin can be used in conjunction with a lifestyle intervention program in obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance to achieve weight loss and to improve insulin sensitivity. Ongoing evaluation and research are required to explore optimal protocol and long-term effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, as well as to determine whether the improvements in insulin sensitivity induced by lifestyle interventions and weight loss will lead to a clinical benefit including reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Locks, Lindsey M; Cheng, Erika R; Blake-Lamb, Tiffany L; Perkins, Meghan E; Taveras, Elsie M
Mounting evidence suggests that the origins of childhood obesity and related disparities can be found as early as the "first 1,000 days"-the period from conception to age 2 years. The main goal of this study is to systematically review existing evidence for modifiable childhood obesity risk factors present from conception to age 2 years. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies published between January 1, 1980, and December 12, 2014, of childhood obesity risk factors present during the first 1,000 days. Prospective, original human subject, English-language research with exposure occurrence during the first 1,000 days and with the outcome of childhood overweight or obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile for age and sex) collected between age 6 months and 18 years were analyzed between December 13, 2014, and March 15, 2015. Of 5,952 identified citations, 282 studies met inclusion criteria. Several risk factors during the first 1,000 days were consistently associated with later childhood obesity. These included higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal excess gestational weight gain, high infant birth weight, and accelerated infant weight gain. Fewer studies also supported gestational diabetes, child care attendance, low strength of maternal-infant relationship, low SES, curtailed infant sleep, inappropriate bottle use, introduction of solid food intake before age 4 months, and infant antibiotic exposure as risk factors for childhood obesity. Modifiable risk factors in the first 1,000 days can inform future research and policy priorities and intervention efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Dehghan, Mahshid; Morrison, Katherine M; Fonseka, Sujeewa
The purpose of this study was to investigate parents of young children for their perceptions on the causes of obesity, the impact of childhood obesity on health, and the barriers to successful prevention of childhood obesity. The target population included parents who attended a clinic for their well-baby check-up. The study was conducted in two phases. Using Q-methodology, 33 parents were classified into two groups representing two viewpoints: "confident in delivering healthy nutrition" and "family physical activity focused." This work indicates that parents have varying foci on causation of obesity, and differ in focus on nutrition and physical activity. Most of the parents in this study were aware of healthy nutrition, and about one third of them believed in the benefits of physical activity for children and did not see being overweight or obese as a barrier to physical activity. The first group was confident in being able to deliver healthy nutrition to their family, and the second group was characterized by a focus on physical activity and its role in childhood obesity. Both groups agreed that exercising and sports are very important to a child's health status. Nurse practitioners have a unique role in the health system and are one of the best facilitators to deliver health messages to the public; thus, they are able to educate parents and increase their awareness about the causes and consequences of childhood obesity. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K
Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may
Leah M Frerichs
Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally
Interventions to tackle childhood obesity have been devised in response to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. However, efficiency of these interventions remains a concern. Cost-utility analysis, representing health benefits in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), is a type of economic evaluation that has widely been recommended in assessing efficiency of health interventions. However, certain limitations in using QALYs remain specifically difficult in QALYs estimation. This study estimates the long-term QALYs gain from reversing childhood obesity in Thailand. An economic model was developed to estimate long-term QALYs of the youth aged 3-18 for the BMI status in childhood, which were categorized into three groups: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Long-term QALYs were estimated between ages 35 and 100, according to children's age, sex, and BMI status. Differences in QALYs between BMI status groups were calculated to represent the QALYs gain for youth from reversing obesity and overweight. The future outcomes were discounted at 3 % per annum in the base-case analysis; the discount rates of 0, 1.5, 3.5, and 5 % were also applied in the sensitivity analyses. QALYs gained from reversing childhood obesity increase with age, starting from 0.040 and 0.083 QALYs at age 3 to 0.590 and 0.553 QALYs at age 18 in boys and girls, respectively. Reversing overweight and obesity in girls produces more QALYs than in boys between ages 3 and 17. Efficiency is an important issue in allocating public healthcare resources to maximize social benefits. The results of this study facilitate long-term QALYs estimation with respect to BMI status in childhood, which could encourage more routine economic evaluation of child obesity interventions and maximize their health benefits.
Figueroa, Roger; Saltzman, Jaclyn; Jarick Metcalfe, Jessica; Wiley, Angela
Introduction. Forty-one million children globally are overweight or obese, with most rapid rate increases among low- and middle-income nations. Child-minders and health workers play a crucial role in obesity prevention efforts, but their perceptions of childhood obesity in low- and middle-income countries are poorly understood. This study aims to (1) explore child-minders and health workers’ perceptions of the causes, consequences, potential strategies, and barriers for childhood obesity prev...
Keane, Eimear; Kearney, Patricia M; Perry, Ivan J; Browne, Gemma M; Harrington, Janas M
Childhood obesity is complex, and its aetiology is known to be multifaceted. The contribution of lifestyle behaviors, including poor diet and physical inactivity, to obesity remains unclear. Due to the current high prevalence, childhood obesity is an urgent public health priority requiring current and reliable data to further understand its aetiology. The objective of this study is to explore the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity, with a specific focus on diet and physical activity. A secondary objective of the study is to determine the average salt intake and distribution of blood pressure in Irish children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of children 8-11 years old in primary schools in Cork, Ireland. Urban schools were selected using a probability proportionate to size sampling strategy, and a complete sample of rural schools from one area in Cork County were invited to participate. Information collected included physical measurement data (anthropometric measurements, blood pressure), early morning spot and 24 hour urine samples, a 3 day estimated food diary, and 7 days of accelerometer data. Principal- (school head) reported, parent/guardian-reported, and child-reported questionnaires collected information on lifestyle behaviors and environmental attributes. The Cork Children's Lifestyle Study (CCLaS) was designed by the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health in University College Cork, Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Piloting and modification of study methods was undertaken. Data collection took place between April 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 27/46 schools and 1075/1641 children, of which 623 were boys, participated. Preliminary data analysis is underway. It is anticipated that the results of the CCLaS study will be available in late 2014. The CCLaS study has collected in-depth data on a wide range of individual, family, social, and environmental correlates which will allow us to access
Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted a systematic review to obtain studies on childhood obesity and parenting published between 2009 and 2015, and draw out those studies with a particular focus on media parenting. Our analysis addresses two major aims: 1 to describe how media use and media-related parenting practices and skills are operationalized in studies and 2 to explore whether studies measured ecological factors (e.g. individual-, family-, and community-level factors, which could be associated with media parenting practices. Methods Using a standardized, multi-stage process, we identified and screened articles focused on parenting and childhood obesity (N = 667. Studies were eligible for this analysis if they measured media parenting and/or the home media environment, resulting in a sample of 103 studies. We used quantitative content analysis to code the full text articles for content related to our study aims; analyses were performed using SAS 9.4. Results Seventy nine percent of studies measured media use, 82 % measured media parenting, and 65 % measured the home media environment. Studies measuring media use focused on a limited number of devices; while all studies measured child/parent use of televisions, only 3 % measured use of smartphones, 1 % measured use of laptops, and no studies measured use of tablets. Measures of parenting practices focused largely on rules specific to limiting screen time. Although 60 % of studies measured at least one ecological factor, child-specific and neighborhood/community-level factors were rarely measured. Conclusions More detailed measurements of media use that reflects current technology trends and diverse contexts of use are needed to better understand media use and parent regulation of child media exposure. Measures of the ecological context can more fully assess factors impacting media parenting and, subsequently, child risk for overweight and obesity.
Swank, Melissa Farrell; Brennan, Laura K; Gentry, Daniel; Kemner, Allison L
To date, few tools assist policy makers and practitioners in understanding and conveying the implementation costs, potential impacts, and value of policy and environmental changes to address healthy eating, active living, and childhood obesity. For the Evaluation of Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC), evaluators considered inputs (resources and investments) that generate costs and savings as well as benefits and harms related to social, economic, environmental, and health-related outcomes in their assessment of 49 HKHC community partnerships funded from 2009 to 2014. Using data collected through individual and group interviews and an online performance monitoring system, evaluators created a socioecological framework to assess investments, resources, costs, savings, benefits, and harms at the individual, organizational, community, and societal levels. Evaluators customized frameworks for 6 focal strategies: active transportation, parks and play spaces, child care physical activity standards, corner stores, farmers' markets, and child care nutrition standards. To illustrate the Value Frameworks, this brief highlights the 38 HKHC communities implementing at least 1 active transportation strategy. Evaluators populated this conceptual Value Framework with themes from the strategy-specific inputs and outputs. The range of factors corresponding to the implementation and impact of the HKHC community partnerships are highlighted along with the inputs and outputs. The Value Frameworks helped evaluators identify gaps in current analysis models (ie, benefit-cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis) as well as paint a more complete picture of value for potential obesity prevention strategies. These frameworks provide a comprehensive understanding of investments needed, proposed costs and savings, and potential benefits and harms associated with economic, social, environmental, and health outcomes. This framing also allowed evaluators to demonstrate the interdependence
Henderson, E J; Ells, L J; Rubin, G P; Hunter, D J
This study reviewed the use in primary care of national surveillance data for children to determine the data's potential utility to inform policy and practice decisions on how to prevent and treat childhood obesity. We reviewed the 28 countries identified by the World Obesity Federation as having high-quality comparable body mass index data for children. Literature published from any period up to December 2013 was included. Peer review literature was searched using Web of Science (Core Collection, MEDLINE). Grey literature was searched using the Internet by country name, programme name and national health and government websites. We included studies that (i) use national surveillance obesity data in primary care, or (ii) explore practitioner or parent perspectives about the use of such data. The main uses of national surveillance data in primary care were to identify and recruit obese children and their parents to participate in school and general practice-based research and/or interventions, and to inform families of children's measurements. Findings indicate a need for school staff and practitioners to receive additional training and support to sensitively communicate with families. Translation of these findings into policy and practice could help to improve current uses of national child obesity surveillance data in primary care. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.
Preston, Emma C; Ariana, Proochista; Penny, Mary E; Frost, Melanie; Plugge, Emma
To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity among a cohort of children 7-8 years of age in Peru. This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty. The sample was a cohort of 1 737 children 7-8 years of age in 2009. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed using body mass index-forage Z-scores. Logistic regression was used to determine associations with a number of individual, household, and community factors. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 19.2% and 8.6%, respectively. A prevalence of 32.0% and 23.5% overweight and obesity was found among males and females, respectively. High socioeconomic status, living in Lima, having a mother who was overweight or obese, being male, and being an only child or having only one sibling were associated with being overweight and obese at this age. This study shows a high prevalence of childhood and maternal overweight and obesity in Peru. In contrast to findings in many high-income countries, the findings in Peru indicate that children from wealthier households were more likely to be overweight or obese than those from poorer households. In addition, there is something particularly obesogenic about the Lima environment that merits further investigation, and several key issues to consider when targeting future interventions and research.
Emma C. Preston
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity among a cohort of children 7-8 years of age in Peru. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty. The sample was a cohort of 1 737 children 7-8 years of age in 2009. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed using body mass index-forage Z-scores. Logistic regression was used to determine associations with a number of individual, household, and community factors. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 19.2% and 8.6%, respectively. A prevalence of 32.0% and 23.5% overweight and obesity was found among males and females, respectively. High socioeconomic status, living in Lima, having a mother who was overweight or obese, being male, and being an only child or having only one sibling were associated with being overweight and obese at this age. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a high prevalence of childhood and maternal overweight and obesity in Peru. In contrast to findings in many high-income countries, the findings in Peru indicate that children from wealthier households were more likely to be overweight or obese than those from poorer households. In addition, there is something particularly obesogenic about the Lima environment that merits further investigation, and several key issues to consider when targeting future interventions and research.
Mustila, Taina; Raitanen, Jani; Keskinen, P?ivi; Saari, Antti; Luoto, Riitta
Background According to current evidence, the prevention of obesity should start early in life. Even the prenatal environment may expose a child to unhealthy weight gain; maternal gestational diabetes is known to be among the prenatal risk factors conducive to obesity. Here we report the effects of antenatal dietary and physical activity counselling on pregnancy and infant weight gain outcomes. Methods The study was a non-randomised controlled pragmatic trial aiming to prevent childhood obesi...
Nielsen, Louise A; Bøjsøe, Christine; Kloppenborg, Julie T
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to investigate whether a familial predisposition to obesity related cardiovascular complications was associated with the degree of obesity at baseline and/or changes in the degree of obesity during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. METHODS: The study...... included 1421 obese children (634 boys) with a median age of 11.5 years (range 3.1-17.9 years), enrolled in treatment for 0.04 to 5.90 years (median 1.3 years) at the Children's Obesity Clinic, Denmark. At baseline, weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS......) calculated, and self-reported information on familial predisposition to obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), thromboembolic events, and dyslipidaemia were obtained. A familial predisposition included events in biological parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, and aunts. The treatment...
Gray, Laura A; Hernandez Alava, Monica; Kelly, Michael P; Campbell, Michael J
The prevalence of childhood obesity has been increasing but the causes are not fully understood. Recent public health interventions and guidance aiming to reduce childhood obesity have focused on the whole family, as opposed to just the child but there remains a lack of empirical evidence examining this relationship. Using data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we investigate the dynamic relationship between underlying family lifestyle and childhood obesity during early childhood. The MCS interviewed parents shortly after the birth of their child and follow up interviews were carried out when the child was 3, 5 and 7 years. We use a dynamic latent factor model, an approach that allows us to identify family lifestyle, its evolution over time (in this case between birth and 7 years) and its influence on childhood obesity and other observable outcomes. We find that family lifestyle is persistent, 87.43% of families which were above the 95th percentile on the lifestyle distribution, remained above the 95th percentile when the child was 7 years old. Family lifestyle has a significant influence on all outcomes in the study, including diet, exercise and parental weight status; family lifestyle accounts for 11.3% of the variation in child weight by age 7 years. The analysis suggests that interventions should therefore be prolonged and persuasive and target the underlying lifestyle of a family as early as possible during childhood in order to have the greatest cumulative influence. Our results suggest that children from advantaged backgrounds are more likely to be exposed to healthier lifestyles and that this leads to inequalities in the prevalence of obesity. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, policy makers should target disadvantaged families and design interventions specifically for these families.
Ruilope, L M; Nunes Filho, A C B; Nadruz, W; Rodríguez Rosales, F F; Verdejo-Paris, J
In the countries of Central America, South America and the Caribbean, there has been a dramatic rise in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in the last few decades. Epidemiological evidence highlights a consistent correlation between obesity and hypertension, and the presence of obesity predisposes an individual to a greater risk of hypertension although the mechanisms remain unclear. Obesity and hypertension are two key drivers of the cardio-renal disease continuum, and patients with uncontrolled cardiovascular risk in their mid-life will likely have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular and renal outcomes in old age. This article summarizes the current status for the prevalence and consequences of obesity and hypertension in Latin America, with the aim of initiating a call to action to all stakeholders for greater implementation of primary prevention strategies, particularly in the young. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lu, Amy Shirong; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity prevention has increased during this time. Most games were commercially available. Most studies were of short duration. Diverse player and game play patterns have been identified. Most studies involved players of both genders with slightly more boys. The majority of players were non-white. Most studies had the players play the games at home, whereas some extended the play setting to school and sports/recreational facilities. Most of the games were commercially available. Positive outcomes related to obesity were observed in about 40 percent of the studies, all of which targeted overweight or obese participants.
Wright, Robin; Casamassimo, Paul S
Childhood obesity is a major US health concern, and oral health professionals have opportunities to participate in an interprofessional effort to intervene owing to their access to young patients and their abilities in addressing obesity-related dietary habits like consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This study determined attitudes, behaviors, future intentions, and perceived barriers of pediatric dentists regarding efforts to prevent childhood obesity and reduce children's consumption of SSBs. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry conducted an online electronic survey with a convenience sample of approximately 7,450 pediatric dentists and pediatric dental residents during spring 2016. Over 17 percent of pediatric dentists offer childhood obesity interventions. Of those not providing interventions, 67 percent were interested in offering obesity-prevention services. Nearly 94 percent of pediatric dentists offer information or other interventions on consumption of SSBs. Statistically significant barriers to providing healthy weight interventions were fear of offending parents, appearing judgmental, or creating parent dissatisfaction and a lack of parental acceptance of guidance about weight management from a dentist. Significant barriers to SSB interventions were sufficient time and health professional education. More pediatric dentists stated they offer childhood obesity interventions than in previous surveys reporting 6 percent, but respondents suggested that a child's weight is seen as a medical rather than dental issue. Most pediatric dentists provide interventions related to consumption of SSBs, perceiving the issue as integral to their care of children. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L; Cicchetti, Dante
To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research examining the relationship of shame to interpersonal conflict is lacking. Participants were 129 mothers of children enrolled in a summer camp program for at-risk children from financially disadvantaged families. Data were collected on women's childhood abuse histories, shame in daily life, and current interpersonal conflict involving family conflict, intimate partner conflict (verbal and physical aggression), and child maltreatment. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of hierarchical regressions and logistic regression indicated that shame significantly mediated the association between childhood sexual abuse and interpersonal conflict. Women with sexual abuse histories reported more shame in their daily lives, which in turn was associated with higher levels of conflicts with intimate partners (self-verbal aggression and partner-physical aggression) and in the family. Shame did not mediate the relationship between mothers' histories of sexual abuse and child maltreatment. The role of shame in the intimate partner and family conflicts of women with sexual abuse histories has not been examined. The current findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse was related to interpersonal conflicts indirectly through the emotion of shame. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of shame in the interpersonal conflicts of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Healthcare professionals in medical and mental health settings frequently treat women with abuse histories who are involved in family and partner conflicts. Assessing and addressing the links of abused women's shame to interpersonal conflicts could be
Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante
Objective To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research examining the relationship of shame to interpersonal conflict is lacking. Method Participants were 129 mothers of children enrolled in a summer camp program for at-risk children from financially disadvantaged families. Data were collected on women's childhood abuse histories, shame in daily life, and current interpersonal conflict involving family conflict, intimate partner conflict (verbal and physical aggression), and child maltreatment. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of hierarchical regressions and logistic regression indicated that shame significantly mediated the association between childhood sexual abuse and interpersonal conflict. Women with sexual abuse histories reported more shame in their daily lives, which in turn was associated with higher levels of conflicts with intimate partners (self-verbal aggression and partner-physical aggression) and in the family. Shame did not mediate the relationship between mothers' histories of sexual abuse and child maltreatment. Conclusion The role of shame in the intimate partner and family conflicts of women with sexual abuse histories has not been examined. The current findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse was related to interpersonal conflicts indirectly through the emotion of shame. Practical Implications These findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of shame in the interpersonal conflicts of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Healthcare professionals in medical and mental health settings frequently treat women with abuse histories who are involved in family and partner conflicts. Assessing and addressing the links of
This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.
Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Gil-González, Diana; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Lobstein, Tim
The aim of this study was to identify Spanish stakeholders' views on the relationship between childhood obesity and the marketing and advertising of food and beverages aimed at children in Spain, as well as on the corresponding of regulations. We performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with Stakeholders/Key Informants (KI) from 13 organisations: experts (2), consumer advocates (1), public health advocates (2), food manufacturers (2), advertising advocates (1), government representatives (1), child/family/school advocates (2) and media (1). The variables studied were Prevalence of childhood obesity and its relationship to marketing/advertising and Regulation of marketing. In order to identify the most relevant arguments (pearls) in the discourses, a blind independent analysis by four members of the research team was performed. We found that the prevalence of childhood obesity was perceived to be higher than the European average. Self-regulation was identified as the main form of marketing control. Only food manufacturers and advertising agencies considered voluntary action and supervisory procedures to be effective. The other stakeholders advocated state control through legislation and non-state actions such as external assessment and sanctions. Despite the divergence of opinion between stakeholders, there was agreement on the need to improve supervision and to ensure compliance with current self-regulatory codes in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Childhood obesity has become, a global public health problem, and epidemiological studies are important to identify its determinants in different populations. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with obesity in a representative sample of children in Neishabour, Iran. This study was conducted among 1500 randomly selected 6–12-year-old students from urban areas of Neishabour, northeast of Iran. Then, through a case-control study, 114 obese (BMI≥95th percentile of Iranian reference children were selected as the case group and were compared with 102 controls (15th≤BMI<85th percentile. Factors suggested to be associated with weight status were investigated, for example, parental obesity, child physical activity levels, socio-economic status (SES, and so forth. The analysis was conducted using univariate and multivariate logistic regression (MLR in SPSS version 16. In univariate logistic regression model, birth weight, birth order, family extension, TV watching, sleep duration, physical activity, parents’ job, parents’ education, parental obesity history, and SES were significantly associated with children’s obesity. After MLR analysis, physical activity and parental obesity history remained statistically significant in the model. Our findings showed that physical activity and parental obesity history are the most important determinants for childhood obesity in our population. This finding should be considered in implementation of preventive interventions.
An estimated 12.5 million American children and teens are obese. Over time, the diseases and disabilities associated with obesity may undermine this population's health and result in substantial social and economic costs. Policies that address children's nutrition and physical activity are an important tool in reversing the obesity epidemic. More…
Chi, Donald L; Luu, Monique; Chu, Frances
What are the non-modifiable (socioeconomic, genetic) and modifiable factors (physical activity, dietary behaviors) related to childhood (under age 12) obesity? How can this knowledge be applied to oral health professionals' efforts to prevent or manage dental caries in children? Studies have identified risk factors for childhood obesity. The purpose of this scoping review was to develop a conceptual model to identify non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity and to illustrate how these findings are relevant in developing interventions aimed at preventing obesity and dental caries in children. The authors searched PubMed and Embase and limited the study to English-language publications. A total of 2,572 studies were identified. After de-duplication, 2,479 studies remained and were downloaded into a citation-management tool. Two authors screened the titles and abstracts for relevance. Two hundred and sixty studies remained and were retrieved for a full-text review, and 80 studies were excluded, resulting in 180 studies included in the scoping review. An inductive content analytic methods was used to organize all statistically significant obesity risk factors into seven domains, which were classified as non-modifiable or modifiable; then a conceptual model of common risk factors associated with childhood obesity and dental caries was developed. Non-modifiable obesity risk factors include biological and developmental (e.g., genes, developmental conditions, puberty), sociodemographic and household (e.g., race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parent education, unemployment), cultural (e.g., degree of acculturation), and community (e.g., neighborhood composition). Modifiable risk factors included behavioral (e.g., diet, physical activity, weight), psychosocial (e.g., maternal stress, family functioning, parenting practices, child temperament), and medical (e.g., parent smoking, maternal health, child health). Identifying common risk factors has
Moore, Lucas C; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S
Parental concern about child weight has been identified as a factor in parental monitoring and regulation of child diet. However, little is known about factors that influence parental concern or about how concern may influence parent management of child physical activity. The objectives of the current study were to identify the factors associated with parental concern about child weight and determine if parental concern is associated with specific actions to improve diet and increase physical activity. A stratified random sample of 1,500 parents of children in kindergarten, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 9th grade were interviewed. Interviews addressed: (a) child and parent physical activity, (b) child and family nutrition, (c) child and parent BMI weight category, (d) interactions with health care providers, (e) parent obesity knowledge, (f) school assessment of BMI, and (g) parent perception of and concern about child weight. Child gender, weight status, and parent perception of child weight were significant predictors of parental concern. Parents were significantly more likely to report concern if their child was female, they believed their child to be overweight/obese, or their child was overweight/obese as indicated by BMI percentile. Concerned parents were significantly more likely to limit child screen time, take steps to improve child diet, and increase child physical activity than were parents who reported no concern. Treatment and prevention efforts should emphasize parental concern and awareness about child weight by providing accurate feedback on child weight status and education regarding the health risks associated with childhood overweight and obesity. Schools can play an important role in this process through the incorporation of BMI screenings.
Silventoinen, K; Rokholm, B; Kaprio, J
In this systematic review, we aimed to collect together all previous twin and adoption studies on childhood and adolescent obesity up to the age of 18 years. Using several sources, we identified nine twin and five adoption studies; all of these studies had used relative weight as an indicator...... a substantial effect in mid-childhood, but this effect disappeared at adolescence. Adoption studies supported the role of family environment in childhood obesity as correlations were found between adoptees and adoptive parents; however, correlations were substantially stronger between parents...... of obesity. Except the two twin studies from the Korean population, all studies represented Caucasian populations. In a meta-analysis of these twin studies, we found that genetic factors had a strong effect on the variation of body mass index (BMI) at all ages. The common environmental factors showed...
Massey-Sokes, Marilyn; Meaney, Karen S.
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. University health and physical education programs have a unique opportunity to assist in childhood obesity prevention through service-learning programs. However, prior to the implementation of service-learning curricula, it is imperative to gain insight in the unique needs of the…
Wagner, Katia Jakovljevic Pudla; Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Navarro, Albert; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Boing, Antonio Fernando
OBJECTIVE To test whether there is an association between socioeconomic status in childhood and measures of body mass index, waist circumference and the presence of overall and abdominal obesity in adult life. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study, including a sample of adults (22-63 years old) living in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. The socioeconomic status in childhood was analyzed through the education level of the participant's parents. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured by previously trained interviewers. Linear and logistic regressions with adjustment for confounding factors and stratification of data according to gender were used. RESULTS Of the 1,222 adults evaluated, 20.4% (95%CI 18.1-22.8) presented overall obesity and 24.8% (95%CI 22.4-27.4), abdominal obesity. The body mass index and waist circumference averages among women were, respectively, 1.2 kg/m2 (95%CI -2.3- -0.04) and 2.8 cm (95%CI -5.3- -0.2) lower among those with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Among men, waist circumference was 3.9 cm (95%CI 1.0-6.8) higher in individuals with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Regarding obesity, women of higher socioeconomic status in childhood had lower odds of abdominal obesity (OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.34-0.90), and no such association was observed among men. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic status in childhood influences body mass index, waist circumference and obesity in adults, with a difference in the direction of association according to gender. The higher socioeconomic status among men and the lower socioeconomic status among women were associated with higher adiposity indicators.
Boutelle, Kerri N; Braden, Abby; Douglas, Jennifer M; Rhee, Kyung E; Strong, David; Rock, Cheryl L; Wilfley, Denise E; Epstein, Leonard; Crow, Scott
Approximately 1 out of 3 children in the United States is overweight or obese. Family-based treatment (FBT) is considered the gold-standard treatment for childhood obesity, but FBT is both staff and cost intensive. Therefore, we developed the FRESH (Family, Responsibility, Education, Support, & Health) study to evaluate the effectiveness of intervening with parents, without child involvement, to facilitate and improve the child's weight status. Targeting parents directly in the treatment of childhood obesity could be a promising approach that is developmentally appropriate for grade-school age children, highly scalable, and may be more cost effective to administer. The current paper describes the FRESH study which was designed to compare the effectiveness of parent-based therapy for pediatric obesity (PBT) to a parent and child (FBT) program for childhood obesity. We assessed weight, diet, physical activity, and parenting, as well as cost-effectiveness, at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6- and 18-month follow-ups. Currently, all participants have been recruited and completed assessment visits, and the initial stages of data analysis are underway. Ultimately, by evaluating a PBT model, we hope to optimize available child obesity treatments and improve their translation into clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nehring, I; Chmitorz, A; Reulen, H; von Kries, R; Ensenauer, R
Gestational diabetes mellitus is believed to be a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity. We aimed to assess whether this association is either a reflection or independent of confounding by maternal BMI. Data from 7355 mother-child dyads of the German Perinatal Prevention of Obesity cohort with full anthropometric information on mothers and children, gestational diabetes and confounding factors were obtained at school entry health examination. We calculated crude and adjusted logistic regression models for the association of gestational diabetes and childhood overweight/obesity and abdominal adiposity defined by age- and sex-specific percentiles for BMI and waist circumference. Among all children (mean age 5.8 years), 8.1% were overweight, 2.6% were obese and 15.5% had abdominal adiposity. The prevalence of overweight (obesity) was 21% (8.2%) in children of mothers with gestational diabetes and 10.4% (2.4%) in children of healthy mothers. Analyses with adjustment for maternal BMI and other potential confounders yielded an odds ratio of 1.81 (95% CI 1.23-2.65) and 2.80 (95% CI 1.58-4.99) for the impact of gestational diabetes on childhood overweight and obesity, respectively. Similar results were obtained for the risk of childhood abdominal adiposity (odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.33) by maternal gestational diabetes. The postulated increased risk of overweight and abdominal adiposity in offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes cannot be explained by maternal BMI alone and may be stronger for childhood obesity than for overweight. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.
Vargas, Clemencia M; Stines, Elsie M; Granado, Herta S
The purpose of this scoping review was to determine the health-equity issues that relate to childhood obesity. Health-equity issues related to childhood obesity were identified by analyzing food environment, natural and built environment, and social environment. The authors searched Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science, using the keywords "children" and "obesity." Specific terms for each environment were added: "food desert," "advertising," "insecurity," "price," "processing," "trade," and "school" for food environment; "urban design," "land use," "transportation mode," "public facilities," and "market access" for natural and built environment; and "financial capacity/poverty," "living conditions," "transport access," "remoteness," "social support," "social cohesion," "working practices," "eating habits," "time," and "social norms" for social environment. Inclusion criteria were studies or reports with populations under age 12, conducted in the United States, and published in English in 2005 or later. The final search yielded 39 references (16 for food environment, 11 for built environment, and 12 for social environment). Most food-environment elements were associated with obesity, except food insecurity and food deserts. A natural and built environment that hinders access to physical activity resources and access to healthy foods increased the risk of childhood obesity. Similarly, a negative social environment was associated with childhood obesity. More research is needed on the effects of food production, living conditions, time for shopping, and exercise, as related to childhood obesity. Most elements of food, natural and built, and social-environments were associated with weight in children under age 12, except food insecurity and food deserts. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across the State. Once in the program, member schools and services are centrally supported to undertake the health promotion (intervention activities. Once the K-GFYL program 'criteria' are reached the school/service is assessed and 'awarded'. This paper describes the design of the evaluation of the statewide K-GFYL intervention program. Methods/Design The evaluation is mixed method and cross sectional and aims to: 1 Determine if K-GFYL award status is associated with more health promoting environments in schools/services compared to those who are members only; 2 Determine if children attending K-GFYL award schools/services have higher levels of healthy eating and physical activity-related behaviors compared to those who are members only; 3 Examine the barriers to implementing and achieving the K-GFYL award; and 4 Determine the economic cost of implementing K-GFYL in primary schools Parent surveys will capture information about the home environment and child dietary and physical activity-related behaviors. Environmental questionnaires in early childhood settings and schools will capture information on the physical activity and nutrition environment and current health promotion activities. Lunchbox surveys and a set of open-ended questions for kindergarten parents will provide additional data. Resource use associated with the intervention activities will be collected from primary schools for cost analysis. Discussion The K-GFYL award program is a community-wide intervention that requires a comprehensive, multi-level evaluation. The evaluation
Maidenberg, Michelle P
Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities.
Wieting, J Michael
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. As a result, children are at increased risk for myriad preventable acute and chronic medical problems--many of which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, childhood obesity has serious psychosocial consequences, such as low self-esteem, lower quality of life, and depression. The multifaceted causes and solutions to this pervasive health issue are discussed in the present review, as are pertinent health policy issues. Osteopathic physicians and other healthcare providers can play an important role in patient and family education, direct care, and advocacy.
Petersen, Jindong Ding; Heitmann, B. L.; Kyle, R.
Background: The etiology of adult obesity is still poorly understood, even if often simply attributed to too much food and too little exercise. A few studies have suggested that adverse psychological factors may predispose the development of adult obesity among normal weight children Aims The aim...... of this study was to examine if separation from parents, parental loss and living in a "children's home" during childhood could be associated with development of adult obesity Key Methods: A total of 146 complete adult twin pairs discordant for BMI (one had a normal BMI and the co-twin a BMI > 30 kg/m) were...... separation from mother and paternal death was related to less discordance. However, none of these differences were significant. Conclusion: The present study did not demonstrate independent effects of major life events during childhood and development of obesity in adulthood....
Mavrakanas, Thomas A; Konsoula, Georgia; Patsonis, Ioannis; Merkouris, Bodossakis P
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of childhood obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) in a rural population of northern Greece. In total, 572 schoolchildren between the age of 4 and 10 years were examined. Obesity was defined using three different standards: (1) body mass index (BMI) charts of the French society of Paediatrics (FR), selected because of the low cardiovascular risk profile and low prevalence of obesity in France; (2) United States BMI CDC charts (US), selected because of the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the USA; and the reference curves of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Children with elevated BP were defined as BP > or = 95th percentile for age, gender and height, according to the Greek national charts. The prevalence of obesity for boys was 13.6% (IOTF), 23.7% (US) and 31.7% (FR); for girls 14.4% (IOTF), 21.1% (US) and 35.1% (FR). The prevalence of elevated BP was 7.9% (45 children). It was 5 to 6 times more common for obese than non-obese children to have elevated BP (relative risk of 5.2 to 6.2 and odds ratio 6.3 to 7.7). The results confirm the high prevalence of childhood obesity in Greece, in this study found to be more prevalent in rural than urban Greece. The IOTF criteria tend to underestimate obesity and may not be optimal for use in a primary clinical care setting where the approach is for health education and patient treatment, rather than purely epidemiological. The study also confirms a strong relationship between high BP and increased BMI.
Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Alderete, Tanya L; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M; Berhane, Kiros; Gilliland, Frank D
Asthma and obesity often occur together in children. It is unknown whether asthma contributes to the childhood obesity epidemic. We aimed to investigate the effects of asthma and asthma medication use on the development of childhood obesity. The primary analysis was conducted among 2,171 nonobese children who were 5-8 years of age at study enrollment in the Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS) and were followed for up to 10 years. A replication analysis was performed in an independent sample of 2,684 CHS children followed from a mean age of 9.7 to 17.8 years. Height and weight were measured annually to classify children into normal, overweight, and obese categories. Asthma status was ascertained by parent- or self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to assess associations of asthma history with obesity incidence during follow-up. We found that children with a diagnosis of asthma at cohort entry were at 51% increased risk of developing obesity during childhood and adolescence compared with children without asthma at baseline (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.10) after adjusting for confounders. Use of asthma rescue medications at cohort entry reduced the risk of developing obesity (hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.96). In addition, the significant association between a history of asthma and an increased risk of developing obesity was replicated in an independent CHS sample. Children with asthma may be at higher risk of obesity. Asthma rescue medication use appeared to reduce obesity risk independent of physical activity.
Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian
To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as "certainly applied" at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability.
Demir, Dilek; Bektas, Murat
In is important to determine the factors that affect obesity in childhood, in order to raise generations of healthy children. This study aims to determine the effect of primary school students' eating behaviors and parental feeding styles on obesity in childhood. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 1201 children and their parents between September 2014 and March 2015. The data were collected using the socio-demographic data collection form for children and parents, the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentage calculators, mean, Spearman's correlation analysis, Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Of the children, 16.9% were found to be obese. Three models were created considering the relationships between the variables in this study and the occurrence of obesity. In the first model, the factors that affect childhood obesity were found to be enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness and food fussiness. In the second model, the factors were prompting/encouragement and control over eating. Enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, emotional feeding and food fussiness were also found to be the factors in the third model (pobesity in childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Childhood obesity is an important public health problem that affects countries in the Americas. In 2014, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO Member States agreed on a Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in an effort to address the impact of this disorder in the Americas region. The interventions laid out in this regional plan are multi-faceted and require multi-sectoral partnerships. Building on a strong history of successful trilateral collaboration, Canada, Mexico, and the United States formed a partnership to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the North American region. This collaborative effort, known as the Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative, is the first initiative in the region to address chronic noncommunicable diseases by bringing together technical and policy experts, with strong leadership and support from the secretaries and ministers of health. The Initiative’s goals include increasing levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior through 1 increased social mobilization and citizen engagement, 2 community- based outreach, and 3 changes to the built (man-made environment. This article describes the background and development process of the Initiative; specific goals, activities, and actions achieved to date; and opportunities and next steps. This information may be useful for those forming other partnerships designed to address childhood obesity or other complex public health challenges in the region.
Penny, Mary E.; Jimenez, M. Michelle; Marin, R. Margot
Background Rapid postnatal weight gain is associated with risk of overweight and obesity, but it?s unclear whether this holds in populations exposed to concurrent obesogenic risk factors and for children who have been extensively breastfed. This study investigates whether an increase in weight for age from birth to 1?year (infancy) and from 1 to 5?years (early childhood) predicts overweight and obesity, and waist circumference at 8?years, using data from a longitudinal cohort study in Peru. M...
Perry, Cheryl L; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kohl III, Harold W
Background Childhood obesity remains a significant global problem with immediate and long-term individual health and societal consequences. Targets for change should include the most potent and predictive factors for obesity at all levels of the personal, social and physical environments. The Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living (?the Center?) is a public-private partnership that was developed to address child health issues through research, service, and education. This overview pap...
Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija
The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, pre...
Rooney, Brenda L; Mathiason, Michelle A; Schauberger, Charles W
To determine how characteristics of pregnancy, birth, and early infancy are related to offspring obesity at three critical developmental periods. Mothers were followed through pregnancy and 10-15 years after. Offspring data were obtained through medical record review. Maternal and offspring characteristics were examined to predict obesity in childhood (ages 4-5 years), adolescence (ages 9-14 years), and early adulthood (ages 19-20 years). The original cohort included 802 children born to 795 women. Children who were twins, who had died, or whose mothers had died were excluded (n=25). Medical records of 68.5% of the remaining 777 children documented a height and weight at childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. Relative risks (RRs) to predict obesity at early adulthood were 12.3 for childhood and 45.1 at adolescence. RRs were also significant to predict obesity at early adulthood between the mother's obesity at prepregnancy (RR=6.4), 4-5 years postpregnancy (RR=6.3), and 10-15 years postpregnancy (RR=6.2). Excluding these variables from the multivariate models and adjusting by gender, birth insurance, and mother's marital status at delivery, the best model to predict obesity at childhood included birth weight, weight gain in infancy, and delivery type. At adolescence, it included maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and weight gain in infancy, and in early adulthood, included maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and birth weight. Maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and weight gain in infancy have long-term effects on offspring. Maternal obesity is the strongest predictor of obesity at all times studied.
Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Lauer, Romy; Schreiber, Anja C; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Kilian, Reinhold; Steinacker, Jürgen M
To determine parental willingness-to-pay (WTP) for childhood obesity prevention. Cross-sectional data from the follow-up measurements (2011) of a health promotion programme in German primary schools. Data collection included anthropometric measurements of children and self-administered questionnaires for parents, including WTP assessment. Mann-Whitney U-Test was used for differences between groups, and regression analysis to identify factors associated with general WTP and amount of WTP. From 1 534 parents, 97.8% considered overweight/obesity to be serious public health problems. A general WTP to reduce the incidence of childhood overweight/obesity by half, was declared by 48.8%. Parents of overweight/obese children showed with 61.4%, significantly more frequently, their general WTP than the others with 47.2% (p = 0.001). Mean WTP was 23.04 (99% confidence interval (CI) [22.45; 23.75]) per month. Parents of centrally obese children showed significantly higher WTP than parents of the other children (p = 0.001). General WTP and the amount of WTP were associated with the central obesity of the child, migration status and household income. Additionally, general WTP was associated with maternal obesity. Nearly half of the parents were willing to invest in prevention of obesity. The general WTP significantly occurs more often and with higher amount in affected parents.
W. Jansen (Wilma)
textabstractThis thesis presents studies on the prevention of childhood overweight. In this general introduction public health issues of childhood overweight will be addressed and a model of planned health education and health promotion will be introduced. Following the different steps of this
Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Pradipasen, Mandhana; Miner, Kathleen R; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh
This research was designed to test the effectiveness of a school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools; a program that aimed to improve student behavior in terms of knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity prevention, and their food consumption behavior. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest time series study was conducted. By 2-stage stratified sampling selection 180 students from 6 schools were assigned to the intervention group and 195 students from 6 schools to the control group at Saraburi Province, Thailand in 2006- 2007. In addition, thirty-one participants being school administrators, teachers, parents, and community members from six schools formed the social network initiating the intervention. The schoolchildren in the intervention group improved their eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity preventive behavior. The six schools of the intervention group changed school policies and school activities aiming to reduce the proportion of obesity among their student. No such activities could be observed in the control group. These findings suggest that the School-Social Network of Childhood Obesity Prevention program is an effective means to prevent childhood obesity.
Reinehr, Thomas; Holl, Reinhard W; Wabitsch, Martin
The Working Group of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence (AGA) comprises scientists, clinicians, and therapists dealing with obesity in children and adolescents. More than 250 pediatricians, psychiatrics, dieticians, psychologists and sports therapists are integrated. On an international level, the AGA cooperates with the European Childhood Obesity Group and the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) for Childhood Obesity. The aims of the AGA are to initiate clinical and scientific studies, to join diagnostic, therapeutic and scientific centers, to improve the education, to support self-help groups, and to standardize diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the field of obesity in childhood and adolescence. The milestones in the history of the AGA are the consensus process to define overweight and obesity in Germany, the development of guidelines for diagnostic procedures and treatment of obesity in childhood and adolescence, the determination of all therapy centers for obese children and adolescents in Germany, the development of a PC software (APV) to document longitudinally diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well as outcomes by a quality management program, the certification of therapeutic institutions, and the implementation of prevention and treatment studies. As effect of these initiatives, the quality of care in overweight children has been improved in the last years. For example, the APV quality program demonstrated an increase of diagnostic procedures such as blood pressure measurement in the last 4 years. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Frey, U; Latzin, P; Usemann, J; Maccora, J; Zumsteg, U; Kriemler, S
Both obesity and asthma are highly prevalent, complex diseases modified by multiple factors. Genetic, developmental, lung mechanical, immunological and behavioural factors have all been suggested as playing a causal role between the two entities; however, their complex mechanistic interactions are still poorly understood and evidence of causality in children remains scant. Equally lacking is evidence of effective treatment strategies, despite the fact that imbalances at vulnerable phases in childhood can impact long-term health. This review is targeted at both clinicians frequently faced with the dilemma of how to investigate and treat the obese asthmatic child and researchers interested in the topic. Highlighting the breadth of the spectrum of factors involved, this review collates evidence regarding the investigation and treatment of asthma in obese children, particularly in comparison with current approaches in 'difficult-to-treat' childhood asthma. Finally, the authors propose hypotheses for future research from a systems-based perspective. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hughes, Adrienne R; Sherriff, Andrea; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ness, Andrew R; Reilly, John J
Timing of obesity development during childhood and adolescence is unclear, hindering preventive strategies. The primary aim of the present study was to quantify the incidence of overweight and obesity throughout childhood and adolescence in a large contemporary cohort of English children (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ALSPAC; children born 1991-1992). A secondary aim was to examine the persistence of overweight and obesity. Longitudinal data on weight and height were collected annually from age 7-15 years in the entire ALSPAC cohort (n=4283), and from 3 to 15 years in a randomly selected subsample of the cohort (n=549; 'Children in Focus' CiF). Incidence of overweight and obesity (BMI (Body mass index) at or above the 85th and 95th centiles relative to U.K. reference data) was calculated. Risk ratios (RR) for overweight and obesity at 15 years based on weight status at 3, 7, and 11 years were also calculated. In the entire cohort, four-year incidence of obesity was higher between ages 7 and 11 years than between 11 and 15 years (5.0% vs. 1.4% respectively). In the CiF sub-sample, four-year incidence of obesity was also highest during mid-childhood (age 7-11years, 6.7%), slightly lower during early childhood (3-7 years, 5.1%) and lowest during adolescence (11-15 years 1.6%). Overweight and obesity at all ages had a strong tendency to persist to age 15 years as indicated by risk ratios (95% CI (Confidence interval)) for overweight and obesity at 15 years from overweight and obesity (relative to healthy weight status) at 3 years (2.4, 1.8-3.1), 7 years (4.6, 3.6-5.8), and 11 years (9.3, 6.5-13.2). Mid-late childhood (around age 7-11 years) may merit greater attention in future obesity prevention interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila
The obesity pandemic is claiming its presence even among youngest of children and is clearly on the rise. Although the extent and implications of this massive increase in the prevalence of overweight and obese children are unclear, they are anticipated to be deleterious to global health outcomes and life expectancy. The potential interrelationships between sleep and obesity have gained recent attention. In this chapter, we initially examine the critical evidence supporting or refuting such proposed associations. In addition, the potential reciprocal roles of obesity and obstructive sleep apnea in the facilitation of their pathophysiology are also reviewed, along with their amplificatory effects on their respective morbidities.
Braet, Caroline; O'Malley, Grace; Weghuber, Daniel; Vania, Andrea; Erhardt, Éva; Nowicka, Paulina; Mazur, Artur; Frelut, Marie Laure; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth
Objective This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model) are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research. PMID:24820848
Alberto José García Rubio
Full Text Available Currently, childhood obesity is one of the most important problems in the world health since in recent years has increased significantly in developed countries. The origin of this problem is due to a lifestyle based on little or no physical activity, coupled with poor and unbalanced diet. This condition, in turn, may adversely affect the formation of students due to low self esteem, depression and other psychological problems. The measures proposed are constant to the families of the students and the students themselves, through weekly lectures and workshops, which will take place in the school itself up. In addition, another measure would be to increase the number of hours of physical activity within the school timetable, taking advantage schedules for recreation and dining.The objective of the above work is to make a proposal, as a tool to prevent and treat overweight and obesity among children from the same education.The hypothesis of the project is that the BMI of the sample of the selected school will be reduced significantly due to changes in habits, promoted from this initiative, thereby improving their school performance. No conclusive results because it has not been implemented so far.
Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Antipkin, Youriy; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Lioret, Sandrine; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Iñiguez, Carmen; Larrañaga, Isabel; Bakoula, Chryssa; Veltsista, Alexandra; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Andrýsková, Lenka; Dušek, Ladislav; Barros, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Faresjö, Tomas; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek
Comparable evidence on adiposity inequalities in early life is lacking across a range of European countries. This study investigates whether low maternal education is associated with overweight and obesity risk in children from distinct European settings during early childhood. Prospective data of 45 413 children from 11 European cohorts were used. Children's height and weight obtained at ages 4-7 years were used to assess prevalent overweight and obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force definition. The Relative/Slope Indices of Inequality (RII/SII) were estimated within each cohort and by gender to investigate adiposity risk among children born to mothers with low education as compared to counterparts born to mothers with high education. Individual-data meta-analyses were conducted to obtain aggregate estimates and to assess heterogeneity between cohorts. Low maternal education yielded a substantial risk of early childhood adiposity across 11 European countries. Low maternal education yielded a mean risk ratio of 1.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 1.85) and a mean risk difference of 7.78% (5.34, 10.22) in early childhood overweight, respectively, measured by the RII and SII. Early childhood obesity risk by low maternal education was as substantial for all cohorts combined (RII = 2.61 (2.10, 3.23)) and (SII = 4.01% (3.14, 4.88)). Inequalities in early childhood adiposity were consistent among boys, but varied among girls in a few cohorts. Considerable inequalities in overweight and obesity are evident among European children in early life. Tackling early childhood adiposity is necessary to promote children's immediate health and well-being and throughout the life course. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hendricks, Audrey E.; Bochukova, Elena G.; Marenne, Gaëlle; Keogh, Julia M.; Atanassova, Neli; Bounds, Rebecca; Wheeler, Eleanor; Mistry, Vanisha; Henning, Elana; Körner, Antje; Muddyman, Dawn; McCarthy, Shane; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Scott, Robert A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nick J.; Surendran, Praveen; Howson, Joanna M M; Butterworth, Adam S.; Danesh, John; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Afzal, Shoaib; Papadia, Sofia; Ashford, Sofie; Garg, Sumedha; Millhauser, Glenn L.; Palomino, Rafael I.; Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Barroso, Inês; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Benzeval, Michaela; Burton, Jonathan; Buck, Nicholas; Jäckle, Annette; Kumari, Meena; Laurie, Heather; Lynn, Peter; Pudney, Stephen; Rabe, Birgitta; Wolke, Dieter; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Palli, Domenico; Krogha, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tuminoa, Rosario; Matullo, Giuseppe; Boer, Jolanda Ma; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quiros, J. Ramon; Sánchez, María José; Navarro, Carmen; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Arriola, Larraitz; Melander, Olle; Wennberg, Patrik; Key, Timothy J.; Riboli, Elio; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl A; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Soler Artigas, María; Ayub, Muhammad; Bala, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Beales, Phil; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharyaa, Shoumo; Birney, Ewan; Blackwooda, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bolton, Patrick F.; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Calissanoa, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Charlton, Ruth; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Ciampia, Antonio; Cirak, Sebahattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Coccaa, Massimiliano; Collier, David A; Cosgrove, Catherine; Coxa, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Curtis, David; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Day, Ian N M; Day-Williams, Aaron G; Dominiczak, Anna; Down, Thomas; Du, Yuanping; Dunham, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ekong, Rosemary; Ellis, Peter; Evansa, David M.; FitzPatrick, David R.; Flicek, Paul; Floyd, James S.; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Christopher S.; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom R.; Geihs, Matthias; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Greenwood, Celia M.T.; Griffin, Heather; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xiaosen; Guo, Xueqin; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah J.; Holmans, Peter A; Howie, Bryan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Liren; Hubbard, Tim; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iotchkova, Valentina; Jackson, David K.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Joyce, Chris; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Kemp, John P.; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Khawaja, Farrah; Van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Irene; Lek, Monkol; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Hong; Liu, Ryan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Luis R.; Lopes, Margarida; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; Mathieson, Iain; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McKechanie, Andrew G.; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Migone, Nicola; Min, Josine L.; Mitchison, Hannah M; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, James; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael J; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Payne, Stewart J.; Perry, John R. B.; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Pollitt, Rebecca C.; Porteous, David J.; Povey, Sue; Quail, Michael A.; Quaye, Lydia; Raymond, F. Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Richards, J Brent; Ridout, Cheryl K.; Ring, Susan M.; Ritchie, Graham R.S.; Roberts, Nicola; Robinson, Rachel L.; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter; Schiffels, Stephan; Schmidts, Miriam; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Scott, Richard H.; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Sharp, Sally I.; Shaw, Adam; Shihab, Hashem A.; Shin, So Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin S; Smee, Carol; Smith, Blair H.; Davey Smith, George; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spasic-Boskovic, Olivera; Spector, Timothy D; St Clair, David; St Pourcain, Beate; Stalker, Jim; Stevens, Elizabeth; Sun, Jianping; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Suvisaari, Jaana; Syrris, Petros; Taylor, Rohan; Tian, Jing; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tobin, Martin D; Valdes, Ana M.; Vandersteen, Anthony M.; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Visscher, Peter M.; Wain, Louise V.; Walter, Klaudia; Walters, James T.R.; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Nai-Yu; Ward, Kirsten; Whyte, Tamieka; Williams, Hywel J.; Williamson, Kathleen A.; Wilson, Crispian; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Xu, Changjiang; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Pingbo; Zheng, Hou Feng
Obesity is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Using targeted and whole-exome sequencing, we studied 32 human and 87 rodent obesity genes in 2,548 severely obese children and 1,117 controls. We identified 52 variants contributing to obesity in 2% of cases including multiple novel variants in GNAS,
Hendricks, Audrey E.; Bochukova, Elena G.; Marenne, Gaëlle
Obesity is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Using targeted and whole-exome sequencing, we studied 32 human and 87 rodent obesity genes in 2,548 severely obese children and 1,117 controls. We identified 52 variants contributing to obesity in 2% of cases including multiple novel variants in GN...
Chen, Danhong; Thomsen, Michael R; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Bennett, Judy L
Arkansas is among the poorest states and has high rates of childhood obesity. In 2003, it became the first state to systematically screen public schoolchildren for unhealthy weight status. This study aims to examine the socioeconomic disparities in Body Mass Index (BMI) growth and the risk of the onset of obesity from childhood through adolescence. This study analyzed (in 2015) the data for a large cohort of Arkansas public schoolchildren for whom BMIs were measured from school years 2003/2004 through 2009/2010. A linear growth curve model was used to assess how child-level sociodemographics and neighborhood characteristics were associated with growth in BMI z-scores. Cox regression was subsequently used to investigate how these factors were associated with the onset of obesity. Because children might be classified as obese in multiple years, sensitivity analysis was conducted using recurrent event Cox regression. Survival analysis indicated that the risk of onset of obesity rose sharply between ages of 5 and 10 and then again after age 15. The socioeconomic disparities in obesity risk persisted from kindergarten through adolescence. While better access to full service restaurants was associated with lower risk of the onset of obesity (Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.98, 95% CI=0.97-0.99), proximity to fast food restaurants was related to increased risk of the onset of obesity (HR=1.01, 95% CI=1.00-1.01). This analysis stresses the need for policies to narrow the socioeconomic gradient and identifies important time periods for preventative interventions in childhood obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palomo Atance, E; Bahíllo Curieses, P; Bueno Lozano, G; Feliu Rovira, A; Gil-Campos, M; Lechuga-Sancho, A M; Ruiz Cano, R; Vela Desojo, A
Childhood obesity is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and early mortality. This paper summarises the currently available evidence on the implications of dietary factors on the development and prevention of obesity in paediatric patients. Evidence-based recommendations are: promote the consumption of slowly absorbed carbohydrates and reduce those with a high-glycaemic-index, avoid intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Fat may provide up to 30-35% of the daily energy intake and saturated fat should provide no more than 10% of daily energy intake; reduce cholesterol intake, avoid formula milk with a high protein content during the first year; promote higher fibre content in the diet, reduce sodium intake, and have at least four meals a day, avoiding regular consumption of fast food and snacks. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization program on Ending Childhood Obesity (WHO-ECHO has developed a comprehensive and integrated package of recommendations to address childhood obesity. The present study, entitled IRAN-ECHO, was designed and implemented in the framework of the WHO-ECHO program. Methods: The IRAN-ECHO program is implementing multicomponent interventions by considering life course dimensions. The program has two parts: a population approach and an individual approach. The population approach considers different periods in life, including prenatal, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, as well as family and society. The individual approach targets those children or adolescents with overweight or obesity; this part is conducted as a referral system that is now integrated in the current national health system. As part of the population approach, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in six provinces to compare the status before and after implementing parts of the interventions. By intersectoral collaboration with different organizations, multicomponent interventions are conducted for different age groups. Results: The IRAN-ECHO program is being conducted in six provinces, and will be considered in all provinces in the near future. Its main effects could be assessed in future years. Part of this program that was conducted as a quasi-experimental survey comprised 7149 students and showed that a high percentage of students had acceptable knowledge about adverse health effects of overweight and obesity. However, the knowledge about the low nutritional value of unhealthy snacks such as potato chips, puffs, industrial juices, and carbonated drinks was not appropriate. Many participants had the undesirable attitude of skipping one of the main meals when attempting to lose weight. Conclusions: The IRAN-ECHO program is presenting the feasibility of conducting the WHO-ECHO recommendations in Iran. The scope of potential policy
Sayyari, Ali-Akbar; Abdollahi, Zahra; Ziaodini, Hassan; Olang, Beheshteh; Fallah, Hossein; Salehi, Forouzan; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Imanzadeh, Farid; Abasalti, Zahra; Fozouni, Fereshteh; Jafari, Sakineh; Lashkarlouki, Farhad; Sahebdel, Mahnoush; Siadati, Arash; Aslani, Hamideh; Hosseini, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Azam; Yngve, Agneta; Kelishadi, Roya
Background: The World Health Organization program on Ending Childhood Obesity (WHO-ECHO) has developed a comprehensive and integrated package of recommendations to address childhood obesity. The present study, entitled IRAN-ECHO, was designed and implemented in the framework of the WHO-ECHO program. Methods: The IRAN-ECHO program is implementing multicomponent interventions by considering life course dimensions. The program has two parts: a population approach and an individual approach. The population approach considers different periods in life, including prenatal, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, as well as family and society. The individual approach targets those children or adolescents with overweight or obesity; this part is conducted as a referral system that is now integrated in the current national health system. As part of the population approach, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in six provinces to compare the status before and after implementing parts of the interventions. By intersectoral collaboration with different organizations, multicomponent interventions are conducted for different age groups. Results: The IRAN-ECHO program is being conducted in six provinces, and will be considered in all provinces in the near future. Its main effects could be assessed in future years. Part of this program that was conducted as a quasi-experimental survey comprised 7149 students and showed that a high percentage of students had acceptable knowledge about adverse health effects of overweight and obesity. However, the knowledge about the low nutritional value of unhealthy snacks such as potato chips, puffs, industrial juices, and carbonated drinks was not appropriate. Many participants had the undesirable attitude of skipping one of the main meals when attempting to lose weight. Conclusions: The IRAN-ECHO program is presenting the feasibility of conducting the WHO-ECHO recommendations in Iran. The scope of potential policy recommendations to decrease
Rossig, C.; Juergens, H.
Acute leukaemia is a consequence of malignant transformation of a haematopoietic progenitor cell. Molecular studies have revealed a prenatal origin of many childhood leukaemias. According to current models, a pre-leukaemic stem cell clone is generated by a first mutation in utero which, in a minority of children, progresses to leukaemia after receiving further postnatal genetic hits. The nature of pre- and postnatal events involved in leukemogenesis in children is not well understood. Although genetic predisposition and specific environmental exposures may account for individual cases, the bulk of childhood leukaemia cannot be explained by any of these factors. The higher incidence of the most common leukaemia subtype in affluent societies, as well as the age peak between 2-5 y, suggest a contributory role of socioeconomic factors. An abnormal immune response during delayed exposure to common infections provides a plausible mechanism for malignant progression of pre-leukaemic clones in a subgroup of children. As highlighted in this review, a common cause for all types and subtypes of childhood leukaemia is highly unlikely. Deeper insights into the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia will rely on large-scale and combined epidemiological and bio-molecular studies. (authors)
Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.
Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…
Paxson, Christina, Ed.; Donahue, Elisabeth, Ed.; Orleans, Tracy, Ed.; Grisso, Jeane Ann, Ed.
The third volume of "The Future of Children" examines the causes and consequences of increasing rates of obesity and overweight among children. It also reviews specific policies and programs aimed at reducing obesity and overweight and the related health problems that result. Contents include: (1) Introducing the Issue (Christina Paxson, Elisabeth…
Broberg, Danielle M.; Broberg, Katharine A.; McGuire, Jenifer K.
Policies originally designed to address food insecurity are in need of revision due to rising rates of obesity among those they serve. Within the context of national policies, this article uses an ecological perspective to consider the links between food insecurity and obesity. The recommendations include adjusting the nutritional standards of the…
This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done. Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/6/2013.
In the past 20 years, overweight and obesity rates among Mexican children have increased by nearly 40%. ... Overweight and obesity are risk factors for chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer, reduce ... stacked fruit in mexican market. Mexico has banned the sale of junk food and sweetened beverages in schools.
Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.
Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…
Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.
Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....
Abstract. Background: Obesity once considered a high income country's malady is now on the rise in most developing countries particularly in urban settings. Most of these ... Also obese children have higher risk of orthopaedic problems and psychological disturbances like low -self esteem and bullying. This can also lead to ...
Powell, Kenneth E; Kibbe, Debra L; Ferencik, Rachel; Soderquist, Chris; Phillips, Mary Ann; Vall, Emily Anne; Minyard, Karen J
In 2007, 31.7% of Georgia adolescents in grades 9-12 were overweight or obese. Understanding the impact of policies and interventions on obesity prevalence among young people can help determine statewide public health and policy strategies. This article describes a systems model, originally launched in 2008 and updated in 2014, that simulates the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. In 2008, using information from peer-reviewed reports and quantitative estimates by experts in childhood obesity, physical activity, nutrition, and health economics and policy, a group of legislators, legislative staff members, and experts trained in systems thinking and system dynamics modeling constructed a model simulating the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. Use of the 2008 model contributed to passage of a bill requiring annual fitness testing of schoolchildren and stricter enforcement of physical education requirements. We updated the model in 2014. With no policy change, the updated model projects that the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents aged ≤18 in Georgia would hold at 18% from 2014 through 2034. Mandating daily school physical education (which would reduce prevalence to 12%) and integrating moderate to vigorous physical activity into elementary classrooms (which would reduce prevalence to 10%) would have the largest projected impact. Enacting all policies simultaneously would lower the prevalence of childhood obesity from 18% to 3%. Systems thinking, especially with simulation models, facilitates understanding of complex health policy problems. Using a simulation model to educate legislators, educators, and health experts about the policies that have the greatest short- and long-term impact should encourage strategic investment in low-cost, high-return policies.
Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Santero, Marilina; Minckas, Nicole; Azañedo, Diego; Antiporta, Daniel A
To estimate regional prevalence and identify the spatial patterns of the degree of overweight and obesity by districts in under five years children in Peru during 2014. Analysis of the information reported by the Information System Nutritional Status (SIEN) of the number of cases of overweight and obesity in children under five years recorded during 2014. Regional prevalence for overweight and obesity, and their respective confidence intervals to 95% were calculated. Moran index was used to determine patterns of grouping districts with high prevalence of overweight and/or obesity. Data from 1834 districts and 2,318,980 children under five years were analyzed. 158,738 cases (6.84%; CI 95%: 6.81 to 6.87) were overweight, while 56,125 (2.42%; CI 95%: 2.40 to 2.44) obesity. The highest prevalence of overweight were identified in the regions of Tacna (13.9%), Moquegua (11.8%), Callao (10.4%), Lima (10.2%) and Ica (9.3%), and in the same regions for obesity with 5.3%; 4.3%; 4.0%; 4.0% and 3.8% respectively. The spatial analysis found grouping districts of high prevalence in 10% of all districts for both overweight and obesity, identifying 199 districts for overweight (126 urban and 73 rural), and 184 for obesity (136 urban and 48 rural). The highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were identified in the Peruvian coast regions. Moreover, these regions are predominantly exhibited a spatial clustering of districts with high prevalence of overweight and obesity.
Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C K; Rabadan-Diehl, C; Rubinstein, A; Calvillo, A; Corvalán, C; Batis, C; Jacoby, E; Vorkoper, S; Kline, L; Ewart-Pierce, E; Rivera, J A
Addressing childhood obesity in Latin America requires a package of multisectoral, evidence-based policies that enable environments conducive to healthy lifestyles. Identify and examine key elements to translating research into effective obesity policies in Latin America. We examined obesity prevention policies through case studies developed with an expert in the specific policy. Policies were selected based on their level of implementation, visibility and potential impact to reduce childhood obesity. They include: (i) excise taxes on sugar sweetened beverages and energy-dense foods; (ii) front-of-package food label legislation; (iii) trans fatty acids removal from processed foods; and (iv) Ciclovías recreativas or 'open streets'. Case studies were coded to identify components that explained successful implementation and sustainability using the Complex Adaptive Health Systems framework. The analysis identified key elements for effective and sustainable policy, including evidence justifying policy; evidence-based advocacy by civil society; political will; and legislation and skillful negotiations across government, academia, the private sector and civil society. Scientific evidence and evaluation played an important role in achieving tipping points for policies' launch and sustain effective implementation. Well-coordinated, intersectoral partnerships are needed to successfully implement evidence-based anti-obesity policies. Prospective policy research may be useful for advancing knowledge translation. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.
Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M
To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat, and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of "becoming obese" based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother's education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Among males, 74.7% had a "normal" body fat pattern, 14.6% had a "becoming obese" pattern, and 10.7% had a "consistently obese" pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6%, and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 min MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR = 2.77; 95% CI = 1.16, 6.58). An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Yaeger-Yarom, Gili; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon
Despite the childhood obesity epidemic, few obese children receive therapy and relatively few weight management multidisciplinary programs exist. The objective of this study was to examine the patterns and causes for obese children referrals to a tertiary multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. A total of 227 children (10.6 +/- 2.6 years; 108 boys, 119 girls) were evaluated at the beginning of the programs for personal and familial demographic and anthropometric details, the referring agent to the program, and the main reasons for participation and for the child's desire to lose weight. The majority of participants had an obese family member (83%), in particular an obese parent (62%). The majority of patients were self-referred (86.8%), mainly by their mothers (74%). Only a small fraction were referred by healthcare providers (15.4%). The desire to improve appearance (44.5%), social/psychological issues (39.2%) and the will to improve fitness (29.5%) were the main reasons for joining the program. Understanding the motives for participation and referral patterns can improve recruitment and participation of obese children in weight reduction intervention programs.
Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen
Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…
Sallis, James F.; Glanz, Karen
Over the past forty years various changes in the U.S. "built environment" have promoted sedentary lifestyles and less healthful diets. James Sallis and Karen Glanz investigate whether these changes have had a direct effect on childhood obesity and whether improvements to encourage more physical activity and more healthful diets are likely to lower…
Rising rates of childhood obesity over the past 2 decades have spurred a number of public- and private-sector initiatives aimed at halting or even reversing this trend. Recognizing common interests in this issue, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NIH, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation began conversations about creating a formal collaboration aimed at accelerating efforts to address childhood obesity by coordinating research agendas and providing support for evidence-building activities. The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) was launched in February 2009, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture joined in 2010. Using the model provided by other previously successful collaborations, such as the Youth Tobacco Cessation Collaborative, NCCOR has emphasized several principles suggested by Petrovich as key elements for successful partnerships: (1) delineate a common purpose by identifying key knowledge gaps in the field; (2) create a shared identity around that common purpose; (3) develop structures for democratic and respectful collaboration so as to strategically coordinate efforts for maximum national impact; (4) identify effective leaders capable of articulating challenges in the field and inspiring a commitment of minds and the resolve to address identified needs; (5) facilitate continuous knowledge exchange and synthesis to keep the field informed; and (6) support assessment of progress and feedback loops for ensuring continual progress. This paper examines how NCCOR has used these principles to help build the field of research, evaluation, and surveillance for childhood obesity prevention and management. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This podcast features Katie Arlinghaus, a doctoral student at the University of Houston and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Katie answers questions about her winning research and what impact her study has on childhood obesity prevention and public health, particularly for the Hispanic community.
Koshy, Gibby; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J.
The combined dose response effects of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure on childhood overweight, obesity and short stature have not been reported. A community based cross-sectional survey of 3038 children aged 5-11 years from 15 primary schools in Merseyside, UK. Self-completed parental
Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Antipkin, Youriy; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Lioret, Sandrine; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Iñiguez, Carmen; Larrañaga, Isabel; Bakoula, Chryssa; Veltsista, Alexandra; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Andrýsková, Lenka; Dušek, Ladislav; Barros, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Faresjö, Tomas; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek
Comparable evidence on adiposity inequalities in early life is lacking across a range of European countries. This study investigates whether low maternal education is associated with overweight and obesity risk in children from distinct European settings during early childhood. Prospective data of
Petersen, Jindong Ding; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Heitmann, Berit
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine if parental separation during childhood is associated with obesity in adulthood. Methods A co-twin case-control study of 146 adult same-sexed twin pairs with discordant body mass index (BMI) (i.e. one of the twins should have a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2...
National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010
One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…
Doak, C; Heitmann, B L; Summerbell, C
Two reviews, one by Summerbell et al. and the other by Doak et al. came to very different conclusions about the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions. The aim of this commentary is to assess the extent to which inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the definition of effective outcomes...
Watson, P. M.; Dugdill, L.; Murphy, R.; Knowles, Z.; Cable, N. T.
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious challenges of the 21st century and it is vital that evidence-based treatment approaches can be translated into practice to meet public health needs. Yet policy-makers cannot afford to wait for the results of lengthy trials before "probably efficacious" interventions are made available to the public, and…