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Sample records for currant ribes rubrum

  1. Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Fruit Juices Inhibit Adhesion of Asaia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V. myrtillus were petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside, while in R. nigrum delphinidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were detected. The LC-MS analysis showed presence of anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives), phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids), flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside), and flavanols (procyanidin B2 and procyanidin type A2). Additionally, in the bilberry juice A type procyanidin trimer was detected. The adhesion of Asaia spp. cells depended on the type of medium, carbon sources, and the type of abiotic surfaces. We noted that the adhesion was significantly stronger in minimal medium containing sucrose. The addition of bilberry and black currant juices notably reduced bacterial growth as well as cell adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate surfaces. PMID:27747228

  2. Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L. and Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fruit Juices Inhibit Adhesion of Asaia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Antolak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L. and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V. myrtillus were petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside, while in R. nigrum delphinidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were detected. The LC-MS analysis showed presence of anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and flavanols (procyanidin B2 and procyanidin type A2. Additionally, in the bilberry juice A type procyanidin trimer was detected. The adhesion of Asaia spp. cells depended on the type of medium, carbon sources, and the type of abiotic surfaces. We noted that the adhesion was significantly stronger in minimal medium containing sucrose. The addition of bilberry and black currant juices notably reduced bacterial growth as well as cell adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate surfaces.

  3. Phenols and ascorbic acid in black currants (Ribes nigrum L.): variation due to genotype, location, and year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagiri, Michael; Ekholm, Anders; Öberg, Elisabeth; Johansson, Eva; Andersson, Staffan C; Rumpunen, Kimmo

    2013-10-02

    Black currant berries contain many biochemical compounds with proven or potential human health benefits. We studied the content of total and single polyphenols, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and titratable acidity for two advanced selections and three cultivars of black currant at two distant locations in Sweden (south: 56°06'N; north: 65°21'N) over a 3 year period. Regression analyses revealed the effect of genotype to be considerably larger than that of location and year. However, significant effects of location, year, and interactions were also revealed. A principal component analysis nevertheless separated the genotypes. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols, total anthocyanins, and soluble sugars was highest in berries from the south, whereas the content of phenolic acids and titratable acidity was highest in berries from the north. The results show that selection of cultivars and production sites are important for cultivation of high-quality black currant raw material for health-promoting products.

  4. Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2010-02-24

    The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics.

  5. Biology and pathology of Ribes and their implications for management of white pine blister rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Zambino

    2010-01-01

    Ribes (currants and gooseberries) are telial hosts for the introduced and invasive white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola. Knowledge of wild and introduced Ribes helps us understand the epidemiology of blister rust on its aecial hosts, white pines, and develop disease control and management strategies. Ribes differ by species in their contribution to...

  6. Distribution of Ribes, an alternate host of white pine blister rust, in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly S. J. Kearns; William R. Jacobi; Kelly S. Burns; Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Ribes (currants and gooseberries) are alternate hosts for Cronartium ribicola, the invasive fungus that causes blister rust of white pines (Pinus, subgenus Strobus) in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado and Wyoming. The location, species, and density of Ribes can affect...

  7. Black currant reversion virus, a mite-transmitted nepovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Petri

    2004-05-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Black currant reversion virus (BRV) is the first identified mite-transmitted member of the genus Nepovirus (family Comoviridae). A few systematic studies have been performed to compare virus isolates from different geographical locations. Physical properties: Purified preparations contain two closely sedimenting centrifugal components (B and M for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively) at varying ratios, and occasionally a T component (for satellite RNA). The BRV capsids have a diameter of 27 nm and they are putatively composed of 60 copies of a single species of capsid (coat) protein assembled in an icosahedral lattice. Diluted plant sap loses its infectivity within 1 day at 20 degrees C and in 4-8 days at 4 degrees C. Hosts: The natural host range of BRV is limited; it infects black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and some related Ribes species. The transmission of the virus is by the eriophyid gall mite of black currant (Cecidophyopsis ribis). A number of herbaceous plants can be infected experimentally. BRV is the agent of black currant reversion disease (BRD), which is economically the most significant virus disease in Ribes species. BRV and BRD occur widely in locations where black currant is cultivated commercially.

  8. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Kim E. Hummer; Richard S. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) has linked white pines (Strobus) with currants and gooseberries (Ribes) in a complex and serious disease epidemic in Asia, Europe, and North America. Because of ongoing changes in climate, societal demands for forests and their amenities, and scientific advances in genetics and proteomics, our current...

  9. Flavonol Glycosides in Currant Leaves and Variation with Growth Season, Growth Location, and Leaf Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Alanne, Aino-Liisa; Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2015-10-28

    Flavonol glycosides (FG) were analyzed in the leaves of six currant cultivars (Ribes spp.) with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS/MS, and NMR. The average amounts of the 12 major, identified FG constituted 86-93% (9.6-14.1 mg/g DW) of the total of 27 FG found. Quercetin and kaempferol were the major aglycones with trace amounts of myricetin. Quercetin-3-O-(2,6-α-dirhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside), quercetin-3-O-(2-β-xylopyranosyl-6-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside), and kaempferol-3-O-(3,6-α-dirhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside) were identified for the first time in currant leaves and existed in a white currant cultivar 'White Dutch' only. Kaempferol-3-O-β-(6'-malonyl)glucopyranoside was also a new compound existing in abundance in five cultivars but not in the white one. The results show the primary importance of the genetic background of the cultivars. The content of malonylated FG of special importance in cardiovascular health decreased regularly during summer. Time of collection and leaf position were more prominent factors affecting the composition than were the year of harvest or the growth latitude. Randomly collected leaves differed in their FG profiles from those collected from the middle position of new branches.

  10. Detection of the polyphenolic components in[i] Ribes nigrum[/i] L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BUTNARIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The blackcurrant ([i]Ribes nigrum [/i]L. is a species of native currant which contains a lot of polyphenolic antioxidants which is used medicinally and has a fundamental role in the maintenance health. Materials, methods and objective. Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry and ultraviolet range high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to characterize the polyphenolic content of common Ribes nigrum collected in the western part of the Banat Region in Romania. Results. UV–visible spectrophotometry was a reliable tool for identifying the phenolic compounds class. Polyphenols calibration curves from the methanolic extracts showed a good linearity (r2>0.984 within test ranges and generated a well–designed absorption band with a local maximum at 273.2 nm band, which can be attributed to thr electronic transition of the n–p* type. Chromatographic separation and analysis of the methanol extract was useful for the structural epigallocatechin (EGC and epigallocatechin–3–gallate (EGCG characterization of primary antioxidant compounds. Conclusions. The new, slightly modified, chromatographic system can serve for the development of a quantitative assessment methodology of epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin–3–gallate compounds, as well as for the comparative characterisation mand standardisation of the dominant polyphenolic components in [i]Ribes nigrum[/i] using EGC and EGCG standards.

  11. Influence of Controlled Postflowering Temperature and Daylength on Individual Phenolic Compounds in Four Black Currant Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicki, Tomasz L; Aaby, Kjersti; Sønsteby, Anita; Heide, Ola M; Wold, Anne-Berit; Remberg, Siv F

    2016-02-03

    The effects of postflowering temperature and daylength on the concentration of individual phenolic compounds were studied in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) berries under controlled phytotron conditions. The four cultivars studied varied greatly in their concentrations of individual phenolic compounds and temperature stability for accumulation. The concentrations of a wide range of identified phenolic compounds were strongly influenced by temperature over the 12-24 °C range, often with opposite temperature gradient patterns for compounds within the same subclass. Accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonols increased under natural long day conditions, which provided an increased daily light integral, while under identical light energy conditions, photoperiod had little or no effect on the concentration of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, with the exception of members of the hydroxycinnamic acid subclass, the concentration of most phenolic compounds was higher in berries ripened outdoors than in the phytotron, apparently due to screening of UV-B radiation by the glass cover.

  12. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89...... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....

  13. Elegantsi kuninganna Jacqueline de Ribes / Kaarin Kivirähk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivirähk, Kaarin, 1993-

    2015-01-01

    Prantsuse krahvinnast, moekunstnikust ja moeikoonist Jacqueline de Ribes'ist. Näitusest "Jacqueline de Ribes: Stiili kunst" New Yorgi Metropolitani muuseumis 19. novembrist 2015 kuni 21. veebruarini 2016

  14. Elegantsi kuninganna Jacqueline de Ribes / Kaarin Kivirähk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivirähk, Kaarin, 1993-

    2015-01-01

    Prantsuse krahvinnast, moekunstnikust ja moeikoonist Jacqueline de Ribes'ist. Näitusest "Jacqueline de Ribes: Stiili kunst" New Yorgi Metropolitani muuseumis 19. novembrist 2015 kuni 21. veebruarini 2016

  15. Biochemical properties of the fresh and frozen black currants and juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Boban; Šavikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Janković, Teodora; Vulić, Todor; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Oparnica, Cedo

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen black currant varieties (Ribes nigrum L.) cultured in Serbia were characterized for their pomological properties and chemical composition (total phenolics, total anthocyanins, anthocyanin aglycones, sugars, and vitamin C). The average amount of vitamin C varied from 122.4 to 193.2 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while concentration of invert sugars ranged from 6.3% to 11.1%. The highest amounts of total phenolics and anthocyanins were detected in variety Ometa (278.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of FW [mg GAE/100 g FW] and 135.4 mg/100 g, respectively). Quantitative analyses of anthocyanin aglycones in berries were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and delphinidin was found to be dominant compound in 11 varieties. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents decreased during the processing of berry fruits to juices, and the reduction of anthocyanins was more pronounced, 12%-80%. The radical scavenging activity of black currant juices was investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and the IC(50) value ranged from 1.9 to 4.0 mg/mL. Our results also showed that freezing as a way of preservation and storage could save important phytochemicals and health benefits of berries and berry juices. The amount of total phenolics in berries increased during 1 year of storage by 46.09%-171.76% and in juices by even 107.58%, while the amount of total anthocyanins in berries and juices decrease by 5.63%-52.76% and 13.04%-36.82%, respectively.

  16. Middelalderlige ringspænder fra Ribe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø, Mette Højmark

    2005-01-01

    I middelalderen var ringspændets funktion at lukke kjortelens halsslids. Indtil nu er der fundet 16 af disse spænder ved udgravninger i Ribe by. Spænderne er en del af en fælleseuropæisk mode, der strækker sig fra slutningen af 1100-tallet til ind i 1400-tallet. I Danmark kendes de fra 1200-talle...

  17. Due noti a papiri Palau-Ribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Daris

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Proecdosis of six small fragments of Greek papyri from the collection Palau-Ribes of the Seminari de Papirologia, Institut de Teologia Fonamental, San Cugat del Vallès. They are alI private documents of the Byzantine period (sec. V/VI, as a contract of sale (inv. 230, a dialysis (inv. 236 from Aphrodites kame, two leases of land (inv. 24, 233 from the Oxyrhynchite nomos, and two sales for future delivery (inv. 243, 243 a from the Hermopolite, of which we can read only a few lines or words.

  18. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  19. Suitability of black currant (Ribes nigrum L. as bred by NULES of Ukraine to machine harvesting of its berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. О. Сіленко

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors show outcome of three years observation of blackcurrant varieties bred by Study Horticulture Department NULES of Ukraine for their suitabi­ lity to machine harvesting. Blackcurrant is the most common berry crop in Ukraine. When establishing intensive industrial plantations the varieties suitable for machine harvesting should be used. During 2006-2008 limited and unlimited traits of varieties bred by NULES of Ukraine suitability to combine harvesting were studied. All parameters of the examined varieties were compared against the requirements of the «ideal variety”. Simultaneous ripening of berries was observed in varieties Dochka Vorskly – 93,6%, Hovtva, Pamyaty Leonida Myhalevskoho – 92,6%. The pick off effort required to collect berries out of their clusters for all varieties but Yarynka was within acceptable range of 67...129 g. By effort applied for berries crush only Yarynka has failed to meet the necessary requirements. All the varie­ ties but Yarynka have been found suitable by growth habit of their bush (upright and semi-spread. Insufficient number fruits (6-7 pc. in clusters for varieties Narodna and Yarynka was noted. Berries weight for all studied varieties ranged within 1.27-1.84 g, their drop-off was 3-8%, duration of harvesting period ranged from 8 to 10 days, so all the parameters of varieties suggested they were suitable for picking berries by berry harvesters. Varieties Dochka Vorskly, Universitetska, Hovtva, Pamyatna, Premiera, Narodna, Leleka and Pamyaty Leonida Myhalevskoho were selected as suitable for combine harvesting by the complex of positive parameters.

  20. Proceedings of the XI international Rubus and Ribes symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proceedings book summarizes the latest internationial research concerning Rubus, Ribes and their wild relatives. This proceedings includes 82 scientific reports from international scientists concerning the genetics and germplasm, pests and diseases, physiology and production systems, post harve...

  1. Wood anatomy of Ribes magellanicum (Grossulariaceae Anatomía de la madera de Ribes magellanicum (Grossulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto R. Pujana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy description of Ribes magellanicum Poir. is given including specimens of its two subspecies. This is the first detailed secondary xylem study of a species included in the South and Central American subgenus Parilla Jancz. Wood anatomy of R. magellanicum shows the following typical anatomical features cited for northern hemisphere Ribes L.: small vessels, rays of two distinct sizes and scalariform perforation plates.Se describe la anatomía de la madera de Ribes magellanicum Poir. incluyendo especimenes de sus dos subespecies. Es la primera descripción detallada del xilema secundario de una especie del subgénero de Centro y Sudamérica Parilla Jancz. La anatomía de R. magellanicum muestra las características típicas citadas para las Ribes L. del hemisferio norte: vasos pequeños, radios de dos tamaños distintos y placas de perforación escalariformes.

  2. Polyploidy in Acer rubrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Duffield

    1943-01-01

    Acer rubrum L. is a highly polymorphic species occupying a range which includes almost all of the United States east of the prairies, southeastern Canada, and a portion of Newfoundland. The range of habitats occupied is equally impressive. Cytological study of this species was first undertaken by Mottier in 1893, but the first indication of...

  3. 7 CFR 52.1857 - Grades of zante currant raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type V-Zante Currant... Undeveloped 2 5 Appearance or edibility of product Slightly discolored or damaged by fermentation or any other... meet the requirements of U.S. Grade B. Type VI—Mixed Types of Raisins...

  4. Purification of Flavonoids from Black Currant Juice by Nanodiafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Norddahl, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    from the flavonoids in order to facilitate better analysis.         In the current study, the major solutes in black currant juice are fructose (32 ± 3 g/l), glucose (22 ± 3 g/l), sucrose (1.6 ± 0.2 g/l) and organic acids (28.9 ± 0.1 g/l). The flavonoids in black currant juice are mainly (97......%) comprised by the glucosides and rutinosides of cyanidin and delphinidin [2]. The content of these flavonoids in black currant juice is measured to (1.5 ± 0.1 g/l). The separation process consists of nanodiafiltration on flat sheet membranes with a nominal molecular weight cut off of 1,000 Da. The separation...... process was monitored by comparing concentrations of the four flavonoids and the sugars and acids in permeate and retentate. The flavonoids in the juice have a molecular weight between 449 and 611 Da and should be able to pass the pores of the membrane. However this study shows that the flavonoids...

  5. Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Simultaneous Quantification of Rutin and Chlorogenic Acid in Leaves of Ribes L. Species by Conventional and Chemometric Calibration Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendir, Gülsen; Dinç, Erdal; Güvenç, Ayşegül Köroǧlu

    2015-10-01

    A new ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) using conventional and chemometric calibrations was improved for the simultaneous estimation of chlorogenic acid (CA) and rutin (RUT) in leaves of Ribes L. species (R. rubrum, R. biebersteinii, R. nigrum, R. uva-crispa, R. alpinum, R. orientale, R. multiflorum and R. anatolica). The UPLC separation for CA and RUT in samples were performed on a Waters UPLC BEH phenyl column (100 mm × 1.0 mm i.d., 1.7 μm) and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1 M formic acid buffer, pH = 3.77 (15:85, v/v) containing 1.0 mL triethylamine in 1,000 mL mobile phase. Multi-wavelength UPLC chromatograms of CA and RUT in calibration and plant samples were obtained by the photodiode array (PDA) detection at the wavelength set from 290 to 360 nm with the interval of Δλ = 10 nm. Conventional UPLC-single and chemometric calibrations were subjected to the analysis of the related compounds. By using UPLC data, conventional and chemometric calibrations in the linear concentration range between 2.5 and 40.0 μg/mL for all compounds were applied for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of CA and RUT in plant samples of seven different Ribes species.

  6. [Biologically active substances of black currant of new varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasishcheva, N V; Artemova, E N

    2013-01-01

    The assortment of black currant actively replenishes and is constantly updated as a result of successful work of domestic and foreign selectors. New grades of black currant are characterized by the raised content of biologically active substances, including vitamin C, P-active agents, pectin and are of special interest for studying. Fresh berries of seven grades (Azhurnaya, Arapka, Iskushenie, Kreolka, Ladushka, Orel serenade, Ocharovanie) of black currant which were selected by the All-Russian research institute of selection of fruit crops and are perspective for cultivation in the Central Chernozem Region of Russia were chosen as objects for research. The nutritional value of fresh berries was found to vary. Average content of soluble solids was 14.1%, while those below the average were observed in Kreolka (12.1%). The maximum amount of sugars characterized Ladushka grade (11.05%), minimum--Kreolka (9.00%). It has been found that most varieties have fairly high acidity. It is worth noting grade Ladushka, which had the highest sugar-acid index (4.39), with the lowest acidity (2.51%). The highest content of ascorbic acid was found in varieties Orel Serenade--183.7 mg/100 g, the smallest--Ocharovanie--110 mg/100 g, grade Azhurnaya, Kreolka, Ladushka exceeded this indicator average value (144.9 mg/100 g). In terms of the amount of P-active substances stood grades having values above the average (722.2 mg/100 g): Azhurnaya (789.8 mg/100 g), Kreolka (864.5 mg/100 g), Oryol serenade (765.6 mg/100 g). The average content of pectin in the studied berries of black currant was 7.92%, with a minimum of 6.30% was observed in grades Azhurnaya, maximum 9.90%--the kind Oryol serenade. High values of this index were characterized by grade Ladushka, Ocharovanie. Azhurnaya varieties, Creole, Orel serenade had high levels of ascorbic acid and P-active substances. Sort Ladushka marked as a dessert due to the largest sugar-acid ratio. Ladushka, Orel Serenade, Ocharovanie have the

  7. GC/MS ANALYSIS OF RHEUM RIBES RHIZOMES

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    DR. RAGHAD DH ABDUL JALILL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rheum ribes is a species of perennial and stout herbs that are distributed in southwest of Asia. Crude extracts of their rhizomes have different medicinal activities. Their pharmacological activity may due to their chemical compositions. Methods: This study was carrying out to determine the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical components of Rheum ribes rhizomes using two methods by GC-MS. The level of some elements and total protein was also determined. Result: The results of phytochemical screening showed the presence of sugar, flavonoids, glycosides and alkaloids. Nine compounds were identified using methods (1 while there were six different compounds when method (2 was used. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry determined the levels of Cu, Cd, Mn, K, Fe, Co and Ti. Nitrogen was determined by Macro Kjeldahl method. The amounts of them were (2.584, 3.513, 35.03, 0.0388, 126.85, 1, 0.02 and 0.59 percentage respectively. There were not neither phosphors nor Zinc in rhizomes of this plant. The level of total proteins were 3.688 %. Conclusion: The rhizomes R. ribes contain sixteen different components with different levels of more than eight elements.

  8. Cell wall polysaccharides in black currants and bilberries-characterisation in berries, juice, and press cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Bakx, E.J.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides from black currants and bilberries were characterised in three approaches. First, compositions of skin, pulp, and seeds show the distribution of polysaccharides over these tissues. A sequential extraction of cell wall material with different aqueous extractants informs

  9. Review of nutritional ingredients and health protectal function of black currant fruit and its prospect in industrial development/Huo Junwei, LI%黑穗醋栗营养成分和保健功能及产业发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍俊伟; 李著花; 秦栋

    2011-01-01

    Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) is a little soft fruit cultivated extensively in the Northern Hemisere. Fresh blackcurrant fruit contains many functional and bioactive compounds such as soluble sugarorganic acid, diverse vitamin fiavonoids anthocyanidins, multi-amino acidswhich may protect body against chronic diseases, it also contains diverse minerals elements, such as phosoruscal ciummagnesiumiron zin cunsaturated fatty acids in the fruit. In addition, the seedsfruits and leaves of blackcurrant can be processed into various products. Especially. In this paper according to the review about nutritional ingredients and health protectal function in currant fruit some suggestions were proposed about industrial development prospect in blackcurrant in China which give the direction for the exploitation and utilization of the nutritive value in black currant berry.%黑穗醋栗是一种在北半球广泛栽培的小浆果,果实中富含糖、酸、多种维生素、多酚、类黄酮、花青素、氨基酸、各种无机元素如磷、钙、镁、铁、锌等,及不饱和脂肪酸等具有生物活性的营养成分,种子、果实和叶子均可利用,实际生产中主要利用的是果实.该文主要针对黑穗醋栗果实中的营养成分及保健功能进行了综述,旨在为黑穗醋栗营养价值的开发利用提供一定的参考和指导作用.

  10. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  11. Effect of aqueous extract of Rheum ribes on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Rheum ribes extract prevents cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups: Group A considered as control group, group B were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg B.W. for 3 alternative days, and group C further to cisplatin received the aqueous extract of Rheum ribes (150 mg/rat. Results: Blood urea nitrogen (BUN level increased in group B on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 ( P < 0.001; it was also increased in group B vs. group A on day 14 ( P < 0.001. Rheum ribes extract decreased the serum BUN level on day 14 compared to group B ( P < 0.001. Serum creatinine level in group B had a similar profile as serum BUN level but Rheum ribes had no effect on blood creatinine level. Serum cholesterol level was increased in group B on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 ( P < 0.001. Also, cholesterol level was significantly increased in group B when compared to group A on day 14 ( P < 0.001. Rheum ribes decreased the blood cholesterol level on day 42 in comparison to group B ( P < 0.001. Serum glucose level was increased in group B on days 14 and 42 vs. day 0 ( P < 0.001. Also, glucose level was significantly increased in group B when compared to group A on day 42 ( P < 0.001. Rheum ribes increased the serum glucose level on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 ( P < 0.05. Histology of kidneys exposed to cisplatin showed renal injury, but Rheum ribes had no effect on the kidney architecture. Conclusion: Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was confirmed in our study. Although Rheum ribes had some effects on biochemical parameters; its effect on renal histology in injured kidney was insignificant.

  12. Effect of Ethephon on Fruit Quality of Black Currant%乙烯利对黑穗醋栗果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志东; 刘洪章; 李海燕; 吴林; 郝瑞; 陈慧都

    2000-01-01

    Effect of foliage applicationethephon of various concentrations on fruit qaility black currant( Ribes nigrum L.) cultivars “Ben Lomond” was studied. Treatments of 10, 50 and 200 mg/L liquid of ethephon,which were applied once (June 25) or twice (June 25 and July 1), enhanced contents of reducing sugar, total sugar, Vc and pigment and decreased content of organic acid. Treatments of 267,500 and 1 000 mg/L liquid of ethephon, which applied 2~4 d before regular harvest period,only increased the content of pigment apparently and had no effect on the contents of sugar,organic acid and Vc.%研究了前期喷施低浓度乙烯利和采前喷施高浓度乙烯利对黑穗醋栗“黑珍珠”果实品质的影响。结果表明:在正常采收期前25 d喷1~2次10,50,200 mg/L乙烯利溶液,对果实中还原糖、总糖、维生素C和色素含量的增加以及有机酸含量的降低都起到了促进作用。采前2~4 d喷施267,500和1 000 mg/L乙烯利溶液,只对色素含量增加起到了明显的促进作用,而对糖、有机酸和维生素C含量没有明显影响。

  13. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenneker, M; Kanne, J

    2010-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed, because powdery mildew infections may result in a total loss of the crop. In organic currant growing the number of adequate control methods is very limited. Sulphur as a fungicide against powdery mildew in e.g. gooseberry or table grape growing is not recommendable due to possible bleaching of berries and scorching of tender shoots. Various bicarbonate salts are suggested as a good option to control powdery mildew. In a field trial the effect of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the on the control of powdery mildew of gooseberry was evaluated. Four treatments; i.e. two preventive strategies and two curative strategies, were applied. PLants were sprayed until runoff. The percent of infected fruits and disease severity were assessed. In the unsprayed control plots very high disease incidences were observed; on average more than 90% of the berries were infected with powdery mildew. The weekly (preventive) spray applications with potassium carbonate reduced the disease incidences on fruits significantly. On average approximately 10% of the fruits were affected by powdery mildew. However, the number of spray applications was high. In conclusion, our results indicate that applications of potassium bicarbonate (as Armicarb) are effective in reducing the incidence and severity of American powdery mildew in gooseberry. Early spray applications are necessary to protect berries against powdery mildew infections. Future research will focus on reducing the number of applications, e.g. warning models based on powdery mildew of rose (Sphaerotheca pannosa).

  14. A Model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Black Currant Juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Andrésen, René

    2011-01-01

    -side spacing of tubular-type unit."  Turtuosity and porosity are characteristics of the membrane in use and have been estimated base don eksperimental studies on destillation of pure water. The fitted model shows a good fit to experimental data obtained by destillation of black currant juice....

  15. Gall mite inspection on dormant black currant buds using machine vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. R.; Stigaard Laursen, Morten; Jonassen, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based approach detecting and mapping gall mite infection in dormant buds on black currant bushes. A vehicle was fitted with four cameras and RTK-GPS. Results compared automatic detection to human decisions based on the images, and by mapping the results ...

  16. Anti-aging properties of Ribes fasciculatum in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hoon; Cha, Dong Seok

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of ethylacetate fraction of Ribes fasciculatum (ERF) on the lifespan and stress tolerance using a Caenorhabditis elegans model. The longevity activity of ERF was determined by lifespan assay under normal culture condition. The survival rate of nematodes under various stress conditions was assessed to validate the effects of ERF on the stress tolerance. To determine the antioxidant potential of ERF, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were investigated. The ERF-mediated change in SOD-3 expression was examined using GFP-expressing transgenic strain. The effects of ERF on the aging-related factors were investigated by reproduction assay and pharyngeal pumping assay. The intestinal lipofuscin levels of aged nematodes were also measured. The mechanistic studies were performed using selected mutant strains. Our results indicated that ERF showed potent lifespan extension effects on the wild-type nematode under both normal and various stress conditions. The ERF treatment also enhanced the activity and expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and attenuated the intracellular ROS levels. Moreover, ERF-fed nematodes showed decreased lipofuscin accumulation, indicating ERF might affect age-associated changes in C. elegans. The results of mechanistic studies indicated that there was no significant lifespan extension in ERF-treated daf-2, age-1, sir-2.1, and daf-16 null mutants, suggesting that they were involved in ERF-mediated lifespan regulation. In conclusion, R. fasciculatum confers increased longevity and stress resistance in C. elegans via SIR-2.1-mediated DAF-16 activation, dependent on the insulin/IGF signaling pathway.

  17. Development of the Northern European Ribes core collection based on a microsatellite (SSR) marker diversity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonius, Kristiina; Karhu, S.; Kaldmäe, H.;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to support the selection process of the most valuable currant and gooseberry accessions cultivated in Northern Europe, in order to establish a decentralized core collection and, following the selection, to ensure sufficient genetic diversity in the selected collection...

  18. Absorption and excretion of black currant anthocyanins in human and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L.. F.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.;

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins are thought to protect against cardiovascular diseases. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits are hypercholesterolemic and used as a model of the development of atherosclerosis. To compare the uptake and excretion of anthocyanins in humans and WHHL rabbits, single-dose black...... currant anthocyanin studies were performed. Procedures for workup and analyses of urine and plasma samples containing anthocyanins were developed with high recoveries (99 and 81%, respectively) and low limits of quantification (greater than or equal to 6.6 and greater than or equal to 1.1 nM, respectively......). The excretion and absorption of anthocyanins from black currant juice were found to be within the same order of magnitude in the two species regarding urinary excretion within the first 4 h (rabbits, 0.035%; humans, 0.072%) and t(ma)x (rabbits, similar to30 min; humans, similar to45 min). A food matrix effect...

  19. Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Warming, C.

    2004-01-01

    l/h at 30 degreesC gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound as C-permeate/C-feed: from similar to4 to 15. The concentration factors increased with decreased juice temperature during VMD; at 10 degreesC concentration factors of 21-31 were obtained for the highly volatile aroma....... VMD thus turned out to be a promising technique for gentle stripping of black currant juice aroma compounds....

  20. Evaluating PHA productivity of bioengineered Rhodosprillum rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanan Jin

    Full Text Available This study explored the potential of using Rhodosprillum rubrum as the biological vehicle to convert chemically simple carbon precursors to a value-added bio-based product, the biopolymer PHA. R. rubrum strains were bioengineered to overexpress individually or in various combinations, six PHA biosynthetic genes (phaC1, phaA, phaB, phaC2, phaC3, and phaJ, and the resulting nine over-expressing strains were evaluated to assess the effect on PHA content, and the effect on growth. These experiments were designed to genetically evaluate: 1 the role of each apparently redundant PHA polymerase in determining PHA productivity; 2 identify the key gene(s within the pha biosynthetic operon that determines PHA productivity; and 3 the role of phaJ to support PHA productivity. The result of overexpressing each PHA polymerase-encoding gene indicates that phaC1 and phaC2 are significant contributors to PHA productivity, whereas phaC3 has little effect. Similarly, over-expressing individually or in combination the three PHA biosynthesis genes located in the pha operon indicates that phaB is the key determinant of PHA productivity. Finally, analogous experiments indicate that phaJ does not contribute significantly to PHA productivity. These bioengineering strains achieved PHA productivity of up to 30% of dry biomass, which is approximately 2.5-fold higher than the non-engineered control strain, indicating the feasibility of using this approach to produce value added bio-based products.

  1. Silicon phthalocyanine 4 phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma D

    2014-06-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm(2) reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis.

  2. Studies on the Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activities in Leaves of Black Currant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The fresh leaves and oven-dried leaves from three varieties of black currant (Brodtrop,liangye,Risager)were analysed for the total contents of flavonoids by spectrophotometric methods in terms of rutin equivalent.In addition,antioxidant activities of different addition amounts of extracts of black currant (Brodtrop)leaves in lard were measured by the Oven-Storage Test,and compared with the synthetic antioxidants.The results showed the contents of the flavonoids were very rich in the leaves of three varieties from black currant.Among them the leaves of Brodtrop had the highest contents of flavonoids followed by liangye and Risager.The total contents of flavonoids in fresh leaves reach 231.70 mg/100 g,170.01 mg/100 g and 78.07 mg/100 g respectively.In the same circumstance the oven-dried leaves were 397.82 mg/100 g,275.89 mg/100 g and 169.73 mg/100 g.The extracts of the leaves from Brodtrop exhibited strong antioxidant activities on lard,which increased with the addition amount of the flavonoid extracts.The antioxidant activities decreased in the order of 0.02% quercetin >0.02% BHT(butylated hydroxy-toluene)>0.40% extracts>0.20% extracts>0.10% extracts>0.05% extracts>0.02% extracts>control.

  3. Ozone sensitivity of currant tomato (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium), a potential bioindicator species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriti, Marcello [Istituto di Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Belli, Lucia [Istituto di Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Nali, Cristina [Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose ' G. Scaramuzzi' , Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa (Italy); Lorenzini, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose ' G. Scaramuzzi' , Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa (Italy); Gerosa, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Faoro, Franco [CNR, Istituto di Virologia Vegetale, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria, 2 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: f.faoro@ivv.cnr.it

    2006-05-15

    The wild tomato species Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (currant tomato) was exposed to different O{sub 3} concentration, both in controlled environment fumigation facilities and in open-top chambers, to assess its sensitivity and to verify its potential as a bioindicator plant. Plants appeared particularly sensitive to O{sub 3} at an early stage of growth, responding with typical chlorotic spots within 24 h after exposure to a single pulse of 50 ppb for 3 h, and differentiating peculiar symptoms, such as reddish necrotic stipples, bronzing and extensive necrosis, depending on O{sub 3} concentration. Histo-cytochemical investigations with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine, to localize H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and Evans blue, to detect dead cells, suggested that currant tomato sensitivity to O{sub 3} could be due to a deficiency in the anti-oxidant pools. The combination of these stainings proved to be useful, either to predict visible symptoms, early before their appearance, and to validate leaf ozone injury. - Currant tomato (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium) was found to be very sensitive to ozone.

  4. Analysis of part of the Trichophyton rubrum ESTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lingling; JIN Qi; MA Li; LENG Wenchuan; YANG Jian; ZHU Junping; DONG Jie; XUE Ying; WAN Zhe; LI Ruoyu

    2004-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum(7.Rubrum)is the most common of the superficial fungi.In an effort to better understand the genetic and biochemical makeup of T.Rubrum,we generated Cdna libraries from 3 growth stages and used these to isolate 4002 unique expressed sequence tags(ESTs).Sequence comparisons with the Genbank database allowed 1226 of the ESTs to be assigned putative functions or matched with homologs from other organisms.Of the remaining ESTs,989 were only weakly similar to known sequences and 1787 had no identifiable functions,suggesting that they represent novel genes.We further analyzed the presence of several important genes involved in the growth,metabolism,signal transduction,pathogenesis and drug resistance in 7.Rubrum.This information was used to newly elucidate important metabolic pathways in T.Rubrum.Taken together,our results should form the molecular basis for continued research on the physiological processes and pathogenic mechanisms of T.Rubrum,and may lead to a better understanding of fungal drug resistance and identification of new drug targets.

  5. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of the seed extract of embelia ribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sabitha Rani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of Embelia ribes was evaluated on eight different fungal species by employing various concentrations of seed extract (0.5-2.0 mg. All the concentrations of seed extract inhibited the fungal growth, whereas maximum activity was observed at 2.0 mg concentration of seed extract. Among different doses, the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 9 to 18 mm in various fungal species and increased with the increase in the concentration of test solution. Among all the fungi, high inhibition zones were observed in Colletotricum crassipes (18 mm. This was followed by Cladosporium (17.5 mm, Armillaria mellea (17 mm, Colletotricum capsici (17 mm, Aspergillus niger (16.5 mm, Rhizopus oryzae (16.5 mm, respectively. Aspergillus terreus and Candida albicans showed less inhibition zones (15.5 and 16.0 mm compared to other organisms. The present study clearly demonstrated the antifungal properties of Embelia ribes.

  6. Procedimientos de humor en Théâtre sans animaux de Jean-Michel Ribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Cots Vicente

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the role of humour in Théâtre sans animaux. Our approach is to define two forms of humour which play on the effects of incoherence: the unusual and the absurd. We then examine these two forms of humour and the effects which they produce in Jean-Michel Ribes’s text. We show the specificity of the humor of Ribes which articulates the unusual with the absurd.

  7. Control of exocellular proteases in dermatophytes and especially Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meevootisom, V; Niederpruem, D J

    1979-06-01

    The production of proteases was investigated during growth of dermatophytic fungi with special emphasis on Trichophyton rubrum. Exogenous glucose suppressed elastase production in all dermatophytes examined. The production of protease active guinea pig hair in keratin-salts broth by Microsporum gypseum. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum was also suppressed by glucose. Various carbohydrates added to keratin-salts broth curtailed protease production by T. rubrum as did individual amino acids but ammonium phosphate did not. Enzyme activities against guinea pig hair were compared in twenty-one diverse clinical isolates of T. rubrum cultured in keratin-salts broth. Activity also occurred towards casein, bovine serum albumin, keratin, collagen and elastin after keratin-growth. Studies concerning the properties of enzyme activities in culture filtrates of T. rubrum after keratin-growth suggested that multiple proteases occurred here. Hydrolysis of guinea pig hair and elastin were optimal at pH7 while keratinase was most active at alkaline pH. Divalent cations stimulated protease(s). Ferric ion and mercuric ion stimulated keratinase but were inhibitory to guinea pig hair hydrolysis and elastase. Chelating agents inhibited elastase and the hydrolysis of guinea pig hair more severely than keratinase and all of those effects were reversed by excess calcium. A serine-protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), curtailed keratinase but was less inhibitory to elastase and guinea pig hair hydrolysis. Soybean trypsin inhibitor arrested each protease.

  8. Electrophoretic molecular karyotype of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervelatti Eliane P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrophoretic karyotype of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum was established using contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF gel electrophoresis. Five chromosomal bands of approximately 3.0 to 5.8 megabase pairs (Mbp each were observed and together indicated that 22.05 Mbp of the total genome are organized as chromosomal macromolecules. In addition to establishing the number and size of T. rubrum chromosomes, these results open perspectives for the construction of chromosome-specific libraries and for the physical mapping of genes of interest, thus permitting future gene linkage studies in this pathogen. A detailed understanding of the karyotype and genomic organization of T. rubrum should contribute to further genetic, taxonomic and epidemiological studies of this dermatophyte.

  9. Effects of laser irradiation on Trichophyton rubrum growth and ultrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhi-li; XU Jing; ZHUO Feng-lin; WANG Li; XU Wei; XU Ying; ZHANG Xiao-yan; ZHAO Jun-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is the most common causative agent of dermatophytosis worldwide.In this study,we examined the effect of laser irradiation on the growth and morphology of T.rubrum.Methods Colonies of T.rubrum were isolated (one colony per plate),and randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups:Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment,long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser treatment,intense pulsed light (IPL)treatment,308 nm excimer laser treatment and the blank control group without treatment.Standardized photographs were obtained from grown-up fungal plates prior to treatment.Colonies were then exposed to various wavelengths and fluences of laser light.To compare the growth of colonies,they were re-photographed under identical conditions three and six days post-treatment.To investigate the morphology of T.rubrum,scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from specimens exposed to 24 hours of laser treatment.Results Growth of T.rubrum colonies was significantly inhibited following irradiation by 694 nm Q-switched and 1064nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG lasers.Other treatments exerted little or no effect.Q-switched laser irradiation exerted a stronger growth inhibitory effect than long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation.Following treatment by the Q-switched ruby laser system,T.rubrum hyphae became shrunken and deflated,and SEM images revealed rough,fractured hyphal surfaces,punctured with small destructive holes.TEM images showed that the hyphae were degenerating,as evidenced by the irregular shape of hyphae,rough and loose cell wall,and obscure cytoplasmic texture.Initially high elect(io)n density structure was visible in the cell; later,low-density structure appeared as a result of cytoplasmic dissolution.In contrast,the blank control group showed no obvious changes in morphology.Conclusion The Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment significantly inhibits the growth and changes the morphology of T.rubrum.

  10. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...... BE and Novozym 89 protease showed no effect. A decrease in pomace particle sizes from 500-1000 mum to wine pomace. Four selected black currant...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....

  11. On the relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum Rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Nijenhuis, L.E.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied. The light intensity at which saturation is reached in photosynthesis proved to coincide with that at which the contrast sensitivity starts to decrease. Potassium cyanide, which preferably inhibits the Bla

  12. Detection of xanthomegnin in epidermal materials infected with Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Ahmad, I; Borst, I; Summerbell, R C

    2000-11-01

    Xanthomegnin, a mutagenic mycotoxin best known as an agent of nephropathy and death in farm animals exposed to food-borne Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi, was first isolated about 35 y ago as a diffusing pigment from cultures of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton megninii. This study investigates the production of xanthomegnin by the most common dermatophytic species, Trichophyton rubrum, both in dermatologic nail specimens and in culture. In view of the labile nature of xanthomegnin, a chromatographic procedure was developed to allow high-performance liquid chromatography analysis within 1 h of sample extraction. In cultures, Tricho- phyton rubrum produced xanthomegnin as a major pigment that appears to give the culture its characteristic red colony reverse. Xanthomegnin was also repeatedly extracted from human nail and skin material infected by Trichophyton rubrum. The level of xanthomegnin present, however, varied among the clinical samples studied. Xanthomegnin was not detected in uninfected nails. These results show that patients with Trichophyton rubrum infections may be exposed to xanthomegnin, although the consequences of such an exposure are not currently known.

  13. On the relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum Rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Nijenhuis, L.E.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied. The light intensity at which saturation is reached in photosynthesis proved to coincide with that at which the contrast sensitivity starts to decrease. Potassium cyanide, which preferably inhibits the

  14. Global transcriptional profiles of Trichophyton rubrum in response to Flucytosine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is one of the most common human fungal pathogens that cause chronic infections of the skin and nails. To identify antifungal responsive genes, cDNA microarray analysis was performed for T. rubrum to reveal global transcriptional profiles of drug-specific responses to 5-Flucytosine (5-FC). cDNA microarray was constructed from the T. rubrum expressed sequence tag (ESTs) database, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5-FC was determined, and microarray hybridization and data analysis were applied. The expression pattern of 7 genes observed by microarray was confirmed by the quantitative real-time reverser transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data analysis indicated that a total of 474 genes were found differentially expressed, 196 showed an increase in expression and 278 showed a decrease in expression. Marked down-regulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism (such as CDC21), transcription (such as E2F1), and RNA processing (such as SGN1, RIM4 and NOP1) was observed. Other genes involved in signal transduction, chaperones, inorganic ion transport, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, amino acid transport, lipid transport and potential drug resistance mechanism were also affected by 5-FC. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR of the selected genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray results. This is the first analysis of transcriptional profiles in response to 5-FC for T. rubrum. The findings may be valuable for the identification of genes involved in mechanisms of action and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance of 5-FC.

  15. Towards new sources of resistance to the currant-lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Peter G; Hough, Gemma; Moore, Jonathan D; Carder, John; Elliott, Marian; Mead, Andrew; Jones, Julie; Teakle, Graham; Barker, Guy; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Hand, Paul; Pink, David; Collier, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Domesticated lettuce varieties encompass much morphological variation across a range of crop type groups, with large collections of cultivars and landrace accessions maintained in genebanks. Additional variation not captured during domestication, present in ancestral wild relatives, represents a potentially rich source of alleles that can deliver to sustainable crop production. However, these large collections are difficult and costly to screen for many agronomically important traits. In this paper, we describe the generation of a diversity collection of 96 lettuce and wild species accessions that are amenable to routine phenotypic analysis and their genotypic characterization with a panel of 682 newly developed expressed sequence tag (EST)-linked KASP™ single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that are anchored to the draft Lactuca sativa genome assembly. To exemplify the utility of these resources, we screened the collection for putative sources of resistance to currant-lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) and carried out association analyses to look for potential SNPs linked to resistance.

  16. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  17. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Ribes inerme in north-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Vogler; B. W. Geils; K. Coats

    2017-01-01

    Cronartium ribicola Fisch. has not been found infecting any of the five-needle white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) in Utah, despite being established on both white pine and Ribes hosts in the other 10 western states, defined as those west of the 102° meridian.

  18. Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Naemi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L.flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay.   Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety.  

  19. Sensibilidad al fluconazol de aislamientos de Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma T Gross-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Trichophyton rubrum es el dermatofito más frecuentemente aislado a nivel mundial y afecta principalmente: piel glabra, uñas de las manos y de los pies. El fluconazol es utilizado con frecuencia para el tratamiento de las onicomicosis en nuestra población, por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue estudiar la sensibilidad a este antifúngico, de aislamientos costarricenses de T. rubrum. Métodos: se investigó la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol de 80 aislamientos de T. rubrum, obtenidos de muestras de piel y sus anexos. El método utilizado fue el de microdilución M-38A, descrito por el “National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards”. Las diluciones finales del fluconazol fueron de 0,25 a 128 μg/ml. Resultados: la mayoría de los aislamientos fueron obtenidos de uñas de los pies (68,75%. El 86,25% de los aislamientos analizados presentaron una concentración mínima inhibitoria entre 0,25-8 μg/ml, el 8,75% entre 16-32 μg/ml y un 5% > 64 μg/ml. De estos aislamientos resistentes, dos fueron de uñas de los pies y dos de plantas de pie. Conclusión: debido a que la mayoría de los aislamientos de T. rubrum demostraron ser sensibles al fluconazol, solo se recomienda realizar la prueba de sensibilidad a este antifúngico en casos de falla terapéutica, especialmente en pacientes con onicomicosis en la cual el tratamiento es prolongado.

  20. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  1. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis-Episkin(R)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan-Pan Liang; Xin-Zhu Huang; Jin-Ling Yi; Zhi-Rui Chen; Han Ma; Cong-Xiu Ye; Xian-Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood.An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T.rubrum.In this study, we intended to develop a new T.rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis-EpiSkin(R), and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T.rubrum infection.Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia) and high-dose (4000 conidia) T.rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose.During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation.Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis.The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T.rubrum.SEM observations further exhibited the process of T.rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way.Conclusions: We established the T.rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully.It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T.rubrum infection.

  2. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis - Episkin®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood. An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. In this study, we intended to develop a new T. rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis - EpiSkin ®, and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia and high-dose (4000 conidia T. rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose. During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation. Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. SEM observations further exhibited the process of T. rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way. Conclusions: We established the T. rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully. It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection.

  3. In-Vitro Anti fungal Screening of Embelia Ribes Plant Extract through EUCAST Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjesh G Rathi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the Embelia ribes plant extracts using standard in vitro antifungal susceptibility test method like EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing M27-A2 Protocol.Antifungal screening of Embelia ribes not studied in detail and not extended to the different spectrum of fungal which are causing human diseases. Thus different types of extracts were prepared using different solvents and TLC characterized. Assays were performed in 96 well plates and detection was carried out with colorimetric plate reader at 530nm.To obtain the MIC50 with the help of the graph pad prism software.The petroleum ether extract, solvent ether extract and methanol extract had low MIC50 values against the Candida species than the other species. Solvent ether extract and petroleum ether extract were highly effective against the c.albicans (MTCC NO 183 with the 65 mg/L and 32mg/L MIC50 values. The methanol extract were more active against c.albican (MTCC NO 183 species with 300-500 mg/L MIC50 value. The solvent ether extract, petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, potassium embelate and Embelin have reported the MIC50 values in range of 800-1600 mg/L against c.tropicalis (MTCC NO 184 and c.parapsilosis (MTCC NO 1744. The petroleum ether extract and potassium embelate was found to have MIC50 between range 300-700 mg/L against c.parapsilosis (MTCC NO 1744 and a.fumigatus (MTCC NO 2550 .Other extracts required higher concentrations against c.parapsilosis and a.fumigatus. Water extract was found to have MIC50 values greater than 2000 mg/L against all fungus. Most of the results for the Embelin could not obtain by EUCAST method due to having higher fluctuation in results.

  4. Modeling and optimization of red currants vacuum drying process by response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šumić, Zdravko; Vakula, Anita; Tepić, Aleksandra; Čakarević, Jelena; Vitas, Jasmina; Pavlić, Branimir

    2016-07-15

    Fresh red currants were dried by vacuum drying process under different drying conditions. Box-Behnken experimental design with response surface methodology was used for optimization of drying process in terms of physical (moisture content, water activity, total color change, firmness and rehydratation power) and chemical (total phenols, total flavonoids, monomeric anthocyanins and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity) properties of dried samples. Temperature (48-78 °C), pressure (30-330 mbar) and drying time (8-16 h) were investigated as independent variables. Experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model where regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine model fitness and optimal drying conditions. The optimal conditions of simultaneously optimized responses were temperature of 70.2 °C, pressure of 39 mbar and drying time of 8 h. It could be concluded that vacuum drying provides samples with good physico-chemical properties, similar to lyophilized sample and better than conventionally dried sample.

  5. Environ: E00807 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00807 Black currant Cassis Medicinal herb Quercetin [CPD:C00389], Kaempferol [CPD:...[DR:D00018] Ribes nigrum [TAX:78511] Grossulariaceae Black currant leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: others Grossulariaceae (currant family) E00807 Black currant ...

  6. TrED: the Trichophyton rubrum Expression Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tao

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte species and the most frequent cause of fungal skin infections in humans worldwide. It's a major concern because feet and nail infections caused by this organism is extremely difficult to cure. A large set of expression data including expressed sequence tags (ESTs and transcriptional profiles of this important fungal pathogen are now available. Careful analysis of these data can give valuable information about potential virulence factors, antigens and novel metabolic pathways. We intend to create an integrated database TrED to facilitate the study of dermatophytes, and enhance the development of effective diagnostic and treatment strategies. Description All publicly available ESTs and expression profiles of T. rubrum during conidial germination in time-course experiments and challenged with antifungal agents are deposited in the database. In addition, comparative genomics hybridization results of 22 dermatophytic fungi strains from three genera, Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton, are also included. ESTs are clustered and assembled to elongate the sequence length and abate redundancy. TrED provides functional analysis based on GenBank, Pfam, and KOG databases, along with KEGG pathway and GO vocabulary. It is integrated with a suite of custom web-based tools that facilitate querying and retrieving various EST properties, visualization and comparison of transcriptional profiles, and sequence-similarity searching by BLAST. Conclusion TrED is built upon a relational database, with a web interface offering analytic functions, to provide integrated access to various expression data of T. rubrum and comparative results of dermatophytes. It is devoted to be a comprehensive resource and platform to assist functional genomic studies in dermatophytes. TrED is available from URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/TrED/.

  7. Canopy accession strategies and climate-growth relationships in Acer Rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin L. Hart; Megan L. Buchanan; Scott J. Torreano

    2012-01-01

    A pervasive pattern of forest composition change is occurring throughout the Central Hardwood Forest of the eastern US. Acer rubrum has invaded the understory of Quercus stands across a variety of site types. The proliferation of A. rubrum, and that of other shade-tolerant mesophytes, inhibits the regeneration of Quercus. Without alterations in disturbance or climate...

  8. In vitro characterization of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Orlandi, C B; Sardi, J C O; Santos, C T; Fusco-Almeida, A M; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi responsible for a disease known as dermatophytosis. Biofilms are sessile microbial communities surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host defenses. This paper describes, for the first time, the characteristics of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms. Biofilm formation was analyzed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as by staining with crystal violet and safranin. Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. Both species were able to form mature biofilms in 72 h. T. rubrum biofilm produced more biomass and EPS and was denser than T. mentagrophytes biofilm. The SEM results demonstrated a coordinated network of hyphae in all directions, embedded within EPS in some areas. Research and characterization of biofilms formed by dermatophytes may contribute to the search of new drugs for the treatment of these mycoses and might inform future revisions with respect to the dose and duration of treatment of currently available antifungals.

  9. Whole-genome shotgun optical mapping of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reslewic, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Zhou, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Place, M. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Zhang, Y. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Briska, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Goldstein, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Churas, C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Runnheim, R. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Forrest, D. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lim, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lapidus, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Han, C. S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Roberts, G. P. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Schwartz, D. C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison

    2005-09-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum is a phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium known for its unique and well-studied nitrogen fixation and carbon monoxide oxidation systems and as a source of hydrogen and biodegradable plastic production. To better understand this organism and to facilitate assembly of its sequence, three whole-genome restriction endonuclease maps (XbaI, NheI, and HindIII) of R. rubrum strain ATCC 11170 were created by optical mapping. Optical mapping is a system for creating whole-genome ordered restriction endonuclease maps from randomly sheared genomic DNA molecules extracted from cells. During the sequence finishing process, all three optical maps confirmed a putative error in sequence assembly, while the HindIII map acted as a scaffold for high-resolution alignment with sequence contigs spanning the whole genome. In addition to highlighting optical mapping's role in the assembly and confirmation of genome sequence, this work underscores the unique niche in resolution occupied by the optical mapping system. With a resolution ranging from 6.5 kb (previously published) to 45 kb (reported here), optical mapping advances a "molecular cytogenetics" approach to solving problems in genomic analysis.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, A Christine; Copeland, Alex; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Barry, Kerrie; Detter, John C; Hammon, Nancy; Israni, Sanjay; Pitluck, Sam; Brettin, Thomas; Bruce, David; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Richardson, Paul; Rohde, Manfred; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P; Reslewic, Susan; Schwartz, David C

    2011-07-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rhodospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that produces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1(T) can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in particular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome sequence of strain S1(T) is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chromosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002.

  11. Detection, stability and redox effects of black currant anthocyanin glycosides in vivo: Positive identification by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L. F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2001-01-01

    for at least 7 months at 80 degreesC, provided they are acidified during collection, added an internal standard and stored at pH around 1.8. Black currant anthocyanins are absorbed and excreted quickly with a peak plasma concentration around I h after a single dose. Within 0.5-2 hours after dosing, the redox......Anthocyanins are ingested as the red and blue coloured pigments in berries and red wine. They are potent antioxidants and their redox actions might positively affect health. It is therefore of interest to device a method to determine these compounds in blood and excreta, and to determine...

  12. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Application of ultrasonic extraction method in the preparation of the directive action beverage from black currant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of experimental determination of physical-and chemical parameters, the amount of anthocyanins, the definition of color and organoleptic characteristics of the beverage prepared with ultrasonic extraction method in comparison with the fruit-drink, obtained according to traditional recipe. Black currant was chosen the main raw material for the development of the beverage production technology. It is characterized by a high content of bioactive components that increase the adaptive abilities of human body. The purpose is to use ultrasonic extraction method in the preparation of functionally directed actions beverages. Extractor with submerged ultrasonic emitter was used as an experimental device. The essence of its operation is as follows: a mixture of the extractant and the plant substrate in different ratios was loaded into a container with the emitter, then the ultrasonic generator was turned on. The vibrations of ultrasonic frequency (22 kHz made high-frequency mechanical vibrations that caused the formation of intense cavitation areas and diffuse dissolution of cell substrates in the extractant in the treated mixture. The ultrasonic extraction technique involves brief contact of berries and extractant (up to 15 minutes upon application of ultrasonic vibrations. With an increase in exposure time, the yield of biologically active substances increases to reach an equilibrium state corresponding to the most complete exhaustion of raw materials. All this leads to a significant acceleration of the transition from the active ingredients from the raw materials into the extractant to obtain a product with improved physical - and chemical, organoleptic characteristics, as well as a higher antioxidant activity.

  14. Interaction between Mesodinium rubrum and its prey: importance of prey concentration, irradiance and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldrup, Morten; Hansen, Per Juel

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The functional and numerical responses for the marine obligate mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum Lohmann, 1908 (=Myrionecta rubra Jankowsky, 1976) were studied at 2 irradiances (20 and 100 µE m2 s-1). Furthermore, its tolerance to high pH levels and response to starvation were studied...... was sufficient for maximum growth, but carbon contributions as high as 22% were observed to have no effect on growth. The pH experiments revealed that the growth of M. rubrum and Teleaulax sp. was impeded at pH levels in excess of 8.5 and 8.8, respectively. Experiments to reveal M. rubrum's response...

  15. Development of response surface methodology for optimization of extraction parameters and quantitative estimation of embelin from Embelia ribes Burm by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Shamsir; Damanhouri, Zoheir A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Abidin, Lubna; Amir, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Mujeeb, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Embelia ribes Burm is widely used medicinal plant for the treatment of different types of disorders in the Indian traditional systems of medicine. Objective: The present work was aimed to optimize the extraction parameters of embelin from E. ribes fruits and also to quantify embelin content in different extracts of the plant. Materials and Methods: Optimization of extraction parameters such as solvent: drug ratio, temperature and time were carried out by response surface methodology (RSM). Quantitative estimation of embelin in different extracts of E. ribes fruits was done through high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The optimal conditions determined for extraction of embelin through RSM were; extraction time (27.50 min), extraction temperature 45°C and solvent: drug ratio (8:1). Under the optimized conditions, the embelin yield (32.71%) was equitable to the expected yield (31.07%, P > 0.05). These results showed that the developed model is satisfactory and suitable for the extraction process of embelin. The analysis of variance showed a high goodness of model fit and the accomplishment of the RSM method for improving embelin extraction from the fruits of E. ribes. Conclusion: It is concluded that this may be a useful method for the extraction and quantitative estimation of embelin from the fruits of E. ribes. PMID:26109763

  16. Development of response surface methodology for optimization of extraction parameters and quantitative estimation of embelin from Embelia ribes Burm by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shamsir Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embelia ribes Burm is widely used medicinal plant for the treatment of different types of disorders in the Indian traditional systems of medicine. Objective: The present work was aimed to optimize the extraction parameters of embelin from E. ribes fruits and also to quantify embelin content in different extracts of the plant. Materials and Methods: Optimization of extraction parameters such as solvent: drug ratio, temperature and time were carried out by response surface methodology (RSM. Quantitative estimation of embelin in different extracts of E. ribes fruits was done through high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The optimal conditions determined for extraction of embelin through RSM were; extraction time (27.50 min, extraction temperature 45°C and solvent: drug ratio (8:1. Under the optimized conditions, the embelin yield (32.71% was equitable to the expected yield (31.07%, P > 0.05. These results showed that the developed model is satisfactory and suitable for the extraction process of embelin. The analysis of variance showed a high goodness of model fit and the accomplishment of the RSM method for improving embelin extraction from the fruits of E. ribes. Conclusion: It is concluded that this may be a useful method for the extraction and quantitative estimation of embelin from the fruits of E. ribes.

  17. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains

  18. The pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II is present as a dimer in pectic populations of bilberries and black currants in muro and in juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Williams, P.; Doco, T.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG II) can play an important role during processing of berries due to its enzyme resistance and its possible role as a pectic cross-linker. This article describes the presence of RG II in cell walls, in juice and in press cake of bilberries and black currants. RG II was

  19. The quantitative determination of the spectral distribution of phototactic sensitivity in the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milatz, J.M.W.; Manten, A.

    1953-01-01

    By using a compensation method, the action spectrum (spectral distribution of stimulating efficiency in a quantitative measure) of phototaxis in the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch) Molisch Strain 4 was determined. Two differently coloured adjacent small light fields were projected

  20. Antidiabetic activity of Embelia ribes, embelin and its derivatives: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, Veeresh P; Neelima, Satrasala; Dhadde, Shivsharan B

    2017-02-01

    Embelia ribes (ER) has been documented in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of ER and its active bio-marker, embelin and its derivatives in the treatment of DM. Literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Scifinder, and Google Scholar. Using Review Manager, meta-analysis of ER/embelin/derivatives of embelin versus diabetic control was performed with inverse-variance model, providing mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was determined by I(2) statistic. A total of 13 studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, and were conducted in experimental rats. ER and embelin significantly (P≤0.01) resorted blood glucose (MD, -231.30; CI, -256.79, -205.82; and MD, -154.70; CI, -168.65, -140.74) and glycosylated haemoglobin (MD, -6.36; CI, -8.33, -4.39; and MD,-4.68; CI, -7.76, -1.60), respectively. Meta-analysis findings also reported considerable restoration of insulin, lipid profile, haemodynamic parameters, serum and oxidative stress markers. The derivatives of embelin, 6-bromoembelin and vilangin, also improved diabetic condition. In addition, treatments also ameliorated body weight changes due to diabetes. The present systematic review and meta-analysis supports scientific evidence for the antidiabetic activity of ER/embelin/derivatives of embelin. However, further research is warranted in clinical trials to validate the present findings.

  1. Rizični čimbenici koji nastaju konzumacijom sirove ribe i školjkaša

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, dr. med.vet., Tajana; Cvrtila Fleck, dr. sc. Željka; Njari, dr. sc. Bela; Kozačinski, dr. sc. Lidija

    2015-01-01

    U radu su prikazani biološki i kemijski rizici koji ugrožavaju zdravlje ljudi nakon konzumacije riba, rakova, školjkaša i njihovih proizvoda, sirovih, mariniranih ili nedovoljno toplinski obrađenih. Virusi, bakterije i njihovi toksini kao rizični čimbenici koji predstavljaju faktor onečišćenja proizvoda ribe i školjkaša imaju negativan utjecaj u prehrambenom lancu ljudi i predstavljaju zoonotski potencijal te uzrokuju bolesti koje se prenose konzumiranjem morskih proizvoda. Kao važnije uzročn...

  2. Hydrogen production by draTGB hupL double mutant of Rhodospirillum rubrum under different light conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ruiyan; WANG Di; ZHANG Yaoping; LI Jilun

    2006-01-01

    To increase H2 yield of Rhodospirillum rubrum in two-stage hydrogen production process,two deletion mutants were constructed. One is single mutant designated R. rubrum UR801 that deleted hupL gene encoding the large subunit of uptake hydrogenase, and the other is a double mutant designated R. rubrum UR805 lacked both draTGB encoding regulators for the activity of nitrogenase and hupL.Comparing H2 yields of two mutants with R. rubrum UR2 (wild type) and UR472 (△draTGB) under different light conditions, the results showed that the H2 yield of R. rubrum UR801 under continuous light is the highest (5700 mL of H2 per liter culture), and it is 1.56, 2.24 and 2.32-fold that of R. rubrum UR2,UR472 and UR805, respectively. However, the total H2 yield of R. rubrum UR805 in two-stage hydrogen production process is the highest (4303 mL/L), and it is 1.35, 1.21 and 1.04-fold that of R. rubrum UR2,UR801 and UR472, respectively. Thus, R. rubrum UR805 might be a valuable strain to produce a large amount of hydrogen in two-stage hydrogen production process.

  3. Purification and characterization of major extracellular proteinases from Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, M; Lindquist, R; Fukuyama, K; Apodaca, G; Epstein, W L; McKerrow, J H

    1985-11-15

    Two extracellular proteinases that probably play a central role in the metabolism and pathogenesis of the most common dermatophyte of man, Trichophyton rubrum, were purified to homogeneity. Size-exclusion chromatography and Chromatofocusing were used to purify the major proteinases 42-fold from crude fungal culture filtrate. The major enzyme has pI 7.8 and subunit Mr 44 000, but forms a dimer of Mr approx. 90 000 in the absence of reducing agents. A second enzyme with pI 6.5 and subunit Mr 36 000, was also purified. It is very similar in substrate specificity to the major enzyme but has lower specific activity, and may be an autoproteolysis product. The major proteinase has pH optimum 8, a Ca2+-dependence maximum of 1 mM, and was inhibited by serine-proteinase inhibitors, especially tetrapeptidyl chloromethane derivatives with hydrophobic residues at the P-1 site. Kinetic studies also showed that tetrapeptides containing aromatic or hydrophobic residues at P-1 were the best substrates. A kcat./Km of 27 000 M-1 X S-1 was calculated for the peptide 3-carboxypropionyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme has significant activity against keratin, elastin and denatured type I collagen (Azocoll).

  4. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Kanne, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed, beca

  5. Investigation on mechanism of antifungal activity of eugenol against Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Mendes, Juliana Moura; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2013-07-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a worldwide agent responsible for chronic cases of dermatophytosis which have high rates of resistance to antifungal drugs. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of aromatic compounds because of their promising biological properties. Therefore, we investigated the antifungal activity of eugenol against 14 strains of T. rubrum which involved determining its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and effects on mycelial growth (dry weight), conidial germination and morphogenesis. The effects of eugenol on the cell wall (sorbitol protect effect) and the cell membrane (release of intracellular material, complex with ergosterol, ergosterol synthesis) were investigated. Eugenol inhibited the growth of 50% of T. rubrum strains employed in this study at an MIC = 256 μg/ml, as well as mycelial growth and conidia germination. It also caused abnormalities in the morphology of the dermatophyte in that we found wide, short, twisted hyphae and decreased conidiogenesis. The results of these studies on the mechanisms of action suggested that eugenol exerts antifungal effects on the cell wall and cell membrane of T. rubrum. Eugenol act on cell membrane by a mechanism that seems to involve the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. The lower ergosterol content interferes with the integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. Finally, our studies support the potential use of the eugenol as an antifungal agent against T. rubrum.

  6. Quantification of anthocyanins in commercial black currant juices by simple high-performance liquid chromatography. Investigation of their pH stability and antioxidative potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inge Lise F.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Magnussen, Eva Loftin

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative determinations of the four black currant anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-beta-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-beta-rutinoside, were achieved in black currant juices by a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic...... for 24 h in aqueous solutions at 13 different pH levels between 0.6 and 5.2, after which the samples were analyzed by HPLC. More than 90% of each anthocyanin remained intact up to pH 3.3. At pH 3.8 a local minimum in stability was detected, and at pH >4.5 the stability rapidly decreased. The antioxidant...

  7. Altered Acer Rubrum Fecundity Induced By Chemical Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforest, J. L.; Peters, A.

    2014-12-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is becoming the most dominating tree in North American eastern deciduous forests. Concurrently, human activities have altered the chemical climate of terrestrial ecosystems via acidic deposition, which increases the available of nitrogen (N), while decreasing phosphorus (P) availability. Once a minor forest component prior to European settlement, the abundance of red maple may be a symptom of the modern age. The current paradigm explaining red maple's rise to prominence concerns fire suppression that excludes competitors. However, this still does not explain why red maple is unique compared to other functionally similar trees. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactive influence of acid rain mitigation on the fecundity of red maple. Objectives were achieved by measuring flowering, seed production, germination, and growth from red maple on plots that have been experimentally manipulated to increase soil pH, P, or both in three unglaciated eastern deciduous hardwood forests. At least 50% of the red maple population is seed bearing in our control soils, however the median percent of seed-bearing trees declined to zero when mitigating soils from acidic deposition. This can be explained by the curious fact that red maple is polygamodioecious, or has labile sex-expression, in which an individual tree can change its sex-expression in response to the environment. Furthermore, seed-bearing trees in the mitigated plots grew less, produced less seeds, and germinated at lower rates than their counterparts in control soils. Our results provide evidence that chemical climate change could be the primary contributing factor accelerating the dominance of red maple in eastern North American forests. Our observations can provide a boarder conceptual framework for understanding how nutrient limitations can be applied beyond plant productivity towards explaining distribution changes in vegetation.

  8. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-05-09

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2 Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress.

  9. Trichophyton rubrum-induced Majocchi's Granuloma in a heart transplant recipient. A therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Urs C; Trüeb, Ralph M; Schad, Karin; Kamarashev, Jivko; Koch, Simon; French, Lars E; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2012-09-28

    Solid organ transplant recipients are at an increased risk for infections because of long-term immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection. Fungal infections with dermatophytes are a common cause of cutaneous infections seen in organ transplant recipients and cutaneous dermatophyte infections may progress to Majocchi's granuloma. Itraconazole is an anti-fungal compound used for the treatment of infections of the skin, nails and mucous membranes. We report on a heart transplant recipient who developed widespread Trichophyton rubrum infection presenting as Majocchi's granuloma. Itraconazole treatment was complicated by drug interactions. Tricho-phyton rubrum infection progressed, while itraconazole treatment was varied in dose and delivery form. In patients with Trichophyton rubrum infections, refractory to itraconazole treatment, altered drug absorption or drug interactions has to be considered. Careful monitoring and adjustment of itraconazole is of vital importance.

  10. Reduced activity of glutamine synthetase in Rhodospirillum rubrum mutants lacking the adenylyltransferase GlnE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Anders; Nordlund, Stefan; Teixeira, Pedro Filipe

    2009-10-01

    In the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, the GlnE adenylyltransferase (encoded by glnE) catalyzes reversible adenylylation of glutamine synthetase, thereby regulating nitrogen assimilation. We have generated glnE mutant strains that are unable to adenylylate glutamine synthetase (GS). Surprisingly, the activity of GS was lower in the mutants than in the wild type, even when grown in nitrogen-fixing conditions. Our results support the proposal that R. rubrum can only cope with the absence of an adenylylation system in the presence of lowered GS expression or activity. In general terms, this report also provides further support for the central role of GS in bacterial metabolism.

  11. Effect of Rheum Ribes Hydro-Alcoholic Extract on Memory Impairments in Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Maryam; Hojjati, Mohammad Reza; Fathpour, Hossein; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra; Basim, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Some animal models have been used to study Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. Animal studies have shown that there is a relation between decrease in cholinergic functions in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and loss of learning capability and memory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Rheum ribes extract (RR) on memory deficit in one of the rat models of AD. Plant (1500gr) was collected from Saman (kahkesh) region of Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province in Iran. RR hydro-alcoholic extracts were prepared using maceration method. Rat model of Alzheimer was induced by Nucleus Basalis of Meynert lesions (NBML). Animals (n = 32) received extracts for 20 days and then passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks were performed for memory evaluation. FRAP and HPLC methods were used for measurement of the antioxidant and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in blood. In water maze experiment, probe trial results showed that NBML group spent significantly less time in target quadrant, in which the platform was located on the preceding day. In addition, the time spent in target quadrant was significantly increased in NBML + RR groups (250 and 500 mg/kg) compared to the NBML group. In passive avoidance task, mean initial latency time and step-though latency were significantly decreased in NBML group. RR extracts significantly prolonged step-through latency in NBML + RR groups. Results of this study suggest that Rheum ribes extracts can improve memory deficits induced by bilateral NBM lesions in rats. PMID:26664387

  12. 3-D Crystal Tectonics of Red Coral (Corallium Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielzeuf, D.; Garrabou, J.; Baronnet, A.; Grauby, O.; Marschal, C.

    2007-12-01

    A combination of analytical techniques (petrographic microscopy, SEM, TEM, and EMP) has been used to characterize the internal physico-chemical structure of the red coral (corallium rubrum) skeleton. A section normal to the skeleton axis shows an inner medullar zone with a bulbous-tip cross shape, surrounded by a large circular domain composed of concentric rings (width of each ring ca 150 microns). Growth rings are revealed by the cyclic variation of concentration of the organic matter (OM) and oscillations of the Mg/Ca ratio. Experiments carried out in natural environment show that the detected growth rings are annual. Thus, both oscillations of concentration of OM and Mg/Ca ratio can be used to determine the age of the red coral colonies, some of which can be as old as a few tens (or even a few hundreds) of years. Concentric ring are riddled and display a succession of wavelets (wavelength ca 300 microns). The internal structure of each wavelet is complex, both physically and chemically: it is formed by the accumulation of strata with locally tortuous interfaces due to the presence of micro protuberances (ca 30 microns). This interlocked structure confers an exceptional stiffness on the red coral skeleton. Interfaces between strata sometimes display sharp discontinuities indicating interruption of the mineralizing process. This fact has important consequences on the ability of the whole structure to register external forcings with accuracy. SEM and TEM studies show that each stratum is made of submicron crystalline units (ca 200 nm) organized or not in polycrystalline fibers or blades (ca 1 to 10 microns). Porosity can be observed at all scales between the various structural units. HRTEM studies show that in spite of displaying single crystal scattering behavior, the submicron crystalline units are made of 2-5 nm nanodomains with intercalated nanopores. We interpret the nanodomains as nanograins aggregated by a mechanism of oriented attachment. The red coral

  13. Black Currant Nectar Reduces Muscle Damage and Inflammation Following a Bout of High-Intensity Eccentric Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Alexander T; Flieller, Emily B; Dillon, Kimber J; Leverett, Betsy D

    2016-01-01

    This investigation determined the efficacy of black currant nectar (BCN) in reducing symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Sixteen college students were randomly assigned to drink either 16 oz of BCN or a placebo (PLA) twice a day for eight consecutive days. A bout of eccentric knee extensions (3 × 10 sets @ 115% of 1RM) was performed on the fourth day. Outcome measures included muscle soreness (subjective scale from 0 to 10) and blood markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, CK), inflammation (interleukin-6, IL-6), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Although there were no differences in reported soreness between groups, consumption of BCN reduced CK levels at both 48 (PLA = 82.13% vs. BCN = -6.71%, p = .042) and 96 h post exercise (PLA = 74.96% vs. BCN = -12.11%, p = .030). The change in IL-6 was higher in the PLA group (PLA = 8.84% vs. BCN = -6.54%, p = .023) at 24 h post exercise. The change in ORAC levels was higher in the treatment group (BCN = 2.68% vs. PLA = -6.02%, p = .039) at 48 h post exercise. Our results demonstrate that consumption of BCN prior to and after a bout of eccentric exercise attenuates muscle damage and inflammation.

  14. Expression dynamics of secreted protease genes in Trichophyton rubrum induced by key host's proteinaceous components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Wang, Jin; Li, Ruoyu; Jin, Qi

    2009-11-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of dermatophytosis, a disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Its molecular pathogenicity mechanisms are still not completely elucidated. It has been widely recognized that proteases secreted by T. rubrum are the key virulence factors during host infection. However, our knowledge about the expression of its secreted proteases in host infection is still obscure. This investigation provides the expression patterns and dynamics of secreted protease genes belonging to the subtilisins (SUB) and metalloproteases (MEP) gene families in T. rubrum. The data was obtained under simulated host infection conditions through relative quantification of real time PCR. Keratin, collagen, and elastin induced the expression of similar protease genes, and the expression patterns and dynamics of these protease genes in media containing human skin sections were different from those in media containing individual protein substrates. According to the expression dynamics of these protease genes, we conclude that Sub3, Sub4, and Mep4 may be the dominant proteases secreted by T. rubrum during host infection, and that these proteases could be good targets for new antifungal chemotherapy and molecular diagnostic markers. This work presents useful molecular details to further our understanding of the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis.

  15. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. PMID:26257814

  16. Trichophyton Rubrum with the 'raubitschekii' morphotype: the first report from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkit, Macit; Saraclı, Mehmet Ali; Yuksel, Tuba

    2011-02-01

    In modern taxonomy, Trichophyton rubrum with the 'raubitschekii' morphotype differs from the common strains of T. rubrum morphologically, physiologically, and clinically, despite genetic homogeneity. In this paper, we report the first autochthonous Turkish cases in a 24-year-old woman and her 26-year-old fiancé with tinea cruris and tinea manuum, respectively. The isolates were proven to be T. rubrum with the 'raubitschekii' morphotype by their morphological and physiological characteristics including the following: (1) granular colony surface, (2) profuse macroconidia and microconidia, (3) strongly positive urease activity after 3 days, (4) non-perforating hair, (5) restricted growth and producing no alkaline reaction on bromocresol purple-milk solids-glucose agar, and (6) restricted growth and producing no conidia on 3-9% NaCl-supplemented Sabouraud agar. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of both isolates were sequenced, and the assembled DNA sequences were examined using the Basic BLAST (nucleotide-nucleotide) software of the National Center for Biotechnology Information web database. Actually, the lack of epidemiological data on this variety is notable, and the actual prevalence is unknown. Otherwise, routine methods misidentified the strains as T. rubrum or unrecognized cases were underreported.

  17. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Takahasi Komoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.. Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets.

  18. Comparison of the In Vitro Activities of Newer Triazoles and Established Antifungal Agents against Trichophyton rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.; Zhang, C.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zhu, S.; Tan, X.; Wen, Y.; Huang, X.; Lei, W.; Zhou, Z.; Fang, W.; Shen, S.; Deng, D.; Pan, W.; Liao, W.

    2015-01-01

    One hundred eleven clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates were tested against 7 antifungal agents. The geometric mean MICs of all isolates were, in increasing order: terbinafine, 0.03 mg/liter; voriconazole, 0.05 mg/liter; posaconazole, 0.11 mg/liter; isavuconazole, 0.13 mg/liter; itraconazole, 0.26

  19. Relationship of light quantity and anthocyanin production in Pennisetum setaceum Cvs. rubrum and red riding hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Andrea G; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P; Cameron, Arthur C; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-02-11

    Pennisetum setaceum cvs. Rubrum and Red Riding Hood are purple-pigmented ornamental grasses when grown in high-light environments. In low-light environments, foliage appears light purple or green, and as a result, aesthetic appeal is reduced. The impact of light on anthocyanin pigmentation was compared for P. setaceum Rubrum foliage and flowers and Red Riding Hood foliage grown under different light intensities and light sources. Light environments included UV supplemental light in the greenhouse, high-pressure sodium supplemental light in the greenhouse, cool-white fluorescent light in a growth chamber, and full sun outside. Anthocyanins in two cultivars of P. setaceum were analyzed by HPLC and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral experiments. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, were identified in the leaves and flowers of both cultivars and quantified by HPLC analysis. The major anthocyanin in both cultivars was cyanidin 3-glucoside and had highest concentration (0.199% fresh weight) in Rubrum leaves grown under fluorescent lights in the growth chamber with a photoperiod of 24 h and a daily light integral (DLI) of 13.3 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1) and in Rubrum and Red Riding Hood leaves and flowers (0.097 and 0.12% fresh weight) from plants grown outside in full sun with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 42 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The minor anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, had the highest quantity in plants grown in low-light-intensity greenhouse environments with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 2.3-7.0 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The functional significance of anthocyanins in P. setaceum Rubrum is discussed.

  20. Riboflavin synthesis genes ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA reside in the lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    2001-06-15

    Nucleotide sequence of the riboflavin synthesis genes ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA (GenBank Accession No. AF364106) resided in the lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the amino acid sequences of riboflavin synthetase (RibE), DHBP synthetase (RibB), lumazine synthetase (RibH), GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA) encoded by the riboflavin synthesis genes are deduced. Nucleotide sequence reveals that the ribE gene encodes the riboflavin synthetase responsible for converting lumazine to riboflavin, the ribB gene encodes the DHBP synthetase responsible for 3,4-dihydroxyl-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthesis, the ribH gene encodes the lumazine synthetase responsible for lumazine synthesis, and the ribA gene encodes the GTP cyclohydrolase II responsible for lumazine synthesis. Functional analysis illustrates that the specific segments lay behind the ribH and ribA genes might form potential loops Omega(oT) and Omega(TI)--Omega(TII); Omega(oT) is functioned as mRNA stability loop or/and for subregulation by alternative modulation, and Omega(TI)--Omega(TII) could be the transcriptional terminator of the lux operon. The gene order of the ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA genes resided in the lux operon and linked to the lum operon is luxE-luxG-ribE-ribB-ribH-ribA-ter--> (R&R: regulatory region; ter: transcriptional terminator), whereas the R&R is the regulatory region for the lum and the lux operons, and ter and ter* are the transcriptional terminators for the lux and lum operons.

  1. Polyphenolic extracts of cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves as natural preservatives in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata; Efenberger, Magdalena; Krala, Lucjan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using polyphenolic extracts from cherry and blackcurrant leaves as natural antimicrobial agents in meat products. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was analyzed and their impact on the microbial quality, lipid oxidation, color, and sensory evaluation of pork sausages was studied. Polyphenolic extracts were obtained from leaves collected in September. The total polyphenolic content in sour cherry leaf extract was 1.5 times higher than that found in blackcurrant leaf extract. Analysis of the polyphenol profile of each extract revealed two major groups: phenolic acids and flavonoids, including epigallocatechin and glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. After chilling the sausages for 14 and 28 days, the extracts caused significantly lower MDA generation, indicating an antioxidant effect. Color changes after 28 days of storage were perceptible in the case of all treatments, with and without polyphenols. The application of sour cherry and black currant leaf extracts increased the shelf life of vacuum-packed sausages. Both extracts enhanced the microbial quality of the pork sausages over 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sour cherry leaf polyphenols were more effective against almost all studied groups of microorganisms.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF BLACK CURRANT BERRIES DRYING PROCESS IN VACUUM DEVICE WITH THE MICROWAVE POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The mathematical model of black currant berries drying process in vacuum device with the microwave power supply, differing in high space and temporary specification is developed, the structure of separate berries and a layer of berries is considered, heat- and physical parameters depend on coordinate and time as well as in the accounting of berries form change and a berries layer structure in the dehydration process. We used the particles dynamics method for modeling of mechanical behavior of berries which is increasingly being used now in different branches of science and technology. To give the model the high space specification the modeled berries layer consists of 20–50 separate berries, each berry depending on diameter being broken into approximately 100 separate elements. Berries elements are divided into 3 types depending on the physical properties (peel, pulp, seeds. Therefore, in general, from the point of space detail, a layer of berries consists of 2000- 5000 elements. Modeling is carried out in two-dimensional Cartesian space X–Z. The condition of each element of circle is set by four variables: Cartesian coordinates of its center and two components of speed. Mechanical interaction of elements among themselves is accepted to be viscous and elastic that allows to consider the main mechanical properties of berries – the elasticity module, internal friction index. Within the developed model it is considered that between the neighbor elements there can be pushing away forces (at the introduction of elements into each other, or attractions (at a distance of the linked elements from each other. The description of the processes of warm and moisture exchange between the elements as well as between the elements and environment is based upon the standard equations of drying. In model it is considered that the microwave power brought is redistributed in the heated volume in proportion to elements moisture.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PROCESS OF BLACK CURRANT BERRIES DRYING IN VACUUMDEVICE WITH THE MICROWAVE POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The mathematical model allowed to reproduce and study at qualitative level the change of berries form and the structure of the berries layer in the course of drying. The separate berry in the course of drying loses gradually its elasticity, decreases in volume, the peel gathers in folds, there appear internal emptiness. In the course of drying the berries layer decreases in thickness, contacting berries stick strongly with each other due to the coordinated folds of peel appearing, the layer is condensed due to penetration of the berries which have lost elasticity into emptiness between them. The model with high specification describes black currant drying process and therefore has a large number of the parameters available to change. Among them three most important technological parameters, influencing productivity and the drying quality are chosen: the power of microwave radiation P, thickness of the berries layer h, environmental pressure p. From output indicators of the model the most important are three functions from time: dependence of average humidity of the layer on time Wcp (t, dependence of the speed of change of average humidity on time dWcp (t/dt, dependence of the layer average temperature on time Tср (t. On the standard models classification the offered model is algorithmic, but not analytical. It means that output characteristics of model are calculated with the entrance ones, not by analytical transformations (it is impossible principally for the modeled process, but by means of spatial and temporary sampling and the corresponding calculation algorithm. Detailed research of the microwave drying process by means of the model allows to allocate the following stages: fast heating, the fast dehydration, the slowed-down dehydration, consolidation of a layer of a product, final drying, heating after dehydration.

  4. Transcriptional profiling reveals the expression of novel genes in response to various stimuli in the human dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino-Ferreira Roseli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous mycoses are common human infections among healthy and immunocompromised hosts, and the anthropophilic fungus Trichophyton rubrum is the most prevalent microorganism isolated from such clinical cases worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the transcriptional profile of T. rubrum exposed to various stimuli in order to obtain insights into the responses of this pathogen to different environmental challenges. Therefore, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST collection by constructing one cDNA library and nine suppression subtractive hybridization libraries. Results The 1388 unigenes identified in this study were functionally classified based on the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS categories. The identified proteins were involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular defense and stress, protein degradation, signaling, transport, and secretion, among other functions. Analysis of these unigenes revealed 575 T. rubrum sequences that had not been previously deposited in public databases. Conclusion In this study, we identified novel T. rubrum genes that will be useful for ORF prediction in genome sequencing and facilitating functional genome analysis. Annotation of these expressed genes revealed metabolic adaptations of T. rubrum to carbon sources, ambient pH shifts, and various antifungal drugs used in medical practice. Furthermore, challenging T. rubrum with cytotoxic drugs and ambient pH shifts extended our understanding of the molecular events possibly involved in the infectious process and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  5. ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR PROTECTION AND PRODUCTION OF BLACKCURRANT (RIBES NIGRUM L. IN SOUTH OF ROMANIA (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU-MĂLĂNCUŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of agricultural policies in Romania, starting with the European ones will lead to the development of sustainable agriculture, which will take into account the environmental component, but also the protection of consumers. Creating a sustainable agriculture may not be a feasible approach without an interdisciplinary contribution, firstly without implementation of biotechnology to reduce the impact of disruptive and command for the removal of certain risk factors that may be present in certain points of the food chain. The activities undertaken in the framework of the study achieved the overall goal: to present the pilot-phase of agricultural technology to the culture of Ribes nigrum, with the goal of obtaining and use of plant biomass in the pharmaceutical and food industries in line with EU criteria relating to food safety and security. The methodology developed in the framework of the theme was particularly complex but can be synthesized according to the objectives pursued, the life cycle of a case study in populations and of the factors involved in developing ecological management for control in working methods for biological field studies (life cycle study methods and control of the main pest Aphis grossulariae Sulz. (Homoptera:Aphididae and the main pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella grossulariae (Auers. Lind. The main results obtained from research carried out refer to the implementing of the ecological management system model.

  6. Experimental design and environmental parameters affect Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H response to space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Leroy, Baptiste; Benotmane, M Abderrafi; Janssen, Ann; Mergeay, Max; Vanhavere, Filip; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    In view of long-haul space exploration missions, the European Space Agency initiated the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project targeting the total recycling of organic waste produced by the astronauts into oxygen, water and food using a loop of bacterial and higher plant bioreactors. In that purpose, the alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H, was sent twice to the International Space Station and was analyzed post-flight using a newly developed R. rubrum whole genome oligonucleotide microarray and high throughput gel-free proteomics with Isotope-Coded Protein Label technology. Moreover, in an effort to identify a specific response of R. rubrum S1H to space flight, simulation of microgravity and space-ionizing radiation were performed on Earth under identical culture set-up and growth conditions as encountered during the actual space journeys. Transcriptomic and proteomic data were integrated and permitted to put forward the importance of medium composition and culture set-up on the response of the bacterium to space flight-related environmental conditions. In addition, we showed for the first time that a low dose of ionizing radiation (2 mGy) can induce a significant response at the transcriptomic level, although no change in cell viability and only a few significant differentially expressed proteins were observed. From the MELiSSA perspective, we could argue the effect of microgravity to be minimized, whereas R. rubrum S1H could be more sensitive to ionizing radiation during long-term space exploration mission.

  7. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, José Cláudio Faria; Soares, Betania Maria; Alves, Orley Araújo; Ferreira, Marcus Vinícius Lucas; Sousa, Gerdal Roberto; Silveira, Lívio de Barros; Piancastelli, André Costa Cruz; Pinotti, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of superficial mycosis of the skin and nails causing long lasting infections and high recurrence rates. Current treatment drawbacks involve topical medications not being able to reach the nail bed at therapeutic concentrations, systemic antifungal drugs failing to eradicate the fungus before the nails are renewed, severe side effects and selection of resistant fungal isolates. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been a promising alternative to conventional treatments. This study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of toluidine blue O (TBO) irradiated by Light emitting diode (LED) in the reduction of T. rubrum viability. The fungal inoculums' was prepared and exposed to different TBO concentrations and energy densities of Light emitting diode for evaluate the T. rubrum sensibility to PDT and production effect fungicidal after photodynamic treatment. In addition, the profiles of the area and volume of the irradiated fungal suspensions were also investigated. A small reduction, in vitro, of fungal cells was observed after exposition to 100 µM toluidine blue O irradiated by 18 J/cm² Light emitting diode. Fungicidal effect occurred after 25 µM toluidine blue O irradiation by Light emitting diode with energy density of 72 J/cm². The analysis showed that the area and volume irradiated by the Light emitting diode were 52.2 mm² and 413.70 mm³, respectively. The results allowed to conclude that Photodynamic therapy using Light emitting diode under these experimental conditions is a possible alternative approach to inhibit in vitro T. rubrum and may be a promising new treatment for dermatophytosis caused by this fungus.

  8. [Activation and inhibition of photoinduced proton absorption in Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores by detergents and solvents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikova, M G; Pakshina, E V; Shubin, V V; Krasnovskiĭ, A A

    1979-01-01

    The effects of detergents (Triton X-100) and solvents (diethyl ether, metanol) on the reversible light-induced proton uptake, photophosphorylation and band shift of the carotenoid in chromatophores from R. rubrum are described. All these compounds were found to stimulate the extent of light-induced proton uptake with subsequent inhibition when the concentrations were increased. Stimulation of proton uptake is accompanied by inhibition of both phosphorylation and carotenoid absorbance shift.

  9. Refractory onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: combination therapy with itraconazole and terbinafine

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifaz Alexandro; Vázquez-González Denisse; Saúl Amado; Fierro-Arias Leonel; Ponce-Olivera M. Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole plus terbinafine for refractory onychomycosis. This is a prospective clinical trial. Patients with proven Trychophyton rubrum onychomycosis of toenails were enrolled; the treatment consisted of weekly administration: itraconazole 200mg/day and terbinafine 250mg/day, for four months. Results: Thirty-two patients with onychomycosis were studied. Twenty-eight cases had distal subungual onychomycosis and 4 total dystrophic onychom...

  10. Elimination of Rubisco alters the regulation of nitrogenase activity and increases hydrogen production in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Di; Zhang, Yaoping [State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Welch, Emily; Roberts, Gary P. [Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Li, Jilun [State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Nitrogenase not only reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, but also reduces protons to hydrogen (H{sub 2}). The nitrogenase system is the primary means of H{sub 2} production under photosynthetic and nitrogen-limiting conditions in many photosynthetic bacteria, including Rhodospirillum rubrum. The efficiency of this biological H{sub 2} production largely depends on the nitrogenase enzyme and the availability of ATP and electrons in the cell. Previous studies showed that blockage of the CO{sub 2} fixation pathway in R. rubrum induced nitrogenase activity even in the presence of ammonium, presumably to remove excess reductant in the cell. We report here the re-characterization of cbbM mutants in R. rubrum to study the effect of Rubisco on H{sub 2} production. Our newly constructed cbbM mutants grew poorly in malate medium under anaerobic conditions. However, the introduction of constitutively active NifA (NifA*), the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes, allows cbbM mutants to dissipate the excess reductant through the nitrogenase system and improves their growth. Interestingly, we found that the deletion of cbbM alters the posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity, resulting in partially active nitrogenase in the presence of ammonium. The combination of mutations in nifA, draT and cbbM greatly increased H{sub 2} production of R. rubrum, especially in the presence of excess of ammonium. Furthermore, these mutants are able to produce H{sub 2} over a much longer time frame than the wild type, increasing the potential of these recombinant strains for the biological production of H{sub 2}. (author)

  11. Synthesis, characterisation and antifungal activity of chemically and fungal-produced silver nanoparticles against Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Leonel; Dias, Nicolina; Carvalho,Juliana de; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Aims To characterise and explore the potential in extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus oryzae and to investigate the antifungal effect of chemically vs. biologically synthesised AgNPs comparing with conventional antifungal drugs against Trichophyton rubrum. Methods and Results Chemically synthesised AgNPs (Chem-AgNPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesised by chemical reduction method with glucose in PV...

  12. Elimination of Rubisco alters the regulation of nitrogenase activity and increases hydrogen production in Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Zhang, Yaoping; Welch, Emily; Li, Jilun; Roberts, Gary P

    2010-07-01

    Nitrogenase not only reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, but also reduces protons to hydrogen (H(2)). The nitrogenase system is the primary means of H(2) production under photosynthetic and nitrogen-limiting conditions in many photosynthetic bacteria, including Rhodospirillum rubrum. The efficiency of this biological H(2) production largely depends on the nitrogenase enzyme and the availability of ATP and electrons in the cell. Previous studies showed that blockage of the CO(2) fixation pathway in R. rubrum induced nitrogenase activity even in the presence of ammonium, presumably to remove excess reductant in the cell. We report here the re-characterization of cbbM mutants in R. rubrum to study the effect of Rubisco on H(2) production. Our newly constructed cbbM mutants grew poorly in malate medium under anaerobic conditions. However, the introduction of constitutively active NifA (NifA*), the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes, allows cbbM mutants to dissipate the excess reductant through the nitrogenase system and improves their growth. Interestingly, we found that the deletion of cbbM alters the posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity, resulting in partially active nitrogenase in the presence of ammonium. The combination of mutations in nifA, draT and cbbM greatly increased H(2) production of R. rubrum, especially in the presence of excess of ammonium. Furthermore, these mutants are able to produce H(2) over a much longer time frame than the wild type, increasing the potential of these recombinant strains for the biological production of H(2).

  13. Fighting the Financial Crisis in Greece: The Privileged Company to Protect Production and Trade in Currants (1905 as International Bank Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinna Schönhärl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis in the 1890s affected the economy of Greece severely, and in 1893 the Greek State had to stop servicing its foreign debt. Part of theproblem was the lack of diversity of Greek agricultural production, which was focused on raisins and currants (especially flavourful raisins, grown exclusively in the area around Corinth for export. The collapse of market prices for this good seriously affected the Greek treasury and society in the growing regions. The Greek government responded by trying to withhold part of the harvest in fertile years to stabilise world market prices. Plans to organise a monopoly company for the currant trade necessitated high sums of capital from abroad. This article investigates the question of how foreign bankers in London (Hambro & Son, Emile Erlanger and Paris (Banque de l’Union Parisienne could be convinced to participate in the project. Which factors allowed foreign bankers to trust in the Greek national economy despite its poor reputation? What factors influenced their risk management? The focus is on the role of Greek brokers in persuading the foreigners to invest in Greece, especially the role played by Ioannis Pesmazoglou, the director of the young and innovative Bank of Athens.

  14. The effect of ultrasonic pretreatment and sample preparation on the extraction yield of antioxidant compounds and activity of black currant fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Simona; Ghincevici, Daniela; Ketney, Otto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of an ultrasonic pretreatment at different amplitudes and extraction times, on the content of antioxidant compounds (phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid) and total antioxidant capacity of black currant fruits. Additionally, the influence of sample preparation (frozen storage/drying) was evaluated. Extraction was performed in 60% ethanol with 0.15% HCl at a solvent-to-sample ratio of 15/1. Our results show that the ultrasonic pretreatment proved particularly useful for the recovery of high amounts of total anthocyanins in freeze-dried samples, ascorbic acid in frozen and oven air-dried samples, and total antioxidant capacity in freeze-dried and oven air-dried samples. The total phenolics content was not significantly influenced by the ultrasonic pretreatment. Freeze-drying increased the content of targeted compounds, to a very high significant level (p Ultrasonication enhanced the extraction yield of black currant valuable compounds in strong relation to the operating conditions.

  15. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is corre- lated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins. The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction sys- tem were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration. This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expres- sion, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  16. Antifungal activity of nanocapsule suspensions containing tea tree oil on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F C; de Lima, J A; Ribeiro, R F; Alves, S H; Rolim, C M B; Beck, R C R; da Silva, Cristiane Bona

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the antifungal efficacy of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil) in an onychomycosis model. The antifungal activity of nanostructured formulations was evaluated against Trichophyton rubrum in two different in vitro models of dermatophyte nail infection. First, nail powder was infected with T. rubrum in a 96-well plate and then treated with the formulations. After 7 and 14 days, cell viability was verified. The plate counts for the samples were 2.37, 1.45 and 1.0 log CFU mL(-1) (emulsion, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil and nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, respectively). A second model employed nails fragments which were infected with the microorganism and treated with the formulations. The diameter of fungal colony was measured. The areas obtained were 2.88 ± 2.08 mm(2), 14.59 ± 2.01 mm(2), 40.98 ± 2.76 mm(2) and 38.72 ± 1.22 mm(2) for the nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil, emulsion and untreated nail, respectively. Nail infection models demonstrated the ability of the formulations to reduce T. rubrum growth, with the inclusion of oil in nanocapsules being most efficient.

  17. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Alessandro Kim; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris

    2016-02-05

    It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98%) followed by monoterpenes (14.05%), while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06%) and organic acids (27.34%). Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural preparation quality

  18. Variaciones sobre el modelo psicológico de salud biológica de Ribes: justificación y desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Con base en la propuesta interconductual de Kantor, en este trabajo se presentan algunas variaciones sobre el modelo psicológico de salud biológica de Ribes. Tanto por la lógica que le subyace como por las características de los elementos que lo conforman, se trata de un modelo de campo y multifactorial que pone especial énfasis en la interacción de un conjunto de variables psicológicas de tipo histórico y situacional, que probabilizan la práctica de los comportamientos instrumentales de prev...

  19. 黑加仑等浆果资源开发(四)%Development of Resource of Black Currant and Qther Berries (IV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白超

    2015-01-01

    相当详细的介绍了黑加仑等浆果浓缩果汁生产的工艺流程、设备选型、操作规程、生产效果;越桔红豆、蓝莓浓缩果汁及系列产品开发;果汁加工的新技术及发展趋势和对浆果开发现状的看法。%Process, equipment selection, operating procedure, production effects of concentrated juice of black currant and other berries were introduced in detail. The development of concentrated juice of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), blueberry and a series of products, the novel technology and trends in fruit juice process, and the view of the current development in berries were also described.

  20. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187 and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156 as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 µg/mL. A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

  1. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

  2. Morphological changes of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum after photodynamic treatment: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smijs, Threes G M; Mulder, Aat A; Pavel, Stan; Onderwater, Jos J M; Koerten, Henk K; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2008-06-01

    Treatment strategies for superficial mycosis caused by the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum consist of the use of topical or oral antifungal preparations. We have recently discovered that T. rubrum is susceptible to photodynamic treatment (PDT), with 5,10,15-tris(4-methylpyridinium)-20-phenyl-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (Sylsens B) as a photosensitizer. The susceptibility appeared to depend on the fungal growth stage, with PDT efficacy higher with microconidia when compared to mycelia. The aim of this study was to investigate, with the use of scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes caused by a lethal PDT dose to T. rubrum when grown on isolated human stratum corneum. Corresponding dark treatment and light treatment without photosensitizer were used as controls. A sub-lethal PDT dose was also included in this investigation The morphologic changes were followed at various time points after the treatment of different fungal growth stages. Normal fungal growth was characterized by a fiber-like appearance of the surface of the hyphae and microconidia with the exception of the hyphal tips in full mycelia and the microconidia shortly after attachment to the stratum corneum. Here, densely packed globular structures were observed. The light dose (108 J/cm2) in the absence of Sylsens B, or the application of the photosensitizer in the absence of light, caused reversible fungal wall deformations and bulge formation. However, after a lethal PDT, a sequence of severe disruptions and deformations of both microconidia and the mycelium were observed leading to extrusion of cell material and emptied fungal elements. In case of a non-lethal PDT, fungal re-growth started on the remnants of the treated mycelium.

  3. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum terhadap Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermina Karuna Atmaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Candida albicans infections is increasing in the society. Therefore, an effective and affordable antifungal drug with minimal side effect is needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a traditional herb which has an antifungal effect in its volatile oil. Objective: To investigate antifungal effect of volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var rubrum against C. albicans in vitro, to determine the optimum concentration, and finally to determine the correlation between the various concentrations of the oil and the inhibition zone. Material and method: Strain C. albicans tested was obtained from the Department of Parasitology, Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia. Volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum was produced from water and steam distillation of fresh ginger in BALLITRO, Bogor. Concentrations of the volatile oil used were 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5% 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78%. Methods used were colony counting and disk diffusion method (by using 6 mm blank disk. The specimens were divided into two groups, treatment group (C. albicans with application of volatile oil and control group (C. albicans without application of volatile oil. Result: There was a significant decrease in the amount of C. albicans colonies from 3.125% to 6.25% of concentration. The amount of C. albicans colonies at concentration 6.25% was also significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, there was strong and positive correlation between the concentration of the volatile oil and the inhibition zone. Conclusion: Volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans in vitro with optimum concentration at 6.25%. Increasing concentrations of the oil correlates with increasing inhibition zome.

  4. Evaluation of semisolid agar method for antifungal susceptibility test of T. rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Razia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing fungal disease many newer antifungal drugs are available with different spectrum of activ­ity. Antifungal susceptibility test will help clinicians for selection of effective drug and thereby treatment of patient. Objective: The study was undertaken to perform a simple screening drug susceptibility test of T. rnbrum by Semi Solid Agar Antifungal Susceptibility (SAAS Method: Perfonnance of susceptibility method was assessed by comparing the MICs of three commonly prescribed antifungal agents namely- tluconazole (FCZ, itraconazole (ITZ and terbinafine (TER to the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute recommended M-38, a broth microdilution method. Results: In SAAS method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty five (86.2% were susceptible (MIC range 0.5-64 µg/ml to Fluconazole (FCZ and four (13.7% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In broth microdilution method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty six (89.6% were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to FCZ and three (10.3% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In case of both ITZ and TER, all were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to both methods. The SAAS method demonstrated the susceptibility pattern of T. rubrum against FCZ, ITZ and TER usually within 72 to 96 hours after organism isolation and results were concordance with the results of CLSI broth microdilution method. Conclusion: Though it is a newer method with proper standardization of the test method, SAAS method is simple and easily applicable screening method for susceptibility testing of antifungal agents against dermatophytes in any microbiology laboratories.

  5. New name for the soft coral Alcyonium rubrum Stokvis & van Ofwegen, 2006 (Alcyonacea, Alcyoniidae: Alcyonium burmedju nom. n.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris Sampaio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcyonium rubrum Stokvis & van Ofwegen, 2006, an encrusting soft coral (Figure 1, was described from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean based on specimens collected during the Dutch CANCAP VII Expedition to the Cape Verde Archipelago (Stokvis & van Ofwegen 2006. This species was later reported from the Azores (Braga-Henriques et al. 2013.A review on the taxonomic literature of octocorals by the first author revealed the existence of a species described from Scandinavia under the same name, Alcyonium rubrum Müller, 1776, which was also reported from Ireland (Hassal 1841. In such a case of primary homonomy, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Article 60, states that the junior homonym is invalid and needs to be replaced by a new name. We propose to replace Alcyonium rubrum Stokvis & van Ofwegen, 2006 by Alcyonium burmedju nom. n.

  6. Processing Technology of Chinese Yam and Ribes Mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kom.Compound Beverage%山药东北茶藨子复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾健辉; 张彦丽; 宋宏光

    2012-01-01

    以新鲜山药和东北茶藨子为主要原料,添加白砂糖、黄原胶,制作复合浊汁饮料.试验结果表明,其最优配比为:山药原浆20%,东北茶藨子原汁15%,白砂糖8%,黄原胶0.08%,制得的山药东北茶藨子复合饮料口感润滑、酸甜适口、色泽协调、营养丰富、组织状态稳定.%Using fresh Chinese yam and Ribes mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kom. As the main materials, adding sugar and xanthan gum to make compound beverage. The results showed that, the optimal formulation for this beverage was as following: chinese yam juice 20%, Ribes mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kom. Juice 15%, white granulated sugar 8%, xanthan gum 0.08%. The compound beverage taste lubrication, sweet and sour, has abundant nutritions, coordinate color and good stability.

  7. Attempts to apply affinity labeling techniques to ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. [Comparison of spinach leaf and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, F. C.; Norton, I. L.; Stringer, C. D.; Schloss, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on carboxylases/oxygenases from different species may be necessary to confirm that a residue implicated as essential is indeed an active-site component. To provide an especially stringent test case for the identification of species invariant structural features the enzymes from two phylogenetically distant species, spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum, were compared. To date, the reactions of Br-butanone-P/sub 2/ and BrAcNHEtOP with the spinach enayme have been rather thoroughly characterized; only preliminary experiments have been completed with the R. rubrum enzyme. Both enzymes were isolated and assayed for carboxylase activity (spectrophotometrically or /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-fixation) and for oxygenase activity.

  8. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Do. Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes nigrum L Damiana leaves Turnera diffusa Willd Davana Artemisia pallens Wall Dill, Indian Anethum...

  9. Investigating Effects of Nano- to Micro-Ampere Alternating Current Stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong Rak; Kwon, Hyunjung; Lee, Woo Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms including yeast and molds. Many studies have focused on modifying bacterial growth, but few on fungal growth. Microcurrent electricity may stimulate fungal growth. Objective This study aims to investigate effects of microcurrent electric stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum growth. Methods Standard-sized inoculums of T. rubrum derived from a spore suspension were applied to potato dextrose cornmeal agar (PDACC) plates, gently withdrawn with a sterile pipette, and were applied to twelve PDACC plates with a sterile spreader. Twelve Petri dishes were divided into four groups. The given amperage of electric current was 500 nA, 2 µA, and 4 µA in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No electric current was given in group D. Results In the first 48 hours, colonies only appeared in groups A and B (500 nA and 2 µA exposure). Colonies in group A (500 nA) were denser. Group C (4 µA) plates showed a barely visible film of fungus after 96 hours of incubation. Fungal growth became visible after 144 hours in the control group. Conclusion Lower intensities of electric current caused faster fungal growth within the amperage range used in this study. Based on these results, further studies with a larger sample size, various fungal species, and various intensities of electric stimulation should be conducted. PMID:27746636

  10. Molecular Characterization of Subunit G of the Vacuolar ATPase in Pathogen Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rezaie

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is an anthropophilic fungus causing up to 90% of chronic cases of dermatophytosis. Several properties of this fungus have been investigated so far. However, a few studies were carried out in the field of molecular biology of this fungus. In the present study, we tried to identify the subunit G of its vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase. Pairs of 21 nt primers were designed from highly conserved regions of the V-ATPase subunit G genes in other fungi. Mentioned primers were utilized in PCR using isolated genomic DNA template as well as cytoplasmic RNA of T.rubrum and the PCR and RT-PCR fragments were then sequenced. About 469 nucleotides were sequenced which encoded a polypeptide with 119 amino acids. Nucleotide sequence comparison in gene data banks (NCBI, NIH for both the DNA and its deduced amino acid sequence revealed significant homology with V-ATPase subunit G genes and proteins of other eukaryotic cells. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein was about 84% identical to the sequence of V-ATPase subunit G from other fungi. In summary, we have cloned the first V-ATPase subunit G of dermatophytes and characterized it as a member of this gene family in other eukaryotic cells.

  11. Raman Investigations to Identify Corallium rubrum in Iron Age Jewelry and Ornaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fürst

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Central European Iron Age, more specifically between 600 and 100 BC, red precious corals (Corallium rubrum became very popular in many regions, often associated with the so-called (early Celts. Red corals are ideally suited to investigate several key questions of Iron Age research, like trade patterns or social and economic structures. While it is fairly easy to distinguish modern C. rubrum from bone, ivory or shells, archaeologists are confronted with ancient, hence altered, artifacts. Due to ageing processes, archaeological corals lose their intensive red color and shiny surface and can easily be confused with these other light colored materials. We propose a non-destructive multi-stage approach to identify archaeological corals amongst other biominerals used as ornament during the central European Iron Age with emphasis on optical examination and mobile Raman spectroscopy. Our investigations suggest that the noticeably high amount of misidentifications or at least uncertain material declarations existing in museums or even in the literature (around 15% could be overcome by the proposed approach. Furthermore, the range of different materials is higher than previously expected in archaeological research. This finding has implications for contemporary concepts of social structures and distribution networks during the Iron Age.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Christine [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Israni, Sanjay [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gilna, Paul [University of California, La Jolla; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Zhang, Yaoping [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Roberts, Gary P. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reslewic, Susan [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Schwartz, David C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2011-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rho- dospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteo- bacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that pro- duces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1T can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in partic- ular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome se- quence of strain S1T is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chro- mosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002.

  13. Phenotypic plasticity of leaf shape along a temperature gradient in Acer rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L Royer

    Full Text Available Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic determination can be important for understanding how plants respond to environmental change. However, little is known about the plastic response of leaf teeth and leaf dissection to temperature. This gap is critical because these leaf traits are commonly used to reconstruct paleoclimate from fossils, and such studies tacitly assume that traits measured from fossils reflect the environment at the time of their deposition, even during periods of rapid climate change. We measured leaf size and shape in Acer rubrum derived from four seed sources with a broad temperature range and grown for two years in two gardens with contrasting climates (Rhode Island and Florida. Leaves in the Rhode Island garden have more teeth and are more highly dissected than leaves in Florida from the same seed source. Plasticity in these variables accounts for at least 6-19% of the total variance, while genetic differences among ecotypes probably account for at most 69-87%. This study highlights the role of phenotypic plasticity in leaf-climate relationships. We suggest that variables related to tooth count and leaf dissection in A. rubrum can respond quickly to climate change, which increases confidence in paleoclimate methods that use these variables.

  14. Antimicrobial effects of aqueous plant extracts on the fungi Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum and on three bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, M; Neeman, I

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of 10 plants were tested for their ability to inhibit Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis, the aetiological agents of dermal fungal infections in humans. These extracts were also evaluated for their activity against some bacteria. Aqueous extracts from the leaves of Inula viscosa produced detectable antifungal activity against these dermatophytes.

  15. A new biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solution; red marine alga, Ceramium rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is an effective technique for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, dried, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde modified red alga, Ceramium rubrum were used for the biosorption of copper from aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics such as pH, biomass dosage, temperature and contact time were investigated. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotemetric analysis of C.rubrum was performed to identify its structure. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption of Cu2+ onto C.rubrum biomass at the equilibrium. Langmuir model fitted well the equilibrium data for all biosorbents. Maximum biosorption capacity of dried biomass was calculated 25.51 mg/g, while it was calculated 42.92 mg/g and 30.03 mg/g for sodium hydroxide modified and formaldehyde modified biomass, respectively. Modified biomasses have higher maximum biosorption capacities indicating that modification of biomass with NaOH and HCHOH may increase responsible active sites for biosorption on the C.rubrum.

  16. 波兰黑穗醋栗的组织培养%Tissue culture of Ribes nigrum L. cv. Ceres from Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锦; 陈瑜; 薛陈心; 刘孟军; 代丽

    2006-01-01

    本试验采用波兰黑穗醋栗(Ribes nigrum L.)优良品种Ceres冬季休眠枝的水培芽为外植体,进行了组织培养研究,建立了其快繁体系,即初代培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L;增殖培养基为MS+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+IBA 0.5 mg/L;生根培养基为MS+无激素;在此体系中增殖系数可达4.3,生根率100%,最多生根条数可达15条以上.本试验还发现,Ceres品种茎段分枝力较差,但生根能力很强.

  17. Refractory onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: combination therapy with itraconazole and terbinafine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifaz Alexandro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole plus terbinafine for refractory onychomycosis. This is a prospective clinical trial. Patients with proven Trychophyton rubrum onychomycosis of toenails were enrolled; the treatment consisted of weekly administration: itraconazole 200mg/day and terbinafine 250mg/day, for four months. Results: Thirty-two patients with onychomycosis were studied. Twenty-eight cases had distal subungual onychomycosis and 4 total dystrophic onychomycosis. At the end of the follow-up 17/32 patients had clinical and mycologic cure (53.12%, 5 had clinical improvement only (15.6%, and 10 (31.2% failed. Conclusion: Weekly alternate therapy with itraconazole + terbinafine represents a safe rescue treatment.

  18. The Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation Dose on the Mechanical Performance of Red Maple (Acer rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Starr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand how electron beam irradiation affects wood physically and chemically, irradiated maple beams (Acer rubrum and veneers were examined using three-point bend tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, and NIR- and FTIR- spectroscopy. The MOR from the bending tests revealed a significant decline in the red maple’s strength after a dose of 80 kGy. DMA results showed evidence of crosslinking of the amorphous content of the wood at low doses, followed by degradation at higher doses, with the change in response occurring around 80 kGy. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the components of wood that were most impacted were the phenolic hydroxyl structures of lignin and cellulose hydroxyls, with the greatest effects being seen after 80 kGy.

  19. High-level production of the industrial product lycopene by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Shu; Grammel, Hartmut; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Sägesser, Rudolf; Ghosh, Robin

    2012-10-01

    The biosynthesis of the major carotenoid spirilloxanthin by the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is thought to occur via a linear pathway proceeding through phytoene and, later, lycopene as intermediates. This assumption is based solely on early chemical evidence (B. H. Davies, Biochem. J. 116:93-99, 1970). In most purple bacteria, the desaturation of phytoene, catalyzed by the enzyme phytoene desaturase (CrtI), leads to neurosporene, involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four as in the case of lycopene. We show here that the chromosomal insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC-crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster, whose gene products are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene, leads to the accumulation of the latter as the major carotenoid. We provide spectroscopic and biochemical evidence that in vivo, lycopene is incorporated into the light-harvesting complex 1 as efficiently as the methoxylated carotenoids spirilloxanthin (in the wild type) and 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydrospirilloxanthin (in a crtD mutant), both under semiaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and photosynthetic, anaerobic conditions. Quantitative growth experiments conducted in dark, semiaerobic conditions, using a growth medium for high cell density and high intracellular membrane levels, which are suitable for the conventional industrial production in the absence of light, yielded lycopene at up to 2 mg/g (dry weight) of cells or up to 15 mg/liter of culture. These values are comparable to those of many previously described Escherichia coli strains engineered for lycopene production. This study provides the first genetic proof that the R. rubrum CrtI produces lycopene exclusively as an end product.

  20. In Silico Analog Design for Terbinafine Against Trichophyton rubrum: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuri, Sudha; Singh, Puneet Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2015-09-01

    The diseases caused by dermatophytes are common among several other infections which cause serious threat to human health. It is evident that enzyme squalene epoxidase is responsible for prolonged dermatophyte infection and it is appealing to note that this enzyme is also responsible for fatty acid synthesis in these groups of fungi. In the present study, terbinafine drug which targets enzyme squalene epoxidase has been explored to design its various novel analogues. The present study suggests that many more prominent drug analogues could be constituted which may be crucial towards designing new drug candidates. In the present study, we have designed a series of such analogues viz. [(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)amine, N-[8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]-2-(sulfoamino) acetamide, {[4-(dihydroxyamino)-8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]sulfanyl}methanol and (R)-{[4-({[(2E,6R)-6,7-dimethyloct-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)-5-[(hydroxysulfamoyl)amino]naphthalen-1-yl]amino}sulfinic acid. Moreover, further by molecular docking approach the binding between enzyme and designed analogues was further analysed. The present preliminary report suggested a considerably good docking interaction score of -338.75 kcal/mol between terbinafine and squalene epoxidase from Trichophyton rubrum. This preliminary study implies that few designed candidate ligands can be effectual towards the activity of this enzyme and can play crucial role in pathogenesis control of T. rubrum.

  1. Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Gräser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response. PMID:22951933

  2. Calcofluor white combination antifungal treatments for Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Kingsbury

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophyte fungi are among the most common infections worldwide, yet treatment is restricted by limited effective drugs available, drug toxicity, and emergence of drug resistance. The stilbene fluorescent brightener calcofluor white (CFW inhibits fungi by binding chitin in the cell wall, disrupting cell wall integrity, and thus entails a different mechanism of inhibition than currently available antifungal drugs. To identify novel therapeutic options for the treatment of skin infections, we compared the sensitivity of representative strains of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans to CFW and a panel of fluorescent brighteners and phytoalexin compounds. We identified the structurally related stilbene fluorescent brighteners 71, 85, 113 and 134 as fungicidal to both T. rubrum and C. albicans to a similar degree as CFW, and the stilbene phytoalexins pinosylvan monomethyl ether and pterostilbene inhibited to a lesser degree, allowing us to develop a structure-activity relationship for fungal inhibition. Given the abilities of CFW to absorb UV(365 nm and bind specifically to fungal cell walls, we tested whether CFW combined with UV(365 nm irradiation would be synergistic to fungi and provide a novel photodynamic treatment option. However, while both treatments individually were cytocidal, UV(365 nm irradiation reduced sensitivity to CFW, which we attribute to CFW photoinactivation. We also tested combination treatments of CFW with other fungal inhibitors and identified synergistic interactions between CFW and some ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. albicans. Therefore, our studies identify novel fungal inhibitors and drug interactions, offering promise for combination topical treatment regimes for superficial mycoses.

  3. Evaluation of Wildlife Mitigation Sites at the Chief Joseph Dam Project (1993/1994 Season)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-22

    golden currant GROSSULARIACEAE Iff Sites RICE Ribes cereum squaw currant GROSSULARIACEAE BS, BB ROPS Robinia pseudbacacia black locust LEGUMINOSAE ...sifkt lupine LEGUMINOSAE Irr.L SiB S, BE MAEX .Madla exlgua little tarweed EOPSA S, BE MESA Yedlcaso soelva aW& EGMliSA Irr. Site MEAL Mfelilowu alba

  4. 红色毛癣菌菌株的PCR鉴定%Identification of Trichophyton rubrum by PCR-fingerprinting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红梅; 温海; 廖万清

    2002-01-01

    目的用PCR方法扩增红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌临床分离株的DNA,观察PCR指纹的差异以及基因型与传统表型的关系, 建立一种红色毛癣菌分子生物学鉴定方法.方法采用寡核苷酸重复序列 (GACA)4, (GTG)5及M13中心序列(5'-GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT-3')等3种引物,扩增 20株红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌临床分离株的DNA,观察产物电泳带型的差异.结果在3种引物的扩增中,均可见红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌呈现出具种特异性的DNA指纹,并检出其中2株原据表型鉴定为须癣毛癣菌的红色毛癣菌.结论红色毛癣菌可以用PCR方法加以鉴定,以(GACA)4作引物区分这两种菌最为合适.%Objective To observe the unique DNA profile and the relationship between DNA profile and phenotype of Trichophyton rubrum, and establish an effective molecular method to identify T. rubrum.Methods Three primers, including (GACA)4, (GTG)5 and M13 core sequence (5'-GAGGGTG~GCGGTTCT-3'), were used to distinguish variations among 20 clinical isolates of T. rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.Results Different PCR-fingerprinting was seen between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes using three different primers. 2 stains of T. rubrum were identified among 6 supposed T. mentagrophytes.Conclusions T. rubrum can be distinguished using PCR, and (GACA)4 is the most suitable primer.

  5. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Cindy J M; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2013-10-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains to be identified. N. ribisnigri populations virulent on the Nr-based resistance in lettuce have emerged in several locations in Europe since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by the Nr gene in lettuce by detailed studies of aphid feeding behaviour and performance. Both avirulent (Nr:0) and virulent (Nr:1)biotypes of N. ribisnigri were studied on five resistant and two susceptible near isogenic lines (NILs). In addition, survival and colony development were quantified.Nr:0 aphids showed a strong decrease in sieve element ingestion and took longer to accept a sieve element on resistant NILs compared with susceptible NILs, and no aphids survived on the resistant NIL. Nr:1 aphids fed and performed equally well on the resistant and susceptible NILs. The resistance mechanism against Nr:0 aphids encoded by the Nr gene seems to be located in the phloem, although we also observed differences in feeding behaviour during the pathway phase to the phloem. Nr:1 aphids were highly virulent to the resistance conferred by the Nr gene. The consequences of the appearance of Nr:1 aphids for control of N. ribisnigri are discussed.

  6. Ochratoxin A in raisins and currants: basic extraction procedure used in two small marketing surveys of the occurrence and control of the heterogeneity of the toxins in samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, T E; Nyberg, M

    2003-11-01

    A basic extraction procedure for analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in currants and raisins is described, as well as the occurrence of OTA and a control of heterogeneity of the toxin in samples bought for two small marketing surveys 1999/2000 and 2001/02. Most samples in the surveys were divided into two subsamples that were individually prepared as slurries and analysed separately. The limit of quantification for the method was estimated as 0.1 microg kg(-1) and recoveries of 85, 90 and 115% were achieved in recovery experiments at 10, 5 and 0.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. Of all 118 subsamples analysed in the surveys, 96 (84%) contained ochratoxin A at levels above the quantification level and five samples (4%) contained more than the European Community legislation of 10 microg kg(-1). The OTA concentrations found in the first survey were in the range Big differences were often achieved between individual subsamples of the original sample, which indicate a wide heterogeneous distribution of the toxin. Data from the repeatability test as well as recovery experiments from the same slurries showed that preparation of slurries as described here seemed to give a homogeneous and representative sample. The extraction with the basic sodium bicarbonate-methanol mixture used in the surveys gave similar or somewhat higher OTA values on some samples tested in a comparison with a weak phosphoric acid water-methanol extraction mixture.

  7. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis.

  8. Modelled microgravity cultivation modulates N-acylhomoserine lactone production in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H independently of cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Atkinson, Steve; Mergeay, Max; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2013-12-01

    The photosynthetic alphaproteobacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H is part of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project that is aiming to develop a closed life support system for oxygen, water and food production to support human life in space in forthcoming long-term space exploration missions. In the present study, R. rubrum S1H was cultured in a rotating wall vessel (RWV), simulating partial microgravity conditions on Earth. The bacterium showed a significant response to cultivation in simulated microgravity at the transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic levels. In simulated microgravity conditions three N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (C10-HSL, C12-HSL and 3-OH-C14-HSL) were detected in concentrations that were twice those detected under normal gravity, while no differences in cell density was detected. In addition, R. rubrum cultivated in modelled microgravity showed higher pigmentation than the normal gravity control, without change in culture oxygenation. When compared to randomized microgravity cultivation using a random positioning machine, significant overlap for the top differentially expressed genes and proteins was observed. Cultivation in this new artificial environment of simulated microgravity showed new properties of this well-known bacterium, including its first, to our knowledge, complete quorum-sensing-related N-acylhomoserine lactone profile.

  9. Contrasting Hydraulic Strategies during Dry Soil Conditions in Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum in a Sandy Site in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Thomsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analyses were carried out for the dynamics of leaf water potential in two broad-leaf deciduous tree species in a sandy site under a range of air vapor pressure deficits and a relatively dry range of soil conditions. During nights when the soil is dry, the diffuse-porous, isohydric and shallow-rooted Acer rubrum does not recharge its xylem and leaf water storage to the same capacity that is observed during nights when the soil is moist. The ring-porous, deep-rooted Quercus rubra displays a more anisohydric behavior and appears to be capable of recharging to capacity at night-time even when soil moisture at the top 1 m is near wilting point, probably by accessing deeper soil layers than A. rubrum. Compared to A. rubrum, Q. rubra displays only a minimal level of down-regulation of stomatal conductance, which leads to a reduction of leaf water potential during times when vapor pressure deficit is high and soil moisture is limiting. We determine that the two species, despite typically being categorized by ecosystem models under the same plant functional type—mid-successional, temperate broadleaf—display different hydraulic strategies. These differences may lead to large differences between the species in water relations, transpiration and productivity under different precipitation and humidity regimes.

  10. [The effect of Tween-80 on the differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum strains with FT-IR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergın, Çagri; İlkit, Macit; Gök, Yaşar; Çon, Ahmet Hilmi; Özel, Mustafa Zafer; Kabay, Nilgün; Döğen, Aylin; Baygu, Yasemin

    2014-07-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, are two of the frequently identified dermatophyte species in routine microbiology laboratories. Although newer technologies may assist in species-level identification, direct application of these methods usually require improvement in order to obtain reliable identification of these species. Earlier data have shown that dermatophytes may be identified with FT-IR spectroscopy although there are some limitations. In particular, the organic bond ranges in FT-IR spectra showed more irregularity because of the eucaryotic complexity of the molds. In this study, Tween-80 which is an inorganic molecule, was added to the dermatophyte growth medium in order to investigate its effect on FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of dermatophytes. Nine reference dermatophyte strains [5 T.mentagrophytes complex (T.asteroides CBS 424.63, T.erinacei CBS 344.79, CBS 511.73, CBS 677.86, T.mentagrophytes CBS 110.65) and 4 T.rubrum complex strains with different morphotypes (T.fluviomuniense CBS 592.68, T.kuryangei CBS 422.67, T.raubitschekii CBS 102856, T.rubrum CBS 392.58)] were included in the study. All strains were cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar either with or without 1% Tween-80 for three weeks. After the incubation period, superficial scrapings from each dermatophyte colony were analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy. All measurements were performed in transmission mode between 4400 and 400 cm-1. Numerous spectral window data were analyzed by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering was performed. The second derivations of spectral ranges revealed clear grouping of T.mentagrophytes complex and T.rubrum complex in association over five separate spectral ranges. The findings also showed that while all of the T.mentagrophytes strains contained lipid compounds in their mold structure after Tween-80 incubation (pIR spectroscopy. This effect might be attributed to the possible transfer of lipid compounds from culture to cell

  11. Investigation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor Aerobic Mov-ing Bed Bio Reactor (AFBR/MMBR System for Treatment of Currant Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Jafari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaerobic treatment methods are more suitable for the treatment of concentrated wastewater streams, offer lower operating costs, the production of usable biogas product. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR-Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR in series arrangement to treat Currant wastewater.Methods: The bed materials of AFBR were cylindrical particles made of PVC with a diameter of 2-2.3 mm, particle density of 1250 kg/m3.The volume of all bed materials was 1.7 liter which expanded to 2.46 liters in fluidized situation. In MBBR, support media was composed of 1.5 liters Bee-Cell 2000 having porosity of 87% and specific surface area of 650m2/m3.Results: When system operated at 35 ºC, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiencies were achieved to 98% and 81.6% for organic loading rates (OLR of 9.4 and 24.2 g COD/l.d, and hydraulic retention times (HRT of 48 and 18 h, in average COD concentration feeding of 18.4 g/l, respectively.Conclusion: The contribution of AFBR in total COD removal efficiency at an organic loading rate (OLR of 9.4 g COD/l.d was 95%, and gradually decreased to 76.5% in OLR of 24.2 g COD/l.d. Also with increasing in organic loading rate the contribution of aerobic reactor in removing COD gradually decreased. In this system, the anaerobic reactor played the most important role in the removal of COD, and the aerobic MBBR was actually needed to polish the anaerobic treated wastewate

  12. Leaf shape responds to temperature but not CO2 in Acer rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L Royer

    Full Text Available The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2 concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate reconstructions because CO(2 has varied widely on geologic timescales. Here I report the results of growing Acer rubrum (red maple in growth cabinets at contrasting temperature and CO(2 conditions. The CO(2 treatment imparted no significant differences in leaf size and shape, while plants grown at cooler temperatures tended to have more teeth and more highly dissected leaves. These results provide direct evidence for the selection of temperature on leaf shape in one species, and support a key link in many leaf-climate methods. More broadly, these results increase confidence for using leaf shape in fossils to reconstruct paleoclimate.

  13. Leaf shape responds to temperature but not CO2 in Acer rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Dana L

    2012-01-01

    The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT) across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2) concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate reconstructions because CO(2) has varied widely on geologic timescales. Here I report the results of growing Acer rubrum (red maple) in growth cabinets at contrasting temperature and CO(2) conditions. The CO(2) treatment imparted no significant differences in leaf size and shape, while plants grown at cooler temperatures tended to have more teeth and more highly dissected leaves. These results provide direct evidence for the selection of temperature on leaf shape in one species, and support a key link in many leaf-climate methods. More broadly, these results increase confidence for using leaf shape in fossils to reconstruct paleoclimate.

  14. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) transcriptome: a new resource for population genetics and local adaptation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratlong, M; Haguenauer, A; Chabrol, O; Klopp, C; Pontarotti, P; Aurelle, D

    2015-09-01

    The question of species survival and evolution in heterogeneous environments has long been a subject for study. Indeed, it is often difficult to identify the molecular basis of adaptation to contrasted environments, and nongenetic effects increase the difficulty to disentangle fixed effects, such as genetic adaptation, from variable effects, such as individual phenotypic plasticity, in adaptation. Nevertheless, this question is also of great importance for understanding the evolution of species in a context of climate change. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) lives in the Mediterranean Sea, where at depths ranging from 5 to 600 m, it meets very contrasted thermal conditions. The shallowest populations of this species suffered from mortality events linked with thermal anomalies that have highlighted thermotolerance differences between individuals. We provide here a new transcriptomic resource, as well as candidate markers for the study of local adaptation. We sequenced the transcriptome of six individuals from 5 m and six individuals from 40 m depth at the same site of the Marseilles bay, after a period of common garden acclimatization. We found differential expression maintained between the two depths even after common garden acclimatization, and we analysed the polymorphism pattern of these samples. We highlighted contigs potentially implicated in the response to thermal stress, which could be good candidates for the study of thermal adaptation for the red coral. Some of these genes are also involved in the response to thermal stress in other corals. Our method enables the identification of candidate loci of local adaptation useful for other nonmodel organisms.

  15. [Suppression of telomerase activity leukemic cells by mutant forms of Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskaya, M V; Zhdanov, D D; Eldarov, M A; Aleksandrova, S S; Veselovskiy, A V; Pokrovskiy, V S; Grishin, D V; Gladilina, Ju A; Sokolov, N N

    2017-01-01

    The active and stable mutant forms of short chain cytoplasmic L-asparaginase type I of Rhodospirillum rubrum (RrA): RrA+N17, D60K, F61L, RrA+N17, A64V, E67K, RrA+N17, E149R, V150P, RrAE149R, V150P and RrAE149R, V150P, F151T were obtained by the method of site-directed mutagenesis. It is established that variants RrA-N17, E149R, V150P, F151T and RrАE149R, V150P are capable to reduce an expression hTERT subunit of telomerase and, hence, activity of telomeres in Jurkat cells, but not in cellular lysates. During too time, L-asparaginases of Escherichia coli, Erwinia carotovora and Wolinella succinogenes, mutant forms RrА+N17, D60K, F61L and RrА+N17, A64V, E67K do not suppress of telomerase activity. The assumption of existence in structure RrA of areas (amino acids residues in the position 146-164, 1-17, 60-67) which are responsible for suppression of telomerase activity is made. The received results show that antineoplastic activity of some variants RrA is connected both with reduction of concentration of free L-asparagine, and with expression suppression of hTERT telomerase subunit, that opens new prospects for antineoplastic therapy.

  16. Gender-related traits in the dioecious shrub Empetrum rubrum in two plant communities in the Magellanic steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Collantes, Marta; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; García Novo, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Following the theory on costs of reproduction, sexually dimorphic plants may exhibit several trade-offs in energy and resources that can determine gender dimorphism in morphological or physiological traits, especially during the reproductive period. In this study we assess whether the sexes of the dioecious species Empetrum rubrum differ in morphological and ecophysiological traits related to water economy and photochemical efficiency and whether these differences change in nearby populations with contrasting plant communities. We conducted physiological, morphological, sex ratio, and cover measurements in E. rubrum plants in the Magellanic steppe, North-Eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), from two types of heathlands with differing community composition. We found differences between sites in soil pH and wind speed at the canopy level. E. rubrum plants exhibited lower photosynthetic height and higher LAI (leaf area index), lower RWC (relative water content) and higher water-use efficiency (lower Δ13C) in the heathland with harsher environmental conditions. Gender dimorphism in the physiological response was patent for photochemical efficiency and water use (RWC and Δ13C discrimination), with males showing a more conservative strategy in relation to females. Accordingly, male-biased sex ratio in the stress-prone community suggested a better performance of male plants under stressful environmental conditions. The integrated analysis of all variables (photochemical efficiency, RWC, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), pigments, and Δ13C) indicated an interaction between gender and heathland community effects in the physiological response. We suggest that female plants may exhibit compensatory mechanisms to face their higher reproductive costs.

  17. Eradication of C. albicans and T. rubrum with photoactivated indocyanine green, Citrus aurantifolia essential oil and fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Arash; Ghasemi Barghi, Vadood; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of alternative therapies rather than the current antifungal conventional therapy and with assessing the hypothesis of photoactivation of citrus essential oil, fluconazole and Indocyanine green to treat two common mucocutaneous fungal infections. Suspensions of Candida albicans and Tricophyton rubrum containing 10(6)cells/ml was prepared. Equal samples were treated with infrared (IR) laser irradiation (810 nm, 55 J/cm(2)) in the presence of Indocyanine green (Emundo, 1 mg/ml) (IRLE), photoactivated Citrus aurantifolia essential oil (EO) with sequential exposure to natural and tungsten lights (CE), control non-activated essential oil (CC), laser alone (IRL), indocyanine green alone (E) and neither of treatments as the control group (C). Additional fluconazole (FL, 25.6 μg/ml) and IR activated fluconazole (IRLFL) groups were designed for T. rubrum fungi. Inoculums were serially diluted to 10(-2) and 10(-4) and streaked on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates. Final outcomes were assessed as the percent of reduction. Cell reduction rates (%) in C. albicans groups were 99.99 (CE), 91.67 (IRLE), 86.67 (CC), 72.37 (E) and 67.27 (RL). Whereas, a 99.99 (CE), 89.99 (CC), 74.5 (IRLE), 64.5 (E), 38.5 (IRLF), 37.5 (RL), and 31 (FL) percent eradication was achieved in T. rubrum groups. Photoactivation of Citrus EO increased the killing capability by 10-13%. A modest 7.5% augmented effect was observed with IR activation of Fluconazole. Both Citrus EO and photothermal-photodynamic therapy with ICG and IR diode laser exhibited remarkable lethal effect on fungal cells. Candida viable cells are more susceptible to laser only and ICG only treatments than Tricophyton cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Eficacia de medios de cultivo con infusiones de variedades de papa en la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Flor Urcia A; Miriam Guevara R

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la eficacia de los extractos de diferentes variedades de papa como ingredientes del medio de cultivo para la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum y proponer su empleo en el diagnóstico de dermatomicosis. Se utilizaron las infusiones naturales de las variedades Solanum tuberosum (papa blanca), Solanum chaucha (papa huayro) y Solanum goniocalyx (papa amarilla), para preparar los medios de cultivo análogos al estándar de formulación comercial Agar...

  19. Disparate SAR Data of Griseofulvin Analogues for the Dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Raab, Marc S.; Anderhub, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Griseofulvin and 53 analogues of this compound have been tested against the pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as against the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The modifications to griseofulvin include the 4, 5, 6, 2', 3', and 4' positions...... of analogues showed increased activity against the cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, highlighted by 2'-benzyloxy-2'-demethoxy-griseofulvin, which showed low activity against both fungi but was among the most potent compounds against MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Tubulin has been proposed as the target of griseofulvin...

  20. HLA in Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews with chronic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum Antígenos Leucocitários Humanos (HLA em Judeus Ashkenazitas Brasileiros portadores de dermatofitose crônica causada por Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sadahiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens was analyzed in 25 non-consanguineous Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews, resident in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, suffering from chronic dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, and in 25 non-infected individuals belonging to the same ethnic group. Statistically significant values (pA freqüência dos HLA foi analisada em 25 Judeus Ashkenazitas, não consangüíneos, residentes em São Paulo, Brasil, com dermatofitose crônica causada por T. rubrum e em 25 indivíduos sadios, pertencentes ao mesmo grupo étnico dos pacientes. Observou-se valor estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 para HLA-B14 associado a resistência à dermatofitose crônica enquanto HLA-DQB1*06 (p=0,05 possivelmente relacionado a susceptibilidade. Estes achados indicam que o desenvolvimento da dermatofitose crônica pode ser influenciado por genes localizados no cromossomo 6, na região do complexo principal de histocompatibilidade.

  1. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum Ação fototóxica do diodo emissor de luz na viabilidade de Trichophyton rubrum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Faria Amorim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of superficial mycosis of the skin and nails causing long lasting infections and high recurrence rates. Current treatment drawbacks involve topical medications not being able to reach the nail bed at therapeutic concentrations, systemic antifungal drugs failing to eradicate the fungus before the nails are renewed, severe side effects and selection of resistant fungal isolates. Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been a promising alternative to conventional treatments. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of toluidine blue O (TBO irradiated by Light emitting diode (LED in the reduction of T. rubrum viability. METHODS: The fungal inoculums' was prepared and exposed to different TBO concentrations and energy densities of Light emitting diode for evaluate the T. rubrum sensibility to PDT and production effect fungicidal after photodynamic treatment. In addition, the profiles of the area and volume of the irradiated fungal suspensions were also investigated. RESULTS: A small reduction, in vitro, of fungal cells was observed after exposition to 100 µM toluidine blue O irradiated by 18 J/cm² Light emitting diode. Fungicidal effect occurred after 25 µM toluidine blue O irradiation by Light emitting diode with energy density of 72 J/cm². The analysis showed that the area and volume irradiated by the Light emitting diode were 52.2 mm² and 413.70 mm³, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results allowed to conclude that Photodynamic therapy using Light emitting diode under these experimental conditions is a possible alternative approach to inhibit in vitro T. rubrum and may be a promising new treatment for dermatophytosis caused by this fungus.FUNDAMENTOS: Trichophyton rubrum é o agente mais comum das micoses superficiais de pele e unhas causando infecções de longa duração e altas taxas de recidiva. As desvantagens do tratamento atual envolvem medicações tópicas as quais n

  2. Magnesium ions improving the growth and organics reduction of Rhodospirillum rubrum cultivated in sewage through regulating energy metabolism pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Ru; Wu, Pan; Lang, Lang; Liu, Ri-Jia; Li, Jian-Zheng; Ji, Yu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum has the potential for biomass resource recycling combined with sewage purification. However, low biomass production and yield restricts the potential for sewage purification. This research investigated the improvement of biomass production, yield and organics reduction by Mg²⁺ in R. rubrum wastewater treatment. Results showed that with optimal dosage (120 mg/L), biomass production reached 4,000 mg/L, which was 1.5 times of that of the control group. Biomass yield was improved by 43.3%. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached over 90%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Mechanism analysis indicated that Mg²⁺ enhanced the isocitrate dehydrogenase and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activities, bacteriochlorophyll content on respiration and photophosphorylation. These effects then enhanced ATP production, which led to more biomass accumulation and COD removal. With 120 mg/L Mg²⁺ dosage, the isocitrate dehydrogenase and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activities, bacteriochlorophyll content, ATP production were improved, respectively, by 33.3%, 50%, 67%, 41.3% compared to those of the control group.

  3. Eficacia de Medios de Cultivo con Infusiones de Variedades de Papa en la Identificación del Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Urcia A

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la eficacia de los extractos de diferentes variedades de papa como ingredientes del medio de cultivo para la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum y proponer su empleo en el diagnóstico de dermatomicosis. Se utilizaron las infusiones naturales de las variedades Solanum tuberosum (papa blanca, Solanum chaucha (papa huayro y Solanum goniocalyx (papa amarilla, para preparar los medios de cultivo análogos al estándar de formulación comercial Agar Papa Dextrosa (APDc. Las cepas de T. rubrum fueron inoculadas en los diferentes medios de cultivo, incubados a 2°C durante 10 días. Para la evaluación consideramos características culturales y microscópicas. Los resultados muestran que el medio de cultivo Agar Papa Huayro Dextrosa (APHD fue más eficiente en la producción del pigmento rojo vino, pero se obtuvo mayor esporulación en los medios de cultivo Agar Papa Blanca Dextrosa (APBD y Agar Papa Amarilla Dextrosa (APAD.

  4. Synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from unrelated carbon sources in engineered Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Daniel; Raberg, Matthias; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Different genes encoding pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenases (pntAB, udhA) and acetoacetyl-CoA reductases (phaB) were heterologously overexpressed in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. A recombinant strain, which harbored the gene encoding the membrane-bound transhydrogenase PntAB from Escherichia coli MG1655 and the phaB1 gene coding for an NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase from Ralstonia eutropha H16, accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [Poly(3HB-co-3HV)] with a 3HV fraction of up to 13 mol% from fructose. This was a 13-fold increase of the 3HV content when compared to the wild-type strain. Higher contents of 3HV are known to reduce the brittleness of this polymer, which is advantageous for most applications. The engineered R. rubrum strain was also able to synthesize this industrially relevant copolymer from CO2 and CO from artificial synthesis gas (syngas) with a 3HV content of 56 mol%. The increased incorporation of 3HV was attributed to an excess of propionyl-CoA, which was generated from threonine and related amino acids to compensate for the intracellular redox imbalance resulting from the transhydrogenase reaction. Thereby, our study presents a novel, molecular approach to alter the composition of bacterial PHAs independently from external precursor supply. Moreover, this study also provides a promising production strain for syngas-derived second-generation biopolymers.

  5. EXTRACORPOREAL PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPICAL AND ATYPICAL LICHEN PLANUS RUBRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Molochkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus rubrum (LPR belongs to the group of papulosquamous dermatoses. Pathophysiology of this most common lichenic dermatosis is related to autoimmune destruction of basal keratinocytes. Treatment of LPR includes systemic corticosteroids, cytotoxic agents, immunosuppressants, aromatic retinoids, PUVA-therapy, as well as biological preparations (rituximab, efalizumab, which all are insufficiently effective and associated with multiple side effects and complications. Aim: To evaluate efficacy of extracorporeal photochemotherapy (EPCT in generalized typical and atypical LPR. Materials and methods: We performed a prospective active-controlled cohort study. Thirty three patients with different types of LPR treated with EPCT were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 19 patients with typical generalized (including subacute and chronic LPR, group 2, 14 patients with atypical (pigmented, follicular, hypertrophic, erosive ulcerated, vulvovaginal/ gingival syndrome LPR. At 2 hours before a EPCT session patients were administered 8-methoxypsoralen, then mononuclear cells were isolated with a cell separator Haemonetics MCS+ and treated with UV A radiation (at a wavelength from 320 to 400  nm, then monocyte mass was reinfused to the patient. The treatment course consisted of 4  sessions performed every other day. Results: Positive clinical effect and satisfactory tolerability of EPCT were demonstrated in all 33 patients. In patients with generalized subacute typical LPR, EPCT promoted activation of natural immunosuppressive mechanisms (there was no correlation between CD8+ and HLA-DR+ , as well as between CD8+ and CD11b+: r=0.52 (р>0.05 and r=0.35 (р>0.05, respectively. In patients with generalized chronic LPR the treatment led to restoration of immune tolerance to genuine body antigens (correlation between CD16+ and CD11b+ was preserved and correlation between CD16+ and HLA-DR+ was lower: r=0.77 (p<0.05 and r=0.62 (p>0

  6. Effects of different hormones and media on cutting propagation in black currant%不同激素和基质对黑穗醋栗扦插繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕跃东; 姚颖; 吕跃伟; 翁海龙; 郭树平

    2015-01-01

    为了提高黑穗醋栗苗木繁育质量,分别以‘黑风’和‘黑布劳德’两个优良品种为试验材料,就枝条的不同部位(上部、中部和下部)、不同基质(河沙、蛭石、河沙+蛭石)和不同种类(IBA、NAA、ABT)、不同浓度(100、200、300 mg/kg)的激素处理对黑穗醋栗扦插生根的影响情况进行了嫩枝扦插和硬枝扦插试验。结果表明:以下部嫩枝扦插的生根率为最高;河沙与蛭石的混合基质适用于黑穗醋栗的硬枝扦插,以此混合基质扦插的生根率可达81%;每种激素处理的生根率,均以200 mg/kg浓度处理的为最高,其中以200 mg/kg的ABT处理的生根率达到82%,而当激素浓度升高到300 mg/kg时,生根率反而下降。%In order to improve quality of seedling breeding in black currant, taking the two varieties of‘Black Wind’ and‘black Browder’ as test materials, effects of different treatments on cutting propagation in black currant were researched through softwood cutting and hardwood cutting tests, including different parts of branches (upper, middle and lower), different media (sand, vermiculite, sand + vermiculite) and different types (IBA, NAA, ABT) and concentrations (100, 200, 300 mg/kg) of hormone treatments. The results showed that the lower softwood cutting had the highest rooting rate; the mixed medium of sand and vermiculite was suitable for hardwood cutting in black currant of, and rooting rate could reach 81% in the medium; Rooting rates of 200 mg/kg hormone treatments were the highest in each hormone concentration treatment, and rooting rate reached 82% in 200 mg/kg ABT treatment, but when hormone concentration was increased to 300 mg/kg, the root rate was decreased.

  7. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  8. [Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum. Ten-year period (1996-2006) data collection in a Dermatology Department in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Carbajal-Pruneda, Patricia; Fernández Martínez, Ramón; Arenas, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    Dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis in the world up to 80% caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical characteristics of the dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum in a dermatological outpatient clinic during a ten years period, from 1996 to 2005. We collected the data from patients with a dermatophytosis from which we have isolated T. rubrum. A total of 776 patients with dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum were found. A slight predominance of female patients (56.2%) was observed. The most commonly affected age group was those in the third to the fifth decade of life, and house working women (33.5%) were predominant. Onychomycosis was found in 63% of the cases, tinea pedis in 22.7%, tinea corporis in 5.2% and tinea cruris in 2.8%. In onychomycosis, the first toe nail was the most commonly affected (58.9%) and the dystrophic type was seen in 50.7% of them.

  9. The identification and characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort. 1914) new comb. (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) based on experimental evidence of the life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanev, I.; Sorensen, R.; Sterner, M.; Cole, R.; Fried, B.

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort, 1914) comb. n. has been completed experimentally. All of the developmental stages egg, miracidium, sporocyst, mother and daughter rediae, cercaria, metacercaria, and adult were examined and described. The miracidia infected freshwater snails of the genus Physa , P. gyrina and P. occidentalis. Attempts to infect snails of the genera Lymnaea, L. auricularis, L. peregra, L. truncatula and Bulinus, B. truncatus failed. Cercariae infected various pulmonate and prosobranch freshwater snails, mussels, frogs, water turtles and planarians. The adults developed in the small intestine of birds and mammals. The identity and major characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum are discussed. Synonyms of E. rubrum are Cercaria rubra Cort, 1914; Cercaria biflexa Faust, 1917; Cercaria chisolenata Faust, 1918; Echinostoma callawayensis Barker et Noll, 1915; Echinostoma revolutum of Johnson (1920); Echinoparyphium elegans of Cannon (1938), of Bain and Trelfall (1977), of Mahoney and Trelfall (1977); and Echinoparyphium recurvatum of Jilek (1977), Harley (1972), Sankurathri and Holmes (1976). Comparisons are made between E. rubrum and its 43-collar-spined allies: E. flexum from North America, E. cinctum from Europe, E. dunni from Asia and E. elegans from Africa.

  10. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare;

    2015-01-01

    -old man. The patient had a history of great toenail infection caused by T. rubrum in 2004 and presented with suspected relapse in 2011 and 2013. Trichophyton onychocola was the only microbial agent isolated at the second visit in 2013 and the identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Direct...

  11. 不同叶面肥对黑穗醋栗生长与结果特性的影响%Effects of Different Foliar Fertilizers on Growth and Fruit-bearing of Black Currant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟丽华; 金锦实; 郑永春

    2014-01-01

    Black currant plants were sprayed with different foliar fertilizers to study the effects of different foliar fertilizers on the growth character,chlorophyll content,quality and yield.The results showed that Shiquanbu foliar fertilizer can promote growth of new shoots, increase leaf area and chlorophyll content,improve fruit quality and increase yield obviously.%为了探明不同叶面肥对黑穗醋栗生长性状、叶绿素含量、品质及产量的影响,以甜蜜黑穗醋栗为试材进行肥料比较试验。结果表明:应用施全补叶面肥能明显地促进其新梢生长,增加叶面积、叶绿素含量,改善品质,提高产量。

  12. Discussion on the Currant Situation of Repeated Cesarean Section in Primary Hospitals%基层医院重复剖宫产现状探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茗; 李云秀; 柏智; 纪艳洁

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the currant situation of repeated cesarean section in primary hospitals and discuss the measures to further reduce the rate of cesarean section.Method:The clinical data of 981 puerperae who had repeated cesarean section admitted to our hospital from 2011 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed,the changes of repeated cesarean section rates and indications in different periods were statistically analyzed.Result:The repeated cesarean rates of our hospital were 93.64 %,47.30%,76.08% in 2011,2012 and 2013.The average cesarean section rate was 72.34%.The top five of the cesarean section indications were tubal ligation,social factors,preeclampsia,fetal distress,abnormal stage of labor.Conclusion:High repeated cesarean section rate is caused by many factors.It can be reduced by updating the conception of obstetricians and pregnant women,enhancing the propaganda of perinatal health care,encouraging vaginal birth after cesarean section,improving professional skills of midwives and so on,so as to reduce the risk of mother and son from cesarean delivery operation.%目的:分析基层医院重复剖宫产现状并探讨进一步降低剖宫产率的措施。方法:选取本院2011年1月-2013年12月住院分娩重复剖宫产产妇总计981例,统计重复剖宫产率、重复剖宫产指征及所占比例。结果:统计2011-2013年重复剖宫产率分别为93.64%、47.30%、76.08%,平均重复剖宫产率为72.34%,重复剖宫产指征中要求结扎、社会因素、子痫前期、胎儿窘迫、产程异常居前五位。结论:重复剖宫产是多方面因素造成的,提高医患双方对剖宫产后再次妊娠的认识、加大宣传力度、鼓励剖宫产后阴道分娩、提高专业人员助产技术等可以有效降低重复剖宫产率,从而减少剖宫产手术带来的母儿风险。

  13. Comparison of a glucose consumption based method with the CLSI M38-A method for testing antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Jian; Huang, Huai-Qiu; Xi, Li-Yan; Lai, Wei; Xue, Ru-Zeng; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Rong-Zhang

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of dermatophytoses and the development of new antifungal agents has focused interest on susceptibility tests of dermatophytes. The method used universally for susceptibility tests of dermatophytes was published as document (M38-A) in 2002 by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), dealing with the standardization of susceptibility tests in filamentous fungi, though not including dermatophytes especially. However, it is not a very practical method for the clinical laboratory in routine susceptibility testing. In this test, we developed a novel rapid susceptibility assay-glucose consumption method (GCM) for dermatophytes. In this study, we investigated the antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytes to itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VOC), econazole nitrate (ECN) and terbinafine (TBF) by glucose consumption method (GCM), in comparison to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A method. Twenty-eight dermatophyte isolates, including Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) (n = 14) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes) (n = 14), were tested. In the GCM, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined spectrophotometrically at 490 nm after addition of enzyme substrate color mix. For the CLSI method, the MICs were determined visually. Comparison revealed best agreement for TBF against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum, since MIC range, MIC50, and MIC90 were identical from two methods. However, for ITC and VOC, GCM showed wider MIC ranges and higher MICs than CLSI methods in most isolates. For ECN against T. rubrum, high MICs were tested by GCM (0.125-16 microg/ml) but not M38-A method (0.5-1 microg/ml). The overall agreements for all isolates between the two methods within one dilution and two dilutions for ITC, VOC, ECN and TBF was 53.6% and 75.0%, 57.1% and 75.0%, 82.1% and 89.3%, and 85.7 and 85.7%, respectively. Measurement of glucose uptake can predict the susceptibility of T. rubrum and T

  14. A study on anti dermatophytic potential of selected ethno medicinalplants against Trichophyton rubrum, a common etiologic agent in and around Visakhapatnam region (India)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai deviT; Jyothi padmajaI; Nagendra sastryY; NagamaniA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical patterns and etiology of dermatophytosis and the anti dermatophytic potentiality of some selected medicinal plants used by tribal people in and around Visakhapatnam region, India. Methods: 62 patients with dermatophytosis who attended the dermatology clinic of King George hospital, Visakhapatnam were studied. Isolation and identification was done by direct microscopic observation, cultural characteristics and by using biochemical tests in the microbiology laboratory. Some ethno medicinal plant parts like Albizia lebbeck bark, Annona reticulata leaf and bark, Cassia fistula leaf, Wrightia tinktoria bark and Couroupita guianensis leaf were tested for anti dermatophytic activity by agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) studies were carried out by broth dilution assay. Results: 51 patients out of 62 were positive (82.2%) by direct smear and culture. Tinea corporis was the most common dermatophytosis which was predominantly caused by Trichophyton rubrum in and around Visakhapatnam. Two dermatophyte species were isolated and identified. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequent isolate (58.8%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.6%). Albizia lebbek bark, Annona reticulata bark and leaf extracts showed inhibitory against T. rubrum while Cassia fistula leaf extract did not show significant inhibitory activity. Wrightia tinktoria bark and Couroupita guianensis leaf extracts did not show inhibitory activity. Conclusions: The results showed that tinea corporis was the most common dermatophytosis in and around Visakhapatnam region. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common etiologic agent. Albizia lebbek bark, Annona reticulata leaf and bark extracts showed potential inhibitory activity against Trichophyton rubrum than other tested ethno medicinal plants.

  15. Evaluation of mass-transfer and kinetic parameters for Rhodospirillum rubrum in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Gupta, A.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States))

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been evaluated for its ability to produce hydrogen from carbon monoxide and water in a continuous stirred tank reactor according to the water-gas shift reaction. An assessment of mass-transfer parameters and reaction kinetics was made for this sparingly soluble substrate system. Experiments were conducted in a nonsteady-state fashion with continuous liquid and gas flow, which allowed for separation of the mass-transfer and kinetic-limited regions. Based on the data obtained, mass-transfer coefficients for the system were determined, and a mathematical expression for the reaction kinetics was formulated. The results showed that the hydrogen production was inhibited by elevated levels of dissolved carbon monoxide in the liquid. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a project of closed regenerative life support system for future space flights developed by the European Space Agency. It consists of interconnected processes (i.e. bioreactors, higher plant compartments, filtration units,..) targeting the total recycling of organic waste into oxygen, water and food. Within the MELiSSA loop, the purple non-sulfur alpha-proteobacterium R. rubrum ATCC25903 is used to convert fatty acids released from the upstream raw waste digesting reactor to CO2 and biomass, and to complete the mineralization of aminoacids into NH4+ that will be forwarded to the nitrifying compartment. Among the numerous challenges of the project, the functional stability of the bioreactors in long term and under space flight conditions is of paramount importance for the efficiency of the life support system and consequently the crew safety. Therefore, the physiological and metabolic changes induced by space flight were investigated for R. rubrum. The bacterium grown on solid medium during 2 different 10-day space flights to the ISS (MES- SAGE2, BASE-A experiments) were compared to cells grown on Earth 1 g gravity or modeled microgravity and normal Earth radiation or simulated space flight radiation conditions in order to relate each single stress to its respective cellular response. For simulating the radiation environment, pure gamma and neutron sources were combined, while simulation of changes in gravity where performed using the Random Positioning Machine technology. Transcriptome analysis using R. rubrum total genome DNA-chip showed up-regulation of genes involved in oxidative stress response after a 10-day mission inside the ISS, without loss of viability. As an example, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, thioredoxin reductase and bacterioferritin genes are least 2 fold induced although the radiation dose experienced by the bacterium (4 mSv) is very low compared to its radiotolerance (D10 = 100 Sv

  17. Microencapsulation of oleoresin from red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) in chitosan and alginate for fresh milk preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanti, Elsa; Astuty, Rizka Margi; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-02-01

    The usage of red ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) oleoresin extract as the preservative for fresh milk has not been studied yet. The aim of this research was to compare the inhibition effect of oleoresin extract-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles, and various ginger-based preservatives added into fresh milk, on the growth of bacteria. The total count plate growth of bacteria after addition of the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles was the lowest. In addition, the organoleptic test showed that this formulation had no significant effect on the color, taste, and flavor of fresh milk. The experimental results indicated that the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles may effectively be used as a preservative for fresh milk.

  18. Influence of the attack of the fungus Polystigma rubrum (pers. dc (red leaf spot on nutritional value of fruits in different plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Valencia Labusca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out of the influence of Polystigma rubrum attack on the soluble and insoluble glucides content in the plum cultivars, with different degrees of resistance to fungus attack: Poroabe and Vinete româneşti (sensitive cultivars, Renclod violet and Grase româneşti (middle-resistant cultivars and Renclod verde (resistant cultivar, during the year 2008. Analyzing the results we observed that soluble glucides and insoluble glucides content with one exception was higher in healthy fruits comparatively with the attacked fruit. In generally, glucides was low in attacked fruit, but cannot establish a correlation between glucides content and the degree of resistance of the plum cultivars to attack of Polystigma rubrum

  19. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study.

  20. The use of global transcriptional analysis to reveal the biological and cellular events involved in distinct development phases of Trichophyton rubrum conidial germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Guohui

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conidia are considered to be the primary cause of infections by Trichophyton rubrum. Results We have developed a cDNA microarray containing 10250 ESTs to monitor the transcriptional strategy of conidial germination. A total of 1561 genes that had their expression levels specially altered in the process were obtained and hierarchically clustered with respect to their expression profiles. By functional analysis, we provided a global view of an important biological system related to conidial germination, including characterization of the pattern of gene expression at sequential developmental phases, and changes of gene expression profiles corresponding to morphological transitions. We matched the EST sequences to GO terms in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD. A number of homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes related to signalling pathways and some important cellular processes were found to be involved in T. rubrum germination. These genes and signalling pathways may play roles in distinct steps, such as activating conidial germination, maintenance of isotropic growth, establishment of cell polarity and morphological transitions. Conclusion Our results may provide insights into molecular mechanisms of conidial germination at the cell level, and may enhance our understanding of regulation of gene expression related to the morphological construction of T. rubrum.

  1. Comparison of a glucose consumption based method with the CLSI M38-A method for testing antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; CHEN Jian; HUANG Huai-qiu; XI Li-yan; LAI Wei; XUE Ru-zeng; ZHANG Xiao-hui; CHEN Rong-zhang

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of dermatophytoses and the development of new antifungal agents has focused interest on susceptibility tests of dermatophytes. The method used universally for susceptibility tests of dermatophytes was published as document (M38-A) in 2002 by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), dealing with the standardization of susceptibility tests in filamentous fungi, though not including dermatophytes especially. However, it is not a very practical method for the clinical laboratory in routine susceptibility testing. In this test, we developed a novel rapid susceptibility assay --glucose consumption method (GCM) for dermatophytes.Methods In this study, we investigated the antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytes to itraconazole (ITC),voriconazole (VOC), econazole nitrate (ECN) and terbinafine (TBF) by glucose consumption method (GCM), in comparison to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A method. Twenty-eight dermatophyte isolates,including Trichophyton rubrum ( T. Rubrum) (n=14) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes ( T. Mentagrophytes) (n=14), were tested. In the GCM, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined spectrophotometrically at 490 nm after addition of enzyme substrate color mix. For the CLSI method, the MICs were determined visually.Results Comparison revealed best agreement for TBF against T. Mentagrophytes and T. Rubrum, since MIC range, MIC50, and MIC90 were identical from two methods. However, for ITC and VOC, GCM showed wider MIC ranges and higher MICs than CLSI methods in most isolates. For ECN against T. Rubrum, high MICs were tested by GCM (0.125-16 μg/ml) but not M38-A method (0.5-1 μg/ml). The overall agreements for all isolates between the two methods within one dilution and two dilutions for ITC, VOC, ECN and TBF was 53.6% and 75.0%, 57.1% and 75.0%, 82.1% and 89.3%, and 85.7 and 85.7%, respectively.Conclusion Measurement of glucose uptake can predict the susceptibility

  2. A note on the occurrence of the encrusting foraminifera Homotrema rubrum in reef sediments from two distinctive hydrodynamic settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO ALTAIR J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from two different reef environments were analyzed for their foraminiferal content: the Sioba/Rio do Fogo reefs, located in a broad shallow shelf dominated by strong currents (Rio Grande do Norte State, and the Praia do Forte reefs, located in a narrow shelf under the influence of wind-induced waves (Bahia State. The recorded foraminiferal fauna, from forty-six samples, is represented by 113 species, being the encrusting species Homotrema rubrum present in nine samples from the Sioba/Rio do Fogo reefs and in 11 samples from Praia do Forte reefs. Homotrema fragments recovered from Sioba/Rio do Fogo are mostly polished with rounded edges (51.59% and some have a whitish color, whereas the specimens from Praia do Forte reefs are predominantly composed of reddish fragments (82.41% with sharpened points (63.88%. The high wave energy on the reef environment of Praia do Forte is responsible for the fragmentation of living Homotrema tests (red color, which are deposited near to their source area. The effects of the strong current system operating in the broad continental shelf of Sioba/Rio do Fogo is the major cause of sediment reworking, producing polished grains accumulated in its reef surroundings.

  3. Spirochaetes dominate the microbial community associated with the red coral Corallium rubrum on a broad geographic scale

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A. J. M.

    2016-06-06

    Mass mortality events in populations of the iconic red coral Corallium rubrum have been related to seawater temperature anomalies that may have triggered microbial disease development. However, very little is known about the bacterial community associated with the red coral. We therefore aimed to provide insight into this species’ bacterial assemblages using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from samples collected at five locations distributed across the western Mediterranean Sea. Twelve bacterial species were found to be consistently associated with the red coral, forming a core microbiome that accounted for 94.6% of the overall bacterial community. This core microbiome was particularly dominated by bacteria of the orders Spirochaetales and Oceanospirillales, in particular the ME2 family. Bacteria belonging to these orders have been implicated in nutrient cycling, including nitrogen, carbon and sulfur. While Oceanospirillales are common symbionts of marine invertebrates, our results identify members of the Spirochaetales as other important dominant symbiotic bacterial associates within Anthozoans.

  4. Seasonal Stability in the Microbiomes of Temperate Gorgonians and the Red Coral Corallium rubrum Across the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A. J. M.

    2017-07-05

    Populations of key benthic habitat-forming octocoral species have declined significantly in the Mediterranean Sea due to mass mortality events caused by microbial disease outbreaks linked to high summer seawater temperatures. Recently, we showed that the microbial communities of these octocorals are relatively structured; however, our knowledge on the seasonal dynamics of these microbiomes is still limited. To investigate their seasonal stability, we collected four soft gorgonian species (Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolini, Eunicella verrucosa and Leptogorgia sarmentosa) and the precious red coral (Corallium rubrum) from two coastal locations with different terrestrial impact levels in the Mediterranean Sea, and used next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiomes of all soft gorgonian species were dominated by the same \\'core microbiome\\' bacteria belonging to the Endozoicomonas and the Cellvibrionales clade BD1-7, whereas the red coral microbiome was primarily composed of \\'core\\' Spirochaetes, Oceanospirillales ME2 and Parcubacteria. The associations with these bacterial taxa were relatively consistent over time at each location for each octocoral species. However, differences in microbiome composition and seasonal dynamics were observed between locations and could primarily be attributed to locally variant bacteria. Overall, our data provide further evidence of the intricate symbiotic relationships that exist between Mediterranean octocorals and their associated microbes, which are ancient and highly conserved over both space and time, and suggest regulation of the microbiome composition by the host, depending on local conditions.

  5. Structure and biodiversity of coralligenous assemblages dominated by the precious red coral Corallium rubrum over broad spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Güell, Edgar; Cebrian, Emma; Garrabou, Joaquim; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Linares, Cristina; Teixidó, Núria

    2016-11-01

    Data on species diversity and structure in coralligenous outcrops dominated by Corallium rubrum are lacking. A hierarchical sampling including 3 localities and 9 sites covering more than 400 km of rocky coasts in NW Mediterranean, was designed to characterize the spatial variability of structure, composition and diversity of perennial species inhabiting coralligenous outcrops. We estimated species/taxa composition and abundance. Eight morpho-functional groups were defined according to their life span and growth to characterize the structural complexity of the outcrops. The species composition and structural complexity differed consistently across all spatial scales considered. The lowest and the highest variability were found among localities (separated by >200 km) and within sites (separated by 1–5 km), respectively supporting differences in diversity indices. The morpho-functional groups displayed a consistent spatial arrangement in terms of the number, size and shape of patches across study sites. These results contribute to filling the gap on the understanding of assemblage composition and structure and to build baselines to assess the response of this of this highly threatened habitat to anthropogenic disturbances.

  6. Isolation of flavonoids from Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza and their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Di Giovane Costanzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza belongs to the family Bignoniaceae, and is popularly known as catuaba. To evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of A. arvense, fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (rutin and flavonoid 2 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranoside were isolated from the leaves of this plant. Fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 and 2 exhibited no antibacterial activity. Furthermore, no cytotoxic activity of fraction 3 or flavonoids 1 and 2 was observed against the tumor cells tested. However, analysis of the antifungal activity of flavonoids 1 and 2 revealed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively, against the Trichophyton rubrum strains tested (wild type and mutant. This study demonstrates for the first time the antifungal activity of isolated flavonoids, validating the same activity for A. arvense.

  7. Biohydrogen production in a continuous stirred tank bioreactor from synthesis gas by anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium: Rhodopirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Habibollah; Najafpour, Ghasem; Ku Ismail, Ku Syahidah; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen may be considered a potential fuel for the future since it is carbon-free and oxidized to water as a combustion product. Bioconversion of synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrogen was demonstrated in continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTBR) utilizing acetate as a carbon source. An anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum catalyzed water-gas shift reaction which was applied for the bioconversion of syngas to hydrogen. The continuous fermentation of syngas in the bioreactor was continuously operated at various gas flow rates and agitation speeds, for the period of two months. The gas flow rates were varied from 5 to 14 ml/min. The agitation speeds were increasingly altered in the range of 150-500 rpm. The pH and temperature of the bioreactor was set at 6.5 and 30 degrees C. The liquid flow rate was kept constant at 0.65 ml/min for the duration of 60 days. The inlet acetate concentration was fed at 4 g/l into the bioreactor. The hydrogen production rate and yield were 16+/-1.1 mmol g(-1)cell h(-1) and 87+/-2.4% at fixed agitation speed of 500 rpm and syngas flow rate of 14 ml/min, respectively. The mass transfer coefficient (KLa) at this condition was approximately 72.8h(-1). This new approach, using a biocatalyst was considered as an alternative method of conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthetic reactions, which were able to convert syngas into hydrogen.

  8. Bio-optical characteristics of a red tide induced by Mesodinium rubrum in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Laurencia; Varela, Ramón; Muller-Karger, Frank; Lorenzoni, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The bio-optical changes of the water induced by red tides depend on the type of organism present, and the spectral characterization of such changes can provide useful information on the organism, abundance and distribution. Here we present results from the bio-optical characterization of a non-toxic red tide induced by the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Particle absorption was high [ap(440) = 1.78 m- 1], as compared to measurements done in the same region [ap(440) = 0.09 ± 0.06 m- 1], with detrital components contributing roughly 11% [ad(440) = 0.19 m- 1]. The remainder was attributed to absorption by phytoplankton pigments [aph(440) = 1.60 m- 1]. These aph values were ~ 15 times higher than typical values for these waters. High chlorophyll a concentrations were also measured (52.73 μg L- 1), together with alloxanthin (9.52 μg L- 1) and chlorophyll c (6.25 μg L- 1). This suite of pigment is typical of the algal class Cryptophyceae, from which Mesodinium obtains its chloroplasts. Remote sensing reflectance showed relatively low values [Rrs(440) = 0.0007 sr- 1], as compared to other Rrs values for the region under high bloom conditions [Rrs(440) = 0.0028 sr- 1], with maxima at 388, 484, 520, 596 and 688 nm. Based on the low reflection in the green-yellow, as compared to other red tides, we propose a new band ratio [Rrs(688)/Rrs(564)] to identify blooms of this particular group of organisms.

  9. Insight into the radiotolerance of the life support bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H by means of phenotypic and transcriptomic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Monsieurs, Pieter; Leys, Natalie

    The MELiSSA life support system from the European Space Agency is targeting the produc-tion of oxygen, water and food by recycling organic waste. Among different types of pro-cesses, MELiSSA uses several interconnected bioreactors inhabited by microorganisms and higher plants (Hendrickx et al., 2006; Mergeay et al., 1988). Because this loop is foreseen to be functional in space where it will be exposed to higher doses and different spectra of ionizing radiation, it was decided to screen the radiotolerance of the organisms used. In this study, the radiotolerance (i.e. tolerance to ionizing radiation) of the photosynthetic bacterium Rho-dospirillum rubrum S1H was investigated. In this test, first the effect of low energy Cobalt-60 gamma rays, were tested. To assess the radiotolerance of bacterium S1H, the survival rate after increasing exposure was determined. R. rubrum S1H appeared relatively radiosensitive, as the radiation dose at which 90% of the population was killed (D10 value) was 4 times lower than the model bacterium Escherichia coli. It was demonstrate that the culture medium has an impact on radiation tolerance. This survival curve also permitted to select a number of sub-lethal ionizing radiation doses (¡ D10 ), that were used to analyze the gene expression response of R. rubrum S1H after gamma irradiation. The microarray transcriptome analysis results ob-tained from different doses and different culture medium showed a significant response of the bacterium to sublethal doses. Potential marker genes for ionizing radiation stress in R. rubrum S1H were identified. By quantitative PCR, it was shown that the expression of these marker genes increased with the recovery time after exposure to ionizing radiation. In other words, the radiation tolerance and the response of R. rubrum S1H to low energy Cobalt-60 gamma ionizing radiation was characterized. Therefore to ensure MELiSSA process robustness during extended space exploration mission, it is advised that

  10. Fructose metabolism of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum: effect of carbon dioxide on growth, and production of bacteriochlorophyll and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Christiane; Grammel, Hartmut

    2012-04-05

    During fermentative metabolism, carbon dioxide fixation plays a key role in many bacteria regarding growth and production of organic acids. The present contribution, dealing with the facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, reveals not only the strong influence of ambient carbon dioxide on the fermentative break-down of fructose but also a high impact on aerobic growth with fructose as sole carbon source. Both growth rates and biomass yield increased with increasing carbon dioxide supply in chemoheterotrophic aerobic cultures. Furthermore, intracellular metabolite concentration measurements showed almost negligible concentrations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate under aerobic growth, in contrast to several metabolites of the glycolysis. In addition, we present a dual phase fed-batch process, where an aerobic growth phase is followed by an anaerobic production phase. The biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and the secretion of organic acids were both affected by the carbon dioxide supply, the pH value and by the cell density at the time of switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. The formation of pigmented photosynthetic membranes and the amount of bacteriochlorophyll were inversely correlated to the secretion of succinate. Accounting the high biotechnological potential of R. rubrum, optimization of carbon dioxide supply is important because of the favored application of fructose-containing fermentable feedstock solutions in bio-industrial processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and functional characterization of NifA variants that are independent of GlnB activation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Yu; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Li, Jilun; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of NifA, the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene, is tightly regulated in response to ammonium and oxygen. However, the mechanisms for the regulation of NifA activity are quite different among various nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Unlike the well-studied NifL–NifA regulatory systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii, in Rhodospirillum rubrum NifA is activated by a direct protein–protein interaction with the uridylylated form of GlnB, which in turn causes a conformational change in NifA. We report the identification of several substitutions in the N-terminal GAF domain of R. rubrum NifA that allow NifA to be activated in the absence of GlnB. Presumably these substitutions cause conformational changes in NifA necessary for activation, without interaction with GlnB. We also found that wild-type NifA can be activated in a GlnB-independent manner under certain growth conditions, suggesting that some other effector(s) can also activate NifA. An attempt to use Tn5 mutagenesis to obtain mutants that altered the pool of these presumptive effector(s) failed, though much rarer spontaneous mutations in nifA were detected. This suggests that the necessary alteration of the pool of effector(s) for NifA activation cannot be obtained by knockout mutations. PMID:18757802

  12. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 2750) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...

  14. [DNA extraction and identification of Trichophyton rubrum by real-time polymerase chain reaction from direct nail scraping specimens of patients with onycomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Elife; Kuştimur, Semra; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Oztaş, O Murat

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most frequently encountered dermatophyte species causing onichomycosis. The routine diagnosis of dermatophytes depends on the direct microscopic examination (DME) and culture methods, however due to the phenotypic identification problems related to those agents, the molecular methods come into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the identification of T.rubrum by comparing to DME and culture methods, from nail samples of patients with the complaints of onychomycosis. A total of 90 patients of whom 58 were male who were admitted to the dermatology outpatients clinics of our hospital with the complaints of color/shape changes in the nails and thickening of the nail, were included in the study, together with the 20 healthy volunteer subjects as controls. The nail scraping samples obtained from the patients and controls were examined with direct microscopy using 15% potassium hydroxide, dimethyl sulphoxide and chlorazole black mixture and cultivated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. For DNA isolation, after the disruption of nail samples with a steel tool, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol purification method were used. The amplification and demonstration of the T.rubrum DNA have been performed by using specific primers and probes following TaqMan protocol of RT-PCR (LightCycler-Roche, USA) method. Seventy-two of the patients yielded positive and 18 yielded negative results with DME. Growth of molds was detected in the cultures of 20 (27.8%) of the 72 DME positive patients and all of the isolates were identified as T.rubrum. No fungal growth was seen in the samples of 18 patients who were DME negative. In DME positive group, 67 (93%) patients were found to be positive in RT-PCR, while 8 (44.4%) patients were RT-PCR positive in DME negative group. All of the culture positive samples (n= 20) were also found positive in RT

  15. Effects of sodium nitrite on Trichophywsis rubrum%亚硝酸钠对红色毛癣菌形态学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟盼琢; 谢红霞; 杨云; 杨晓亮; 冯琴; 王冰心

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the morphological changes of cultured Trichophytosis rubrum treated by sodium nitrite in vitro. Methods: MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthia zol-2-yl)-2,5-diphen- yltetrazolium bromide] microdilution method was used to evaluate the inhibition of Trichophyton rubrum by sodium nitrite in vitro, according to the recommendations of the CLSI(M38-A). The ultrastructural morphology of the fungal strains before and after the sodium nitrite treatment was observed under the scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results: As the concentrations of sodium nitrite as 160 mmol/L, 80 mmol/L, 40 mmol/L, 20 mmol/L,10 mmoi/L, 5 mmol/L, 2.5 mmol/L, or 1.25 mmol/L, the inhibition rates of Trichophyton rubrum were 73.62% ± 9.7%, 71.93% ±1.47%, 73.53% ± 1.14%, 70.80% ± 1.50%, 68.67% ± 1.27%, 41.76% ± 1.53%, 29.59% ± 1.90%, or 16.98% ± 1.82%, respectively.With the concentrations of sodium nitrite decreased, a statistically gradual reduction in the inhibition rate of Trichophyton rubrum was seen (P <0.05). The scanning electron microscopy showed the hyphae were damaged and broken, the surface of the hyphae became rough and shrunken, with many destructive fissures and small holes on it. The transmission electron microscopy showed the hyphae became deformed and irregular, the cell wall was roughly and loosely, the cytoplasm texture obscured and cellular nucleus was of syneresis and quassation. Conclusions: The growth of Trichophytosis rubrum could be inhibited by sodium nitrite in vitro and the morphology of Trichophytosis rubrum could be changed.%目的:观察亚硝酸钠对红色毛癣菌生长的抑制作用.方法:应用美国临床实验室标准化委员会(CLSI)制订的M38-A方案,采用四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)微量稀释法测定亚硝酸钠对红色毛癣菌的体外抑制率.将亚硝酸钠作用前、后的红色毛癣菌制成标本.分别在扫描电子显微镜(扫描电镜)和透射电子显

  16. 红色毛癣菌感染 BalB/C 小鼠肉芽肿模型的构建%Establishment of a model of granuloma infected by Trichophyton rubrum in BalB/C mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄苏扬; 孔庆涛; 沈永年; 杜雪; 杨瑞; 桑红; 刘维达

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trichophyton rubrum strains can cause superficial infection and also deep tissue infection, but relevant animal model has not been reported yet.The aim of this study was to construct an animal model of granuloma infected by T.rubrum. Methods Three T.rubrum strains isolated from clinical granuloma tissues, 2 T.rubrum strains isolated from tinea infection and a standard strain of ATCCMYA4438 were selected.Corticosteroids were given to the Balb/C mice before and after the injection of the T. rubrum and mucin suspension and the mice model of granuloma was established.Direct microcopy, culture and histopathologic method were adopt to verify the infection effects. Results The mice inoculated with the T.rubrum granuloma strains with mucin suspension were examined after 21 days in the condition of applying appropriate dose of glucocorticoids.Direct microscopic examination showed the slender mycelium, fungal culture showed the growth of colony and histopathology showed excessive keratinization of foot tissue, formation of granuloma in the dermis with inflammatory cell infiltration of neutro-philic granulocyte and lymphocytes.However, the mice inoculated with the T.Rubrum tinea strains with mucin suspension showed the negative result. Conclusion The rubrum granuloma mice model can be es-tablished using the clinical isolates of T.rubrum granuloma strains with the mucin and glucocorticoids interventions.%目的:红色毛癣菌不仅引起皮肤浅部感染还可引起深部感染,但相关动物模型研究报道较少。文中拟构建红色毛癣菌感染的癣菌性肉芽肿模型。方法选取临床培养分离出的3株红色毛癣菌肉芽肿菌株、2株体癣株和标准菌株ATCCMYA4438,经糖皮质激素预处理Balb/c鼠,接种红色毛癣菌与黏液素混悬液后追加应用糖皮质激素,构建小鼠红色毛癣菌肉芽肿模型;采用直接镜检、真菌培养和组织病理方法验证感染结果。结果在应用适当剂

  17. AÇÃO DO LASER DE BAIXA INTENSIDADE NA PRODUÇÃO DE METABÓLITOS SECUNDÁRIOS DO DERMATÓFITO TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália Aparecida Waltrick de Brito Siqueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ação do laser arseneto de gálio alumínio (GaAlAs nos comprimentos de onda 685nm e 830nm em cultura de Trichophyton rubrum, foi estudada visando obter  os metabólitos secundários e avaliar  a citotoxicidade dos mesmos em cultura de células. Foram utilizadas cepas do dermatófito T. rubrum provenientes do laboratório de Microbiologia da Universidade do Vale do Paraíba. O cultivo foi realizado em meio de cultura sólido de ágar Sabouraud (Merck, Alemanha em placa de Petri. A colônia de T. rubrum foi irradiada com o laser (GaAlAs a uma distância de 1cm da placa e incubadas em estufa 26ºC. Para o ensaio de citotoxicidade foi utilizada a linhagem ce-lular L929 (tecido conjuntivo de camundongo proveniente do laboratório Adolf Lutz em São Paulo. As células foram plaqueadas e incubadas com o extrato fúngico em diferentes concentrações, por 1 h. Após esta incubação foi reali-zado o teste de Metil tiazol tetrazólio (MTT para avaliação da citotoxicidade. Obteve-se uma diferença no cresci-mento das colônias controle e irradiadas a 685 nm estatisticamente significante (p<0,05. Na análise estatística com-parativa da citotoxicidade causada pelos extratos nas concentrações 2,5 mg/ml e 25x10-6 mg/ml, foi obtido p<0,05, o mesmo ocorreu entre as concentrações 25x10-2 mg/ml e 25x10-6 mg/ml. Na concentração de 25x10-2 mg/ml, observa-se uma elevação considerável (78,55% na atividade mitocondrial dos grupos com tratamento em relação ao controle. O laser GaAlAs, nas condições metodológicas deste estudo, apresentou efeitos no metabolismo celular, alteração de morfologia e da taxa de crescimento da colônia in vitro. O extrato fúngico das colônias irradiadas apre-sentou efeito bioestimulador quando comparado ao extrato obtido do grupo controle e sem tratamento com laser.

  18. A dark-light transition triggers expression of the floral promoter CrFTL1 and downregulates CONSTANS-like genes in a short-day plant Chenopodium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabešová, Jana; Cháb, David; Kolař, Jan; Haškovcová, Kateřina; Štorchová, Helena

    2014-05-01

    The proper timing of flowering is essential for the adaptation of plant species to their ever-changing environments. The central position in a complex regulatory network is occupied by the protein FT, which acts as a florigen. We found that light, following a permissive period of darkness, was essential to induce the floral promoter CrFTL1 and to initiate flowering in seedlings of the short-day plant Chenopodium rubrum L. We also identified two novel CONSTANS-like genes in C. rubrum and observed their rhythmic diurnal and circadian expressions. Strong rhythmicity of expression suggested that the two genes might have been involved in the regulation of photoperiod-dependent processes, despite their inability to complement co mutation in A. thaliana. The CrCOL1 and CrCOL2 genes were downregulated by dark-light transition, regardless of the length of a preceding dark period. The same treatment activated the floral promoter CrFTL1. Light therefore affected CrCOL and CrFTL1 in an opposite manner. Both CrCOL genes and CrFTL1 displayed expression patterns unique among short-day plants. Chenopodium rubrum, the subject of classical physiological studies in the past, is emerging as a useful model for the investigation of flowering at the molecular level.

  19. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  20. Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharayil, Nishanth; Suseela, Vidya; Triebwasser, Daniella J; Preston, Caroline M; Gerard, Patrick D; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    • Climate change could increase the frequency with which plants experience abiotic stresses, leading to changes in their metabolic pathways. These stresses may induce the production of compounds that are structurally and biologically different from constitutive compounds. • We studied how warming and altered precipitation affected the composition, structure, and biological reactivity of leaf litter tannins in Acer rubrum at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment, in Massachusetts, USA. • Warmer and drier climatic conditions led to higher concentrations of protective compounds, including flavonoids and cutin. The abundance and structure of leaf tannins also responded consistently to climatic treatments. Drought and warming in combination doubled the concentration of total tannins, which reached 30% of leaf-litter DW. This treatment also produced condensed tannins with lower polymerization and a greater proportion of procyanidin units, which in turn reduced sequestration of tannins by litter fiber. Furthermore, because of the structural flexibility of these tannins, litter from this treatment exhibited five times more enzyme (β-glucosidase) complexation capacity on a per-weight basis. Warmer and wetter conditions decreased the amount of foliar condensed tannins. • Our finding that warming and drought result in the production of highly reactive tannins is novel, and highly relevant to climate change research as these tannins, by immobilizing microbial enzymes, could slow litter decomposition and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in a warmer, drier world.

  1. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  2. Distinct structures and environments for the three hemes of the cytochrome bc1 complex from Rhodospirillum rubrum. A resonance Raman study using B-band excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, C; Schoepp, B; Othman, S; Verméglio, A; Desbois, A

    1999-01-19

    The B-band excited resonance Raman (RR) spectra (100-1700 cm-1) of the bacterial cytochrome bc1 complex purified from Rhodospirillum rubrum are reported. Four redox states, i.e., the persulfate-oxidized, "as prepared", and ascorbate- and dithionite-reduced states of the complex, were investigated with the laser excitations at 406.7, 413.1, and 441.6 nm. Following the different absorption properties of the b- and c-type hemes and the different resonance enhancements of the vibrational modes of oxidized and reduced hemes, RR contributions from the b- and c-type hemes were characterized. For the nu2, nu10, and nu8 porphyrin vibrational modes, individual contributions of hemes c1, bH, and bL were determined. The data show that the macrocycle conformation of the three hemes of the cytochrome bc1 complex is different. In particular, the frequencies assigned to ferrous heme bL (1580, 1610, and 352 cm-1, respectively) reveal that its porphyrin is more strongly distorted than that of ferrous heme bH (1584, 1614, and 344 cm-1, respectively). The frequencies of the nu11 modes (1543, 1536, and 1526 cm-1 for ferrous heme c1, heme bH, and heme bL, respectively) confirm that the axial histidylimidazole ligands of heme bL have a marked anionic character. Strong differences in the peripheral interactions of the three hemes with the proteins were also detected through the frequency differences of the nu5, nu13, nu14, and nu42 modes. Considering that hemes bH and bL are inserted into a four-helice bundle, the RR data are interpreted in the frame of a strong protein constraint on heme bL.

  3. In vitro model of infected stratum corneum for the efficacy evaluation of poloxamer 407-based formulations of ciclopirox olamine against Trichophyton rubrum as well as differential scanning calorimetry and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-10-15

    Superficial fungal skin infections are a common disease and concern 20-25% of the world's population with the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum being the main trigger. Due to autoinoculation, fungal skin infections of the feet (tinea pedis) often occur simultaneously with fungal nail infections (onychomycosis). Therefore, the overall objective was the development and characterisation of poloxamer 407-based formulations with the antimycotic active ingredient ciclopirox olamine (CPX) for simultaneous antifungal therapy. The formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, water, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. The in vitro antifungal efficacy against T. rubrum was tested in a novel in vitro model of infected stratum corneum in comparison to a marketed semi-solid formulation containing 1% (w/w) ciclopirox olamine and a marketed nail lacquer containing 8% ciclopirox. Several liquid poloxamer 407-based formulations with only 1% CPX completely inhibited fungal growth after 6 days of incubation, whereas the marketed semi-solid formulation did not inhibit fungal growth. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealing the interaction between the formulations and the SC showed that increasing isopropyl alcohol/propylene glycol concentrations as well as increasing CPX concentrations caused increasing endothermic transition shifts. Moreover, stability studies at 30 °C exhibited only a slight decrease of the CPX amount after 12 months of storage. Each formulation contained >90% of the initial CPX concentration after termination of the stability studies.

  4. Contrasting nutritional acclimation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. and red maple (Acer rubrum L. to increasing conifers and soil acidity as demonstrated by foliar nutrient balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Collin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall, SM is believed to be more sensitive to acidic and nutrient-poor soils associated with conifer-dominated stands than red maple (Acer rubrum L., RM. Greater foliar nutrient use efficiency (FNUE of RM is likely the cause for this difference. In the context of climate change, this greater FNUE could be key in favouring northward migration of RM over SM. We used the concept of foliar nutrient balances to study the nutrition of SM and RM seedlings along an increasing gradient in forest floor acidity conditioned by increasing proportions of conifers (pH values ranging from 4.39 under hardwoods, to 4.29 under mixed hardwood-conifer stands and 4.05 under conifer-dominated stands. Nutrients were subjected to isometric log-ratio (ilr transformation, which views the leaf as one closed system and considers interactions between nutrients. The ilr method eliminates numerical biases and weak statistical inferences based on raw or operationally’’ log-transformed data. We analyzed foliar nutrients of SM and RM seedlings and found that the [Ca,Mg,K|P,N] and [Ca,Mg|K] balances of SM seedlings were significantly different among soil acidity levels, whereas they did not vary for RM seedlings. For SM seedlings, these differences among soil acidity levels were due to a significant decrease in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations with increasing forest floor acidity. Similar differences in foliar balances were also found between healthy and declining SM stands estimated from literature values. Conversely, foliar balances of RM seedlings did not differ among soil acidity levels, even though untransformed foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly different. This result highlights the importance of using ilr transformation, since it provides more sensitive results than standard testing of untransformed nutrient concentrations. The lower nutrient requirements of RM and its greater capacity to maintain nutrient equilibrium are

  5. 红色毛癣菌致慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病的临床分析%Clinical analysis on chronically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆涛; 邓琳; 李宗辉; 胡治丽; 梅寰; 桑红; 刘维达

    2015-01-01

    目的:慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病患者较少见。文中探讨红色毛癣菌所致的慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病的原因及诊疗方法。方法收集南京军区南京总医院2012年6月至2014年6月就诊的5例红色毛癣菌所致的慢性复发性泛发型体癣患者,取患者皮损进行真菌镜检及培养,对其中1例典型患者(病程7年,趾甲严重累及、皮疹全身泛发)的皮损进行组织病理学检查,对其不同部位皮损处分离的4株菌株行微生物学及分子生物学研究,并根据体外药敏试验进行药物选择。结果患者皮损处真菌学检查见大量有隔分枝的菌丝,培养及分子生物学鉴定为红色毛癣菌。不同皮损处菌株基因型鉴定为同一菌株。组织病理示鳞状上皮轻度增生,表面角化过度,真皮浅层血管周围少量淋巴细胞浸润。 PAS染色表皮见少量有隔菌丝。确诊后给予口服伊曲康唑,外用特比萘芬乳膏,酮康唑洗剂洗浴等综合治疗取得良好效果。结论慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病,对病原菌的分离鉴定尤为重要,且应注意患者有无指/趾甲的累及,治疗不能仅针对体癣治疗,而应结合药敏试验采取综合治疗。%Objective There have been a few reports on chronically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum.This article was to investigate the cause, diagnosis and therapy of the mycosis. Methods 5 patients with chron-ically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum were collected from June 2012 to June 2014 in our hospital.Bacterioscopic examination and cultivation were made on skin lesions of the patients.A typical patient who had 7-year course of desease with toenails seriously infected and widespread skin eruption was selected for histopathology examination on skin lesions, mi-crobiology and molecular biology study on 4 bacterial strains isolated

  6. Probing the effect of the binding site on the electrostatic behavior of a series of carotenoids reconstituted into the light-harvesting 1 complex from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum detected by stark spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Katsunori; Suzuki, Satoru; Fujii, Ritsuko; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Nango, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2008-08-01

    Reconstitutions of the LH1 complexes from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 were performed with a range of carotenoid molecules having different numbers of C=C conjugated double bonds. Since, as we showed previously, some of the added carotenoids tended to aggregate and then to remain with the reconstituted LH1 complexes (Nakagawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Fujii, R.; Gardiner, A.T.; Cogdell, R.J.; Nango, M.; Hashimoto, H. Photosynth. Res. 2008, 95, 339-344), a further purification step using a sucrose density gradient centrifugation was introduced to improve purity of the final reconstituted sample. The measured absorption, fluorescence-excitation, and Stark spectra of the LH1 complex reconstituted with spirilloxanthin were identical with those obtained with the native, spirilloxanthin-containing, LH1 complex of Rs. rubrum S1. This shows that the electrostatic environments surrounding the carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules in both of these LH1 complexes were essentially the same. In the LH1 complexes reconstituted with either rhodopin or spheroidene, however, the wavelength maximum at the BChl a Qy absorption band was slightly different to that of the native LH1 complexes. These differences in the transition energy of the BChl a Qy absorption band can be explained using the values of the nonlinear optical parameters of this absorption band, i.e., the polarizability change Tr(Deltaalpha) and the static dipole-moment change |Deltamu| upon photoexcitation, as determined using Stark spectroscopy. The local electric field around the BChl a in the native LH1 complex (ES) was determined to be approximately 3.0x10(6) V/cm. Furthermore, on the basis of the values of the nonlinear optical parameters of the carotenoids in the reconstituted LH1 complexes, it is possible to suggest that the conformations of carotenoids, anhydrorhodovibrin and spheroidene, in the LH1 complex were similar to that of rhodopin glucoside in crystal structure of

  7. Influence of Cd{sup 2+} on the spin state of non-heme iron and on protein local motions in reactions centers from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirilium rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska, M [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Orzechowska, A [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 4 (Poland); Fiedor, J; Slezak, T; Zajac, M; Matlak, K; Korecki, J; Halas, A; Burda, K [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 19 (Poland); Chumakov, A I [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Strzalka, K; Fiedor, L, E-mail: burda@novell.ftj.agh.edu.p [Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Krakow, Gronostajowa 7 (Poland)

    2010-03-01

    Non-heme Fe is a conservative component of the Q-type photosynthetic reaction centers but its function remains unknown. Applying Moessbauer spectroscopy we show that in Rhodospirillum rubrum the non-heme Fe exists mostly in a ferrous low spin state. The binding of Cd{sup 2+} ions in the vicinity of the quinone-Fe complex changes the high spin state of the non-heme Fe into a low spin one characterized by hyperfine parameters similar to those obtained for the non-heme Fe low spin state in untreated reaction centers, as confirmed by Moessbauer measurements. The nuclear inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation experiments show that the contribution of vibrations at low energies, between 3-15 meV, activated at 240 K are damped in the bacterial reaction centers treated with CdCl{sub 2}. No influence of Cd{sup 2+} ions is observed on the soft vibrational states at 60 K. These results suggest that binding of cadmium cations within the reaction centers may enhance decoupling of the non-heme Fe from the surrounding protein matrix at temperatures higher than 200 K, what can explain the slowing down of electron transfer between the Q{sub A} and Q{sub B} quinones by Cd{sup 2+}.

  8. 7 CFR 52.1856 - Sizes of zante currant raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type V-Zante...

  9. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides in bilberries and black currants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.

    2007-01-01

    During berry juice production, polysaccharides are released from the cell walls and cause thickening and high viscosity when the berries are mashed. Consequences are a low juice yield and a poor colour. This can be prevented by the use of enzymes that degrade these polysaccharides. To use these enzy

  10. PCR fingerprint identification of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes using single primers specific to minisatellites and simple repetitive DNA sequence%用微小卫星引物PCR鉴定红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红梅; 廖万清; 戴建新; 李志刚; 吴建华; 温海

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌临床分离株DNAPCR指纹的差异,找出一种区分红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的基因分类方法。方法:采用寡核苷酸重复序列(GACA)4、(GTG)5及M13中心序列(5′-GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT-3′)3种引物,对23株红色毛癣菌和11株须癣毛癣菌临床分离株的DNA进行PCR扩增,观察产物电泳带型的差异。结果:在3种引物的扩增产物中,均可见红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌呈现出不同的DNA指纹,其中,以引物(GACA)4扩增的条带差异最为清晰。结论:红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌可以用PCR方法加以鉴别,以(GACA)4作引物区分这两种菌较为合适。%Objective: To observe the difference between the speciesTrichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.Methods: Three primers, including (GACA)4, (GTG)5 and M13 core sequence (5′-GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT-3′), were used to distinguish variations among 23 clinical isolates of T. rubrum and 11 of T. mentagrophytes. Results: Different PCR-fingerprinting were seen between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes by using 3 different primers, especially amplification with primer (GACA)4 could give more distinct bands. Conclusion: T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes can be distinguished by PCR, (GACA)4 is the most suitable primer.

  11. Isolation of RNA from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, M; Taylor, M A; Davies, H V; Brennan, R M; McNicol, R J

    1997-02-01

    Extraction of high-quality RNA from blackcurrant fruit has hitherto proved difficult, probably owing to high levels of phenolic and polysaccharide components in the berries. The procedure described here is a modification of one described for grape berries, and yields RNA suitable for in vitro translations, RNA blot analysis, and cDNA library construction.

  12. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  13. Effect of the aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extract of dried leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca (coca in Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Candida albicans in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medalit Luna-Vílchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of the aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extract of dried leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca (coca in Trichophyton rubrum (TR, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (TM, Microsporum canis (MC and Candida albicans (CA in vitro. Materials and methods: An experimental study which evaluated the presence or absence of fungal growth, and fungal growth rate from the seeding point, compared to fungal growth in Sabouraud Agar (SA using Siegel-Tukey and KruskalWallis tests (p<0.05. Results: The CA group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. aqueous, 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, control vs. aqueous, 0.01M HCl vs. control. The TR group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. aqueous, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, 0.01M HCl vs. control. The TM group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, aqueous vs. acid, aqueous vs. control. The MC group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, aqueous vs. acid, aqueous vs. control. In all the cases, the results of the 0.01M HCl vs. aqueous group were not significant. Conclusions: The aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extracts have no effect on the growth of CA and TM, but the alcoholic extract has effects on the growth of TR and MC. In addition, there were differences in the growth rate of CA, TR and TM in the aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extracts compared to that in SA. However only TR, TM and MC showed differences in their growth rate in the alcoholic extract.

  14. Electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy supports the suggested coordination of two histidine ligands to the Rieske Fe-S centers of the cytochrome b sub 6 f complex of spinach and the cytochrome bc sub 1 complexes of Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26, and bovine heart mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, R.D.; Sauer, K.; Klein, M.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Knaff, D.B.; Kriauciunas, A. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (USA)); Yu, Changan; Yu, Linda (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA)); Malkin, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1991-02-19

    Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments performed on the Rieske Fe-S clusters of the cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex of spinach chloroplasts and of the cytochrome bc{sub 1} complexes of Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26, and bovine heart mitochondria show modulation components resulting from two distinct classes of {sup 14}N ligands. At the g = 1.92 region of the Rieske EPR spectrum of the cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex, the measured hyperfine couplings for the two classes of coupled nitrogens are A{sub 1} = 4.6 MHz and A{sub 2} = 3.8 MHz. Similar couplings are observed for the Rieske centers in the three cytochrome bc{sub 1} complexes. These ESEEM results indicate a nitrogen coordination environment for these Rieske Fe-S centers that is similar to that of the Fe-S cluster of a bacterial dioxygenase enzyme with two coordinated histidine ligands. The Rieske Fe-S cluster lacks modulation components from a weakly coupled peptide nitrogen observed in water-soluble spinach ferredoxin. Treatment with the quinone analogue inhibitor DBMIB causes a shift in the Rieske EPR spectrum to g = 1.95 with no alteration in the magnetic couplings to the two nitrogen atoms. However, the ESEEM pattern of the DBMIB-altered Rieske EPR signal shows evidence of an additional weakly coupled nitrogen similar to that observed in the spinach ferrodoxin ESEEM patterns.

  15. Towards new sources of resistance to the currant-lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri)

    OpenAIRE

    Walley, Peter Glen; Hough, Gemma; Moore, Jonathan D; Carder, John; Elliott, Marian; Mead, Andrew; Jones, Julie; Teakle, Graham R; Barker, Guy C.; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Hand, Paul; Pink, David; Collier, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Domesticated lettuce varieties encompass much morphological variation across a range of crop type groups, with large collections of cultivars and landrace accessions maintained in genebanks. Additional variation not captured during domestication, present in ancestral wild relatives, represents a potentially rich source of alleles that can deliver to sustainable crop production. However, these large collections are difficult and costly to screen for many agronomically important traits. In this...

  16. Physical Parameters and Chemical Composition of Fourteen Blackcurrant Cultivars (Ribes nigrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Dariusz OCHMIAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 2009-2011 at the Fruit Farming Laboratory of the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin at the experimental Station in Ostoja (northwestern Poland. The fourteen blackcurrant bushes of Scottish, Ukrainian and Polish breeding were tested. Physical features of fruits (fruit size, firmness, puncture of the skin, colour, the force required to separate the fruit from the stem and soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and phenolic composition were measured on fresh berries mmediately after the harvest were performed on fresh fruits. The ‘Ben Alder’ cultivar was characterised by the smallest fruits; the weight of 100 fruits from this cultivar was 81.2 g, while the weight of ‘Jubilejnaja Kopana’, ‘Wernisaz’, ‘Tines’ and ‘Ben Conan’ was over 200 g. The Scottish cultivars from the Ben group, Polish cultivars and Saniuta cultivars were characterised by the greatest firmness and resistance to damage. The ‘Ben Alder’ cultivar had the highest polyphenol content (789 mg 100 g of fruits, and anthocyanins were the largest group of compounds. The fruit skins were of a dark colour, and were much darker than the flesh. After the maceration process, the juice was much darker than the fruits, from which it was obtained.

  17. REFLEXIONES SOBRE LA TAXONOMÍA CONDUCTUAL DE RIBES Y LÓPEZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Borja Castañeda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se sostiene que las funciones contextual y suplementaria son conceptualmente innecesarias en la taxonomía conductual. De igual modo, se afirma que la función selectora debe redefinirse para considerarla el primer nivel de desligamiento funcional. En menor medida, se comentan las funciones sustitutivas y los medios de contacto.

  18. Cutin composition of five finnish berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Heikki; Nieminen, Riikka; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Hakala, Mari

    2006-01-25

    The raw cutin (i.e., extractive-free isolated cuticular membrane) fraction from Finnish berries, sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides), black currant (Ribes nigrum), cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), was depolymerized by NaOMe-catalyzed methanolysis. The composition of cutin monomers was determined by GC-(EI)MS analysis either as methyl esters or as TMSi esters, with OH groups derivatized to TMSi ethers. There was a notable difference in the degree of depolymerization, ranging from 6 to 47%. The extractive-free berry cuticle, that is, raw cutin, thus contains cutin. The predominant cutin monomers were C(16) and C(18) omega-hydroxy acids with midchain functionalities, mainly epoxy and hydroxyl groups. Typically, the major compounds were 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid. The amount of epoxyacids was rather high in sea buckthorn ( approximately 70%) and cranberry ( approximately 60%), compared with the other berries. The black currant cutin differed from that of the other berries with a significant portion of hydroxyoxohexadecanoic acid ( approximately 12% of total monomers). This investigation of the cuticular hydroxy acids of five Finnish berries is part of the exploitation of the northern natural resources related to the chemical composition, nutritional value, and sensory properties.

  19. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  20. Detection, stability and redox effects of black currant anthocyanin glycosides in vivo: Positive identification by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L. F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins are ingested as the red and blue coloured pigments in berries and red wine. They are potent antioxidants and their redox actions might positively affect health. It is therefore of interest to device a method to determine these compounds in blood and excreta, and to determine...

  1. A comparison of liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry methods to determine xyloglucan structures in black currants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Jong, de L.E.; Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Different separation (HPAEC, RP¿HPLC, CE) and identification (MALDI¿TOF¿MS, ESI¿MSn) techniques were compared to analyse oligosaccharides obtained after incubation of xyloglucan with endo-glucanase. It was possible to analyse xyloglucan oligosaccharides with each technique. Several techniques, inclu

  2. Migration Monitoring of Blackcurrant Gall Mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw. from Buds to Leaves on Several Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The blackcurrant gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis is the most important pest of blackcurrant crops. Over recent years withdrawal from plant protection programmes of chemical products (endosulfan and amitraz used for the control of this pest in Poland, has led to an observed increase in population numbers. In 2013, fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC became registered for control of this pest. It is deemed best that chemical protection should be used during the migration period; when big gall mites emerge from buds in search of new buds. The studies were carried out in a plantation of blackcurrants during 2011-2013. The assessment of migration of the blackcurrant gall mite was carried out on the cultivars ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alde’r, ‘Ojeby’n and ‘Ruben’. Every year, from selected cultivars buds were collected. They were then placed on blackcurrant leaves within Petri dishes. After one, three and five days of placing buds on the leaves, the estimated number of eriophyid mites on the leaves was calculated. The data has shown a very useful method for monitoring blackcurrant gall mite, which can be used in calculating the treatment dates for this pest. Also, the data has shown that differences in the periods of migration of the mite are dependent on the cultivar and time of flowering. Among the cultivars observed the least susceptible to colonization by the blackcurrant gall mite was a Polish cultivar ‘Ruben’, while the most susceptible cultivar was ‘Ben Hope’.

  3. Incidensen af børnediabetes i Danmark. En prospektiv registrering i Fyns, Ribe, Sønderjyllands og Vejle amter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Kreutzfeld, J C; Lund, E B

    1997-01-01

    through 1993 concerning new cases of the disease. A total of 201 cases (113 boys and 88 girls) were registered, corresponding with a sex- and age-adjusted incidence rate of 17.4 per 100,000 person-years. Based on a validation analysis the study material is considered virtually complete. Overall......To provide contemporary figures of the incidence of childhood onset diabetes mellitus in Denmark, a prospective routine registration system has been established. The present study covered the population of children aged 0-14 years in four Danish counties, observed during the calendar years 1989......, the incidence among boys was slightly higher than among girls, but not statistically significantly so. The incidence rate increased with age for both boys and girls. The results confirm that the incidence of childhood onset diabetes in Denmark is relatively high. Compared with previous Danish studies there has...

  4. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  5. Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Newfoundland Berries and Potential Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Hossain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V. angustifolium, lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea and black currant (Ribes lacustre. Anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides in powdered extracts from Ribes lacustre and the Vaccinium species were identified using the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC separation method with mass spectrometric (MS detection. The identified compounds were extracted from dried berries by various solvents via ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. A reverse-phase analytical column was employed to identify the retention time of each chemical component before submission for LC–MS analysis. A total of 21 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the three species. Further, we tested the effects of the lingonberry extract for its ability to protect neurons and glia from trauma utilizing an in vitro model of cell injury. Surprisingly, these extracts provided complete protection from cell death in this model. These findings indicate the presence of a wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols in berries that grow natively in Newfoundland. These powdered extracts maintain these compounds intact despite being processed from berry fruit, indicating their potential use as dietary supplements. In addition, these recent findings and previous data from our lab demonstrate the ability of compounds in berries to protect the nervous system from traumatic insults.

  6. Molluscs associated with a Sardinian deep water population of Corallium rubrum (Linnι, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Molluscan species living in association with Corallium rubrumcolonies are poorly known. Specimensfound on the branches of red coral colonies located off Capo Caccia (Alghero – SS, West Sardinia,Mediterranean Sea were studied by analyzing red coral branches collected at a depth of between 100 and120 m; their assemblage was made up of 44 species, all belonging to the classes Gastropoda and Bivalvia.Some data on the geographical distribution, ecology, taxonomy and dominance of these species, bothalive and dead, are given and the most interesting are commented on. Among the recorded species Triviamultilirata, Simnia purpurea, Coralliophila brevis, Ocinebrina paddeui, Pleurotomella demosia, Palliolumstriatum and Pseudamussium sulcatum deserve attention. Moreover, the second finding of livingspecimens of Asperarca secreta, described only on loose valves, is reported, and finally the prey-predatorrelationships among several gastropods and Cnidarians are confirmed.

  7. Leaf Shape Responds to Temperature but Not CO2 in Acer rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT) across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2) concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate recon...

  8. Identification of chromatophore membrane protein complexes formed under different nitrogen availability conditions in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selao, Tiago Toscano; Branca, Rui; Chae, Pil Seok

    2011-01-01

    expressed proteins, such as subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex and other TCA cycle enzymes that are usually found in the cytosol, thus hinting at a possible association to the membrane in response to nitrogen deficiency. We propose a redox sensing mechanism that can influence the membrane...

  9. Feeding behaviour and performance of different populations of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    When crops are bred for resistance to herbivores, these herbivores are under strong selection pressure to overcome this resistance, which may result in the emergence of virulent biotypes. This is a growing problem for crop species attacked by aphids. The Nr-gene in lettuce confers near-complete

  10. Currant imaging of the 3rd, 4th and 6th cranial nerves; Nevroradiologisk fremstilling av 3., 4. og 6. hjernenerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerty, Emilia; Bakke, Soeren Jacob

    2001-07-01

    The ocular motor cranial nerves (III, IV, VI) control the eye movements in a near association with the higher cortical areas. Clinically, the most common presentation of abnormal ocular motility is double vision. Identifying the cause of ocular nerve pulsy can be difficult and a large percentage of such cases still remains undiagnosed, even in a new era of neuroradiological techniques. Close co-operation between the clinician and the radiologist is necessary for the selection of the best imaging methods for the specific clinical problem, in order to see the aetiological and topological diagnosis. The article provides a practical review of advances in neuroimaging of the ocular motor nerves. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 15 refs.

  11. Development of Resources of Black Currant and Other Berries (III)%黑加仑等浆果资源开发(三)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白超

    2015-01-01

    The continuous introduction of blackcurrant and other berries resource development included production technology, formulation, process operating points and personal experience, as well as berry processing technology, trends and current situation of development in fruit wine, fresh raw juices, senior carbonated beverages, sparkling wine and a series of products, fruit juice beverage products, blackcurrant Petite Champagne, jelly, jam, fruit juice and other products.%连续介绍黑加仑等浆果资源开发:果酒、新鲜原果汁、高级碳酸饮料、汽酒及系列产品、果汁饮料系列产品、黑加仑小香槟、果冻、果酱、浓缩果汁等产品的生产技术、配方、工艺操作要点及个人体会,以及浆果加工新技术,发展趋势和我国开发现状。

  12. On the performance of topobathymetric LiDAR in shallow water environments: the Ribe Vesterå river and the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergely, Aron; Andersen, Mikkel S.; Teglbrænder-Bjergkvist, Mathias

    Shallow water environments in the land-sea transition zone are challenging to map in high spatial resolution at large spatial scales. Historically this has led to gaps (white ribbons) between terrestrial and marine surveys. Topobathymetric LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging), also referred...... to as green LiDAR which is able to penetrate through water, holds the potential to close this gap. However, water column turbidity poses limitations to the penetration of the green laser beam, and water column refraction of the laser beam poses limitations to the scale of features which can be resolved...... at the seabed. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of topobathymetric LiDAR in shallow water environments in relation to resolving small-scale morphological features at landscape scale. More specifically, the objectives are: 1) to determine the spatial resolution as well as the horizontal...

  13. On the performance of topobathymetric LiDAR in shallow water environments: the Ribe Vesterå river and the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergely, Aron; Andersen, Mikkel S.; Teglbrænder-Bjergkvist, Mathias;

    2015-01-01

    to as green LiDAR which is able to penetrate through water, holds the potential to close this gap. However, water column turbidity poses limitations to the penetration of the green laser beam, and water column refraction of the laser beam poses limitations to the scale of features which can be resolved...... is a function of water depth and water column refraction. The horizontal and vertical precision of the LiDAR system is at sub-decimetre scale at a 95% confidence level. This suggests that topobathymetric LiDAR is capable of resolving relatively small-scale morphological features in challenging shallow water...

  14. Simulated changes in biogenic VOC emissions and ozone formation from habitat expansion of Acer Rubrum (red maple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Beth A.; Snyder, Peter K.; Steiner, Allison L.; Twine, Tracy E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    A new vegetation trend is emerging in northeastern forests of the United States, characterized by an expansion of red maple at the expense of oak. This has changed emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), primarily isoprene and monoterpenes. Oaks strongly emit isoprene while red maple emits a negligible amount. This species shift may impact nearby urban centers because the interaction of isoprene with anthropogenic nitrogen oxides can lead to tropospheric ozone formation and monoterpenes can lead to the formation of particulate matter. In this study the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System was used to estimate the spatial changes in BVOC emission fluxes resulting from a shift in forest composition between oak and maple. A 70% reduction in isoprene emissions occurred when oak was replaced with maple. Ozone simulations with a chemical box model at two rural and two urban sites showed modest reductions in ozone concentrations of up to 5-6 ppb resulting from a transition from oak to red maple, thus suggesting that the observed change in forest composition may benefit urban air quality. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring and representing changes in forest composition and the impacts to human health indirectly through changes in BVOCs.

  15. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale) var. Rubrum) With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanudin; Rochmadi,; Wiratni; Meri Yulvianti; Dhena Ria Barleany; Widya Ernayati

    2015-01-01

    Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP) concentration against the emulsio...

  16. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP concentration against the emulsion droplet size and determine the encapsulation efficiency of red ginger oleoresin. Encapsulation method was done by mixing 2% chitosan solution with 1% acetic acid, 1% sodium alginate and 8 g of red ginger oleoresin. The mixture was stirred and added sodium tripolyphosphate (3.5, 4.5 and 5.5%, respectively, emulsion preparation process was done by adding tween 80 (3, 4 and 5%, respectively and then stirred using homogenizer with a speed of 22,000 rpm, emulsions formed were analyzed using nano-particle analyzer. Emulsion formed was flowed on to the spray dryer inlet temperature of 180°C to form a powder encapsulation. Powder products were analyzed for determining encapsulation efficiency and morphology of red ginger oleoresin powder using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Based on the research results, the smallest droplet size of the emulsion was obtained at 481.5 nm and the largest encapsulation efficiency was as high as 70.59%.

  17. The development and utilization prospect and approach of the characteristic economic forest of west area of Liaoning%辽宁西部地区特色经济林开发利用前景与途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铮; 王莹; 冯望

    2014-01-01

    The species character , application prospect and development and utilization prospect and approach of the charac -teristic economic forest of Aronia melanocarpa, Ribes rubrum L., Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt., Hippophaaerhamnoidesi, Cerasus humilis ( Bunge ) Sak and Hybrid hazelnuts which were suitable to develop in Liaoxi area was elucidated .Especially laying emphasis on developing characteristic economic forest species in the degraded site of Liaoxi area for the sake of a -chieving the dual function of protecting ecology and developing economy .%本文阐述了适宜辽西地区发展的黑果腺肋花楸、红醋栗、桤叶唐棣、大果沙棘、钙果、平欧杂交榛子等特色经济林树种特性、应用前景和开发利用途径。在辽西困难立地条件下,开发利用特色经济林树种,可以达到保护生态和发展经济的双重作用。

  18. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in QU-DB Cells after Acute and Fractionated Irradiation: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Kamran Samani, Roghayeh; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation effects induced in non-irradiated cells are termed radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). The present study intends to examine the RIBE response of QU-DB bystander cells to first, second and third radiation fractions and compare their cumulative outcome with an equal, single acute dose. This experimental study irradiated three groups of target cells for one, two and three times with(60)Co gamma rays. One hour after irradiation, we transferred their culture media to non-irradiated (bystander) cells. We used the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay to evaluate RIBE response in the bystander cells. The numbers of micronuclei generated in bystander cells were determined. RIBE response to single acute doses increased up to 4 Gy, then decreased, and finally at the 8 Gy dose disappeared. The second and third fractions induced RIBE in bystander cells, except when RIBE reached to the maximum level at the first fraction. We split the 4 Gy acute dose into two fractions, which decreased the RIBE response. However, fractionation of 6 Gy (into two fractions of 3 Gy or three fractions of 2 Gy) had no effect on RIBE response. When we split the 8 Gy acute dose into two fractions we observed RIBE, which had disappeared following the single 8 Gy dose. The impact of dose fractionation on RIBE induced in QU-DB cells de- pended on the RIBE dose-response relationship. Where RIBE increased proportion- ally with the dose, fractionation reduced the RIBE response. In contrast, at high dos- es where RIBE decreased proportionally with the dose, fractionation either did not change RIBE (at 6 Gy) or increased it (at 8 Gy).

  19. An efficient and provable secure revocable identity-based encryption scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changji Wang

    Full Text Available Revocation functionality is necessary and crucial to identity-based cryptosystems. Revocable identity-based encryption (RIBE has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, many RIBE schemes have been proposed in the literature but shown to be either insecure or inefficient. In this paper, we propose a new scalable RIBE scheme with decryption key exposure resilience by combining Lewko and Waters' identity-based encryption scheme and complete subtree method, and prove our RIBE scheme to be semantically secure using dual system encryption methodology. Compared to existing scalable and semantically secure RIBE schemes, our proposed RIBE scheme is more efficient in term of ciphertext size, public parameters size and decryption cost at price of a little looser security reduction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction of scalable and semantically secure RIBE scheme with constant size public system parameters.

  20. An efficient and provable secure revocable identity-based encryption scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changji; Li, Yuan; Xia, Xiaonan; Zheng, Kangjia

    2014-01-01

    Revocation functionality is necessary and crucial to identity-based cryptosystems. Revocable identity-based encryption (RIBE) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, many RIBE schemes have been proposed in the literature but shown to be either insecure or inefficient. In this paper, we propose a new scalable RIBE scheme with decryption key exposure resilience by combining Lewko and Waters' identity-based encryption scheme and complete subtree method, and prove our RIBE scheme to be semantically secure using dual system encryption methodology. Compared to existing scalable and semantically secure RIBE schemes, our proposed RIBE scheme is more efficient in term of ciphertext size, public parameters size and decryption cost at price of a little looser security reduction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction of scalable and semantically secure RIBE scheme with constant size public system parameters.

  1. 南岸区酸雨污染现状及成因分析%On Currant Status of Acid Rain Pollution in Nan'an District of Chongqing and Its Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘筱琳; 李杰; 熊万明; 曾雪梅; 钟成华

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive analysis of precipitation data in Nan'an District in the past 10 years,this study deals with the pollution characteristics and the changing tendency of acid rain in this area. The result shows that contaminants can be eliminated by precipitation,and the formation of acid rain does not have direct relationship with the concentration of air contaminants,but the amount of precipitation,air temperature,wind speed,relative humidity and so on. Meantime,this study has concluded that the fundamental causes for acid rain in Nan'an District and Chongqing are the massive emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide,the bad diffusion condition for air contaminants caused by the physiognomy of mountain city and the steamy weather condition.%在对重庆市南岸区近十年的降水监测数据进行综合分析的基础上,研究了南岸区酸雨污染特征和变化趋势,分析了酸雨的成因.结果表明,降水对空气污染物有清除作用,但酸雨的形成与空气污染物浓度无直接关联,而是取决于降水量、气温、风速、相对湿度等气象因子.大量二氧化硫和氮氧化物的排放、不利于污染物扩散的山城地貌以及潮湿闷热的气象条件是导致南岸乃至重庆酸雨污染的根本原因.

  2. The study of relation between black currant's morphological tissue postmortem structure and the overwintering death%黑穗醋栗越冬死亡与其形态组织解剖构造关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国慧; 龚束芳; 睢薇

    2001-01-01

    试验以穗醋栗的野生种兴安茶、越冬力强的栽培品种奥衣宾和越冬力弱的栽培品种利桑佳的一年生枝条为试材,通过观察其外部形态和内部组织解剖构造以及结合田间调查,以确定其形态构造和其越冬死亡的关系.结果表明,黑穗醋栗越冬死亡和其品种自身特性有关.黑穗醋栗髓部发达,髓部细胞排列疏松,细胞间隙较大,因而其一年生枝条越冬容易失水.越冬力弱的利桑佳的一年生枝条皮孔的相对面积、导管相对面积较兴安茶、奥衣宾大,落叶时间和基生枝顶芽形成时间也晚,因此其散失水分能力强,越冬时枝条易失水干枯死亡.

  3. 21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Pineapple, Raspberry, red raspberry, Rhubarb, Strawberry, Tangerine, Tomato, Yellow tomato, Youngberry Group..., Nectarine, Peach, Pear, Plum (other than greengage plum and damson plum), Quince, Red currant,...

  4. 78 FR 40136 - Metaldehyde; Amendment To Terminate Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ..., dewberry, lowberry, marionberry, olallieberry, red raspberry, youngberry) and other berries (currant..., ornamentals, prickly pear cactus, tomato, strawberry, watercress, and use sites with directions for use...

  5. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available By using an incomplete factorial mating design between twenty Pinus strobus L. female and seven P. wallichiana Jack. male trees, a number of 34 full-sib families were obtained. The objective of this experiment was to combine the fast growing of the former species with moderately to high resistance to blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fich. in Rabenh. of the latter one. The hybrid families were artificially inoculated at age two, and field planted at age four. The plantation took place within an old black current (Ribes nigrum L. heavy infected by blister rust. In order to provoke new infections, this time naturally, the pine rows were planted in between the black currant ones. Diameters at breast height, tree height, tree growth rate volume, stem straightness and tree survivals were the traits measured at age 32 from seed. The first trial thinning was simultaneously applied with the present measurements. The average tree survival was 74.8% in hybrids, 8.3% in Pinus strobus and 27.8% in P. wallichiana. Highly significant (p < 0.01 differences were found between hybrid families for all traits except stem straightness. Genetic coefficient of variation at family level was 13.7% for tree volume growth rate and 15.9% for tree survival, but only 2.1% for tree straightness. Broad-sense family heritability estimates were 0.530 for diameter at breast height, 0.596 for stem height, and 0.564 for stem volume growth rate, 0.166 for stem straightness, and 0.539 for tree survivals. Similarly, the individual tree narrow-sense heritability estimates were 0.138 for diameter at breast height, 0.209 for stem height, 0.149 for stem volume growth rate, and 0.022 for stem straightness. If the best 5, 10 and 15 of 34 families were selected, a genetic gain of 17.7%, 13.4% and 10.2%, respectively, may be achieved in tree survival or blister rust resistance. Similarly, if the best 5%, 10% and 15% individuals within the best hybrid families were selected, a genetic gain of

  6. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By using an incomplete factorial mating design between twentyPinus strobus L. female and seven P. wallichiana Jack. male trees, a number of 34 full-sib families were obtained. The objective of this experiment was to combine the fast growing of the former species with moderately to high resistance to blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fich. in Rabenh. of the latter one. The hybrid families were artificially inoculated at age two, and field planted at age four. The plantation took place within an old black current (Ribes nigrum L. heavy infected by blister rust. In order to provoke new infections, this time naturally, the pine rows were planted in between theblack currant ones. Diameters at breast height, tree height, tree growth rate volume, stem straightness and tree survivals were the traits measured at age 32 from seed. The first trial thinning was simultaneously applied with the present measurements. The average tree survival was 74.8% in hybrids, 8.3% in Pinus strobus and 27.8% in P. wallichiana. Highly significant (p < 0.01 differences were found between hybrid families for all traits except stem straightness. Genetic coefficient of variation at family level was 13.7% fortree volume growth rate and 15.9% for tree survival, but only 2.1% for tree straightness. Broad-sense family heritability estimates were 0.530 for diameter at breast height, 0.596 for stem height, and 0.564 for stem volume growth rate, 0.166 for stem straightness, and 0.539 for tree survivals. Similarly, the individual tree narrow-sense heritability estimates were 0.138 for diameter at breast height, 0.209 for stem height, 0.149 for stem volume growth rate, and 0.022 for stem straightness. If the best 5, 10 and 15 of 34 families wereselected, a genetic gain of 17.7%, 13.4% and 10.2%, respectively, may be achieved in tree survival or blister rust resistance. Similarly, if the best 5%, 10% and 15% individuals within the best hybrid families were selected, a genetic gain of 4

  7. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Mahfudli Fadli, U.; Bayu Prasada, A.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber, Cinnamomum, Curcuma, and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO2), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm2. Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm2. Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm2. Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm2. Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye.

  8. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  9. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  10. Ciliary-propelling mechanism, effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming speed, and adaptive significance of ‘jumping’ in the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2009-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles, not only for water pumping in many active filter-feeding organisms, but also for the swimming activity of ciliates and other aquatic organisms that use cilia for propulsion. The present study concerns the effect of temperature-dependent viscosity of the amb...

  11. AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA MINYAK ESENSIAL JAHE MERAH (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum DAN LENGKUAS MERAH (Alpinia purpurata K. Schum TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN DAN PERUSAK PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tita Rialita

    2015-05-01

    pertumbuhan bakteri uji pada nilai MIC 2,65-3,97 mg/mL dan nilai MBC 3,10-5,29 mg/mL, sedangkan minyak esensial lengkuas merah dapat menghambat bakteri uji dengan nilai MIC 1,79-4,03 mg/mL dan nilai MBC 1,79-4,92 mg/mL. Berdasarkan nilai MIC dan MBC, sensitivitas bakteri uji terhadap minyak esensial jahe merah dan lengkuas merah menurun berturut-turut dari B. cereus > E. coli > S. typhimurium > P. aeruginosa. Sensitivitas bakteri Gram positif dan Gram negatif terhadap kedua minyak esensial ini menunjukkan potensi minyak esensial jahe merah dan lengkuas merah untuk digunakan sebagai pengawet alami di industri pangan. Kata kunci: Antimikroba, jahe merah, lengkuas merah, minyak esensial

  12. Product Standarization of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum Simplicia through Washing Time, Slice Thickness and Raw Materials Drying Process Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Kusumawati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available On this study has been conducted product standardization of ginger and red ginger simplicias as one of post-harvest processed form. To get ginger and red ginger simplicia product with high quality, has been done the optimization on the stage of washing, slicing, and drying process. Optimization has done in a range of 1-3 minutes washing time and raw material sliced thickness of 0.15 cm and 0.30 cm. In addition, the production of the entire simplicia has done with three drying methods, including sundried, sunlight through the intermediary of black fabric and dried by the oven. Specifically for the dried by the oven, has conducted optimization on the drying temperatures of 70° C; 85° C; 100˚C; and 115˚C. The analysis results of active compound content in the simplicia product indicates that the product of ginger and red ginger simplicia with optimum quality has obtained from the production process by washing time for 1 minute, slicing thickness of 0.15 cm, and oven drying method using temperature of 115° C. The ginger and red ginger simplicia product with optimum active compound content obtained by drying time, each for 310 minutes and 280 minutes. The ginger simplicia products contain essential oils, oleoresins, zingiberene in essential oils, gingerol and shogaol in the oleoresins, each by 1.7%; 0.86%; 56.90%; 42.50%; and 21.54%. Meanwhile, the red ginger simplicia products contain essential oils, oleoresins, zingiberene in essential oils, gingerol and shogaol in the oleoresins, each by 2.11%; 0.88%; 78.60%; 80.06%; and 8.02%. Thus, it can be said that, overall, red ginger simplicia product contains an active compound higher than the ginger simplicia product.

  13. The effect of temperature and extraction period of time on the chemicals content of emprit ginger ethanol extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningrum, Diah; Endah, Een Sri; Pudjiraharti, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Research on extraction method of emprit ginger using ethanol with agitation of 100 rpm at different temperatures (ambient temperature, 40, and 50°C) and various extraction period of times (30, 60, and 90 minutes) was conducted. Analysis of chemicals content i.e. total phenolic and total flavonoid. The objective of this work was to study the effect of temperatures and extraction period of times on the chemicals content of its ethanol extract. Based on the results of the test, the highest content total flavonoid (5.17% w/w) was resulted at 40°C for 90 minutes, while the total phenolic content was not affected by either temperature or extraction period of times used. The content of total phenolic was around 2.39% to 2.65% w/w.

  14. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klongsiriwet, Chaweewan; Quijada, Jessica; Williams, Andrew Richard

    2015-01-01

    the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins) and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones). The larval...

  15. Anthocyanins increase low-density lipoprotein and plasma cholesterol and do not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L. F.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2005-01-01

    Anthocyanin-rich beverages have shown beneficial effects on coronary heart disease in epidemiological and intervention studies. In the present study, we investigated the effect of black currant anthocyanins on atherosclerosis. Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits (n = 61) were fed either...... a purified anthocyanin fraction front black currants, a black currant juice, probucol or control diet for 16 weeks. Purified anthocyanins significantly increased plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Intake of black currant juice had no effect on total plasma cholesterol......, but lowered very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol significantly. There were no significant effects of either purified anthocyanins or black currant juice on aortic cholesterol or development of atherosclerosis after 16 weeks. Probucol had no effect on plasma cholesterol but significantly lowered...

  16. Modulation of modeled microgravity on radiation-induced bystander effects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Qiao [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Xu, Wei; Li, Fanghua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Huasheng; Lu, Jinying [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Min [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Bian, Po [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The effects of microgravity on the radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) were definitely demonstrated. • The effects of microgravity on RIBE might be divergent for different biological events. • The microgravity mainly modified the generation or transport of bystander signals at early stage. - Abstract: Both space radiation and microgravity have been demonstrated to have inevitable impact on living organisms during space flights and should be considered as important factors for estimating the potential health risk for astronauts. Therefore, the question whether radiation effects could be modulated by microgravity is an important aspect in such risk evaluation. Space particles at low dose and fluence rate, directly affect only a fraction of cells in the whole organism, which implement radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) in cellular response to space radiation exposure. The fact that all of the RIBE experiments are carried out in a normal gravity condition bring forward the need for evidence regarding the effect of microgravity on RIBE. In the present study, a two-dimensional rotation clinostat was adopted to demonstrate RIBE in microgravity conditions, in which the RIBE was assayed using an experimental system of root-localized irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants. The results showed that the modeled microgravity inhibited significantly the RIBE-mediated up-regulation of expression of the AtRAD54 and AtRAD51 genes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transcriptional activation of multicopy P35S:GUS, but made no difference to the induction of homologous recombination by RIBE, showing divergent responses of RIBE to the microgravity conditions. The time course of interaction between the modeled microgravity and RIBE was further investigated, and the results showed that the microgravity mainly modulated the processes of the generation or translocation of the bystander signal(s) in roots.

  17. Assessment of The Dose-Response Relationship of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Two Cell Lines Exposed to High Doses of Ionizing Radiation (6 and 8 Gy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Khademi, Sara; Azimian, Hosein; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman

    2017-10-01

    The dose-response relationship of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is controversial at high dose levels. The aim of the present study is to assess RIBE at high dose levels by examination of different endpoints. This experimental study used the medium transfer technique to induce RIBE. The cells were divided into two main groups: QU-DB cells which received medium from autologous irradiated cells and MRC5 cells which received medium from irradiated QU-DB cells. Colony, MTT, and micronucleus assays were performed to quantify bystander responses. The medium was diluted and transferred to bystander cells to investigate whether medium dilution could revive the RIBE response that disappeared at a high dose. The RIBE level in QU-DB bystander cells increased in the dose range of 0.5 to 4 Gy, but decreased at 6 and 8 Gy. The Micronucleated cells per 1000 binucleated cells (MNBN) frequency of QU-DB bystander cells which received the most diluted medium from 6 and 8 Gy QU-DB irradiated cells reached the maximum level compared to the MNBN frequency of the cells that received complete medium (Pbystander cells. This finding confirmed that a negative feedback mechanism was responsible for the decrease in RIBE response at high doses. Decrease of RIBE at high doses might be used to predict that in radiosurgery, brachytherapy and grid therapy, in which high dose per fraction is applied, normal tissue damage owing to RIBE may decrease.

  18. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Liping; Yu, K N; Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Environ: E00750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00750 Glochidion shaft Crude drug Glochidion rubrum [TAX:271533], Glochidion philip...picum [TAX:271531] Phyllanthaceae (leaf flower family) Glochidion rubrum, Glochidion philippicum shaft (mix

  20. Final Environmental Assessment: Construction of SWMU 74 Groundwater Extraction and Convenience System Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    occidentalis - (Liquidambar styraciflua, Acer rubrum) / (Carpinus caroliniana) / Onoclea sensibilis Forest Salix nigra - Acer (rubrum, saccharinum) / Alnus ...Vegetation Eleocharis microcarpa - Juncus repens - Rhynchospora corniculata - (Mecardonia acuminata - Proserpinaca spp) Herbaceous Vegetation Panicum

  1. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...

  2. Childhood intussusception in Ile-ife: What has changed? | Talabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to review our current experience in the management of childhood intussusception and ... More than half of the patients presented after 24 hours. Passage of red currant stool, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and abdominal ...

  3. Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (FAME) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    products, fish, onions, rice, frog legs, shrimp, mangoes , seeds, spices Hungary potatoes, onions, strawberries, spices, mushrooms, grapes, cherries, currant...for nuclear radiation damage evaluation and hardening programs. Radiation effects testing for satellite, missile, aircraft, and SDI programs

  4. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, V.W.Y.; Wong, M.Y.P. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: appetery@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work, the influence of a low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) liberated from tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium (II) (CORM-3) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE was assessed through the number of apoptotic signals revealed on embryos at 25 h post fertilization (hpf). A significant attenuation of apoptosis on the bystander embryos induced by RIBE in a CO concentration dependent manner was observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIBE between zebrafish embryos in vivo was assessed by the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 10 and 20 {mu}M CORM-3 entirely suppressed the RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 5 {mu}M CORM-3 significantly attenuated the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactive CORM-3 did not lead to suppression of RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of RIBE by CO depended on the concentration of CORM-3.

  5. Manipulation of radiation-induced bystander effect in prostate adenocarcinoma by dose and tumor differentiation grade: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubin, Slavisa; Valeriani, Maurizio; Salerno, Gerardo; Bracci, Stefano; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Cardelli, Patrizia; Osti, Mattia Falchetto; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Minniti, Giuseppe; Maurizi Enrici, Riccardo

    2015-02-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the ability of prostate adenocarcinoma (ADC) cells to induce radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) exploring the factors that may be responsible and affect its intensity. The idea was to mimic a strong, clinically applicable RIBE that could lead to the development of innovative approaches in modern radiotherapy of prostate cancer, especially for those patients with hormone-refractory ADC in which radiotherapy might have a limited role. Two human prostate cancer cell lines of different differentiation, PC-3 and DU-145, have been irradiated using wide range of doses to obtain radiation-conditioned medium (RCM), which was used to treat the unirradiated cells and to evaluate the cytokines level. Using a trypan blue dye exclusion method, cell growth was assessed. Prostate ADC cells were able to induce RIBE; intensity depended on dose and cell differentiation. RIBE intensity of DU-145 was not correlated with the cytokines level, while for PC-3 Interleukin-6 (IL-6) correlates with strongest RIBE induced by 20 Gy. RIBE can be manipulated by modifying radiation dose and depends on cell differentiation status. IL-6 correlates with RIBE after exposure of PC-3 to a very high dose of radiation, thus indicates its possible involvement in bystander signaling.

  6. Overexpression of SKP2 Inhibits the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects of Esophageal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chun Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effects of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2 expression on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE in esophageal cancer (EC cells. Materials and Methods: Western blot was used to detect the levels of SKP2, Rad51, and Ku70 in EC cells. Positive transfection, RNAi, micronucleus (MN, and γ-H2AX focus formation assay were used to investigate the effects of SKP2 on RIBE induced by irradiated cells. Results: We found a significant negative correlation between SKP2 expression and MN frequency (p < 0.05 induced by RIBE. The results were further confirmed by positive transfection, RNAi, and rescue experiments.γ-H2AX focus formation assay results indicated that overexpression of SKP2 in the irradiated cells inhibited the DNA damage of RIBE cells. However, when SKP2 expression decreased in irradiated cells, the DNA damage of RIBE cells increased. Increased or decreased expression levels of SKP2 had effects on Rad51 expression under the conditions of RIBE. Conclusions: These results showed, for the first time, that SKP2 expression can inhibit RIBE of EC cells. The mechanism may function, at least partly, through the regulation of Rad51 in the ability to repair DNA damage.

  7. , 2522, 2527, 2575, 2591, 2620, 2637, 2639, 2663, 2860, 3079, 3276, 3564, 3818, 4324, 4329, 4351, 4397, 4416, 4424, 4507, 4527, 4528, 4542, 4611, 4629, 4659) and bioavailability of anthocyanins in black currants (ID 4220) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    EFSA-Q-2008-1644 , EFSA-Q-2008-1935 , EFSA-Q-2008-1949 , EFSA-Q-2008-1954 , EFSA-Q-2008-2043 , EFSA-Q-2008-2049 , EFSA-Q-2008-2177 , EFSA-Q-2008-2178 , EFSA-Q-2008-2402 , EFSA-Q-2008-2404 , EFSA-Q-2008-2428 , EFSA-Q-2008-2633 , EFSA-Q-2008-2647 , EFSA-Q-2008-2650 , EFSA-Q-2008-2681 , EFSA-Q-2008-...

  8. A brief review of revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yang Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of ID-based cryptography has received much attention from researchers. However, how to revoke the misbehaviour/compromised user in ID-based public key cryptosystem becomes an important research issue. Recently, Tseng and Tsai proposed a novel public key cryptosystem called revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem (RIBE to solve the revocation problem. Later on, numerous research papers based on the Tseng-Tsai key RIBE were proposed. In this paper, we brief review Tseng and Tsai's RIBE. We hope this review can help the readers to understand the Tseng and Tsai's revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem.

  9. 巢式PCR诊断甲真菌病中红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌%Nested PCR in the diagnosis of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes infections in onychomycosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 童中胜; 万喆; 陈伟; 胡志敏; 李若瑜

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价巢式PCR诊断甲真菌病中红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的敏感性和特异性.方法:液氮冷冻甲标本,微量法提取DNA,应用特异性引物,巢式PCR方法扩增DNA.结果:36例直接镜检和培养均为阳性的甲标本,培养显示24例为红色毛癣菌,12例为须癣毛癣菌.巢式PCR中First PCR 34例阳性,34例标本均产生了650 bp目的片段;Nest PCR 32例阳性,32例中有22例标本产生了137 bp的片段,为红色毛癣菌;10例标本产生了102 bp的片段,为须癣毛癣菌.PCR敏感性为88.9%,特异性为100%.结论:巢式PCR是一种快速、特异和敏感的诊断甲真菌病中红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的方法.

  10. Observation on Variation Process of the Fall-color Leaf of Different Cultivars of Acer rubrum%美国红枫不同品种秋色叶变化过程的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高焕章; 赵振军; 王斌成; 陈红艳; 税玉成; 何玉枝

    2013-01-01

    以美国红枫改良品种系列中3个品种“秋红枫”(Autumn Flaze)、“十月光辉”(OctoberGlory)和“夕阳红”(Red Sunset)的容器苗为试材,采用同一视野定时拍照的方法,研究了秋季叶色变化过程.结果表明:“秋红枫”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月28日,共34 d,其中最佳观叶期为6d,秋叶变色期为27 d,落叶期为27 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-橙红色-红色.“十月光辉”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月22日,共28 d,其中最佳观叶期为7d,秋叶变色期为21 d,落叶期为27 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-黄色.“夕阳红”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月26日,共32 d,其中最佳观叶期10 d,秋叶变色期为22 d,落叶期23 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-黄色-橙红色.综上所述,“夕阳红”的观赏效果最好,其次是“十月光辉”和“秋红枫”.该研究结果为上述3个美国红枫品种的园林应用提供了实践依据.

  11. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce bystander factors and induce radiation bystander effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammad Taghi Toossi; Shokoufeh Mohebbi; Roghayeh Samani; Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard

    2014-01-01

      Radiation damages initiated by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) are not limited to the first or immediate neighbors of the irradiated cells, but the effects have been observed in the cells far from the irradiation site...

  12. Effects of radiation on levels of DNA damage in normal non-adjacent mucosa from colorectal cancer cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, Juliette

    2013-03-01

    Defects in DNA repair pathways have been linked with colorectal cancer (CRC). Adjuvant radiotherapy has become commonplace in the treatment of rectal cancer however it is associated with a higher rate of second cancer formation. It is known that radiation results in DNA damage directly or indirectly by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) by causing double-strand breaks (DSBs). The majority of work in RIBE has been performed in cell lines and limited studies have been in or ex vivo.

  13. Novel features of radiation-induced bystander signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated using root micro-grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ting; Li, Fanghua; Xu, Wei; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; WU, LIJUN

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been well demonstrated in whole organisms, as well as in single-cell culture models in vitro and multi-cellular tissues models in vitro, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, including the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling. The RIBE in vivo has been shown to exist in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). Importantly, the unique plant grafting provides a delicate approach for studying the temporal and s...

  14. SU-D-16A-03: A Radiation Pneumonitis Dose-Response Model Incorporating Non- Local Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J; Snyder, K; Zhong, H; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dose-response models that can reliably predict radiation pneumonitis (RP) to guide radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer presently do not exist. A model is proposed that incorporates non-local radiationinduced bystander effect (RIBE). Methods: A single sigmoid response function, derived from published data for whole lung irradiation, relates RP probability to cumulative lung damage, regardless of fractionation scheme. Lung damage is assumed to be caused by direct local radiation damage, quantified via the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, and RIBE. Based on published data, RIBE is assumed to be activated when per-fraction dose rises above ∼0.6 Gy, but is constant with dose above that threshold. Integral RIBE damage is assumed proportional to lung volume irradiated above ∼0.6 Gy per fraction. Key model parameters include LQ α and β, and two RIBE parameters: the single-fraction probability δ of damage, and a proportionality parameter κ that relates the potential for RIBE damage to irradiated lung volume. All parameters are tentatively fitted from published data, the RIBE parameters from published RP rates for conventionally fractionated RT (CFRT) and stereotactic body RT (SBRT). Results: The model predicts dose-response curves that are consistent with clinical experience. It provides a tentative explanation for why V20 (33 fractions), V13 (20 fractions) and V5 (<10 fractions) are observed to be correlated with RP. It also provides a plausible explanation for the success of SBRT — RIBE damage increases with the number of fractions, so penalizes CFRT relative to SBRT. Conclusion: The proposed model is relatively simple, extrapolates from published data, plausibly explains several clinical observations, and produces dose-response curves that are consistent with clinical experience. While capable of elaboration, its ability to explain doseresponse experience with different fractionation schemes using a small number of assumptions and parameters is an

  15. Differential modulation of a radiation-induced bystander effect in glioblastoma cells by pifithrin-α and wortmannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chunlin; Zhang, Jianghong; Prise, Kevin M.

    2010-03-01

    The implication of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) for both radiation protection and radiotherapy has attracted significant attention, but a key question is how to modulate the RIBE. The present study found that, when a fraction of glioblastoma cells in T98G population were individually targeted with precise helium particles through their nucleus, micronucleus (MN) were induced and its yield increased non-linearly with radiation dose. After co-culturing with irradiated cells, additional MN could be induced in the non-irradiated bystander cells and its yield was independent of irradiation dose, giving direct evidence of a RIBE. Further results showed that the RIBE could be eliminated by pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) but enhanced by wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor). Moreover, it was found that nitric oxide (NO) contributed to this RIBE, and the levels of NO of both irradiated cells and bystander cells could be extensively diminished by pifithrin-α but insignificantly reduced by wortmannin. Our results indicate that RIBE can be modulated by p53 and PI3K through a NO-dependent and NO-independent pathway, respectively.

  16. Low Concentration of Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Modulates Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Mammalian Cell Cluster Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenqing; Nie, Lili; Yu, K N; Wu, Lijun; Kong, Peizhong; Bao, Lingzhi; Chen, Guodong; Yang, Haoran; Han, Wei

    2016-12-08

    During radiotherapy procedures, radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) can potentially lead to genetic hazards to normal tissues surrounding the targeted regions. Previous studies showed that RIBE intensities in cell cluster models were much higher than those in monolayer cultured cell models. On the other hand, low-concentration carbon monoxide (CO) was previously shown to exert biological functions via binding to the heme domain of proteins and then modulating various signaling pathways. In relation, our previous studies showed that exogenous CO generated by the CO releasing molecule, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (CORM-2), at a relatively low concentration (20 µM), effectively attenuated the formation of RIBE-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and micronucleus (MN). In the present work, we further investigated the capability of a low concentration of exogenous CO (CORM-2) of attenuating or inhibiting RIBE in a mixed-cell cluster model. Our results showed that CO (CORM-2) with a low concentration of 30 µM could effectively suppress RIBE-induced DSB (p53 binding protein 1, p53BP1), MN formation and cell proliferation in bystander cells but not irradiated cells via modulating the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) andcyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The results can help mitigate RIBE-induced hazards during radiotherapy procedures.

  17. Low Concentration of Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Modulates Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Mammalian Cell Cluster Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During radiotherapy procedures, radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE can potentially lead to genetic hazards to normal tissues surrounding the targeted regions. Previous studies showed that RIBE intensities in cell cluster models were much higher than those in monolayer cultured cell models. On the other hand, low-concentration carbon monoxide (CO was previously shown to exert biological functions via binding to the heme domain of proteins and then modulating various signaling pathways. In relation, our previous studies showed that exogenous CO generated by the CO releasing molecule, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (CORM-2, at a relatively low concentration (20 µM, effectively attenuated the formation of RIBE-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB and micronucleus (MN. In the present work, we further investigated the capability of a low concentration of exogenous CO (CORM-2 of attenuating or inhibiting RIBE in a mixed-cell cluster model. Our results showed that CO (CORM-2 with a low concentration of 30 µM could effectively suppress RIBE-induced DSB (p53 binding protein 1, p53BP1, MN formation and cell proliferation in bystander cells but not irradiated cells via modulating the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS andcyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. The results can help mitigate RIBE-induced hazards during radiotherapy procedures.

  18. Radiation-induced bystander effect: early process and rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, K N; Hou, Jue; Liu, Qian; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a biological process that has received attention over the past two decades. RIBE refers to a plethora of biological effects in non-irradiated cells, including induction of genetic damages, gene expression, cell transformation, proliferation and cell death, which are initiated by receiving bystander signals released from irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose radiation than we previously thought. Detection with proteins related to DNA damage and repair, cell cycle control, proliferation, etc. have enabled rapid assessment of RIBE in a number of research systems such as cultured cells, three-dimensional tissue models and animal models. Accumulated experimental data have suggested that RIBE may be initiated rapidly within a time frame as short as several minutes after radiation. These have led to the requirement of techniques capable of rapidly assessing RIBE itself as well as assessing the early processes involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Target and Bystander Cells in Dose-Response Relationship of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in Two Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Mohebbi, Shokoufe

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Radiation effect induced in nonirradiated cells which are adjacent or far from irradiated cells is termed radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Published data on dose-response relationship of RIBE is controversial. In the present study the role of targeted and bystander cells in RIBE dose-response relationship of two cell lines have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Two cell lines (QU-DB and MRC5) which had previously exhibited different dose-response relationship were selected. In the previous study the two cell lines received medium from autologous irradiated cells and the results showed that the magnitude of damages induced in QU-DB cells was dependent on dose unlike MRC5 cells. In the present study, the same cells irradiated with 0.5, 2 and 4 Gy gamma rays and their conditioned media were transferred to nonautologous bystander cells; such that the bystander effects due to cross-interaction between them were studied. Micronucleus assay was performed to measure the magnitude of damages induced in bystander cells (RIBE level). Results: QU-DB cells exhibited a dose-dependent response. RIBE level in MRC5 cells which received medium from 0.5 and 2 Gy QU-DB irradiated cells was not statistically different, but surprisingly when they received medium from 4Gy irradiated QU-DB cells, RIBE was abrogated. Conclusion: Results pertaining to QU-DB and MRC5 cells indicated that both target and bystander cells determined the outcome. Triggering the bystander effect depended on the radiation dose and the target cell-type, but when RIBE was triggered, dose-response relationship was predominantly determined by the bystander cell type. PMID:24298387

  20. The key role of miR-21-regulated SOD2 in the medium-mediated bystander responses in human fibroblasts induced by α-irradiated keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wenqian; Yin, Xiaoming; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Jianping [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College of Soochow University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215123 (China); Yang, Hongying, E-mail: yanghongying@suda.edu.cn [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College of Soochow University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215123 (China); Institute of Radiotherapy & Oncology, Soochow University (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • After co-culture with α-irradiated HaCaT cells, WS1 cells displayed oxidative stress and DNA damage. • Increased miR-21 expression in bystander cells was critical to the occurrence of RIBEs. • SOD2 of bystander cells played an important role in bystander responses. • miR-21 mediated bystander effects through its regulation on SOD2. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is well accepted in the radiation research field by now, but the underlying molecular mechanisms for better understanding this phenomenon caused by intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction are still incomplete. Although our previous study has demonstrated an important role of miR-21 of unirradiated bystander cells in RIBEs, the direct evidence for the hypothesis that RIBE is epigenetically regulated is still limited and how miR-21 mediates RIBEs is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to be involved in RIBEs, however, the roles of anti-oxidative stress system of cells in RIBEs are unclear. Using transwell insert co-culture system, we investigated medium-mediated bystander responses in WS1 human fibroblasts after co-culture with HaCaT keratinocytes traversed by α-particles. Results showed that the ROS levels in unirradiated bystander WS1 cells were significantly elevated after 30 min of co-culture, and 53BP1 foci, a surrogate marker of DNA damage, were obviously induced after 3 h of co-culture. This indicates the occurrence of oxidative stress and DNA damage in bystander WS1 cells after co-culture with irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 was increased in bystander WS1 cells, downregulation of miR-21 eliminated the bystander responses, overexpression of miR-21 alone could induce bystander-like oxidative stress and DNA damage in WS1 cells. These data indicate an important mediating role of miR-21 in RIBEs. In addition, MnSOD or SOD2 in WS1 cells was involved in the bystander effects

  1. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Liping [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, Wei, E-mail: hanw@hfcas.cn [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy.

  2. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    or shrub species in reference standard sites, but may dominate in degraded systems Quercus laurifolia Acer rubrum Celtis laevigata Quercus...but may dominate in degraded systems Carya aquatica Acer rubrum Carpinus caroliniana Fraxinus pennsylvanica Diospyros virginiana Crataegus spp...Celtis laevigata Cretaegus spp Nyssa sylvatica Fraxinus pennsylvanica Diospyros americana Quercus pagoda Liquidambar styraciflua Ilex opaca

  3. Ion microbeam irradiation for radiobiology and radical chemistry: status and prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodja, H, E-mail: hicham.khodja@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, SIS2M, LEEL, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CNRS, UMR 3299, SIS2M, LEEL, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-01

    Ion microbeams are commonly used to study local irradiation effects in living cells, as it has been established that ion beam irradiations can lead to deleterious changes in cells that are not struck directly by the microbeam. Such changes, which take place over distances long compared to the size of the irradiation spot and for times long compared to the time of irradiation, are collectively termed radiation-induced bystander effect or RIBE. Free-radical chemistry is frequently invoked to explain the RIBE but no unified model is available at present. Ion microbeams when coupled with advanced methods for observing free radicals are the tools of choice for investigating the chemistry and biological processes governing RIBE.

  4. The effect of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles on radiation bystander effect induced in MCF-7 and QUDB cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Atefeh; Toossi, Mohammad Thaghi Bahreyni; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman

    2016-11-01

    Due to biocompatibility and relative non-toxic nature, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been studied widely to be employed in radiotherapy as radio-sensitizer. On the other hand, they may enhance radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), which causes radiation adverse effects in non-irradiated normal cells. The present study was planned to investigate the possibility of augmenting the RIBE consequence of applying glucose-coated gold nanoparticles (Glu-GNPs) to target cells. Glu-GNPs were synthesized and utilized to treat MCF7 and QUDB cells. The treated cells were irradiated with 100 kVp X-rays, and their culture media were transferred to non-irradiated bystander cells. Performing MTT cellular proliferation test and colony formation assay, percentage cell viability and survival fraction of bystander cells were determined, respectively, and were compared to control bystander cells which received culture medium from irradiated cells without Glu-GNPs. Glu-GNPs decreased the cell viability and survival fraction of QUDB bystander cells by as much as 13.2 and 11.5 %, respectively (P bystander cells. Different RIBE responses were observed in QUDB and MCF7 loaded with Glu-GNPs. Glu-GNPs increased the RIBE in QUDB cells, while they had no effects on RIBE in MCF7 cells. As opposed to QUDB cells, the RIBE in MCF7 cells did not change in the dose range of 0.5-10 Gy. Therefore, it might be a constant effect and the reason of not being increased by Glu-GNPs.

  5. Role of the MAPK pathway in the observed bystander effect in lymphocytes co-cultured with macrophages irradiated with γ-rays or carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Ren, Ruiping; Xie, Yuexia; Yuan, Dexiao; Dang, Bingrong; Li, Wenjian; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-04-15

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has potential implications in cancer risks from space particle radiation; however, the mechanisms underlying RIBE are unclear. The role of the MAPK pathway in the RIBEs of different linear energy transfer (LET) was investigated. Human macrophage U937 cells were irradiated with γ-rays or carbon ions and then co-cultured with nonirradiated HMy2.CIR (HMy) lymphocytes for different periods. The activation of MAPK proteins and the generation of intracellular nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the irradiated U937 cells were measured. Micronuclei (MN) formation in the HMy cells was applied to evaluate the bystander damage. Some U937 cells were pretreated with different MAPK inhibitors before irradiation. Additional MN formation was induced in the HMy cells after co-culturing with irradiated U937 cells, and the yield of this bystander MN formation was dependent on the co-culture period with γ-ray irradiation but remained high after 1h of co-culture with carbon irradiation. Further investigations disclosed that the time response of the RIBEs had a relationship with LET, where ERK played a different role from JNK and p38 in regulating RIBEs by regulating the generation of the bystander signaling factors NO and ROS. The finding that the RIBE of high-LET radiation could persist for a much longer period than that of γ-rays implies that particle radiation during space flight could have a high risk of long-term harmful effects. An appropriate intervention targeting the MAPK pathway may have significant implications in reducing this risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An Investigation of the Effects of Raw Garlic on Radiation-induced Bystander Effects in MCF7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is a phenomenon in which radiation signals are transmitted from irradiated cells to non-irradiated ones, inducing radiation effects in these cells. RIBE plays an effective role in radiation response at environmentally relevant low doses and in radiotherapy, given its impact on adjacent normal tissues or those far from the irradiated tumor. Reactive oxygen species contribute to RIBE induction. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of garlic, as an antioxidant-containing plant, on RIBE. Materials and Methods MCF7 cells, treated with raw garlic extracts, were irradiated by 60Co gamma rays, and their culture medium was transferred to non-irradiated autologous bystander cells. Percentage cell viability and micronucleus formation in both irradiated and bystander cells were examined and compared with corresponding cell groups, not treated with garlic. Results Treatment with garlic extract reduced the number of micronucleus-containing cells in both irradiated and bystander cells. However, it only increased the percentage cell viability in bystander cells, not the irradiated ones. Conclusion RIBE was effectively suppressed by raw garlic extracts. Inhibitory effects of raw garlic may be of particular importance for exposure to environmentally relevant low doses, where RIBE dominates direct radiation effects. They are also partially important for addressing the limited therapeutic gain of radiotherapy, as they may only increase the percentage cell viability of bystander cells, not the directly irradiated tumor cells. However, more comprehensive in-vivo research regarding garlic treatment duration is required to support the obtained results.

  7. Influence of domestic processing and storage on flavonol contents in berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, S H; Kärenlampi, S O; Mykkänen, H M; Törrönen, A R

    2000-07-01

    Effects of domestic processing and storage on the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in five berries were studied using an optimized RP-HPLC method with UV and diode array detection after an acid hydrolysis of the corresponding glycosides. In fresh berries, the total content of flavonols was highest in lingonberry (169 mg/kg) and black currant (157 mg/kg), intermediate in bilberry (41 mg/kg) and strawberry (17 mg/kg), and lowest in red raspberry (9.5 mg/kg). Cooking strawberries with sugar to make jam resulted in minor losses (quercetin 15%, kaempferol 18%). During cooking of bilberries with water and sugar to make soup, 40% of quercetin was lost. Traditional preservation of crushed lingonberries in their own juice caused a considerable (40%) loss of quercetin. Only 15% of quercetin and 30% of myricetin present in unprocessed berries were retained in juices made by common domestic methods (steam-extracted black currant juice, unpasteurized lingonberry juice). Cold-pressing was superior to steam-extraction in extracting flavonols from black currants. During 9 months of storage at 20 C, quercetin content decreased markedly (40%) in bilberries and lingonberries, but not in black currants or red raspberries. Myricetin and kaempferol were more susceptible than quercetin to losses during storage.

  8. Separation of monoglycosides from fruit juice by diafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Norddahl, Birgir

    The process of separating sugars from anthocyanins in black currant juice has been investigated. Diafiltration on a laboratory scale flat sheet module (Labstk M20, Alfa Laval Nakskov A/S, Denmark) loaded with an ultrafiltration membrane (ETNA01-PP, MWCO = 1,000 Da, Alfa Laval Nakskov A/S, Denmark...

  9. Unravelling the resistance mechanism of lettuce against Nasonovia ribisnigri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids are serious pests of crop plant species, and host plant resistance is often the most effective and environmentally friendly control strategy to control these pests. One of these aphid pests is the black currant - lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely), an economically important pest of

  10. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  11. Seems like I hardly see them around anymore: Historical geographies of Cottonwood decline along the Wind River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottonwoods—as well as the water birch, bull berry, and currants that flourish in their galleries—hold special significance for Tribes of the Intermountain American West. These species have served ceremonial and practical purposes for generations. Yet cottonwoods have experienced well-documented dec...

  12. 40 CFR 180.128 - Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cotton, undelinted seed, postharvest 1.0 Crabapple, postharvest 1.0 Currant, postharvest 1.0 Dewberry, postharvest 1.0 Fig, postharvest 1.0 Flax, seed, postharvest 1.0 Goat, fat 1.0 Goat, meat 0.05 Goat, meat... Loganberry, postharvest 1.0 Mango, postharvest 1.0 Milk, fat (reflecting negligible residues in milk)...

  13. 77 FR 30524 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ..., Mediterranean mandarin, Mount White lime, New Guinea wild lime, Russell River lime, sweet lime, tachibana orange... (fresh leaves), chive (fresh leaves), elegans hosta, fritillaria (leaves), kurrat, wild leek, lady's leek..., crop group 8-10 including African eggplant, bush tomato, cocona, currant tomato, garden...

  14. Update: Complications and management of infrarenal EVAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, J.V.P. [Department of Intervention Radiology, St Mary' s Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS, Praed Street, London W1C 1NY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jvpliaw@hotmail.com; Clark, M. [Department of Intervention Radiology, St Mary' s Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS, Praed Street, London W1C 1NY (United Kingdom); Gibbs, R.; Jenkins, M.; Cheshire, N. [Department of Vascular Surgery, St Mary' s Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS (United Kingdom); Hamady, M. [Department of Intervention Radiology, St Mary' s Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS, Praed Street, London W1C 1NY (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is now an established technique for treating many patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. Familiarity with the complications associated with this technique and understanding treatment options are crucial for the lifelong performance of stent graft. This pictorial review article describes the currant role of different imaging modalities in surveillance and discusses the complications and its management strategies.

  15. Mapping and quantifying geodiversity in land-water transition zones using MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Andersen, Mikkel S.; Gergely, Aron;

    of the Wadden Sea National Park and UNESCO World Heritage, and in the Ribe Vesterå, a fluvial environment in the Ribe Å river catchment discharging into the Knudedyb tidal basin. Detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) with a grid cell size of 0.5 m x 0.5 m were generated from the MBES and the LiDAR point...... clouds, which both have point densities in the order of 20 points/m2. Morphometric analyses of the DEMs enabled the identification and mapping of the different landforms within the coastal and fluvial environments. Hereby, we demonstrate that vessel borne MBES and airborne topobathymetric LiDAR, here...

  16. Zagađivala u ribama: razmatranja rizika i dobrobiti

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Lucio G.

    2007-01-01

    Ribe su zdravi izvor prehrambenih proteina te su bogate hranjivim tvarima poput omega-3 masnih kiselina. Dokazano je blagotvorno djelovanje konzumacije ribe pri koronarnim srčanim bolestima, moždanom udaru, makularnim degeneracijama uzrokovanim dobi te rastom i razvojem. Međutim, ovakvo djelovanje može osujetiti prisutnost zagađivala poput metilžive (MeHg), dioksina, poliklorbifenila (PCB-a) te drugih halogeniranih perzistentnih organskih zagađivala. MeHg je znana po neurotoksičnome djelovanj...

  17. 三种锦纶织物对红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的生长抑制效应观察%Experimental study on antifungal activity of three polyamide textiles against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠让松; 杨雪琴; 万哲

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究三种抗真菌处理后的锦纶织物对红色毛癣菌,须癣毛癣菌生长的抑制效应,以及洗涤次数对其抗真菌作用的影响.方法 制备红色毛癣菌、须癣毛癣菌的菌悬液,分别接种于洗涤1、15、30、50次的空白锦纶织物、载银1.8%锦纶织物、载银纳米氧化锌1.9%锦纶织物以及作为对照的纯棉织物,并紧贴在马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂培养基表面培养,每12h观察并记录菌落形态及大小.结果 洗涤1、15、30、50次的空白锦纶织物布样上红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌菌落生长情况与棉布对照组相近.载银1.8%锦纶织物洗涤1次及15次布样上菌落直径在120h内均明显小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),洗涤30及50次布样上须癣毛癣菌菌落直径在:120h内与棉布对照组相近,洗涤30次布样上红色毛癣菌菌落直径在96h内小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),此后与棉布对照组相近(P>0.05).载银纳米氧化锌1.9%锦纶织物洗涤1次的布样对两种癣菌生长的抑制作用最为明显,洗涤15次后有所降低,但两种癣菌在120h内菌落直径均小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),洗涤30次布样上红色毛癣菌菌落直径在84h内小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),之后与棉布对照组相近(P>0.05),洗涤30及50次布样上须癣毛癣菌的生长与棉布对照组相近.结论 载银1.8%锦纶织物、载银纳米氧化锌1.9%锦纶织物均可显著抑制红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的生长,且具有一定的耐洗涤性,洗涤15次后仍有明显抑菌作用.

  18. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  19. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  20. Die Anomalie des Normalen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen behandler spørgsmålet af de dokumenter, Christian I havde udstillet ved magtoverdragelsen i hertugdømmerne 1460. Imod den gamle opfatning, blev der gjort en difference mellem Christians håndfæstning i Ribe og en senere givet privilegium. Desuden blev betydningen af den 9 kapitel af håndf...

  1. L'Autòdrom de Terramar

    OpenAIRE

    Sobré Obradors, Pere

    2013-01-01

    Recuperació de l'antic Autòdrom de Terramar, al terme municipal de Sant Pere de Ribes, reconvertiont-lo en una ciutat de l'automòbil, recuperant els edificis existents que es conserven i proposant-ne de nova construccó.

  2. Growing white pine in the Lake States to avoid blister rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene P. Van Arsdel

    1961-01-01

    Since white pine is one of the most desirable tree species for the Lake States region, it is unfortunate that fear of the blister rust disease has greatly limited the amount of white pine planted. Research has shown that, in many areas, loss from the disease has not been great even where pine stands have not been protected through ribes eradication. Conversely, in...

  3. Can microscale meteorological conditions predict the impact of white pine blister rust in Colorado and Wyoming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Jacobi; Betsy A. Goodrich; Holly S. J. Kearns; Kelly S. Burns; Brian W. Geils

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust occurs when there are compatible interactions between susceptible hosts (white pines and Ribes spp.), inoculum (Cronartium ribicola spores), and local weather conditions during infection. The five spore stages of the white pine blister rust (WPBR) fungus have specific temperature and moisture conditions necessary for production, germination, and...

  4. Pedicularis and Castilleja are natural hosts of Cronartium ribicola in North America: A first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geral I. McDonald; Bryce A. Richardson; Paul J. Zambino; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2006-01-01

    White pine blister rust disease, caused by the introduced pathogen Cronartium ribicola, has severely disrupted five-needled pine ecosystems in North America. A 100-year effort to manage this disease was predicated in part on the premise that the pathogen utilizes only species of Ribes (Grossulariaceae) as...

  5. Connecting radiation-induced bystander effects and senescence to improve radiation response prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleszczuk, Jan; Krzywon, Aleksandra; Forys, Urszula; Widel, Maria

    2015-05-01

    For the last two decades radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) have attracted significant attention due to their possible implications for radiotherapy. However, despite extensive research, the molecular pathways associated with RIBEs are still not completely known. In the current study we investigated the role of senescence in the bystander response. Irradiated (2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy) human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT116) with p53(+/+) (wild-type) or p53(-/-) (knockout) gene were co-incubated with nonirradiated cells of the same type. Clonogenic and senescence assays were used for both irradiated and co-incubated bystander cell populations. We also performed additional measurements on the number of remaining cells after the whole co-incubation period. For radiation doses larger than 2 Gy we observed much larger fractions of senescent cells in p53-positive populations compared to their p53-negative counterparts (15.81% vs. 3.63% in the irradiated population; 2.89% vs. 1.05% in the bystander population; 8 Gy; P bystander population; 8 Gy; P bystander population. We also extended the standard linear-quadratic radiation response model by incorporating the influence of the signals released by the senescent cells, which accurately described the radiation response in the bystander population. Our findings suggest that radiation-induced senescence might be a key player in RIBE, i.e., the strength of RIBE depends on the amount of radiation-induced senescence.

  6. LEGO, Legoland og Billund Lalandia nr. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth Pasgaard, Jens Chr.

    2007-01-01

    kant af Ribe Amt. Ud over LEGO koncernens produktionsudflytning påvirkes Ny Billund Kommune endvidere af lukningen af Danish Crowns slagteri i Grindsted, hvor 700 arbejdspladser for nyligt blev nedlagt. Det er således forståeligt at kommunen byder nye investorer velkommen. Kommunen har potentialet til...

  7. Phylogenetic relationships in the "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): Molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcinaviciene, Jorga; Rakauskas, Rimantas; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Palaearctic Ribes and/or Onagraceae inhabiting Aphis species from five countries were examined using mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) and nuclear gene elongation factor 1 a (EF-1a) sequences. There was no major conflict between the trees obtained from...

  8. Taarnborg: Becoming History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Dai, Zheng; Omarsson, Olafur

    Focus of this project is an inquiry in the materialisation of the historical heritage of Taarnborg (Ribe, Denmark) once a place related to local religious authorities, now a private home and museum, where visitors attend to musical events and lectures about history and theology. Following...

  9. Protective effect of mild endoplasmic reticulum stress on radiation-induced bystander effects in hepatocyte cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Tu, Wenzhi; Liu, Peifeng; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the defense and self-protective mechanisms of bystander normal cells are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia, where the ratio of the yield of bystander MN induction to the yield of radiation-induced MN formation under hypoxia was much higher than that of normoxia. Nonetheless, thapsigargin induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and dramatically suppressed this bystander response manifested as the decrease of MN and apoptosis inductions. Meanwhile, the interference of BiP gene, a major ER chaperone, amplified the detrimental RIBE. More precisely, thapsigargin provoked ER sensor of PERK to initiate an instantaneous and moderate ER stress thus defensed the hazard form RIBE, while BiP depletion lead to persistently destroyed homeostasis of ER and exacerbated cell injury. These findings provide new insights that the mild ER stress through BiP-PERK-p-eIF2α signaling pathway has a profound role in protecting cellular damage from RIBE and hence may decrease the potential secondary cancer risk after cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27958308

  10. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funk CB, Prasad AN, Frosk P, Sauer S, Kölker S, Greenberg CR, Del Bigio MR. Neuropathological, biochemical and molecular ... Free article on PubMed Central Kölker S, Garbade SF, Greenberg CR, Leonard JV, Saudubray JM, Ribes A, Kalkanoglu ...

  11. Sammenhænge mellem risikoadfærd for spiseforstyrrelser og SF-36 samt selvoplevet stress for yngre danske kvinder, 16-29 år

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    cross sectional survey of 16-29-year old women and was part of the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005. After the personal interviews, 487 returned the questionnaires, with a response rate of 53.3%. Participants responded to RiBED-8, a screening instrument for identification of risk behaviour for eating...

  12. Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in Cultured Human Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Mykyta V.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The radiation-induced “bystander effect” (RIBE) was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC) are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed. Methodology/Principal Findings Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and embryonic stem cells (hESC) were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05). A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05). Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative

  13. Radiation-induced bystander effects in cultured human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V Sokolov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The radiation-induced "bystander effect" (RIBE was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR. RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC and embryonic stem cells (hESC were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05. A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of h

  14. Litter Breakdown and Microbial Succession on Two Submerged Leaf Species in a Small Forested Stream

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newman, Molli M; Liles, Mark R; Feminella, Jack W

    2015-01-01

    Microbial succession during leaf breakdown was investigated in a small forested stream in west-central Georgia, USA, using multiple culture-independent techniques. Red maple (Acer rubrum) and water oak (Quercus nigra...

  15. Asociación de floraciones de algas nocivas y Vibrio spp. en áreas de pesca y acuicultura de bivalvos de moluscos en las bahías de Sechura y Pisco, Perú/Harmful algal blooms and Vibrio spp. association in fishing and marine farming areas of mollusk bivalves in Sechura and Pisco bays, Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rita Orozco; Yessica Quispe; Alberto Lorenzo; María Luz Zamudio

    2017-01-01

    The temperatures in this area ranged from 21.8 to 25.3 °C. In Pisco, the harmful algal bloom-forming Akashiwo sanguinea, Messodinium rubrum, and Prorocentrum minimum and the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polikrykoides were most prevalent...

  16. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  17. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  18. Final Environmental Assessment: Construction of New Arnold Village Sewage Treatment Plant Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    caroliniana) / Onoclea sensibilis Forest Salix nigra - Acer (rubrum, saccharinum) / Alnus serrulata - Cephalanthus occidentalis Forest WOODLAND Quercus...Rhynchospora corniculata - (Mecardonia acuminata - Proserpinaca spp.) Herbaceous Vegetation Panicum hemitomon - Dulichium arundinaceum Herbaceous Vegetation

  19. Environ: E00541 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00541 Mica mineral clay Halloysitum rubrum Crude drug Kaolinite, Iron(III) oxide, ...inite, containing a large amount of iron(III) oxide Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Minerals E00541 Mica mineral clay ...

  20. Isomaltulose production using free and immobilized Serratia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    André

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... The free cells were reused during seven successive batches and ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access ... residual P. rubrum material by filtration. ... and then washed twice with sterile water.

  1. Response of maple sapwood to injury and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.C. Shortle; K.T. Smith; K.R. Dudzik; Sharon Parker

    1995-01-01

    In sapwood challenge experiments in Acer rubrum, columns of discolouration initiated by wounding and inoculation with pioneer fungi (Cephalosporium sp., Phialophora sp.) were similar in size to untreated wounds. Inoculation with decay fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor) produced...

  2. Two-dimensional self-organization of the light-harvesting polypeptides/BChl a complex into a thermostable liposomal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, K; Kiriyama, H; Fukai, A; Konings, WN; Nango, M

    2001-01-01

    The detergent-isolated light-harvesting polypeptide (LR)/bacteriochlorophyll alpha (BChl alpha) complex from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was organized in thermostable liposomal membranes comprising membrane-spanning tetraether lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius to develop a

  3. Transplantation experiments with Mediterranean gorgonians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Branches of gorgonians belonging to four different Mediterranean species (Eunicella singularis (Esper), Paramuricea clavata (Risso), Corallium rubrum (Linnaeus) and Lophogorgia ceratophyta (Linnaeus)) were transplanted to different habitats by means of three different methods, and survival and growt

  4. Antifungal activity of in vitro aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Barije root (Ferula gummosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salehi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Methanol and ethanol extracts proved to have antifungal activity against Candida albicans yeast in vitro while the fungi of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum had no sensitivity to these types of extracts.

  5. Genetic Ichthyosis And Chronic Dermatophytosis - A clinical Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmaladevi P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum in two patients with genetic ichthyosis is being reported for its atypical manifestations leading to difficulties in diagnosis and management.

  6. Habitat constraints and self-thinning shape Mediterranean red coral deep population structure: implications for conservation practice

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Cau; Lorenzo Bramanti; Rita Cannas; Maria Cristina Follesa; Michela Angiolillo; Simonepietro Canese; Marzia Bo; Danila Cuccu; Katell Guizien

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum, is one of the most precious corals worldwide. Below 50 m depth, C. rubrum populations are generally characterised by large and sparse colonies, whereas shallow populations (above 50 m depth) show high densities of small colonies. We show here instead that populations dwelling between 80 and 170 m depth exhibited a continuous range of population density (from 2 to 75 colonies per 0.25 m 2), with less than 1% of variance exp...

  7. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    in standard gels. Protein reduced the hardness, stiffness and chewiness of the gels whereas there were some variation in the effect of protein on the adhesiveness of the gels. Sugar beet pectin in black currant juice formed a gel and a gelation also took place in milk. In luncheon meat a cohesive gel......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  8. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....20 Plum 0.20 Raspberry 0.20 Sheep, meat 0.03 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.03 Strawberry 0.25 Walnut 0.2... Apple 0.20 Avocado 0.20 Blackberry 0.20 Blueberry 0.20 Cattle, meat 0.03 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.03....25 Corn, sweet, stover 0.25 Cranberry 0.25 Currant 0.25 Egg 0.03 Goat, meat 0.03 Goat,...

  9. Design theory and experimental investigation of the low frequency and high power rare earth magnetostrictive flextensional transducer (II). Experimental part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiping; LI Bin; SUN Jincai

    2002-01-01

    Vibrating modes of the manufactured flextensional transducer and its shell are experimentally investigated. The result are consistent with the theoretical calculations. The acoustical performances for the transducer are measured: resonance frequency is 1.16 kHz in the underwater, bandwidth is 680 Hz, mechanical quality factor is 1.71, transmitting currant response is 186.1 dB, electromechanical efficiency is 13.1%.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THERMAL EFFECT OF DRYING, HEATING, BLOWING MACHINE WITH DIFFERENT STAGE

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Drying is the oldest method of preserving food. The early American settlers dried foods such as corn, apple slices, currants, grapes, and meat. Compared with other methods, drying is quite simple. In fact, you may already have most of the equipment on hand. Dried foods keep well because the moisture content is so low that spoilage organisms cannot grow. Drying will never replace canning and freezing because these methods do a better job of retaining the taste, appearance, and nutritive va...

  11. 40 CFR 180.443 - Myclobutanil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....0 Cherry, tart 5.0 Cilantro, leaves 9.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.02 Currant 3.0 Egg 0.02 Fruit... Horse, meat byproducts, except liver 0.2 Leafy greens, subgroup 4A, except spinach 9.0 Mango 3.0 Mayhaw... Soybean, hay 15 Soybean, refined oil 0.40 Soybean, seed 0.25 Spearmint, tops 3.0 Star apple 3.0...

  12. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  13. Contribution of Anthocyanin Composition to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthocyanin composition to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of berries having different anthocyanin composition; blackberry, black currant, and blueberry. Blackberry demonstrated the highest TAC, while it had the lowest total anthocyanin content among the three berries in both of the phenolic extract and anthocyanin fractions. On the other hand, black currant had the highest total anthocyanin content, but the lowest TAC. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (cya-3-glc) accounted for 94% of blackberry anthocyanins, and as one of the strongest antioxidants present in these three berries, it substantially contributed to the TAC of blackberry anthocyanin fraction (96.0%). Delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in black currant had lower antioxidant capacities compared with delphinin-3-O-glucoside and cya-3-glc, resulting in its lowest TAC among berry anthocyanin fractions examined. Malvidin derivatives, major anthocyanins of blueberry, had considerably lower antioxidant capacity than other anthocyanidin derivatives, such as cyanidin or delphinidin, resulting in lower TAC of blueberry compared with blackberry. Our findings indicate that anthocyanin composition as well as the antioxidant capacity of individual anthocyanins contributes to the TAC of berries rich in distinct anthocyanins.

  14. 黑穗醋栗开发利用现状及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞; 于洪侠; 祁永会

    2016-01-01

    With the development of social economy and the continuous improvement of people's living standard, the demand of black currant is increasing, and it shows the huge market potential and effect. Developing and utili-zing of black currant is one of the means to promote the development of forest economy, is in the new economic growth point. The berries resources for deep processing can improve the added value of products, greatly promote the development of industrialization of black currant, market prospect is very broad.%随着社会经济的发展和人民生活水平的不断提高,人们对黑穗醋栗的需求与日俱增,显示出巨大的市场潜力和效应. 开发利用黑穗醋栗是促进林区经济发展的手段之一,是林区新的经济增长点. 对其浆果资源进行精深加工可大大提高产品的附加值,极大地推动黑穗醋栗产业化发展,市场前景十分广阔.

  15. Final report on Grant DE-FG03-01ER63234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Miller

    2006-11-16

    Current data suggests that radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) are associated with release of active polypeptide factors into the extra-cellular medium. Proteolytic processing of membrane-anchored cytokines (shedding) is a generic cellular response to environmental stress; hence, it is likely that RIBE are part of a general mechanism by which cells alert their neighbors to potential harm by exchange of autocrine and paracrine factors. In radiation biology, we lack a general understanding of the relative importance of shed factors in the overall response of tissues to energy absorbed from a radiation field. This project helped fill that knowledge gap by investigating (1) the production of soluble factors by cells traversed by ionizing particles, (2) transport of soluble factors through the extra-cellular medium, and (3) signaling processes initiate by capture of soluble factors on cell-surface receptors.

  16. Mapping and quantifying geodiversity in land-water transition zones using MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Andersen, Mikkel Skovgaard; Gergely, Aron;

    coastal areas and the river floodplain areas, potentially enables full-coverage and high-resolution mapping in these challenging environments. We have carried out MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR surveys in the Knudedyb tidal inlet system, a coastal environment in the Danish Wadden Sea which is part......Land-water transition zones, like e.g. coastal and fluvial environments, are valuable ecosystems which are often characterised by high biodiversity and geodiversity. However, often these land-water transition zones are difficult or even impossible to map and investigate in high spatial resolution...... of the Wadden Sea National Park and UNESCO World Heritage, and in the Ribe Vesterå, a fluvial environment in the Ribe Å river catchment discharging into the Knudedyb tidal basin. Detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) with a grid cell size of 0.5 m x 0.5 m were generated from the MBES and the LiDAR point...

  17. Agile dry etching of compound semiconductors for science-based manufacturing using in-situ process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ASHBY,CAROL I.; VAWTER,GREGORY A.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; BRUSKAS,LARRY A.; WOODWORTH,JOSEPH R.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.

    2000-02-01

    In-situ optical diagnostics and ion beam diagnostics for plasma-etch and reactive-ion-beam etch (RIBE) tools have been developed and implemented on etch tools in the Compound Semiconductor Research Laboratory (CSRL). The optical diagnostics provide real-time end-point detection during plasma etching of complex thin-film layered structures that require precision etching to stop on a particular layer in the structure. The Monoetch real-time display and analysis program developed with this LDRD displays raw and filtered reflectance signals that enable an etch system operator to stop an etch at the desired depth within the desired layer. The ion beam diagnostics developed with this LDRD will permit routine analysis of critical ion-beam profile characteristics that determine etch uniformity and reproducibility on the RIBE tool.

  18. Les applications des faisceaux d'ions dans la physique des polymères

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratier, B.; Moliton, A.; Lucas, B.; Guille, B.; Clamadieu, M.

    1998-06-01

    Experimental configurations of ions beams are illustrated by diagrams in the case of low energy implantation, Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE), Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) of molecular layers (or oligomers). Nous présentons les configurations expérimentales (illustrées par des schémas) de trois applications des faisceaux d'ions au traitement physique des polymères : dopage par implantation (cité pour mémoire), gravure par faisceaux d'ions réactifs (RIBE), dépôt des couches moléculaires (ou oligomères) assistés par faisceau (IBAD).

  19. Utjecaj jestivog filma od želatine, obogaćenog eteričnim uljem lovora, na kakvoću fileta kalifornijske pastrve (Onchorynchus mykiss) tijekom skladištenja u hladnjaku

    OpenAIRE

    Alparslan, Yunus; Baygar, Tuba; Baygar, Taçnur; Hasanhocaoglu, Hatice; Metin, Cansu

    2014-01-01

    U ovom je radu ispitan utjecaj filma od želatine, obogaćenog eteričnim uljem lovorovog lista, na kakvoću fileta kalifornijske pastrve (Onchorynchus mykiss) skladištene na (4±1) °C tijekom 26 dana. Fileti su ribe omotani u filmove od 8 %-tne želatine, koji su sadržavali 0; 0,1 ili 1 % (volumena po masi želatine) eteričnog ulja lovora, te pakirani u vakuumu. Tijekom skladištenja određivani su: senzorske značajke sirove i kuhane ribe, mikrobiološki parametri (ukupan broj živih stanica, te bro...

  20. Sunspot latitudes during the Maunder Minimum: a machine-readable catalogue from previous studies

    CERN Document Server

    Vaquero, J M; Sánchez-Bajo, F

    2015-01-01

    The Maunder Minimum (1645-1715 approximately) was a period of very low solar activity and a strong hemispheric asymmetry, with most of sunspots in the southern hemisphere. In this paper, two data sets of sunspot latitudes during the Maunder minimum have been recovered for the international scientific community. The first data set is constituted by latitudes of sunspots appearing in the catalogue published by Gustav Sp\\"orer nearly 130 years ago. The second data set is based on the sunspot latitudes displayed in the butterfly diagram for the Maunder Minimum which was published by Ribes and Nesme-Ribes almost 20 years ago. We have calculated the asymmetry index using these data sets confirming a strong hemispherical asymmetry in this period. A machine-readable version of this catalogue with both data sets is available in the Historical Archive of Sunspot Observations (http://haso.unex.es) and in the appendix of this article.

  1. Playful Learning Culture in the Museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    not undergone much investigation. This study was conducted in cooperation with two historical museums, these being the Transport Museum in Coventry, England and The Viking Museum in Ribe, Denmark. A new learning platform called MicroCulture has been created, aimed at eliciting a sociocultural understanding...... of history in young visitors. This study indicates that museum learning culture could be enriched by the introduction of mediated play as a resource for conceptual thinking and social interaction....

  2. 含总序天冬和光果甘草等植物的制剂用于抗胃溃疡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    该剂由粉末状的总序天冬Asparagus racemosus Willd.和光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L.再加入适量的粉末状盾叶轮环藤Cyclea peltata Hook.f.et Thoms和白花酸藤子Embelia ribes Burm.f.等以及一种或多种添加剂或载体组成。

  3. Game Analysis for the Pricing Strategy in Manufacturer-Retailer Supply Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Supply Chain Management(SCM) is the term used to de sc ribe the management of the flow of materials, information and funds across the e ntire supply chain, from suppliers to component producers to final assemblers to distribution(warehouses and retailers) and ultimately to the consumers.This pap er studies the coordinated problem for a manufacturing and retailing supply chai n. Differentiating from traditional joint optimization in the literature, the ap proach applies game theory structure as the research...

  4. Portal web amb comerç electrònic i assistència tècnica online

    OpenAIRE

    Asensi Ribes, José Enrique; ESCRIVÀ PERALES, EDUARDO

    2012-01-01

    En aquest treball es valoren diferents components dintre de l'oferta del mercat, després es crea un portal amb tenda virtual amb el CMS Joomla. Asensi Ribes, JE.; Escrivà Perales, E. (2011). Portal web amb comerç electrònic i assistència tècnica online. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/16584. Archivo delegado

  5. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce bystander factors and induce radiation bystander effect

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi; Shokoufeh Mohebbi; Roghayeh Kamran Samani; Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard

    2014-01-01

    Radiation damages initiated by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) are not limited to the first or immediate neighbors of the irradiated cells, but the effects have been observed in the cells far from the irradiation site. It has been postulated that bystander cells, by producing bystander factors, are actively involved in the propagation of bystander effect in the regions beyond the initial irradiated site. Current study was planned to test the hypothesis. MRC5 and QU-DB cell lines wer...

  6. Target irradiation induced bystander effects between stem-like and non stem-like cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Alisa [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Maeda, Takeshi [Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fu, Qibin [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Oikawa, Masakazu [Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yang, Gen, E-mail: gen.yang@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Konishi, Teruaki, E-mail: tkonishi@nirs.go.jp [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uchihori, Yukio [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Existence of radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) between cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. • Existence of significant difference in generation and response of bystander signals between CSCs and NSCCs. • CSCs are significantly less sensitive to NO scavenger than that of NSCCs in terms of DNA double strand breaks induced by RIBE. - Abstract: Tumors are heterogeneous in nature and consist of multiple cell types. Among them, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are suggested to be the principal cause of tumor metastasis, resistance and recurrence. Therefore, understanding the behavior of CSCs in direct and indirect irradiations is crucial for clinical radiotherapy. Here, the CSCs and their counterpart non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line were sorted and labeled, then the two cell subtypes were mixed together and chosen separately to be irradiated via a proton microbeam. The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between the CSCs and NSCCs was measured by imaging 53BP1 foci, a widely used indicator for DNA double strand break (DSB). CSCs were found to be less active than NSCCs in both the generation and the response of bystander signals. Moreover, the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger c-PTIO can effectively alleviate the bystander effect in bystander NSCCs but not in bystander CSCs, indicating a difference of the two cell subtypes in NO signal response. To our knowledge, this is the first report shedding light on the RIBE between CSCs and NSCCs, which might contribute to a further understanding of the out-of-field effect in cancer radiotherapy.

  7. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawal HA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humaira Aziz Sawal,1 Kashif Asghar,2 Matthias Bureik,3 Nasir Jalal4 1Healthcare Biotechnology Department, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, 2Basic Sciences Research, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Health Science Platform, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; 4Health Science Platform, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China Abstract: The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to

  8. Grossulariaceae endémicas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Mendoza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Grossulariaceae are represented in Peru by three genera and nearly 35 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Weigend & Rodriguez, 2006 , all shrubs and trees. Here we recognize 11 endemic species in two genera. Ribes is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Endemic Grossulariaceae species grow mainly in Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 2500 and 4600 m elevation. Two endemic Grossulariaceae have been registered to date in the Peruvian protected areas system.

  9. Radiation-induced bystander effect in non-irradiated glioblastoma spheroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqihi, Fahime; Neshastehriz, Ali; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Shabani, Robabeh; Eivazzadeh, Nazila

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) are detected in cells that are not irradiated but receive signals from treated cells. The present study explored these bystander effects in a U87MG multicellular tumour spheroid model. A medium transfer technique was employed to induce the bystander effect, and colony formation assay was used to evaluate the effect. Relative changes in expression of BAX, BCL2, JNK and ERK genes were analysed using RT-PCR to investigate the RIBE mechanism. A significant decrease in plating efficiency was observed for both bystander and irradiated cells. The survival fraction was calculated for bystander cells to be 69.48% and for irradiated cells to be 34.68%. There was no change in pro-apoptotic BAX relative expression, but anti-apoptotic BCL2 showed downregulation in both irradiated and bystander cells. Pro-apoptotic JNK in bystander samples and ERK in irradiated samples were upregulated. The clonogenic survival data suggests that there was a classic RIBE in U87MG spheroids exposed to 4 Gy of X-rays, using a medium transfer technique. Changes in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes indicate involvement of both intrinsic apoptotic and MAPK pathways in inducing these effects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  10. Radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect in unirradiated fibroblasts is associated with TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Tian, Wenqian; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Traditional radiation biology states that radiation causes damage only in cells traversed by ionizing radiation. But radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), which refers to the biological responses in unirradiated cells when the neighboring cells are exposed to radiation, challenged this old dogma and has become a new paradigm of this field. By nature, RIBEs are the consequences of intercellular communication between irradiated and unirradiated cells. However, there are still some important questions remain unanswered such as whether RIBE is dependent on radiation quality, what are the determining factors if so, etc. Using a transwell co-culture system, we found that HaCaT keratinocytes irradiated with α-particles but not X-rays could induce bystander micronucleus formation in unirradiated WS1 fibroblasts after co-culture. More importantly, the activation of TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and the consistent decrease of miR-21 level in α-irradiated HaCaT cells were essential to the micronucleus induction in bystander WS1 cells. On the other hand, X-irradiation did not induce bystander effect in unirradiated WS1 cells, accompanied by lack of Smad2 activation and consistent decrease of miR-21 in X-irradiated HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect may be associated with the TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated cells. PMID:26080011

  11. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawal, Humaira Aziz; Asghar, Kashif; Bureik, Matthias; Jalal, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells) that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to pursue this field of science.

  12. Radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect in unirradiated fibroblasts is associated with TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Tian, Wenqian; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying

    2015-06-16

    Traditional radiation biology states that radiation causes damage only in cells traversed by ionizing radiation. But radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), which refers to the biological responses in unirradiated cells when the neighboring cells are exposed to radiation, challenged this old dogma and has become a new paradigm of this field. By nature, RIBEs are the consequences of intercellular communication between irradiated and unirradiated cells. However, there are still some important questions remain unanswered such as whether RIBE is dependent on radiation quality, what are the determining factors if so, etc. Using a transwell co-culture system, we found that HaCaT keratinocytes irradiated with α-particles but not X-rays could induce bystander micronucleus formation in unirradiated WS1 fibroblasts after co-culture. More importantly, the activation of TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and the consistent decrease of miR-21 level in α-irradiated HaCaT cells were essential to the micronucleus induction in bystander WS1 cells. On the other hand, X-irradiation did not induce bystander effect in unirradiated WS1 cells, accompanied by lack of Smad2 activation and consistent decrease of miR-21 in X-irradiated HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect may be associated with the TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated cells.

  13. Pattern transfer on fused silica samples using sub-aperture reactive ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessler, Andre; Arnold, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In comparison to sole Ar ion beam sputtering Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) reveals the main advantage of increasing the selectivity for different kind of materials due to chemical contributions during the material removal. Therefore RIBE is qualified to be an excellent candidate for pattern transfer applications. The goal of the present study is to apply a sub-aperture reactive ion beam for pattern transfer on large fused silica samples. Concerning this matter, the etching behavior in the ion beam periphery plays a decisive role. Using a Kaufman-typed ion source with NF{sub 3} as reactive gas, XPS measurements of the modified surface exposes impurities like Ni, Fe and Cr, which belongs to chemically eroded material of the plasma pot and a layer formation of silicon nitride, handicaps the etching process mainly in the beam periphery where the sputtering contribution decrease. These side effects influence the pattern transfer of trench structures, produced in AZ MIR 701 photoresist by lithography on a 2'' fused silica plate, by changing the selectivity due to modified chemical reactions of the resist layer. Concerning this we investigate a RF-Ion source for sub aperture reactive ion beam applications and finally we examine the pattern transfer on large fused silica plates using NF{sub 3}-sub-aperture RIBE.

  14. Pattern transfer on large samples using a sub-aperture reactive ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessler, Andre; Mill, Agnes; Gerlach, Juergen W.; Arnold, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In comparison to sole Ar ion beam sputtering Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) reveals the main advantage of increasing the selectivity for different kind of materials due to chemical contributions during the material removal. Therefore RIBE is qualified to be an excellent candidate for pattern transfer applications. The goal of the present study is to apply a sub-aperture reactive ion beam for pattern transfer on large fused silica samples. Concerning this matter, the etching behavior in the ion beam periphery plays a decisive role. Using CF{sub 4} as reactive gas, XPS measurements of the modified surface exposes impurities like Ni, Fe and Cr, which belongs to chemically eroded material of the plasma pot as well as an accumulation of carbon (up to 40 atomic percent) in the beam periphery, respectively. The substitution of CF{sub 4} by NF{sub 3} as reactive gas reveals a lot of benefits: more stable ion beam conditions in combination with a reduction of the beam size down to a diameter of 5 mm and a reduced amount of the Ni, Fe and Cr contaminations. However, a layer formation of silicon nitride handicaps the chemical contribution of the etching process. These negative side effects influence the transfer of trench structures on quartz by changing the selectivity due to altered chemical reaction of the modified resist layer. Concerning this we investigate the pattern transfer on large fused silica plates using NF{sub 3}-sub-aperture RIBE.

  15. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-02-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved.

  16. Colonization of Three Maple Species by Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in Two Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Kevin J; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Siegert, Nathan W; Bohne, Michael J

    2013-12-31

    Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs), two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007) and A. platanoides (2010) were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18%) or A. saccharum (14% and 9%).

  17. Colonization of Three Maple Species by Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in Two Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Dodds

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky, is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs, two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007 and A. platanoides (2010 were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18% or A. saccharum (14% and 9%.

  18. Antifungal property of quaternized chitosan and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajomsang, Warayuth; Gonil, Pattarapond; Saesoo, Somsak; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai

    2012-01-01

    Five water-soluble chitosan derivatives were carried out by quaternizing either iodomethane or N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (Quat188) as a quaternizing agent under basic condition. The degree of quaternization (DQ) ranged between 28±2% and 90±2%. The antifungal activity was evaluated by using disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) methods against Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Trichophyton mentagrophyte (T. mentagrophyte), and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) at pH 7.2. All quaternized chitosans and its derivatives showed more effective against T. rubrum than M. gypseum and T. mentagrophyte. The MIC and MFC values were found to range between 125-1000 μg/mL and 500-4000 μg/mL, respectively against all fungi. Our results indicated that the quaternized N-(4-N,N-dimethylaminocinnamyl) chitosan chloride showed highest antifungal activity against T. rubrum and M. gypseum compared to other quaternized chitosan derivatives. The antifungal activity tended to increase with an increase in molecular weight, degree of quaternization and hydrophobic moiety against T. rubrum. However, the antifungal activity was depended on type of fungal as well as chemical structure of the quaternized chitosan derivatives.

  19. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    Two genes involved in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, draT and draG, were cloned and found to be contiguous on the Azospirillum brasilense chromosome. The nifH gene, encoding dinitrogenase reductase, is near to draT with an intervening gap of 1.9 kb. The organization of these genes in Azospirillum lipoferum and Rhodosprillum rubrum is similar, but nifH and draT are separated by only 400 bp in the organisms. A. brasilense draTG is very similar to draTG in R. rubrum with 91.8% similarity and 85.3% identity at the amino acid level. Apparently A. brasilense uses the normal ATG initiation codon for draT, and draG. The genes for A. brasilense were able to restore function to appropriate mutants of R. rubrum. The heterologous expression of A. brasilense draTG in R. rubrum was not fully normal, as it responded more slowly to darkness and more quickly to ammonia than wild type cells. Our mutational analysis of the draTG region of A. brasilense confirms the function of these genes in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, but it also revealed minor but demonstrable differences in the control systems of R. rubrum and A. brasilense.

  20. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two genes involved in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, draT and draG, were cloned and found to be contiguous on the Azospirillum brasilense chromosome. The nifH gene, encoding dinitrogenase reductase, is near to draT with an intervening gap of 1.9 kb. The organization of these genes in Azospirillum lipoferum and Rhodosprillum rubrum is similar, but nifH and draT are separated by only 400 bp in the organisms. A. brasilense draTG is very similar to draTG in R. rubrum with 91.8% similarity and 85.3% identity at the amino acid level. Apparently A. brasilense uses the normal ATG initiation codon for draT, and draG. The genes for A. brasilense were able to restore function to appropriate mutants of R. rubrum. The heterologous expression of A. brasilense draTG in R. rubrum was not fully normal, as it responded more slowly to darkness and more quickly to ammonia than wild type cells. Our mutational analysis of the draTG region of A. brasilense confirms the function of these genes in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, but it also revealed minor but demonstrable differences in the control systems of R. rubrum and A. brasilense.

  1. A pivotal role of the jasmonic acid signal pathway in mediating radiation-induced bystander effects in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Xu, Wei; Deng, Chenguang; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Wu, Yuejin; Wu, Lijun; Bian, Po

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) in Arabidopsis thaliana have been well demonstrated in vivo, little is known about their underlying mechanisms, particularly with regard to the participating signaling molecules and signaling pathways. In higher plants, jasmonic acid (JA) and its bioactive derivatives are well accepted as systemic signal transducers that are produced in response to various environmental stresses. It is therefore speculated that the JA signal pathway might play a potential role in mediating radiation-induced bystander signaling of root-to-shoot. In the present study, pretreatment of seedlings with Salicylhydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of lipoxigenase (LOX) in JA biosynthesis, significantly suppressed RIBE-mediated expression of the AtRAD54 gene. After root irradiation, the aerial parts of A. thaliana mutants deficient in JA biosynthesis (aos) and signaling cascades (jar1-1) showed suppressed induction of the AtRAD54 and AtRAD51 genes and TSI and 180-bp repeats, which have been extensively used as endpoints of bystander genetic and epigenetic effects in plants. These results suggest an involvement of the JA signal pathway in the RIBE of plants. Using the root micro-grafting technique, the JA signal pathway was shown to participate in both the generation of bystander signals in irradiated root cells and radiation responses in the bystander aerial parts of plants. The over-accumulation of endogenous JA in mutant fatty acid oxygenation up-regulated 2 (fou2), in which mutation of the Two Pore Channel 1 (TPC1) gene up-regulates expression of the LOX and allene oxide synthase (AOS) genes, inhibited RIBE-mediated expression of the AtRAD54 gene, but up-regulated expression of the AtKU70 and AtLIG4 genes in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Considering that NHEJ is employed by plants with increased DNA damage, the switch from HR to NHEJ suggests that over-accumulation of endogenous JA might enhance the radiosensitivity of plants

  2. Nuevos registros y nuevas especies de la flora de la zona de AmotapeHuancabamba: Endemismos y límites biogeográficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliam Weigend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se investiga la taxonomía del grupo de Ribes andicola y Urtica para los bosques relictos presentes en la zona de Amotape-Huancabamba y especialmente aquellos de la vertiente NO del Perú. Se describen tres nuevas especies de Ribes: Ribes contumazensis como especie local endémica de Contumazá, R. colandina distribuida en los Andes desde Lambayeque y La Libertad hasta Amazonas y R. sanchezii como endémica a los bosques de altura del Marañón. Adicionalmente, la especie ecuatoriana R. austroecuadorense es registrada por primera vez para el Perú procedente de los bosques relictos de Huancabamba (Piura y Chota (Cajamarca. Así mismo, se describen dos nuevas especies de Urtica: U. urentivelutina, endémica local a las laderas altas del Marañón cerca a Chagual (La Libertad, y U. lalibertadensis distribuida desde Otuzco hasta Tayabamba en el departamento de La Libertad. Urtica longispica es registrada como nueva especie para la flora del Peru y U. macbridei es registrada por primera vez para el norte del Perú. Urtica y el grupo Ribes andicola pueden ser considerados como indicadores de la cubierta de bosques anteriores, puesto que persisten después que los bosques han sido talados. Su distribución indica que a alguno de los actuales fragmentos de bosque fueron alguna vez grandes bosques coherentes a modo de una faja contínua (como los de Santa Cruz y San Miguel y b algunas áreas que en el presente no tienen ninguna cubierta de bosques contínuos, en el pasado fueron grandes y coherentes bosques montanos (e.g., grandes partes de la Prov. Otuzco. Comparando los datos de distribución conocida para Urtica, el grupo de Ribes andicola, el grupo de Passiflora lobbii y Nasa (Loasaceae, es evidente, que a los bosques relictos son aún muy pobremente estudiados, b ellos son excepcionalmente ricos en taxa estrechamente endémicos, algunos de los cuales son aquí descritos y muchos de ellos indudablemente permanecen aún sin ser descubiertos y c ellos

  3. Red coral extinction risk enhanced by ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrano, Carlo; Cardini, Ulisse; Bianchelli, Silvia; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The red coral Corallium rubrum is a habitat-forming species with a prominent and structural role in mesophotic habitats, which sustains biodiversity hotspots. This precious coral is threatened by both over-exploitation and temperature driven mass mortality events. We report here that biocalcification, growth rates and polyps' (feeding) activity of Corallium rubrum are significantly reduced at pCO2 scenarios predicted for the end of this century (0.2 pH decrease). Since C. rubrum is a long-living species (>200 years), our results suggest that ocean acidification predicted for 2100 will significantly increases the risk of extinction of present populations. Given the functional role of these corals in the mesophotic zone, we predict that ocean acidification might have cascading effects on the functioning of these habitats worldwide.

  4. The genus Bryoerythrophyllum (Musci, Pottiaceae in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollman Philip

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic material of the genus Bryoerythrophyllum P. C. Chen was studied from all specimens present in KRAM. Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw. P. C. Chen var. antarcticum L. I. Savicz & Smirnova is treated as a distinct species: B. antarcticum (L. I. Savicz & Smirnova P. Sollman, stat. nov. Three species are now known in the Antarctic region: B. antarcticum, B. recurvirostrum and B. rubrum (Jur. ex Geh. P. C. Chen. Bryoerythrophyllum rubrum is reported for the first time from the Antarctic. It is a bipolar species. A key to the taxa is given. These species are described and briefly discussed, with notes on illustrations, reproduction, habitat, world range, distribution and elevation in Antarctica.

  5. Neonatal kerion Celsi: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Margarita; Gomar, Begoña; Boggio, Paula; Abad, María Eugenia; Pagotto, Betina

    2010-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection caused by dermatophytes, frequent in children but uncommon in the neonatal period. Kerion Celsi is the inflammatory manifestation of tinea capitis secondary to host immunologic responses and its occurrence in newborns is extremely infrequent. We describe three neonates with the diagnosis of kerion Celsi. The isolated dermatophytes were Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes in two patients and Trichophyton rubrum in the third. Both patients with T. mentagrophytes referred an indirect contact with rabbits and were successfully treated with systemic antifungal (griseofulvin and fluconazole). The patient with T. rubrum had a father with a tinea manuum and both received just topical antimycotic treatment.

  6. In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babos, Magor [University of Szeged, Faculty of Science (Hungary); Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: babosmagor@yahoo.com; Schwarcz, Attila [University of Pecs, Department of Neurosurgery, Pecs Diagnostic Institute, 7624 Pecs, Retu. 2 (Hungary)], E-mail: attila.schwarcz@aok.pte.hu; Randhawa, Manjit Singh [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: majyaal@hotmail.com; Marton, Balazs [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: balazsmarton@freemail.hu; Kardos, Lilla [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: medlis@tiszanet.hu; Palko, Andras [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary); University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: palko@radio.szote.u-szeged.hu

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 {+-} 5 ms, T2 = 86 {+-} 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 {+-} 3 ms, T2 = 39 {+-} 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 {+-} 4 ms, T2 = 87 {+-} 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 {+-} 8 ms, T2 = 168 {+-} 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 {+-} 21 ms, T2 = 81 {+-} 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS OF CANDIED FRUITS ENRICHED WITH VITAMIN C BY DIFFERENT METHODS ON ITS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wypchoł

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of storage conditions of candied fruits enriched with vitamin C on its concentration in that product. The materials were candied fruits (black chokeberry and black currant enriched with vitamin C by two methods during their production. The final products were stored within 3 months at 8 and 20°C. On the basis of the results it was stated that enrichment method affected the concentration of the vitamin C in fruits measured during storage period at the above conditions. doi:10.5219/55

  8. Bureaucratic behavior: A review of the theory and its application to Serbian public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković-Rakić Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A professional and competent public administration is necessary for successful transition from a socialist, centrally planned economy to a functioning market democracy. The difficulty lies in building an organized and effective civil service sector. This paper gives a brief overview of formal bureaucratic reasoning, beginning with Niskanen’s theory, followed by the principal-agent model. The "Weberian state hypothesis", which provides an alternative view of bureaucracies in less developed countries, is subsequently explored. Finally, the currant state of Serbian public administration is described, along with a discussion of challenges to be addressed in the future.

  9. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Mining and Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-22

    Mineral Industry Activity Review (July, 1979), pp. 2, 20. Ilncludes asphalt, beryllium, carbon dioxide, cement clays ( kaolin and fuller’s earth), magnesium...Trapp Springs near the town of Currant, share a total of some 18 producing wells. The low-gravity, high- sulphur oil produced is shipped by tank trucks...minerals. 52 1. Sulfur. Found in Sulphur Mining District, T. 30 S., R. 15 W. 50 2. Alunite. At White Mountain, T. 29 S., R. 12 & 13 W. Zone 5 miles (9 km

  10. Programme for the Environmental Control at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities, Revision; Omgivningskontrollprogram foer de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna, revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Ann-Marie

    2004-12-01

    This report contains a revised version of the Environmental Monitoring Programme for the Swedish Nuclear Facilities. The revision is based on earlier experiences and evaluations. Some samples have been excluded. Some have been added, for example spruce cone and the food products apple and currant. The sediment samples of 2 cm length have been completed with samples of 10 cm length every fourth year to follow the migration of radio nuclides down the sediment layers over time. The revised Environmental Monitoring Programme is valid from the 1st of January 2005.

  11. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties...... such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...

  12. Studies on Optimal Extraction Conditions of Flavonoid in Leaves of Black Currnt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Employing the orthogonal design,the optimal extraction conditions for flavonoid in leaves of black currant were determined by colorimetric estimation,which were extraction agent of 75% EtOH-H2O,the material ratio (ratio of weight of fresh leaves to volume of the solvent)of 1:16, the temperature of 35 ℃, the time of 1 h and times of three. A total extraction rate of over 97% and the fiavonoid contents of 179. 33 mg/100 g were obtained under the optimal extraction conditions.

  13. Micromechanisms of Crack Extension in Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    1>MI» «UltMM »IM»« AfIT STUOCMT AT frton Coll « ini*eritty of 0»ford fitfit >• Cg«>MiLiiii orrici MM »MO AflT/W *AF| ON 45433 ii • 1...Idea oa the fractura characterl at Ice of peak aged Al Hg St alloys. Currant alaatlr and alaatlc-pleatIc fractura toughnaaa paraeetere...dlapereold» and coaraa lron-kaaring lacluatona waa »tu4i*4. Tka duct 1 la fractura toughnaaa, JIc ^4 th# raalataaca

  14. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and of antioxidative defense: Relationship to intervention with antioxidant-rich foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Young, Jette Feveile; Loft, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidant actions of single food items or extracts rich in flavonoids (e.g., apple and black currant juice, grape skin extract, tea extract and parsley) were evaluated in short-term human trials [Denmark; date not given]. An overall weak trend toward decreased lipid oxidation with increased...... polyphenol intake was observed. There was an increased oxidative stress response toward plasma proteins from food items rich in polyphenols and vitamin C and a decreased response when fruits and vegetables were omitted using a controlled diet. There also was a similar trend toward increased antioxidant...

  15. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity.

  16. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  17. Isolation and Identification of a New Antifungal Sesquiterpene Lactone from Inula viscosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, M; Kashman, Y; Neeman, I

    1999-04-01

    A new sesquiterpene - tayunin - has been isolated and purified from powdered leaves of INULA VISCOSA (L.) Ait. The chemical structure was determined by 1D and 2D NMR analysis, and IR and MS. Tayunin inhibits the growth of MICROSPORUM CANIS at a concentration of 10 microg/ml and TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM at 50 microg/ml(MIC).

  18. Milan Army Ammunition Plant. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 4. Appendices M - T

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    oak Quercus alba Willow oak Quercus phellos Osage orange Maclura pomifera Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Loblolly pine Pinus...Sweet gum Liquidambar styraciflua Pignut hickory Carya glabra Shagbark hickory Ca,’ya ovata Holly h1ex opaca Black locust Acer rubrum Black oak Quercus

  19. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to the Functional Assessment of Forested Wetlands in Alluvial Valleys of East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    grandiflora), red maple (Acer rubrum), ironwood (Carpinus caroliniana), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata ), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), baldcypress...Kley and Hine 1998). The shrubs observed included apple haw ( Crataegus opaca), persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), snowbell, deciduous holly, and swamp...Ulmus alata), cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), river birch, box-elder (Acer negundo), hawthorn ( Crataegus spp.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) can be

  20. Effects of Permanently Raised Water Tables on Forest Overstory Vegetation in the Vicinity of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Maple Acer rubrum Sugarberry Celtis laevigata Eackberry C. occidentalis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana White ash Fraxinus americana Shingle oak Quercus...Populus deltoides Somewhat Tolerantt Box elder Acer negundo Silver maple A. saccharinum Hazel alder Alnus rugosa River birch Betula nigra Hawthorn Crataegus

  1. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed

  2. Secondary metabolites from Eurotium species, Aspergillus calidoustus and A. insuetus common in Canadian homes with a review of their chemistry and biological activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slack, G. J.; Puniani, E.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2009-01-01

    As part of studies of metabolites from fungi common in the built environment in Canadian homes, we investigated metabolites from strains of three Eurotium species, namely E. herbariorum, E. amstelodami, and E. rubrum as well as a number of isolates provisionally identified as Aspergillus ustus. T...

  3. Decay, defects and condition of street trees in four Upstate New York cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Luley; David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    Throughout most of New York State, maple species are the most common street tree. It is not unusual for Norway (Acer platanoides), silver (A. saccharinum), sugar (A. saccharum), red (A. rubrum), and other maples species to comprise over 50% of the street tree population in communities...

  4. The Evolution of USDA Forest Service Experimental Forest Research on Northern Conifers in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; Nicole S. Rogers

    2017-01-01

    The degraded stand pictured in this 1955 USDA Forest Service photograph from Maine was dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea), red maple (Acer rubrum), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Stands such as these were typical of second-growth, lowland...

  5. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed hardwoo

  6. Dicarboxylic acids affect the growth of dermatophytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, J; Friege, B

    1994-09-01

    Azelaic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with known antimycotic activity. In this study we have used an agar dilution technique to test the effect of six other dicarboxylic acids (sebacic, undecanedioic, dodecanedioic, tridecanedioic, tetradecanedioic and hexadecanedioic acid, 10(-4)-10(-2) mol/l, pH 5.5) on in vitro growth of Trichophyton (T.) rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum (M.) canis. Furthermore, the fungicidal activity of 10(-2) mol/l undecanedioic and sebacic acid was tested using a T. rubrum growth assay. Undecanedioic acid proved fungistatic at 10(-2) mol/l for all species and fungicidal for T. rubrum. A minor fungistatic effect on T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes was also seen with the other acids at this concentration. M. canis was inhibited only by high concentrations of four acids, whereas low concentrations of all six agents resulted in enlarged thallus diameters. We conclude that among dicarboxylic acids fungistatic activity is not limited to azelaic acid. Undecanedioic acid appears promising for further investigations.

  7. Anti-dermatophytic activity of marine sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (Dendy) on clinically isolated fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NB Dhayanithi; TT Ajith Kumar; M Kalaiselvam; T Balasubramanian; N Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-fungal effects and find out the active metabolites from sponge,Sigmadocia carnosa (S. carnosa) against four dermatophytic fungi. Methods: The methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of marine sponge, S. carnosa was examined against Trichophytonmentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum) and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and qualitative analysed to find out the active molecules. Results: The methanol extract of sponge was expressed significant activity than ethyl acetate and acetone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract of sponge that resulted in complete growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum were found to 125, 250, 250 and 250 μg/mL respectively. But, 100 % inhibition of fungal spore germination was observed in T. mentagrophytes at 500 μg/mL concentration followed by T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum at 1 000 μg/mL concentration. Other two extracts showed weak anti spore germination activity against the tested dermatophytic fungi. Methanol extracts showed presence of terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. Conclusion: Based on the literature, this is the first study which has conducted to inhibit the growth and spore germination of dermatophytic fungi with S. carnosa. Further research also needs to purify and characterize the secondary metabolites from the sponge, S. carnosa for the valuable source of novel substances for future drug discovery.

  8. Onychomycosis is rare in young children, and treatment is a task for dermatological specialists.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Skov, Lone; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-01-01

    Onychomycosis was diagnosed in a two-year-old girl. The infection was caused by Trichophyton rubrum, which is the most frequent cause of toenail onychomycosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, microscopy and culture. She was treated with orally given terbinafine and topic...

  9. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Mass transfer/kinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H{sub 2}0 {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H{sub 2}S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25{degree} and 30{degree}C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30{degree}, 32{degree} or 34{degree}C. The rate of conversion of COs and H{sub 2}O to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30{degree}C was found to be 0.243 h{sup {minus}1}. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: {mu} = {sub 351} + I{sub o}/{sup 0.152}I{sub o}. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  10. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H[sub 2]0 [yields] CO[sub 2] + H[sub 2]. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H[sub 2]S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25[degree] and 30[degree]C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30[degree], 32[degree] or 34[degree]C. The rate of conversion of COs and H[sub 2]O to CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30[degree]C was found to be 0.243 h[sup [minus]1]. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: [mu] = [sub 351] + I[sub o]/[sup 0.152]I[sub o]. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  11. Dermatophytic blepharitis due to Microsporum gypseum. An adult variety of tinea faciei with dermatophytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Torres – Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea faciei, is a facial superficial mycosis. The most frequent etiological agents are Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and T. tonsurans. We report a 40 year-old woman, with an eight days history of an erythematous plaque on her superior right eyelid. Hyphae and dermatophytoma were easily visualized in KOH examination, and Microsporum gypseum was isolated.

  12. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  13. Radiation-induced bystander effects enhanced by elevated sodium chloride through sensitizing cells to bystander factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lingyan; Han Wei; Chen Shaopeng; Zhao Ye; Jiang Erkang; Bao Lingzhi; Pei Bei; Yang Gen; Zhao Guoping; Wang Jun; Xu An [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2008-09-26

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. However, very little data is available on the genotoxic effects of RIBE combined with other factor(s). We reported previously that with a low dose of {alpha}-particle irradiation, the fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells in non-irradiated bystander cells was significantly increased under elevated NaCl culture conditions. In this study, we further investigated the functional role of NaCl in the enhancement of RIBE using a specially designed co-culture system and micronucleus (MN) test. It was shown that the MN frequency was not increased significantly by elevated NaCl (9.0 g/L) alone or by medium exposure. However, with 1.0 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced MN frequency increased significantly in both irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Additional studies showed that elevated NaCl made the non-irradiated bystander cells more vulnerable to bystander factors. Furthermore, it was found that the induced MN frequency in cells both in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions was weakened when the hypertonic medium was changed to normotonic medium for 2 h before irradiation. Such observations were quite similar to the co-effect of NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), indicating that elevated NaCl might sensitize non-irradiated cells to bystander factors-induced oxidative stress.

  14. The role of TGF-β1–miR-21–ROS pathway in bystander responses induced by irradiated non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Chen, X; Tian, W; Yin, X; Wang, J; Yang, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many studies have indicated an important implication of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) in cancer radiotherapy, but the detailed signalling remains unclear. Methods: The roles of tumour growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) and miR-21 in medium-mediated RIBEs in H1299 non-small-cell lung cancer cells were investigated using DNA damage, changes in proliferation and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as end points. SB431542, a specific inhibitor of TGF-β type 1 receptor kinases, was used to inhibit TGF-β1 pathways in irradiated and bystander cells. Exogenous miR-21 regulation was achieved through inhibitor or mimic transfection. Results: Compared with relative sham-radiation-conditioned medium, radiation-conditioned medium (RCM) from irradiated cells 1 h post radiation (1-h RCM) caused an increase in ROS levels and DNA damage in bystander cells, while 18-h RCM induced cell cycle delay and proliferation inhibition. All these effects were eliminated by TGF-βR1 inhibition. One-hour RCM upregulated miR-21 expression in bystander cells, and miR-21 inhibitor abolished bystander oxidative stress and DNA damage. Eighteen-hour RCM downregulated miR-21 of bystander cells, and miR-21 mimic eliminated bystander proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, the dysregulation of miR-21 was attenuated by TGF-βR1 inhibition. Conclusions: The TGF-β1–miR-21–ROS pathway of bystander cells has an important mediating role in RIBEs in H1299 cells. PMID:24992582

  15. MiR-663 inhibits radiation-induced bystander effects by targeting TGFB1 in a feedback mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wentao; Xu, Shuai; Yao, Bin; Hong, Mei; Wu, Xin; Pei, Hailong; Chang, Lei; Ding, Nan; Gao, Xiaofei; Ye, Caiyong; Wang, Jufang; Hei, Tom K; Zhou, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been investigated intensively over the past two decades. Although quite a few reports demonstrated that cytokines such as TGF-β1 are induced within the directly irradiated cells and play critical roles in mediating the bystander effects, little is known about the signaling pathways that occur in bystander cells. The crucial question as to why RIBE signals cannot be infinitely transmitted, therefore, remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that miR-663, a radiosensitive microRNA, participates in the regulation of biological effects in both directly irradiated and bystander cells via its targeting of TGF-β1. MiR-663 was downregulated, while TGFB1 was upregulated in directly irradiated cells. The regulation profile of miR-663 and TGFB1, on the other hand, was reversed in bystander cells, in which an elevated miR-663 expression was exhibited and led to downregulation of TGF-β1. Further studies revealed that miR-663 interacts with TGFB1 directly and that through its binding to the core regulation sequence, miR-663 suppresses the expression of TGFB1. Based on the results, we propose that miR-663 inhibits the propagation of RIBE in a feedback mode, in which the induction of TGF-β1 by reduced miR-663 in directly irradiated cells leads to increased level of miR-663 in bystander cells. The upregulation of miR-663 in turn suppresses the expression of TGF-β1 and limits further transmission of the bystander signals. PMID:25483041

  16. Radiation Bystander Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohzaman Soleymanifard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation Induced Bystander Effect (RIBE which cause radiation effects in non-irradiated cells, has challenged the principle according to which radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is necessary for producing biological responses. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? To have a better understanding of this rather ambiguous concept substantial number of original and reviewed article were carefully examined. Results: Irradiated cells release molecules which can propagate in cell environment and/or transmit through gap junction intercellular communication. These molecules can reach to non-irradiated cells and transmit bystander signals. In many investigations, it has been confirmed that these molecules are growth factors, cytokines, nitric oxide and free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS. Transmission of by stander signal to neighboring cells persuades them to produce secondary growth factors which in their turn cause further cell injuries. Some investigators suggest, organelles other than nucleus (mitochondria and cell membrane are the origin of these signals.  There is another opinion which suggests double strand breaks (DSB are not directly generated in bystander cells, rather they are due to smaller damage like single strand breaks which accumulate and end up to DSB. Although bystander mechanisms have not been exactly known, it can be confirmed that multiple mechanisms and various pathways are responsible for this effect. Cell type, radiation type, experimental conditions and end points identify the dominant mechanism. Conclusion: Molecules and pathways which are responsible for RIBE, also cause systemic responses to other non-irradiation stresses. So RIBE is a kind of systemic stress or innate immune responses, which are performed by cell microenvironment. Irradiated cells and their signals are components of microenvironment for creating bystander effects.

  17. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yuexia [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Central Laboratory, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced bystander effects between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte cells. • SirT1 played a protective role in regulating this bystander effect. • SirT1 contributed to the protective effects via elimination the accumulation of ROS. • The activity of c-Myc is critical for maintaining the protective role of SirT1. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved.

  18. Calvin cycle mutants of photoheterotrophic purple nonsulfur bacteria fail to grow due to an electron imbalance rather than toxic metabolite accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gina C; McKinlay, James B

    2014-03-01

    Purple nonsulfur bacteria grow photoheterotrophically by using light for energy and organic compounds for carbon and electrons. Disrupting the activity of the CO2-fixing Calvin cycle enzyme, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO), prevents photoheterotrophic growth unless an electron acceptor is provided or if cells can dispose of electrons as H2. Such observations led to the long-standing model wherein the Calvin cycle is necessary during photoheterotrophic growth to maintain a pool of oxidized electron carriers. This model was recently challenged with an alternative model wherein disrupting RubisCO activity prevents photoheterotrophic growth due to the accumulation of toxic ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) (D. Wang, Y. Zhang, E. L. Pohlmann, J. Li, and G. P. Roberts, J. Bacteriol. 193:3293-3303, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00265-11). Here, we confirm that RuBP accumulation can impede the growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum (Rs. rubrum) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rp. palustris) RubisCO-deficient (ΔRubisCO) mutants under conditions where electron carrier oxidation is coupled to H2 production. However, we also demonstrate that Rs. rubrum and Rp. palustris Calvin cycle phosphoribulokinase mutants that cannot produce RuBP cannot grow photoheterotrophically on succinate unless an electron acceptor is provided or H2 production is permitted. Thus, the Calvin cycle is still needed to oxidize electron carriers even in the absence of toxic RuBP. Surprisingly, Calvin cycle mutants of Rs. rubrum, but not of Rp. palustris, grew photoheterotrophically on malate without electron acceptors or H2 production. The mechanism by which Rs. rubrum grows under these conditions remains to be elucidated.

  19. Onychomycosis: Sampling, diagnosing as efficiant part of hospital pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Vesna A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of one or more nails. Causes of onychomycosis are dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds, but the most common cause is Trichophytonrubrum (T. Rubrum from the group of dermatophyte fungi. The aims Using sampling determination of the most common clinical type of onychomycosis, lokalization and involvement of the nail plate, and monitoring the efficacy of methods/tests in the diagnosis of nail onychomycosis. Material and methods This paper is a part of academic IV phase study. The study included 30 patients with onychomycosis. Each sample was seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA and Diluted SDA (D-SDA at 28°C and 37°C, as well as the Dermatophyte Test Medium (DTM at 28°C. Identification of isolated fungi to the level of genus/species has been based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics by KOH and Blancophor fluorescent dye. PCR were performed to detect T. Rubrum-specific and pan-dermatophyte multiplex PCR product. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. Results The most common clinical form was subungual lateral distal onychomycosis (DLSOof the hands and feet pollex fingernails, while the size of the involvement of the nail plate was 1/2 - 1/3 in the majority of patients. Cultivation gave a positive result in 50% of cases and the most commonly isolated microorganism was the T. Rubrum. For negative cultures (50% the PCR was carried out which demonstrated high sensitivity and T. Rubrum remained the most frequently detected. Conclusions Using the methods of cultivation and PCR, onychomycosis was confirmed in 28 (93.3% patients. Cultivation gave a negative result in 50% of cases, while the PCR was positive in 86.6%. Our research shows the highest incidence of T. Rubrum (60%. In continuation of this study will be analyzed the choice and effectiveness of therapy.

  20. Coloristic and antimicrobial behaviour of polymeric substrates using bioactive substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, D.; Vrînceanu, N.; Oancea, S.; Rîmbu, C.

    2016-08-01

    A major concern in reducing microbial contamination of healthcare and hygiene products motivated us to seek viable alternatives in order to create such barriers. The antimicrobial and anti-oxidant effects of natural extracts are well-known, their application onto polymeric supports is still challenging in terms of investigation. To our knowledge, the method of natural dyeing of different polymeric substrates using bioactive substances derived from black currant and green walnut shells, in conjunction with biomordants, and their long term effects have not been very consistently reported. The main objective of the study is based on the comparative study of different polymeric fibrous substrates dyed by means of laboratory scaled classic methodology with extracts from black currant fruits and green walnut shells, with the assistance of conventional and biomordants (copper sulphate, citric and tannic acids). The assistance of biomordant in the dyeing process seems to conduct to improved synergetic colouring and antibacterial performances. The main results demonstrated that the extract of green walnut shells reinforced by the biomordants solutions expressed the best antimicrobial behaviour. The present research is a milestone in the identification of potential technological alternatives applied in dyeing of synthetic and natural textile supports, quantified and controlled by antimicrobial response correlated with colorimetric features.

  1. Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Haraldsdottir, J.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of intake of flavonoid-containing black currant and apple juice on urinary excretion of quercetin and on markers of oxida......Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of intake of flavonoid-containing black currant and apple juice on urinary excretion of quercetin and on markers...... of oxidative status. Design: This was a crossover study with 3 doses of juice (750, 1000, and 1500 mL) consumed for 1 wk by 4 women and 1 man corresponding to an intake of 4.8, 6.4, and 9.6 mg quercetin/d. Results: Urinary excretion of quercetin increased significantly with dose and with time. The fraction...... excreted in urine was 0.29-0.47%. Plasma quercetin did not change with juice inter vention, Plasma ascorbate increased during intervention because of the ascorbate in the juice. Total plasma malondialdehyde decreased with time during the 1500-mL juice intervention, indicating reduced lipid oxidation...

  2. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaweewan Klongsiriwet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones. The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA was used to assess their in vitro effects on Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae. Arbutin, vanillic acid, and taxifolin proved to be ineffective whereas naringenin, quercetin and luteolin were highly effective at 250 μM concentrations. Procyanidin (PC tannins tended to be less active than prodelphinidin tannins (PD. Experiments with combinations of tannins and quercetin or luteolin revealed for the first time the existence of synergistic AH effects between tannins and flavonoid monomers. They also provided evidence that synergistic effects appear to occur at slightly lower concentrations of PC than PD. This suggests that the AH activity of condensed tannins can be significantly enhanced by the addition of quercetin or luteolin. This information may prove useful for plant breeding or selection and for designing optimal feed mixtures.

  3. Three-step HPLC-ESI-MS/MS procedure for screening and identifying non-target flavonoid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Gábor; Fodor, Péter; Abrankó, László

    2010-02-01

    A three-step HPLC-ESI-MS/MS procedure is designed for screening and identification of non-target flavonoid derivatives of selected flavonoid aglycones. In this method the five commonly appearing aglycones (apigenin, luteolin, myricetin, naringenin and quercetin) were selected. The method consists of three individual mass spectrometric experiments of which the first two were implemented within a single chromatographic acquisition. The third step was carried out during a replicate chromatographic run using the same RP-HPLC conditions. The first step, a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan of the aglycones was performed to define the number of derivatives relating to the selected aglycones. For this purpose the characteristic aglycone parts of the unknowns were used as specific tags of the molecules, which were generated as in-source fragments. Secondly, a full scan MS experiment is performed to identify the masses of the potential derivatives of the selected aglycones. Finally, the third step had the capability to confirm the supposed derivatives. The developed method was applied to a commercially available black currant juice to demonstrate its capability to detect and identify various flavonoid glycosides without any preliminary information about their presence in the sample. As a result 13 compounds were detected and identified in total. Namely, 3 different myricetin glycosides and the myricetin aglycone 2 luteolin glycosides plus the aglycone and 3 quercetin glycosides plus the aglycone could be identified from the tested black currant sample. In the case of apigenin and naringenin only the aglycones could be detected.

  4. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klongsiriwet, Chaweewan; Quijada, Jessica; Williams, Andrew R; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Hoste, Hervé

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH) effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins) and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was used to assess their in vitro effects on Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae. Arbutin, vanillic acid, and taxifolin proved to be ineffective whereas naringenin, quercetin and luteolin were highly effective at 250 μM concentrations. Procyanidin (PC) tannins tended to be less active than prodelphinidin tannins (PD). Experiments with combinations of tannins and quercetin or luteolin revealed for the first time the existence of synergistic AH effects between tannins and flavonoid monomers. They also provided evidence that synergistic effects appear to occur at slightly lower concentrations of PC than PD. This suggests that the AH activity of condensed tannins can be significantly enhanced by the addition of quercetin or luteolin. This information may prove useful for plant breeding or selection and for designing optimal feed mixtures.

  5. Aglycones and sugar moieties alter anthocyanin absorption and metabolism after berry consumption in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianli; Pittman, Hoy E; McKay, Steve; Prior, Ronald L

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins (ACNs) with different aglycones and sugar moieties, weanling pigs (11.4 +/- 3.8 kg) were fed, in a single meal, a freeze-dried powder of chokeberry, black currant, or elderberry at a single dose of 229, 140, or 228 mumol total ACN/kg body weight (BW), respectively. These berries provided ACNs with differences in aglycone as well as some unique differences in the sugar moieties. The relative proportions of the different metabolites depended upon concentrations, quantities consumed, and types of glycoside of ACNs in the berry. Delphinidin ACNs were not metabolized to any measurable extent. Cyanidin ACNs were metabolized via methylation and glucuronidation as well as by formation of both derivatives on the same ACN molecule. ACNs with either a di- or trisaccharide attached to them were excreted in the urine primarily as the intact form. Over 80% of the ACN compounds containing rutinose or sambubiose, which were excreted in the urine from black currant, elderberry, or Marion blackberry, were excreted as the intact molecule. The limited metabolism of these ACNs that did occur was via methylation. ACN monoglycosides other than the glucoside were metabolized via methylation and/or glucuronide formation. The monoglucuronide that formed represented a small proportion of the metabolites relative to the methylated or the mixed methylated and glucuronide forms of ACNs. The data clearly demonstrate that the aglycone and the sugar moieties can alter the apparent absorption and metabolism of ACNs.

  6. Nitrogen atmosphere and natural antioxidants effect on muesli oxidation during long-time storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klensporf-Pawlik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of natural antioxidants from raspberry and black currant seeds and modified atmosphere packaging on muesli oxidative stability measured by monitoring volatile lipid oxidation products were evaluated. The effectiveness toward lipid oxidation was investigated during 10 months storage at ambient temperature. Both ethanolic extracts as well as nitrogen atmosphere influenced lipid oxidation rate in muesli measured by volatile compounds content. The most abundant lipid derived volatile compounds was hexanal. After storage, its concentration changed from 802 µg/kg to 9.8 mg/kg in muesli stored in air atmosphere, whereas in muesli stored in nitrogen atmosphere with raspberry seed extract addition it raised to 3.1 mg/kg. Although, both natural antioxidants rich in phenolic compounds, were effective towards lipid oxidation, the strongest inhibiting effect had modified atmosphere packaging. The addition of ethanolic extracts did not fortify its positive effect. Total concentration of volatile compounds in muesli after 10 months of storage was 19.6 mg/kg when stored in air and 13.7 and 11.8 mg/kg when stored with raspberry and black currant seeds extract addition respectively, while 9.8 mg/kg when stored in nitrogen atmosphere without antioxidants, and 9.7 and 9.9 mg/kg when stored with antioxidants mentioned above.

  7. The effect of selected supercritical CO2 plant extract addition on user properties of shower gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Otmar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The formulations of washing cosmetics i.e. shower gels, containing extracts obtained during supercritical CO2 extraction process as active ingredient, were developed. The subject of the study was the analysis of the physicochemical and user properties of the obtained products. In the work supercritical CO2 extracts of black currant seeds, strawberry seeds, hop cones and mint leafs were used. The formulation contains a mixture of surfactants (disodium cocoamphodiacetate, disodium laureth sulfosuccinate, cocoamide DEA, cocoamidepropyl betaine, Sodium Laureth Sulfate. Various thickener agents were applied to the obtained desired rheological properties of the cosmetics. Among others, sorbitol acetal derivatives, methylhydroxypropylcellulose and C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer were used. For stable products, the effect of extracts addition (black currants seeds, strawberries seeds, mint and hops, obtained from supercritical CO2 extraction process on the cosmetics properties, such as pH, viscosity, detergency and foam ability, were determined. The obtained results showed that the extracts could be used as components of shower gels.

  8. The Status Quo and Improvement Strategy of HSE Management%HSE管理工作当前现状及整改策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹波

    2013-01-01

    This paper through introduction of examples, desc-ribes and analyses the presence of HSE management problems, and ultimately makes the analysis through examples on the ex-isting problems of current HSE management, and puts forward the countermeasures.%  本文通过实例说明,对于HSE管理中存在的问题进行叙述和分析,最终旨在通过实例对我国当前 HSE 管理中的存在的问题进行分析,并提出对策。

  9. La satisfacción de los usuarios con PoliBuscador. Análisis de la encuesta de Abril de 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes Llopes, Inmaculada; Vallés Navarro, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Presentación en Jornadas Expania Mayo 2013. Universitat Pompeu Fabra El nuevo PoliBuscador celebra el primer aniversario de su lanzamiento. Se mide la satisfacción de los colectivos UPV con PoliBuscador y hacerlo atendiendo a detalles para planificar actuaciones. Ribes Llopes, I.; Vallés Navarro, R. (2013). La satisfacción de los usuarios con PoliBuscador. Análisis de la encuesta de Abril de 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/29384.

  10. Utilization of non-merchantable wood in Steppe regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrovol' skil, E.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    A description, with diagram, is given of the design of a small mobile retort developed in the USSR for pyrolysis of unmerchantable wood in the steppe regions. The type of wood considered is the tree and shrub material in shelterbelts, e.g. Cornus sanguinea, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Ribes aureum, Cotinus coggygria (Rhus continus) and Caragana arborescens. Yields of charcoal, settled tar, alcohols, and volatile acids from each of these species are given in % of oven-dry wood for pyrolysis at 320/sup 0/C for 2 h. Comparative data are given for dry distillation of wood of birch, spruce, and pine (400/sup 0/C, 8 h).

  11. Exercise on prescription: a randomized study on the effect of counseling vs counseling and supervised exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jes Bak; Kragstrup, J; Skovgaard, T

    2008-01-01

    (counseling) using maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) as the primary outcome. The study was conducted as a randomized trial in 2005-2006 with a high and a low-intensive group. All the patients referred to the EoP scheme by their GP in the counties of Vejle and Ribe, Denmark, were eligible for the trial....... The high-intensive EoP group received 4 months of group-based supervised training and attended five motivational counseling sessions. The low-intensive group only attended four motivational counseling sessions. Three hundred and twenty-seven patients entered the EoP scheme, and 52 (16%) volunteered...

  12. La radiodifusión en Andorra. Política, economía y espacio comunicacional en un país dependiente

    OpenAIRE

    Giral Quintana, Eugenio

    1989-01-01

    [spa] Las peculiares características internacionales del Principado de Andorra, y su situación territorial, le hicieron aparecer como una posible localización de una emisora de radio en ondas medias y cortas, con una programación dirigida al público del Mediodía francés, Catalunya y Aragón. La concesión por el M.l. Consell General, el 16 de agosto de 1935, a Bonaventura Vila Ribes, del permiso administrativo para instalar una emisora en el Principado inició la actividad de la que sería "R...

  13. Comparative assessmenr in differenr condirions of a program for rhe learning of reading and writing

    OpenAIRE

    Bazán Ramírez, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Dara collected under differenr didacric condirions and evaluarion steps of a program for the learning of reading and wriring are reponed. The firsr didacric condirion corresponds ro an inirial phase of projecrion ro rhe communiry wirh rhe reachers help (Mares, Plancarre y Rueda, 1994). The second evaluarion is about a tesr applied in four experimemal programs designed by Mares et. al. based en rhe behavioral taxonomy developed by Ribes and Lopez (1985). Finally, rhe rhird condition correspond...

  14. Fabrication and qualification of roughness reference samples for industrial testing of surface roughness levels below 0.5 nm Sq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faehnle, O.; Langenbach, E.; Zygalsky, F.; Frost, F.; Fechner, R.; Schindler, A.; Cumme, M.; Biskup, H.; Wünsche, C.; Rascher, R.

    2015-08-01

    Applying reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) processes at the Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), several reference samples to be used in industry for calibrating of roughness testing equipment have been generated with the smoothest sample featuring 0.1 nm rms Sq. Subsequently these reference samples have been measured cross-site applying atomic force microscopy (AFM), white light interferometry (WLI), Nomarski1 microscopy (NM) and scatterometry (iTIRM2) determining the appropriate range of measurable rms surface roughness for each industrial measuring device.

  15. Nalaz bakterije Listeria monocytogenes u ribi i ribljim proizvodima

    OpenAIRE

    Rožman, Jelena; Njari, dr. sc. Bela; Kozačinski, dr. sc. Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Listerioza je bolest koja se prenosi hranom a bakterija Listeria monocytogenes je jedan od najznačajnijih javnozdravstvenih problema i uvjet prometa hrane u svijetu. Prije svega povezana je s konzumacijom gotovih proizvoda. U ovom radu je pretražena svježa riba (brancin) i riblji proizvodi (dimljena i marinirana riba, orada i brancin) na nalaz bakterije L. monocytogenes. Također, pretraženi su uzorci brisova uzeti s radnih površina i ruku djelatnika u pogonima prerade morske ribe. Bakterija L...

  16. Moments of Play, Digital technology and museums as playful learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation questioning how to enhance primary school age children’s learning and engagement in a guided tour of a Museum. Preliminary studies indicated playful activity during a tour enhanced the interaction between the guide and the children. Building on this is an in......-depth enquiry involving totally 48 children visiting the Viking Museum in Ribe, Denmark’s oldest town. Conclusions highlight how ‘moments of play’,designed as integral milestones of a Museum guided tour, act as a catalyst to augment, enhance and indicate children’s learning and engagement....

  17. Construcción de un instrumento para evaluar competencias en situaciones no vinculadas con estrés

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Campuzano, María de Lourdes; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    2014-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar las bases para la construcción de un instrumento para evaluar competencias en situaciones objetivamente no vinculadas con estrés, así como la relación entre éstas y la presencia o ausencia de enfermedad. La propuesta se basa en el modelo psicológico de la salud de Ribes y responde a la necesidad de comprender la influencia de diversos factores psicológicos en el estado de salud-enfermedad. Se considera que el modelo predice una relación entre el grado...

  18. Data describing the definition of compound organs (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us BodyParts...ribing the definition of compound organs (PART-OF Tree) Description of data contents In BodyParts3D, only at...D) defined as a sum of atomic ones are not provided in the form of the meshes. This file describes which ELEMENT parts... consistute each COMPOUND organ. Data file File name: partof_element_parts.txt File URL: ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/bodyparts3d/LATEST/partof_element_parts.txt File size:

  19. Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabati Farzaneh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium. Methods 137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Results 37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration. Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum. Conclusions The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively.

  20. Large Scale Screening of Commonly Used Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants against Urease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Nabati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study:H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease andurease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium.Methods:137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effectiveextracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined.Results:37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration. Nine of the whole studiedplants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotianatabacum.Conclusions:The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively.

  1. Utilisation de faisceaux d'ions oxygène réactifs pour la gravure de polymères utilisables en optoélectronique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussant, C.; Lucas, B.; Ratier, B.; Moliton, A.; François, B.

    1998-06-01

    Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) of a fluorinated polyimide (6FDA-ODA) has been achieved with Oxygene ions. A 5keV and 0.5mA/cm2 ion beam leads to a 500 Å/mn sputtering speed of the material. A similar behavior was also observed in the case of PPP. La gravure d'un polyimide fluoré (6FDA-ODA) a été réalisée par un faisceau parallèle d'ions oxygène réactifs (Réactive Ion Beam Etching : RIBE). Pour une énergie des ions de 5keV et à des densités de courant de l'ordre de 0.5mA/cm2 une vitesse de gravure de 500 Å/mn a été obtenue pour ce matériau. Avec le PPP un comportement voisin a été également observé.

  2. Plant Derived Phytocompound, Embelin in CNS Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundap, Uday P; Bhuvanendran, Saatheeyavaane; Kumari, Yatinesh; Othman, Iekhsan; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq

    2017-01-01

    A Central nervous system (CNS) disease is the one which affects either the spinal cord or brain and causing neurological or psychiatric complications. During the nineteenth century, modern medicines have occupied the therapy for many ailments and are widely used these days. Herbal medicines have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons and also considered safer as they originate from natural sources. Embelin is a plant-based benzoquinone which is the major active constituent of the fruits of Embelia ribes Burm. It is an Indo-Malaysian species, extensively used in various traditional medicine systems for treating various diseases. Several natural products including quinone derivatives, which are considered to possess better safety and efficacy profile, are known for their CNS related activity. The bright orange hydroxybenzoquinone embelin-rich fruits of E. ribes have become popular in ethnomedicine. The present systematic review summarizes the effects of embelin on central nervous system and related diseases. A PRISMA model for systematic review was utilized for search. Various electronic databases such as Pubmed, Springer, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched between January 2000 and February 2016. Based on the search criteria for the literature, 13 qualified articles were selected and discussed in this review. The results of the report showed that there is a lack of translational research and not a single study was found in human. This report gives embelin a further way to be explored in clinical trials for its safety and efficacy.

  3. Secular variation of hemispheric phase differences in the solar cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotova, N V; Arlt, R; Tuominen, I

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the phase difference of the sunspot cycles in the two hemispheres and compare it with the latitudinal sunspot distribution. If the north-south phase difference exhibits a long-term tendency, it should not be regarded as a stochastic phenomenon. We use datasets of historical sunspot records and drawings made by Staudacher, Hamilton, Gimingham, Carrington, Spouml;rer, and Greenwich observers, as well as the sunspot activity during the Maunder minimum reconstructed by Ribes and Nesme-Ribes. We employ cross-recurrence plots to analyse north-south phase differences. We show that during the last 300 years, the persistence of phase-leading in one of the hemispheres exhibits a secular variation. Changes from one hemisphere to the other leading in phase were registered near 1928 and 1968 as well as two historical ones near 1783 and 1875. A long-term anticorrelation between the hemispheric phase differences in the sunspot cycles and the latitudinal distribution of sunspots was traced since 1750.

  4. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce bystander factors and induce radiation bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh; Samani, Roghayeh Kamran; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman

    2014-07-01

    Radiation damages initiated by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) are not limited to the first or immediate neighbors of the irradiated cells, but the effects have been observed in the cells far from the irradiation site. It has been postulated that bystander cells, by producing bystander factors, are actively involved in the propagation of bystander effect in the regions beyond the initial irradiated site. Current study was planned to test the hypothesis. MRC5 and QU-DB cell lines were irradiated, and successive medium transfer technique was performed to induce bystander effects in two bystander cell groups. Conditioned medium extracted from the target cells was transferred to the bystander cells (first bystander cells). After one hour, conditioned medium was substituted by fresh medium. Two hours later, the fresh medium was transferred to a second group of non-irradiated cells (second bystander cells). Micronucleated cells (MC) were counted to quantify damages induced in the first and second bystander cell groups. Radiation effect was observed in the second bystander cells as well as in the first ones. Statistical analyses revealed that the number of MC in second bystander subgroups was significantly more than the corresponding value observed in control groups, but in most cases it was equal to the number of MC observed in the first bystander cells. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce and release bystander signals in the culture medium and affect non-irradiated cells. Therefore, they may contribute to the RIBE propagation.

  5. Novel features of radiation-induced bystander signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated using root micro-grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Fanghua; Xu, Wei; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Wu, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been well demonstrated in whole organisms, as well as in single-cell culture models in vitro and multi-cellular tissues models in vitro, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, including the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling. The RIBE in vivo has been shown to exist in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). Importantly, the unique plant grafting provides a delicate approach for studying the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling in the context of whole plants. In our previous study, the time course of bystander signaling in plants has been well demonstrated using the root micro-grafting technique. In this study, we further investigated the temporal cooperation pattern of multiple bystander signals, the directionality of bystander signaling, and the effect of bystander tissues on the bystander signaling. The results showed that the bystander response could also be induced efficiently when the asynchronously generated bystander signals reached the bystander tissues in the same period, but not when they entered into the bystander tissues in an inversed sequence. The absence of bystander response in root-inversed grafting indicated that the bystander signaling along roots might be of directionality. The bystander signaling was shown to be independent of the bystander tissues. PMID:23072991

  6. Hybrid model of the radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Viviane V.B.; Faria, Fernando Pereira de; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: vitoriabraga06@gmail.com, E-mail: fernandopereirabh@gmail.com, E-mail: seg@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) refer to biological alterations in non-irradiated cells that occupy the same medium (culture or tissue) of irradiated cells. The biochemical mechanisms of the RIBE are not completely elucidated. However, several experiments indicate its existence. The objective of this work is to quantify the effect via stochastic and deterministic approaches. The hypotheses of the model are: a) one non-irradiated healthy cell interacts with signals that propagate through the medium. These signals are released by irradiated cells. At the time of interaction cell-signal, the cell can become damaged and signaling or damage and not signaling; b) Both types of damage cells repair with certain rate becoming health cells; c) The diffusion of signals obey the discrete diffusion equation with decay in two dimensions. d) The signal concentration released by irradiated cells depends on the dose in the low dose range (< 0.3 Gy) and saturates for higher dose values. As expected, the temporal analysis of the model as a function of the repair rate shows that the survival fraction decreases as the repair rate is reduced. The analysis of the extent of damage triggered by a signal concentration released by a single irradiated cell at time zero show that the damage grows with the maximum simulation time. The results show good agreement with the experimental data. The stochastic and deterministic methods used are in qualitative agreement, as expected. (author)

  7. Target irradiation induced bystander effects between stem-like and non stem-like cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Kobayashi, Alisa; Maeda, Takeshi; Fu, Qibin; Oikawa, Masakazu; Yang, Gen; Konishi, Teruaki; Uchihori, Yukio; Hei, Tom K; Wang, Yugang

    2015-03-01

    Tumors are heterogeneous in nature and consist of multiple cell types. Among them, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are suggested to be the principal cause of tumor metastasis, resistance and recurrence. Therefore, understanding the behavior of CSCs in direct and indirect irradiations is crucial for clinical radiotherapy. Here, the CSCs and their counterpart non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line were sorted and labeled, then the two cell subtypes were mixed together and chosen separately to be irradiated via a proton microbeam. The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between the CSCs and NSCCs was measured by imaging 53BP1 foci, a widely used indicator for DNA double strand break (DSB). CSCs were found to be less active than NSCCs in both the generation and the response of bystander signals. Moreover, the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger c-PTIO can effectively alleviate the bystander effect in bystander NSCCs but not in bystander CSCs, indicating a difference of the two cell subtypes in NO signal response. To our knowledge, this is the first report shedding light on the RIBE between CSCs and NSCCs, which might contribute to a further understanding of the out-of-field effect in cancer radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Damaging and protective bystander cross-talk between human lung cancer and normal cells after proton microbeam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sejal; Kobayashi, Alisa; Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu; Pandey, Badri N

    2014-01-01

    Most of the studies of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been focused on understanding the radiobiological changes observed in bystander cells in response to the signals from irradiated cells in a normal cell population with implications to radiation risk assessment. However, reports on RIBE with relevance to cancer radiotherapy especially investigating the bidirectional and criss-cross bystander communications between cancer and normal cells are limited. Hence, in present study employing co-culture approach, we have investigated the bystander cross-talk between lung cancer (A549) and normal (WI38) cells after proton-microbeam irradiation using γ-H2AX foci fluorescence as a measure of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We observed that in A549-A549 co-cultures, irradiated A549 cells exert damaging effects in bystander A549 cells, which were found to be mediated through gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). However, in A549-WI38 co-cultures, irradiated A549 did not affect bystander WI38 cells. Rather, bystander WI38 cells induced inverse protective signalling (rescue effect) in irradiated A549 cells, which was independent of GJIC. On the other hand, in response to irradiated WI38 cells neither of the bystander cells (A549 or WI38) showed significant increase in γ-H2AX foci. The observed bystander signalling between tumour and normal cells may have potential implications in therapeutic outcome of cancer radiotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of nitric oxide in the radiation-induced bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Vasily A

    2015-12-01

    Cells that are not irradiated but are affected by "stress signal factors" released from irradiated cells are called bystander cells. These cells, as well as directly irradiated ones, express DNA damage-related proteins and display excess DNA damage, chromosome aberrations, mutations, and malignant transformation. This phenomenon has been studied widely in the past 20 years, since its first description by Nagasawa and Little in 1992, and is known as the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Several factors have been identified as playing a role in the bystander response. This review will focus on one of them, nitric oxide (NO), and its role in the stimulation and propagation of RIBE. The hydrophobic properties of NO, which permit its diffusion through the cytoplasm and plasma membranes, allow this signaling molecule to easily spread from irradiated cells to bystander cells without the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication. NO produced in irradiated tissues mediates cellular regulation through posttranslational modification of a number of regulatory proteins. The best studied of these modifications are S-nitrosylation (reversible oxidation of cysteine) and tyrosine nitration. These modifications can up- or down-regulate the functions of many proteins modulating different NO-dependent effects. These NO-dependent effects include the stimulation of genomic instability (GI) and the accumulation of DNA errors in bystander cells without direct DNA damage. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 天山野生果树主要病害及其分布%Study on the Wild Fruit Tree Diseases of Tianshan Mountains   and Their Distribution in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎国荣; 许正

    2001-01-01

    This paper reported 29 kinds of diseases and their distribution among more than ten species of wild fruit trees in Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, including Mal us sieversi、Armeniaca vulgaris、Amygdatus ledebouriana、 Juglans regia、Prunus domestica、Padus racemosa、Grataegus songarica、Prunus cerasifera 、Ribes spp.、 Rubus. caesius、Berberis heteropoda.%在对新疆天山山区的野生果树资源进行研究的同时,根据资料和野外调查,报道了在新疆野苹果(Malus sieversii)、野杏(Armeniaca vulgaris)、野扁桃(Amygdatus ledebouriana)、野核桃(Juglans regia)、野生樱桃李(Prunus cerasif era )、野欧洲李(Prunus domestica)、稠李(Padus racemosa)、欧荚 (Viburnum opulus) 、准噶尔山楂(Grataegus songarica)、茶子(Ribes spp.)、黑果悬钩子(Rubus cae sius)、黑果小檗(Berberis heteropoda)等十余种主要野生果树中常发生的29种病害以及分布等特征。

  11. Plant Derived Phytocompound, Embelin in CNS Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundap, Uday P.; Bhuvanendran, Saatheeyavaane; Kumari, Yatinesh; Othman, Iekhsan; Shaikh, Mohd. Farooq

    2017-01-01

    A Central nervous system (CNS) disease is the one which affects either the spinal cord or brain and causing neurological or psychiatric complications. During the nineteenth century, modern medicines have occupied the therapy for many ailments and are widely used these days. Herbal medicines have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons and also considered safer as they originate from natural sources. Embelin is a plant-based benzoquinone which is the major active constituent of the fruits of Embelia ribes Burm. It is an Indo-Malaysian species, extensively used in various traditional medicine systems for treating various diseases. Several natural products including quinone derivatives, which are considered to possess better safety and efficacy profile, are known for their CNS related activity. The bright orange hydroxybenzoquinone embelin-rich fruits of E. ribes have become popular in ethnomedicine. The present systematic review summarizes the effects of embelin on central nervous system and related diseases. A PRISMA model for systematic review was utilized for search. Various electronic databases such as Pubmed, Springer, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched between January 2000 and February 2016. Based on the search criteria for the literature, 13 qualified articles were selected and discussed in this review. The results of the report showed that there is a lack of translational research and not a single study was found in human. This report gives embelin a further way to be explored in clinical trials for its safety and efficacy. PMID:28289385

  12. Mechanism of protection of bystander cells by exogenous carbon monoxide: Impaired response to damage signal of radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wu, L.J. [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Y.C. [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Wang, H.Z. [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2011-05-10

    A protective effect of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated by CO releasing molecule ticarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2), on the bystander cells from the toxicity of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was revealed in our previous study. In the present work, a possible mechanism of this CO effect was investigated. The results from medium transfer experiments showed that {alpha}-particle irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells would release nitric oxide (NO), which was detected with specific NO fluorescence probe, to induce p53 binding protein 1 (BP1) formation in the cell population receiving the medium, and the release peak was found to be at 1 h post irradiation. Treating the irradiated or bystander cells separately with CO (CORM-2) demonstrated that CO was effective in the bystander cells but not the irradiated cells. Measurements of NO production and release with a specific NO fluorescence probe also showed that CO treatment did not affect the production and release of NO by irradiated cells. Protection of CO on cells to peroxynitrite, an oxidizing free radical from NO, suggested that CO might protect bystander cells via impaired response of bystander cells to NO, a RIBE signal in our research system.

  13. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce bystander factors and induce radiation bystander effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation damages initiated by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE are not limited to the first or immediate neighbors of the irradiated cells, but the effects have been observed in the cells far from the irradiation site. It has been postulated that bystander cells, by producing bystander factors, are actively involved in the propagation of bystander effect in the regions beyond the initial irradiated site. Current study was planned to test the hypothesis. MRC5 and QU-DB cell lines were irradiated, and successive medium transfer technique was performed to induce bystander effects in two bystander cell groups. Conditioned medium extracted from the target cells was transferred to the bystander cells (first bystander cells. After one hour, conditioned medium was substituted by fresh medium. Two hours later, the fresh medium was transferred to a second group of non-irradiated cells (second bystander cells. Micronucleated cells (MC were counted to quantify damages induced in the first and second bystander cell groups. Radiation effect was observed in the second bystander cells as well as in the first ones. Statistical analyses revealed that the number of MC in second bystander subgroups was significantly more than the corresponding value observed in control groups, but in most cases it was equal to the number of MC observed in the first bystander cells. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce and release bystander signals in the culture medium and affect non-irradiated cells. Therefore, they may contribute to the RIBE propagation.

  14. Mechanism of protection of bystander cells by exogenous carbon monoxide: impaired response to damage signal of radiation-induced bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W; Yu, K N; Wu, L J; Wu, Y C; Wang, H Z

    2011-05-10

    A protective effect of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated by CO releasing molecule ticarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2), on the bystander cells from the toxicity of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was revealed in our previous study. In the present work, a possible mechanism of this CO effect was investigated. The results from medium transfer experiments showed that α-particle irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells would release nitric oxide (NO), which was detected with specific NO fluorescence probe, to induce p53 binding protein 1 (BP1) formation in the cell population receiving the medium, and the release peak was found to be at 1h post irradiation. Treating the irradiated or bystander cells separately with CO (CORM-2) demonstrated that CO was effective in the bystander cells but not the irradiated cells. Measurements of NO production and release with a specific NO fluorescence probe also showed that CO treatment did not affect the production and release of NO by irradiated cells. Protection of CO on cells to peroxynitrite, an oxidizing free radical from NO, suggested that CO might protect bystander cells via impaired response of bystander cells to NO, a RIBE signal in our research system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface characterization after subaperture reactive ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessler, Andre; Arnold, Thomas; Rauschenbach, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In usual ion beam etching processes using inert gas (Ar, Xe, Kr..) the material removal is determined by physical sputtering effects on the surface. The admixture of suitable gases (CF{sub 4}+O{sub 2}) into the glow discharge of the ion beam source leads to the generation of reactive particles, which are accelerated towards the substrate where they enhance the sputtering process by formation of volatile chemical reaction products. During the last two decades research in Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) has been done using a broad beam ion source which allows the treatment of smaller samples (diameter sample < diameter beam). Our goal was to apply a sub-aperture Kaufman-type ion source in combination with an applicative movement of the sample with respect to the source, which enables us to etch areas larger than the typical lateral dimensions of the ion beam. Concerning this matter, the etching behavior in the beam periphery plays a decisive role and has to be investigated. We use interferometry to characterize the final surface topography and XPS measurements to analyze the chemical composition of the samples after RIBE.

  16. Implementation of Statistical Methods and SWOT Analysis for Evaluation of Metal Waste Management in Engineering Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Záhorská Renáta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the waste management research in a selected engineering company RIBE Slovakia, k. s., Nitra factory. Within of its manufacturing programme, the mentioned factory uses wide range of the manufacturing technologies (cutting operations, metal cold-forming, thread rolling, metal surface finishing, automatic sorting, metrology, assembly, with the aim to produce the final products – connecting components (fasteners delivered to many industrial fields (agricultural machinery manufacturers, car industry, etc.. There were obtained data characterizing production technologies and the range of manufactured products. The key attention is paid to the classification of waste produced by engineering production and to waste management within the company. Within the research, there were obtained data characterizing the time course of production of various waste types and these data were evaluated by means of statistical method using STATGRAPHICS. Based on the application of SWOT analysis, there is objectively assessed the waste management in the company in terms of strengths and weaknesses, as well as determination of the opportunities and potential threats. Results obtained by the SWOT analysis application have allowed to come to conclusion that the company RIBE Slovakia, k. s., Nitra factory has well organized waste management system. The fact that the waste management system is incorporated into the company management system can be considered as an advantage.

  17. The lipid composition and its alteration during the growth stage in pathogenic fungus, epidermophyton floccosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Watanabe, R.; Nozawa, Y.; Ito, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid components during the growth stages were studied in E. floccosum. The acyl group components of total lipids of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum cookei were also examined. The lipids of E. floccosum amounted to approximately 4% of the dry cell weight. Neutral lipids mainly consisted of triglycerides and sterols, and major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an unknown lipid X. The fatty acids in tryglycerides and phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The unknown polar lipid X which appeared between phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin on thin layer chromatography plates contained no phosphorus. There was no significant change in the fatty acid components of E. floccosum and T. rubrum during the cell growth, whereas profound changes occurred in M. cookei. The sterol components of E. floccosum showed striking changes depending on the growth stage.

  18. Epidemiologia, etiologia e formas clínicas das dermatofitoses em Pernambuco, 1995-2005 Epidemiology, etiology and clinical presentation of dermatophytosis in Pernambuco, 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maria Rodrigues de Barros Corrêa Damázio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Num total de 1.238 casos de dermatofitoses, ocorridas na Cidade de Recife /PE, observou-se predomínio das tinhas de couro cabeludo (33,7% e Trichophyton tonsurans (25,5%, entre 1995 e 1999, enquanto as tinhas de pele glabra (35,5% e Trichophyton rubrum (34% foram mais freqüentes entre 2000 e 2005. Detectou-se importante redução do Trichophyton mentagrophytes, no último período.Out of a total of 1,238 cases of dermatophytosis in the city of Recife (Pernambuco, lesions of the scalp (33.7% and Trichophyton tonsurans (25.5% predominated between 1995 and 2000, while lesions of the hairless skin (35.5% and Trichophyton rubrum (34% were the most frequent between 2000 and 2005. A significant reduction in Trichophyton mentagrophytes was detected in the second of these periods.

  19. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples...... was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient...... specimens, seven were T. rubrum positive, two for T. mentagrophytes, one was positive for T. tonsurans and 15 were dermatophyte negative by routine investigation (culture and/or pan-dermatophyte + T. rubrum multiplex PCR). The PCR results with our procedures were in 100% agreement with these results...

  20. Variation in lipid and free fatty acid content during spawning in two temperate octocorals with different reproductive strategies: surface versus internal brooder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladrich, Núria; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Tsounis, Georgios; Chocarro, Blanca; Martínez-Quitana, Angela; Ambroso, Stefano; Madurell, Teresa; Rossi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the energetic investment during spawning of two Mediterranean gorgonians characterized by different reproductive strategies: Corallium rubrum (internal brooder) and Paramuricea clavata (surface brooder). Sexual products (number of oocytes and spermatic sacs) were quantified, and biochemical characteristics (lipid content and free fatty acid content and composition) were determined to investigate the parental energetic investment and demand in reproduction. Results suggested that the majority of the energetic cost was due to reproductive activity (i.e., gametogenesis and spawning). The two species exhibited different life history strategies, with P. clavata investing more energy in reproduction than C. rubrum. However, P. clavata is reproductively more sensitive to inter-annual changes in environmental conditions.

  1. Dermatophytosis Agents in Patients Who Attending to Dermatology Clinic of Fırat University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Dilek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the types of dermatophytes and dermatophytosis in Elazığ region to provide appropriate information for therapy planning and public health prevention.Methods: A total of 652 patients who attending to outpatient clinic between June 2007 – May 2008 with clinical signs of dermatophytosis were included in this study. All samples, including with negative results on direct microscopy were cultivated in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid, mycobiotic agar (Acumedia and potato dextrose agar (Oxoid. Results: Dermatophytes were isolated in 142 (21.8% out of all samples. Of the isolates 70.4% were Trichophyton rubrum, 15.4% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 4.2% were , 4.2% were Microsporum canis, 2.8% were Epidermophyton floccosum, 2.11% were Trichophyton violaceum, 0.7% were Trichophyton tonsurans.Conclusion: Trichophyton rubrum was most frequently isolated dermatophytosis agent in Elazığ region.

  2. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of extracts of endophytic fungi from Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic extracts of 11 fungi associated with asympomatic Artemisia annua Linn., were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against three human pathogenic microbes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum, and two plant pathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Magnaporthe grisea. The results showed that these endophytic extracts had different inhibitory effects on microbial pathogens at 100 mg/mL. Among these fungal endophytes, three strains Aspergillus spp. SPS-02, SPS-04 and SPS-01 respectively showed the strongest antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureu, T. rubrum. An endophytic Mucor sp. SPS-11 had the most pronounced effect on R. cerealis. Two strains Aspergillus sp. SPS-02 and Cephalosporium sp. SPS-08 exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activities against M. grisea. These anti-pathogenic endophytes could be applied as new sources of antibiotics in agriculture and pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Effective Single Photodynamic Treatment of ex Vivo Onychomycosis Using a Multifunctional Porphyrin Photosensitizer and Green Light

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Chelsea; Visser, Jasper; Haas, Ellen; Incrocci, Luca; Smijs, Threes

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is predominantly caused by the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton tonsurans. The main treatment obstacle concerns low nail-plate drug permeability. In vitro antifungal photodynamic treatment (PDT) and nail penetration enhancing effectiveness have been proven for multifunctional photosensitizer 5,10,15-tris(4-N-methylpyridinium)-20-(4-(butyramido-methylcysteinyl)-hydroxyphenyl)-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (PORTHE). This study invest...

  4. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents.

  5. Malate dehydrogenase in phototrophic purple bacteria: purification, molecular weight, and quaternary structure.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The citric acid cycle enzyme malate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the nonsulfur purple bacteria Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodomicrobium vannielii, and Rhodocyclus purpureus. Malate dehydrogenase was purified from each species by either a single- or a two-step protocol: triazine dye affinity chromatography was the key step in purification of malate dehydrogenase in all cases. Purification of malate dehydrogenase resulted in a 130- to 240-fold increase in ...

  6. Ecological Survey Data for Environmental Considerations on the Trinity River and Tributaries, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-01

    walnut 11[jugans nigra and sweetguu. Blact- hickory was less frequent. Two- t~iirds of the wdy down the siop, eastern redbud gj~jis c~ndaiL winged elm...b. Continued. Connon name Scientific name *Blac’k oak Quercus velutina Lamn. Black walnut Juglans nixra L. Black willow Salix nigra March. Blackjack...Acer rubrum L. Red mulberry Morus rubra, L. Red-berried moonseed Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC. Redbud Cercis canadensis L. Redroot Ceanothus herbaceus

  7. A Cultural Resources Literature Search of the Bayou Du Chien Drainage Project Area in Fulton, Graves, and Hickman Counties, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-10

    tulipfera sweetgum Liquididambar styraciflua cucumber tree Magnolia acuminata mulberry Morus rubla sour gum Nyssa syTvatica hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana...tuliptree -•i:Todendron tulipfera mulberry Morus rubla sour gum Nyssa spp. white oak Qiecus alba southern red oak Quercus falTcata blackjack oak Quercus...Acer negundo forests valleys red maple Acer rubrum silver maple Aer saccarinum river birch B-i-f1a nigra pecan Carya pecan smooth hackberry Celtis

  8. Synthesis of new 4-methyl-2-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines as potent antifungal compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Leonor Y. Vargas [Universidad Santo Tomas, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales; Zacchino, Susana A. [Universidad Nacional del Rosario, (Argentina). Lab. de Farmacognosia; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Lab. de Quimica Organica y Biomolecular

    2010-07-01

    Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological results of new series of 2-(4-pyridyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines and their closer precursors, -N-aryl-N-[1-(4-pyridyl)but-3-enyl] amines are reported. It was found that both g-pyridyl substituted precursors and final products, tetrahydroquinolines, showed very good antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseun, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (author)

  9. A New Antimicrobial Flavonol Glycoside from Alchornea davidii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new flavonol glycoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-xyloside, was isolated from the extract of leaves and twigs of Alchornea davidii (Euphorbiaceae). Its structure was established on the basis of the spectral analysis and chemical degradation. Antimicrobial assay showed that it moderately inhibited the growth of test bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Trichophyton rubrum) with MICs at 50 μg/Ml.

  10. Fungal diversity in soil samples from a Mexican region with endemic dermatomycoses

    OpenAIRE

    R. Munguía-Pérez; E. Díaz-Cabrera; N. Martínez-Montiel; J. Muñoz-Rojas; R. Martínez-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Forty soil samples were collected from four rural communities in the Municipality of Huauchinango (Puebla, Mexico), a region with endemic dermatomycoses. Classical and molecular approaches allowed the identification of 30 different species, including several agents of superficial, subcutaneous and opportunistic mycoses. The most prevalent pathogenic agents identified by micro-morphological characteristics were: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.5%), T. rubrum (7.5%), and Aspergillus flavus (7.5...

  11. [Taxonomic study of clinic isolates of Trichophyton in Rosario, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G

    2013-01-01

    Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae.

  12. Rosacea-like Tinea Faciei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bimbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea faciei, is a facial superficial mycosis. The most frequent etiological agents are Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and T. tonsurans. It is often overlooked when considering the differential diagnoses of Rosacea. The most well known dermatology textbooks list acne, LE, perioral dermatitis, nasal sarcoidosis, carcinoid syndrom and other conditions but do not mention TF. We describe 3 patients with lesions that clinically appeared to be Rosacea.

  13. Rosacea-like Tinea Faciei

    OpenAIRE

    César Bimbi; Piotr Brzezinski

    2016-01-01

    Tinea faciei, is a facial superficial mycosis. The most frequent etiological agents are Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and T. tonsurans. It is often overlooked when considering the differential diagnoses of Rosacea. The most well known dermatology textbooks list acne, LE, perioral dermatitis, nasal sarcoidosis, carcinoid syndrom and other conditions but do not mention TF. We describe 3 patients with lesions that clinically appeared to be Rosacea.

  14. Environmental Assessment for Alternate Water Supply System, Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Newport News, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    maple Acer rubrum eastern redcedar Juniperus viginianus Other oak species Quercus spp. The primary objective of Fort Eustis’s forest management program...consists of 2,450 linear feet of buried 12-inch water main extending through a forested area on both JBLE-FE and adjacent private land. The 12-inch main...hardwood forest . The portion that is on private land is located near the boundary between two industrial facilities. Approximately half of the portion

  15. Chemical and Physical Characterization of the Activation of Ribulosebiphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, M. I.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Hartman, F. C.

    1983-08-01

    Molecular structure of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase isolated from Rhodospirillium was compared with the enzyme isolated from Alcaligens eutrophus. Peptides derived from the active center of the bacterial enzyme were highly homologous with those isolated from spinach. Molecular shapes of the carboxylases were estimated using neutron scattering data. These studies suggested that the enzyme as isolated from R. rubrum is a solid prolate ellipsoid or cylinder, while the spinach enzyme resembles a hollow sphere.

  16. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  17. Inflammatory tinea capitis: kerion, dermatophytic granuloma, and mycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa-Isa, Rafael; Arenas, Roberto; Isa, Mariel

    2010-03-04

    Inflammatory tinea capitis is the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to a dermatophytic infection. The usual forms are favus, kerion celsi, dermatophytic Majocchi granuloma, and mycetoma. Inflammatory tinea capitis can be caused by Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T tonsurans, T rubrum, and M gypseum. Histopathologic findings include a spectrum from mild suppurative folliculitis to dense granulomatous infiltrates. In mycetoma, grains must be present. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined effect of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide gases on mold fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurova, A.I.; Karpova, T.N.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide at 0.08% killed Penicillium expansum, Stemphylium macrosporium, and Botrytis cinerea within 24 hours. At 0.2%, it killed P. citrinum, Alternaria tenuis, and Fusarium moniliforme. Sulfur dioxide (at 0.04%) and Sulfur dioxide-carbon dioxide mixtures (at 0.02 and 5% respectively) completely suppressed the growth of P. citrinum, P. expansum, P. rubrum, A. tenuis, S. macrosporium, B. cinerea, and F. moniliforme in laboratory experiments. 1 table.

  19. Effective Single Photodynamic Treatment of ex Vivo Onychomycosis Using a Multifunctional Porphyrin Photosensitizer and Green Light

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Chelsea; Visser, Jasper; Haas, Ellen; Incrocci, Luca; Smijs, Threes

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is predominantly caused by the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton tonsurans. The main treatment obstacle concerns low nail-plate drug permeability. In vitro antifungal photodynamic treatment (PDT) and nail penetration enhancing effectiveness have been proven for multifunctional photosensitizer 5,10,15-tris(4-N-methylpyridinium)-20-(4-(butyramido-methylcysteinyl)-hydroxyphenyl)-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (PORTHE). This study invest...

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Antidermatophytic Bioactive Molecules from Piper longum L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Jayshree; D.K.Jha; Policegoudra, R. S.; Mazumder, Afjal Hussain; Das, Mrinmoy; Chattopadhyay, P.; Singh, L.

    2012-01-01

    Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) commonly known as “long pepper” is a well known medicinal plant in ayurveda. Different parts of this plant, such as root, seed, fruit, whole plant etc. are used traditionally in various ailments. Here we have investigated the antidermatophytic activity of sequentially extracted petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts from P. longum leaf against Trichophytonmentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, Microsporum fulvum and M. gypseum. Better activity ...

  1. Photobiological hydrogen production from synthesis gas: carbon sources, K{sub La} and kinetics evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Najafpour; H. Younesi; K.S.K. Ismail; A.R. Mohamed; A.H. Kamaruddin [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Photo-evolution of hydrogen from synthesis gas using Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied in batch fermentation. Culture of R. rubrum was initially grown on malate, also with various initial concentrations of acetate and synthesis gas. The synthesis gas was a mixture of H{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2}. It was found that the doubling time of bacterium on 2.5 g/l of malate, and 2.5 g/l and 6 g/l of acetate were 8.4, 31.8, and 68.6 h, respectively. The growth of R. rubrum was not significant at high concentration of acetate. The cell density of microbe was 0.3 g/l on 2.5 g/l malate for incubation period of 5 days. The cell concentrations of 1.4 and 0.41 g/l were obtained in 2.5 and 6 g/l of acetate, respectively for duration of 5 days. Inhibition of substrate was clearly observed on cell yield and hydrogen production with high concentration of acetate. Maximum hydrogen production (1.8 mmol/l) was obtained when R. rubrum was grown on 2.5 g/l of acetate. Effect of agitation rate was carried out and it was found that more hydrogen production (1.8 mmol) was achieved at 250 rpm. Mass transfer and kinetic studies were performed on 2.5 g/l of acetate. Maximum specific growth rate and Monod constant (KH) were obtained at 9.8 h{sup -1} and 0.14 atm, respectively. No substrate inhibition occurred at CO concentration of 0.56 atm.

  2. Applying cathodically polarised substrata to the restoration of a high value coral

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Alessandro; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Tsounis, Gerogios; Faimali, Marco; Pavanello, Giovanni; Rossi, Sergio; Gili, Josep Maria; Santangelo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Larval settlement of the high value red coral, Corallium rubrum, was studied on three different CaCO3 substrata, viz. lithogenic (marble), electro-accreted calcium carbonate in the presence and in the absence of cathodic polarisation. The last two substrata consisted of stainless steel plates galvanically coupled with Zn anodes. The electrochemical characterization of the settlement device was studied in order to investigate correlations between cathodic parameters (polarisation potential, cu...

  3. Crystallization and structure of a recombinant ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gunter; Lindqvist, Ylva; Brändén, Carl-Ivar; Lorimer, George

    1988-07-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is the key enzyme in photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation and photorespiration. The dimeric carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme has been crystallized in a number of different crystal forms. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme has been determined by X-ray crystallographic methods to 2.9Åresolution.

  4. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  5. Cultural Resources Survey of Six Revetment and Levee Items Above New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-20

    in the sugar parishes. Often of Creole , Cajun, or German descent, these farmers cultivated subsistence crops such as corn and potatoes. Most of the...Acer rubrum Var . drnummondii). The principal animals were amphibians and aquatic life including water snakes and alligators. Waterfowl were abundant here...Technological changes are evident such as microliths, baked clay balls , unique projectile points, steatite bowls and fiber tempered pottery

  6. Onicomicosis: epidemiología, agentes causales y evaluación de los métodos diagnósticos de laboratorio Onychomycoses: epidemiology, causative agents and assessment of diagnostic laboratory methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier R Nazar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Desde marzo de 2007 hasta marzo de 2011 se estudiaron prospectivamente 414 pacientes con onicodistrofias en un laboratorio privado de Esquel. La prevalencia de onicomicosis de pie fue del 78 %; la de mano, del 58 %. Los principales agentes etiológicos fueron Trichophyton rubrum, Candida spp. y Trichophyton mentagrophytes. El desarrollo de dermatofitos prevaleció en las onicopatías de pie y el de Candida spp. en las de uñas de mano (ambos, p Since March 2007 to March 2011, 414 patients with onychopathies were prospectively analyzed. Prevalence of the toenail and fingernail mycoses was 78 % and 58 %, respectively. The major etiological agents were Trichophyton rubrum, Candida spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Dermatophytes were more frequently cultured from toenails, whereas Candida spp. from fingernails (both, p < 0.05. In candidal onychomycosis, species different from C. albicans were prevalent. A higher prevalence of toenail and fingernail mycoses, a predominance of T. rubrum in toenails (p < 0.05, and greater positivity in the direct examination (DE and in culture (both, p < 0.05 were more frequently observed in men than in women. The correlation between DE and culture was 68 %. DE and culture yields were associated with a greater size lesion. DE was more effective in onycodystrophies with duration of more than 5 years. Culture positivity was independent of nail affection chronicity.

  7. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Final report, August 31, 1990--September 3, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Johnson, E.R.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Based upon the results of this culture screening study, Rhodospirillum rubrum is recommended for biocatalysis of the water gas shift reaction and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is recommended for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Both bacteria require tungsten light for growth and can be co-cultured together if H{sub 2}S conversion is not complete (required concentration of at least 1 ppM), thereby presenting H{sub 2} uptake by Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum. COS degradation may be accomplished by utilizing various CO-utilizing bacteria or by indirectly converting COS to elemental sulfur after the COS first undergoes reaction to H{sub 2} in water. The second alternative is probably preferred due to the low expected concentration of COS relative to H{sub 2}S. Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. Rhodospirillum rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is also a photosynthetic anaerobic bacteria, and converts H{sub 2}S and COS to elemental sulfur.

  8. Actividad antifúngica in vitro de extractos crudos de Piper tuberculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahyda G.F. Palacios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En la medicina tradicional Peruana Piper tuberculatum Jacq. (Piperaceae es utilizado en humanos y animales domésticos como antiinflamatorio y desinfectante de heridas. Piper tuberculatum contiene las amidas isobutílicas, pirrolidina, dihidropiridona y piperidina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la actividad antifúngica de los extractos crudos de inflorescencias, hojas y tallos de plantas silvestres, obtenidos con CH2Cl2:MeOH (2:1, EtOH y decocción y de plantas in vitro obtenido con CH2Cl2:MeOH (2:1. Los extractos crudos exhibieron actividad antifúngica sobre Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y M. gypseum. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM observada con los extractos CH2Cl2:MeOH (2:1, EtOH y decocción, sobre Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y M. gypseum fue 0,1 mg/mL para inflorescencias y hojas, y 0,1 a 0,5 mg/mL para tallos. En plantas in vitro la inhibición en el crecimiento de T. rubrum y M. canis fue 100% en 0,5 mg/mL y para M. gypseum fue 95% en 1,5 mg/mL de concentración.

  9. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  10. Antifungal Activity and Nail Permeation of Nail Lacquer Containing Piper regnellii (Miq. C. CD. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae Leave Extracts and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mayumi Koroishi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that cause cutaneous fungal infections because they use keratin as a nutrient source. For this study the antidermatophyte activity of the extracts and derivates from leaves of Piper regnellii was analyzed. From the dichloromethane extract (EBD neolignans such as eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were obtained, and it was submitted to fractionation to remove the green residue, designated as the chloroform fraction (FF. Extracts, chloroform fraction and compounds were tested against Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The chloroform fraction was incorporated to nail lacquer that was analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy, in vitro assay and scanning electronic microscopy. For antifungal activity in solid medium the dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction were used. The compounds eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were less active than the dichloromethane extract against T. rubrum. EBD and FF showed moderate activity in hyphal growth inhibition in solid medium and EBD did not link to ergosterol. Nail lacquer containing the chloroform fraction showed good penetration through the nail as determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy. From in vitro studies it was observed that nail lacquer concentrations above 20 mg/mL prevented the growth of fungi, but concentrations up to 2.5 inhibited the growth. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the in vitro nail lacquer activity results. The specie P. regnellii showed great antifungal activity against T. rubrum, and nail lacquer containing its chloroform fraction has great potential to treat onychomycosis caused by these microorganisms.

  11. Detection of the gene encoding the small subunit of the CO dehydrogenase enzyme in the H{sub 2}-evolving bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, A.; Levin, D. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)]|[Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    A purple non-sulfur bacterium, Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS presents great opportunities, on a commercial scale, for the biological hydrogen production. A water-gas shift reaction is catalyzed when the bacterium is cultured in the presence of carbon oxide in the dark. The result is carbon monoxide (and water) being shifted into hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide in near stoichiometric quantities. The production of hydrogen as a clean alternative fuel could be accomplished by using carbon monoxide generated from gasified waste biomass, using the bacterial water-gas shift reaction for that purpose. The characterization of three key enzymes and the genes encoding them was performed in a closely related purple non-sulfur bacterium called Rhodospirillum rubrum. They were: (1) a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), (2) the ferredoxin-like electron-carrier small subunit of the CODH enzyme, and (3) an hydrogen-evolving hydrogenase. A transcriptional unit separate from the genes encoding the CODH and its ferredoxin-like small subunit encode the genes for the hydrogenase. A fragment of the Rhodospirillum rubrum ferredoxin-like subunit gene was amplified through the use of a polymerase chain reaction. Southern blots of restriction endonuclease digested genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS was probed with the fragment of the Rhodospirillum rubrum previously amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. Confirmation of the identification is being confirmed, while the gene is sequenced. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  12. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Perugini BIASI-GARBIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE, Libidibia ferrea (AE, and Persea americana (AcE also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  13. [Regulation of citrate synthese in bacteria: Comparison of the action of various effectors on the enzymes of Rhodospirillum rurbum and Bacillus stearothermophilus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, A I; Massarini, E; Cazzulo, J J

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study of the citrate synthases purified from the facultatively photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum (Gram negative) and the thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus (Gram positive) was made. The citrate synthase from R. rubrum was activated by KCl (6-fold at 0.1 M KCl) and, less effectively, by NaCl and NH4Cl. Its molecular weight was about 300,000. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by NADH, and this inhibition was counteracted by AMP. The citrate synthase from B. stearothermophilus was little affected by KCl, NaCl and NH4Cl, all of which activated by about 25% at 0.1 M. Its molecular weight was ca 100,000. The enzyme was not affected by NADH or AMP. Both citrate synthases were insensitive to alpah-oxoglutarate concentrations up to 5 mM, and were inhibited by ATP; the B. stearothermophilus enzyme was more strongly inhibited than the R. rubrum enzyme. In both cases the ATP inhibition was strictly competitive towards acetyl-CoA and non-competitive towards oxaloacetate. Both enzymes, in spite of the peculiar physiological properties of their bacterial sources, followed the close correlation between the properties of the citrate synthase and the taxonomical position of the microorganism, proposed by Weitzman and his co-workers.

  14. Antimicrobial isothiocyanates from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padla, Eleanor P; Solis, Ludivina T; Levida, Ruel M; Shen, Chien-Chang; Ragasa, Consolacion Y

    2012-01-01

    4-(alpha-L-Rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (1) and 4-(4'-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2) isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds were screened for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum using the disk diffusion method. Isothiocyanates 1 and 2 were found active at the lowest inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml against all Gram-positive bacteria tested (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis) and against the dermatophytic fungi E. floccosum and T. rubrum. Statistically significant differences were found between the mean inhibition zones (IZ) of 1 and 2 and the standard drugs, ofloxacin and clotrimazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values confirmed the good antimicrobial activity of 1 and 2 against S. aureus, good to moderate activity against S. epidermidis, moderate activity against B. subtilis, and weak activity against E. floccosum and T. rubrum. The in vitro bactericidal effect of 1 and 2 against the Gram-positive bacterial strains tested is suggested by MBC:MIC ratios of 2:1.

  15. In vitro Anti Dermatophyte Activities of Crude Methanol and Aqueous Extracts of Lawsonia inermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Ekwealor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro anti dermatophyte activities of crude methanol and aqueous extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves. The anti dermatophyte activities was tested against Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum ferrugineum, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton rubrum, recovered from rice farmers with fungal skin infections in Anambra State, Nigeria. From the result obtained, growth of dermatophytes was inhibited at the varied concentrations of crude methanol extract with the diameter zone of inhibition increasing with the increase in concentration. At the lowest concentration of 10 mg/disc, diameter zone of inhibition range of 8.0 mm-16.8 mm was recorded against the different dermatophytes. At 80 mg/disc, T. rubrum showed the highest diameter zone of inhibition (18.8 mm, followed by M. audouinii (18.0 mm while T. megninii was the least inhibited (12.0 mm. Water extract of L. inermis also inhibited all the test dermatophyte. M. audouinii was the most susceptible with diameter inhibition zone of 14.5 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration was recorded at 25 mg/ml for all dermatophytes while fungicidal action was recorded at concentrations of 50 mg/ml for M. audouinii and T. rubrum, 100 mg/ml for M. ferrugineum and 200 mg/ml for T. megninii and T. tonsurans. These results demonstrated that L. inermis has anti dermatophyte activities and could be a good source for the production of plant based antifungal drugs.

  16. Epidemiologia e ecologia das dermatofitoses na cidade de Fortaleza: o Trichophyton tonsurans como importante patógeno emergente da Tinea capitis Epidemiology and ecology of dermatophytosis in Fortaleza city: Trichophyton tonsurans as an important emergent pathogen of Tinea capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda SâmiaNogueira Brilhante

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available As dermatofitoses são os distúrbios infecciosos de pele mais comuns do mundo. Na presente pesquisa foram avaliados 2.297 pacientes com lesões clínicas sugestivas de dermatofitoses das quais, 534 (23,2% mostraram-se positivas para dermatófitos. Destes, o T. rubrum foi a espécie mais prevalente (49,6%; p Dermatophytosis is the most common skin infectious disturbance in the world. In this research 2.297 patients were evaluated with suspected clinical lesions of dermatophytosis. It was observed that, 534 (23.2% patients tested positive for dermatophytes. T. rubrum was the most prevalent specie (49.6%; p <= 0.05, followed by T. tonsurans (34.4%, M. canis (7% and T. mentagrophytes (6.2%. When the species isolated was correlated with the respective anatomical localization, it was observed that T. tonsurans was the most frequent isolated in scalp lesions (73,9%; p <= 0.01. On the other hand, T. rubrum was the main specie involved in body lesions (72.8%; p <= 0.05. Therefore, in scalp infections it was observed that, there was an absolute prevalence of T. tonsurans. This evidence is different from the statistical data collected in the southeast and south of Brazil, as well as from other areas of the world, which still show M. canis as the most frequent microorganism isolated in Tinea capiti.

  17. Evaluation of clinicomycological aspects of onychomycosis

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    Kaur Ravinder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of onychomycosis has increased tremendously in recent times. Relatively little work has been done on this problem in our country. Research in past has been concentrated mainly on superficial mycoses of the skin. Aim: It is a well-established fact that geographical distribution of the fungi may change from time to time; hence, this study was planned to analyze clinical, epidemiological, and mycological features of onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients clinically suspected and microscopically proven to have onychomycosis were taken up for the study. Nail samples, collected by scraping in 30 patients and by using a dental drill in the rest, were examined microscopically and cultured for fungus. Results and Conclusions: Forty-five fungal isolates were obtained from 60 patients. Trichophyton rubrum was the commonest fungus isolated (46.67%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans accounted for 20% and 15.56% isolates, respectively. Two cases showed mixed growth of Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus niger in one and Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus fumigatus in the other. Isolation rate was higher by drilling compared to scraping, the rates being 83.33% and 66.67%, respectively. Superficial mycotic infections were present in 27 patients (45%.

  18. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  19. A Rapid Method for the Extraction and Analysis of Carotenoids and Other Hydrophobic Substances Suitable for Systems Biology Studies with Photosynthetic Bacteria

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    Oliver Sawodny

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and inexpensive extraction method for carotenoids and other non-polar compounds present in phototrophic bacteria has been developed. The method, which has been extensively tested on the phototrophic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, is suitable for extracting large numbers of samples, which is common in systems biology studies, and yields material suitable for subsequent analysis using HPLC and mass spectroscopy. The procedure is particularly suitable for carotenoids and other terpenoids, including quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a, and is also useful for the analysis of polar phospholipids. The extraction procedure requires only a single step extraction with a hexane/methanol/water mixture, followed by HPLC using a Spherisorb C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of acetone-water and a non-linear gradient of 50%–100% acetone. The method was employed for examining the carotenoid composition observed during microaerophilic growth of R. rubrum strains, and was able to determine 18 carotenoids, 4 isoprenoid-quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a as well as four different phosphatidylglycerol species of different acyl chain compositions. The analytical procedure was used to examine the dynamics of carotenoid biosynthesis in the major and minor pathways operating simultaneously in a carotenoid biosynthesis mutant of R. rubrum.

  20. A serendipic legacy: Erwin Esmarch's isolation of the first photosynthetic bacterium in pure culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, H

    1995-01-01

    During the 1880's, Erwin von Esmarch was a junior associate ('Assistent') of Robert Koch studying bacteria of medical significance. In 1887, he isolated the first example of spiral-shaped bacteria in pure culture, from the dry residue of a dead mouse that he had suspended sometime earlier in Berlin tap-water. Under certain conditions, colonies of the organism were the color of red wine, and this led Esmarch to name the bacterium Spirillum rubrum. Twenty years later, Hans Molisch demonstrated that S. rubrum, an apparent heterotroph, was in fact a non-oxygenic purple photosynthetic bacterium, and it was renamed Rhodospirillum rubrum. Esmarch was a careful investigator and his classic paper of 1887 details the serendipitous isolation and general characteristics of the first pure culture of an anoxyphototroph, which later played a prominent role as an experimental system for study of basic aspects of bacterial photosynthesis. This report includes an English translation of his original paper (in German), a commentary on the historical significance of 'Esmarch's spirillum', and a summary of Esmarch's career.

  1. Residual subsidence analysis after the end of coal mine work. Example from Lorraine Colliery, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Heib, M. [INERIS LAEGO - Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Nancy, 54 - Nancy (France); Nicolas, M.; Noirel, J.F. [Charbonnage de France, 57 - Freyming-Merlebach (France); Wojtkowiak, F

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the residual movements associated with the deep coal mines. The studied case relates to works located into Lorraine coal basin. The paper is divided into two sections. The first one describes subsidence phenomena, especially the residual phase in terms of amplitude, duration and localization. The second one focus on Morsbach case: the total and residual subsidence measurements will be analyzed and compared to the state of the art as well as the currant knowledge. The results of the analysis show that the duration of residual movements does not exceed 24 months and their amplitude is about 5% of total subsidence. We analyze also the declarations of the mining damage during and after the mining period. Damages occur, after this period are probably due to late observations. (authors)

  2. Expositions of the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University: "Round Garden"

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    Kirilkina Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The exhibition "Round Garden" founded in 2005 by curator of fruit department Tatyana Kirilkina, Ph.D. Landings made in the regular style with radiation (rotary symmetry. This allowed a small area to place more than 70 taxa of traditional and new for Karelia fruit and berry crops. In the center of the exhibition - decorative Malus prunifolia 'Hyvingiensis' with an umbrella form crown. Among the new crop of Karelia - raspberry ( Rubus xanthocarpus Bur et Franch., Tibetan raspberries ( Rubus rosifolius Sm., blackberry ( Rubus fruticosus L., variety selection of Finnish Arctic raspberry ( Rubus arcticus L. and currants, columnar apple trees, apple trees in semi-dwarf rootstocks, ornamental varieties of fruit and others.

  3. Ozone susceptibility of selected woody shrubs and vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.D.; Coppolino, J.B.

    1976-10-01

    Thirteen species of woody shrubs and vines were exposed to 0.25 ppm ozone for 8 hours at biweekly intervals throughout the 1975 growing season. A different set of plants was utilized in each biweekly exposure. The most susceptible species was staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), followed in descending order of susceptibility by Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), Indian currant (coral berry) (Symphoricarpus orbiculatus), American elder (Sambucus canadensis), dwarf ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), redosier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), autumn olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), white snowberry (Symphoricarpus albus), bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), and Morrow honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowi). The latter three species were very resistant. The most common symptom induced by ozone was a dark pigmented stipple on the upper leaf surface. The foliage of all species became increasingly resistant toward the end of the growing season.

  4. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  5. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...... and chopped heat-treated meat emulsion. The addition of salt resulted in softer, less stiff and chewy, and less adhesive gels. Generally speaking, sugar addition increased the hardness but at high concentration the gels were very brittle. However, Young's modulus was lower in gels containing sugar than...

  6. Identification and characterization of low molecular weight polyphenols in berry leaf extracts by HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Gorzelany, Józef; Kapusta, Ireneusz

    2011-12-28

    This paper reports the results of qualitative and quantitative analyses of low molecular weight phenolics from five berry leaf extract using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI/MS. The identification of the black currant, raspberry, bilberry, honeysuckle, and strawberry leaf phytochemicals was based on the comparison of UV-vis absorption maxima (λ(max)) and mass spectral analysis. The peak identification in samples was also based on comparisons of the retention times (t(R)) of the isolated phytochemical standards. Knowledge of the precise phenolic profile of berry leaves may offer a scientific basis to put the underutilized berry leaves to good use as very cheap raw materials for polyphenol extract production. These studies indicated that these leaves can be used as a good and cheap source of bioactive constituents. These results suggest that berry leaves are a potential source of phenolics and have potential pro-healthy properties to contribute to human health.

  7. Fruit juice drinks prevent endogenous antioxidant response to high-fat meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, Cristiana; Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna; Villaño, Deborah V; Cesqui, Eleonora; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-28

    High-fat meals (HFM) induce metabolic stress, leading to the activation of protective mechanisms, including inflammation and endogenous antioxidant defences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks on the endogenous antioxidant response induced by HFM. In a double-blind, cross-over design (10 d washout), fourteen overweight volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: HFM+500 ml placebo beverage (HFM-PB, free from fruit); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 1 (HFM-AB1; apple, grape, blueberry and pomegranate juices and grape skin, grape seed and green tea extracts); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 2 (HFM-AB2; pineapple, black currant and plum juices). HFM-PB consumption increased the plasma levels of thiols (SH) (4 h, Pfruit juice drinks.

  8. Effects of commonly consumed fruit juices and carbohydrates on redox status and anticancer biomarkers in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke M.; Nielsen, Salka E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2003-01-01

    the average carbohydrate levels in the employed fruit juices. None of the fruit juices were found to affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells or hepatic glutathione S-transferase. Hepatic quinone reductase activity, on the other hand, was significantly increased by grape-fruit juice....../kg of diet. However, no effects were observed on hepatic glutathione S-transferase or quinone reductase activities, plasma redox status, or the activity of red blood cell antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that commonly consumed fruit juices can alter lipid and protein......Administration of apple juice, black currant juice, ora 1:1 combination of the two juices significantly decreased the level of the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde in plasma of female rats, whereas the protein oxidation biomarker 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde, was significantly increased...

  9. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCortinovis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek and chives, macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas and currants, products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

  10. OPPORTUNITIES OF MICRONUTRIENTAL AND PHYTOCORRECTION IN INCREASE OF RESISTANCE OF CATARRHAL DISEASES IN CHILDREN

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    O.A. Gromova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A term «frequently ailing children» (FAC characterizes increased morbidity with acute respiratory infections compared with healthy coevals, and this term is widely used by pediatrists in present time. unfavorable course of pregnancy, prematurity, defects in immune system are predisposing to this state. Rational nutrition, regular day regimen, sanitary measures are necessary to the normal living of such children. In some cases medicamental correction with use of poly vitamins, immunocorrectors and phytotherapy is needed. Deficiency of vitamins and minerals is frequently occurring in children from FAC group. «sanasol extravit», containing extracts from black currant, dog rose and strawberry, was developed for the deficiency of microelements and vitamins and for a correction of immune system.Key words: frequently ailing children, vitamins, immunity.

  11. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  12. Overview of Low-Level Waste Disposal Operations at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/Navarro

    2007-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility to carry out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site. Core elements of this mission are ensuring that disposal take place in a manner that is safe and cost-effective while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on giving an overview of the Nevada Test Site facilities regarding currant design of disposal. In addition, technical attributes of the facilities established through the site characterization process will be further described. An update on current waste disposal volumes and capabilities will also be provided. This discussion leads to anticipated volume projections and disposal site requirements as the Nevada Test Site disposal operations look towards the future.

  13. Drink Red: Phenolic Composition of Red Fruit Juices and Their Sensorial Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ food quality perception and sensorial experience are important in food consumption behavior and food choice. Red fruit juices are appreciated fruit juices for almost all consumers, due to their flavor and intense red color. Studies have also shown that their phytochemical composition, which is associated with their antioxidant activity, shows a protective effect against many chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the profile and concentration of anthocyanins are different in function of the fruit used; therefore, the color and health benefits of the juices also show differences. Some red fruit juices have lower concentrations of anthocyanins, for example strawberry, and others have higher concentrations, such as elderberry and black currant juices. High correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and red fruit juices’ total anthocyanins concentration. Therefore, this review will addresses red fruit juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the challenges for future, and some ideas on the sensory impact.

  14. A molecular and isotopic study of palaeoenvironmental conditions through the middle Cambrian in the Georgina Basin, central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Anais; Schmid, Susanne; Edwards, Dianne; Barnes, Stephen; He, Nannan; Grice, Kliti

    2016-08-01

    The Cambrian period marks an important point in Earth's history with profound changes in the ocean's biogeochemistry and the occurrence of the most significant evolutionary event in the history of life, the Cambrian explosion. The Cambrian explosion is described as a succession of complex cycles of extinctions and radiations. This study integrates biomarkers and their compound-specific stable carbon isotopes to investigate the palaeoenvironmental depositional conditions in middle Cambrian (Series 3) sedimentary rocks (Thorntonia Limestone, Inca Formation and Currant Bush Limestone) from two drillholes in the Undilla Sub-basin in the eastern Georgina Basin, central Australia. The occurrence of photic zone euxinia (PZE) was detected throughout these three formations by the identification of green sulfur bacteria Chlorobiaceae-derived biomarkers, including a series of 2,3,6-aryl isoprenoids and the intact biomarker isorenieratane. Pulses of enhanced PZE conditions were detected in two core intervals (90-110 mKB, Currant Bush Limestone and 170-200 mKB, Inca Formation) by an increase in the 2,3,6-aryl isoprenoids and C19 biphenyl concentrations. These enhanced PZE conditions were followed by blooms of phytoplankton, as demonstrated by the increase in algal-derived biomarker (i.e. pristane, phytane and the C19n-alkane) concentrations and compound-specific isotopes. These observations confirm that palaeoenvironmental conditions were similar to those reported for the Permian/Triassic and Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction events. The sterane distributions varied across the three formations reflecting possible changes in the phytoplanktonic communities through time. Although a rise in atmospheric oxygen during the Cambrian has been previously associated with the rapid evolution of metazoans, the ecological challenges related to widespread anoxia must have had a major influence on the evolution of life in Cambrian oceans.

  15. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for lambda-cyhalothrin in azarole and persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Spain, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State Spain, received an application from Syngenta Agro S.A. to raise the existing MRL for lambda-cyhalothrin in persimmon from the LOQ (0.02 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg in support of a new intended SEU use. Belgium (hereafter the EMS Belgium compiled an application to raise the existing MRL for lambda-cyhalothrin in azarole from the LOQ to 0.2 mg/kg based on a new intended NEU use on kiwi berries (Actinidia arguta. The EMS Spain and the EMS Belgium drafted evaluation reports according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the submitted supervised residue trials are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.09 mg/kg for persimmon. The MRL proposal of 0.2 mg/kg for azarole (including kiwi berries is derived as an extrapolation from the available residue data on black currant. According to the EMS Belgium, the intended spray concentration of lambda-cyhalothrin on kiwi berries is identical to that in the black currant residue trials and thus these trials were considered appropriate to estimate residue levels in azarole (including kiwi berries. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of lambda-cyhalothrin on the crops under consideration will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern.

  16. 咖啡因抑制辐照区和旁区细胞的γ-H2AX foci的形成%Caffeine Markedly Inhibited Formation of γ-H2AX Foci in Irradiated and Non-irradiated by Stander Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋而康

    2012-01-01

    辐射诱导的旁效应不仅在体外实验存在,也在动物体内存在,这对辐射剂量的计算和辐射风险的评估有重要影响.咖啡因是一个模式辐射敏感剂,显著增强辐射的细胞毒性.咖啡因也显著增强辐射诱导的旁效应,咖啡因处理使未受辐照的旁细胞对损伤信号更加敏感,但其机理并不清楚.在正常人原代细胞AG1522中,分析了咖啡因处理对组蛋白H2AX磷酸化的影响,咖啡因显著减少α粒子辐射区和旁区γ-H2AX foci阳性细胞的比率和每个细胞γ-H2AX loci点数,表明咖啡因处理抑制了H2AX磷酸化,后者启动细胞对DNA双链断裂的修复,从而提示咖啡因增强辐射旁效应可能的机理,对辐射治疗具有重要意义.%Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) both in vitro and in vivo have important implications on dose calculation and risk. Caffeine is considered a model radiosensitizer as its radiosensitization, for the cytotoxic effect of i-onizing radiation is strongly enhanced by caffeine treatment at noncytotoxic concentrations. RIBE were markedly enlarged by caffeine and non-irradiated bystander cells with caffeine treatment were likely more sensitive to damage signals, however, little is known about underling mechanism of caffeine making cell sensitivity to damage signals. H2AX phosphoryl-ation was analyzed in human primary cell line AG1522 after a particle irradiation. The induced fraction of γ-H2AX foci-positive cells and γ-H2AX foci/cell were significantly reduced both in irradiated and bystander regions by caffeine treatment, suggesting that H2AX phosphorylation was suppressed by caffeine treatment. For DNA DSBs repair response of cells is initiated through H2AX phosphorylation, these results were important to the mechanism that caffeine enhanced RIBE and radiotherapy.

  17. Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Oligocene - Miocene succession of Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a revised lithostratigraphic scheme for the uppermost Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession of Denmark. The marine Oligocene Brejning Clay Member is upgraded to formation status and includes the Sydklint Member and the Øksenrade Member (new. The shallow marine and deltaic deposits of mainly Early Miocene age are included in the Ribe Group (new while the fully marine Middle and Upper Miocene clay-rich deposits are referred to the Måde Group (new. The Ribe Group is subdivided into 6 formations: the Vejle Fjord Formation is revised and includes the Skansebakke Member,the Billund Formation (new includes the Addit and Hvidbjerg Members (new, the Klintinghoved Formation is redefined formally and includes the Koldingfjord Member (new, the Bastrup Formation(new includes the Resen Member (new, the Vandel Member is a new member in the Arnum Formation (revised, the Odderup Formation is redefined and includes the Stauning Member (new and the coalbearing Fasterholt Member. The Måde Group is subdivided into the Hodde, Ørnhøj (new, Gram and Marbæk (new Formations. Subdivision of the Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession into two groups, the Ribe and Måde Groups, is compatible with the North Sea lithostratigraphic framework where they correlate with the upper part of the Hordaland Group and the Nordland Group, respectively. The revised lithostratigraphic framework correlated in three dimensions provides rigorous constraints on the palaeogeographic interpretation of the Late Oligocene – Miocene period. Three major deltaic units (Billund, Bastrup and Odderup Formations prograded from the north and north-east into the North Sea Basin during the Early – early Middle Miocene. Delta progradation was punctuated by deposition of marine clay and silt associated with minor transgressive events (Vejle Fjord, Klintinghoved and Arnum Formations. During the Middle–Late Miocene, marine depositional conditions dominated (Hodde, Ørnhøj and

  18. Effects of Pinus flexilis on the dynamics and structure of plant communities on the northern Rocky Mountain front, and, Training biologists for emerging niches in non-traditional jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Dayna Marie

    My research examines the relative importance of interacting mechanisms (amelioration of wind, provision of shade, accumulation of snow pack, and alteration of soil characteristics) governing facilitation between Pinus flexilis and two understory species, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Ribes cereum in Montana. Survival of understory species was greatest beneath P. flexilis at a leeward site (Pseudotsuga, 38% and Ribes, 63%), and lowest in the open at a windward site (2% and 6%, respectively). The effects of wind amelioration, shade provision, and snowdrift accumulation were separated experimentally and after two years, shade was of overwhelming importance for the survival of both species. Once shade was provided, effects of wind amelioration and increased snow pack increased survival, suggesting a hierarchical functioning of mechanisms. High winter mortality of Pseudotsuga suggests P. flexilis canopies may prevent photoinhibition and winter desiccation through reduction of light and insulation from variable temperatures. High summer mortality of Ribes suggests P. flexilis canopies may reduce transpiration through lowering leaf temperatures, thereby decreasing vapor pressure deficits. In this system, several mechanisms governing facilitation operated simultaneously, but in a hierarchical manner of relative importance thereby determining the overall effect of P. flexilis on understory plants. I also studied facilitation and secondary succession by examining understory species composition beneath individual P. flexilis and in P. flexilis stands. As P. flexilis trees and stands aged, understory species richness increased, as did cover of forbs and shrubs, but cover of grasses decreased. Stands currently dominated by P. flexilis are shifting towards dominance by Pseudotsuga primarily in mesic sites, with corresponding increases in litter and shrub cover and decreases in grasses and P. flexilis recruitment. Since the 1860's succession from grasslands to forest on the Front has

  19. Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary combinations with other plant derived molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Singh, D K

    2001-03-01

    Molluscicidal activity of leaf, bark and seed of Lawsonia inermis against Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus was studied. Highest toxicity was observed in the seed of Lawsonia inermis. Toxicity of binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the essential oil of cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxh) and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), powder from bulb of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), and oleoresin extracted from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) with Lawsonia inermis and Embelia ribes fruit powder were studied against L. acuminata and I. exustus. L. inermis seed powder in combination with Cedrus deodara oil and Azadirachta indica oil was more toxic than their individual components and other combinations.

  20. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.