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Sample records for curimba prochilodus lineatus

  1. Vitamin E and reduced glutathione in Prochilodus lineatus (curimba semen cryopreservation (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

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    Daniella A. J. Paula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the addition of antioxidants vitamin E and reduced glutathione on curimba (Prochilodus lineatus semen cryopreservation and compared sodium bicarbonate solution and distilled water as activators. The experiment was conducted at the environmental station of CEMIG, in Itutinga-MG, Brazil, between December/2009 and January/2010. Semen samples (n = 7 with semen motility above 80% were diluted in cryoprotectant solutions composed of 10% methanol, 15% lactose and containing different concentrations of antioxidants: 50 (VE50, 100 (VE100 and 250 (VE250 µM of vitamin E, and 0.5 (RG0.5, 1.0 (RG1.0 and 1.5 (RG1.5 mM of reduced glutathione. A solution without antioxidants was used as a control. The semen was diluted at a ratio of 1:4 (100 ìL semen:400 ∝L cryoprotectant solution. The toxicity of the solutions was evaluated by investigating semen motility after 10 min in the solution. The rest of the diluted semen was placed into 0.5 mL straws maintained in nitrogen vapour for 24 hours and packed into a nitrogen liquid cylinder for four days. The samples were thawed in a water bath at 60°C for 8 s and the rate (% and duration (s of semen activation with distilled water or sodium bicarbonate was evaluated. In the toxicity test, we found that vitamin E and reduced glutathione were not toxic to curimba semen at any of the tested concentrations (P>0.05. The duration of motility was longer (P0.05. Thus, the antioxidants vitamin E and reduced glutathione did not improve the quality of cryopreserved curimba semen, but they did not cause toxic effects to the semen in natura and they did not decrease its quality during cryopreservation.Este estudo avaliou a adição de antioxidantes vitamina E e glutationa reduzida no sêmen criopreservado de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus e comparou solução de bicarbonato de sódio e água destilada como ativadores. O experimento foi conduzido na estação ambiental da CEMIG, em Itutinga-MG, entre

  2. Seminal characteristics and reproductive indexes of curimba (“Prochilodus lineatus” in different reproductive period Características seminais e índices reprodutivos de curimba ("Prochilodus lineatus" em diferentes períodos reprodutivos

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    Rodrigo Diana Navarro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, seminal characteristics and reproductive index from males e females of curimba (Prochilodus lineatus were evaluated in different months of the reproductive period. The study was realized in the Laboratory of Reproduction of Itutinga Environmental Station of the Energetic Company of Minas Gerais State (EAI-CEMIG and in the Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology of DMV/UFLA, during the reproductive period (between November and January in three different reproductive period (year I: 2003/2004; year II: 2004/2005; year III: 2005/2006. After the hormonal treatment, the weight of females spawning was measured. Also, 20µL of semen from each male were collected to analyze the motility, duration of the motility and spermatic concentration. 8 hours after the fertilization, the fertility rate was measured. The average mobility duration and seminal volume did not present significant differences among months of the reproductive period. However, the sperm concentration increased significantly in January. In November, the spawning weight was statistically lower, compared to December and January. The highest fertility rate was observed in December. Therefore, we can conclude that, in December and January, the reproductive index for Prochilodus lineatus was better.Foram avaliadas características seminais e índices reprodutivos de fêmeas e machos de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus em diferentes meses dos períodos reprodutivos. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Reprodução da Estação Ambiental de Itutinga da Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais (EAI-CEMIG e no Laboratório de Fisiologia e Farmacologia do DMV/UFLA, entre os meses de novembro e janeiro, em três períodos reprodutivos (ano I: 2003/2004; ano II: 2004/2005; ano III: 2005/2006. Após o tratamento hormonal, realizaram-se pesagens da desova de cada fêmea. Coletaram-se também 20µL de sêmen para análises de motilidade, duração da motilidade e concentra

  3. Seletividade alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e curimba Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 = Selective feeding of food organisms by fish larvae of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836

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    Nandeyara Ribeiro Marques

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seleção alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus e curimba (Prochilodus lineatus com diferentes idades (6, 12, 19 e 26 dias, na presença e ausência de Pistia stratiotes. Foram utilizados quatrotratamentos (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba e quatro repetições. A cada sete dias, foram coletadas 24 larvas de cada espécie de peixe dos tanques, sendo estas mantidas em jejum por 24 horas. Depois de distribuídas nos aquários com plâncton, as larvas permaneceram por três horas, sendocoletadas e fixadas para análise, juntamente com as amostras de água. Os tratos digestórios das larvas foram retirados e analisados sob microscópio óptico. Observaram-se diferenças estatísticas na seletividade alimentar de organismos planctônicos por larvas de mesmaespécie, em diferentes idades e também entre larvas de espécies diferentes, com mesma idade, não diferindo quanto à presença ou ausência de P. stratiotes. As formas jovens de pacu e curimba selecionaram organismos similares aos seis dias de idade, passando por alterações até o 26º dia. À medida que se desenvolveram, as larvas de pacu passaram a selecionar cladóceros e ostrácodos e as de curimba, protozoários e algas.Theobjective was to evaluate the feeding selection of food organisms for two species of fish larvae (pacu and curimba at different ages (6, 12, 19 and 26 days after eclosion, in the presence or absence of Pistia stratiotes. Four treatments were used (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba and four replications. Every seven days, 24 fish larvae of each species were collected, and kept without food for 24 hours. Afterbeing distributed in the aquariums with plankton, the larvae stayed for three hours, and were collected and prepared for analysis, along with the water samples. The digestive tract of the fish larvae were

  4. O papel do dimetilsulfóxido na criopreservação de sêmen de Curimba (Prochilodus lineatus

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    Antonio Sergio Varela Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  A criopreservação de sêmen de Curimba (Prochilodus lineatus é de importância ecológica e comercial. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações (2, 5, 8 e 11% de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO diluído em Betsville Thawing Solution (BTS sobre a qualidade do sêmen de Curimba pós-descongelamento. Foram analisadas a taxa e período de motilidade, viabilidade espermática, integridade da membrana plasmática e do DNA, funcionalidade mitocondrial, e taxa de fertilização e eclosão. A membrana plasmática e a integridade do DNA a uma concentração de DMSO de 11% obtiveram melhores resultados que na concentração de 5% (p <0,05. Contudo, o tratamento de 5% de DMSO resultou em um aumento da latência e uma maior taxa de fertilização e de eclosão, com as demais qualidades do esperma sendo semelhante ao de sêmen fresco. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que 5% de DMSO é ideal para a criopreservação do sêmen Curimba. .

  5. Criopreservação do sêmen de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus mediante adição de diferentes diluidores, ativadores e crioprotetores Cryopreservation of curimba (Prochilodus lineatus semen after addition of different diluters, activators and cryoprotectants

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    Luis David Solis Murgas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sêmen de cinco espécimes de Prochilodus lineatus (Valencienes, 1847 foram utilizadas para avaliação dos efeitos tóxicos e crioprotetores de seis soluções à base de BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution® 4,5% enriquecidas com metanol e DMSO nas concentrações de 10% (A = BTS 4,5% + Metanol 10%; B = BTS 4,5% + DMSO 10%; C = BTS 4,5% + KCl 0,072% + metanol 10%; D = BTS 4,5% + KCl 0,072% + DMSO 10%; E = BTS 4,5% + KI 0,036% + metanol 10%; e F = BTS 4,5% + KI 0,036% + DMSO 10%. Foram avaliadas ainda três soluções ativadoras (água destilada, NaHCO3 60 mM e NaHCO3 119 mM, antes e após o congelamento. Estudaram-se a taxa e a duração da motilidade espermática. Não houve diferença significativa entre as soluções crioprotetoras utilizadas. O sêmen ativado por NaHCO3 60 e 119 mM apresentou as maiores taxas de motilidade espermática. A ativação por NaHCO3 119 mM possibilitou as maiores durações de motilidade no sêmen de P. lineatus.Semen samples of five specimens of Prochilodus lineatus (Valencienes, 1847 were used to test the toxic and cryoprotectants effects of six solutions based on BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution® 4.5%: A - BTS 4.5% + Methanol 10%; B - BTS 4.5% + DMSO 10%; C - BTS 4.5% + KCl 0.072% + Methanol 10%; D - BTS 4.5% + KCl 0.072% + DMSO 10%; E - BTS 4.5% + KI 0.036% + Methanol 10% and F - BTS 4.5% + KI 0.036% + DMSO 10%. The effect of other three activator solutions (Distillated Water, NaHCO3 60 mM and NaHCO3 119 mM on the rate and duration of sperm motility were also evaluated before and after freezing. No significant differences were observed among the cryoprotectant solutions. Sperm motility rates for P. lineatus were higher for semen activated by NaHCO3 60mM and NaHCO3 119mM, which propitiated the highest sperm motility duration.

  6. Criopreservação e vitrificação de sêmen de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus): uso de diferentes crioprotetores na solução diluidora

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    Vasconcelos,Ana Carina Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Com o primeiro experimento objetivou-se comparar a toxicidade e o efeito da combinação de crioprotetores intra e extracelulares, nas células espermáticas de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) submetidas à criopreservação. Alíquotas de 400 µL de sêmen, de 19 reprodutores, foram diluídas em quatro soluções crioprotetoras (DMSO+gema de ovo, DMSO+lactose, metanol+gema de ovo e metanol+lactose) e envasadas em palhetes de 0,5 ml. As amostras foram colocadas durante 24 horas em vapor de nitrogênio líqui...

  7. Seletividade alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e curimba Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.523 Selective feeding of food organisms by fish larvae of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.523

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    Carlos Eduardo Bento Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seleção alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus e curimba (Prochilodus lineatus com diferentes idades (6, 12, 19 e 26 dias, na presença e ausência de Pistia stratiotes. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba e quatro repetições. A cada sete dias, foram coletadas 24 larvas de cada espécie de peixe dos tanques, sendo estas mantidas em jejum por 24 horas. Depois de distribuídas nos aquários com plâncton, as larvas permaneceram por três horas, sendo coletadas e fixadas para análise, juntamente com as amostras de água. Os tratos digestórios das larvas foram retirados e analisados sob microscópio óptico. Observaram-se diferenças estatísticas na seletividade alimentar de organismos planctônicos por larvas de mesma espécie, em diferentes idades e também entre larvas de espécies diferentes, com mesma idade, não diferindo quanto à presença ou ausência de P. stratiotes. As formas jovens de pacu e curimba selecionaram organismos similares aos seis dias de idade, passando por alterações até o 26º dia. À medida que se desenvolveram, as larvas de pacu passaram a selecionar cladóceros e ostrácodos e as de curimba, protozoários e algas.The objective was to evaluate the feeding selection of food organisms for two species of fish larvae (pacu and curimba at different ages (6, 12, 19 and 26 days after eclosion, in the presence or absence of Pistia stratiotes. Four treatments were used (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba and four replications. Every seven days, 24 fish larvae of each species were collected, and kept without food for 24 hours. After being distributed in the aquariums with plankton, the larvae stayed for three hours, and were collected and prepared for analysis, along with the water samples. The digestive tract of the fish larvae

  8. Genetic enetic characterization of curimba (“Prochilodus lineatus” stocks used in stock enhancement programs Caracterização genética de estoques de curimba ("Prochilodus lineatus" utilizados em programas de repovoamento

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    Patrícia Cristina Gomes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim with this study was to determine the genetic diversity of P. lineatus stocks, destined to stocking programs, with the RAPD molecular marker (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Fifty two broodstocks of two fish farmings located at Salto Grande - SP (A and Palotina - PR (B counties and 32 juvenile progenies of Palotina stock (C were analyzed. The six primers produced 63 fragments (96.83% polymorphism. The genetic variability values determined by the polymorphic fragments percentage (A: 80.95%; B: 85.71% and C: 79.37% showed decreasing genetic variability in C possibly due to the inadequate reproductive management. The genetic variability between A and B stocks showed moderate genetic differentiation among them, mainly due to the founder effect. This result was confirmed by the values of Gst (0.084, gene flow Nm (5.48, genetic identity (0.926 and distance (0.077 and genetic similarity (A: 0.603 and B: 0.658, that provided important informations for a safe ichthyofauna and ecosystem conservation.Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar a diversidade genética de estoques de P. lineatus, destinados a programas de repovoamento, com o marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Foram analisados 52 reprodutores de duas pisciculturas localizadas nas cidades de Salto Grande - SP (A e Palotina – PR (B e 32 alevinos da progênie do estoque de Palotina (C. Os seis primers produziram 63 fragmentos (96,83% polimórficos. Os valores de variabilidade genética determinados pela porcentagem de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 80,95%; B: 85,71% e C: 79,37% mostraram que houve diminuição da variabilidade genética em C, devido possivelmente ao inadequado manejo reprodutivo. A variabilidade genética entre os estoques A e B mostrou moderada diferenciação genética entre eles, decorrente possivelmente do efeito fundador. Esse resultado foi corroborado pelos valores de Gst (0,084, fluxo gênico Nm (5,48, identidade (0,926 e distância gen

  9. Predação de pós-larvas de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, Valenciennes, 1836 por larvas de Odonata (Pantala, Fabricius, 1798 em diferentes tamanhos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2105 Predation of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 post-larvae by dragonfly (Pantala Fabricius, 1978 fry in different development phases - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2105

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    Carmino Hayashi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar a predação de larvas de Odonata (Pantala sp. em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento sobre pós-larvas de curimba, Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae. Foram utilizadas 54 larvas de Odonata distribuídas em oito grupos de comprimento (2,54; 3,89; 6,37; 9,67; 10,98; 12,81; 18,50 e 24,50 mm. Essas foram colocadas em 27 aquários com capacidade para 1,0 L de água, com iluminação constante por lâmpadas florescentes (40 watts, sendo inseridas duas larvas de tamanho similar por unidade experimental. Em cada aquário foram colocadas 15 pós-larvas de curimba (Lt: 6,20±0,22 mm e Wt: 0,91 mg às 18h, sendo que a cada três horas (21, 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 e 18 horas foram contadas as pós-larvas vivas e realizada a reposição das que faltavam. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos como o pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica e temperatura, foram tomados no início e no final do experimento, sendo os valores médios desses de 7,83±1,11; 6,57±1,23 mg/L, 212,71±3,93 µS/cm e 27,19±0,27ºC, respectivamente. Observou-se efeito quadrático do tamanho das larvas de Odonata sobre o número total de pós-larvas de curimba consumidas com ponto máximo com larvas de Odonata com 24,46 mm. Verificou-se, ainda, redução no número de larvas consumidas ao longo do período experimental. Conclui-se que ocorre aumento no número de larvas de curimba predadas com o aumento no tamanho das larvas de OdonataThe aim of this experiment was to evaluate the predation of dragonfly (Pantala sp. fry in different development phases by the Prochilodus lineatus post-larvae (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae. Fifty-four dragonfly fry were distributed among eight length groups (2.54, 3.89, 6.37, 9.67, 10.98, 12.81, 18.50 e 24.50 mm, then they were also distributed among 27 aquarium (1.0 L, with constant illumination by fluorescent lamps (40 watts, and two dragonfly fry of similar size were put in each

  10. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e histoquímica do aparelho digestório do Prochilodus lineatus. Análise da diversidade da microbiota intestinal de Prochilodus lineatus e Pterygoplichthys anisitsi

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    Makino, Lilian Cristina [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo descrever o aparelho digestório sob os pontos de vista estrutural, ultraestrutural e histoquímico de uma espécie de peixe de água doce: o curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) (Characidae, Prochilodontidae). Adicionalmente foi realizado um estudo da diversidade da microbiota intestinal do Prochilodus lineatus e do cascudo cinza (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi). Para os estudos morfológicos de anatomia, histologia, histoquímica e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura...

  11. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e histoquímica do aparelho digestório do Prochilodus lineatus. Análise da diversidade da microbiota intestinal de Prochilodus lineatus e Pterygoplichthys anisitsi

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    Makino, Lilian Cristina [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo descrever o aparelho digestório sob os pontos de vista estrutural, ultraestrutural e histoquímico de uma espécie de peixe de água doce: o curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) (Characidae, Prochilodontidae). Adicionalmente foi realizado um estudo da diversidade da microbiota intestinal do Prochilodus lineatus e do cascudo cinza (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi). Para os estudos morfológicos de anatomia, histologia, histoquímica e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura...

  12. Transmission Behavior of B Chromosomes in Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae).

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    Penitente, Manolo; Daniel, Sandro N; Senhorini, José A; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2015-01-01

    The population of Prochilodus lineatus found in the Mogi-Guaçu River is karyotypically polymorphic, carrying acrocentric, metacentric, and submetacentric B chromosomes. The analysis of each B chromosome frequency in this species revealed a variation in the distribution pattern, with the metacentric type having the highest frequency (73.30%), followed by submetacentric (25.22%) and acrocentric B chromosomes (1.48%). The transmission pattern of the supernumerary chromosomes was identified by controlled crosses, and it was shown that the acro- and submetacentric B chromosomes have a transmission pattern below the Mendelian rate (kB = 0.333 and kB = 0.385, respectively), but the metacentric variant has a cumulative transmission pattern (kB = 0.587). These results indicate that the acro- and submetacentric B chromosomes are undergoing an extinction process, while the metacentric B chromosomes appear to be accumulating in frequency with each generation.

  13. Acidos graso de Prochilodus lineatus (Val.) (Pisces, Curimatidae)

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    Bayo, V.; Cordiviola de Yuan, E.

    1992-01-01

    Les acides gras des dépots graisseux du mésenlère de #Prochilodus lineatus$ ont été analysés pour saisons (été et hiver). Les poissons étudiés ont été capturés dans le cours principal du Parana moyen (Argentine). Les acides les plus importants sont l'acide oléique (18:1) avec 27,15%, l'acide palmitique (16:6) avec 23,99% et l'acide palmitoleique (16:1) avec 13,90%. Ces acides sont plus abondants en hiver. Les acides supérieurs (en carbone et en insaturation) sont moins abondants en hiver (16,...

  14. Transmission rate variation among three B chromosome variants in the fish Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

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    MANOLO PENITENTE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies were developed in Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1836, describing an interesting system of small supernumerary chromosomes. The purpose of this work is to study the frequency and morphology of B chromosomes in individuals from the parental line and the inheritance patterns of these elements in individuals obtained from controlled crosses in the species P. lineatus. The transmission rate of B chromosomes revealed a kB=0.388 for the acrocentric type, a kB=0.507 for the metacentric type and a kB=0.526 for the submetacentric type. The obtained results raise hypothesis that B-acrocentric chromosomes are involved in an extinction process in this species, while the metacentric and submetacentric supernumerary elements comprises a neutral mechanism and follows a Mendelian transmission rate.

  15. Transporte de juvenis de curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus em diferentes densidades =Transportation of curimbata Prochilodus lineatus juveniles in different densities

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    André Fernando Nascimento Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito do transporte de curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus, em três densidades (100, 150 e 250 g L-1, sobre a sobrevivência e variáveis metabólicas, iônicas e hematológicas (série vermelha. Juvenis de curimbatá foram transportados em sacos plásticos durante 6h e amostrados antes da embalagem, imediatamente após a chegada, 24 e 96h após o transporte. Os peixes transportados na densidade mais alta apresentaram maior mortalidade durante o período de recuperação. As variáveis físico-químicas da água: condutividade e amônia total apresentaram maiores valores quanto maior a densidade (p This study evaluated the effects of curimbata Prochilodus lineatus transportation in three densities (100, 150 and 250 g L-1 on survival, metabolic, ionic and hematological (red series variables. Curimbata juveniles were transported in plastic bag during six hours, and sampled before packing, immediately after the arrival, 24 and 96 hours after transportation. During recovery, higher mortality was seen in fish transported in the highest density. Water variables, such as conductivity and total ammonia, presented increased values as density increased (p < 0.05, whereas the opposite occurred with dissolved oxygen. Glucose level observed in the arrival was high, significantly reducing after 96 hours. Among ionic variables, chloride decreased in higher fish densities and according to sampling times. Red series hematological variables, such as hematocrit, red blood cell and hemoglobin, increased in arrival, but diminished 96 hours after transportation. There were no significant differences in the interaction between density and time of sampling for mentioned variables. 250 g L-1 density induced the highest mortality rate and the worst variables values measured. 96 hours of recovery after the stressing event was enough to return to initial values for hematological variables, but was not sufficient to return to initial values for

  16. Estudio del desarrollo embrionario del sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus

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    P Botta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El almacenamiento de espermatozoides de peces por medio de la criopreservación es muy utilizado hoy en día. Si bien se sabe que el proceso de congelamiento/descongelamiento genera la fragmentación del ADN del espermatozoide, no se conocen las consecuencias que esto tiene en el desarrollo embrionario. Actualmente hay un gran interés en el desarrollo de métodos de fecundación in vitro para la especie Prochilodus lineatus utilizando semen criopreservado. En este trabajo estudiamos el desarrollo embrionario de esta especie, a fin de sentar las bases para la observación de anormalidades en el desarrollo de embriones obtenidos a partir de espermatozoides crioconservados. Los huevos producidos por esta especie son translúcidos y poseen un gran espacio perivitelino; son del tipo telolecítico y presentan una división meroblástica durante los primeros estadíos del desarrollo. Si bien el desarrollo embrionario de Prochilodus lineatus (sábalo se llevó a cabo en menor tiempo en comparación con Danio rerio, las etapas que atravesó el embrión son muy similares. Durante el estudio se observaron los períodos de Cigoto, Clivaje, Blástula, Gástrula, Segmentación y Eclosión de la larva de sábalo. De esta manera se logró registrar los diferentes estadíos de su desarrollo, principalmente aquellos posteriores a la transición de la blástula media (TBM, a partir del cual el embrión comienza a transcribir su propio genoma.

  17. Origin and molecular organization of supernumerary chromosomes of Prochilodus lineatus (characiformes, prochilodontidae) obtained by DNA probes.

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    Voltolin, Tatiana Aparecida; Laudicina, Alejandro; Senhorini, José Augusto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Oliveira, Cláudio; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2010-12-01

    In Prochilodus lineatus B-chromosomes are visualized as reduced size extra elements identified as microchromosomes and are variable in morphology and number. We describe the specific total probe (B-chromosome probe) in P. lineatus obtained by chromosome microdissection and a whole genomic probe (genomic probe) from an individual without B-chromosome. The specific B-chromosome was scraped and processed to obtain DNA with amplification by DOP-PCR, and so did the genomic probe DNA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using the B-chromosome probe labeled with dUTP-Tetramethyl-rhodamine and the genomic probe labeled with digoxigenin-FITC permitted to establish that in this species supernumerary chromosomes with varying number and morphology had different structure of chromatin when compared to that of the regular chromosomes or A complement, since only these extra elements were labeled in the metaphases. The present findings suggest that modifications in the chromatin structure of B-chromosomes to differentiate them from the A chromosomes could occur along their dispersion in the individuals of the population.

  18. Trace metal levels in Prochilodus lineatus collected from the La Plata River, Argentina.

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    Lombardi, Paula E; Peri, Silvia I; Verrengia Guerrero, Noemí R

    2010-01-01

    Most of the industrial, urban and sewage discharges are released into the La Plata River, Argentina without any previous treatment. However, few works have investigated the extent of metal contamination. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in liver and gills of adults Prochilodus lineatus collected from three sampling stations along the coast of the La Plata River: Berazategui, Berisso and Atalaya (from north to south). Samplings were performed during 2002 and 2004. Berazategui and Berisso were located nearby the main ducts that discharge the urban and domestic waste disposal from the cities of Buenos Aires and La Plata, respectively. The third station, Atalaya, was free of sewage discharges. Levels of cadmium and copper in liver were always higher than those found in gills. Instead, for lead and zinc, high levels were observed either in liver or gills, depending on the sampling station and the sampling period. In both tissues, the concentrations of metals did not differ significantly between male and female fish. In liver samples, the concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc tended to increase from north to south. Instead, the levels of lead followed an opposite pattern. No clear tendencies were observed in gill samples. The data may be useful as reference levels of metal contaminants in P. lineatus, the most important fish species in the La Plata River system.

  19. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Jimena, E-mail: jcazenave@inali.unl.edu.a [Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Instituto Nacional de Limnologia (INALI-CONICET-UNL), Paraje El Pozo, Ciudad Universitaria UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, Maria J.; Scarabotti, Pablo A. [Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Instituto Nacional de Limnologia (INALI-CONICET-UNL), Paraje El Pozo, Ciudad Universitaria UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Wunderlin, Daniel A. [Dto. Bioquimica Clinica-CIBICI-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre esq Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems. - A battery of biomarkers was successfully applied to assess the health of the fish Prochilodus lineatus from Salado River basin.

  20. Comet assay in gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus exposed in vivo to cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletta, G L; Gigena, F; Loteste, A; Parma, M J; Kleinsorge, E C; Simoniello, M F

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural chemicals can induce genetic alterations on aquatic organisms that have been associated with effects on growth, reproduction and population dynamics. The evaluation of DNA damage in fish using the comet assay (CA) frequently involves the utilization of erythrocytes. However, epithelial gill cells (EGC) can be more sensitive, as they are constantly dividing and in direct contact with potentially stressing compounds from the aquatic environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1) the sensitivity and suitability of epithelial gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus in response to different genotoxic agents through the application of the CA, (2) the induction of DNA damage in this cell population after in vivo exposure to cypermethrin. Baseline value of the CA damage index (DI) for EGC of juvenile P. lineatus was 144.68±5.69. Damage increased in a dose-dependent manner after in vitro exposure of EGC to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and H2O2, two known genotoxic agents. In vivo exposure of fish to cypermethrin induced a significant increase in DNA DI of EGC at 0.150μg/l (DI: 239.62±6.21) and 0.300μg/l (270.63±2.09) compared to control (150.25±4.38) but no effect was observed at 0.075μg/l (168.50±10.77). This study shows that EGC of this species are sensitive for the application of the CA, demonstrating DNA damage in response to alkylation (MMS), oxidative damage (H2O2), and to the insecticide cypermethryn. These data, together with our previous study on DNA damage induction on erythrocytes of this species, provides useful information for future work involving biomonitoring in regions where P. lineatus is naturally exposed to pesticides and other genotoxic agents.

  1. Hematological and biochemical alterations in the fish Prochilodus lineatus caused by the herbicide clomazone.

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    Pereira, Lindalva; Fernandes, Marisa N; Martinez, Cláudia B R

    2013-07-01

    The indiscriminate use of herbicides has led to the contamination of water bodies, possibly affecting the health of aquatic biota. Therefore, to evaluate the possible effects of the clomazone-based herbicide (Gamit(®) 500) on the fish Prochilodus lineatus, juveniles were exposed for 96h to three concentrations (1, 5 and 10mgL(-1)) of clomazone, and an analysis was made of their hematological parameters: hemoglobin (Hb); hematocrit (Hct); red blood cell (RBC) count; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and biochemical parameters: glutathione S-transferase (GST); catalase (CAT); glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Hct presented a significant decrease at the concentration of 10mgL(-1), while the parameters Hb, HCM and MCHC presented a significant decrease at the two higher concentrations, indicating an anemic condition. The RBC increased significantly at the lowest concentration, possibly due to the release of new red blood cells into the bloodstream in response to splenic contraction, which may occur as an adaptive response to the stressor agent. P. lineatus presented activation of the biotransformation pathway, indicated by augmented hepatic activity of the enzyme GST and hepatic activation of the antioxidant enzyme CAT at the higher concentrations. Liver GPx was significantly inhibited at the higher concentrations, which may indicate the efficient action of CAT in the elimination of H2O2 or its competition with GST for the same substrate (GSH). AChE activity in brain and muscle was inhibited at the higher concentrations, indicating the neurotoxic effects of the herbicide in the fish. The hematological and biochemical alterations led to the conclusion that the herbicide clomazone has toxic effects on the species P. lineatus, and that its presence in the environment may jeopardize the health of these animals.

  2. Sperm dilution ratio affects post-thaw motility rate and velocity of Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Ana T M; Leal, Marcelo C

    2016-10-01

    There is a lack of standardization in sperm cryopreservation of aquatic organisms and, thus, a necessity of more accurate investigations in all steps of this process. In this study, the effects of sperm dilution ratio on post-thaw sperm quality of Prochilodus lineatus were evaluated. Sperm was diluted in a standard freezing medium (glucose and methyl glycol) at four different ratios (sperm to final volume = 1:5, 1:10, 1:50 or 1:100), frozen in a nitrogen vapour vessel at -170°C and then stored in liquid nitrogen vessel at -196°C. Post-thaw motility rate and velocities (curvilinear = VCL; average path = VAP; straight line = VSL) were determined using a Computer-Assisted Sperm Analyzer (CASA) at 10 and 40 s post-activation. The highest motility rates were observed when sperm was frozen at a ratio of 1:5 (76%) and 1:10 (75%). The highest VCL (225 μm/s) and VAP (203 μm/s) were observed at a ratio of 1:10, while VSL was similar among samples frozen at 1:5, 1:10 and 1:50 (97-124 μm/s). When those parameters were evaluated again 30 s later, motility decreased significantly in samples frozen at a ratio of 1:5 (57%) and 1:10 (61%), while velocities decreased significantly in all samples regardless of dilution ratio (75-85 μm/s of VCL, 38-53 μm/s of VAP and 25-39 μm/s of VSL). P. lineatus sperm should be frozen at a ratio of 1:10, where both the number of loaded sperm per straw and the post-thaw quality are maximized.

  3. Dimethoate 40% organosphosphorous pesticide toxicity in Prochilodus lineatus (Prochilodontidae, Characiformes eggs and larvae

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    A. F. Campagna

    Full Text Available Toxicity tests using early life stages of fish are of great importance in assessing risks to growth, reproduction and survival in polluted environments and are important tools for good environmental monitoring. However, a small number of standard bioassays of this type have been developed in Brazil. Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus is an abundant South American characid fish of great commercial interest. It was chosen for testing different concentrations of 40% dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE inhibitor used widely in Brazil. The 48-h LC50 for eggs is higher than 16.0 µg.L-1, whereas for recently hatched larvae it was found to be significantly lower (11.81 µg.L-1, ranging between 10.23 µg.L-1 - 13.65 µg.L-1 and also significantl y lower than that for eggs by a Student t-test for independent samples (p = 0.03. The 96-h LC50 for 3-day old larvae was 10.44 µg.L-1 (8.03 µg.L-1 - 13.57 µg.L-1, similar to that of recently-hatched larvae (p = 0.76. Larval mobility was also found to be reduced by this insecticide.

  4. Scale morphology of Prochilodus lineatus with emphasis on the scale epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R M S; Pereira, B F; Pitol, D L; Senhorini, J A; Alcântara-Rocha, R C G; Caetano, F H

    2013-08-01

    The fish body is entirely covered by a thin, smooth and glandular epidermis, closely attached to the scales inserted on the dermis. The descriptive work on this tissue dates to twenty or thirty years ago, bears very little photographic record and does not focus on the scale epithelium, despite the fact that it is in direct contact with the environment. Thereupon, the present study characterizes the scale epithelium of Prochilodus lineatus, a robust species of fish. The observations show that the scale is completely covered by epithelium thicker on the proximal end of the scale, multilayered on the dorsal surface and undifferentiated on the ventral surface, and covered by mucous producing cells, mostly acid mucous. The scale is formed by plywood-like collagen matrix of collagen type III and supported by a network of elastic fibers on the ventral face. Differentiated cellular types are present, such as club cells, considered to be responsible for the release of alarm substances, which suggests possible use in environmental assessment as a non-invasive technique.

  5. Evolucion morfologica del aparato digestivo de postlarvas y prejuveniles de Prochilodus lineatus (Val., 1847) (Pisces, Curimatidae) y su relacion con la dieta

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, L. M.

    1992-01-01

    Le "sabalo" (#Prochilodus lineatus$) est une espèce les plus importantes de poissons du Parana. Le régime alimentaire est détritivore chez l'adulte. Cet article présente l'analyse du régime alimentaire des post-larves et préjuvéniles de #Prochilodus lineatus$ capturé dans la rivière Salado (Santo Tomé, Argentina) et sa relation avec les changements dans la dentition et la morphologie de l'appareil digestif intervenant au cours de la croissance. Au stade de post-larves, l'espèce est planctopha...

  6. Genotoxic effects of the herbicide Roundup Transorb and its active ingredient glyphosate on the fish Prochilodus lineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Natália Cestari; Sofia, Silvia Helena; Martinez, Claudia B R

    2014-01-01

    Roundup Transorb (RT) is a glyphosate-based herbicide and despite its wide use around the world there are few studies comparing the effects of the active ingredient with the formulated product. In this context the purpose of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of the active ingredient glyphosate with the formulated product RT in order to clarify whether the active ingredient and the surfactant of the RT formula may exert toxic effects on the DNA molecule in juveniles of fish Prochilodus lineatus. Erythrocytes and gill cells of fish exposed to glyphosate and to RT showed DNA damage scores significantly higher than control animals. These results revealed that both glyphosate itself and RT were genotoxic to gill cells and erythrocytes of P. lineatus, suggesting that their use should be carefully monitored considering their potential impact on tropical aquatic biota. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological biomarkers in Prochilodus lineatus (pisces, prochilodontidae) for environmental impact assessment in the region of the Baixada Maranhense, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Janaína Gomes [Master Program in Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Superintendency of Biodiversity and Protected Areas of the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources of Maranhão (SEMA), Brazil janainnadantas@gmail.com (Brazil); Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Castro, Jonatas da Silva [Master Program in Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Sodré, Camilla Fernanda Lima [Degree in Biological Sciences, State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Carvalho-Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Junior, Audálio Rebelo Torres [Department of Limnology and Oceanography, Federal University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This study aimed to identify the types of histopathological lesions found in gills of Prochilodus lineatus of the Environmental Protection Area of the Baixada Maranhense region (Brazil). Fish were collected in Mearim river. Sampling took place in October, November and December 2014. We have purchased 30 samples of fish from local fishermen. In the laboratory fish gills were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution and kept into alcohol 70% to the usual histological processing. The tissue was performed by light microscopy and findings were photomicrographed in light microscope - ZEIS. The following lesions were identified: epithelial displacement, the marginal channel shift a start vascular congestion, hyperplasia and merging multiple slides; epithelial disruption, edema, vascular congestion, total fusion of lamellae and disorganization of secondary lamellae. These changes express a response of the body to some xenobiontes. Morphological changes in the gills may represent adaptive strategies for conservation of some biological functions when animals are facing changes in the water quality.

  8. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Jimena; Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, María J; Scarabotti, Pablo A; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2009-11-01

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems.

  9. Histopathological changes in the gills and liver of Prochilodus lineatus from the Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Ileana C; Cazenave, Jimena; Bacchetta, Carla; Bistoni, María de Los Angeles

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the histopathological changes in gills and liver of Prochilodus lineatus inhabiting the Salado River basin. Fish were collected in four different sampling stations. The histological lesions in the tissues were examined under light microscopy and evaluated with quantitative analyses. The morphometric analysis of the gills showed a significant shortening of secondary lamellae and a lower percentage of area for gas exchange in fish from station 1 (an urban area, located near the mouth of the Salado River) in comparison with fish gills from the reference site (station 4, a relatively pristine area). Moreover, a significantly higher area occupied with necrotic foci and the occurrence of an important inflammatory response were observed in fish liver of station 1 than the samples caught from other stations. Thus, histopathological evidences showed differences among sites, which could be related to different environmental conditions.

  10. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA in the fish Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

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    Marcelo Ricardo Vicari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used differential staining techniques (BSG, GTG, AgNO3, DAPI and CMA3 banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with 5S and 18S probes to investigated the karyotypic and cytogenetic chracteristics of Prochilodus lineatus specimens from a population in Vila Velha state park (Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná state, southern Brazil. The specimens studied showed the same karyotype as that found in other P. lineatus populations, i.e. 2n = 54 biarmed chromosomes (40m + 14 sm and c-positive heterochromatin preferentially located pericentromerically in all chromosomes. The presence of partial or totally heterochromatic supernumerary chromosomes with numeric intra-individual variation was confirmed in the analyzed population. The nucleolar organizing regions (NORs were interstitially situated on the long arm of chromosome pair 4 directly beneath the centromere. The differential banding techniques and FISH revealed NOR size polymorphism due to structural events such as breaks and duplication of the larger rDNA site cluster. We also observed syntenic localization of the 5S ribosomal genes in the distal segment of the 45S cluster.

  11. Biochemical and genetic alterations in the freshwater neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus after acute exposure to Microcystis aeruginosa

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    Cylene Zambrozi Garcia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins are secondary metabolites produced by different species of cyanobacteria, such as Microcystis aeruginosa (MA. In this study, the biochemical and genetic effects of lyophilized MA were evaluated in the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus exposed to 1 or 2 mg L-1 lyophilized MA (treated group or only water (control group in static toxicity tests for 24 and 96 h. The gills and liver were used in the analysis of biotransformation enzymes and antioxidant defenses, blood and gill cells in genetic analysis and in brain and muscle it was determined the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. The results showed the biotransformation pathway activation due to the increase in hepatic CYP1A and in branchial and hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST. The antioxidant defense proved to be greatly affected by MA exposure leading to changes, both in gills and liver, in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR and in the content of tripeptide glutathione (GSH. Lipid peroxidation was not detected, but damage to DNA molecule was observed in blood cells. In conclusion, it can be state the lyophilized MA is able to promote changes in the biochemical and genetic parameters of P. lineatus.As microcistinas são metabólitos secundários produzidos por diferentes espécies de cianobactérias, como a Microcystis aeruginosa (MA. Neste estudo, os efeitos bioquímicos e genéticos de liofilizado de MA foram avaliados para juvenis da espécie de peixe Neotropical Prochilodus lineatus expostos a 1 ou 2 mg L-1 de liofilizado de MA (grupo tratado ou apenas à água (grupo controle, em testes de toxicidade estáticos, durante 24 e 96 h. As brânquias e o fígado foram usados para as análises das enzimas de biotransformação e defesas antioxidantes, células do sangue e das brânquias para análises genéticas e no cérebro e músculo foi determinada a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (ACh

  12. Effect of copper on liver key enzymes of anaerobic glucose metabolism from freshwater tropical fish Prochilodus lineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cleoni dos Santos; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the effect of copper on liver key enzymes of the anaerobic glucose metabolism (hexokinase, HK; phosphofructokinase, PFK; pyruvate kinase, PK; lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) as well as of the pentose pathway (glycose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PDH) from the fish Prochilodus lineatus. The fish were acclimated at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C at pH 7.0, transferred to water at pH 4.5 or 8.0, and exposed to 96 h-CL(50) copper concentrations. Copper accumulation in liver was higher in fish acclimated at 20 degrees C and maintained in water pH 8.0. Three-way analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of temperature on all enzymes, a significant effect of pH on all enzymes except for PK, and a significant effect of copper on only PFK, and LDH in pH 4.5 at 20 degrees C and, at 30 degrees C, on PFK and PK at pH 4.5 and 8.0, HK at pH 4.5 and G6PDH at pH 8.0. There were significant interactions between treatments for many enzymes. These changes suggest that the activity of enzymes in question is modified by a change in ambient water. At least at 30 degrees C, the overall reduction in the glycolytic enzyme activities of copper-exposed fish seems to reduce energy availability via glucose metabolism, thereby contributing to enhance copper toxic effects.

  13. Histopatologia de fígado, rim e baço de piaractus mesopotamicus, prochilodus lineatus e pseudoplatystoma fasciatum parasitados por myxosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. de Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreveu a histopatologia de rim, baço e fígado de Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus e Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, parasitados por mixosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, MS. Após necropsia, amostras do fígado, rim cefálico e baço foram colhidas, fixadas em formalina a 10 % tamponada e processadas de acordo com a rotina histológica. Os cortes foram feitos à espessura de 5 μm e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Foram encontrados Myxobolus porofilus em P. lineatus, M. colossomatis em P. mesopotamicus e Myxobolus spp. nas três espécies de hospedeiros. Cistos de mixosporídios no exame histopatológico foram vistos no fígado e baço de P. mesopotamicus. Mais de 50% das amostras de fígado de P mesopotamicus e P lineatus apresentou hepatodistrofia difusa. Mais de 80 % das amostras de fígado de P. fasciatum apresentou formações hialinas concêntricas e esteatose em 50% das amostras. Em 95,23 % das amostras de rins de P. mesopotamicus, foram observadas alterações teciduais, e em mais de 60 % dos casos nefrodistrofia difusa moderada e congestão de sinusóides glomerulares. Alterações teciduais nas amostras de rins de P. lineatus foram observadas em menos de 20 % da amostra. No baço dos peixes ora examinados não foram encontradas lesões dignas de relato.Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolusporofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P mesopotamicus were also related. Up

  14. The influence of vegetal cover on carbon assimilation by Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae in the upper Paraná river floodplain

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    Mariana Cristina Serragiotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the influence of the availability of riparian vegetation and C3 emergent aquatic macrophytes on carbon assimilation by Prochilodus lineatus. The vegetal cover of these producers, available at 30 m of the bank, for the terrestrial ecosystem of the rivers Baia, Ivinheima and Paraná, was quantified with the image processing Landsat 5 TM, of the year 2000, period of sampling of the biological material at each river. The assimilation of the energy sources (riparian vegetation and C3 aquatic macrophytes, C4 aquatic macrophytes, periphyton, and phytoplankton by P. lineatus was determined by analysis of stable carbon isotopes (δ13C. The area of vegetal cover was estimated at 1,017 km2 in the Ivinheima river, 669 km2 in the Paraná river, and 268 km2 in the Baia river. The assimilation of the carbon from riparian vegetation and aquatic macrophytes was proportional to the availability in the environment, but these producers were not the main source of carbon for P. lineatus. Thus, in the rivers with greater vegetation cover, consequently, these items had higher availability in the water body becoming an important carbon source for the species maintenance.

  15. Population dynamics of the migratory fish Prochilodus lineatus in a neotropical river: the relationships with river discharge, flood pulse, El Niño and fluvial megafan behaviour

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    Marinke J. M. Stassen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative importance of flood pulse dynamics and megafan behaviour for the Sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus catches in the neotropical Pilcomayo River is studied. The Sábalo catches can mainly be explained by decreased river discharges in the preceding years resulting in smaller inundated areas during rainy season floods and thereby in a decreased area of feeding grounds for the fishes. The decreased river discharges and the related decline of Sábalo catches in the 1990's can be linked to the 90-95 El Niño event. In 2007 the Sábalo catches were comparable to the catches before the "El Niño" event. The connectivity (continuity between the main river and flood plain areas, which is influenced by sedimentation processes, is also of great importance and very probably plays a more important role since the late 1990's.Se ha estudiado la importancia relativa de la dinámica del pulso de inundación y el comportamiento del sistema megafan para las capturas del Sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus en el río Pilcomayo. Las capturas del Sábalo puede explicarse fundamentalmente por los bajos caudales del río en los años anteriores, resultando en menores superficies de las zonas inundadas durante la temporada de lluvia y por lo tanto en una área menor de alimentación para los peces. La disminución del caudal del río y la declinación relativa de capturas de Sábalo en los años 1990 pueden estar relacionadas con el 90-95 evento de El Niño. En 2007, la captura de Sábalo fue comparable a las capturas antes del evento de "El Niño". La conectividad (continuidad entre el río principal y las llanuras aluviales, que son influenciadas por los procesos de sedimentación, son también de gran importancia y muy probablemente juegan un papel muy importante desde finales de los años '90.

  16. The effect of water pH on the incubation and larviculture of curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837 (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

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    David Augusto Reynalte-Tataje

    Full Text Available Different pH levels of water in the incubation and larviculture of 'curimbatá' (Prochilodus lineatus were tested to evaluate the effect of this variable on the survival and development of eggs and larvae. During incubation, pH of 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 8.5 was tested. To observe the effects of pH on larvae with different hatchery histories, the following experimental design was utilised (pH incubation - pH larviculture: L 6-6; L 6-7; L 7-6; L 7-7; L 7-8; L 8-7; L 8-8; L 8.5-7, and L 8.5-8.5. At pH 5.0 and four hours after incubation, an almost total mortality of incubated eggs was seen. Eggs incubated at pH 6.0 to 8.5 had similar fertilization and survival rates at the end of incubation, although eggs and larvae incubated at pH 6.0 had a smaller diameter and total length than larvae incubated at neutral and alkaline pH. During larviculture, it was observed the highest post-larvae survival rates with incubation at pH values of 7.0 (93 ± 7% and the largest post-larvae lengths from the L 8.5-7 treatment (9.29 ± 0.8 mm. It can be concluded that hatchery and larviculture pH directly affects the initial developmental stages of P. lineatus.

  17. Effect of anesthetic, tag size, and surgeon experience on postsurgical recovering after implantation of electronic tags in a neotropical fish: Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837 (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

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    João M. Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Implantation of telemetry transmitters in fish can be affected by different parameters. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of type of anesthetic, tag size, and surgeon experience on surgical and postsurgical wound healing in the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus . In total, eighty fish were surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters and forty fish were kept as controls. Forty fish were implanted with a small tag and other forty were implanted with a large tag. Similarly, forty fish were anesthetized with eugenol and forty fish were anesthetized by electroanesthesia, and forty surgeries were performed by an expert surgeon and forty surgeries were performed by novice surgeons. At the end of the experimental period seventeen (21.3% tagged fish had postsurgical complications, including death (1.3%, tag expulsion (2.5%, antenna migration (2.5%, and infection (15%. Tag size was the key determinant for postsurgical complications. Surgical details and postsurgical wound healing were not affected by type of anesthetic. Incision size, duration of surgery, and wound area were significantly affected by tag size and surgeon experience, and the number of sutures was significantly affected by tag size only. The results indicate that successful implantation of telemetry transmitters is dependent upon surgeon experience and tag size.

  18. [Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Cristiane M de; Moraes, Julieta R E de; Moraes, E Flávio R de

    2008-01-01

    Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5microm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolus porofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P. mesopotamicus were also related. Up to 50% of P. mesopotamicus and P. lineatus liver samples showed diffuse hepatodistrofy. Liver sections also showed concentric hialin structures in over 80% of samples and esteatosis in 50% of them. In P. mesopotamicus kidney, 95.23% of them showed tissue changes consisted of 60% with diffuse moderate nefrodistrofy and congestion of glomerular sinusoids. In P. lineatus kidney, 20% of the samples showed tissues changes. No heavy damage was observed in the fish spleen.

  19. In vivo and in vitro exposures for the evaluation of the genotoxic effects of lead on the Neotropical freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, V.; Cavalcante, D.G.S.M.; Vilela, M.B.F.A. [Laboratory of Animal Ecophysiology, Department of Physiological Sciences, Londrina State University, PB 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Sofia, S.H. [Laboratory of Genetics and Animal Ecology, Department of General Biology, Londrina State University, PB 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Martinez, C.B.R., E-mail: cbueno@uel.br [Laboratory of Animal Ecophysiology, Department of Physiological Sciences, Londrina State University, PB 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    In the present study, in vivo and in vitro exposures were used to assess the genotoxicity of lead (Pb) to the freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus. The comet assay using blood, liver and gill cells, and the occurrence of micronuclei (MN) and other erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) were used to assess the genotoxic potential of lead in vivo. Metallothionein content (MT) was measured in fish liver in order to evaluate the protection of fish against Pb toxicity. Fish erythrocytes were exposed to Pb in vitro (1, 3 and 6 h) and the number of viable cells, DNA integrity, using the comet assay, and lysosomal membrane stability, measured by the neutral red retention assay (NRRA) were analyzed. The results of the comet assay after in vivo toxicity tests (6, 24 and 96 h) showed that Pb was genotoxic for all the three tissues analyzed after 96 h exposure. A significant increase in liver MT content was observed after 6 and 24 h of Pb exposure. MN frequency did not increase after Pb exposures, but the frequency of the other ENA, such as kidney-shaped nuclei, segmented nuclei and lobed nuclei, showed a significant increase after 24 and 96 h, indicating that ENA is a better biomarker for Pb exposure than MN alone after short-term exposures. The results of the comet assay performed with erythrocytes in vitro exposed to lead confirmed its genotoxic effect and showed that DNA damage increased with increasing exposure time. Moreover, the NRRA clearly indicated that Pb induces a destabilization of the lysosomal membrane. These results demonstrate the potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of lead after acute exposures.

  20. In vivo and in vitro exposures for the evaluation of the genotoxic effects of lead on the Neotropical freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, V; Cavalcante, D G S M; Viléla, M B F A; Sofia, S H; Martinez, C B R

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, in vivo and in vitro exposures were used to assess the genotoxicity of lead (Pb) to the freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus. The comet assay using blood, liver and gill cells, and the occurrence of micronuclei (MN) and other erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) were used to assess the genotoxic potential of lead in vivo. Metallothionein content (MT) was measured in fish liver in order to evaluate the protection of fish against Pb toxicity. Fish erythrocytes were exposed to Pb in vitro (1, 3 and 6 h) and the number of viable cells, DNA integrity, using the comet assay, and lysosomal membrane stability, measured by the neutral red retention assay (NRRA) were analyzed. The results of the comet assay after in vivo toxicity tests (6, 24 and 96 h) showed that Pb was genotoxic for all the three tissues analyzed after 96 h exposure. A significant increase in liver MT content was observed after 6 and 24 h of Pb exposure. MN frequency did not increase after Pb exposures, but the frequency of the other ENA, such as kidney-shaped nuclei, segmented nuclei and lobed nuclei, showed a significant increase after 24 and 96 h, indicating that ENA is a better biomarker for Pb exposure than MN alone after short-term exposures. The results of the comet assay performed with erythrocytes in vitro exposed to lead confirmed its genotoxic effect and showed that DNA damage increased with increasing exposure time. Moreover, the NRRA clearly indicated that Pb induces a destabilization of the lysosomal membrane. These results demonstrate the potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of lead after acute exposures.

  1. Morfologia e quantificação da microbiota intestinal do curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus e do cascudo cinza (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi cultivados em cativeiro

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    L.C. Makino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Todos os animais vivem em íntima associação com micro-organismos que desempenham importantes funções em seu desenvolvimento normal. Nos vertebrados, a mais populosa e complexa comunidade de micro-organismos reside no trato intestinal. O intuito do estudo foi quantificar, classificar e verificar morfologicamente a população microbiana intestinal de duas importantes espécies de peixes de água doce, o curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus e o cascudo cinza (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi. As amostras foram coletadas por meio de raspagens da mucosa intestinal, diluídas seriadamente até 10-4, semeadas em placas contendo ágar soja tripticaseína (TSA e ágar chocolate (AC para contagem de bactérias totais e identificação morfológica por Gram, em aerobiose e em anaerobiose facultativa, respectivamente. As contagens de bactérias totais mostraram resultados que variaram entre 10³ e 10(4ufc.mL-1. Os tipos morfológicos encontrados foram cocos, leveduras e bastonetes Gram negativos e positivos. Estudos adicionais sobre os padrões de colonização microbiana e a morfologia dos micro-organismos aderidos à mucosa intestinal foram possíveis com o uso da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, sendo encontradas formas variadas de micro-organismos, tais como leveduras, formas cocoides e bacilares flageladas e não flageladas. A microbiota intestinal do curimbatá e a do cascudo cinza provaram ser bastante diversas e populosas, com o predomínio de micro-organismos Gram negativos.

  2. Transporte de juvenis de curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus em diferentes densidades - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8415 Transportation of curimbata Prochilodus lineatus juveniles in different densities - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8415

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    João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito do transporte de curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus, em três densidades (100, 150 e 250 g L-1, sobre a sobrevivência e variáveis metabólicas, iônicas e hematológicas (série vermelha. Juvenis de curimbatá foram transportados em sacos plásticos durante 6h e amostrados antes da embalagem, imediatamente após a chegada, 24 e 96h após o transporte. Os peixes transportados na densidade mais alta apresentaram maior mortalidade durante o período de recuperação. As variáveis físico-químicas da água: condutividade e amônia total apresentaram maiores valores quanto maior a densidade (p -1 induziu maior mortalidade e os piores valores nas variáveis avaliadas. O período de 96h de recuperação após evento estressante foi suficiente para o retorno aos valores basais das variáveis hematológicas, mas não foi suficiente para as metabólicas e iônicas. aThis study evaluated the effects of curimbata Prochilodus lineatus transportation in three densities (100, 150 and 250 g L-1 on survival, metabolic, ionic and hematological (red series variables. Curimbata juveniles were transported in plastic bag during six hours, and sampled before packing, immediately after the arrival, 24 and 96 hours after transportation. During recovery, higher mortality was seen in fish transported in the highest density. Water variables, such as conductivity and total ammonia, presented increased values as density increased (p -1 density induced the highest mortality rate and the worst variables values measured. 96 hours of recovery after the stressing event was enough to return to initial values for hematological variables, but was not sufficient to return to initial values for metabolic and ionic variables.

  3. Morphometric characteristics of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1847, of the migratory and resident stocks of the river Mogí-Guaçu, São Paulo State, Brazil=Características morfométricas do curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus dos estoques migradores e residentes do rio Mogi-Guaçu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Márcia Regina Fragoso Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The species Prochilodus lineatus, with great commercial relevance in the rivers Grande, Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu, is characterized by the formation of great shoals which are capable of developing wide migratory displacements. Current assay evaluates, by means of the morphometric characteristics and age, whether the curimbatás (P. lineatus of different migratory and resident stocks form a single population, with interactivities among the sub-populations during the ‘piracema’ period (reproduction migration. A completely randomized plot with a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, with four stocks (one resident and three migratory as factors and two genders (male and female, with thirty replicates, was employed, with each fish taken as an experimental unit. An 80.19% variation for the first principal component and an 8.09% variation for the second principal component were reported as provided by the ten morphometric variables of resident and migratory stocks. The resident stock had the highest rate for the whole morphometric variables. There was superposition of individual scores of the same characteristics among the migratory stocks. Significant predominance of males was observed among resident stocks and migratory stocks I and II. Morphometric similarity verified among the migratory stocks showed a single population, with small inter-population variations.A espécie Prochilodus lineatus é de grande importância comercial na região dos rios Grande, Pardo e Mogi-Guaçu e tem como característica a formação de grandes cardumes, apta a desenvolver amplos deslocamentos migratórios. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar, por meio das características morfométricas e etária, se os curimbatás (P. lineatus dos diferentes estoques migradores e residentes constituem uma única população, havendo interação entre as sub-populações no período de piracema (migração reprodutiva. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2

  4. Multiple biomarker responses in Prochilodus lineatus subjected to short-term in situ exposure to streams from agricultural areas in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa, Patrícia Gomes [Laboratório de Microcontaminantes Orgânicos e Ecotoxicologia — Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Lunardelli, Bruna; Fernandes de Oliveira, Luciana [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa Cabrera, Liziara da [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Risso, Wagner Ezequiel [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Primel, Ednei Gilberto [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-15

    In order to assess the quality of streams susceptible to contamination by pesticides we apply biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus submitted to in situ tests. Fish were caged, for 96 h, in two streams located in areas with intensive use of pesticides, the Apertados (AP) and the Jacutinga (JC), and in a small stream (Godoy stream — GD) found inside a forest fragment adjacent to a State Park. Biochemical parameters, such as biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), non-protein thiols (NPSH), lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonylation (PCO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in various fish organs, as well as genotoxic biomarkers (damage to DNA and occurrence of micronuclei and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities). Samples of water and sediment were collected for analysis of metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd and Zn), organochloride pesticides, and triazine and glyphosate herbicides. We observed an increase in liver GST activity in fish at AP and gill GST activity in fish at JC. An increase in liver LPO was also observed in fish exposed to AP and JC. The same animals also exhibited increased DNA damage and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) compared to the fish kept in GD. A number of compounds showed concentrations higher than the permitted levels, in particular, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachloride, diclofluanid and aldrins. These pesticides were detected at higher concentrations in water and sediment samples from AP, followed by JC and GD. The Integrated Biomarker Response Index (IBR) indicated that AP and JC (AP: 21.7 > JC: 18.5 > GD: 12.6) have the worst environmental quality. Integrated biomarker analysis revealed that the alterations observed related well with the levels of environmental contaminants

  5. Effects of liming and development of Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus larvae on the abundance of zooplankton in fish ponds Efeitos da calagem e desenvolvimento do Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus na abundância do zooplâncton em viveiros de piscicultura

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    Thécia Alfenas Silva Valente Paes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We aimed to evaluate the influence of the correction of the water alkalinity in the fish ponds on the density of zooplankton under a period they were stocked with larvae of Prochilodus lineatus, a neotropical fish called "Curimbatá". METHODS: We used a factorial design completely randomized. In one plot (2 ponds there was no correction of the alkalinity of the water (20 mg CaCO3.L-1 and in two others, this variable was adjusted weekly to values around 30 and 60 mg CaCO3.L-1 ¹, with two replicates each. Zooplankton was sampled weekly and the experiment lasted 63 days. RESULTS: Significant differences in the density of the zooplankton over time (F = 6.78, p OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a influencia da correção da alcalinidade da água em viveiros de piscicultura na densidade do zooplâncton em período em que foram estocados com larvas de Prochilodus lineatus, um peixe neotropical denominado "Curimbatá". MÉTODOS: Foi utilizado um delineamento experimental fatorial, inteiramente causualizado. Em um tratamento (2 viveiros, não houve correção da alcalinidade da água, e em outros dois viveiros, a alcalinidade foi ajustada semanalmente para valores em torno de 30 e 60 mg CaCO3.L-1, com duas réplicas cada. Os organismos zooplanctônicos foram coletados semanalmente durante 63 dias. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significativas foram observadas na densidade do zooplâncton ao longo do tempo (F = 6,78, p < 0,05 e um decréscimo acentuado na densidade do zooplâncton foi observado da primeira para a segunda semana, e pequenos aumentos sucessivos na densidade da quarta semana até o final do experimento. Ao considerar todo o período experimental, a alcalinidade corrigida para 60 mg CaCO3.L-1 resultou em maiores densidades de zooplâncton. Ocorreram grandes mudanças na composição zooplanctônica. Rotifera foram dominantes no início do experimento e Cladocera e Copepoda nas últimas semanas, possivelmente devido a uma interação da

  6. Características hematológicas e fator de condição relativo (Kn associados ao parasitismo em Schizodon borellii (Osteichthyes, Anostomidae e Prochilodus lineatus (Osteichthyes, Prochilodontidae do ri Hematological characteristics and relative condition factor (Kn associated with parasitism in Schizodon borellii (Osteichthyes, Anostomidae and Prochilodus lineatus (Osteichthyes, Prochilodontidae from Paraná River, Porto Rico region

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    Ricardo Massato Takemoto

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos meses de fevereiro de 1994 e 1995, foram capturados, na planície de inundação do rio Paraná, PR, Brasil, 42 espécimes adultos de piava, S. borellii, e 42 espécimes adultos de curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus. O objetivo era verificar as alterações no quadro hemático destas espécies causadas por parasitismo. Foram determinados o número de eritrócitos (Er, o hematócrito (Ht, a taxa de hemoglobina (Hb, a porcentagem de leucócitos e calculados os índices hematimétricos absolutos: volume corpuscular médio, hemoglobina corpuscular média e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Os parasitos foram coletados de brânquias e intestinos e processados por métodos de rotina. Nove espécimes de S. borellii estavam parasitados por Dactylogyridae nas brânquias, com intensidade média de infestação(IMI=278,3 (1 a 1740 e 16 apresentavam Cucullanus pinnai (Nematoda: Cucullanidae no intestino, com IMI=3,3 (1 a 9. Outros 6 peixes estavam parasitados por Dactylogyridae com IMI=121,5 (2 a 360 e C. pinnai com IMI=2,0 (1 a 4. Onze peixes não apresentaram nenhuma infestação parasitária. Para esta espécie não foi encontrada nenhuma alteração significativa na contagem diferencial dos leucócitos ou na série vermelha, para os peixes parasitados. Os indivíduos com Dactylogyridae foram os únicos que apresentaram célula granulocítica especial e não tinham eosinófilos. Dez espécimens de P. lineatus apresentaram Dactylogyridae nas brânquias com IMI=86,9 (1 a 239, 6 tinham Ergasilidae com IMI=27,5 (1 a 81, 1 estava com 16 Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acantocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae no intestino e 25 não estavam parasitados. A infestação por Dactylogyridae nas brânquias desta espécie causou apenas uma diminuição na taxa de hemoglobina. Diferenças significativas foram encontradas em Hb e na porcentagem de linfócitos, neutrófilos e monócitos em peixes infestados por Ergasilidae. No espécime com N. curemai foram

  7. Comparisons among paternal half-sib families by fulton and alometric condition factors and growth rate in curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus / Comparações entre famílias de meio irmãos paterno através do fator de condição de Fulton, alométrico e a taxa de crescimento em curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus

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    Julian Cristina Borosky

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the condition factor in fish has been done to inform the growth, reproduction and survival in a specific environment. With the objective of comparing groups of paternal half-sibs it was conducted an experiment at the Fish Station of the State University of Londrina. It was used a sample of 253 fishes, sons of 10 Curimbata (Prochilodus lineatus reproducers. In order to verify the possibility of their use in selection, Fulton and alometric condition factors were determined, as well as the growth rate. The results suggested that the progeny of the majority of the reproducers presented negative alometric growth (b A determinação do fator de condição em peixes tem sido feita para informar o crescimento, reprodução e sobrevivência em um determinado ambiente. Com o objetivo de comparar grupos de meio-irmãos paterno, foi realizado um experimento na Estação de Piscicultura da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, em uma amostra constituida de 253 animais, filhos de 10 reprodutores curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus. Foi determinado o cálculo do fator de condição de Fulton, alométrico e a taxa de crescimento para verificar a possibilidade de seleção para essas características. Os resultados indicam que a maioria dos reprodutores apresentam crescimento alométrico negativo, representado por b < 3,0, a exceção de um reprodutor cuja progênie apresentou crescimento isométrico (b = 3,0. A identificação dos reprodutores cujas progênies tiveram maior taxa de crescimento foi através do fator de condição alométrico. O fator de condição de Fulton que utiliza para o cálculo o coeficiente de regressão de b = 3,0 não se mostrou viável. A seleção para a melhora das características fator de condição alométrico e taxa de crescimento é possível com a utilização da seleção pela progênie, pois a herdabilidade para essas características é baixa (h2 = 0,20.

  8. Monitoramento e conservação genética de populações naturais de Prochilodus lineatus dos rios Pardo, Mogi-Guaçu e Tietê, São Paulo

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    N.M. Lopera-Barrero

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a diversidade e a estrutura genética de seis populações naturais de Prochilodus lineatus em usinas hidrelétricas (UHE dos rios Pardo (UHE Limoeiro - LMO, Mogi-Guaçu (UHE Mogi-Guaçu - MOG e Tietê (UHE Promissão - PRO, UHE Barra Bonita - BAB, UHE Nova Avanhandava - NAV e UHE Bariri - BAR. Foi encontrado um total de 47 alelos, com tamanhos entre 118pb e 330pb. Os resultados de heterozigosidade média observada (0,490 a 0,625 refletiram uma alta variabilidade genética intrapopulacional. Os valores de distância genética (0,149 a 0,773, Fst (0,006 a 0,218 e Nm (1,2 a 4,2 mostraram a presença de similaridade genética entre as populações. De acordo com a AMOVA, houve maior variação dentro das populações do que entre elas. O dendograma mostrou a formação de dois agrupamentos (LMO-PRO-MOG e BAR-BAB-NAV. Concluiu-se que as populações naturais apresentaram alta variabilidade genética, com similaridade genética entre elas, possivelmente causada pelo programa de repovoamento realizado nesses rios.

  9. B chromosome dynamics in Prochilodus costatus (Teleostei, Characiformes) and comparisons with supernumerary chromosome system in other Prochilodus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Silvana; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Penitente, Manolo; Sobrinho-Scudeler, Patrícia Elda; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Within the genus Prochilodus Agassiz, 1829, five species are known to carry B chromosomes, i.e. chromosomes beyond the usual diploid number that have been traditionally considered as accessory for the genome. Chromosome microdissection and mapping of repetitive DNA sequences are effective tools to assess the DNA content and allow a better understanding about the origin and composition of these elements in an array of species. In this study, a novel characterization of B chromosomes in Prochilodus costatus Valenciennes, 1850 (2n=54) was reported for the first time and their sequence complementarity with the supernumerary chromosomes observed in Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) and Prochilodus argenteus Agassiz, 1829 was investigated. The hybridization patterns obtained with chromosome painting using the micro B probe of P. costatus and the satDNA SATH1 mapping made it possible to assume homology of sequences between the B chromosomes of these congeneric species. Our results suggest that the origin of B chromosomes in the genus Prochilodus is a phylogenetically old event. PMID:28919971

  10. Common descent of B chromosomes in two species of the fish genus Prochilodus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltolin, T A; Pansonato Alves, J C; Senhorini, J A; Foresti, F; Camacho, J P M; Porto-Foresti, F

    2013-01-01

    To ascertain the origin of B chromosomes in 2 fish species of the genus Prochilodus, i.e. P. lineatus and P. nigricans, we microdissected them and generated B-specific DNA probes. These probes were used to perform chromosome painting in both species and in 3 further ones belonging to the same genus (P. argenteus, P. brevis and P. costatus). Both probes hybridized with the B chromosomes in P. lineatus and P. nigricans, but with none of the chromosomes in the 5 species. This indicates that the B chromosomes have low similarity with DNAs located in the A chromosomes and suggests the possibility that the B chromosomes in the 2 species have a common origin. The most parsimonious explanation would imply intergeneric hybridization in an ancestor of P. lineatus and P. nigricans yielding the B chromosome as a byproduct, which remained in these 2 species after their phylogenetic origin, but was perhaps lost in other Prochilodus species. This hypothesis predicts that B chromosomes are old genomic elements in this genus, and this could be tested once a species from a relative genus would be found showing homology of its A chromosomes with the B-probes employed here, through a comparison of B chromosome DNA sequences with those in the A chromosomes of this other species.

  11. DNA fragmentation and membrane damage of bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Ostariophysi: Prochilodontidae sperm following cryopreservation with dimethylsulfoxide and glucose

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    José Gregorio Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The endangered bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae is a native freshwater fish of Colombia, the most captured species locally and one of the most important species for ex-situ conservation (germplasm banks. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three concentrations of Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO (5%, 10%, 15% and three of glucose (305, 333, 361 mM in the extender on spermatic DNA fragmentation (F-DNA (by Halomax®, Chromatin dispersion and membrane damage (D-Me (by eosin-nigrosin staining. After assessment of sperm quality by computer analysis of motility, one part of semen from males was diluted separately with three parts of extender and filled into 0.5 ml straws. Freezing was carried out in liquid nitrogen vapor dry shipper for 30 minutes and thawed at 60ºC for 8 seconds in a water bath and evaluated for the percentage of cells found with F-DNA and D-Me. The results demonstrated that cryopreservation causes greater F-DNA (13.62 ± 1.6% to 28.91 ± 3.25 and D-Me (24.27 ± 1.1% to 58.33 ± 2.81% when compared with pre-freezing semen (PFS (6.71 ± 1.54% and 2.34 ± 0.5%, respectively for F-DNA and D-Me. A significant interaction was found between DMSO and glucose concentration in this experiment. Use of extender: 10% DMSO + 305 mM glucose + 12% chicken egg yolk and, 10% DMSO + 333 mM glucose + 12% chicken egg yolk, allow for lower F-DNA and D-Me during cryopreservation of bocachico semen. A high correlation between F-DNA and D-Me was found (r = 0.771.O curimba Prochilodus magdalenae, é uma espécie nativa de água doce da Colômbia ameaçada de extinção, sendo a mais capturada localmente e uma das mais importantes para a conservação ex-situ (bancos de germoplasma. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de três concentrações de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO (5%, 10%, 15% e três de glicose (305, 333, 361 mM no diluente sobre a fragmentação do ADN espermático (F-DNA (através de Halomax®, dispersão da cromatina e danos em

  12. Assessment of sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus fisheries in the lower Paraná River basin (Argentina based on hydrological, biological, and fishery indicators

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    Claudio Baigún

    Full Text Available This study assesses the change in fish exploitation patterns of the sábalo fisheries of the lower Paraná River basin based on hydrological, biological, and fishery indicators. From historical catch records, we recorded a shift from a lightly and moderate exploited status before 2001 to a heavily exploited one, as a result of the development of sábalo exports from 2001 onwards. Channel and floodplain connectivity indices demonstrated that the Paraná exhibited highly favorable hydrological conditions between 1972 and 1999 but more adverse conditions from 1999 to 2009, as a consequence of flood pulses reduction coincident with a fishing mortality increment. A total catch of 15,000 tons, including local consumption, regional market, informal sales, and exportation volumes, was estimated as the maximum sustainable catch. That level was instead exceeded 3 fold in 2004, in parallel with a decrease in the mean fish length from 48 to 42 cm, along with a reduction in both the mesh size from 16 to 12 cm and megaspawner proportion, and an increase of fishing mortality. Although growth overfishing was not noted, an analysis of the spawning potential ratio trend indicated that recruitment overfishing took place during 2005, since the fishing mortality rate was 4 times greater than the natural mortality rate. These observations suggest that less favorable hydrological conditions after 1999 coupled with a coincident high fishing pressure could have impacted the sábalo population biomass. Management of sábalo fisheries requires to set aside a single economic vision of the resource use moving to an ecosystem-oriented approach that incorporate, among others components, the hydrological regime, species life history traits, fishing impacts on other species, and main stakeholders socioeconomic requirements as key elements for the preservation of fishery sustainability.

  13. B chromosomes in the species Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae: morphologicalidentity and dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Penitente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available B chromosomes have attracted the attention of Neotropical fish cytogeneticists in recent years, both for their remarkable occurrence in this group and also because of the interest in studies of the genetic structure and role played in the genome of these organisms. The aim of this study was to report the first occurrence of supernumerary chromosomes in Prochilodus argenteus (Agassiz, 1829, this being the fifth carrier species among thirteen within the genus Prochilodus (Agassiz, 1829. The extra elements identified in this species are small sized heterochromatic chromosomes characterized by a low mitotic instability index, being very similar to other supernumerary chromosomes described in the species of the genus Prochilodus. Morphology, structure and dispersion of the supernumerary genomic elements which occur in species of this genus are discussed aiming to better understand aspects involved the origin of supernumerary chromosomes and the differentiation process and relationships among species of this family.

  14. Estimativa da concentração espermática do sêmen de peixe pelo método de espermatócrito Sperm concentration estimate of fish semen using spermatocrit method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estimar a concentração espermática das espécies dourado (Salminus brasiliensis, curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, cascudo-preto (Rhinelepis aspera e tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus pelo método de espermatócrito. Utilizaram-se 19, 58, 51, 43 e 85 reprodutores de dourado, curimba, jundiá, cascudo-preto e tilápia-do-nilo, respectivamente. Com exceção da tilápia-do-nilo, os reprodutores foram submetidos ao processo de indução hormonal e posteriormente submetidos a coleta de sêmen. Foram comparadas as técnicas de mensuração da concentração espermática do sêmen por contagem em câmara hematimétrica de Neubauer e por espermatócrito. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão a 5% de probabilidade. As concentrações espermáticas mensuradas por ambas as técnicas apresentaram relação linear, para curimbas, jundiás e tilápias-do-nilo, com equações y = 6,6624 × 10(9 + 3,68553 × 10(8x; y = 2,153 × 10(9 + 4,426 × 10(8x e y = -9,0897 × 10(8 + 6,0167 × 10(8, respectivamente. O método de espermatócrito pode ser utilizado para estimar a concentração espermática do sêmen de curimbas, jundiás e tilápias-do-nilo.The objective of this experiment was estimate sperm concentration of "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis, "curimba" (Prochilodus lineatus, "jundiá" (Rhamdia quelen, "cascudo-preto" (Rhinelepis aspera and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus by the method of spermatocrit. It was used 19, 58, 51, 43 and 85 brood fish of "dourado", "curimba", "jundia", "cascudo-preto" and Nile tilapia, respectively. Except for the Nile tilapia, the fishes were subjected to the hormonal induction process and then submitted to the semen collection. The measurement techniques of the sperm concentration by sperm count in Neubauer chamber (CSPZ and by spermatocrit (ESPMT were compared. The results were submitted to the regression analysis at 5

  15. Morphological development of larvae and juveniles of Prochilodus argenteus

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    Irũ Menezes Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Prochilodus argenteus is an endemic fish species from the São Francisco River basin that is of high economic and environmental importance. The present study aimed to contribute with information to the taxonomic identification of larvae and juveniles of this species. Larvae , obtained from induced spawning of wild animals, were reared in ponds. Individuals were collected daily and classified into larval stages or juvenile phase. Morphological descriptions and morphometric measurements were performed, together with a piece wise linear regression analysis of the body proportions throughout the development process. Individuals in the preflexion stage had a standard length (SL of 4.48 to 6.64mm, long to moderate body (BH/SL, small to moderate head (HL/SL, and a small to moderate eye (ED/HL. In the flexion stage, the SL varied from 6.60 to 11.00mm, long to moderate body, moderate head, and small to moderate eye. Larvae in the postflexion stage presented SL of 10.54-19.93mm, moderate body, moderate to big head and small eye. The juvenile phase included specimens with a SL of 18.27 to 42.21mm which presented a moderate to high body, big head and small to moderate eye. Regression analysis showed significant moments of change in rate of increase of the body proportions, presenting a change in the growth pattern from allometry to isometry during the early development.

  16. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the subsocial spider Stegodyphus lineatus (Araneae: Eresidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Cariani, A.

    2009-01-01

    Stegodyphus lineatus spiders live in groups consisting of closely related individuals. There appears to be no discrimination against related individuals as mates but females mate multiply, despite the fact that matings are shown to carry a cost. We have developed eight polymorphic dinucleotide...

  17. Predation of Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) by Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot, 1818) (Passeriformes: Corvidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Farina, Oscar; Carvalho, Cristiano; Pedro, Wagner Andre [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    The predation on vertebrates by birds, including bats, is very common in some families (Accipitridae, Falconidae, Tytonidae, Strigidae), constituting their main diet. For other families (except those that feed strictly on fish), it is occasional and sometimes a matter of opportunity. Here we recorded the predation on a bat (Platyrrhinus lineatus) by the neotropical bird plush-crested jay (Cyanocorax chrysops). on July 26, 2009, around 11:00 am, we recorded an individual of C. chrysops taking ...

  18. On the occurrence of the Italian Aesculapian snake, Zamenis lineatus (Camerano, 1891, in Latium (Central Italy

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    Luigi Corsetti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note we report the first detailed notice of the presence of the Italian Aesculapian snake, Zamenis lineatus, in Latium region. The localities of Morolo (province of Frosinone and Latina Scalo (province of Latina represent respectively the new northern and the new western limits of the species. The first one is 68 km further north compared to the old one (Pannarano, Campania region, whereas the western one is 130 km far from the previous one (Roccarainola, Campania region.

  19. Greenhouse studies of thiamethoxam effects on pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Héctor; Herle, Carolyn; Hervet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has recently emerged as an important pest of field peas in the Canadian prairies. Systemic seed-coated insecticides may provide a tool for the integrated pest management of this pest. Therefore, several controlled assays were performed in order to determine effects of a recently registered neonicotinoid, (thiamethoxam) on S. lineatus damage to foliage, weevil mortality, fertility, egg viability, larval mortality, and root nodule damage. Foliage damage was reduced by thiamethoxam relative to untreated controls during the seedling stage (2(nd)-5(th) nodes), but weevil adult mortality was only 15-30%. Fertility was reduced substantially through an extra seven-day delay in the preoviposition period and reduced egg-laying rate during the first 20 days of the study (92% lower than controls). Overall egg viability was lower in females fed foliage grown from thiamethoxamtreated seeds. Larval survivorship and nodule damage were also lower, but only when eggs were added to treated plants at the 2(nd) node stage. When eggs were added late, at the 5th node stage, thiamethoxam had no effect on larval survivorship or nodule damage. The results of this study led to the conclusion that seed treatments such as thiamethoxam have potential to be used as tools that will aid in the integrated pest management of S. lineatus, especially in combination with other methods such as biocontrol and trap crops.

  20. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2013-10-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts.

  1. The Influence of Abiotic Factors on an Invasive Pest of Pulse Crops, Sitona lineatus (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Olfert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus (L., native to Europe and North Africa, has been introduced into many other countries around the world, including the USA and Canada. Adults are oligophagous pests on leguminaceous plants. Sitona lineatus was first recorded in Canada in 1997, near Lethbridge, Alberta. Since then, it has spread north in Alberta and west into Saskatchewan in 2007. Bioclimatic simulation models were used to predict the distribution and extent of establishment of S. lineatus in Canada based on its current geographic range, phenology, relative abundance, and empirical data. The study identified areas in Canada that are at risk for future establishment of S. lineatus and developed a better understanding of climate effects. Climate change projections (General Circulation Models were then imposed on the bioclimatic model of S. lineatus. Bioclimatic model output varied for each of the three General Circulation Models. In terms of suitability for pest establishment (Ecoclimatic Index, the NCAR273 CCSM climate data resulted in the most significant shift northward.

  2. First record of Cephalobaena tetrapoda (Pentastomida: Cephalobaenidae) as a parasite on Liophis lineatus (Ophidia: Colubridae) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Brito, S V; Ferreira, F S; Christoffersen, M L

    2006-05-01

    Cephalobaenidae constitutes one of the main pentastomid groups infecting the respiratory tract of snakes. Six specimens of Liophis lineatus, a colubrid, were collected by active capture and pitfalls installed on the banks of the Batateiras river, close to its source, in the APA - Area de Proteção Ambiental (a protected environmental area of the IBAMA - Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources), and in a remnant of the humid tropical forest FLONA - Floresta Nacional do Araripe, both in the municipality of Crato, state of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Out of the six specimens of L. lineatus examined, only one had its lung infected by the pentastomid Cephalobaena tetrapoda. This represents the first record of C. tetrapoda as a parasite of a snake in Northeast Brazil, as well as the first record of a colubrid, L. lineatus, as a new host for the pentastomid in Brazil.

  3. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese Snakes and Their Adults Recovered from Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts. PMID:24327778

  4. Retinol metabolism in the mollusk Osilinus lineatus indicates an ancient origin for retinyl ester storage capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gesto

    Full Text Available Although retinoids have been reported to be present and active in vertebrates and invertebrates, the presence of mechanisms for retinoid storage in the form of retinyl esters, a key feature to maintain whole-organism retinoid homeostasis, have been considered to date a vertebrate innovation. Here we demonstrate for the first time the presence of retinol and retinyl esters in an invertebrate lophotrochozoan species, the gastropod mollusk Osilinus lineatus. Furthermore, through a pharmacological approach consisting of intramuscular injections of different retinoid precursors, we also demonstrate that the retinol esterification pathway is active in vivo in this species. Interestingly, retinol and retinyl esters were only detected in males, suggesting a gender-specific role for these compounds in the testis. Females, although lacking detectable levels of retinol or retinyl esters, also have the biochemical capacity to esterify retinol, but at a lower rate than males. The occurrence of retinyl ester storage capacity, together with the presence in males and females of active retinoids, i.e., retinoic acid isomers, indicates that O. lineatus has a well developed retinoid system. Hence, the present data strongly suggest that the capacity to maintain retinoid homeostasis has arisen earlier in Bilateria evolution than previously thought.

  5. Observaciones ecológicas sobre los peces Bocachico real (Prochilodus mariae eigenmann 1922 y el Bocachico cardumero (Suprasinelepichthys laticeps valenciennes 1849 del sistema del rio metica y algunos datos comparativos del Bocachico (Prochilodus r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez A. Fabio

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, comparative ecological data of three species of freshwater fish is presented. Two of them belong to the Metica river system, the Bocachico Real (Prochilodus mariae Eigenmann 1922 and the Bocachico Cardumero (Suprasinelepichthys laticeps Valenciennes 1849. The Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae Steindachner 1818,
    Bocachico to the Magdalena river system. lt was observed that the spawning period coincides with periud of
    greatest rainfall. A decrease of the water superficial temperature is produced when the Metica's river meanders rains increase, such as it is sustained by Geisler, et al. (1973, for the genus Prochllodus in the Amazon river system.
    Differential distribution is given for species of Prochilodus as observed by Dahl, et al. (1963;, for Prochilodus r. magdalenae, and by Goulding, (1979for Prochilodus nigricans in Brazil. Induced reproduction of Prochilodus mariae was obtained, and its reproductive behaviour very similar ro the Prochllodus r. magdalenae (Solano, 1973. The ratios of lenght and weight of the two Metica river species are
    compared, and there is a significant correlation in the ratio of the gonad's weight to the lenght, weight of the gonad and rnaturlty index of Supraslnelepichthys latlceps. The greatest fertility average corresponds to Prochilodus r. magdalenae
    with 355.535 ovum, followed by Prochilodus mariae with 215.111 and Suprasinelepichlhys laticeps with 158.667.
    The condition factor was determined for males and females, as well as the gonad index, maturity index and ovum diameter for the female.
    Datos ecológicos comparativos de tres especies de peces de agua dulce se presentan en la investigación, el bocachico real (Prochilodus marlae Eigenmann 1922, el bocachico cardumero (Suprasinelepichthys laticeps Valenciennes 1849 que pertenecen al sistema del alto río Metica y el bocachico (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalanea Steindachner 1878 del río Cauca, afluente

  6. Reproductive Ecology of Prochilodus brevis an Endemic Fish from the Semiarid Region of Brazil

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    Liliane de Lima Gurgel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercially important migratory fish Prochilodus brevis is from the Neotropical region, and understanding the reproductive ecology of this potamodromous fish is essential for its conservation and management. This study investigated the length-mass relationship, sex ratio, length at first gonadal maturity, gonadal development stages, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, and reproductive period of P. brevis. Temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and electrical conductivity of the water were related to the reproductive period of this fish. Rainfall seems to be the main environmental factor which modulates changes in limnological parameters and the timing of the spawning period of this fish. P. brevis migrates into lower reaches of the river to feed during the dry season and returns to the upper reaches during the rainy season to spawn. Inadequate facilities for migration create obstacles for spawning success of this ecologically important fish.

  7. A first record of the Lined Wrasse Anampses lineatus Randall, 1972 (Perciformes: Labridae in the Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lined wrasse Anampses lineatus Randall was recorded off the coast of Tuticorin (Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India for the first time. It is easily distinguished by the presence of pale longitudinal lines on the body following scale rows. Broad pale white and black color patch at the base of caudal fin is distinct. Morphological description of A. lineatus is provided based on the present material along with detailed distribution records; habitat and closely related species were also discussed.

  8. Migration of the curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces, Prochilodontidae at the waterfall "Cachoeira de Emas" of the Mogi-Guaçu river - São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Capeleti

    Full Text Available In this paper, we counted the ascending curimbatás at the fish ladder at the Cachoeira de Emas from October, 1992 to September, 1993 in one whole day (24 h period per month at different observation points in the dam for 5 min every hour. Most of the fish (80% were counted not in the fish ladder itself, but in two adjacent spillways at its left, perhaps due to the comparatively increased flow as they are narrower than the ladder. The bulk of the migration occurred in September/October. We inspected the degree of injury of the fish in order to examine the hypothesis that larger fish are less injured, however no conclusion was reached. The degree of injury varied between different points and in different months of the year.

  9. DESCRIPCIÓN MACROSCÓPICA DEL DESARROLLO LARVAL DEL COPORO (PROCHILODUS MARIAE

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    N. López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue realizado en la estación piscícola La Terraza, unidad perteneciente al Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural (INCODER y adscrita a la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, localizada en la ciudad de Villavicencio (Meta. Fueron utilizadas larvas de coporo (Prochilodus mariae, obtenidas por reproducción inducida, que fueron colectadas desde la eclosión y cada 6 horas hasta la reabsorción del saco vitelino. Con la ayuda de una balanza de precisión y un estereoscopio con ocular micrométrico se registraron el peso, la longitud total y la longitud y altura del saco vitelino. Los resultados mostraron que las larvas midieron 3,11±0,42 mm y pesaron 0,43±0,15 mg en el momento de la eclosión y 5,94±0,23 mm y 0,95±0,13 mg al final del estudio. El volumen del saco vitelino fue de 0,655 mm3 en la eclosión y de 0,0074 mm3 a las 74 horas posteclosión (HPE. Las larvas completaron su desarrolloa las 84 HPE, presentaron abertura completa de la boca, llenado de la vejiga gaseosa y natación horizontal.

  10. DESCRIPCIÓN MACROSCÓPICA DEL DESARROLLO LARVAL DEL COPORO (Prochilodus mariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landines M.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue realizado en la estación piscícola La Terraza, unidad perteneciente al Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural (INCODER y adscrita a la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, localizada en la ciudad de Villavicencio (Meta. Fueron utilizadas larvas de coporo (Prochilodus mariae, obteni¬das por reproducción inducida, que fueron colectadas desde la eclosión y cada 6 horas hasta la reabsorción del saco vitelino. Con la ayuda de una balanza de precisión y un estereoscopio con ocular micrométrico se registraron el peso, la longitud total y la longitud y altura del saco vitelino. Los resultados mostraron que las larvas midieron 3,11±0,42 mm y pesaron 0,43±0,15 mg en el momento de la eclosión y 5,94±0,23 mm y 0,95±0,13 mg al final del es¬tudio. El volumen del saco vitelino fue de 0,655 mm3 en la eclosión y de 0,0074 mm3 a las 74 horas posteclosión (HPE. Las larvas completaron su desarrollo a las 84 HPE, presentaron abertura completa de la boca, llenado de la vejiga gaseosa y natación horizontal.

  11. Parasite infections in nestling red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) in northeast Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janet C; Dubay, Shelli A; Huspeni, Todd C; VanLanen, Andrew R; Gerhold, Richard W

    2010-06-01

    Red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) are threatened in Wisconsin and long-term data suggest that nest productivity is low in the state for unknown reasons. Our objective was to determine whether red-shouldered hawks in northeast Wisconsin were infected with parasites that could contribute to low nest productivity. We examined nestlings for the presence of Trichomonas gallinae, Protocalliphora avium, and blood parasites in June 2006 and 2007. We did not detect T. gallinae in throat swabs taken from 24 nestlings in 2007. Ear canals of nestlings were parasitized by P. avium larvae in 10 of 11 (91%) nests and in 22 of 24 (92%) nestlings. Larvae were found in higher intensity in 1 ear relative to the other. Leucocytozoon toddi was present in 90.5% (38/42) of the nestlings. At least 1 bird in each nest was infected. Intensity of L. toddi averaged 48.6 +/- 58.3 infected cells per 2,000 erythrocytes (2.4 +/- 2.9%). No other blood parasites were identified.

  12. Effect of freezing and thawing rates on sperm motility in Bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Pisces, Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Martínez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the freezing and thawing rates necessary to maintain sperm viability during cryopreservation of Bocachico semen. Materials and methods. Four interactional treatments were implemented between two freezing (rapid and slow and two thawing (rapid and slow curves, in a 2x2 factorial as follows: rapid freezing-rapid thawing, rapid freezing-slow thawing, slow freezing-rapid thawing, and slow freezing-slow thawing. After thawing by Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA curvilinear velocity (VCL and straight-line (VSL (μm sec-1 were analyzed; total, rapid, medium, and slow motility, were compared among treatments. Results. The rapid freezing-slow thawing treatment was lethal for all variables of velocity and motility, causing a significant (p<0.01 post-thaw inmotility of 100%. The slow freezing-rapid thawing interaction had a significantly higher effect than the other treatments (p<0.05, particularly on variables such as rapid motility (10.1 ± 1.1%, medium motility (30.16 ± 4.1%, and curvilinear velocity (51.5 ± 4.75 μm sec.-1 also decreased the percentage of sperm with slow motility (41.7 ± 4.45%. Independently of the applied thawing rate, the freezing rate generated the main significant effect on total motility. Conclusions. It is possible to conclude that the interaction effect between freezing and thawing rates is nil (except for slow motility during cryopreservation process. However, the independent effects of these factors (main effects on remaining motility variables are positively significant and decisive to the maintenance of these features, especially the freeze factor (when it is slow. This becomes the first successful report of sperm cryopreservation from Bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae in the world and may be used in conservation programs for this endangered species.

  13. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species ( A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature ( r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species ( A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions.

  14. Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) abundance and habitat in a reclaimed mine landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, M.J.; Wood, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    Fragmentation of the landscape by large-scale mining may affect Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) populations by reducing the amount of forested habitat available in a landscape and by creating fragmented forest parches surrounded by reclaimed mine lands. We examined habitat characteristics and relative abundance of Red-shouldered Hawks in reclaimed mine landscapes within four treatments: early-successional grassland habitat, mid-successional shrub/pole habitat, late-successional fragmented forest habitat, and late-successional intact forest habitat. We quantified microhabitat characteristics within an 11.3-m-radius plot centered on 156 vegetation plots throughout the four treatments. We surveyed 48 stations on and adjacent to three mines for Red-shouldered Hawks using standardized broadcast call techniques during February 2000-January 2001 and measured landscape characteristics within 1000-m buffer zones centered on each station from digitized aerial photographs. Mean abundance of Red-shouldered Hawks was significantly higher in the intact forest (x?? = 0.07 detections/ point, SE = 0.03) than the grassland (x?? = 0.01, SE = 0.01) treatment, but did not differ from the fragmented forest (x?? = 0.03, SE = 0.01) or shrub/pole (x?? = 0.03, SE = 0.01) treatments. Most microhabitat characteristics in both fragmented and intact forest differed from shrub/pole and grasslands. Amount of wetland was the most important characteristic determining presence of Red-shouldered Hawks in a forest-dominated landscape. More wetlands in the landscape may provide abundant amphibians and reptiles, which are important in the diet of Red-shouldered Hawks. ?? 2003 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. Manejo de la primera alimentación del bocachico ( Prochilodus magdalenae.

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    Víctor Atencio-García

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigación Piscícola de la Universidad de Córdoba se realizaron dos experimentos; en elprimero, el objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes presas en el manejo de la primera alimentación delbocachico Prochilodus magdalenae y en el segundo, con la mejor presa del ensayo anterior, determinar eltiempo mínimo de manejo de la primera alimentación. En ambos casos las post-larvas fueron sembradas a 50/L en acuario de 5 L. En el primer experimento se evaluaron las siguientes presas: nauplios de Artemia (NA,cistos descapsulados de Artemia (CA, zooplancton silvestre tamizado entre 125-160 µm (Z125-160 y zooplanctonsilvestre tamizado entre 250-400 µm (Z250-400, ofrecidas durante cinco días a razón de 5 Presa/mL. Además,un grupo de post-larvas fue sometida a ayuno. Las mayores ganancias de peso y longitud total la registraron laspost-larvas alimentadas con NA (2.0±1.8 mg, 1.8±0.9 mm y Z250-400 (2.0±1.1 mg, 1.6±0.5 mm. Lasobrevivencia de las post-larvas alimentadas con NA (73.2±10.7% fue mayor a las registradas en los demástratamientos (P0.05. Mientras que latasa de crecimiento específico (G osciló entre 17.1 (5 días y 22.3 %/día (3 días, sin observarse diferenciasestadísticas significativas (P>0.05. Las post-larvas alimentadas durante 3, 5 y 7 días presentaron las mejoressobrevivencias (92.2±6.2, 93.3±4.3, 95.6±3.9% respectivamente cuando fueron sometidas a la prueba deresistencia al estrés. Las post-larvas alimentadas por un solo día mostraron la menor sobrevivencia al sersometidas a esta prueba (87±1%. Los resultados del estudio sugieren que nauplios de Artemia o zooplanctonsilvestre en le rango de 250-400 mm, libre de predadores, son presas adecuada para el manejo de la primeraalimentación al menos durante 3 días antes de ser sembradas en estanques en tierra.

  16. EXPOSICIÓN AGUDA A TRES CONCENTRACIONES DE NITRITO EN JUVENILES DE BOCACHICO (PROCHILODUS MAGDALENAE

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    JF González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Juveniles de bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae (n=32 fueron distribuidos en 4 tratamientos experimentales con el fin de evaluar el efecto de la exposición a nitrito, durante 96 horas, en diferentes concentraciones: tratamiento 1 (control=0 ppm N-NO2 , tratamiento 2=4,2 ppm N-NO2 , tratamiento 3=13,3 ppm N-NO2 y tratamiento 4=22,3 ppm N-NO2 . Ocho animales por tratamiento (0,4 a 6,6 g de peso fueron ubicados en acuarios de 10 galones con un sistema estático sin recambio de agua durante el periodo experimental, ~85% de saturación de oxígeno y a una temperatura promedio de 25°C. Todos los ejemplares expuestos a la más alta concentración de N-NO2 murieron durante las primeras 18 horas de la exposición. Sólo uno de los peces expuestos a 13,3 ppm de N-NO2 sobrevivió a las 96 h de exposición. La muerte de los 7 restantes se presentó en el periodo comprendido entre las 5 y las 18 h. Los peces de estos dos tratamientos mostraron hiperexcitabilidad y nado frenético previo a la muerte. En la necropsia se evidenció una marcada coloración oscura de la sangre y órganos internos. En los peces expuestos a 4,2 ppm se presentó la muerte de 2 ejemplares en las primeras cinco horas de exposición y supervivencia de los 6 restantes hasta la finalización del experimento. En estos últimos se observó una reducción en el consumo de alimento. Este reporte sobre la susceptibilidad de esta importante especie de la ictiofauna nativa frente a la acción del nitrito se constituye en una primera aproximación a la respuesta que puede darse cuando en condiciones de cultivo o en cuerpos de agua naturales se presente una modificación significativa de la concentración de NO2 .

  17. EXPOSICIÓN AGUDA A TRES CONCENTRACIONES DE NITRITO EN JUVENILES DE BOCACHICO (Prochilodus magdalenae

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    Torres G.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Juveniles de bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae (n=32 fueron distribuidos en 4 tratamientos experimentales con el fin de evaluar el efecto de la exposición a nitrito, durante 96 horas, en diferentes concentraciones: tratamiento 1 (control=0 ppm N-NO2, tratamiento 2=4,2 ppm N-NO2, tratamiento 3=13,3 ppm N-NO2 y tratamiento 4=22,3 ppm N-NO2. Ocho animales por tratamiento (0,4 a 6,6 g de peso fueron ubicados en acuarios de 10 galones con un sistema estático sin recambio de agua durante el periodo experimental, ~85% de saturación de oxígeno y a una temperatura promedio de 25°C. Todos los ejemplares expuestos a la más alta concentración de N-NO2 murieron durante las primeras 18 horas de la exposición. Sólo uno de los peces expuestos a 13,3 ppm de N-NO2 sobrevivió a las 96 h de exposición. La muerte de los 7 restantes se presentó en el periodo comprendido entre las 5 y las 18 h. Los peces de estos dos tratamientos mostraron hiperexcitabilidad y nado frenético previo a la muerte. En la necropsia se evidenció una marcada coloración oscura de la sangre y órganos internos. En los peces expuestos a 4,2 ppm se presentó la muerte de 2 ejemplares en las primeras cinco horas de exposición y supervivencia de los 6 restantes hasta la finalización del experimento. En estos últimos se observó una reducción en el consumo de alimento. Este reporte sobre la susceptibilidad de esta importante especie de la ictiofauna nativa frente a la acción del nitrito se constituye en una primera aproximación a la respuesta que puede darse cuando en condiciones de cultivo o en cuerpos de agua naturales se presente una modificación significativa de la concentración de NO2.

  18. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  19. Extraction of genomic DNA from solid tissues of teleostei fish/ Extração de DNA genômico em tecidos sólidos de peixes teleósteos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gasparino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to extract the genomic DNA of solid tissue from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, piau (Leporinus sp. and curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, using the methods Proteinase K (PK and Cetyltrimethylammiun Bromide (CTAB. The DNA extractedfrom samples of liver, kidney, tail fin, heart, muscle and gills were quantified in spectrophotometer to determine the concentration and purity through the ratio A260nm/A280nm. The data were statistically analyzed and there were no significant effect of interaction between species and tissues about the purityand concentration of the DNA obtained with CTAB, but for the PK there were interaction about the concentration. Using the CTAB method was verified that the mean quantity of DNA in the curimbakidney was significantly (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi extrair o DNA genômico de tecidos sólidos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, piau (Leporinus sp. e curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, utilizando os métodos Proteinase K (PK e Brometo de Cetiltrimetilamônio (CTAB. O DNA extraído das amostras de fígado, rim, nadadeira caudal, coração, músculo e brânquias foi quantificado em espectrofotômetro para determinação da concentração e da pureza por meio da razão A260nm/A280nm. Os dados foram estatisticamente analisados e não se observou efeito significativo para a interação entre espécies e tecidos em relação à pureza e concentração do DNA obtido a partir do CTAB, porém para PK houve interação em relação à concentração. Utilizando o método CTAB verificou-se que a concentração média de DNA no rim de curimba foi significativamente (p < 0,05 inferior (106,98 ?g/mL à observada em pacu (1727,90 ?g/mL, porém não diferiram das encontradas em piau (497,20 ?g/mL e tilápia (234,50 ?g/ mL. Para o método PK, a concentração média de DNA utilizando o músculo de tilápia do Nilo apresentou o menor valor

  20. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  1. Food passage time through the alimentary tract of a brazilian teleost fish, Prochilodus scrofa (Steindachner, 1881 using radiography

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    Renato Lamounier Barbieri

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O tempo de passagem de alimentos através do trato digestivo do peixe detritívoro de água doce Prochilodus scrofa foi determinado com o uso de técnicas radiográficas e de sulfato de bário como meio de contraste. Os peixes foram mantidos em tanques com temperatura constante de 23ºC e receberam via oral, através de um cateter, uma mistura de 2,5 partes de ração peletizada moída e 1 parte de suspensão oral do meio de contraste (Celobar. As radiografias foram obtidas em intervalos de 3 horas. Imediatamente após a introdução da mistura, visualizou-se o preenchimento gástrico pelo contraste. Foi observado um esfíncter existente entre os estômagos cárdico e pilórico. Após 3 horas, 80 por cento do intestino proximal estava repleto. Após 6 horas, o contraste atingiu as porções proximal, média e distal do intestino. Após 9 horas, 70 por cento do intestino distal estava repleto, e após 12 horas, havia a marcação do segmento do reto (25 por cento da porção distal do intestino.

  2. Acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of diesel in Prochilodus vimboidesKner (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

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    Celina Alcoforado Santos

    Full Text Available Diesel oil can be a source of contamination in aquatic environments, mainly as a result of spills. The effects of the water-soluble fraction of diesel (WSF on Prochilodus vimboideswere assessed. Fish were exposed to three different WSF dilutions for up to 96 h and were compared to a control group. Damages in the fragments of DNA were analyzed using the Comet assay. The presence of erytrocyts abnormalities was assessed by micronucleus test. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity and the accumulation of copper in gills were also analyzed. Fish exposed for 96 h had higher rates of damage than those exposed for 24 h. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of micronuclei between exposed and control fish and between 24-h and 96-h exposures. For AST, no significant difference was observed between samples collected at the two exposure times. Fish exposed to a 1:100 dilution of WSF showed higher activity of the enzyme ALT than the control fish after a 24-h exposure period. There was no bioaccumulation of copper in the gills. We conclude that the genotoxic effects of WSF in the cells are more evident in P. vimboides during an acute exposure.

  3. First spermatological study in the Atractotrematidae (Digenea, Haploporoidea: the case of Atractotrema sigani, intestinal parasite of Siganus lineatus

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    Bakhoum Abdoulaye J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural organization of the mature spermatozoon of the digenean Atractotrema sigani (from Siganus lineatus off New Caledonia was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The male gamete of A. sigani exhibits the general morphology described in digeneans with the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. However, the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani has some specific characters such as the morphology of its anterior region and the submembranous electron-dense material. Although similar structures have been reported in some digenean species, the presence of a submembranous electron-dense material describing a complete ring is reported here for the first time in the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani. In addition, sperm characteristics are compared between the Haploporoidea and their supposed close superfamilies, and possible phylogenetic implications of these findings for the Digenea are discussed.

  4. DNA fragmentation and membrane damage of bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Ostariophysi: Prochilodontidae sperm following cryopreservation with dimethylsulfoxide and glucose

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    José Gregorio Martínez

    Full Text Available The endangered bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae is a native freshwater fish of Colombia, the most captured species locally and one of the most important species for ex-situ conservation (germplasm banks. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three concentrations of Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO (5%, 10%, 15% and three of glucose (305, 333, 361 mM in the extender on spermatic DNA fragmentation (F-DNA (by Halomax®, Chromatin dispersion and membrane damage (D-Me (by eosin-nigrosin staining. After assessment of sperm quality by computer analysis of motility, one part of semen from males was diluted separately with three parts of extender and filled into 0.5 ml straws. Freezing was carried out in liquid nitrogen vapor dry shipper for 30 minutes and thawed at 60ºC for 8 seconds in a water bath and evaluated for the percentage of cells found with F-DNA and D-Me. The results demonstrated that cryopreservation causes greater F-DNA (13.62 ± 1.6% to 28.91 ± 3.25 and D-Me (24.27 ± 1.1% to 58.33 ± 2.81% when compared with pre-freezing semen (PFS (6.71 ± 1.54% and 2.34 ± 0.5%, respectively for F-DNA and D-Me. A significant interaction was found between DMSO and glucose concentration in this experiment. Use of extender: 10% DMSO + 305 mM glucose + 12% chicken egg yolk and, 10% DMSO + 333 mM glucose + 12% chicken egg yolk, allow for lower F-DNA and D-Me during cryopreservation of bocachico semen. A high correlation between F-DNA and D-Me was found (r = 0.771.

  5. Evaluación de dimetilacetamida como crioprotector para la crioconservación de semen de bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae

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    VJ Atencio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó dimetilacetamida (DMA como crioprotector, a tres concentraciones: 8% (0,85 M, 10% (1,07 M y 12% (1,29 M combinado con glucosa 6% (0.33 M y yema de huevo 12% para crioconservar semen de bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae. El semen fue diluido en proporción 1:4 en la solución crioprotectora, empacado en pajuelas de 2,5 mL y congelado en vapores de nitrógeno líquido (N2L durante 30 minutos y luego almacenados en un termo de N2L de 34 L. La concentración, movilidad total, progresividad y velocidad tanto en semen fresco (control como en semen crioconservado-descongelado se evaluó con ayuda de Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA. Las pajuelas fueron descongeladas en baño serológico a 60°C durante 45 segundos. La fertilidad y eclosión fueron evaluadas inseminando dos gramos de huevos (1540 huevos/g a razón de 320.000 spz/ovocito. El semen fresco registró mayores valores de movilidad total, progresividad total, velocidad curvilínea y velocidad lineal con respecto al semen crioconservado-descongelado (P 0,05. DMA 12% reportó los menores valores de todas las variables que evaluaron la calidad seminal. Con semen fresco se obtuvo fertilidad de 74,0 ± 5,3% y eclosión de 62,3 ± 3,1%; mientras que con semen crioconservado-descongelado con DMA 8% se obtuvo adecuada fertilidad (60,4 ± 8,4% y eclosión (50,1 ± 9,8%. Los resultados del estudio sugieren que la solución crioprotectora compuesta por DMA 8%, glucosa 6% y yema de huevo 12% es una alternativa viable para la crioconservación de semen de bocachico.

  6. Proteína bruta e energia digestível em dietas para alevinos de curimbatá (Prochilodus affins Crude protein and digestible energy in the diets for curimbatá fingerlings (Prochilodus affins

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    Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se determinar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB em função do nível de energia digestível (ED da dieta para alevinos de curimbatá (Prochilodus affins, foram utilizados 256 peixes com peso inicial de 2,72 ± 0,11 g, mantidos em 32 aquários de 100 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais. O experimento foi realizado seguindo-se esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro níveis de PB: 18,0; 22,0; 26,0; e 30,0%, combinados com dois níveis de ED: 2.700 e 3.000 kcal/kg, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições e oito peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram alimentados ad libitum em duas refeições diárias durante 78 dias. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo aparente de racão, a conversão alimentar aparente, a taxa de crescimento específico, a taxa de eficiência protéica, a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio, a umidade, a proteína e a gordura corporais e as porcentagens de nitrogênio e de gordura no ganho de peso. Verificou-se que não houve interação dos níveis de PB ´ ED, à exceção da porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. Com o nível de 3.000 kcal de ED/kg, obtiveram-se peixes com maiores níveis de matéria seca, gordura corporal e porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. Concluiu-se que a exigência de PB e ED para alevinos de curimbatá é de 26,05% e 2.700 kcal/kg, respectivamente, que corresponde a uma relação ED:PB de 10,36 kcal de ED/g de PB, por proporcionar as melhores respostas em ganho de peso e composição de carcaça.Two hundred and fifty six curimbatá (Prochilodus affins fingerlings averaging initial weight of 2.72 ± 0.11 g, stocked in 32 aquariums (100 L with water renewal, controlled temperature and individual aeration, were used to determine the dietary crude protein (CP requirements, according to the digestible energy level (DE. The experiment was carried out in to a 4 x 2 factorial scheme (four CP levels: 18

  7. Construção do mapa genético preliminar do peixe Prochilodus argenteus, utilizando marcadores microssatélites

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Cutilak Bianchi

    2009-01-01

    Um mapa genético preliminar foi construído para a espécie Prochilodus argenteus, um peixe endêmico da bacia hidrográfica do rio São Francisco, através de 23 marcadores moleculares microssatélites em uma progênie com 95 indivíduos provenientes de um único cruzamento através da estratégia pseudo-testcross. Os genitores masculino e feminino foram coletados em diferentes regiões, à jusante da barragem de Três Marias (MG). Apenas 11 (52.4%) marcadores foram alocados em algum grupo de ligação e os ...

  8. Evaluation of genetic diversity and population structure in a commercially important freshwater fish Prochilodus costatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae) using complex hypervariable repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroca, T M; Santos, G B; Duarte, N V R; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-12-17

    We used complex hypervariable repeats to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure of Prochilodus costatus (Characiformes), an ecologically and economically important species endemic to the São Francisco River basin. Hydroelectric dams along the river have led to population fragmentation, which can limit gene flow. Restocking from hatcheries has been used to repopulate declining populations. To determine how fragmentation and hatchery supplementation affect P. costatus population structure, we studied populations from three sites up and downstream of the Gafanhoto Dam (Pará River, State of Minas Gerais). High levels of genetic diversity were found within populations (0.926 to 0.873); the three populations showed significant differentiation (F(ST) = 0.16), suggesting that populations from the three sites were affected by fragmentation of the river and by hatchery contributions. These results will be useful for developing a management and conservation plan for fish species in this area.

  9. PRODUÇÃO DE LARVAS DE CURIMBATÁ (Prochilodus scrofa SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES DENSIDADES DE ESTOCAGEM E NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNA BRUTA NAS DIETAS PRODUCTION IN CURIMBATÁ (Prochilodus scrofa LARVAE, EXPOSED TO DIFFERENT STOCKING DENSITY AND DIFFERENT CRUDE PROTEIN LEVELS ON THE DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Dias Koberstein

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Prochilodus é amplamente distribuído pela América do Sul, incluindo várias espécies que apresenta certo grau de endemismo nas diferentes bacias. Essas espécies alimentam-se basicamente de detritos orgânicos, organismos do benton, e alimentações artificiais. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar três densidades de estocagem (0,5, 0,75, e 1 larva/litro e dietas contendo dois níveis diferentes de proteína bruta (35 e 40% PB nos parâmetros do crescimento e na taxa da sobrevivência do curimbatá, Prochilodus scrofa. As larvas foram estocadas em aquários experimentais de 100 litros, mantidos com volume de 60 litros, com o fluxo de água contínuo, proveniente de poço semi-artesiano. A maior média foi proporcionada pela ração com 40% de PB (1,66g ± 0,21. As diferenças foram significativas para os efeitos dos teores de PB sobre o ganho de peso e densidades de estocagem, na sobrevivência das larvas. Para o ganho de peso, as melhores médias foram obtidas com nível de 40% de PB (2,50g ± 0,40 e para a sobrevivência, as melhores taxas foram 94,45% ± 19,32 e 78,87% ± 19,32 nas densidades de 0,5 e 0,75 larvas/litro, respectivamente.Fish of the genus Prochilodus is widely spread in South America, showing endemic characteristics in some basins. It feeds basically on organic detritus, benton organisms, and artificial feeds. The purpose of this study was to test three stocking densities (0.5, 0.75, and 1 fry/L and diets with two different crude protein levels (35 and 40% CP on the growth parameters and survival rate of curimbatá, Prochilodus scrofa. Larvae were stocked in 100L aquaria containing 60L, supplied with continuous water flow coming from an artesian well. There was a significant effect (P<0.05 of the 40% CP diet on growth (body weight = 1.66g ± 0.21 of fish stocked at 0.5 fry/L, at the 30th experimental day. At the 68th day, fish fed the 40% CP diet achieved the highest (P < 0.05 final body weight (2.50g ± 0.40, and

  10. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cassandra M. Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  11. Morphology, ultrastructure and phylogeny of Myxobolus curimatae n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) a parasite of Prochilodus costatus (Teleostei: Prochilodontidae) from the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatti, Suellen A; Naldoni, Juliana; Silva, Márcia R M; Maia, Antônio A M; Adriano, Edson A

    2015-10-01

    Myxobolus curimatae n. sp. has been found infecting the gill filaments of Prochilodus costatus (Prochilodontidae) from the São Francisco River in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of the species was 18.7%. Mature spores were rounded from a frontal view, with elongated polar capsules of equal size, and had polar filaments with 9-10 turns. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that sporogenesis patterns followed those of other Myxobolus species. The plasmodium walls had numerous invaginations and protrusions, and few pinocytic channels. Numerous mitochondria, generative cells and young pansporoblasts were observed in the peripherical areas of the plasmodia, and mature spores were found in deeper layers. A layer of collagenic fibrils surrounded the plasmodia. The morphological data and molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA identified this parasite as a new species. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showed M. curimatae n. sp., as a sister species of Thelohanellus marginatus, in a basal branch of the subclade composed by parasites with tropism to different organs and host families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The roles of marginal lagoons in the maintenance of genetic diversity in the Brazilian migratory fishes Prochilodus argenteus and P. costatus

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    Bruno F. Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The rio São Francisco basin contains many endemic species, such as Prochilodus argenteus and P. costatus, which have great commercial importance. However, information about the main recruitment sites and genetic studies containing extensive sampling of these species are scarce. To investigate the roles of the marginal lagoons in the maintenance of genetic variability and in the population structure, we analyzed six microsatellite loci in nine sampling groups of P. argenteusand five sampling groups of P. costatus. Our results showed high levels of genetic variability and low values of genetic differentiation for P. argenteus (FST =0.008, P< 0.05 and for P. costatus(FST =0.031, P < 0.05. In addition, high values of gene flow combined with a small genetic distance suggest the presence of a single population for each species in the middle rio São Francisco basin. Moreover, putative migration routes involving marginal lagoons during the reproductive season could be detected, confirming the importance of these nurseries in the lifecycle of these species. Our results also indicate the necessity of adequate management of the fish resources and the conservation of the floodplains in the rio São Francisco basin.

  13. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

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    Lorgio Verdi Olivares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana, Piaractus brachypomus (paco y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor rentabilidad económica en Loreto. Con este objetivo se utilizaron como inductores: para gamitana, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 6,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos; Para machos y hembras de paco, Conceptal en dosis total de 2,6 ml/kg en hembras y 1,0 ml/kg en machos; y para boquichico, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 4,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos. El desove se produjo en 11±2 horas; la eclosión ocurre después de 22 horas a partir de la fecundación, con tasas promedios superiores al 70% y tasas de sobrevivencia, aún cundo por debajo del 50%, garantiza una alta producción de alevines.

  14. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

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    Lorgio Verdi-Olivares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana, Piaractus brachypomus (paco y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor rentabilidad económica en Loreto. Con este objetivo se utilizaron como inductores: para gamitana, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 6,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos; Para machos y hembras de paco, Conceptal en dosis total de 2,6 ml/kg en hembras y 1,0 ml/kg en machos; y para boquichico, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 4,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos. El desove se produjo en 11±2 horas; la eclosión ocurre después de 22 horas a partir de la fecundación, con  tasas promedios superiores al 70% y tasas de sobrevivencia, aún cundo por debajo del 50%, garantiza una alta producción de alevines.

  15. Seasonality, age structure and reproduction of Leptodactylus (Lithodytes lineatus (Anura, Leptodactylidae in Rondônia state, southwestern Amazon, Brazil Sazonalidade, estrutura etária e reprodução de Leptodactylus (Lithodytes lineatus (Anura, Leptodactylidae no estado de Rondônia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Bernarde

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptodactylus(Lithodytes lineatus (Schneider, 1799 is an Amazonian leaf litter frog considered rare or uncommon in several studies on anuran communities. Despite being a widely distributed frog in Amazonian forests, knowledge of the biology and ecology of this species is relatively scarce. This species has been reported to live in association with leaf-cutter ant nests (Atta spp. during the breeding period. In this paper we present data on the seasonality of this species and some reproductive information gathered at a locality of Rondônia state, northwestern Brazil. Field work was carried out between April 2001 and March 2002, with the use of pitfall traps with drift fences as a survey method. Leptodactylus (L. lineatus had a higher capture frequency in this locality compared to that of other studies carried out in other Amazonian localities, possibly because this species has secretive habits, such as calling and breeding from nests of leaf-cutting ants, and are difficult to find during visual encounter surveys. The breeding period occurs between October and March. Calling males and egg-bearing females were found between September and February and juvenile recruitment occurred mainly from the end of the rainy season to the beginning of the dry season (February to June. Males and females show sexual dimorphism in SVL, females being significantly larger than males. The number of ovarian eggs per female varies from 110 to 328 and analyses indicate that there is a significant correlation with SVL.Leptodactylus(Lithodytes lineatus (Schneider, 1799 é uma espécie de anuro amazônico considerado raro ou incomum em diversos estudos de comunidades de anfíbios. Embora apresente ampla distribuição na Floresta Amazônica, conhecimento sobre a sua biologia e ecologia são escassos. Esta espécie tem sido relatada por viver em associação com ninhos de formigas cortadeiras (Atta spp. durante o período reprodutivo. Neste trabalho, nós apresentamos

  16. Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2011-07-01

    Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus.

  17. Effects of tillage practices on pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L., Coleoptera: Curculionidae) biology and crop damage: a farm-scale study in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanavan, R P; Bosque-Pérez, N A

    2012-12-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L., is periodically a significant pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in the Palouse region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA. Previous on-station research demonstrated significantly greater adult pea leaf weevil colonization, immature survival, adult emergence and plant damage in conventional-tillage compared to no-tillage plots of pea. In experiments conducted during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, aerial and ground adult pea leaf weevil colonization of large-scale commercial pea fields under different tillage regimes in northern Idaho and eastern Washington was examined for the first time. Initial pea leaf weevil feeding damage, immature weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence from the fields were also assessed. During both years, significantly more adult pea leaf weevils were captured in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage fields during the crop establishment period in May. No-tillage soils remained wet longer in the spring and could not be planted by growers until later than conventional-tillage fields. Pea planted under conventional-tillage emerged earlier and had significantly greater feeding damage by the pea leaf weevil than no-tillage pea. Significantly, greater immature pea leaf weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence were observed in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage pea fields. Delayed development of root nodules in the cooler, moister conditions of no-tillage pea fields likely resulted in escape from attack and injury during the critical growth stages that ultimately influence yield. Results indicate that large-scale commercial no-tillage pea fields are less suitable for colonization and survival of the pea leaf weevil and suffer less weevil damage than fields under conventional tillage.

  18. Efectos de la concentración de glucosa sobre la activación de la movilidad espermática en bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Pisces, Characiformes

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    Gregorio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la concentración de glucosa no activadora de la movilidad espermática como componente de futuros diluyentes para la crioconservación de semen de Prochilodus magdalenae. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó semen inactivo de tres machos obtenido por inducción hormonal. Una submuestra de 0.25 µL de semen de cada macho fue depositada sobre una cámara de Makler y evaluada usando diferentes concentraciones de glucosa (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 y 10% mediante la adición de 75 µL de cada solución sobre el semen (n=3. De cada solución se determinó la osmolaridad, siendo de 0, 62, 124, 186, 250, 310, 360, 410, 472, 536 y 620 mOsm/kg, respectivamente, así como la del plasma seminal (~250���300 mOsm/kg. Mediante el software Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA se determinó la velocidad curvilínea (VCL y recta (VSL (µm/seg, movilidad rápida (%, media (% y lenta (% y el porcentaje de espermatozoides inmóviles. El tiempo de activación de la movilidad (segundos se obtuvo por cronometraje y visualización bajo microscopio de campo claro. Resultados. Concentraciones de 0 a 5% de glucosa produjeron activación de la movilidad espermática, no obstante, a partir de glucosa al 6% no fue detectada activación visual; sin embargo, SCA detectó movilidad total (7.2%, VCL (5.1 µm/seg y VSL (1.7 µm/seg. A partir de glucosa al 7% el SCA detectó 100% de inmovilidad, no adquirida posteriormente con agua destilada. Conclusiones. La concentración de glucosa tiene efecto determinante en la viabilidad y activación de semen fresco. Una concentración de 6% de glucosa puede ser utilizada como solución no activadora de la movilidad espermática en futuros diluyentes para la crioconservación de semen de esta especie.

  19. 东海和黄海南部细条天竺鲷的摄食习性%Feeding habits of Apogon lineatus in the East China Sea and southern Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海卫; 薛利建; 朱增军; 潘国良

    2012-01-01

    Based on the fishing samples from 4 cruise survey data of the East China Sea and southern Yellow Sea from May 2008 to Feb. 2009, the diet composition, feeding intensity, diversity index and trophic level of Apogon lineatus were investigated by stomach content analysis. The results showed that the important food species of A. lineatus were Euphausia pacifica and Leptochela gracilis, whose index of relative importance ( % IRI) was 46. 08 and 37.46, quality percentage was 17. 90% and 21.98% and individual percentage was 27.80% and 12.80% , respectively. Euphausiacea, Decapod, Amphipoda, Pisces and Mysidacea were the most important prey groups. There were highly significant differences (P <0. 01 ) for individual percentage and % IRI of prey groups in different seasons and body classes, and the diet composition and dominant species replacement was very obvious. The total empty stomach rate of A. lineatus was 14. 01% , and the stomach fullness index was 76. 69‰ and the mean was 11. 26‰. Significant seasonal differences ( P < 0.01 ) were observed in the stomach fullness index, but not in the body class. The diversity index (H') of diet and evenness value (J') of diet took on the increase trend from spring to winter. The H' was the highest in the body length group of 41 -50 mm, then decreased gradually. The J' presented decrease trend with the body growth at first, then stayed steady when the body length reached 61-70 mm. The trophic level of A. lineatus was 3.39, which was 3. 31, 3. 59, 3. 39 and 3. 33 in four seasons of one year, respectively. It can be concluded that A. lineatus belonged to low-grade carnivorous animals, feeding on zooplankton as main food and part of swimming animals. As for the feeding selectivity, the major food dominance of A. lineatus was concentrated. The feeding habit variation of A. lineatus was closely related with its body length and season change.%利用2008年5月至2009年2月在东海和黄海南部4个航次大面调查

  20. Factors influencing movement of two migratory fishes within the tailrace of a large neotropical dam and their implications for hydropower impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, F. M.; Dunham, Jason; Silva, L. G. M.; Alves, C. B. M.; Pompeu, P.S.

    2017-01-01

    Fish attempting to move upstream through hydroelectric dams can be trapped and killed in turbines. Understanding fish movement patterns can provide useful insights for how to manage dam operations to minimize fish kill in turbines. We evaluated the movements of two migratory fish (Curimba-Prochilodus argenteus and Mandi-Pimelodus maculatus) using acoustic telemetry in the tailrace of Três Marias Dam (São Francisco River, Brazil) from 31 October 2011 to 16 February 2012. The majority of tagged fish left the tailrace in less than one week; however, some individuals returned, performing several visits to the tailrace. Mandi remained longer in the tailrace than Curimba. The number of visits was influenced by diel period, turbine and spillway discharge. Although the diel period was the only important contributor to the visits performed by Curimba, the movements of Mandi were significantly influenced by three factors. We found that whereas Curimba was predominantly diurnal, Mandi showed nocturnal habits. Additionally, visits of Mandi were significantly greater during higher turbine and spillway discharge. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding fish movements in the Três Marias Dam tailrace and their potential implications for adapting hydroelectric operations to minimize fish kills.

  1. Indicadores do desenvolvimento gonadal e nutricional de Prochilodus cearensis (Steindachner, 1911 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae no açude Itans/Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2027 Gonadal and nutritional indexes influencing the reproductive behavior of Prochilodus cearensis (Steindachner, 1911 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae in Itans water reservoir, Caicó, Rio Grande do N - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2027

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio de Castro Bezerra Gurgel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se alguns aspectos da reprodução e do estado nutricional de 213 exemplares (160 fêmeas e 53 machos de Prochilodus cearensis no açude Itans/ Caicó no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, no período de abril de 1996 a janeiro de 1997. As médias dos valores dos índices gônadossomático e gonadal apresentaram-se mais elevadas para fêmeas e machos no mês de janeiro. O índice de repleção foi semelhante entre os sexos. O fator de condição (ø mostrou-se mais elevado no período que antecede à reprodução. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre os fatores abióticos e o ciclo reprodutivo da espécie. No entanto, a presença de indivíduos com gônadas preparadas para a reprodução no trimestre que antecede ao das chuvas sugere que a desova possa estar condicionada a sua ocorrênciaThe aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gonadal and nutritional index on reproductive behavior of Prochilodus cearensis (Steindachner, 1911 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae in Itans water reservoir, Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte. 213 animals were used (160 females and 53 males and collected from Itans water reservoir during the period from April 1996 to January 1997. The highest Gonadossomatic and Gonadal Index values were obtained for females and males from December to February. The repletion index was similar for males and females. The condition factor (ø showed the highest value just before reproduction. Data collected suggest that reproductive cycle in this species is not directly related to abiotic factors

  2. Criopreservação do sêmen de Prochilodus brevis: meios de congelação e taxas de descongelação

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    Larissa Teixeira Nunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O Prochilodus brevis é um peixe reofílico, importante componente do ecossistema fluvial e apreciado na culinária nordestina. No entanto, ações antrópicas têm ameaçado sua sobrevivência. Desta forma, surge, nos pesquisadores, o interesse no desenvolvimento de protocolos de conservação do material genético, como a criopreservação seminal. Logo, a determinação do meio de congelação e da taxa de descongelação adequados, são passos fundamentais que possibilitarão a utilização dessa biotecnologia na produção de curimatã comum, reduzindo os riscos à sua sobrevivência. Portanto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes meios de congelação e taxas de descongelação sobre a qualidade do sêmen criopreservado de P. brevis. Para isso, 18 horas antes da coleta de sêmen, os machos receberam dose única de extrato hipofisário de carpa. Cada animal foi sedado com solução à base de eugenol e o sêmen foi coletado. As amostras foram diluídas em quatro meios de congelação (5% Glicose + Metilglicol 10%; 5% Glicose + DMSO 10%; 0,9% NaCl + Metilglicol 10%; 0,9% NaCl + DMSO 10% envasadas em palhetas de 0,25 mL e congeladas em vapor de nitrogênio líquido. O sêmen foi descongelado após sete dias em três taxas de descongelação: 25 °C 30 s-1; 30 °C 16 s-1; 40 °C 12 s-1. Foram feitas as análises de motilidade, vitalidade e morfologia com auxílio de sistema automatizado de análise seminal (CASA. As características do sêmen in natura assemelharam-se, em sua maioria, às encontradas na literatura. Para os parâmetros analisados, o sêmen in natura apresentou qualidade seminal superior a todos os tratamentos com o sêmen criopreservado (p 0,05. Para o sêmen criopreservado, os maiores índices foram alcançados quando se utilizou DMSO e as taxas de descongelação de 30 °C 16 s-1 ou 40 °C 12 s-1. Quanto à análise morfológica, a maior porcentagem de espermatozoides normais foi obtida utilizando as

  3. Multipurpose effectiveness of Couroupita guianensis-synthesized gold nanoparticles: high antiplasmodial potential, field efficacy against malaria vectors and synergy with Aplocheilus lineatus predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. According to recent estimates, about 3.2 billion people, almost half of the world's population, are at risk of malaria. Malaria control is particularly challenging due to a growing number of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium and pesticide-resistant Anopheles vectors. Newer and safer control tools are required. In this research, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap flower extract of Couroupita guianensis as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biofabrication of AuNP was confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, and particle size analysis. AuNP showed different shapes including spheres, ovals, and triangles. AuNPs were crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry; mean size was 29.2-43.8 nm. In laboratory conditions, AuNPs were toxic against Anopheles stephensi larvae, pupae, and adults. LC50 was 17.36 ppm (larva I), 19.79 ppm (larva II), 21.69 ppm (larva III), 24.57 ppm (larva IV), 28.78 ppm (pupa), and 11.23 ppm (adult). In the field, a single treatment with C. guianensis flower extract and AuNP (10 × LC50) led to complete larval mortality after 72 h. In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of golden wonder killifish, Aplocheilus lineatus, against A. stephensi IV instar larvae was 56.38 %, while in an aquatic environment treated with sub-lethal doses of the flower extract or AuNP, predation efficiency was boosted to 83.98 and 98.04 %, respectively. Lastly, the antiplasmodial activity of C. guianensis flower extract and AuNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. IC50 of C. guianensis flower extract was 43.21 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 51.16 μg/ml (CQ-r). AuNP IC50 was 69.47 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 76

  4. Short-term cold storage of sperm from six neotropical characiformes fishes

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    Simone Marques

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sperm of the following Neotropical Characiformes fish species were tested for cold storage: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus marggravii. Each sperm sample was split into two aliquots. The first was placed into a plastic bag with air or oxygen and the second, in a plastic tube with air. The samples were maintained at temperatures between 1.7-4.9 ºC. The rate of sperm motility was estimated using a 50 mM NaCl solution as the activating solution. The shortest sperm storage duration (7 h was recorded for L. friderici, when the sperm motility rate reached ~ 30%, whereas the longest duration (20 h was obtained with the sperm of P. lineatus. A fertilisation test using Prochilodus marggravii sperm refrigerated for 8 h yielded 88-90% of viable embryos. The refrigerated storage method could be of practical applications, especially in fish reproductive management at hatchery stations.O sêmen das seguintes espécies de Characiformes neotropicais foi testado para armazenamento em ambiente resfriado: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus e Prochilodus marggravii. Amostras de sêmen, obtidas por massagem da parede celômica, foram armazenadas em saco plástico com ar ou oxigênio ou em tubo plástico com ar, e mantidas resfriadas entre 1,7-4,9º C. A taxa de motilidade espermática foi estimada usando-se NaCl 50 mM como solução ativadora. O sêmen com menor duração de viabilidade (7 h foi o de L. friderici, quando a taxa de motilidade espermática alcançou ~30%, enquanto que o de maior duração (20 h foi o de P. lineatus. A fertilização de ovócitos utilizando sêmen refrigerado por 8 h de Prochilodus marggravii produziu 88-90% de embriões viáveis. O método de armazenamento desenvolvido neste trabalho tem aplicações práticas, especialmente no manejo reprodutivo de peixes em estações de

  5. [Nematodes parasitizing fishes from Termas de Rio Hondo Pond, Santiago del Estero, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo, G

    1999-01-01

    Cucullanus pinnai and Spinitectus jamundensis are cited parasitizing three freshwater fish species: Pimelodus albicans, Leporinus obtusidens and Prochilodus lineatus, captured in Termas de Río Hondo pond, province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, in 1992 and 1995. The three fish species were parasited by S. jamundensis, but C. pinnai was found only in P. albicans and L. obtusidens. Morphologic and morphometric parasitological studies were carried out. The specimens described were drawned. In addition, the following parasitic infection indexes were calculated: prevalence, mean and maximum intensity. The two nematode species identified are described for the first time in Argentina and increased the host range cited for the parasite species studied in this work.

  6. Efeitos genotóxicos e citotóxicos do herbicida glifosato e do produto formulado Roundup Transorb® para um peixe neotropical : testes in vivo e in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Natália Cestari Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho foi desenvolvido para investigar se o glifosato e seu produto formulado o herbicida Roundup Transorb® (RT) causam danos à molécula de DNA do peixe Prochilodus lineatus por meio de testes in vivo e in vitro. Nos ensaios in vivo foram utilizados o ensaio do cometa (em eritrócitos e células branquiais), o teste do micronúcleo e outras alterações eritrocíticas nucleares (AEN). Nos ensaios in vitro realizados com eritrócitos, além do ensaio do cometa, foram utilizados o ensaio de dif...

  7. Spawning of migratory fish species between two reservoirs of the upper Uruguay River, Brazil

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    David A. Reynalte-Tataje

    Full Text Available This study investigated the migratory fish spawning within the reservoirs of the Machadinho and Itá dams (upper Uruguay River, Brazil and its relationship to environmental variables. Sampling was conducted in the lotic region of the river in two sites between the dams' reservoirs: Uruguay (main river and Ligeiro (tributary. Sampling included nine consecutive reproductive periods (RP spanning the period from 2001 to 2010 and was conducted at night on the water surface using cylindrical-conical plankton nets (0.5 mm mesh; environmental variables were also recorded. The spawning of the migratory species Salminus brasiliensis, Prochilodus lineatus, and Steindachneridion scriptum was registered: S. brasiliensis and P. lineatus spawned in the tributary river at the end of spring/beginning of summer, during flooding and during periods of high water temperature. Steindachneridion scriptum spawned in the main river at the beginning of spring. The study showed that S. brasiliensis, P. lineatus, and S. scriptum are able to spawn in small lotic river stretches within two reservoirs, but only under very specific and not common environmental conditions.

  8. Diet-tissue discrimination factors (Δ(13) C and Δ(15) N) and turnover rate in somatic tissues of a neotropical detritivorous fish on C3 and C4 diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, P A; Manetta, G I; Benedito, E

    2016-07-01

    In this study, diet-tissue discrimination factors and turnover rates were determined from the somatic tissues of a detritivorous fish Prochilodus lineatus. The carbon (Δ(13) C) and nitrogen (Δ(15) N) diet-tissue discrimination factors varied for all feed rations with a range of Δ(13) C values between -1·9 and 3·6‰ and Δ(15) N between 3·3 and 5·7‰. Carbon turnover rate in the blood was 23·1 days for the C3 ration and 34·7 days for the C4 ration, in the liver was 9·9 days under the C3 ration and nitrogen turnover rate was the same (23·1 days) in the liver for both C4 and C3 -C4 rations, and 13·9 days in the muscle for C3 -C4 ration.

  9. Cross-amplification of heterologous microsatellite markers in Rhamdia quelen and Leporinus elongatus

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    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Native fish species in Brazil are an asset in fish farming, but their natural stocks have been significantly reduced in recent years. To mitigate this negative impact, studies on fish conservation are being conducted and genetic tools for the discrimination of population parameters are increasingly achieving great importance. Current analysis evaluates a set of microsatellite heterologous primers in the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and in the piapara (Leporinus elongatus. Samples from the caudal fin of 15 broodstock from each species were analyzed. DNA extraction was performed with NaCl protocol and the integrity of the extracted DNA was checked with agarose gel 1%. Twenty primers developed for Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum, Prochilodus lineatus, Brycon opalinus and Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. Cross amplification of four primers of the B. opalinus and P. lineatus species (BoM12, Pli43 and Pli60 in R. quelen and BoM2, Pli43 and Pli60 in L. elongatus was assessed. Primers of P. mesopotamicus, C. macropomum and O. niloticus showed no cross amplification in the two species analyzed. Results revealed the possibility of using the four amplified heterologous primers in genetic studies for R. quelen and L. elongatus.

  10. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

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    João Bosco de Salles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon.

  11. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  12. Development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

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    Alcione Eneida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.

  13. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

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    Welber Senteio Smith

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y

  14. Parasitic copepods in the nasal fossae of five fish species (Characiformes from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Paraná, Brazil = Copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de cinco espécies de peixes (Characiformes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil

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    Ana Carolina Figueiredo Lacerda

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work had the objective to study parasitic copepods in thenasal fossae of fish from the upper Paraná river floodplain. Fish were captured in different locations of the floodplain in March, June and September, 2004. A total of 73 specimens (Characiformes were collected, belonging to 4 distinct families and 5 species: Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Acestrorhynchidae, Schizodon borellii (Anostomidae, Prochilodus lineatus (Prochilodontidae, Serrasalmus marginatus and Serrasalmus maculatus (Serrasalmidae. Among 73 fishes examined, 53 were parasitized by nasal fossae copepods, varying from 1 to 146 parasites per host. Parasites found belonged to 3 known species: Gamidactylus jaraquensis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; Gamispatulus schizodontis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; and Rhinergasilus piranhus Boeger & Thatcher, 1988. There were differences in parasite corporal measurements and in the quantity of parasites per host in relation to copepod parasites from the Amazon region. The present study constitutes one of the few studies of identification of copepod parasites in the nasal fossae of fish from the Southern region of Brazil.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de peixes da planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná. As coletas foram realizadas em diversos pontos da planície nos meses de março, junho e setembro de 2004. Foram coletados 73 exemplares de peixes da ordem Characiformes, de quatrofamílias distintas, pertencentes a cinco espécies: Acestrorhynchus lacustris, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon borellii, Serrasalmus maculatus e Serrasalmus marginatus. Dentre os 73 peixes examinados, 53 encontravam-se parasitados por copépodes de fossas nasais,variando de 1 a 146 parasitos por peixe. Os parasitos encontrados pertenciam a três espécies conhecidas: Gamidactylus jaraquensis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; Gamispatulus schizodontis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984 e Rhinergasilus piranhus Boeger & Thatcher

  15. Copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de cinco espécies de peixes (Characiformes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.887 Parasitic copepods in the nasal fossae of five fish species (Characiformes from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.887

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    Maria de los Angeles Perez Lizama

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de peixes da planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná. As coletas foram realizadas em diversos pontos da planície nos meses de março, junho e setembro de 2004. Foram coletados 73 exemplares de peixes da ordem Characiformes, de quatro famílias distintas, pertencentes a cinco espécies: Acestrorhynchus lacustris, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon borellii, Serrasalmus maculatus e Serrasalmus marginatus. Dentre os 73 peixes examinados, 53 encontravam-se parasitados por copépodes de fossas nasais, variando de 1 a 146 parasitos por peixe. Os parasitos encontrados pertenciam a três espécies conhecidas: Gamidactylus jaraquensis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; Gamispatulus schizodontis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984 e Rhinergasilus piranhus Boeger & Thatcher, 1988. Diferenças foram observadas nas medidas corporais dos parasitos e na quantidade de espécies de parasitos por espécie de peixe em relação aos copépodes encontrados em estudos anteriores na região amazônica. O presente estudo constitui um dos poucos trabalhos de identificação de copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de peixes da região Sul do Brazil.The present work had the objective to study parasitic copepods in the nasal fossae of fish from the upper Paraná river floodplain. Fish were captured in different locations of the floodplain in March, June and September, 2004. A total of 73 specimens (Characiformes were collected, belonging to 4 distinct families and 5 species: Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Acestrorhynchidae, Schizodon borellii (Anostomidae, Prochilodus lineatus (Prochilodontidae, Serrasalmus marginatus and Serrasalmus maculatus (Serrasalmidae. Among 73 fishes examined, 53 were parasitized by nasal fossae copepods, varying from 1 to 146 parasites per host. Parasites found belonged to 3 known species: Gamidactylus jaraquensis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; Gamispatulus schizodontis Thatcher & Boeger

  16. Utilização de diferentes densidades, dietas e formatos de tanque na larvicultura da piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2082 Use of different densities, diets and tank formats in the larvae culture of the piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2082

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    Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuner

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a taxa de sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus (Characiformes, characidae, foram realizados três experimentos com três repetições por tratamento. Os experimentos consistiram em testar três diferentes estoques iniciais de densidade (5, 15 e 25 larvas de piracanjuba/L, três dietas (Artemia sp, ração comercial e larva de curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus e dois formatos de tanque de larvicultura (quadrado e retangular. Os parâmetros de qualidade de água foram medidos duas vezes ao dia. A alimentação foi oferecida em um intervalo de 4 horas, iniciando após a abertura da boca das larvas. Sob as condições de realização deste experimento, conclui-se que as diferentes densidades de estocagem utilizadas, assim como as três diferentes dietas, não influenciaram a sobrevivência, média de peso, comprimento e altura dorso-ventral das larvas de piracanjuba. Entretanto, o comprimento e o peso das larvas, diferentemente dos outros fatores, foi significativamente melhor no tanque de formato quadradoAiming to study the survival rate and the development of piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus (Characiformes, characidae fry, three experiments were set, with three repetitions by treatment. The experiments consisted of testing three different initial stocking densities (5, 15 and 25 piracanjuba larvae/L, three diets (Artemia sp, commercial ration and curimbatá larvae, Prochilodus lineatus and two formats of hatchery tank (square and rectangular. The parameters of water quality were measured twice a day. The feeding was offered in a 4-hour interval, beginning soon after the mouth-opening of the fry. The results showed that different stocking densities and diets didn't influence the larvae survival, average weight, length and back-ventral height. However, the average weight and length were significantly better in the square tank

  17. The effect of structural enrichment in hatchery tanks on the morphology of two neotropical fish species

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    Sarah de Oliveira Saraiva

    Full Text Available Reared fish differ from wild fish in several aspects, including morphology, because they are adapted to captive conditions that are totally different from natural conditions. To minimize the influence of the hatchery environment on the morphology of fish, the use of environmental enrichment through the incorporation of natural designs in captivity, has been proposed. In the present study, we performed the physical structuring of fish farming tanks to verify the enrichment effect on the morphology of two species of neotropical fishes: Prochilodus lineatus and Brycon orbignyanus. Each species was subjected to four different treatments over two months: tanks with submersed logs, with artificial aquatic plants, with both structures and without any structure. Results showed that the structural enrichment had a strong effect on the morphology of the cultured fish, which varied with each species analyzed and with the type of structural complexity added to the tanks. There was an increase of morphological variability in the population of P. lineatus and an increase of the average length in the population of B. orbignyanus. This shows that the environmental enrichment is capable to induce morphological differentiation through phenotypic plasticity, probably generating phenotypes more adapted to exploiting a complex environment. Peixes cultivados diferem de peixes selvagens em vários aspectos, incluindo morfologia, pois são adaptados às condições de cativeiro, que são totalmente diferentes das condições naturais. Para minimizar a influência do meio de cultivo sobre a morfologia dos peixes, o enriquecimento ambiental, através da incorporação de 'designs' naturais em cativeiro, tem sido proposto. No presente estudo, foi realizada a estruturação física de tanques de piscicultura para verificar o efeito deste tipo de enriquecimento ambiental sobre a morfologia de duas espécies de peixes neotropicais: Prochilodus lineatus e Brycon orbignyanus

  18. ELABORACIÓN DE GALLETAS ENRIQUECIDAS CON BARRILETE NEGRO (Euthynnus lineatus): CARACTERIZACIÓN QUÍMICA, INSTRUMENTAL Y SENSORIAL/Preparation of cookies enriched with black skipjack (Euthynnus lineatus): chemical, instrumental and sensory characterisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fátima Karina Delgado-Vidal; Emmanuel de Jesús Ramírez-Rivera; Jesús Rodríguez-Miranda; Roberto Esteban Martínez-López

    2013-01-01

    ... y el coeficiente de correlación Rv. Los resultados mostraron que las galletas de pescado presentaron diferencias significativas (p < 0.05) en los contenidos de proteína, lípidos y actividad de agua; el panel generó 42 atributos sensoriales, de los cuales el color café, duro en boca, duro al tacto, dulce, y olor y aroma a pescado se correlacio...

  19. EVALUACIÓN DEL POLICULTIVO DE BOCACHICO Prochilodus magdalenae Y TILAPA Oreochromis niloticus UTILIZANDO SUPERFICIES FIJADORAS DE PERIFITON

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    J. J. García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La piscicultura es una actividad importante para satisfacer la demanda alimenticia de una población en crecimiento y en su práctica es necesario desarrollar tecnologías responsables con el ambiente. El policultivo de tilapia-bocachico es relevante por la importancia de estas especies a nivel nacional; tilapia por sus características zootécnicas, y bocachico por su hábito alimentario detritívoro-iliófago, recientemente visto como un pez ecológico. El cultivo basado en perifiton permitiría un sistema altamente eficiente y más limpio, pues aporta alimento natural a los peces y mejora la calidad del agua. Para evaluar el efecto del perifiton sobre el desempeño del policultivo tilapia-bocachico, se ejecutó un experimento durante ocho meses en 18 estanques de 90 m2, con 2,6 tilapias/ m2 y 0,7 bocachicos/m2, sin fertilización; como sustrato para perifiton se instalaron de forma vertical tubos plásticos (3,3 tubos/m2, que se constituyeron en una variable por evaluar. Adicionalmente, tres estrategias alimentarias fueron evaluadas: 0 (sin alimento, alimentación con ración del 20% de proteína bruta (PB y alimentación con ración del 25% de PB. Se utilizó un diseño factorial 2x3 en bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento y se analizaron datos productivos mediante ANOVA con un modelo lineal general (P < 0,05. No fueron encontrados efectos del sustrato sobre los parámetros estudiados. Hubo efectos simples de la estrategia alimentaria sobre el desempeño de los peces. Por lo pronto, puede ser concluido que la producción basada en perifiton no genera problemas en el sistema ni en los peces y que se requiere más investigación para consolidar la tecnología.

  20. A barrier to upstream migration in the fish passage of Itaipu Dam (Canal da Piracema), Paraná River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Fontes Júnior, Hélio Martins; Makrakis, Sergio; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Latini, João Dirço

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the fish passages built in the Neotropical region are characterised by low efficiency and high selectivity; in many cases, the benefits to fish populations are uncertain. Studies conducted in the Canal da Piracema at Itaipu dam on the Parana River indicate that the system component designated as the Discharge channel in the Bela Vista River (herein named Canal de deságue no rio Bela Vista or CABV), a 200 m long technical section, was the main barrier to the upstream migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of restriction imposed by the CABV on upstream movements of Prochilodus lineatus and Leporinus elongatus, Characiformes. Fish were tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) and released both downstream and upstream of this critical section. Individuals of both species released downstream of the CABV took much more time to reach the upper end of the system (43.6 days vs. 15.9 days), and passed in much lower proportions (18% vs. 60.8%) than those tagged upstream of this component. Although more work is needed to differentiate between fishway effects and natural variation in migratory motivation, the results clearly demonstrate passage problems at the CABV.

  1. Influence of seasonal, diel, lunar, and other environmental factors on upstream fish passage in the igarapava fish ladder, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzotto, P.M.; Godinho, Alexandre L.; Vono, V.; Kynard, B.; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2009-01-01

    Upstream fish passage was evaluated during 12 months in the vertical-slot Igarapava Fish Ladder constructed around Igarapava Dam, in the heavily dammed Grande River, Southeast Brazil. A video monitoring system was used to observe 61,621 fish that passed the ladder, of which 93.5% were identified to 15 taxa. Among the migratory species, the most abundant were Pimelodus maculatus (33.6% of all fish), Leporinus octofasciatus (31.4%), Leporinus friderici (4.5%), and Prochilodus lineatus (3.1%). Seven taxa were classified as nonmigratory, and of these taxa, the small Bryconamericus stramineus was the most abundant (12.7%) of all fishes. Passage of the 'nonmigratory' taxa upstream in the ladder shows they are migratory in this system and have a strong behavioural drive to move to upstream habitat. Passage of most taxa had a strong seasonal pattern. While some species passed primarily during the day, others showed a distinct nocturnal pattern. Lunar phase and water temperature also strongly affected passage of some taxa. Rainfall and dam discharge had a small or null influence on most taxa; perhaps due to the fairly small catchment area of the reservoir and the highly regulated discharge at Igarapava Dam. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Caiman crocodilus yacare in Controlled Experiment: Statistical Confirmation of its Contribution to the Balance of Nutrients in an Aquatic Ecosystem of Mato-Grossense Pantanal, Brazil

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    Adelson Joel da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study has like purpose to confirm, statistically, through controlled experiments the contribution of Caiman crocodilus yacare for the nutrient cycling of the lake Baía das pedras, Pantanal de Poconé - MT. Studies with this focus, beginnings only on 90’s endings, on the lake, during dry phase were counted about 1000 individuals of Caiman crocodilus yacare on only 20.800 m2. On this period the productivity of the lake is very high in relation to high water period, when the water became transparent, being that the Caymans develop on that time a very important role. It was used for the experiment a captivity of 8x6 m, with only one exit for water. In the center of the captivity there is a pool with 4x2 m width and 30 cm of depth. The animal was putted after the stabilization of the limnological variables inside of the pool. It were collected 6 samples of water, being three before and three after of the presence of the Cayman. The Cayman with 2,18 m size, with 57,8 kg was feed every day, Just after the limnologicals determinations, with fresh fish of specie Prochilodus lineatus (including visceral parts. It were realized total nitrogen and phosphorous analyzes, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and orthophosphate of the water collected from the pool. It was verified the important role of Cayman crocodilus yacare in the experiment and in the region where it leaves.

  3. Presence of trace elements in fishes from the Chaco-Pampeana plain (Argentina

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    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chaco-Pampean plain is one of the greatest plains worldwide; present a wetland macro system (lagoons, marshes, rivers, streams, channels. The water quality of these environments is diverse and has different trace elements natural (As, F, Mo and V and anthropogenic (Cr, Cu and Pb. The Chaco Pampean plain has an important diversity of fish species however the species of commercial importance are limited. This paper presents the reviews of the studies related to the presence of trace elements in tissues of commercial fishes (shad Prochilodus lineatus and silversides Odontesthes bonariensis in the Chaco-Pampean plain in recent decades and a discussion about associated information gaps is presented. The presence of trace elements in commercial fish muscle is a major problem for food security. The results showed that most of the elements present in shad are in lower levels than the maximum limits set by the Argentine Food Code (CAA, 2014. In the case of Pb present in the muscle of the shad, the determined values exceed those considered by the European Food Safety Authority. In the case of silversides the values of As, Pb, Hg are mostly lower than those maximum recommended by the Argentine Food Code. However, according to the European Food Safety Authority, the lower limit on the benchmark dose for a 10% response (BMDL values associated with health risk for As.

  4. Histopathology of gills, kidney and liver of a Neotropical fish caged in an urban stream

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    Marina M. P. Camargo

    Full Text Available Histological changes in gills, kidney and liver were used to evaluate the health of the Neotropical fish species Prochilodus lineatus, subjected to in situ tests for 7 days in a disturbed urban stream and in a reference site, during winter and summer. In fish caged in the urban stream the most common lesions were epithelial lifting, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, lamellar fusion, and aneurysms in the gills; enlargement of the glomerulus, reduction of Bowman's space, occlusion of the tubular lumen, cloudy swelling and hyaline droplet degeneration in the kidneys; hepatocytes with hypertrophy, cytoplasmic and nuclear degeneration, melanomacrophage aggregates, bile stagnation and one case of focal necrosis in the liver. The lesions were comparatively most severe in the liver. Histopathology showed to be a very suitable biomarker for use in conjugation with the in situ test, because the seasonal variation did not interfere in the results and it was possible to differentiate the sites in the urban stream from the reference site.

  5. Habitat simplification affects nuclear-follower foraging association among stream fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Barreto Teresa

    Full Text Available Nuclear-follower interaction is a particular kind of interspecific foraging association that includes a nuclear species, which dig in or inspect the bottom, and follower species, which access the food items made available by the nuclear. In this study we examined the effect of habitat structure on nuclear-follower relationship in a stream of Bodoquena Plateau, Central-West Brazil. Foraging associations were registered while snorkeling in 24 observation sessions, totaling six hours in unaltered and altered sites. Overall, 272 nuclear-follower associations were registered, having four species acting as nuclear and seven as followers. The dominant nuclear species were different in each site. Prochilodus lineatus was the main nuclear species in the altered site and Leporinus macrocephalus in the unaltered site. The richness of follower species was similar between sites, however, follower species abundance per interaction were significantly higher in the unaltered site than in the altered site. These differences seem to be a consequence of the alterations in assemblage composition and feeding behavior of the nuclear species that presumably are affected by different substrate composition and food availability between the structurally distinct areas.

  6. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  7. Piscinoodinium pillulare (Schäperclaus, 1954 Lom, 1981 (Dinoflagellida infection in cultivated freshwater fish from the Northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil: parasitological and pathological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. MARTINS

    Full Text Available The Aquaculture Center of Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, received fishes for diagnosis from fish farmers reporting fish crowding at pond edges and in water inlets. Fifty-three out of 194 cases showed round to oval, immobile whitish structures, measuring up to 162 mm diameter, identified as the dinoflagellate Piscinoodinium pillulare. In 34 diagnosed cases the parasites were present in the gills, in 2 on body surface, and 9 in both. Thirty-one out of 53 were tambacu hybrids hosts; 7, Piaractus mesopotamicus; 6, Colossoma macropomum; 5, Leporinus macrocephalus; 3, Oreochromis niloticus; and 1, Prochilodus lineatus. Fish showed increased mucous production on body surface and gills, while ecchymosis in the caudal peduncle and operculum was present. The gills also showed paleness, congestion, and petechiae. Histopathology presented a great number of trophonts situated between secondary lamellae, fixed to or detached from the epithelium. Primary lamellae presented interstitial hemorrhages, severe hyperplasia of the epithelium, goblet cells, and mononuclear infiltrates. The present work is the first report of P. pillulare in Brazil and emphasizes the importance of this dinoflagellate which caused significant economic losses from 1995 through 1997.

  8. Time of feed transition and inclusion levels of exogenous protease in rations for piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp. hatchery=Momento para a transição alimentar e níveis de inclusão de protease exógena na ração da larvicultura de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Pelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted which consisted of determining the ideal time to make a feed transition from larvae of ‘curimba’ Prochilodus hartii to ration (from third, fifth and seventh days of life, with three days of co-feeding, and assess inclusion levels of exogenous protease (0, 0.02 and 0.2% in the diet of larvae of piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., in a completely randomized experimental design and duration of 15 and 17 days, respectively. Biomass, survival, total length, weight and specific growth rate were measured at the end of the experiments. Water quality parameters were measured every three days. The different transition periods and levels of exogenous protease did not affect water quality. The animals subjected to feed transition on the seventh day of life showed better results for length (23.1 mm, weight (110.9 mg and SGR (25.5%, being similar in biomass and survival at the fifth day of life. Therefore, the transition can be made on the fifth day of life. The inclusion levels of exogenous protease in the commercial diet had no effect on performance.Foram realizados dois experimentos, que consistiram em determinar o momento ideal de se realizar a transição alimentar de larva de curimba Prochilodus hartii para ração (a partir do terceiro, quinto e sétimo dia de vida, com três dias de coalimentação, e avaliar níveis de inclusão de protease exógena (0; 0,02 e 0,2% na dieta de larvas de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e duração de 15 e 17 dias, respectivamente. A biomassa, sobrevivência, comprimento total, peso médio e taxa de crescimento específico foram mensurados ao final dos experimentos. Já os parâmetros de qualidade de água foram aferidos a cada três dias. Os diferentes períodos de transição alimentar e níveis de protease exógena não interferiram na qualidade da água. Os animais submetidos à transição alimentar no sétimo dia de vida apresentaram melhores

  9. La pesca artesanal en la Cuenca del Plata (Argentina y sus implicancias en la conservación de la biodiversidad Artisanal fish at del Plata basin (Argentina and its implications for the biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Iwaszkiw

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es considerar distintos aspectos que surgen del análisis de las exportaciones pesqueras provenientes de la pesca comercial artesanal de la Cuenca del Plata, Argentina. Se trata de identificar aquellos impactos vinculados a las prácticas pesqueras sobre las poblaciones naturales involucradas y los compromisos relacionados con la conservación de la biodiversidad de la ictiofauna de la cuenca. Se analizan 17 años de datos de las pesquerías comerciales artesanales correspondientes al tramo argentino del río Paraná sobre registros oficiales de los productos pesqueros exportados para distintas especies durante el período 1994-2010. Los registros de los productos exportados expresados en toneladas en peso (ton se refieren particularmente a especies autóctonas de gran tamaño e interés comercial como el sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus, la boga (Leporinus obtusidens, la tararira (Hoplias malabaricus, el surubí (Pseudoplatystoma spp., el dorado (Salminus brasiliensis y el patí (Luciopimelodus pati, además de varias especies acompañantes en las capturas como bagres, armados y pejerreyes (Odontesthes bonariensis. Las exportaciones pesqueras muestran un incremento sumamente importante con un total de 331.517 ton para el período 1994-2010. La especie blanco de la pesquería es el sábalo con 88,77 % de las exportaciones totales y le siguen en orden de importancia la tararira con el 4,16 %, la boga con el 3,70 %, el patí con un 1,35 % y otras especies de menor captura. Los países de destino de los productos pesqueros son Brasil, Colombia, Bolivia y Nigeria, entre otros. Sin embargo, desde el 2003, Colombia compra en promedio el 50 % del total de las exportaciones pesqueras de la Argentina. El análisis de los datos históricos de las exportaciones pesqueras (1994-2010 evidencia la necesidad de implementar medidas mas claras sobre el control y manejo de los recursos pesqueros y las posibles implicancias derivadas

  10. The scale epithelium as a novel, non-invasive tool for environmental assessment in fish: Testing exposure to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R M S; Pereira, B F; Ribeiro, R G L G; Pitol, D L; Ciamarro, C M; Valim, J R T; Caetano, F H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing pollution levels have turned our attention to assessing lethal and sublethal effects of toxic agents using the most informative techniques possible. We must seek non-invasive or non-lethal sampling methods that represent an attractive alternative to traditional techniques of environmental assessment in fish. Detergents are amongst the most common contaminants of water bodies, and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate) is one of the most used anionic surfactant on the market. Our study analyzed morphological alterations (histological and histochemical) of the scale epithelium of Prochilodus lineatus under exposure to two concentrations of LAS, 3.6mg/L and 0.36mg/L, for a period of 30 days and evaluated at 14, 21 and 30 days. In order to establish morphological analysis of the scale epithelium as a new non-lethal environmental assessment tool that is reliable and comparable to classic methods, the relative sensibility of this technique was compared to a commonly used method of environmental assessment in fish, the estimation of the effects of pollutants upon branchial morphology. Two experiments were carried out, testing animals in tanks, and in individual aquariums. Results of analyses on gill tissue show that exposure to 3.6mg/L of surfactant caused severe damage, including hyperplasia, hypertrophy and fusion at 14 days, with aneurisms at 21 and 30 days; while exposure to 0.36mg/L had lighter effects on the organ, mainly lower incidence of fusion and hyperplasia. Aditionally, scale morphology was altered severely in response to 3.6mg/L of LAS, consistently showing increased mucous and club cell production. Epithelial thickness was the most variable parameter measured. Scale epithelium sensibility has the potential to be a reliable environmental marker for fish species since it has the advantage of being less invasive when compared to traditional methods. However, more studies are required to increase the robustness of the technique before it can be

  11. Spawning and nursery habitats of neotropical fish species in the tributaries of a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.

  12. Fish as Indicators of Disturbance in Streams Used for Snorkeling Activities in a Tourist Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa, Fabricio Barreto; Romero, Renato De Mei; Casatti, Lilian; Sabino, José

    2011-05-01

    A set of metrics that reflect various aspects of population and fish community structure in streams used for snorkeling was evaluated in the tourist region of Bodoquena Plateau, Brazil, with the purpose of biomonitoring the impacts of such activities. Observations were made while snorkeling in two sites (active = with tourism; inactive = without tourism) and along the gradient of daily tourist activity (before, during and after the passage of tourists) in two streams. Five metrics discriminated active from inactive sites: (i) the abundance of Crenicichla lepidota and (ii) the incidence of reproductive activity in Crenicichla lepidota which were greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iii) the feeding pattern of Prochilodus lineatus, which differed among sites and along the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iv) the abundance of Moenkhausia bonita, which was higher in the active sites and significantly increased along the gradient of daily tourist activity in one stream but decrease along the gradient in other stream; (v) the abundance of Hyphessobrycon eques, which was greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity. With the exception of metric "iv", the metrics were mediated by the reduction in habitat structural complexity due to snorkeling disturbance. The definition of these metrics is relevant because the degradation of ecosystem structural elements is one of the main impacts of recreational activities on aquatic environments. The easy recognition of target species and high water transparency throughout the year ensures the feasibility of these metrics in monitoring programs and may be applied by technicians after quick guides and training.

  13. Risk ranking of multiple-POPs in detritivorous fish from the Río de la Plata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, J C; Cappelletti, N; Williamson, M; Migoya, M C; Speranza, E; Sericano, J; Muir, D C G

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the bioaccumulation and the risk associated to consumption of lipid-rich detritivorous fish, a comprehensive set of organic pollutants (n=213) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin like PCBs (dlPCBs), chlorinated pesticides (CHLPs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), resolved (ALI) and unresolved aliphatic hydrocarbons (UCM) and linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) were analyzed in Sábalo fish (Prochilodus lineatus) collected in the polluted Metropolitan Buenos Aires coast and in migrating specimens. Fatty fish muscles (lipids: 74±9.3% dry weight) contained homogeneous (24-51% variability) and very high-concentrations of organic pollutants ranging from 60 to 1,300 μg g(-1) fresh weight (fw) ALI+UCM; 10-40 μg g(-1) fw LABs and PCBs; 0.1-1 μg g(-1) fw dlPCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, CBzs and PBDEs; 0.01-0.1 μg g(-1) fw mirex, endosulfans, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and 0.07-0.2 ng g(-1) PCDD/F. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQs) ranged from 60 to 395 pg g(-1) fw (34±17 and 213±124 pg g(-1) TEQs for PCDD/F and dlPCBs respectively). These are among the highest concentrations reported for fish and point out the remarkable ability of Sábalo to feed on anthropogenic organic-enriched particles and tolerate a high pollutant load. Contaminant signatures show partial alteration with still abundant lower molecular weight components indicating that fish feeds directly in the outfalls. Consumption limits based on reference doses ranged from 0.1 (PCBs) to >1,2000 g d(-1) (endosulfan) allowing a comprehensive risk-based ranking of contaminants in this long-range migrating, detritivorous fish.

  14. Fish as indicators of disturbance in streams used for snorkeling activities in a tourist region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa, Fabricio Barreto; Romero, Renato de Mei; Casatti, Lilian; Sabino, José

    2011-05-01

    A set of metrics that reflect various aspects of population and fish community structure in streams used for snorkeling was evaluated in the tourist region of Bodoquena Plateau, Brazil, with the purpose of biomonitoring the impacts of such activities. Observations were made while snorkeling in two sites (active = with tourism; inactive = without tourism) and along the gradient of daily tourist activity (before, during and after the passage of tourists) in two streams. Five metrics discriminated active from inactive sites: (i) the abundance of Crenicichla lepidota and (ii) the incidence of reproductive activity in Crenicichla lepidota which were greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iii) the feeding pattern of Prochilodus lineatus, which differed among sites and along the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iv) the abundance of Moenkhausia bonita, which was higher in the active sites and significantly increased along the gradient of daily tourist activity in one stream but decrease along the gradient in other stream; (v) the abundance of Hyphessobrycon eques, which was greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity. With the exception of metric "iv", the metrics were mediated by the reduction in habitat structural complexity due to snorkeling disturbance. The definition of these metrics is relevant because the degradation of ecosystem structural elements is one of the main impacts of recreational activities on aquatic environments. The easy recognition of target species and high water transparency throughout the year ensures the feasibility of these metrics in monitoring programs and may be applied by technicians after quick guides and training.

  15. Uma abordagem proteomica na identificação do citocromo P450 em Prochilodus Scrofa : uma nova ferramenta em ensaios ecotoxicologicos

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Citocromos P450 (CYP) constituem uma superfamília de heme proteínas envolvidas na fase I da biotransformação que participa da detoxificação de compostos endógenos e exógenos. Para que esta atividade seja exercida existe a necessidade da associação do CYP com o citocromo b5 e com a enzima NADPH citocromo P450. Esta associação só ocorre graças ao ambiente de membrana. Qualquer alteração na uniformidade do ambiente lipídico leva à alterações na funcionalidade do sistema CYP. Baseado nest...

  16. Perfil Ictiofaunístico de duas Lagoas no Rio Paraná, Região do Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande - PR. = Ictiofaunistic profile of two Rio Paraná lagoons, Region of Ilha Grande National Park - PR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir M. Domingues

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O Rio Paraná é o décimo maior do mundo em descarga e nele se encontra a região do Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande, que é formada por um conjunto de ilhas, lagoas e várzeas periodicamente alagadas, sendo estas de extrema importância para os peixes, servindo de refúgio contra predação, berçário natural e áreas de alimentação para muitas espécies de peixes. Este artigo apresenta um levantamento icitiofaunístico nas lagoas Saraiva e São João, situadas no Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande, com enfoque nas variações espaço-temporais, na composição específica e estrutura etária das assembléias de peixes, sendo que estes foram amostrados em coletas trimestrais, utilizando-se redes de espera de diferentes malhagens. Em termos de número de indivíduos capturados e proporção, tem-se 54% das espécies pertencentes a ordem Characiformes, 42% a Siruliformes, 3% a Perciformes. Rajiformes e Gymnotiformes contribuíram com menos de 1,5% do total das capturas. Na lagoa Saraiva foram capturadas 34 espécies pertencentes a cinco ordens e 17 famílias, destacando-se numericamente Loricariichthys platymetopon, Raphiodon vulpinus, Serrasalmus marginatus e Plagioscion squamosissimus. As maiores contribuições em peso foram proporcionadas por R. vulpinus, Potanotrygon motoro, P. squamosissimus e S. marginatus. Na lagoa São João ocorreram 46 espécies pertencentes a cinco ordens e 17 famílias, destacando-se em número L. platymetopon, Acestrohynchus lacustris, Serrasalmus spilopleura e S. marginatus. Em peso, Prochilodus lineatus, A. lacustris, L. platymetopon e Serrasalmus spilopleura foram as mais representativas. Destaca-se que a maioria das espécies registradas em ambas as lagoas são típicas de ambientes lênticos, utilizando esses locais para seu desenvolvimento e crescimento. = Paraná River is the tenth river in the world concerning to discharge and surrounding it Ilha Grande National Park region is localized, wich is formed by a

  17. Avaliação hematológica de espécies de peixe de valor comercial da planície de inundação do rio Paraná, Brasil Hematological evaluation in commercial fish species from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cocuzza das Eiras

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Em fevereiro de 1994 e março de 1995, foram analisados 144 exemplares pertencentes a 20 espécies mais representativas da bacia do rio Paraná, Estado do Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Retirou-se sangue para as determinações de: número de eritrócitos; hematócrito; taxa de hemoglobina; contagem diferencial dos leucócitos e cálculo dos índices hematimétricos absolutos: volume corpuscular médio, hemoglobina corpuscular média e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Para P. lineatus e S. borellii foi possível fazer uma análise mais detalhada, considerando-se os sexos e os estádios de maturação gonadal. Para estas espécies, encontraram-se diferenças significativas entre os estádios de maturação gonadal, com valores mais baixos no estádio de repouso. Na contagem diferencial dos leucócitos, foram encontrados os seguintes leucócitos: linfócitos, monócitos, neutrófilos, basófilos, eosinófilos, célula granulocítica especial e algumas células de aspecto imaturo. De maneira geral, para a maioria das espécies, o neutrófilo é a célula mais freqüente, seguida pelo linfócito. Os eosinófilos estiveram presentes em maior porcentagem no sangue periférico de alguns Siluriformes.In February 1994 and in March 1995 one hundred and forty-four four specimens of teleosts were analyzed. They belonged to the 20 most representative species from the Paraná River basin, state of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from caudal peduncle to determine the number of erythrocytes (Er, hematocrit (Ht, hemoglobin rate (Hb and differential percentage of leukocytes. Total hematometric indexes (mean corpuscle volume, mean corpuscle hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were estimated. Hematological parameters related to sex and gonadal maturation stages were undertaken for Prochilodus lineatus and Schizodon borellii. In these species significant differences between the gonadal

  18. Diversidade das assembléias de peixes nas quatro unidades geográficas do rio Paraíba do Sul Diversity of fish assemblages in the four geographic units of the Paraíba do Sul river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Teixeira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Padrões na diversidade de peixes ao longo de quatro unidades geográficas (superior, médio-superior, médio-inferior e inferior no rio Paraíba do Sul foram estudados com a finalidade de avaliar tendências de variações espaciais (unidades geográficas e temporais (períodos de cheia e seca. Vinte e cinco locais foram amostrados entre Dezembro de 2002 e Março de 2003 (verão/cheia e, entre Agosto e Novembro de 2003 (inverno/seca. Os peixes foram capturados com um esforço padronizado, utilizando redes de espera, tarrafas e peneiras. Um total de 81 espécies foram registradas compreendendo 9 ordens, 29 famílias e 55 gêneros. Characiformes apresentaram maior número de espécies (28 seguido de Siluriformes (23. Perciformes, principalmente Tilapia rendalli e Geophagus brasiliensis, e Cyprinodontiformes com destaque para Poecilia vivipara e Poecilia reticulata, foram os grupos numericamente mais abundantes, enquanto Siluriformes, principalmente Hypostomus luetkeni, e Perciformes com Geophagus brasiliensis apresentaram maior contribuição em biomassa. Poecilia vivipara foi encontrada apenas no período de seca. Espacialmente, Hoplosternum littorale predominou no trecho médio-superior, Pimelodus fur, Hypostomus luetkeni, Glanidium albescens no trecho médio-inferior, e Loricariichtys spixii e Prochilodus lineatus no trecho inferior. O número de espécies e a riqueza de Margalef apresentaram um aumento do trecho superior para o inferior, principalmente durante o período de cheia. Espécies que apresentaram ampla distribuição ao longo do rio (G. brasiliensis, Oligosarcus hepsetus e P. reticulata são consideradas oportunistas por se aproveitarem dos recursos disponíveis em ambientes pobres, refletindo o estado de alterações do rio. Diferenciações na fisiografia ao longo da extensão longitudinal da bacia não coincidiram com mudanças nas assembléias de peixes, sugerindo que fatores associados a alterações de hábitats poderiam

  19. Report on Red-shouldered Hawk nesting within the Milan Bottoms and Pools 9-16 of the Upper Mississippi River Valley during 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During our investigations along the Upper Mississippi River during 1999 we located Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) in a total of 32 of the 51 areas searched....

  20. .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Loguercio-Leite

    2008-01-01

    setulosa, Pachykytospora papyracea, Perenniporia medulla-panis, P. ohiensis, P. stipitata, Phellinus allardii, P. bambusarum, P. cesatii, P. melanodermus, Phylloporia chrysita, Polyporus leprieurii, Rigidoporus lineatus, Schizopora fl avipora, S. paradoxa and Trametes socotrana.

  1. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, J.M.; Bilde, T.

    2008-01-01

    used a cross-fostering design to control for genetic relatedness and group membership. Our study animal was the periodic social spider Stegodyphus lineatus, a transitional species that belongs to a genus containing both permanent social and periodic social species. In S. lineatus, the young cooperate....... Hence, in communally feeding spiders, nepotism favors group retention and reduces the conflict between selfish interests and the interests of the group....

  2. Estudio de la Microestructura y de las propiedades reológicas de geles de concentrado proteico de sabalo (prochilodus platensis en relación a la etapa de lavado con soluciones de H3PO4 y NaHCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Agustina Reinheimer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El concentrado de proteínas de pescado (CPP es el músculo del pescado desmenuzado y exento de huesos, piel,carne oscura y de espinas, que es lavado varias veces con agua y escurrido hasta la proporción de agua original.Aquí se estudió el efecto en la composición físico-química, sobre la microestructura y las propiedades reológicas degeles de CPP utilizando diferentes soluciones de agua de lavado en la obtención de CPP de sábalo (Prochilodusplatensis. Al mismo tiempo se evaluó la extracción de proteínas durante el lavado, y el análisis de las propiedadesreológicas de los geles obtenidos. Los geles de CPP de sábalo obtenidos mediante el método de lavado (0.05%H3PO4, 0.2% NaHCO3 y 0.2% NaCl presentaron un contenido aceptable de proteínas, el menor contenido demateria grasa, y la textura más aceptable, confirmada por la reología y la microestructura, mostrando mejorasrespecto de los obtenidos por el método convencional.

  3. Influência de barragens hidrelétricas sobre a estruturação genética de Prochilodus Spp (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae) nas Bacias Hidrográficas do Rio Tocantins e do Rio São Francisco.

    OpenAIRE

    Marteleto, Flávio Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: O crescente avanço econômico e social pelo qual o Brasil vem passando gerou uma grande necessidade de energia elétrica para suprir essa demanda. Esse desenvolvimento impulsionou iniciativas governamentais para ampliar o crescimento econômico, como a criação do Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento – PAC. No país a principal fonte de energia é oriunda de Usinas Hidroelétricas que causam impactos ambientais bastante severos em sua implantação. Mesmo com as vantagens substanciais para a ...

  4. Description of a new species of rabbitfish (Perciformes: Siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, David J; Anderson, R Charles

    2014-05-30

    Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal. 

  5. Peces colectados en el río Acandí (Chocó suroeste del Caribe colombiano Peces colectados en el río Acandí (Chocó suroeste del Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez León Ricardo

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez la presencia de seis especies de peces colectados en el río Acandí durante la expedición URABA II, en febrero de 1985, tres de los cuales (Citharichtys spilopterus, Achirus lineatus y Sphoeroides testudineus, son nuevos registros para los ríos del Caribe colombiano. Six species of fishes, collected in the river Acandí during expedition URABA II, in February of 1985, are reported for first time, of the wish three (Citharichtys spilopterus, Achirus lineatus y Sphoeroides testudineus, is new report for the rivers of the Colombian Caribbean.

  6. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Baigún

    2013-03-01

    ábalo (Prochilodus lineatus en la baja cuenca del río Paraná basado en indicadores hidrológicos, biológicos y pesqueros. A partir de registros históricos de capturas se notó un desplazamiento de un estado de explotación ligera o moderada previa a 2001 a otro de explotación intensiva como resultado del desarrollo de una pesquería para exportación a partir de ese año. Los índices de conectividad hidrológica demostraron que el Paraná exhibió condiciones muy favorables para el sábalo entre 1972 y 1999, pero más adversas entre 1999 y 2009 al reducirse el caudal, que coincidió con un aumento en la mortalidad por pesca. Se estimó en 15.000 toneladas la captura máxima sostenible, incluyendo tanto la destinada al consumo local, venta informal y en mercados regionales, como la asignada a exportación. Este nivel, sin embargo, se triplicó en 2004, siendo acompañado por una disminución de la talla media y máxima de captura de 48 a 42 cm y de 64 a 58 cm respectivamente, una reducción de abertura de malla de 16 a 12 cm y un descenso en la proporción de megareproductores. Aun cuando no se detectó sobrepesca de crecimiento, el análisis de la tendencia de cambio del cociente de desove potencial muestra que hubo sobrepesca de reclutamiento en 2005, con stocks sobrepescados debido a que la tasa de mortalidad por pesca excedió en 4 veces la tasa de mortalidad natural. Estas observaciones sugieren que la existencia de condiciones hidrológicas menos favorables a partir de 1999, coincidentes con una elevada presión de pesca, pudieron haber impactado sobre la biomasa de esta especie. El manejo de esta pesquería requiere dejar de lado la visión exclusivamente economicista de uso del recurso y adoptar un enfoque ecosistémico que incorpore, entre otros componentes, el régimen hidrológico, los rasgos de vida de la especie, y los requerimientos socioeconómicos de los dife

  7. Efficacy of insecticides through contact and oral uptake towards four Agriotes wireworm species under controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozen, van K.; Huiting, H.F.; Wilhelm, R.; Heger, M.; Ester, A.

    2013-01-01

    Wireworms of Agriotes lineatus, A. obscurus, A. sputator and A. sordidus were exposed to insecticide treated soil using two different control methods. One method consisted of a spray application of insecticides at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 300 g a.i. per ha. The other method consisted of a bait tre

  8. Efficacy of insecticides through contact and oral uptake towards four Agriotes wireworm species under controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozen, van K.; Huiting, H.F.; Wilhelm, R.; Heger, M.; Ester, A.

    2013-01-01

    Wireworms of Agriotes lineatus, A. obscurus, A. sputator and A. sordidus were exposed to insecticide treated soil using two different control methods. One method consisted of a spray application of insecticides at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 300 g a.i. per ha. The other method consisted of a bait

  9. Notes on Asiatic Anacardiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostermans, A.J.G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Mangifera parkinsonii Fischer and M. whitmorei Kochummen are referred to Swintonia. Gluta celebica is described as a new species from an ultrabasic area in Sulawesi. Two new species of the genus Semecarpus, S. lineatus and S. longipes, are described from Sabah, Borneo.

  10. Environmental Assessment for Mid-Bay Bridge Connector, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-05

    Formation is underlain by a series of Miocene-aged coarse clastic ( Alum Bluff Group) and clay marine deposits (Pensacola clay) up to several hundred feet...Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon Feral Pig Sus scrofa Eastern Mole Scalopus aquaticus Red shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus Salt Marsh Rabbit

  11. Environmental Assessment: Mid-Bay Bridge Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    a series of Miocene-aged coarse clastic ( Alum Bluff Group) and clay marine deposits (Pensacola clay) up to several hundred feet thick. These units...Megaceryle alcyon Feral Pig Sus scrofa Eastern Mole Scalopus aquaticus Red shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus Salt Marsh Rabbit Sylvilagus

  12. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 October 2012-30 November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Serap; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Azevedo, V C R; Baucom, Regina; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, L B; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Burgess, Treena I; Caccone, Adagisa; Chang, Shu-Mei; Ciampi, A Y; Ciancaleoni, S; Clímaco, Gisele T; Clouet, Cécil; Coimbra, Maria R M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Dantas, Hozana L; De Vega, Clara; Echodu, Richard; Enyaru, John; Figueira, Antonio; Filho, Manoel A G; Foltz, Britnie; Fressigné, L; Gadomski, Mateusz; Gauthier, Nathalie; Herrera, Carlos M; Hyseni, Chaz; Jorge, Erika C; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz; Knott, Emily; Kuester, Adam; Lima, Ana P S; Lima, Maíra A; Lima, Marcos P; Longo, Ana Luiza B; Lor, Grant; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Marques, Thiago S; Martins, Aline R; Matoso, Daniele A; Medrano, Mónica; Mendonça, M A C; Mettler, Raeann; Nascimento, Priscila Roberta M; Negri, V; Oliveira, Karine K C; Oliveira, L O; Ovcarenko, Irina; Paula-Silva, Maria N; Raggi, L; Sandoval-Castillo, J; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Martin Schaefer, H; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seino, Miyuki M; Sistrom, Mark; Taole, Matsepo M; Teske, P R; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Verdade, Luciano M; Villela, Priscilla M S; Vinson, C C; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brassica oleracea, Brycon amazonicus, Dimorphandra wilsonii, Eupallasella percnurus, Helleborus foetidus, Ipomoea purpurea, Phrynops geoffroanus, Prochilodus argenteus, Pyura sp., Sylvia atricapilla, Teratosphaeria suttonii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Trypanosoma brucei. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Dimorphandra coccicinea, Dimorphandra cuprea, Dimorphandra gardneriana, Dimorphandra jorgei, Dimorphandra macrostachya, Dimorphandra mollis, Dimorphandra parviflora and Dimorphandra pennigera.

  13. Relating Diet and Capture Time Between two Species of Frugivorous Bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Stenodermatinae Relacionando dieta e horários de captura entre duas espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Stenodermatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ribeiro Sartore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 are phyllostomid bats that often coexist in the same local and consume the same feed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain data about feeding habits of the two species, relating to their capture times, in the land where is the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, northern Paraná. The samples were attained among September 2010 and May 2011, with 12 960 m2 h of sampling effort. The results analysis contemplated the Shannon Index, Pielou Index and Schoener Index. 250 A. lituratus e 46 P. lineatus were captured, and while the first one consumed fruits from ten vegetable species, the second fed just three species, both preferring the Cecropia spp. and Ficus spp. genus. A. lituratus showed the higher capture peak 30 minutes after the sunset and was collected throughout the period. P. lineatus had its higher peak 01h 45min after nightfall and was captured in short periods. With these outcomes, is possible to imply that P. lineatus has a foraging peak, in the study place, 75 minutes after A. lituratus, avoiding straight competition. A. lituratus showed larger food diversity, indicating higher adaptative potential for this specie than for the other.Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 são morcegos filostomídeos que frequentemente coexistem num mesmo local e consomem o mesmo alimento. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi obter dados sobre os hábitos alimentares das duas espécies, relacionando-os com seus horários de captura, na região onde se encontra o campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina no norte do Paraná. As coletas foram realizadas entre Setembro de 2010 e Maio de 2011, com um esforço amostral de 12 960 m2 h. A análise dos resultados contemplou o uso do Índice de Shannon, Índice de Pielou e Índice de Schoener. Capturaram-se 250 A. lituratus e 46 P. lineatus, e o primeiro consumiu frutos de dez espécies vegetais

  14. Contrasting molecular and morphological evidence for the identification of an anomalous Buteo: a cautionary tale for hybrid diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William S; Galen, Spencer C; Hull, Joshua M; Mayo, Megan A; Witt, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    An adult Buteo was found dead as a road-kill south of Sacramento, California, and was thought to represent the first state record of the eastern Red-shouldered Hawk (B. lineatus lineatus;). It is now a specimen in the Museum of Wildlife and Fisheries Biology (WFB 4816) at the University of California, Davis. We examined this specimen and found that many of its plumage characters differed from all other adult Red-shouldered Hawks examined, including nominate adults. Plumage markings and measurements were intermediate between Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis, ssp calurus) and Red-shouldered Hawk (ssp elegans), leading us to hypothesize that the bird was a hybrid. However, mtDNA sequences and nuDNA microsatellites proved definitively that the bird was a Red-shouldered Hawk, most likely of eastern origin. This case illustrates that apparent hybrids or apparent vagrants could be individuals with anomalous phenotypes caused by rare genetic variation or novel epigenetic effects.

  15. Egg parasitoid attraction toward induced plant volatiles is disrupted by a non-host herbivore attacking above or belowground plant organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihem eMoujahed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to insect oviposition by emission of oviposition-induced plant volatiles (OIPVs which can recruit egg parasitoids of the attacking herbivore. To date, studies demonstrating egg parasitoid attraction to OIPVs have been carried out in tritrophic systems consisting of one species each of plant, herbivore host, and the associated egg parasitoid. Less attention has been given to plants experiencing multiple attacks by host and non-host herbivores that potentially could interfere with the recruitment of egg parasitoids as a result of modifications to the OIPV blend. Egg parasitoid attraction could also be influenced by the temporal dynamics of multiple infestations, when the same non-host herbivore damages different organs of the same plant species. In this scenario we investigated the responses of egg parasitoids to feeding and oviposition damage using a model system consisting of Vicia faba, the above-ground insect herbivore Nezara viridula, the above- and below-ground insect herbivore Sitona lineatus, and Trissolcus basalis, a natural enemy of N. viridula. We demonstrated that the non-host S. lineatus disrupts wasp attraction toward plant volatiles induced by the host N. viridula. Interestingly, V. faba damage inflicted by either adults (i.e. leaf-feeding or larvae (i.e. root-feeding of S. lineatus, had a similar disruptive effect on T. basalis host location, suggesting that a common interference mechanism might be involved. Neither naïve wasps or wasps with previous oviposition experience were attracted to plant volatiles induced by N. viridula when V. faba plants were concurrently infested with S. lineatus adults or larvae. Analysis of the volatile blends among healthy plants and above-ground treatments show significant differences in terms of whole volatile emissions. Our results demonstrate that induced plant responses caused by a non-host herbivore can disrupt the attraction of an egg parasitoid to a plant that is also infested

  16. Ambicoloration and morphological aberration in the sole Achirus declivis (Pleuronectiformes: Achiridae and two other cases of color abnormalities in achirid soles from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mariano Macieira

    Full Text Available Three cases of color abnormalities and one of morphological aberration in flatfishes of the genus Achirus are described from the Piraquê-Açú River estuary, Espírito Santo, Brazil. One specimen of A. declivis has 75% of the blind side with coloration like that of the ocular side. Another specimen of the same species is strongly hypomelanistic. A third specimen has incomplete eye rotation and a hooked dorsal fin. An ambicolored A. lineatus is also described.

  17. Effect of water extracts from Artemisia absinthium L. on feeding of selected pests and their response to the odor of this plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena RUSIN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts from fresh and dry matter of Artemisia absinthium L. on the feeding of selected pests. Moreover their reactions on the smell of this plant by using the olfactometer were examined. Beetles feeding intensity assessment was carried out by measuring the surface of feeds caused by Sitona lineatus L. In the case of Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris contact poisoning on mortality of adults and larvae were tested. In determining the effect of extracts of A. absinthium L. on Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. food weight eaten by adult beetles and larvae and changes in larvae body weight were established. In studies on the olfactory reaction of above mentioned insects, for S. lineatus and L. decemlineata glass olfactometer Y-tube was used and for winged A. pisum females - 4-armed arena olfactometer. The results of the experiment showed that extract from dry matter of A. absinthium L. at concentration of 10% greatly reduced feeding of Sitona lineatus L. The highest mortality of A. pisum Harris was observed in objects in which extracts from dry and fresh matter of the highest concentrations (10% and 30% respectivelly were applied. Extract from fresh matter in concentration of 30% made the greatest contribution to reduce feeding of L. decemlineata Say, while extract made from the dry matter at concentration of 10% significantly contributed to reduce the weight of food eaten by the larvae of this pest. Studies using the olfactometer showed a strong deterring reaction of odors derived from A. absinthium L. in relation to S. lineatus (both males and females and males of L. decemlineata Say.

  18. Growdon Gate/Road Relocation and Property Acquisition Environmental Assessment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    adjusted to make it more relevant to sound that the human ear hears especially well; for example, an ―A-weighted‖ decibel (dBA) is derived from...emphasizing mid-range frequencies to which the human ear responds especially well and de-emphasizing the lower and higher range frequencies. Federal and...barred owl (Strix varia), red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus). The mesquite woodlands habitat is not a diverse

  19. Egg parasitoid attraction toward induced plant volatiles is disrupted by a non-host herbivore attacking above or belowground plant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moujahed, Rihem; Frati, Francesca; Cusumano, Antonino; Salerno, Gianandrea; Conti, Eric; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to insect oviposition by emission of oviposition-induced plant volatiles (OIPVs) which can recruit egg parasitoids of the attacking herbivore. To date, studies demonstrating egg parasitoid attraction to OIPVs have been carried out in tritrophic systems consisting of one species each of plant, herbivore host, and the associated egg parasitoid. Less attention has been given to plants experiencing multiple attacks by host and non-host herbivores that potentially could interfere with the recruitment of egg parasitoids as a result of modifications to the OIPV blend. Egg parasitoid attraction could also be influenced by the temporal dynamics of multiple infestations, when the same non-host herbivore damages different organs of the same plant species. In this scenario we investigated the responses of egg parasitoids to feeding and oviposition damage using a model system consisting of Vicia faba, the above-ground insect herbivore Nezara viridula, the above- and below-ground insect herbivore Sitona lineatus, and Trissolcus basalis, a natural enemy of N. viridula. We demonstrated that the non-host S. lineatus disrupts wasp attraction toward plant volatiles induced by the host N. viridula. Interestingly, V. faba damage inflicted by either adults (i.e., leaf-feeding) or larvae (i.e., root-feeding) of S. lineatus, had a similar disruptive effect on T. basalis host location, suggesting that a common interference mechanism might be involved. Neither naïve wasps or wasps with previous oviposition experience were attracted to plant volatiles induced by N. viridula when V. faba plants were concurrently infested with S. lineatus adults or larvae. Analysis of the volatile blends among healthy plants and above-ground treatments show significant differences in terms of whole volatile emissions. Our results demonstrate that induced plant responses caused by a non-host herbivore can disrupt the attraction of an egg parasitoid to a plant that is also infested with its hosts.

  20. Skin glands, poison and mimicry in dendrobatid and leptodactylid amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Sciani, Juliana M; Pimenta, Daniel C; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Haddad, Célio F B; Jared, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    In amphibians, secretions of toxins from specialized skin poison glands play a central role in defense against predators. The production of toxic secretions is often associated with conspicuous color patterns that warn potential predators, as it is the case of many dendrobatid frogs, including Ameerega picta. This species resembles the presumably nontoxic Leptodactylus lineatus. This study tests for mimicry by studying the morphology and distribution of skin glands, components of skin secretion, and defensive behavior. Dorsal skin was studied histologically and histochemically, and skin secretions were submitted to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and assays for proteolytic activity. We found that poison glands in A. picta are filled with nonprotein granules that are rich in carbohydrates, while L. lineatus glands present protein granules. Accordingly, great amounts of proteins, at least some of them enzymes, were found in the poison of L. lineatus but not in that of A. picta. Both species differ greatly on profiles of gland distribution: In L. lineatus, poison glands are organized in clusters whose position coincides with colored elements of the dorsum. These regions are evidenced through a set of displays, suggesting that poison location is announced to predators through skin colors. In contrast, A. picta presents lower densities of glands, distributed homogeneously. This simpler profile suggests a rather qualitative than quantitative investment in chemical defense, in agreement with the high toxicity attributed to dendrobatids in general. Our data suggest that both species are toxic or unpalatable and transmit common warning signals to predators, which represents a case of Müllerian mimicry.

  1. Determinação dos compostos basicos totais de pescado e o seu potencial para avaliação do frescor

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Chaves Amanajas

    1985-01-01

    Resumo: A presente pesquisa relata as condições analíticas e as aplicações de um novo método químico para avaliação do estado de frescor de pescados. O método foi denominado de Bases Totais (BT) para diferenciá-lo do teste convencional das Bases Voláteis (BV). Nos testes para o desenvolvimento do método, foram usadas as seguintes espécies: sardinha (Sardinella aurita) cavalinha (Scomber scombrus), corvina (Micropogon fournieri) pescada-foguete (Macrodon ancylodon), corimbatã (Prochilodus ret...

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of the Neotropical fish family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Frable, Benjamin W; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Migratory detritivores of the characiform family Prochilodontidae occur throughout the freshwaters of much of South America. Prochilodontids often form massive populations and many species achieve substantial body sizes; a combination that makes them one of the most commercially important fish groups on the continent. Their economic significance notwithstanding, prochilodontids have never been the subject of a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Using three mitochondrial and three nuclear loci spanning all prochilodontid species, we generated a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Our results strongly support monophyly of the family and the three included genera. A novel, highly supported placement of Ichthyoelephas sister to the clade containing Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus diverges from a previous morphological hypothesis. Most previously hypothesized interspecific relationships are corroborated and some longstanding polytomies within Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus are resolved. The morphologically similar P. brevis, P. lacustris, P. nigricans and P. rubrotaeniatus are embedded within what is herein designated as the P. nigricans group. Species limits and distributions of these species are problematic and the group clearly merits taxonomic revision.

  3. Dynamic species distribution models from categorical survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszkowska, Nova; Milligan, Gregg; Burrows, Michael T; Freckleton, Rob; Spencer, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    1. Species distribution models are static models for the distribution of a species, based on Hutchinson's niche concept. They make probabilistic predictions about the distribution of a species, but do not have a temporal interpretation. In contrast, density-structured models based on categorical abundance data make it possible to incorporate population dynamics into species distribution modelling. 2. Using dynamic species distribution models, temporal aspects of a species' distribution can be investigated, including the predictability of future abundance categories and the expected persistence times of local populations, and how these may respond to environmental or anthropogenic drivers. 3. We built density-structured models for two intertidal marine invertebrates, the Lusitanian trochid gastropods Phorcus lineatus and Gibbula umbilicalis, based on 9 years of field data from around the United Kingdom. Abundances were recorded on a categorical scale, and stochastic models for year-to-year changes in abundance category were constructed with winter mean sea surface temperature (SST) and wave fetch (a measure of the exposure of a shore) as explanatory variables. 4. Both species were more likely to be present at sites with high SST, but differed in their responses to wave fetch. Phorcus lineatus had more predictable future abundance and longer expected persistence times than G. umbilicalis. This is consistent with the longer lifespan of P. lineatus. 5. Where data from multiple time points are available, dynamic species distribution models of the kind described here have many applications in population and conservation biology. These include allowing for changes over time when combining historical and contemporary data, and predicting how climate change might alter future abundance conditional on current distributions.

  4. Diadophis Puntatus Puntatus (Southern Ring-neck Snake) Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    DIADOPHIS PUNCTATUS PUNCTATUS (Southern Ring-necked Snake). PREDATION. Here I present the first record of Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) predator on a Diadophis p. punctatus. At ca. 1100h on l2 February2 013,I observed a B. lineatus eating a katydid in Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary (26.2730'N, 81.6079"W;WGS 84), Collier Co., Florida, USA. The hawk was in a Pond Cypress tree on the edge of a small prairie bordered on one side by a cypress swamp and by pine woodland on the other. Immediately upon consuming the katydid, the hawk flew to the ground ca. 1.5 m from an elevated boardwalk to grab an adult D. punctatus. It then flew with the snake in its talons to a branch 3 m high ca. l0 m from the boardwalk. The hawk stretched and otherwise manipulated the struggling snake (Fig.1) before consuming the still moving snake. Although snakes are a well-known component of B. lineatus diet (Clark1 987A. Field Guide to the Hawks of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, Massachusetts 198 pp.), I found only one literature reference to Red-shouldered Hawks eating Ring-neck Snakes (Fisher 1893.Hawks and Owls of the United States in their Relation to Agriculture. U.S. Dept. Agric., Div Ornith. Mamm. Bull. 3). That specimen was from Canton, New York (taken 26 Oct IBBB) and would be a D. p. edwardisii (Northern Ring-necked Snake), while the snake reported on here is a Diadophis p. punctatus (USNM Herp Image 2847a -c). Based on evidence presented by Fontanella et al. (2008. Mol. Phylogenet Evol.46:1049-1070), D. p. edwardisii and D. p. punctatus are likely different species.

  5. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively.

  6. Germinação de sementes após a passagem pelo trato gastrointestinal de morcegos (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Karla Rossaneis

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de sementes espécies vegetais dos gêneros Piper, Solanum, Cecropia e Ficusapós sua passagem pelo trato gastrointes-tinal dos morcegos frugívoros Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspi-cillata e Sturnira lilium. Os morcegos foram capturados no Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, na cidade de Londrina (PR). Para cada espécie vegetal foram considerados o controle e quatro tratamentos, formados pelas sementes obtidas das fezes ...

  7. Three New Species of the Genus Batracomorphus Lewis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) from China%中国长突叶蝉属三新种记述(半翅目:叶蝉科:叶蝉亚科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡平; 沈雪林

    2010-01-01

    记述长突叶蝉属Batracomorphus Lewis 3新种:铲突长突叶蝉B.spadix,sp.nov.、棒突长突叶蝉B.clavatus,sp.nov.和直缘长突叶蝉B.lineatus,sp.nov.,并确认Iassus dentatus Kuoh,1986和Iassus trunctus Li et Wang,1993为Batracomorphus allionii(Turton,1802)的新异名.模式标本保存在苏州大学昆虫标本室.

  8. 中国长突叶蝉属三新种记述(半翅目:叶蝉科:叶蝉亚科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡平; 沈雪林

    2010-01-01

    记述长突叶蝉属Batracomorphus Lewis3新种:铲突长突叶蝉B.spadix,sp.nov.、棒突长突叶蝉B.clavatus,sp.nov.和直缘长突叶蝉B.lineatus,sp.nov.,并确认Iassus dentatus Kuoh,1986和Iassus trunctus Li et Wang,1993为Batracomorphus allionii(Turton,1802)的新异名。模式标本保存在苏州大学昆虫标本室。

  9. Trypanorhyncha from sharks of southern brazilian coast: Eutetrarhynchus vooremi sp. n. and two other species parasites of Mustelus (Pisces, Triakidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carmona de São Clemente

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, Eutetrahynchus vooremi sp. n., a cestode of the order Trypanorhyncha is proposed. The new species was recovered from sharks under the genus Mustelus (Pisces, Triakidae and was compared to E. ruficollis, E. lineatus, E. leucomelanus, E. litocephalus and E. macrotrachelus. The main character, among others, considered to differ the species refers to the eggs filament, size of proglottids, tentacular hooks and lenght of pars postbulbosa. Two other known species are studied: Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819 from M. canis (Mitchill, 1815 and Nybelinia (N. lingualis (Cuvier, 1817 from M. schmitti Springer, 1939 representing new host records.

  10. Genes and evolution of two-domain toxins from lynx spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachkova, Maria Y; Slavokhotova, Anna A; Grishin, Eugene V; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2014-03-01

    Spiderines are comparatively long polypeptide toxins (∼110 residues) from lynx spiders (genus Oxyopes). They are built of an N-terminal linear cationic domain (∼40 residues) and a C-terminal knottin domain (∼60 residues). The linear domain empowers spiderines with strong cytolytic activity. In the present work we report 16 novel spiderine sequences from Oxyopes takobius and Oxyopes lineatus classified into two subfamilies. Strikingly, negative selection acts on both linear and knottin domains. Genes encoding Oxyopes two-domain toxins were sequenced and found to be intronless. We further discuss a possible scenario of lynx spider modular toxin evolution.

  11. Patterns of lineage diversification in rabbitfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Philippe; Lemer, Sarah; Aurelle, Didier

    2007-07-01

    Fishes of the tropical Indo-Pacific family Siganidae comprise 28 species, characterized by their body proportions and their colour patterns. A mitochondrial phylogeny of 20 Siganidae species was produced to infer their evolutionary history. Three distinct, major clades were found, that also correspond to the early radiation of the family into three major ecological types: fusiform species that also live in schools on the inshore reef flats (S. canaliculatus, S. fuscescens, S. luridus, S. rivulatus, S. spinus, S. sutor); deep-bodied species including brightly coloured ones whose adults live in pairs on the reef front (S. corallinus, S. doliatus, S. puellus, S. punctatus, S. unimaculatus, S. virgatus, S. vulpinus), and species that live in small schools in mangroves, estuaries and estuarine lakes (S. guttatus, S. javus, S. lineatus, S. randalli, S. vermiculatus); and a third clade including a cosmopolitan species, S. argenteus, the only species of the family known to possess a pelagic, prejuvenile stage and S. woodlandi, a recently described species from New Caledonia and morphologically close to S. argenteus. The partition of the genus into two sub-genera, Lo (erected for S. unimaculatus, S. vulpinus and three related species possessing a tubular snout) and Siganus (all the other species), had no phylogenetic rationale. The present results indicate that the tubular snout, which apparently results from ecological specialization, is a recent acquisition within the deep-body clade. The Western Indian Ocean endemic S. sutor appeared as the sister-species of the Red Sea endemic S. rivulatus within a well-supported subclade that also included S. canaliculatus and S. fuscescens. S. spinus did not appear as sister-species to S. luridus. S. lineatus haplotypes formed a paraphyletic group with S. guttatus, and an early isolation of Maldives S. lineatus was suggested. Unexpectedly, S. randalli did not appear as the sister-species of S. vermiculatus, but its haplotypes instead

  12. Diversidade de dietas na assembléia de linguados (Teleostei, Pleuronectiformes do manguezal da Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil

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    Paulo de Tarso da C. Chaves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Citharichthys arenaceus e C. spilopterus são responsáveis por cerca de 70% da abundância de linguados no manguezal da Baía de Guaratuba. Nesta assembléia, da qual também fazem parte Symphurus tessellatus, Etropus crossotus e Achirus lineatus, a dieta baseia-se em crustáceos, peixes, Gastropoda e Polychaeta. Seu hábito alimentar não é altamente especializado, mas algumas particularidades são observadas: em Citharichthys spp e S. tessellatus, Caridea e peixes são os principais itens ingeridos; em E. crossotus, Amphipoda Gammaridae; e em A. lineatus, Polychaeta. As espécies cuja dieta está em maior grau sobreposta com outras são também aquelas cujo hábito é mais generalista. Em tais casos, a natureza dos itens complementares confere identidade própria a cada dieta, atenuando uma eventual competição interespecífica. Os resultados da associação entre a abundância das populações e o grau de participação dos itens na dieta de cada uma reforçam esta conclusão.Citharichthys arenaceus and C. spilopterus form together almost 70% of the flatfishes abundance in the mangrove of the Guaratuba Bay. The other important Pleuronectiformes species are Symphurus tessellatus, Etropus crossotus and Achirus lineatus. The main food items of this assemblage are composed by crustacea, fishes, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. None of these species was found to have a highly specialized diet, but they present some particularities: Citharichthys spp and S. tessellatus have a diet based on Caridea and fish, E. crossotus based on Amphipoda Gammaridae, and A. lineatus based on Polychaeta. The partially overlapping habits correspond to the most generalized diets, so any interspecific competition would be reduced by the nature of the complementary food items. Additiortal support for this hypothesis is provided by the results conceming both the species density and the percent occurrence of the prey categories.

  13. Compuestos organoclorados residuales en dos especies ícticas de la Ciénaga Grande del Bajo Sinú, Córdoba, Colombia

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    Edineldo Lans C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinación de niveles de pesticidas organoclorados (POCs en especies ícticas, procedentes de la Ciénaga Grande del Bajo Sinú, Materiales y métodos. Se usó un cromatógrafo de gases (Perkin Elmer Autosystem XL con detector captura de electrones y columna capilar 5% de difenil y 95% de dimetilpolisiloxano, de 30 m, 0.25 mm de diámetro interno y 0.25 μm de espesor de película. Las especies estudiadas fueron: bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae y moncholo (Hoplias malabaricus, durante las estaciones seca y húmeda. Resultados. El porcentaje de recuperación de los pesticidas determinados se registró entre 80 y 84%, mientras que los límites de detección y cuanficación fueron 0.02 a 0.18 ng/g y 0.2 a 1.8 ng/g respectivamente. La desviación estándar relativa permaneció por debajo del 7% en todos los casos. De los pesticidas organoclorados investigados, en las dos especies se detectaron el a-clordano, endrín y aldrín. Se observó que a medida que aumenta el peso y el tamaño del pez, aumenta la concentración de los plaguicidas en una de las especies. Los niveles de concentración de los POCs estuvieron en el intervalo de 0.35-3.75 y 0.48-5.49 ng/g para el moncholo (Hoplias malabaricus and bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae respectivamente. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de aparición de POCs y los niveles detectados en las especies podrían ser consecuencia de actividades antropogénicas realizadas en los alrededores de la ciénaga. La correlación entre las medidas biométricas y la concentración depende de la especie íctica. Las concentraciones encontradas en las especies estudiadas, Hoplias malabaricus y Prochilodus magdalenae no representan toxicidad letal inmediata.

  14. The polypores of Guizhou Province I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Thirty five species of polypores (Basidiomycetes,Aphyllophorales) from Guizhou Province are found from a field trip in Kuankuoshui Nature Reserve and Mt. Qianling, among which 6 species are new to China and 19 species are new to Guizhou. Three taxa in Antrodiella and Perenniporia were identified to genus, but no names were found for them in the literature, and they are evidently previously unkown species. Fomitopsis pinicola ( Sw.: Fr. ) P. Karst., Ganoderma applanatum (pers. ) Pat., Ganoderma tsunodae (Lloyd) Trott. and Rigidoporus lineatus (Pers. :Fr. ) Ryvarden are the pathogens on several trees of angiosperms in the province.%对贵州省宽阔水自然保护区和黔灵山的多孔菌进行了初步研究,共发现多孔菌35种,其中中国新纪录种6个,贵州新记录种19个.3个分类单位只鉴定到属,它们明显是中国以前未报道的种类,或为新种.松生层孔菌Fomitopsispinicola(Sw.:Fr.)P.Karst.,树舌灵芝Ganoderma applanatum(pers.)Pat.,粗皮灵芝Ganodermatsunodae(Lloyd)Trott.和平丝硬孔菌Rigidoporus lineatus(Pers.:Fr.)Ryvarden为树木病原菌.

  15. Contrasting molecular and morphological evidence for the identification of an anomalous Buteo: a cautionary tale for hybrid diagnosis

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    William S. Clark

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Buteo was found dead as a road-kill south of Sacramento, California, and was thought to represent the first state record of the eastern Red-shouldered Hawk (B. lineatus lineatus;. It is now a specimen in the Museum of Wildlife and Fisheries Biology (WFB 4816 at the University of California, Davis. We examined this specimen and found that many of its plumage characters differed from all other adult Red-shouldered Hawks examined, including nominate adults. Plumage markings and measurements were intermediate between Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis, ssp calurus and Red-shouldered Hawk (ssp elegans, leading us to hypothesize that the bird was a hybrid. However, mtDNA sequences and nuDNA microsatellites proved definitively that the bird was a Red-shouldered Hawk, most likely of eastern origin. This case illustrates that apparent hybrids or apparent vagrants could be individuals with anomalous phenotypes caused by rare genetic variation or novel epigenetic effects.

  16. Frugivoria de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae e seus efeitos na germinação das sementes

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    Therys Midori Sato

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os morcegos frugívoros são componentes fundamentais na manutenção e regeneração de florestas tropicais, pois ao se alimentarem, promovem a mobilidade das sementes dos frutos em que se alimentaram. Muito se discute sobre os efeitos da passagem das sementes no trato digestivo dos morcegos sobre a taxa e velocidade de germinação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi examinar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros na Estação Experimental de Itirapina para descobrir quais utilizam significativamente os frutos de Cecropia pachystachya. Foi testada a importância dos quirópteros na dispersão e germinação desta espécie de planta. Para isso, os morcegos foram capturados no período de agosto de 2005 a julho de 2006, suas fezes foram recolhidas e as sementes de C. pachystachya separadas. Os testes de germinação foram feitos para duas espécies de morcegos, Artibeus liuratus e Platyrrhinus lineatus, e suas taxas de germinação comparadas com amostras de sementes coletadas da planta (controle. Foram feitos cinco repetições com 30 sementes em cada gerbox para cada teste. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras germinadoras " Mangelsdorf" , com temperatura de 25°C, luminosidade e umidade constante por 40 dias. Houve uma alta porcentagem de germinação das sementes encontradas em A. lituratus (79,3% e não diferiu estatisticamente das sementes controle (76%. Esses resultados foram superiores a P. lineatus (52%. Em relação ao Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, esse resultado foi semelhante, sendo 2,73 para A. lituratus, 2,66 para o controle e 1,80 para P. lineatus. Com esse resultado, tem-se que a passagem das sementes de C. pachystachya pelos morcegos não aumentou a porcentagem, nem a velocidade de germinação delas, quando comparado com o controle, sendo até menor para P. lineatus. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que, o efeito da passagem do trato digestivo dos morcegos na germinação pode sofrer influências que

  17. Cytochrome b barcoding, molecular systematics and geographic differentiation in rabbitfishes (Siganidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemer, Sarah; Aurelle, Didier; Vigliola, Laurent; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Borsa, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The fish genus Siganus (Siganidae) is widely distributed in the coastal habitats of all the tropical Indo-Pacific, with 28 nominal species recognized so far, based on general morphology and coloration patterns. A mitochondrial phylogeny of 16 Siganidae species, based on the partial nucleotide sequences of the cytochome b gene, was produced. Individual haplotypes of given nominal species generally clustered at the extremity of long branches, thus validating the current taxonomy. However, S. lineatus haplotypes formed a paraphyletic group including S. guttatus, while S. fuscescens haplotypes were apparently splitted in two groups, calling for further investigation. S. woodlandi and S. argenteus formed a monophyletic group, as expected from their close morphological relatedness, although they were separated by a substantial, 14.5-16.3% nucleotide distance. Among eight species sampled from different locations across the Indo-West Pacific, S. argenteus and S. spinus showed the lowest degree of geographic differentiation, a result that correlated well with their extended pelagic larval stage. Fixation index estimates were high in all six other species tested (S. doliatus, S. fuscescens, S. lineatus, S. puellus, S. punctatus, S. vulpinus). The cytochrome b gene fragment chosen here proved useful as a barcode in Siganidae.

  18. A List of Cicadellidae Insects in Henan Province ( Hemiptera, Cicadellidae)%河南省叶蝉名录(半翅目:叶蝉科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱兰华; 申效诚; 沈雪林; 蔡平

    2011-01-01

    The present dissertation is a systematic study on Cicadellidae in Henan province. Two hundred and nine species of Cicadellidae from Henan are described and are grouped into 86 genera, 18 subfamilies. Seven species are new to the cicadellid fauna of China, including Iassus latus Shen et Cai, sp. Nov. , Iassus acutangulus Shen et Cai, sp. Nov. , Iassus flangus Shen et Cai, sp. Nov. ,Batracomorphus spadix Shen et Cai,sp. Nov. ,Batracomorphus clavatus Shen et Cai,sp. Nov. , Batracomorphus arcuatus Shen et Cai, sp. Nov. And Batracomorphus lineatus Shen et Cai, sp. Nov.%对河南省叶蝉科昆虫进行系统分类,共记述河南省分布的18个亚科86属209种,其中包括7个新种,即宽板短头叶蝉(Iassus latus Shen et Cai,sp.nov.)、刻缘短头叶蝉(Iassus acutangulus Shen et Cai,sp.nov.)、突缘短头叶蝉(Iassus flangus Shen et Cai,sp.nov.)、铲突长突叶蝉(Batracomorphus spadix Shen et Cai,sp.nov.)、棒突长突叶蝉(Batracomorphus clavatus Shen et Cai,sp.nov.)、拱缘长突叶蝉(Batracomorphus arcuatus Shen et Cai,sp.nov.)、直缘长突叶蝉(Batracomorphus lineatus Shen et Cai,sp.nov.).

  19. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Carollinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Bueno, Larissa M; Caun, Dianelli L; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Among species of the Chiroptera, spermatogenesis and the fully differentiated spermatozoa differ in morphological and ultrastructural detail. This study therefore aimed to ultrastructurally characterize the spermatogenesis and the spermatozoa of Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomidae) and compare the process with other species of bats and mammals. The differentiation of spermatogonia is similar to other bats and to Primates, with three main spermatogonia types: Ad, Ap, and B. Meiotic divisions proceed similarly to those of most mammals and spermiogenesis is clearly divided into 12 steps, in the middle of the range of developmental steps for bats (9-16 steps). The process of acrosome formation is similar to that found in Platyrrhinus lineatus, with the acrosome formed by two different types of proacrosomal vesicles. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon is similar to other bats already described and resembles the typical mammalian sperm model; however, its morphology differs from other mammals such as marsupials and rodents, on account of a simpler spermatozoon head morphology, which indicates a pattern that is more closely related to the sperm cells of humans and other primates. Our data demonstrated that spermatogenesis in C. perspicillata presents great ultrastructural similarities to P. lineatus. This pattern is not surprising, because both species belong to the same family (Phyllostomidae); however, it is observed that C. perspicillata presents some characteristics that are more closely related to phylogenetically distant species, such as Myotis nigricans (Vespertilionidae), which is a fact that deserves attention.

  20. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J M; Bilde, T

    2008-08-05

    Interaction within groups exploiting a common resource may be prone to cheating by selfish actions that result in disadvantages for all members of the group, including the selfish individuals. Kin selection is one mechanism by which such dilemmas can be resolved. This is because selfish acts toward relatives include the cost of lowering indirect fitness benefits that could otherwise be achieved through the propagation of shared genes. Kin selection theory has been proved to be of general importance for the origin of cooperative behaviors, but other driving forces, such as direct fitness benefits, can also promote helping behavior in many cooperatively breeding taxa. Investigating transitional systems is therefore particularly suitable for understanding the influence of kin selection on the initial spread of cooperative behaviors. Here we investigated the role of kinship in cooperative feeding. We used a cross-fostering design to control for genetic relatedness and group membership. Our study animal was the periodic social spider Stegodyphus lineatus, a transitional species that belongs to a genus containing both permanent social and periodic social species. In S. lineatus, the young cooperate in prey capture and feed communally. We provide clear experimental evidence for net benefits of cooperating with kin. Genetic relatedness within groups and not association with familiar individuals directly improved feeding efficiency and growth rates, demonstrating a positive effect of kin cooperation. Hence, in communally feeding spiders, nepotism favors group retention and reduces the conflict between selfish interests and the interests of the group.

  1. In situ hybridization of bat chromosomes with human (TTAGGGn probe, after previous digestion with Alu I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Cassia Faria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to verify the ability of the enzyme Alu I to cleave and/or remove satellite DNA sequences from heterochromatic regions in chromosomes of bats, by identifying the occurrence of modifications in the pattern of fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomeric DNA. The localization and fluorescence intensity of the telomeric DNA sites of the Alu-digested and undigested chromosomes of species Eumops glaucinus, Carollia perspicillata, and Platyrrhinus lineatus were analyzed. Telomeric sequences were detected at the termini of chromosomes of all three species, although, in C. perspicillata, the signals were very faint or absent in most chromosomes. This finding was interpreted as being due to a reduced number of copies of the telomeric repeat, resulting from extensive telomeric association and/or rearrangements undergone by the chromosomes of Carollia. Fluorescent signals were also observed in centromeric and pericentromeric regions in several two-arm chromosomes of E. glaucinus and C. perspicillata. In E. glaucinus and P. lineatus, some interstitial and terminal telomeric sites were observed to be in association with regions of constitutive heterochromatin and ribosomal DNA (NORs. After digestion, these telomeric sites showed a significant decrease in signal intensity, indicating that enzyme Alu I cleaves and/or removes part of the satellite DNA present in these regions. These results suggest that the telomeric sequence is a component of the heterochromatin, and that the C-band- positive regions of bat chromosomes have a different DNA composition.

  2. Chemical composition of lipids from native and exotic fish in reservoirs of the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Maia de Morais

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current study analyzes the chemical composition of lipids in fish commonly found in the dams of the state of Ceará, Brazil, namely Pterygoplichthys pardalis (bodó, Hoplias malabaricus (traira, Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, Prochilodus brevis (curimatã and Oreochomis niloticus (tilapia. The animals were collected during the summer and Folch extraction procedure was used for the extraction of lipids, whilst Iupac methodology (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [Iupac], 1987 was used to methylate the fatty acids. Methyl esters were analyzed by GC/MS and the different components in fish oil were identified. Palmitic acid, C16:0 (35.71-45.02%, was the saturated fatty acid with the highest percentage, while oleic acid, C18:1Δ9 (10.62-25.29% had the highest percentage among the unsaturated fatty acids. The chemical composition of analyzed freshwater fish lipids revealed low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  3. Potamodromous migrations in the Magdalena River basin: bimodal reproductive patterns in neotropical rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Casas, S; Jiménez-Segura, L F; Agostinho, A A; Pérez, C M

    2016-07-01

    Magdalena River basin potamodromous fishes have two annual reproductive seasons: the subienda in the first half of the year and the mitaca in the second. Both upstream migrations are c. 30-45 days long; after that, with the onset of the rainy season, fishes spawn and remain in the river (resident individuals) or start a downstream movement (the bajanza) to return to the Magdalena floodplain lakes (nursery, shelter and feeding grounds). Due to their particular gonad development the bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae and probably the comelón Leporinus muyscorum are physiologically able to undertake two annual basin migrations. In the presence of dams or hydropower structures, fishes are able to find alternative migration routes. Some species should be re-classified in their migratory behaviour. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Mercúrio total em pescado de água-doce Total mercury in fresh-water fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Emi KITAHARA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O mercúrio total foi quantificado em 11 espécies de peixes de água-doce, originárias de diferentes procedências comerciais. O mercúrio vem sendo utilizado na agricultura, indústria, mineração, etc., e isso tem provocado drástico aumento desse metal no meio ambiente, atingindo em conseqüência a cadeia trófica. Nesse contexto, o homem, através do consumo de alimentos, principalmente pescado, torna-se vulnerável à ação tóxica do mercúrio. Os resultados obtidos para as espécies mandi - Pimelodus maculatus, tilápia - Tilapia sp, sagüiru - Cyphocharax modestus, lambari - Astyanax sp, sardela - Triportheus sp, traíra - Hoplias sp, curimbatá - Prochilodus sp e dourado - Salminus sp, comercializadas em São Paulo - SP, e para o jaraqui - Semaprochilodus insignis, curimatã - Prochilodus nigricans e matrinchã - Brycon sp, procedentes da Amazônia brasileira, variaram de 0,01 a 0,39mgHg/Kg. Os resultados observados, sob o ponto-de-vista de Saúde Pública, estão abaixo dos limites de tolerância brasileiros, de 0,5 e 1,0mgHg/Kg, para espécies não-predadoras e predadoras, respectivamente. Nas espécies de hábito alimentar carnívoro (traíra e dourado os teores de mercúrio foram de 0,26 a 0,39mgHg/Kg. A expectativa de ocorrência de espécies excessivamente contaminadas não se confirmou.Total mercury was quantified in 11 fresh-water fish species from different commercial origins. Mercury has been used in agriculture, industry, mining, etc. Consequently there was an increase of mercury discharge to environment, that enters into the throphic chain. In this context, the man, through the consumption of foods, mainly fishery products, turns vulnerable to mercury. The obtained results for mandi - Pimelodus maculatus, tilápia - Tilapia sp, sagüiru - Cyphocharax modestus, lambari- Astyanax sp, sardela - Triportheus sp, traíra - Hoplias sp, curimbatá - Prochilodus sp and dourado - Salminus sp, commercialized in São Paulo-SP, and

  5. First cytogenetic analysis of Ichthyoelephas humeralis (Günther, 1860) by conventional and molecular methods with comments on the karyotypic evolution in Prochilodontidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursellino, Mauro Nirchio; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Abad, César Quezada; Blacio, Wilmer Arnoldo Moreira; Romero, Omar Rogerio Sánchez; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We used conventional cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa, C-banding, Ag-NOR), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes to investigate the karyotype and cytogenetic characteristics of Ichthyoelephas humeralis (Günther, 1860) from Ecuador. The specimens studied have a karyotype with 2n=54 biarmed chromosomes (32 M + 22 SM) and C-positive heterochromatin located on the centromeric, pericentromeric, interstitial, and terminal regions of some chromosomes. The nucleolus organizer regions occurred terminally on the long arm of chromosome pair 2. FISH confirmed the presence of only one 18S rDNA cluster with nonsyntenic localization with the 5S rDNA. Cytogenetic data allow us to refute the earlier morphological hypothesis of a sister relationship between Semaprochilodus Fowler, 1941 and Ichthyoelephas Posada Arango, 1909 and support the molecular proposal that Ichthyoelephas is a sister group to the monophyletic clade containing Prochilodus Agassiz, 1829 and Semaprochilodus. PMID:28123682

  6. First cytogenetic analysis of Ichthyoelephas humeralis (Günther, 1860 by conventional and molecular methods with comments on the karyotypic evolution in Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio Tursellino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We used conventional cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with 5S and 18S rDNA probes to investigate the karyotype and cytogenetic characteristics of Ichthyoelephas humeralis (Günther, 1860 from Ecuador. The specimens studied have a karyotype with 2n=54 biarmed chromosomes (32 M + 22 SM and C-positive heterochromatin located on the centromeric, pericentromeric, interstitial, and terminal regions of some chromosomes. The nucleolus organizer regions occurred terminally on the long arm of chromosome pair 2. FISH confirmed the presence of only one 18S rDNA cluster with nonsyntenic localization with the 5S rDNA. Cytogenetic data allow us to refute the earlier morphological hypothesis of a sister relationship between Semaprochilodus Fowler, 1941 and Ichthyoelephas Posada Arango, 1909 and support the molecular proposal that Ichthyoelephas is a sister group to the monophyletic clade containing Prochilodus Agassiz, 1829 and Semaprochilodus.

  7. A REVISION OF THE PACHNEPHORUS FROM THE AFROTROPICAL REGION (COLEOPTERA, CHRYSOMELIDAE

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    Stefano Zoia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Pachnephorus Chevrolat, 1837 from the Afrotropical Region is given and a key to the species is provided. Types of all the previously known taxa have been studied and redescribed; 40 new taxa are described and illustrated: P. achardi n. sp. (Mali, P. aequatorianus n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. aethiopicus n. sp. (Etiopia, P. baehri n. sp. (Namibia, P. balyi n. sp. (Angola, P. beharui n. sp. (Etiopia, P. bertiae n. sp. (Madagascar, P. bezdeki n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. bracarumvestitus n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. bryanti n. sp. (Mali, P. burgeoni n. sp. (Natal, P. camerun­ensis n. sp. (Camerun, P. cristiani n. sp. (Namibia, P. crocodilinus n. sp. (Zambia, P. daccordii n. sp. (Yemen, P. danielssoni n. sp. (Sierra Leone, P. danielssoni congoanus n. ssp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. demeyeri n. sp. (Rep. Pop. Congo, P. episternalis n. sp. (Madagascar, P. fabianae n. sp. (Congo, P. fasciatus occidentalis n. ssp. (Nigeria, P. gardinii n. sp. (Etiopia, P. gerstaeckeri n. sp. (Namibia, P. grobbelaarae n. sp. (South Africa, P. hajeki n. sp. (Madagascar, P. lopatini n. sp. (Senegal, P. malicus n. sp. (Mali, P. maroantsetranus n. sp. (Madagascar, P. medvedevi n. sp. (Zambia, P. mo­seykoi n. sp. (Chad, P. pacificus n. sp. (Central Afr. Rep., P. parentorum n. sp. (Ghana, P. poggii n. sp. (Somalia, P. regalini n. sp. (Zambia, P. rigatoi n. sp. (Kenya, P. sas­sii n. sp. (Guinea Bissau, P. shuteae n. sp. (Rep. South Africa, P. sprecherae n. sp. (Madagascar, P. uhligi n. sp. (Namibia, P. willersi n. sp. (Namibia. The lectoypes of P. conspersus Gerstaecker, 1871, P. senegalensis Achard, 1914, P. latior Pic, 1921 and P. testaceipes Fairmaire, 1880 are designated. A new synonymy (P. costatus Achard, 1914 n. syn. of P. torridus Baly, 1878 and a nomenclatural change (Mecistes lineatus (Pic, 1921 n. comb. for Pachnephorus lineatus Pic, 1921 are proposed; the Lectotypes of M. lineatus and of M. flavipes (Gerstaecker, 1855 are designated.

  8. Partição de recursos alimentares entre quatro espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Partition of food resources among four species of frugivorous bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Feleciano Muller

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil in three different areas: a primary forest, a disturbed primary forest and an open area. Within 207 hours of capture, 990 individuals were collected, 939 of them being fruit-eating bats. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 were the four most collected species in a total of 899 individuals. A. lituratus was found in greater number in all the areas, showing significant variation in relation to the size of the forests. The partition of food resources among the four most collected species was known through the analysis of their feces. The coexixtence of these species can be explained by their investing in different foods or their diverging time activity.

  9. [Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulewicz, Anna; Hildebrand, Joanna; Okulewicz, Jerzy; Perec, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis. This review presents data from Europe and Poland on the prevalence of helminth and protozoan parasites in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The most common nematodes were geohelminths: Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis and Toxocara leonina. As concerning Trichinella genus T. britovi was found more often than T. spiralis. Among tapeworms the following species were recorded: Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Detected cases of E. multilocularis together with an increase of fox population during last few years create a potential human risk of infection. The results of many studies indicate rare presence of trematodes (Alaria alata) and protozoan parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania spp., Eimeria spp.) in red foxes.

  10. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

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    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  11. Endoparasites of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M; Macchioni, F; Dell'omodarme, M; Prati, M C; Calderini, P; Gabrielli, S; Iori, A; Cancrini, G

    2009-07-01

    A parasitologic study on 129 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Tuscany (central Italy) was carried out in 2004-2006. Five intestinal species were found at necropsy: Dipylidium caninum (prevalence 57.3%), Mesocestoides lineatus (45.4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (39.1%), Toxocara canis (9.1%), and Toxascaris leonina (5.4%). Other parasites not associated with the intestine included Crenosoma vulpis (14.7%), Capillaria aerophila (7.0%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (7.0%), and filarial parasites (17.8%). Coprologic tests were less sensitive and less specific in identifying parasites than direct examinations at necropsy. Trichinella larvae were not found in muscles submitted to artificial digestion. By immunologic assay, antigens of Echinococcus spp. were detected in fecal samples of 20 foxes, but results could not be confirmed by fecal examination or molecular tests.

  12. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal.

  13. Avaliação hematológica de espécies de peixe de valor comercial da planície de inundação do rio Paraná, Brasil Hematological evaluation in commercial fish species from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Cocuzza das Eiras; Gilberto Cezar Pavanelli; Souza,Ângela Teresa Silva e; Ricardo Massato Takemoto; Maria José Tavares Ranzani de Paiva

    2000-01-01

    Em fevereiro de 1994 e março de 1995, foram analisados 144 exemplares pertencentes a 20 espécies mais representativas da bacia do rio Paraná, Estado do Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Retirou-se sangue para as determinações de: número de eritrócitos; hematócrito; taxa de hemoglobina; contagem diferencial dos leucócitos e cálculo dos índices hematimétricos absolutos: volume corpuscular médio, hemoglobina corpuscular média e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Para P. lineatus e...

  14. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-02-01

    Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea.

  15. Notes on chromosome numbers and C-banding patterns in karyotypes of some weevils from central Europe (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea: Apionidae, Nanophyidae, Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Dorota; Holecová, Milada; Rozek, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and C-banding patterns of sixteen weevil species are presented. The obtained results confirm the existence of two groups of species with either a small or large amount of heterochromatin in the karyotype. The first group comprises twelve species (Apionidae: Oxystoma cerdo, Eutrichapion melancholicum, Ceratapion penetrans, Ceratapion austriacum, Squamapion flavimanum, Rhopalapion longirostre; Nanophyidae: Nanophyes marmoratus; Curculionidae: Centricnemus (=Peritelus) leucogrammus, Sitona humeralis, Sitona lineatus, Sitona macularis, Sitona suturalis). In weevils with a small amount of heterochromatin, tiny grains on the nucleus during interphase are visible, afterwards appearing as dark dots during mitotic and meiotic prophase. The second group comprises four species from the curculionid subfamily Cryptorhynchinae (Acalles camelus, Acalles commutatus, Acalles echinatus, Ruteria hypocrita) which possess much larger heteropycnotic chromosome parts visible during all nuclear divisions. The species examined have pericentromeric C-bands on autosomes and on the X chromosome.

  16. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

  17. Surveying woodland raptors by broadcast of conspecific vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, J.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Kopeny, M.

    1990-01-01

    We surveyed for raptors in forests on study areas in five of the eastern United States. For Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperi), Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus), and Barred Owls (Strix varia) the contact rates obtained by broadcasting taped vocalizations of conspecifics along roads were significantly greater than contact rates obtained by only looking and listening from the roadside. Broad-winged Hawks (B. platypterus) were detected only after their calls were broadcast. Most raptors were detected within 10 min of the beginning of the broadcasts. Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) and Goshawks (A. gentilis) nested infrequently on our study areas, and we were unable to increase detections of these species. Generally, point count transects along woodland roads, from which conspecific vocalizations were broadcast, resulted in higher species specific detection rates than when walking, driving continuously, or only looking and listening for raptors at roadside stops.

  18. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2016-10-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  19. Nomenclatural changes in the planthopper tribe Hemisphaeriini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae, with the description of a new genus and a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Meng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nomenclatural changes are made in three previously described genera in the planthopper tribe Hemisphaeriini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae: Issinae, viz Gergithus Stål, 1870, Mongoliana Distant, 1909 and Hemisphaeroides Melichar, 1903. In addition, a new genus, Gnezdilovius gen. nov., with Gergithus lineatus Kato, 1933 as its type species, is described for 40 species formerly included in Gergithus, and the generic characteristics of the latter genus is revised. One new species, Gergithus frontilongus sp. nov. from China (Yunnan, is described and illustrated. One additional Gergithus species, previously misidentified as G. signatifrons Melichar, 1906 from Siberut Island, is mentioned and illustrated. Gergithus contusus Walker, 1851 is transferred to Mongoliana and Hemisphaerius atromaculatus Distant, 1916 and H. fuscoclypeatus Distant, 1916 are transferred to Hemisphaeroides. Checklists for all four genera are provided detailing the nomenclatural changes and a key to the 19 genera of Hemisphaeriini is provided. Morphological diversity and distribution of the genera are briefly discussed.

  20. Comparative analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of bat species from the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fabiane F; Puga, Cintia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of bats belonging to the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Carollia perspicillata-Carollinae; Desmodus rotundus-Desmodontinae; Glossophaga soricina-Glossophaginae; Phyllostomus discolor-Phyllostominae and Platyrrhinus lineatus-Stenodermatinae). The study demonstrated that the RAGs of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands and an intra-abdominal complex, composed of paraurethral glands and a prostate with two (Desmodontinae and Stenodermatinae) or three (Carollinae, Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae) different regions, with the absence of the seminal vesicles; this pattern possibly evolved from a process of compaction of the prostatic regions from an ancestor with three regions.

  1. Relatedness facilitates cooperation in the subsocial spider, Stegodyphus tentoriicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruch, Jasmin; Heinrich, Lisa; Bilde, T.;

    2009-01-01

    Background Cooperative hunting and foraging in spiders is rare and prone to cheating such that the actions of selfish individuals negatively affect the whole group. The resulting social dilemma may be mitigated by kin selection since related individuals lose indirect fitness benefits by acting...... selfishly. Indeed, cooperation with genetic kin reduces the disadvantages of within-group competition in the subsocial spider Stegodyphus lineatus, supporting the hypothesis that high relatedness is an important pre-adaptation in the transition to sociality in spiders. In this study we examined...... the consequences of group size and relatedness on cooperative feeding in the subsocial spider S. tentoriicola, a species suggested to be at the transition to permanent sociality. Results We formed groups of 3 and 6 spiders that were either siblings or non-siblings. We found that increasing group size negatively...

  2. Distribuição e ciclo de vida das espécies de peixes mais abundantes da laguna de Marapendi, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. R. Barbien

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly sampling from march 1981 to april 1983 using beach seines, cast nets and gill nets indicated six species, Xenomelaniris brasiliensis, Brevoortia pectinata, Geophagus brasiliensis, Gerres aprion, Genidens genidens and Achirus lineatus, as the most abundant fishes in the Marependi Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, BraziL The species presented a long reproductive period and the recruitment distributed throughout the year. Analysis of the mean catch per unit effort in relation to month, sampling areas, and environmental factors along with analysis of the length frequency distribution by depth strata indicated that the spatial distribution, related to depth and occurrence of submerged aquatic vegetation seem to be the main factors regulating the species distribution. Alteration of the environmental conditions in the lagoon due to the opening of the Marapendi channel in 1984 caused significative modification in the distribution and abundance patterns of the main species. The impact of these alterations in the Marapendi Lagoon fish community has yet to be determined.

  3. Neuropeptide discovery in the Araneae (Arthropoda, Chelicerata, Arachnida): elucidation of true spider peptidomes using that of the Western black widow as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan

    2015-03-01

    The public deposition of large transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) datasets for the Araneae (true spiders) provides a resource for determining the structures of the native neuropeptides present in members of this chelicerate order. Here, the Araneae TSA data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts using the recently deduced neuropeptide precursors from the Western black widow Latrodectus hesperus as query templates. Neuropeptide-encoding transcripts from five spiders, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, Stegodyphus mimosarum, Stegodyphus lineatus, Stegodyphus tentoriicola and Acanthoscurria geniculata, were identified, including ones encoding members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP), GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, orcokinin, proctolin, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) families. A total of 156 distinct peptides were predicted from the precursor proteins deduced from the S. mimosarum transcripts, with 65, 26, 21 and 12 peptides predicted from those deduced from the A. geniculata, L. tredecimguttatus, S. lineatus and S. tentoriicola sequences, respectively. Among the peptides identified were variant isoforms of FLP, orcokinin and TRP, peptides whose structures are similar to ones previously identified from L. hesperus. The prediction of these atypical peptides from multiple spiders suggests that they may be broadly conserved within the Araneae rather than being species-specific variants. Taken collectively, the data described here greatly expand the number of known Araneae neuropeptides, providing a foundation for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in this important Chelicerate order.

  4. Phyllostomidae assemblage (Chiroptera: Mammalia in altitudinal forests at the Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Southeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many studies have demonstrated the ecological relevance and great biodiversity of bats in Brazil. However, mountainous areas have been disproportionately less sampled, mainly in the Southeast. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the richness and diversity of Phyllostomidae, the most diverse bat family, in different forest types in Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, trying to understand the causes of possible differences. The Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca is inserted in the Serra da Mantiqueira's domain, in an Atlantic Forest region known as "Zona da Mata", state of Minas Gerais, with an altitudinal range between 1200-1784 meters. The study was conducted in two forest types, classified as "Nanofloresta Nebular" and "Floresta Nebular", whose respective data on richness and diversity were compared. The bats were captured with 8-10 mist nets for 14 months (April 2011 to May 2012 and four nights per month totaling 62,171.25 m2h of capture effort. A total of 392 captures (12 species belonging to the Phyllostomidae family were obtained. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (59.9%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (11.3%, Artibeus lituratus (8.7% and Carollia perspicillata (7.6%. The two sampled areas presented differences in bat richness, diversity and species composition, and this difference was predominantly influenced by S. lilium. It is likely that the observed difference in the assembly of bats between the two study sites depends on the variation in floristic composition. The records of A. lituratus and P. lineatus in a few months of the year and close to Ficus mexiae bearing ripe fruits suggests that at least these species move to the park for a few periods of the year in search of food resources, possibly moving through the altitudinal landscapes.

  5. ATLANTIC BATS: a dataset of bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Stevens, Richard D; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Mello, Marco Aurelio Ribeiro; Garbino, Guilherme Siniciato Terra; Varzinczak, Luiz H; Faria, Deborah; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Kerches Rogeri, Patricia; Regolin, André Luis; de Oliveira, Hernani Fernandes Magalhães; Costa, Luciana de Moraes; Barros, Marília A S; Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Crepaldi de Morais, Mara Ariane; Kavagutti, Vinicius Silva; Passos, Fernando C; Marjakangas, Emma-Liina; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-09-06

    Bats are the second most diverse mammal order and they provide vital ecosystem functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient flux in caves) and services (e.g., crop pest suppression). Bats are also important vectors of infectious diseases, harboring more than 100 different virus types. In the present study, we compiled information on bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America, a species-rich biome that are highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. ATLANTIC BATS dataset comprises 135 quantitative studies carried out in 205 sites, which cover most vegetation types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest: dense ombrophilous forest, mixed ombrophilous forest, semideciduous forest, deciduous forest, savanna, steppe, and open ombrophilous forest. The dataset includes information on more than 90,000 captures of 98 bat species of 8 families. Species richness averaged 12.1 per site, with a median value of 10 species (ranging from 1 to 53 species). Six species occurred in more than 50% of the communities: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Glossophaga soricina, and Platyrrhinus lineatus. The number of captures divided by sampling effort, a proxy for abundance, varied from 0.000001 to 0.77 individuals/hour*m(2) (0.04+0.007 individuals/hour*m(2) ). Our dataset reveals a hyper-dominance of eight species that together that comprise 80% of all captures: Platyrrhinus lineatus (2.3%), Molossus molossus (2.8%), Artibeus obscurus (3.4%), Artibeus planirostris (5.2%), Artibeus fimbriatus (7%), Sturnira lilium (14.5%), Carollia perspicillata (15.6%), and Artibeus lituratus (29.2%). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in retinoid levels and metabolism among gastropod lineages: imposex-susceptible gastropods lack the ability to store retinoids in the form of retinyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesto, Manuel; Castro, L Filipe C; Santos, Miguel Machado

    2013-10-15

    The presence of a complex retinoid system was long believed to be a chordate/vertebrate novelty. However, recent findings indicate otherwise since the gastropod mollusk Osilinus lineatus was found to have the capacity to store retinoids in the form of retinyl esters (REs), a key feature to maintain a homeostatic control of retinoid levels. Here, we investigated whether such a complex retinoid system is widely distributed among gastropod lineages. Additionally, since one of the most spectacular examples of endocrine disruption in the wild, the masculinization of female gastropods (imposex) by the retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, tributyltin (TBT), has been linked with perturbed retinoid signaling, we also investigated if retinoid storage mechanisms in the form of retinyl esters were present in imposex-susceptible gastropods. Initially, we determined the presence of both polar (active retinoic acid isomers) and nonpolar retinoids (retinol, REs) in selected gastropod species: the limpet Patella depressa and the imposex-susceptible whelks Nucella lapillus and Nassarius reticulatus. Although all species presented active retinoid forms, N. lapillus and N. reticulatus were shown to lack nonpolar retinoids. The absence of REs, which are the common retinoid storage form found in vertebrates and in O. lineatus suggest that those species are unable to use them to maintain a homeostatic control of their retinoid levels. In order to further clarify the retinoid metabolic pathways in imposex-susceptible gastropods, a retinoid exposure study was carried out with N. lapillus. The results demonstrate that although N. lapillus is able to metabolize several retinoid precursors, it lacks the capacity to store retinoids as REs. Whether the lack of retinoid storage mechanisms in the form of REs in imposex-susceptible gastropods plays an important role in the susceptibility to RXR agonists warrants additional studies.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships and natural hybridization in rabbitfishes (Teleostei: Siganidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriiwa, Kaoru; Hanzawa, Naoto; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Kimura, Seishi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2007-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of rabbitfishes (the family Siganidae), ecologically important components as primary consumers in coral reef communities, were studied using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer 1) sequence analyses. The analyses of 19 out of 22 species known in the Western Pacific region revealed that siganids are genetically clustered into three major clades, which are characterized by some morphological and ecological traits. Between closely related species, such as Siganus guttatus-S. lineatus and S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and also between two morphs recognized in S. corallinus, small but discernible genetic differentiation was found, implying that the components of each pair are incipient species. On the other hand, between some species, such as S. fuscescens-S. canaliculatus and S. unimaculatus-S.vulpinus, individuals of the components of each pair were found to construct a genetic mosaic, suggesting that the components are genetic color morphs within a single biological species, respectively. Moreover, evidence from morphological characters, mtDNA, and nuclear DNA gave an inconsistent picture of identity and relationships for several individuals. They were regarded as hybrids or individuals with hybrid origin. Such instances were observed not only between closely related species, such as S. guttatus-S. lineatus, S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and two morphs (incipient species) in S. corallinus, respectively, but also between distantly related ones, such as S. corallinus-S. puellus. In fact, more than half of the species examined (11/20, when treating the two morphs in S. corallinus as independent species) were involved in hybridization. These suggest that hybridization is much more prevalent in marine fishes than previously assumed, and may have some relevance to their diversification.

  8. Moderate multiple parentage and low genetic variation reduces the potential for genetic incompatibility avoidance despite high risk of inbreeding.

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    Cristina Tuni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyandry is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. In the absence of direct benefits of mating with different males, the underlying basis for polyandry is enigmatic because it can carry considerable costs such as elevated exposure to sexual diseases, physical injury or other direct fitness costs. Such costs may be balanced by indirect genetic benefits to the offspring of polyandrous females. We investigated polyandry and patterns of parentage in the spider Stegodyphus lineatus. This species experiences relatively high levels of inbreeding as a result of its spatial population structure, philopatry and limited male mating dispersal. Polyandry may provide an opportunity for post mating inbreeding avoidance that reduces the risk of genetic incompatibilities arising from incestuous matings. However, multiple mating carries direct fitness costs to females suggesting that genetic benefits must be substantial to counter direct costs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic parentage analyses in two populations from Israel and a Greek island, showed mixed-brood parentage in approximately 50% of the broods. The number of fathers ranged from 1-2 indicating low levels of multiple parentage and there was no evidence for paternity bias in mixed-broods from both populations. Microsatellite loci variation suggested limited genetic variation within populations, especially in the Greek island population. Relatedness estimates among females in the maternal generation and potentially interacting individuals were substantial indicating full-sib and half-sib relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Three lines of evidence indicate limited potential to obtain substantial genetic benefits in the form of reduced inbreeding. The relatively low frequency of multiple parentage together with low genetic variation among potential mates and the elevated risk of mating among related individuals as corroborated by our genetic data suggest that there are limited

  9. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

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    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  10. Metals and metalloid in eight fish species consumed by citizens of Bogota D.C., Colombia, and potential risk to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrera, Ellie Anne; Barragán-Gonzalez, Rafael G

    2016-01-01

    The risk imposed upon society by consumption of foods contaminated with metals and metalloids is an environmental problem attributed to the increasing number of mining extraction activities currently underway in Colombia. The aim of the current study was to determine concentrations of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and a metalloid arsenic (As) found in the species of most consumed fish species by citizens of Bogota D.C. (Colombia), and the consequent potential risk to human health was also calculated. Muscle samples of 8 fish species were obtained from 203 individuals collected through 2014. The highest metal concentrations detected were as follows: Pb in Oncorhynchus sp. (0.0595 mg/kg), Cd and Hg in Pimelodus sp. (0.0072 and 0.0579 mg/kg, respectively), and As in Scomberomorus sp (0.0471 mg/kg). Further, the levels of metal accumulation from consumption of fish were calculated utilizing the metal pollution index (MPI), with elevated values noted in Pseudoplatystoma sp (0.06 mg/kg), followed by Scomberomorus sp. and Centropomus sp. (0.05 and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively). The multiple species exposure index (Em.j) denotes the level of exposure associated with consumption of various contaminated fish species, and this level occurred in decreasing order as follows: As > Pb > Cd > Hg. The multiple chemical exposure index (Ej.m), which accounts for exposure to multiple metals, identified Prochilodus sp. as the species displaying the highest level of exposure per consumption (8 × 10(-6) mg/kg-d). The target hazard quotient (THQ) for human health indicated high levels for Hg and Cd in Prochilodus sp. (0.026 and 0.005, respectively), Pb in Oncorhynchus sp (0.025), and As in Pseudoplatistoma sp. and Centropomus sp. (0.023). Data emphasize the need for adequate nationwide public policies that promote assessment of exposure levels and potential adverse health risks associated with dietary consumption of different fish species in Colombia.

  11. Avaliação do desembarque pesqueiro efetuado em Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil Evaluation of the Manacapuru fishing landings, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Cristiano Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade comercial pesqueira na Amazônia Central é predominantemente direcionada para Manaus, porém o perfil das atividades pesqueiras efetuadas nos demais centros também é fundamental para o planejamento do setor. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa caracterizar o perfil da produção pesqueira que abastece a cidade de Manacapuru, um dos principais centros urbanos da Amazônia Central. Os desembarques ocorreram a partir de canoas a remo, canoas motorizadas, barcos de pesca e recreios. A média mensal de pescado desembarcado foi de 175,36 ± 39,50 t em 2001 e de 172,13 ± 18,88 t em 2002, não apresentando diferença significativa entre anos (P>0,05. Dos 35 nomes específicos comuns registrados, observa-se que curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., e tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram os itens mais importantes nos dois anos, e piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii em 2002. Sete sub-regiões foram visitadas pela frota pesqueira, destacando-se Baixo-Solimões e o rio Purus.The fishing commercial activity in Central Amazonia is mainly addressed for Manaus, even so the characteristics of the fishing activities directed to other important urban centers in the region are also fundamental for the planning of the sector. In this context, the present work seeks to characterize the profile of the fishing production that lands in the city of Manacapuru, one of the main urban centers of Central Amazon. Fish landings were done from non-motorized canoes, motorized canoes, fishing ships and pleasure boats. The monthly average of landed fish was of 175,36 ± 39,50 ton in 2001 and of 172,13 ± 18,88 ton in 2002, not presenting significant difference among years (P>0,05. Of the 35 registered common species names, it is observed that curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., and tambaqui (Colossoma

  12. Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil = Hematologia, micronúcleos e anomalias nucleares em peixes do rio São Francisco, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Robson Seriani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans, values are unprecedented in the literature, with MCV and absolute number of leukocytes found superior to other species of the family Characidae. The frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, the three species not showed seasonal differences between the sites. However, the highest values were found in summer. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the increase in the percentage of micronuclei with nuclear abnormalities.O presente estudo teve como objetivo, determinar as variáveis leucocitárias, eritrocíticas, freqüência de micronúcleos e anomaliasnucleares nos eritrócitos do sangue periférico de Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus e Myleus micans de um trecho da bacia do rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, no verão e inverno. Trombóctios, hematócrito e a serie leucocítária de P.argenteus, foi influenciado pela sazonalidade. Em P. maculatus, não ocorreram diferenças significativas para todos os leucócitos e trombócitos. Em M. micans, os valores são inéditos na literatura, apresentando VCM e número absoluto de leucócitos superior ao encontrados para outras espécies dafamília Characidae. A freqüência de micronúcleos e de anomalias nucleares nos eritrócitos, nas três espécies não apresentou diferenças sazonais e entre os pontos amostrais. No entanto, os valores mais altos foram encontrados no verão. Além disso, foi possível observar correlação positiva entre o aumento da

  13. Influência da biomassa inicial sobre o crescimento e a produtividade de peixes em sistema de policultivo Effects of initial biomass on fish growth and fishery productivity in polyculture systems

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    Zélia Maria Pimentel Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o crescimento dos peixes, a composição das espécies e a produtividade de quatro policultivos (P75, P78, P87 e P207, visando melhorar o manejo e a produtividade pesqueira dos pequenos açudes (0,1-5,0ha do Semi-Árido brasileiro. Simulou-se as condições desses açudes em viveiros com 120 e 5.000 m² de área, sem renovação de água, utilizando moderada quantidade de adubo e fertilizante. A biomassa inicial variou de 75 a 207kg ha-1, sendo formada por: tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, curimatã pacu (Prochilodus argenteus, carpa comum (Cyprinus carpio, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum e tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris. Os peixes apresentaram baixo crescimento (The analysed species composition, fish growth, and productivity of four polycultures (P75, P78, P87, and P207 with the objective to improve the small reservoir (0.1-5 ha fishery management and productivity in the Brazilian semiarid region were conducted a experiment. To mimic reservoir conditions, we used 120 and 5,000m² ponds and evaporation and infiltration water loss was replaced. In addition, manure and fertilizers were used only moderately. The initial biomass of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, 'tambaqui' Colossoma macropomum, 'curimatã pacu' Prochilodus argenteus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and 'tucunaré' Cichla ocellaris ranged from 75 to 207kg ha-1. The fish showed low growth rates (<0.01g g-1 d-1 after 75 days of culture (P78 and P87. Tambaqui, tilapia, and curimatã growth decreased after 53 days (P75. In moderate biomass, tambaqui grew less than carp and curimatã did (P207. Tilapia productivity reached 720kg ha-1yr-1 (P78 and fell to 220kg ha-1yr-1 because of the reproductive process (P75 and P207. The carp productivity of 1,600kg.ha-1yr-1 was higher than those of the other fish (P87. The 75kg.ha-1 biomass level (60:30:4:3:3% of tilapia, tambaqui, carp, curimatã, and tucunaré, respectively optimized fish growth and productivity. The use of

  14. Evaluation of the effects of pressure gradients on four Brazilian freshwater fish species

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    Paulo dos Santos Pompeu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to experimentally evaluate the behavior of Brazilian freshwater fish species when submitted to a gradual increase in pressure, as well as sudden decompression's effects simulating the passage through a hydroelectric turbine. Four species from the São Francisco river basin were tested: Astyanax bimaculatus, Hypostomus sp., Leporinus reinhardti and Prochilodus costatus. For all of them mortality rates due to decompression were extremely low. However, the symptoms related to decompression, such as bulged eyes and hemorrhage, were not observed only in Hypostomus sp., and were more frequent the larger the pressure values were, considering the values from which decompression was performed. All these symptoms decreased significantly after 24 h of observation. With the increase in pressure inside the apparatus, the four tested species moved towards the upper levels. This behavior could make possoble the implementation of bypass downstream fish passages in dams constructed in Brazil.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar experimentalmente o comportamento de espécies brasileiras quando submetidas a um aumento gradual na pressão, bem como os efeitos de uma descompressão rápida simulando a passagem por uma turbina hidrelétrica. Quatro espécies da bacia do rio São Francisco foram testadas: Astyanax bimaculatus, Hypostomus sp., Leporinus reinhardti e Prochilodus costatus. Para todas elas as taxas de mortalidade devido à descompressão foram extremamente baixas. No entanto, sintomas relacionados à descompressão, como exoftalmia e hemorragia só não foram observados em Hypostomus sp., sendo mais freqüentes quanto maior o valor de pressão a partir do qual realizou-se a descompressão. Todos estes sintomas diminuíram significativamente após 24 horas de observação. Com o aumento da pressão no aparato, as espécies testadas se movimentaram em direção aos níveis superiores. Este comportamento sugere a possibilidade de se

  15. Caracterização da Frota Pesqueira de Coari, Médio Rio Solimões (Amazonas-Brasil

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    Sandrelly Oliveira Inomata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos físicos, operacionais e econômicos da frota pesqueira no município de Coari, situado na região do Médio Rio Solimões (Estado do Amazonas, foram analisados por meio de dados coletados diretamente no porto de desembarque e dados secundários no período de setembro de 2008 a outubro de 2009 obtidos junto às entidades de classe ligadas à atividade pesqueira. A frota pesqueira do município de Coari foi composta, em sua maioria, por canoas motorizadas (7,6 m ±1,29, e por barcos pesqueiros com média de comprimento de 12,8 m (±1,94. Os lagos Coari e Juçara foram os principais locais de captura do pescado. A malhadeira foi o apetrecho de pesca mais utilizado durante as expedições. As principais espécies capturadas foram as da ordem Characiforme, jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, Myleus sp., sardinha (Triportheus spp. e curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans. O componente dos custos mais oneroso durante as pescarias de canoas motorizadas foi o combustível. Estes resultados podem subsidiar a elaboração de políticas de investimento e medidas adequadas de manejo para melhoria da atividade pesqueira na região de Coari.

  16. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

  17. ESTABILIDADE QUÍMICA E MICROBIOLÓGICA DE "MINCED FISH" DE PEIXES AMAZÔNICOS DURANTE O CONGELAMENTO

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    JESUS Rogério Souza de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a estabilidade química e microbiológica de "minced fish" produzidos, em condições industriais, com espécies de peixes da Amazônia: aracú-comum (Schizodon fasciatus, branquinha-comum (Potamorhina latior, branquinha-de-cabeça-lisa (P. altamazonica, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraqui-de-escama-fina (Semaprochilodus taeniurus, jaraqui-de-escama-grossa (S. insignis, mapará (Hypophthalmus edentatus, pacú-comum (Metynnis hypsauchen, pacú-manteiga (Mylossoma duriventre e pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomum, durante 150 dias sob congelamento a -18±1°C e -36±1°C. Com base no pH, nitrogênio das bases voláteis totais (N-BVT, substâncias reagentes ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS e contagens de aeróbios mesófilos a 35°C e psicrotróficos a 7°C, e de coliformes totais e fecais (NMP, os "minced fish" obtidos a partir das espécies de peixes estudadas e de misturas de espécies (aracú+curimatã+pirapitinga; jaraqui+branquinha mantiveram-se em condições de consumo, durante o período experimental. Os resultados obtidos são altamente promissores sob o ponto de vista tecnológico.

  18. Food resources used by three species of fish in the semi-arid region of Brazil

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    Márcio J. da Silva

    Full Text Available Temporary and semi-permanent aquatic habitats in semi-arid Brazil have been reported as important sites supporting a diverse fish fauna. As such, they must be able to trophically sustain fish species that feed at different trophic levels. This study aims to describe the diets of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, Hoplias malabaricus and Prochilodus brevis in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil, providing evidence of the importance of these habitats as supporters of large consumers like fish. The diet of the three species studied was diverse, feeding on a range of food items, from microalgae to fish. Despite that, a few items were more important to each of the study species. These results and the relatively high rates of stomach fullness indicate that a diverse and abundant food range is available in the study sites, but species seem to select some food resources. The present study provides evidence that despite being highly variable, intermittent and semi-permanent aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil are able to trophically sustain large consumers.

  19. Morcegos capturados no município de Belo Horizonte, 1999-2003 Bats found in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, 1999-2003

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    L.V. De Knegt

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, realizaram-se 18 capturas de morcegos em Belo Horizonte, sendo uma na estação seca e uma na estação chuvosa em cada regional administrativa. Foram capturados 316 exemplares, com predominância de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 55,1%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810, 24,4% e Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 10,1%, além de Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Anoura caudifer (Geoffroy, 1818, totalizando oito espécies, pertencentes às famílias Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae. Observou-se concentração de partos próximos à estação chuvosa, coincidindo com a maior disponibilidade de alimento para os períodos de prenhez e lactação. Partos esporádicos ocorreram durante todo o ano. Entre 2002 e 2003, foi feita uma busca em diversos tipos de abrigos nas mesmas regionais. Os abrigos foram registrados, e as espécies encontradas foram somadas às já observadas na primeira parte deste estudo, bem como às citadas em diversas fontes bibliográficas e disponíveis em coleções acadêmicas, gerando um relato atualizado das espécies de morcegos já encontrados no município.A total of 316 bats were trapped using mist nets during 18 nights at nine strategic locations in Belo Horizonte between 1999 and 2001. The most predominant species were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 55.1%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810, 24.4%, and Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 10.1%. Other trapped species were: Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Anoura caudifer (Geoffroy, 1818, resulting in a total of eight species belonging the families Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae. All species bred predominantly during the wet season, probably because of the need for food availability to support energetic

  20. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (Vulpes vulpes dell'Appennino settentrionale

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    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: Toxocara canis (46.4%, Taenia sp. (17%, Uncinaria stenocephala (11.8%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11.1%, Ancylostoma caninum (3.9%, Taenia hydatigena (3.3%, Trichuris vulpis (3.3%, Dipylidium caninum (2.6%, Taenia crassiceps (2%. All foxes were negative for Trichinella sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: Toxocara canis (46,4%, Taenia sp. (17%, Uncinaria stenocephala (11,8%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11,1%, Ancylostoma caninum (3,9%, Taenia hydatigena (3,3%, Trichuris vulpis (3,3%, Dipylidium caninum (2,6%, Taenia crassiceps (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per Trichinella sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  1. ¿La práctica de la siembra directa en cultivos de soja favorece las poblaciones de acridios (Orthoptera: Acrididae en el partido de Benito Juárez?

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    Daniel SCUFFI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando el desarrollo del cultivo de soja en siembra directa en el partido de Benito Juárez, y que algunos autores sostienen que esta práctica favorece los acridios, se evaluó la riqueza de especies y la abundancia en soja con siembra directa y convencional. Se registraron siete especies (Aleuas lineatus Stål, Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner, Baeacris pseudopunctulatus (Ronderos, Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner y Scotussa lemniscata (Stål. La riqueza de especies acumulada en los diferentes cultivos fue similar (p> 0,05. En soja de primera con siembra directa, se registraron 2,3 ± 0,19 especies, en soja de primera con siembra convencional 1,45 ± 0,15 especies y en soja de segunda con siembra directa 2,25 ± 0,28 especies. Dichroplus elongatus fue la especie más abundante en todos los cultivos y en todos los momentos. Las restantes presentaron baja abundancia y se registraron en algunos momentos. No existió diferencia (p> 0,05 en la abundancia de tucuras entre los cultivos y en las diferentes fechas de muestreo. La baja riqueza de especies registrada estaría relacionada con la baja diversidad vegetal de los cultivos. Este estudio no mostró diferencias en la abundancia y riqueza de especies de acuerdo a la labranza utilizada.

  2. Advances in the Ordovician graptolite biostratigraphy of the St Petersburg area, Russia

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    Suyarkova, Anna A.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ordovician shallow-water shelf deposits rich in benthic fauna are exposed along the Russian part of the Baltic–Ladoga Klint. Graptolites occur only at some stratigraphic levels, being comparatively numerous in marls and clays and very rare in carbonate layers. Since the 19th century graptolites have been collected from exposures of the Pakerort, Hunneberg, Billingen, and Volkhov regional stages (Tremadocian–Dapingian, while in the Uhaku–Idavere stratigraphic interval (Darriwilian–lower Sandbian rare graptolites have been found in boreholes. Up to now, only some collections have been systematically studied. On the basis of new graptolite finds, recently the Pterograptus elegans Biozone was established in the upper Aseri Stage and the Nemagraptus gracilis Biozone in the lower Kukruse Stage. Detailed sampling of the Shundorovo Formation (upper Idavere Stage resulted in the discovery of numerous diplograptids at five stratigraphic levels, in association with various dendroids. These diplograptids were provisionally assigned to ?Archiclimacograptus antiquus lineatus Elles & Wood. A systematic description of the late Darriwilian and early Sandbian diplograptids is under preparation.

  3. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesia Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  4. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  5. Time and seasonal patterns of activity of phyllostomid in fragments of a stational semidecidual forest from the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil

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    H. Ortêncio Filho

    Full Text Available Bats may exhibit different patterns of activity, considering aspects concerning niche dynamics as well as the establishment and permanence of the communities in the ecosystems. In this way, the present study analyzed the time and seasonal patterns of activity in different species of frequent phyllostomid bats in remnants of the stational semidecidual forest from the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil. Captures were performed between January and December, 2006, using 32 mist nets set above the soil along the nocturnal period during the four seasons of the year. The daily and seasonal patterns of activity of each species was modeled using generalized linear models with Poisson error. The best model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 did not exhibit a conspicuous time pattern, whereas A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818 was more frequent after the sixth hour and A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 had an activity increase along the night. Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was registered during all sampling hours. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 were the most active during the first four hours. Concerning seasonal pattern, the highest activity of these species was verified during the summer. These data contribute to the information about the ecology of bats in the region, highlighting the high adaptive potential of the species studied in relation to the use of space throughout the night and in to variations in environmental conditions.

  6. Aleuas uruguayensis Carbonell (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Copiocerinae: novel occurrence in the Paranaense biogeographic province

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    Alberto TAFFAREL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El género neotropical Aleuas Stål 1878 está constituido por nueve es - pecies distribuidas a lo largo de América del Sur. Este género se encuentra cer - canamente relacionado con Adimantus Stål 1878, Zygoclistron Rehn 1905 y Epis - copotettix Rehn 1903 (Copiocerinae. Únicamente cuatro especies de Aleuas fue - ron descriptas en distintas provincias fitogeográficas en Argentina: A. gracilis Stål 1878, A. lineatus Stål 1878, A. paranensis Carbonell 2008 y A. vitticollis Stål 1878. En este trabajo proporcionamos nuevos registros de A. uruguayensis y brindamos un mapa de distribución geográfica actualizado, incluyendo las localidades conocidas en las que se encuentra esta especie. Confirmamos la presencia de A. uruguayensis por primera vez en Argentina, en cuatro localidades distantes a 450 kilómetros al noroeste del único registro conocido. De esta manera, ampliamos el rango de distribución de la especie y realizamos un aporte al conocimiento general de la diversidad de ortópteros de Argentina.

  7. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazilian wildlife revealed abundant new genotypes

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    S.N. Vitaliano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from Brazilian wildlife. For this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by PCR based on 18S rRNA sequences. A total of 15 T. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three Dasypus novemcinctus, one Euphractus sexcinctus, three collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla, three whited-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari, one spotted paca (Cuniculus paca, one oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, one lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus and one maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus. DNA from the isolates, originated from mice bioassay, and from the tissues of the wild animal, designated as “primary samples”, were genotyped by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP, using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L258, PK1, CS3 and Apico. A total of 17 genotypes were identified, with 13 identified for the first time and four already reported in published literature. Results herein obtained corroborate previous studies in Brazil, confirming high diversity and revealing unique genotypes in this region. Given most of genotypes here identified are different from previous studies in domestic animals, future studies on T. gondii from wildlife is of interest to understand population genetics and structure of this parasite.

  8. Epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminthes of canids in chaharmahal and bakhtiari province of iran.

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    Reza Nabavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to describe the epidemiological aspects of gastrointestinal helminthic infections of canids in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, the central western part of Iran.Forty nine canid species including, dogs, jackals, foxes and wolves were included in this study. The contents of their alimentary canal were inspected in order to isolate and identify the parasitic helminthes of this system. To identify the worms, the Soulsbey and Anderson identification key and light microscopy were used.Based on necropsy findings, 35 (71.4% of examined animals were infected with at least one helminth. The prevalence of identified worms was as follows: Mesocestoides lineatus (55.1%, Joyeuxiella echinorinchoides (26.5%, Taenia hydatigena (12.2%, T. multiceps (8.2%, T. ovis (2%, Dipylidium caninum (2% and Spirura spp. (2%. No significant difference was noticed between the sampling areas, age and helminth infection. Only a significant difference was observed for prevalence of T. multiceps in wolf (25%, dog (21.4%, jackal and fox (0%, respectively (P < 0.05.The canids in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari harbor several parasites that some kind of them have zoonotic importance and may pose a threat to community health specially in rural areas.

  9. Structure of a bat assemblage (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Serra do Caraça Reserve, South-east Brazil

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    Falcão Fábio de C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.

  10. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  11. A helminthological survey of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the metropolitan area of Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, A L; Ockens, N W; Kapel, C M; Monrad, J

    1996-09-01

    Sixty-eight red foxes were collected from the metropolitan area of Copenhagen and examined for helminth infections. Standard faecal flotations for intestinal parasites gave the following results: Strongyle eggs (75.0%), Capillaria eggs (36.8%), Toxocara eggs (23.5%), Taenia eggs (1.5%), and coccidia oocysts (2.9%). Gastrointestinal helminths were collected from 21 of the 68 foxes with the following specimens found: Uncinaria stenocephala (85.7%), Toxocara canis (81.0%), Taenia spp. (38.1%), Mesocestoides lineatus (23.8%) and Polymorphus spp. (9.5%). Faeces of 39 foxes were examined by the Baermann method for larvae of cardiopulmonary worms with 20 foxes (51.3%) being infected. Fourteen foxes (35.9%) were infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum, 11 (28.2%) were infected with Crenosoma vulpis, and 5 foxes (12.8%) were infected with both species. Muscle digestion of diaphragms from the 68 foxes indicated that none harboured larvae of Trichinella spiralis.

  12. Bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the urbanized area in South of Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.8783

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    Cibele Maria Vianna Zanon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to inventory of bats species present in an urban area, located within the main campus of the State University of Maringá, northwestern Paraná State, and to present data on the diet, reproduction, and activity times of the captured species. Collections were performed monthly, between September 2007 and August 2008, and 377 individuals were captured, belonging to four species from the Phyllostomidae family: Artibeus lituratus (90%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (6.4%, Sturnira lilium (2.4%, and Carollia perspicillata (1.3%. The types of fruit ingested consisted especially of Cecropiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. Among the captured exemplars, 51% were female and 49% male. No pregnant females of A. lituratus or males with descended testicles were captured in autumn, and the largest recorded numbers of these groups were verified in winter. With regard to lactating females, A. lituratus was sampled year-round, with predominance during the warmer season. In spite of the low species diversity, the campus area is used by frugivore species that are generalists and are able to feed and reproduce in urbanized areas. In order to increase that diversity, management programs should be implemented so that urbanization and Chiroptera diversity can coexist with lower risks and losses to ecosystems.

  13. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  14. Entre lapas: primera valoración de los restos de origen marino del yacimiento holoceno de J3 (Hondarribia, País Vasco

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    ÁLVAREZ-FERNÁNDEZ, E., IRIARTE-CHIAPUSSO, M.J., ARRIZABALAGA, A., BARRERA-MELLADO, I., CARRIOL, R.P. ...

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los yacimientos prehistóricos más importantes documentados en la Sierra de Jaizkibel es J3. Situado a tan solo 200 m de la costa, en este abrigo se han excavado diferentes niveles arqueológicos datados a comienzos del Holoceno (Mesolítico. En los niveles B, C, D y F se documentaron enormes acumulaciones de conchas, lo que hace que el yacimiento sea considerado como un “conchero” estratificado. Calculamos que, en el sondeo realizado (ca. 1,5 m2, el número de restos podría alcanzar el medio millón. En este artículo presentamos los primeros datos sobre la explotación de recursos marinos procedentes de J3. Se ha estudiado una muestra del yacimiento. En los cuatro niveles la composición arqueofaunística es similar. Los restos más abundantes son las conchas de gasterópodos (casi exclusivamente lapas, Phorcus lineatus. También hay evidencias de crustáceos (placas de percebes y de balanos, de equinodermos (erizos y de peces (espáridos. La presencia de estos restos arqueofaunísticos en J3 indica que los grupos humanos marisqueaban diferentes animales marinos en la zona intermareal cercana al yacimiento.

  15. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions.

  16. 黑河沿江区域猫寄生蠕虫的区系调查报告%The investigative report on fauna of cat's parasitic helminth at Heihe alone river district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成玉; 孙善华

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了黑龙江流域黑河沿江区域猫寄生蠕虫的调查结果,在剖检的32只猫体内,经鉴定结果,其中吸虫2种:华枝睾吸虫(Clonorchis sinensis)、横川后殖吸虫(Metagonimus yokogawai).绦虫2种:带状泡尾绦虫(Hydatigera taeniaeformis)和线中殖孔绦虫(Mesocestoides lineatus).线虫3种:猫弓首线虫(Toxocara cati)、管形钩口线虫(Ancylostoma tubaeforme)和旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis).它们分属于3纲、7科、7属.在这7种蠕虫中猫弓首线虫感染率为90.63%;带状泡尾绦虫71.88%;线中殖孔绦虫40.63%;为黑龙江流域黑河沿江区域猫寄生蠕虫的优势种.

  17. Frequency distributions of helminths of wolves in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdybekova, A M; Torgerson, P R

    2012-03-23

    Between 2001 and 2008 a total of 41 wolves (Canis lupus) were necropsied in southern Kazakhstan and their intestinal parasite fauna evaluated. Of these animals 8 (19.5%) were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, 15 (36%) with Taenia spp, 13 (31.7%) with Dypilidium caninum, 5 (12.2%) with Mesocestoides lineatus, 15 (36.6%) with Toxocara canis, 16 (39%) with Toxascaris leonina, 8 (19.5%) with Trichuris vulpis, 9 (22%) with Macracanthorhynchus catulinus and 1 (2.4%) with Moniliformis moniliformis. All parasites had an aggregated distribution which followed a zero inflated or hurdle model. Although a small convenience sample of wolves, the results indicate a high prevalence of infection with E. granulosus. The mean abundance (1275 E. granulosus per wolf) was high with individual infected wolves carrying intensities of several thousand parasites. As wolves are common in Kazakhstan they may act as an important host in the transmission of this zoonotic parasite. The wolves were sampled from an area of Kazakhstan where there is a high prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock and where echinococcosis has been observed in wild ungulates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Taxonomic revision of the South American catfish genus Ageneiosus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) with the description of four new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Frank R.V.; Rapp Py-Daniel, Lúcia H.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    The catfish genus Ageneiosus in the exclusively Neotropical family Auchenipteridae is revised. Species of Ageneiosus are widely distributed in all major South American continental drainages except the São Francisco River basin and small rivers along the Brazilian east coast. The taxonomic revision was based on examination of available type specimens, additional museum material and comparisons of original descriptions. A suite of morphometric, meristic and qualitative characters of internal and external anatomy were used to diagnose valid species and determine synonyms. Thirteen valid species are recognized in the genus Ageneiosus, some of which are widely distributed across South America. Ageneiosus pardalis is the only trans-Andean species in the genus. Ageneiosus polystictus and Ageneiosus uranophthalmus are more widely distributed than previously reported. Ageneiosus marmoratus is a junior synonym of Ageneiosus inermis. Ageneiosus dentatus is a valid species and its name is removed from the synonymy of Ageneiosus ucayalensis. Four new species are described: Ageneiosus akamai, Ageneiosus apiaka, Ageneiosus intrusus and Ageneiosus lineatus, all from the Amazon River basin. A dichotomous key for all 13 valid species of Ageneiosus species is provided.

  19. Prey consumed by Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae and franciscana dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine environment in southern Brazil

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    Marta J. Cremer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides information about the diet of sympatric populations of small cetaceans in the Babitonga Bay estuary. This is the first study on the diet of these species in direct sympatry. The stomach contents of seven Guiana dolphins Sotalia guianensis and eight franciscanas Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The prey of both cetaceans was mostly teleost fishes, followed by cephalopods. We identified 13 teleost fishes as part of the diet of the franciscanas, and 20 as part of the diet of Guiana dolphins. Lolliguncula brevis was the only cephalopod recorded, and was the most important prey for both cetaceans. Stellifer rastrifer and Gobionellus oceanicus were also important for franciscana, so as Mugil curema and Micropogonias furnieri were important for Guiana dolphins. Stellifer rastrifer and Cetengraulis edentulus were the fishes with the highest frequency of occurrence for franciscana (50%, while Achirus lineatus, C. edentulus, S. brasiliensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, M. furnieri, M. curema, Diapterus rhombeus, Eugerres brasilianus and G. oceanicus showed 28.6% of frequency of occurrence for Guiana dolphins. Franciscanas captured greater cephalopods than the Guiana dolphins in both total length (z= -3.38; n= 40; p< 0.05 and biomass (z = -2.46; n = 40; p<0.05. All of the prey species identified occur inside the estuary, which represents a safe habitat against predators and food availability, reinforcing the importance of the Babitonga Bay for these cetacean populations.

  20. 黑河沿江地域及俄罗斯布拉戈维申斯克市犬寄生蠕虫区系调查%Investigation of parasitic helminth fauna in dog at Heihe river valley and Bulageweishensike city, Russian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成玉

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了黑河沿江地域(爱辉区、孙吴县、逊克县)及俄罗斯布拉戈维中斯克市寄生蠕虫调查结果,共剖检44只犬,经鉴定,寄生蠕虫的感染率为100%,分别属于3纲、9科、10属,其中吸虫4种为华枝睾吸虫(Clonorchis sinensis ) .日本棘隙吸虫(Echinochasmus japonicus ) .横川后殖吸虫(Metagonimus yokogawai ) .有翼翼形吸虫(Alaria alata ) ;绦虫3种为泡状带绦虫(Taenia hydatigena ) .线中殖孔绦虫(Mesocestoides lineatus ) ,犬复孔绦虫(Dipylidium caninum ) ;线虫3种为犬弓首蛔虫( Toxocara canis ) .犬钩口线虫(Ancylostoma caninum ) .旋毛形线虫( Trichinella spiralis ) .其中以犬弓首蛔虫感染率最高为68.18%,华枝睾吸虫27.27%,线中殖孔绦虫22.72%,旋毛形线虫13.64%.

  1. Diel variation in the catch of fishes and penaeid shrimps in a tropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Allan W.

    1991-07-01

    In Laguna Joyuda, Puerto Rico, 24-h trawl surveys were conducted to test the hypothesis that there is no diel variation in the catch rate of fishes and penaeid shrimps in a turbid, microtidal estuary relatively free of visual predation. The null hypothesis was not rejected for the two most abundant fishes in the lagoon, Eucinostomus gula (Gerreidae) and Achirus lineatus (Bothidae). Conversely, the total number of fishes, Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae), and the engraulids Anchoa cubana and A. hepsetus were collected in significantly higher numbers during hours of darkness. Total penaeid catch was significantly higher in night than in day collections. The most abundant species were Penaeus notialis and P. subtilis, both of which appeared to be strong daytime burrowers. Small penaeids demonstrated greater diel variation in trawl capture rate than larger (subadult) shrimps. Diel variation in capture rate was related to habitat associations of individual species. Fauna resident in the very turbid lagoon demonstrated no diel variation in activity patterns and trawl susceptibility. Those species which spend only the early part of their lives in the lagoon, or live in both turbid and clear water, had significant diel variation in activity and trawl catchability.

  2. Red-shouldered hawk nesting habitat preference in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined nesting habitat preference by red-shouldered hawks Buteo lineatus using conditional logistic regression on characteristics measured at 27 occupied nest sites and 68 unused sites in 2005–2009 in south Texas. We measured vegetation characteristics of individual trees (nest trees and unused trees) and corresponding 0.04-ha plots. We evaluated the importance of tree and plot characteristics to nesting habitat selection by comparing a priori tree-specific and plot-specific models using Akaike's information criterion. Models with only plot variables carried 14% more weight than models with only center tree variables. The model-averaged odds ratios indicated red-shouldered hawks selected to nest in taller trees and in areas with higher average diameter at breast height than randomly available within the forest stand. Relative to randomly selected areas, each 1-m increase in nest tree height and 1-cm increase in the plot average diameter at breast height increased the probability of selection by 85% and 10%, respectively. Our results indicate that red-shouldered hawks select nesting habitat based on vegetation characteristics of individual trees as well as the 0.04-ha area surrounding the tree. Our results indicate forest management practices resulting in tall forest stands with large average diameter at breast height would benefit red-shouldered hawks in south Texas.

  3. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-01

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  4. Modeling the effects of anthropogenic habitat change on savanna snake invasions into African rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Adam H; Buermann, Wolfgang; Lebreton, Matthew; Chirio, Laurent; Smith, Thomas B

    2009-02-01

    We used a species-distribution modeling approach, ground-based climate data sets, and newly available remote-sensing data on vegetation from the MODIS and Quick Scatterometer sensors to investigate the combined effects of human-caused habitat alterations and climate on potential invasions of rainforest by 3 savanna snake species in Cameroon, Central Africa: the night adder (Causus maculatus), olympic lined snake (Dromophis lineatus), and African house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus). Models with contemporary climate variables and localities from native savanna habitats showed that the current climate in undisturbed rainforest was unsuitable for any of the snake species due to high precipitation. Limited availability of thermally suitable nest sites and mismatches between important life-history events and prey availability are a likely explanation for the predicted exclusion from undisturbed rainforest. Models with only MODIS-derived vegetation variables and savanna localities predicted invasion in disturbed areas within the rainforest zone, which suggests that human removal of forest cover creates suitable microhabitats that facilitate invasions into rainforest. Models with a combination of contemporary climate, MODIS- and Quick Scatterometer-derived vegetation variables, and forest and savanna localities predicted extensive invasion into rainforest caused by rainforest loss. In contrast, a projection of the present-day species-climate envelope on future climate suggested a reduction in invasion potential within the rainforest zone as a consequence of predicted increases in precipitation. These results emphasize that the combined responses of deforestation and climate change will likely be complex in tropical rainforest systems.

  5. [Diversity of phytophagous and pathogens and their damage to mints (Mentha)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juronis, Vidmantas; Snieskiene, Vilija

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the phytopathologic condition of mints grown and self-growing in Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University and elsewhere in Lithuania; and to identify the specific constitution, the spread and damage of the main pests and disease agents. Observations and examination were carried out with two local, four introduced mint species and with four hybrids in 1997-2003. We estimated the plant condition by identifying the intensity of the diseases and the abundance, spreading and damage of the pests. During the study we detected and identified the following pests--agents of diseases: Puccinia menthae, Erysiphe biocellata and Verticillium sp.; and phytophagous: Tetranychus urticae, Eupteryx atropunctata, Ovatus crataegarius, Polia persicariae, Agriotes lineatus, Chrysomela coerulans, Cassida viridis, Longitarsus lycopi. The most dangerous mint disease in Lithuania is rust; pests causing more harm are: Eupteryx atropunctata, Longitarsus lycopi. According to our data the least resistant species to most diseases and pests were Mentha arvensis and Mentha piperita, however separate samples of these species were exceptionally resistant. More resistant species was Mentha spicata and its hybrids.

  6. The guest playing host: colonization of the introduced Mediterranean gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus, by helminth parasites in southeastern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione, C D; Font, W F

    2001-12-01

    Parasite surveys of exotic hosts offer the opportunity to examine parasite colonization on different scales (i.e., host individual, host population, host species, and new geographic locality). Ten helminths (Macracanthorhynchus ingens, Mesocestoides lineatus, Oochoristica javaensis, Haematoloechus varioplexus, Mesocoelium monas, Telorchis corti, Cosmocercoides variabilis, Oswaldocruzia leidyi, Skrjabinoptera sp., and a larval acuariid nematode) were recovered from the exotic Mediterranean gecko Hemidactylus turcicus, in southeastern Louisiana. Only 1 exotic parasite, O. javaensis, colonized a new geographic locality, but 7 local helminths colonized a new host species. Helminth communities of H. turcicus were similar in structure to what has been hypothesized or observed for lizards. Thus, communities were composed of generalists and were depauperate (i.e., colonization of individual geckos or host populations was rare for most of the helminths); however, there was significant variation in community structure among local habitats. Although the gecko's behavioral and physiological attributes predict colonization by monoxenous helminths, only 2, C. variabilis and O. leidyi, were recovered. Eight heteroxenous helminths, 2 of which (the acuariid and O. javaensis) were the most widely distributed and abundant, were the better colonizers. The gecko's generalist diet may have exposed it to a diverse parasite fauna and thus been important in determining the helminths that could colonize.

  7. A new species of Grillotia Guiart, 1927 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) with redescriptions of congeners and new synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Ian; Campbell, Ronald A

    2013-06-01

    A new species of Grillotia, G. gastrica n. sp., is described from the stomach musculature of the teleosts Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider) and Sillaginodes punctatus (Cuvier) from off Perth, Western Australia. The new species most closely resembles G. pristiophori Beveridge & Campbell, 2001 in having six hooks in each principal row of the metabasal tentacular armature but differs in having a smooth scolex tegument and in having a band of hooklets running the entire length of the external surface of the tentacle rather than diminishing in width to a single hooklet as occurs in G. pristiophori. Grillotia heptanchi (Vaullegeard, 1899) is redescribed and the details of the mature segment are described for the first time. Grillotia adenoplusius (Pintner, 1903) is redescribed from the type-specimens and is considered to be the larval stage of G. acanthoscolex Rees, 1944 (syns G. spinosissima Dollfus, 1969 and G. microthrix Dollfus, 1969). The adult of G. adenoplusius is also redescribed based on the types of G. spinosissima. The type-specimens of G. dolichocephala Guiart, 1935 and G. minor Guiart, 1935 were re-examined and G. minor is considered to be a synonym of G. dolichocephala as is G. meteori Palm & Schröder, 2001. Based on an examination of the type-specimens, G. scolecina (Rudolphi, 1819) is treated as a species inquirenda. A list is provided of the species currently placed in Grillotia.

  8. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  9. A retrospective study of morbidity and mortality of raptors in Florida: 1988-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, S L; Terrell, S P; Forrester, D J

    1998-06-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on 390 raptors admitted to the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH) during 1988-1994. Representatives of 20 species were admitted; the five most common species were the barred owl (Strix varia, 72), eastern sreech owl (Otus asio, 63), red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus, 49), bald eagle (Haleaeetus leucocephalus, 43), and red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis, 38). A primary clinical diagnosis was determined in 340 (87%) of the 390 raptors admitted to the VMTH; a diagnosis was not made for the remaining 50 birds. Eighty-two percent (279) had traumatic injuries, and 87% (243) of those were directly related to human activity. The primary clinical diagnoses in the remaining 61 raptors included toxicosis (21), poor nutrition (15), infectious disease (11), orphaned young (11), and electrocution (3). The disposition of the 390 raptors was as follows: 61% (237) died or euthanized, 21% (80) released to the wild, 15% (57) outcome unknown, and 4% (16) permanent captives. Necropsies were performed on 32 of the 237 raptors that died.

  10. Decreasing prevalence and seasonal variation of gunshot trauma in raptors admitted to the wildlife center of Virginia: 1993-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jean; Lickey, Adrienne; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2005-09-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify the epidemiologic factors associated with gunshot injuries in raptors presented to the Wildlife Center of Virginia from 1993 to 2002. Of the 3,156 raptors admitted, 118 raptors (3.7%), representing 15 species, were admitted with gunshot trauma as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. The majority of cases consisted of four species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis; 47%), red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus; 14%), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura; 10%), and bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus; 8%). For species with greater than 40 admissions during the study period, the proportion of gunshot trauma of all causes of morbidity and mortality ranged from raptors with gunshot trauma were admitted during the fall and winter months (75%) compared with the spring and summer (25%). A significant decrease in the absolute number of gunshot cases per year was observed over the time period studied. The population-level effect of gunshot trauma is unknown for these species; however, it appears to be minor compared with other causes of morbidity and mortality.

  11. EFFECT OF FENNEL WATER EXTRACTS ON REDUCTION OF FEEDING OF PEA LEAF WEEVIL

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    Barbara Biniaś

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the effect of aqueous extracts from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seeds at 2%, 5%, 10% and 20% concentrations on the feeding of peal leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L. on broad bean (Vicia faba L.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Feeding intensity assessment was conducted by dipping leaves of broad bean in respective solutions of the extracts and determining the area of broad bean leaves, eaten by pea leaf weevil beetle in the 12 hour intervals. In addition, absolute deterrence index and palatability index were calculated. As a result of the observation no significant limiting effect of fennel seed aqueous extracts on the feeding of the pea leaf weevil females was shown. All of the used fennel extracts had inhibitory effect on the feeding of male S. linetaus and the strongest effect of extracts was observed in the first 36 hours of the experiment. The high values of the palatability index (particularly for the females with relatively low absolute deterrence index, indicate limited possibilities of the use of aqueous extracts from fennel seeds for the protection against the feeding of the beetles from the genus Sitona.

  12. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

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    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  13. Relatedness facilitates cooperation in the subsocial spider, Stegodyphus tentoriicola

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    Bilde Trine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cooperative hunting and foraging in spiders is rare and prone to cheating such that the actions of selfish individuals negatively affect the whole group. The resulting social dilemma may be mitigated by kin selection since related individuals lose indirect fitness benefits by acting selfishly. Indeed, cooperation with genetic kin reduces the disadvantages of within-group competition in the subsocial spider Stegodyphus lineatus, supporting the hypothesis that high relatedness is an important pre-adaptation in the transition to sociality in spiders. In this study we examined the consequences of group size and relatedness on cooperative feeding in the subsocial spider S. tentoriicola, a species suggested to be at the transition to permanent sociality. Results We formed groups of 3 and 6 spiders that were either siblings or non-siblings. We found that increasing group size negatively affected feeding efficiency but that these negative effects were reduced in sib-groups. Sib groups were more likely to feed cooperatively and all group members grew more homogenously than groups of unrelated spiders. The measured differences did not translate into differential growth or mortality during the experimental period of 8 weeks. Conclusion The combination of our results with those from previous studies indicates that the conflict between individual interests and group interests may be reduced by nepotism and that the latter promote the maintenance of the social community.

  14. STUDI PERKEMBANGAN STRUK TUR KOMUNITAS IKAN KARANG DI TERUMBU BUATAN BERBENTUK HEXADOME PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI PERAIRAN DI KABUPATEN BULELENG, BALI

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    YUNALDI YUNALDI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs are made to act as temporary substitutes for small areas of damaged original reef. The structures attract fish and other marine organisms, which can eventually be exploited (e.g. for human food, so it is expected that they will form the basis around which natural reefs can grow and recover. The purpose of this study is to document recruitment of organisms onto the artificial structures, evaluate the effectiveness of the structures in terms of shape and recruitment potential, and use the recruitment information to show which species occur in the surrounding reefs. This research was conducted from May-July 2010 in north Bali, in the Village District Gerokgak Patas, Kampung Baru Village in Buleleng District, and Penuktukan Village, Kecematan Tejakula. The research method used was a visual census method to determine the number of fish species and fish abundance on artificial reefs at three different locations. Three replications were performed at each location. 2481 individuals from 18 families (38 species of reef fish were observed. The area with the greatest abundance of fish and the highest number of fish species was in Kampung Baru, with 1170 individuals from 21 species of fish. Dominant reef fish species were Plotosus lineatus (Cat Fish - 510 individuals, Pomacentrus auriventris (Goldbelly damsel- 256 individuals, Dascyllus trimaculatus (Three spot damsel - 335 individuals, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Lyretail Anthias - 320 individuals. A Sorensen analysis showed that reef fish communities on the artificial reefs in the form of 'hexadomes' were not derived from the surrounding reefs.

  15. Morcegos (Chiroptera da área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bats (Chiroptera of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

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    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.

  16. A ictiofauna da bacia do Rio Paraíba do Sul. Biodiversidade e padrões biogeográficos

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    Carlos Roberto S. Fontenelle Bizerril

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish fauna taxonomic composition and biogeographic informations of the Paraíba do Sul river basin are presented. Samples were taken in 75 units between January/1995 and June/1998. Species were identified and classified according its distributional pattern. Biogeographic analyses were conduced using macro, meso and micro scales. A total of 167 species were sampled, being 37 marine species. Among the marine taxa, Awaous tajasica and Oosthetus lineatus seems to spend their whole life histories in the freshwater environments. Sixteen species were introduced in the basin. Most of the native taxa inhabit the rivers’storage zone, mainly in pools. Faunistic similarities between the Paraíba do Sul river basin and other Brazilian rivers suggest that the environment studied were formed by the capture of portions of the rivers Grande and Tietê (Paraná river basin and of small streams that nowadays flows directly from the Serra dos Orgãos hills to the Atlantic ocean. Five main endemism areas were recognised in the studied basin. Another five subareas presented low levels of biotic integrity, resulting in a visible process of extinction.

  17. Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil

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    H. Ortêncio-Filho

    Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.

  18. Fisheries and fishing effort at the Indigenous Reserves Ashaninka/Kaxinawá, river Breu, Brazil/Peru As pescarias e esforço de pesca na Reserva Indígena Ashaninka/Kaxinawá, rio Breu, Brasil/Peru

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    Benedito Domingues do Amaral

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to describe the subsistence fisheries of traditional populations of three ethnic groups, one Ashaninka and two Kaxinawá, lying on the banks of the River Breu. Initially, monitors were trained to fill logbooks with data from fisheries of the villages during an annual cycle (august/1995 august/1996. Based on these data, it was realized an inventory of the most common fish species caught as well as one about the fishing environment. The following results were obtained: i Indians prefer to use pools, locally known as "poços", for fishing; ii the most common caught species are the "mandis" (35%, Pimelodidae, armored catfishes (Loricariidae, specially Hypostomus sp. (25%, the "curimatá" (9%, Prochilodus sp. and the "saburus" (8%, Curimatidae, among others; iii the fishing gears that lead to a high rate of fishing are the native "tingui", nets and bow and arrows; iv fisheries are more intensive during summer; v the fishing effort and their associated factors statistically significant in predicting the catches in the Indian Reserve were f1 = number of fishermen, f2 = (number of fishermen*total time devoted to fishing, f3 = [(number of fishermen*(total time devoted to fishing-(the time displacement] and the factor villages and fishing gears; vi although almost all the fisheries are done by walking to the fishing places, catches increase when paddle boats are used; and vii the most active fishermen belong to Kaxinawá tribe.Este artigo tem o objetivo de descrever a pesca de subsistência das populações tradicionais de uma aldeia Ashaninka e duas Kaxinawá vivendo à beira do rio Breu. Inicialmente, foram treinados monitores para preencher fichas de coleta de dados das pescarias nas aldeias durante um ciclo anual (agosto/1995 agosto/1996. A partir desses dados realizaram-se os inventários das espécies de peixes capturadas e dos ambientes pesqueiros. A análise dos dados foi efetuada por meio de estatística descritiva e explorat

  19. Food resources used by three species of fish in the semi-arid region of Brazil

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    Márcio J. da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporary and semi-permanent aquatic habitats in semi-arid Brazil have been reported as important sites supporting a diverse fish fauna. As such, they must be able to trophically sustain fish species that feed at different trophic levels. This study aims to describe the diets of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, Hoplias malabaricus and Prochilodus brevis in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil, providing evidence of the importance of these habitats as supporters of large consumers like fish. The diet of the three species studied was diverse, feeding on a range of food items, from microalgae to fish. Despite that, a few items were more important to each of the study species. These results and the relatively high rates of stomach fullness indicate that a diverse and abundant food range is available in the study sites, but species seem to select some food resources. The present study provides evidence that despite being highly variable, intermittent and semi-permanent aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil are able to trophically sustain large consumers.Os ambientes aquáticos temporários e semi-permanentes do semiárido brasileiro tem sido mostrados como importantes sítios que possuem uma diversa fauna de peixes. Desta forma, esses ambientes devem ser capazes de sustentar, do ponto de vista trófico, populações de peixes que se alimentam em diversos níveis tróficos. O presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever o hábito alimentar de Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, Hoplias malabaricus e Prochilodus brevis em ambientes aquáticos do semiárido brasileiro, fornecendo evidências da importância desses habitats para manutenção da diversidade de consumidores como os peixes. A composição da dieta das espécies estudadas foi diversificada, já que alimentaram-se de uma variedade de classes de itens, desde microalgas até peixes. Apesar disso, alguns itens foram mais importantes para cada uma das três espécies. Estes resultados, e as altas taxas de reple

  20. Obtención de secuencias microsatelitales especie especificas para Plagioscion magdalenae (Pisces:Sciaenidae

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    Bayona-Vásquez Natalia Juliana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plagioscion magdalenae pertenece a los sciaenidae, ésta familia es ampliamente reconocida por ser un recurso
    pesquero importante a nivel mundial, principalmente de especies marinas o estuarinas. P. magdalenae es una
    especie de importancia económica, dada su frecuencia de captura y comestibilidad de su carne, que se encuentra
    en la parte baja de la cuenca del río Magdalena y en la cuenca del río San Jorge, Colombia, en donde cada vez su comercialización cobra fuerza debido al desplazamiento y disminución en los volúmenes de captura de otras especies como el bagre rayado y bocachico. Lo cual ha llevado a la comúnmente llamada pacora a catalogarse en estado de vulnerabilidad en las cuencas colombianas. Lo anterior, hace necesario la generación de información que sirva de sustento a programas de conservación y uso sostenible de la especie. Una primera aproximación a las poblaciones de P. magdalenae puede ser hecha a través de marcadores moleculares microsatelitales, útiles en trabajos de genética de poblaciones, conservación y manejo de recursos biológicos. Sin embargo, la principal dificultad de los microsatélites es que deben ser aislados de novo para aquellas especies que van a ser evaluadas por primera vez, lo que lleva a la necesidad de obtener primers para la especie. En este trabajo, inicialmente se obtuvo un ADN de buena calidad útil para amplificaciones a partir de muestras de músculo colectadas en cuatro puntos de la cuenca del río San Jorge; posteriormente, se aislaron primers microsatelitales especie-específicos para P. magdalenae mediante amplificación cruzada con primers de otras especies de peces lejanas, entre las cuales se encuentra: Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodella chagressi, Prochilodus argenteus y Prochilodus costatus. Para lo anterior, fue necesario modificar y estandarizar protocolos de amplificación mediante cambios en temperatura de alineamiento y concentración de reactivos; y

  1. HÁBITOS ALIMENTARIOS, MORFOMETRÍA Y ESTADOS GONADALES DE CINCO ESPECIES DE PECES EN DIFERENTES PERÍODOS CLIMÁTICOS EN EL RÍO SOGAMOSO (SANTANDER, COLOMBIA Trophic Habits, Morphometry and Gonadal Status of Five Fish Species in Different Climatic Periods at the Río Sogamoso (Santander, Colombia

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    ANGÉLICA RAMÍREZ C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación determinó algunos aspectos bioecológicos de cinco especies de peces del río Sogamoso, la cual es información básica que puede permitir analizar los impactos generados por la construcción y operación de la represa Hidrosogamoso. Para cada ejemplar colectado se registraron la longitud estándar y el peso total, se calculó la relación entre el peso y la longitud (P= aLb, se determinó el estado gonadal y el coeficiente de vacuidad, y se definió la importancia de cada categoría de alimento. El bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae alcanzó mayor abundancia en el río en la época seca y el inicio del desove se registró en diciembre. El coeficiente de vacuidad fue alto y su dieta se basó en materia orgánica. Pimelodus blochii y P. grosskopfii registraron mayores capturas en diciembre; su dieta estuvo basada en insectos y peces. Los loricáridos Chaetostoma cf. thomsoni y Sturisoma aureum solo se capturaron en los tramos medios y altos del río. Su dieta se basó en materia orgánica. Se requiere un estudio continúo más detallado para establecer el ciclo reproductivo de Pimelodus spp. y de los loricáridos. Dada la condición de especie amenazada y su dinámica migratoria, el bocachico es una de las especies más sensibles a la construcción, el llenado y la operación de la hidroeléctrica en el río Sogamoso. Para los loricaridos la reducción de caudal del río Sogamoso puede disminuir sus hábitats y limitar la conexión con los afluentes a través de los cuales migra.The objective of this research was to determine some bioecological aspects for five fish species of the Río Sogamoso, to generate baseline information that will permit analyze the impacts generated for the construction and operation of the Hidrosogamoso dam. For each specimen collected the standard length and total weight were recorded, the correlation between weight and length (W= aLb was calculated, the gonadal status and the coefficient of vacuity

  2. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities.

  3. Nematode and mercury content in freshwater fish belonging to different trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina

    2013-06-01

    Fish are a protein source for many people in Colombia. However, environmental pollution of some aquatic ecosystems may pose health risks to humans. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in muscle and their relationship with nematode infections in fish from Dique Channel, a freshwater ecosystem located Northern Colombia. Eight hundred ninety fish specimens belonging to 13 different species were collected. T-Hg concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy, previous electrothermal atomization. Nematodes were identified as Contracaecum sp. Species such as Hoplias malabaricus and Sorubim cuspicaudus presented the highest values for Hg and parasite infection (0.09 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.02 μg/g; prevalence 100, 100 %, respectively), whereas the lowest were detected in Prochilodus magdalenae (0.02 ± 0.002 μg/g; 0 %). Pooled data revealed a high correlation between trophic level and parasite abundance (ρ = 0.771; P = 0.002) as well as with T-Hg (ρ = 0.786; P < 0.001). The overall correlation between parasite abundance and T-Hg was moderately to low but positive (ρ = 0.217; P < 0.001). However, when individual species were considered, pair relationships between parasite abundance, morphometric parameters, and Hg concentration, varied between positive and negative values. These data suggest the presence of nematodes is determined by the trophic level of the fish species, similarly to what occurs with Hg. Moreover, the co-occurrence of these two stressors involves different types of interactions with morphometric variables that are species-specific. These observations open new doors to the understanding of the interaction between chemical pollutants and organisms.

  4. Descarte de peixes na pesca comercial em Tefé, médio Solimões, Amazônia Central - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1471 Discarded catches from commercial fisheries in the middle Solimões river, Central Amazon region - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1471

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    Wuerles Bessa Barbosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Descartes são comuns na pesca comercial, sendo avaliados para apoiar o manejo da pesca na região. Por meio de acompanhamentos diários das pescarias da frota comercial de Tefé, foi descrito o descarte de pescado no médio Solimões. Utilizando análises de correlação e covariância, foram avaliados fatores que determinam o descarte com três modalidades distintas de pesca. Os pescadores selecionaram o pescado no momento da captura por espécie e tamanho. As espécies de pescados mais descartados foram jaraquis, tucunarés e branquinhas, porém os mais freqüentes, no descarte, foram espécies dos Siluriformes. Os apetrechos de pesca analisados apresentaram diferenças nas características de seu descarte. O descarte foi menor na enchente-cheia (5-17% da captura, conforme apetrecho que durante a vazante-seca (20-62%, conforme apetrechoDiscards are common in commercial fishery, and are evaluated in order to support fisheries management in the region. Fish discards in the middle Solimões River were described through daily monitoring of fishing activities by the commercial fleet of the town of Tefé. By making use of analyses of correlation and covariance, determinant factors for discards in three different types of fisheries were evaluated. The crew selected the fish at the moment of capture, by species and size. Among the most discarded fish species were silver prochilodus, peacock bass, and curimata inormata; however, the most frequently discarded were Siluriform species. The fishing gear analyzed featured differences in their discarding characteristics. Discard was lower during the flood period (5-17% of catches, depending on gear than during the dry season (20-62% of catches, depending on gear

  5. Bioaccumulation of dioxin-like PCBs and PBDEs by detritus-feeding fish in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, N; Speranza, E; Tatone, L; Astoviza, M; Migoya, M C; Colombo, J C

    2015-05-01

    A comparative analysis of bioaccumulation behavior of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was conducted involving simultaneous measurements in settling particles and a detritivorous fish (Sabalo, Prochilodus linneatus) collected in the sewage impacted Buenos Aires coastal area. Focalization of dlPCBs and PBDEs along the detritus food chain is reflected by a 30-40-fold increase of dry weight PBDE and dlPCB concentrations from settling particles to fish (1.8 ± 1.0 to 58 ± 31 and 6.8 ± 3.9 to 281 ± 155 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively). In this transference, dlPCB congeners presented more conservative patterns than those of PBDEs, basically due to debromination of BDE 99 and 153 to BDE 47 in fish. Lipid/organic carbon-based biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) ranged between 5 and 20 (7.3 ± 3.0 and 16 ± 8.0 for PBDEs and dlPCBs). Congener-specific BSAF of dlPCBs suggested a lower bioavailability of more planar non-ortho-PCB versus mono-ortho-PCB suggesting higher affinity to organic matter. BSAFs of PBDEs differed markedly among bromine homolog groups, supporting the biotransformation-formation from higher brominated to lighter congeners. The log BSAFs-log K OW relationship of dlPCBs and PBDEs presented a parabolic pattern maximizing at log K OW 6-7, but PBDE curve differs reflecting biotransformation processes.

  6. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2012-12-01

    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions.

  7. Homology of the Fifth Epibranchial and Accessory Elements of the Ceratobranchials among Gnathostomes: Insights from the Development of Ostariophysans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Murilo; Bockmann, Flávio Alicino; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and

  8. Metapopulation in bats of Southern Brazil Metapopulação em morcegos do sul do Brasil

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    NR Reis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to show that displacements, promoters of genetic diversity in metapopulations, increase the probability of survival of bat species adapted to medium and long-distance flights. Samples were taken in four forest fragments, distributed in three municipalities in northern Paraná, and the maximum distance between the studied areas is 20 km. A monthly sampling was performed for each fragment, for the period of July 2008 to June 2009. We used eight nets for collection which remained open during the first four hours of the night, totalling 192 hours during a year of study. The marking occurred from October 2008 to March 2009 and was accomplished through the use of anodised metal rings of four different colours. One hundred and fifty individuals were banded and since the first capture, four displacements were recorded. After five months of collecting and marking, one Carollia perspicillata was found three km away. Two Artibeus lituratus were recorded about 20 km from the marking place: the first one after 22 months and the second one after 24 months. Additionally, one Platyrrhinus lineatus was captured at about 20 km, after 26 months. As they moved around over considerable distances and are not monogamous, they mate with females of other fragments, exchanging genes and reducing or even avoiding inbreeding. Thus, populations of bats have the ability to increase genetic diversity in metapopulations, provided by displacements between the forest fragments. Species that behave like this are not vulnerable to isolation.Objetivou-se mostrar que os deslocamentos, promotores da diversidade genética em metapopulações, incrementam a probabilidade de sobrevivência das populações de espécies de morcegos adaptadas para voos de média e longa distância. As amostragens foram realizadas em quatro fragmentos florestais, distribuídos em três municípios da região norte do Paraná, sendo que a distância máxima entre as áreas de estudo foi de

  9. 长江口外海域龙头鱼营养生态学特征%Feeding ecology of Harpadon nehereus in areas adjacent to Changjiang River estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘绪伟; 程家骅

    2011-01-01

    Harpadon nehereus, a benthic dwelling fish distributing throughout the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific, plays an important role in marine ecosystems. Despite its abundance and importance to fisheries, little is known about the biology of this species. We evaluated ontogenetic and diet variation in the feeding ecology of H. Nehereus in the areas adjacent to the Changjiang River Estuary. We collected a total of 450 individuals ranging in size from 64-280 mm standard length (SL) during monthly surveys in the south Yellow Sea and the north East China Sea between September 2009 and August 2010. Based on stomach content analysis, H. Nehereus was a gen-eralist. We identified 39 prey species, of which other fish were the most abundant, accounting for 84.13% of the total food by weight. At the species level, the primary prey were H. Nehereus, Pseudosciaena polyactis, Apo-gonichthys lineatus, Johnius belengerii, and Oratosquilla oratorio. The feeding intensity, as indicated by the percentage of empty stomachs and the mean stomach fullness index, varied significantly among seasons. Feeding activity was the highest in autumn and lowest in winter. There were significant seasonal differences in the diet of H. Nehereus. Decapods were more important in spring, whereas fish were more important during other seasons. Both the feeding intensity and diet composition varied significantly among different size classes. There were two abrupt changes in diet composition at about 100 and 230 mm SL, the latter characterized by a switch from eury-phagy to stenophagy. The trophic level of Harpadon nehereus was 3.80, suggesting that this species was a high level predator within the food web in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.%利用2009年9月至2010年8月在东海北部、黄海南部海域获取的龙头鱼(Harpadon nehereus)样品,采用胃含物分析法,对龙头鱼的摄食习性进行了研究.结果表明,龙头鱼摄食饵料种类有39种,鱼类是其主要饵料类

  10. Thrips species (Insecta, Thysanoptera inhabiting plants of the Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil Espécies de tripes (Insecta, Thysanoptera habitantes da vegetação do Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Cavalleri Adriano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to the knowledge of the thysanopterofauna of southern Brazil. From June 2003 to April 2004, seasonal field trips were conducted at the Parque Estadual de Itapuã (50º50'-51º05'W and 30º20'-30º27'S, in the county of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, to collect shoots with/without flowers of various plant species. The material was brought to the laboratory where the thrips were sorted. A total of 23 thrips species belonging to 15 genera and two families were obtained. Nine of the species resulted as new record for Rio Grande do Sul (*, and other two also for Brazil (**. The species sampled are as follows: Aneristothrips claripennis (Moulton, 1933*, Aurantothrips orchidearum (Bondar, 1931*, Ceratothripoides lagoenacollus (Moulton, 1933*, Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton, 1907*, Chaetisothrips striatus (Hood, 1935, Coremothrips pallidus Hood, 1925*, Craniothrips urichi Bagnall, 1915, Frankliniella bertelsi (De Santis, 1967, Frankliniella distinguenda Bagnall*, 1919, Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton, 1948*, Frankliniella gemina Bagnall, 1919, Frankliniella insularis (Franklin, 1908, Frankliniella oxyura Bagnall, 1919*, Frankliniella rodeos Moulton, 1933, Haplothrips fiebrigi Priesner, 1931, Hoodothrips lineatus (Hood, 1928, Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford, 1910, Neohydatothrips denigratus (De Santis, 1966**, Neohydatothrips fasciatus (Moulton, 1938*, Neohydatothrips flavens (Moulton, 1941, Paraleucothrips minusculus Johansen, 1983**, Smicrothrips particula Hood, 1952, Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915.O presente estudo visa contribuir para o conhecimento da tisanopterofauna do sul do Brasil. Entre junho de 2003 e abril de 2004, foram realizadas saídas de campo para o Parque Estadual de Itapuã (50º50'-51º05'W e 30º20'-30º 27'S, Viamão, Brasil, para a coleta de ramos com e sem flores de diversas espécies vegetais. O material foi levado para laboratório, onde procedeu-se a triagem dos tisanópteros. Foi

  11. El registro más completo de un Hoplophorini (Xenarthra: Glyptodontidae para los Pisos/Edades Chapadmalalense-Marplatense (Plioceno tardío-Pleistoceno temprano The most complete record of a Hoplophorini (Xenarthra: Glyptodontidae for the Chapadmalalan-Marplatan Stages (Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene

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    Alfredo E Zurita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los Glyptodontidae del Neógeno tardío (Pisos/Edades Chapadmalalense-Marplatense; ca. 3.9-1.8 Ma constituyen un grupo escasamente conocido, en tanto la mayoría de los registros están limitados a restos aislados de la coraza dorsal y/o caudal. Las únicas excepciones están representadas por Paraglyptodon chapalmalensis (Ameghino in Rovereto, un fósil guía para el Chapadmalalense superior, y el Plohophorini Plohophorus figuratus Ameghino. Por otro lado, los "Hoplophorinae" Hoplophorini son gliptodontes que tienen sus primeros registros durante los Pisos Huayqueriense (Mioceno tardío y "Araucanense" (Mioceno tardío-Plioceno, pero están prácticamente ausentes durante los Pisos Chapadmalalense-Marplatense (Plioceno-Pleistoceno temprano. Posteriormente, los Hoplophorini (Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto son, junto con Glyptodon Owen, los Glyptodontidae de registro más frecuente en el Pleistoceno de América del Sur. En esta contribución damos a conocer el primer registro de un Hoplophorini de antigüedad Chapadmalalense, asignado al género Eosclerocalyptus C. Ameghino (Eosclerocalyptus cf. E. lineatus. Este nuevo material, representado por una coraza dorsal, fue exhumado de la sección superior de la Fm. Chapadmalal, Mar del Plata, provincia de Buenos Aires. Desde una perspectiva morfológica, esta coraza presenta un tamaño intermedio entre E. tapinocephalus Cabrera, E. proximus (Moreno & Mercerat y Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto. Junto con cf. Paraglyptodon chapalmalensis y Plohophorus figuratus Ameghino, estos registros representan los Glyptodontidae Pliocenos más completos que se conocen; a su vez, completa parcialmente la distribución estratigráfica de los Glyptodontidae Hoplophorini.The late Neogene (Chapadmalalan-Marplatan Stages; ca. 3.9-1.8 Ma Glyptodontidae from southern South America are poorly known since most of the record are limited to remains of the dorsal and/or caudal armour. In this sense, the exceptions are represented

  12. Bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the urbanized area in South of Brazil=Morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em áreas urbanizadas no sul do Brasil

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    Evanilde Benedito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to inventory of bats species present in an urban area, located within the main campus of the State University of Maringá, northwestern Paraná State, and to present data on the diet, reproduction, and activity times of the captured species. Collections were performed monthly, between September 2007 and August 2008, and 377 individuals were captured, belonging to four species from the Phyllostomidae family: Artibeus lituratus (90%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (6.4%, Sturnira lilium (2.4%, and Carollia perspicillata (1.3%. The types of fruit ingested consisted especially of Cecropiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. Among the captured exemplars, 51% were female and 49% male. No pregnant females of A. lituratus or males with descended testicles were captured in autumn, and the largest recorded numbers of these groups were verified in winter. With regard to lactating females, A. lituratus was sampled year-round, with predominance during the warmer season. In spite of the low species diversity, the campus area is used by frugivore species that are generalists and are able to feed and reproduce in urbanized areas. In order to increase that diversity, management programs should be implemented so that urbanization and Chiroptera diversity can coexist with lower risks and losses to ecosystems. O presente estudo inventariou espécies de morcegos ocorrentes numa área urbana, localizada no interior do campus-sede da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Noroeste do Paraná, apresentando informações sobre a dieta, reprodução e o horário de atividades das espécies capturadas. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre setembro de 2007 e agosto de 2008, sendo capturados 377 indivíduos, pertencentes a quatro espécies, integrantes da família Phyllostomidae: Artibeus lituratus (90%; Platyrrhinus lineatus (6,4%; Sturnira lilium (2,4%; e Carollia perspicillata (1,3%. Entre os frutos consumidos pelos morcegos destacam

  13. Composición y análisis taxonómico de la íctiofauna del golfo de Tribugá, Pacífico norte de Colombia Composition and taxonomic analysis of the fish fauna in the Gulf of Tribugá, northern Colombian Pacific

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    Alexander Tobón-López

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis taxonómico y estructural de la comunidad íctica del golfo Tribugá zona norte del Pacífico colombiano, a partir de información recopilada mediante diferentes artes de pesca (volantín, espinel, trasmallo, barco arrastrero, arpón, atarraya e identificación visual con equipo de buceo autónomo. Se registraron 191 especies agrupadas en 21 órdenes y 68 familias. Los artes de pesca utilizados de manera sistemática y consecutiva durante el período de muestreo fueron la línea de mano y el espinel, capturando 71 y 47 especies respectivamente. Los análisis de las capturas se basaron solamente en los registros con estos dos artes de pesca. Se estableció que la familia Carangidae fue la mejor representada con el 8,9% del total de especies, seguida por Serranidae con 6,3% y Lutjanidae con el 4,2%. Estas familias junto con la Scombridae y Ophidiidae son las de mayor aporte numérico, biomasa, importancia comercial, y valor alimentario para las comunidades humanas asentadas en la zona de estudio. Las diez especies más capturadas durante el muestreo fueron la patiseca (Euthynnus lineatus, sierra (Scomberomorus sierra, chema (Epinephelus acanthistius, merluza (Brotula clarkae, pargo lunarejo (Lutjanus guttatus, pargo amarillo (Lutjanus argentiventris, bravo (Serióla rivoliana, jurel (Caranx caninus, burique (Caranx caballus, y ojote (Selar crumenophthalmus. Se reporta por primera vez para el Pacífico norte colombiano Schedophilus haedrichi (familia Centrolophidae.A taxonomical and structural analysis of the fish community in the Gulf of Tribugá, northern Colombian Pacific, was done based on information from different artisanal fishing techniques (hand lines, long lines, gillnets, trawl nets, harpoons, throw nets and visual identification by scuba diving. As many as 191 species were registered, belonging to 21 orders and 68 families. Hand lines (71 species and long lines (41 species were used systematically and

  14. Notes on the systematics and nomenclature of Tritonia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae

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    P. Goldblatt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of some early types of species now known to belong to the genus  Tritonia Ker Gaw l.. a member of Iridaceae. sub­family Crocoideae, comprising some 28 species of southern and south tropical Africa, has shown the need for some nomen- clatural adjustments. Ixia undulata Burm.f. (1768 is an earlier name for T. crispa (L.f. Ker Gawl. based on Gladiolus crispus L.f. (1782 and the combination  T. undulata (Burm.f. Baker must be used for the species, which is native to the western half of Western Cape, South Africa. The variety  T. crispa var. parx iflora is also reduced to synonymy. The type specimen of Ixia gladiolaris Lam. (1789, currently considered a synonym of Tritonia securigera (Aiton Ker Gawl.. has flowers that lack the characteristic tooth-like ridges on the lower tepals of the latter, and corresponds closely to the eastern southern African  T.  lineata (Salisb. Ker Gawl., based on Gladiolus lineatus Salisb. (1796. The new combination  T. gladiolaris (Lam. Goldblatt & J.C. Manning is made and  T. lineata is reduced to synonymy.  Montbretia lacerata and  Tritonia lacerata. erroneously regarded as synonyms of T. crispa, are combinations based on Gladiolus laceratus Burm.f., a species that remains unidenti­fied because no type is known and the description is too vague to permit its identification. Lastly, field studies have shown that the cnsped-leaved T. watermeveri is connected by a series of morphological intermediates to typical  T. securigera. which has straight leaves and identical flowers. The new combination  T. securigera subsp. watermeveri (L.Bolus J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is proposed for this taxon.

  15. Identification and distribution of SIFamide in the nervous system of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerer, Alina; Franke, Aileen; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Shanlin; Reiher, Wencke; Wegener, Christian; Homberg, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    SIFamides are a family of highly conserved arthropod neuropeptides. To date, nine orthocopies from different arthropods, most of them insects, have been identified, all consisting of 11-12 amino acid residues. The striking conservation in sequence is mirrored by highly similar morphologies of SIFamide-immunoreactive neurons: immunolabeling in various insect species revealed four immunopositive neurons with somata in the pars intercerebralis and arborizations extending throughout the brain and ventral nervous system. In contrast, the functional role of these neurons and their neuropeptide SIFamide is largely obscure. To provide an additional basis for functional analysis, we identified, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, a SIFamide peptide in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria and studied its distribution throughout the nervous system. Identification was supported by analysis of transcriptomic data obtained from another grasshopper, Stenobothrus lineatus. Scg-SIFamide, unlike all SIFamides identified so far, is a pentadecapeptide with an extended and highly modified N-terminus (AAATFRRPPFNGSIFamide). As in other insects, pairs of descending neurons with somata in the pars intercerebralis and ramifications in most areas of the nervous system are SIFamide-immunoreactive. In addition, a small number of local interneurons in the brain and ventral ganglia were immunostained. Double-label experiments showed that the SIFamide-immunoreactive descending neurons are identical to previously characterized primary commissure pioneer (PNP) neurons of the locust brain that pioneer the first commissure in the brain. The data suggest that the descending SIFamide-immunoreactive neurons play a developmental role in organizing the insect central nervous system. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:108-125, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Red-shouldered hawk occupancy surveys in central Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, C.; McLeod, M.A.; Andersen, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Forest-dwelling raptors are often difficult to detect because many species occur at low density or are secretive. Broadcasting conspecific vocalizations can increase the probability of detecting forest-dwelling raptors and has been shown to be an effective method for locating raptors and assessing their relative abundance. Recent advances in statistical techniques based on presence-absence data use probabilistic arguments to derive probability of detection when it is <1 and to provide a model and likelihood-based method for estimating proportion of sites occupied. We used these maximum-likelihood models with data from red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) call-broadcast surveys conducted in central Minnesota, USA, in 1994-1995 and 2004-2005. Our objectives were to obtain estimates of occupancy and detection probability 1) over multiple sampling seasons (yr), 2) incorporating within-season time-specific detection probabilities, 3) with call type and breeding stage included as covariates in models of probability of detection, and 4) with different sampling strategies. We visited individual survey locations 2-9 times per year, and estimates of both probability of detection (range = 0.28-0.54) and site occupancy (range = 0.81-0.97) varied among years. Detection probability was affected by inclusion of a within-season time-specific covariate, call type, and breeding stage. In 2004 and 2005 we used survey results to assess the effect that number of sample locations, double sampling, and discontinued sampling had on parameter estimates. We found that estimates of probability of detection and proportion of sites occupied were similar across different sampling strategies, and we suggest ways to reduce sampling effort in a monitoring program.

  17. The environment effect on fish assemblage structure in waters adjacent to the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary (1998-2001)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Haicheng; XIAN Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    We collected fish abundance data in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and adjacent waters in November 1998, May 1999, November 2000, and May 2001. Using the data, we evaluated the characteristics of the fish assemblages at each site and investigated the effect of several environmental factors. We used a multivariate analysis, including community ordination methods such as detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), and two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). We analyzed the biological community structure and environmental factors to determine their spatial distributions, temporal dynamics, and seasonal variations. Among the fish species, five exceeded 5% of the total abundance: Harpodon nehereus (42.82%), Benthosema pterotum (13.85%), Setipinna taty (11.64%), Thryssa kammalensis (9.17%) and Apogonichthys lineatus (6.49%). These were separated into four ecological assemblages: hypsithermal-saline, hypsithermal-brackish, hypothermal-brackish, and hypothermal-saline. We evaluated the degree of influence of environmental factors on the fish community. Our analyses suggested that environmental factors including water depth, salinity, turbidity, transparency, nutrient, and suspended matter formed a synthetic spatial gradient between the coastal and pelagic areas. Ecological and environmental factors changed temporally from 1998 to 2001, and drove the fish community succession. The environmental factors driving the fish community structure included bottom temperature, water depth, bottom and surface pH, surface total phosphorous, and bottom dissolved oxygen. This investigation was completed before completion of the Three Gorges Dam; therefore the results of this study provide an important foundation for evaluating the influence of the human activities.

  18. O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho?

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    Reis Nelio Roberto dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.

  19. Endoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran with Special Reference to Zoonotic Parasites

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    Amir Adinezadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To find out different species of helminthes and blood/tissue proto­zoan parasites of stray dogs and their potential role for transmission of zoonotic species to human in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast Iran, during 2008-2009.Methods: Totally, 100 stray dogs were selected among Mashhad municipal collection from different sites of the city. Internal organs were examined for any parasites. Helminthes were identified based on morphological characteristics. Smears prepared from peripheral blood as well as liver, spleen and any skin lesion were stained by Giemsa and examined microscopically. Samples obtained from spleen were aseptically cultured in three culture media including NNN, Schneider’s Drosophila (HIMEDIA and RPMI1640 (GIBCO for isolation of Leishmania spp. The titer of anti-Leishmania and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were measured by direct agglutination test (DAT and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, respectively.Results: 84% of dogs were infected at least with one species of intestinal helminthes. The species of parasites and rate of infection were as follows: Taenia hydatigena (61%, Dipylidium caninum (46%, Mesocestoides lineatus (19%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, Toxascaris leonina (53% and Toxocara canis (7%. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected by DAT in 8 dogs (8% at 1:320 titers and higher. Forty seven dogs (47% showed anti-Toxoplasma titer at 1:10 and 17 (17% showed titer of ≥1:100. No blood parasites were found in prepared blood smears.Conclusion: The high rate of parasitic infection and presence of zoonotic species

  20. Influence of tillage on adult and immature pea leaf weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) densities in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanavan, Ryan P; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Schotzko, Dennis J; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2010-06-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been a major pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in eastern Washington and northern Idaho since its introduction to the region in the early 1970s. Eggs are deposited in the spring on the soil surface and first instars hatch and move to pea root nodules, where larvae feed before they pupate and adults emerge in mid- to late summer. No-tillage practices are known to reduce pea leaf weevil colonization in pea, but the effects of tillage on larval densities and subsequent adult emergence have not been examined. During 2005, 2006, and 2007, we compared densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevils on pea plots grown using conventional tillage and no-tillage. In 2005 and 2006, emergence of adult pea leaf weevil was monitored in the same plots. Densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevil were significantly higher in conventional tillage plots. Larvae in conventional tillage were further along in development than larvae in no-tillage plots during June and July. Densities of emerging adult pea leaf weevil were significantly greater from conventional tillage than no-tillage plots. Based on densities of colonizing and subsequent emerging adults, survival of weevils from egg through adult was greater in conventional tillage plots. Soils under no-tillage are cooler, resulting in later emergence of the pea crop and delayed root nodule development, possibly affecting the ability of first-instar pea leaf weevil to locate host plant roots. Our results indicate no-tillage fields are less suitable for pea leaf weevil colonization and survival than conventional tillage fields.

  1. Notes on the systematics and nomenclature of Tritonia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of some early types of species now known to belong to the genus  Tritonia Ker Gaw l.. a member of Iridaceae. sub­family Crocoideae, comprising some 28 species of southern and south tropical Africa, has shown the need for some nomen- clatural adjustments. Ixia undulata Burm.f. (1768 is an earlier name for T. crispa (L.f. Ker Gawl. based on Gladiolus crispus L.f. (1782 and the combination  T. undulata (Burm.f. Baker must be used for the species, which is native to the western half of Western Cape, South Africa. The variety  T. crispa var. parx iflora is also reduced to synonymy. The type specimen of Ixia gladiolaris Lam. (1789, currently considered a synonym of Tritonia securigera (Aiton Ker Gawl.. has flowers that lack the characteristic tooth-like ridges on the lower tepals of the latter, and corresponds closely to the eastern southern African  T.  lineata (Salisb. Ker Gawl., based on Gladiolus lineatus Salisb. (1796. The new combination  T. gladiolaris (Lam. Goldblatt & J.C. Manning is made and  T. lineata is reduced to synonymy.  Montbretia lacerata and  Tritonia lacerata. erroneously regarded as synonyms of T. crispa, are combinations based on Gladiolus laceratus Burm.f., a species that remains unidenti­fied because no type is known and the description is too vague to permit its identification. Lastly, field studies have shown that the cnsped-leaved T. watermeveri is connected by a series of morphological intermediates to typical  T. securigera. which has straight leaves and identical flowers. The new combination  T. securigera subsp. watermeveri (L.Bolus J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is proposed for this taxon.

  2. Composition and structures of insect community of the alfalfa pasture in the Longdong Loess Plateau%陇东黄土高原苜蓿田昆虫群落的组成与结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佛生; 邓芸; 霍转芳

    2011-01-01

    A field survey was conducted to determine the composition and structures of insect community of alfalfa pasture in the Longdong loess plateau of.This study showed that the total number of insects was 21021,and they were subordinated to 12 orders,69 families and 115 species,in which the species were the most from Coleoptera,Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera families,and the individual number of Homoptera,Coleoptera,Hemiptera and Diptera were the biggest.The dominant species were Acyrthosiphon pisum,Sitona lineatus and Adelphocoris lineolatus.The pest,the natural redator,the neutral insects and beneficial insects accounted for 67.54%,19.79%,11.20% and 1.47%,respectively.%在陇东黄土高原苜蓿(Medicago sativa)田调查昆虫群落组成与结构,共采集昆虫21 021头,隶属12目69科115种。研究结果表明,鞘翅目、鳞翅目、膜翅目昆虫科、种数较多;同翅目、鞘翅目、半翅目和双翅目昆虫个体数量较多;优势种群是豌豆无网长管蚜(Acyrthosiphon pisum)、苜蓿盲蝽(Adel phocoris)、条纹根瘤象(Sitonalineatus)。害虫、天敌、中性昆虫和益虫所占比例依次是67.54%、19.79%、11.20%和1.47%。

  3. Estrutura da comunidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Therys M. Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de comunidades de morcegos no Brasil ainda é pouco estudada e vêm sofrendo sérias modificações devido à perda de habitats. O principal objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a comunidade de morcegos da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, município de Itirapina, Estado de São Paulo. Nesta Estação, além das espécies cultivadas de Eucalyptus e Pinus, há diversas plantas que podem fornecer alimento aos morcegos. Entre julho de 2001 e julho de 2006, foram realizadas 58 sessões noturnas de captura de morcegos com 4 a 12 redes-de-neblina dispostas a cada sessão. Nesse período, foram capturados 720 indivíduos de 16 espécies de morcegos dos quais 13 pertencem à família Phyllostomidae, duas à Vespertilionidae e uma à Molossidae. A curva cumulativa de espécies atingiu o equilíbrio, no qual apenas espécies raras são acrescentadas. Cinco espécies (Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina e Sturnira lilium representaram 80% dos morcegos capturados na Estação Experimental, onde se alimentavam de frutos de plantas pioneiras, tais como Cecropia pachystachya, Solanum spp. e Piper spp. A prevalência do vírus rábico foi zero na amostragem das 10 espécies analisadas. Apesar de estar muito modificada, a Estação Experimental de Itirapina pode ser uma importante área de abrigo e alimento para os morcegos e tem potencial de atuar como corredor entre áreas de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica.

  4. Bat-species richness in the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding uplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R; Fischer, E; Oliveira-Pissini, L F; Santos, C F

    2011-04-01

    We studied the bat fauna of the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding plateaus in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, based on the scientific collection at Universidade Anhanguera-Uniderp and on the Projeto Morcegos do Pantanal data bank at UFMS, comprising 9,037 captures of 56 species recorded from 1994 to 2007. The Pantanal surveys were carried out in the Nhecolândia, Aquidauana, Miranda, and Paraguai sub-regions; the uplands surveys took place in the Maracaju, Bodoquena, and Urucum formations. Bat specimens were mist-netted over 376 nights in 35 sites, predominantly near fruiting trees, bat shelters, and forest patches. In the floodplain 46 species were recorded (n = 6,292 individuals), and 44 species were found in the uplands (n = 2,745 individuals). Six families were recorded: Phyllostomidae (30 species), Molossidae (12 species), Verpertilionidae (nine species) Noctilionidae (two species), Emballorunidae (two species) and Mormoopidae (one species). The bat fauna was predominantly composed of insectivore (32) and frugivore (15) species. The frugivorous Artibeus planirostris (n = 3,101 individuals) was the commonest species in floodplain and uplands. Other common species were Myotis nigricans (n = 762), Molossus molossus (n = 692), Noctilio albiventris (n = 681), Platyrrhinus lineatus (n = 633), Sturnira lilium (n = 461), Carollia perspicillata (n = 451), Glossophaga soricina (n = 436), Artibeus lituratus (n = 320), and Desmodus rotundus (n = 281). In the floodplain there were three insectivores among the most common species, contrasting with the uplands dominated by the frugivores. The diversity for the 35 sites assembled (H' = 2.5) is comparable to that recorded for tropical forests. The bat fauna presented here represents 34% of the Brazilian bat species, and 62% of species reported for the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Additionally, five species are reported for the first time in Mato Grosso do Sul.

  5. The status of the genera Hysterolecithoides Yamaguti, 1934, Neotheletrum Gibson & Bray, 1979 and Machidatrema León-Règagnon, 1998 (Digenea: Hemiuroidea), including a description of M. leonae n. sp. from Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, R A; Cribb, T H

    2000-05-01

    A diagnosis is given for the lecithasterid genus Hysterolecithoides Yamaguti, 1934, which is now found to have two to six (possibly seven) vitelline masses. The species H. frontilatus (Manter, 1969) is returned to the genus, having been considered a member of the bunocotylid genus Neotheletrum by recent authors. It is redescribed from Siganus nebulosus, Moreton Bay, and S. doliatus, Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia, with emphasis on the presence of Juel's organ, a uterine seminal receptacle and the blind sac associated with the genital atrium. It differs from its congeners in the trajectory of the pars prostatica which recurves dorsally to the sinus-sac. Oligolecithoides Shen, 1982 is synonymised with Hysterolecithoides and O. trilobatus Shen, 1982 is synomised with H. epinepheli Yamaguti, 1934. Machidatrema León-Règagnon, 1998 is diagnosed, and found to be close to Hysterolecithoides, but differs in the lack of a blind-sac projecting from the dorsal genital atrium, by its tandem testes, the coiling of the uterus between the testes and the ovary, and the ventral excretory pore. M. leonae n. sp. is described from Siganus fuscescens, S. lineatus, S. doliatus, S. corallinus, S. vulpinus and Scarus globiceps at Heron Island, Queensland. It differs from its closest congener, M. akeh, in the muscular and tegumental flap over the genital pore and details of the terminal genitalia. M. chilostoma (Machida, 1980) and M. kyphosi (Yamaguti, 1970) are redescribed from Kyphosus vaigiensis from Heron Island. Neotheletrum Gibson & Bray, 1979 is diagnosed: it differs from Hysterolecithoides in its confluent excretory arms, blind seminal receptacle (no Juel's organ) and uniformly tripartite vitellarium. A cladistic analysis suggests that M. chilostoma and M. kyphosi are not best accommodated in Machidatrema, that Machidatrema (sensu stricto) is monophyletic and that Hysterolecithoides is paraphyletic. Hysterolecithoides and Machidatrema are considered

  6. Vagrant western red-shouldered hawks: origins, natal dispersal patterns, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Peter H.; Scott, J. Michael; Papp, Joseph M.; Thomas, Scott E.; Kidd, Jeff W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a 40-year study of the western Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus elegans) involving the banding of 2742 nestlings in southern California from 1970 to 2009 (this study) plus 127 nestlings banded in other California studies (1956–2008) and the analyses of 119 records of subsequent recovery from the Bird Banding Laboratory (1957–2009). Of the Red-shouldered Hawks recovered, 109 (91.6%) moved 100 km (long-distance dispersers). Three (2.5%), all long-distance dispersers, were vagrants (recovered outside the species' range of residency), and were found 374 to 843 km northeast and south of their banding locations in the Mojave, Great Basin, and Vizcaino deserts. The distribution of directions of short-distance dispersal was bipolar, closely corresponding with the northwest—southeast orientation of the species' range in southern California, while that of long-distance dispersers was mainly to the north. One of 10 long-distance dispersers, a nonvagrant, survived well into the age of breeding (103.0 months), whereas eight of the other nine perished before 14.5 months. The implications of vagrancy for conservation of this resident subspecies are that a relatively small source area can contribute genetic material over a vastly larger receiving area but rarely does so because of high mortality rates. Nonetheless, the movements of vagrants we documented provide evidence for the species' potential to populate new landscapes in response to changing environmental conditions and to maintain genetic heterogeneity within existing populations.

  7. Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Angela E; Mead, Daniel G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2007-04-01

    Carcasses from 346 raptors found between August 2001 and December 2004 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for WNV by one or both methods. Of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with WNV infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to WNV, and four had no histologic evidence of WNV. The most common histologic lesions associated with WNV infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, and fibrosis; and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. Other lesions included hepatitis, lymphoid depletion in spleen and bursa, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, pancreatitis, and ganglioneuritis. Gross lesions included calvarial and leptomeningeal hemorrhage, myocardial pallor, and splenomegaly. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (10/56), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) (8/40), and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (10/103) were most commonly affected. Also affected were red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) (2/43), an osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (1/5), barred owls (Strix varia) (4/27), a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (1/18), and eastern screech owls (Megascops asio) (4/42). Although birds were examined throughout the year, positive cases occurred only during the summer and late fall (June-December). Yearly WNV mortality rates ranged from 7-15% over the four years of the study. This study indicates trends in infection rates of WNV in raptorial species over a significant time period and supports the available information regarding pathology of WNV infection in Strigiformes and Falconiformes. Although many species tested were positive for WNV infection, severity of lesions varied among species.

  8. Taxonomical and Biogeochemical Investigation of Elements in Holocene Mollusk Shells in the South and Southwestern Marmara Basin, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saday Azado(g)lu ALIYEV; Ali SARI; Bahadir (O)KTEN

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of some heavy metals and trace elements such as Cr, Ga, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cu, Pb, Yb, Y, Nb, Ti, Sr, Ba, Mn, Sc, Co, V, Zr, Fe, Al, W, Se, Bi, Sb, As, Cd in recent mollusk shells and factors affecting their distribution and deposits collected from various depths in the southern and southwestern parts of the Marmara Sea are investigated. The distribution of the elements in the shells is categorized into four groups. Of these, concentrations of 12 elements (As, Bi, Cd, Co, Ga, Mo, Nb, Sb, Se, Sc, W and Yb) are below zero [(0.053-0.79)x10-6]; concentrations of seven elements (Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Y, Zr and Cu) are (1.0-6.0)x10-6; concentrations of four elements (Ti, Mn, Ba and Zn) are 10-20x10-6; and concentrations of five elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg and Sr) are (47.44-268.11)x10-6. The taxonomic characteristics of the 29 elements were studied separately in mollusk shells such as Chamalea gallina (Linné), Pitar rudis (Poli), Nassarius reticulatus (Linné), Venerupis senescens (Coocconi), Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck), Mytilaster lineatus (Gemelin in Linné) and Chlamys glabra. It was found that, in mollusk taxonomy, the elements have unique values. In other words, element concentrations in various mollusk shells depend mainly on the taxonomic characteristics of mollusks. In various bionomic environments different element distributions of the same species are attributed to the different geochemical characters of the each environment. Data obtained in this study indicate that the organisms are the most active and deterministic factors of the environment.

  9. Gastrointestinal Helminths and Ectoparasites in the Stray Cats (Felidae: Felis catus of Ahar Municipality, Northwestern Iran

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    Mohammad YAKHCHALI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran.Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection.Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3% and 31/51 (60.78%, respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (P<0.05. Of the 282 isolated helminths, three species of nematodes (Toxocara cati (86.3%, T. leonina (11.77%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (5.9% and four species of cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis (64.7%, Mesocestoides lineatus (49.02%, Dipylidium caninum (29.41%, T. hydatigena (19.6% were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9. Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80% and C. canis (20% were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection.Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region.

  10. Antibody Prevalence and Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Raptors in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Kwok, Oliver C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, Jitender P; Bellah, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ). Antibodies were not detected in 5 Barn Owls ( Tyto alba ), 3 American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 1 Mississippi Kite ( Ictinia mississippiensis ), and 1 Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 1 antibody-positive Barred Owl and identified as a strain having type II alleles at all 10 loci tested, except one (ToxoDB polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype 3). Type II strain is the most common strain in the US. Results of this study indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii in some raptor species and the first reported genotyping from a Barred Owl.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in Kashan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A; Hossein, H

    2009-04-01

    Considering the role of parasites in contamination of human beings and domestic animals and lack of information in the region, the present study was performed to investigate the infection status of helminthes and protozoa of stray cats in central Iran. A cross - sectional study was conducted on 113 stray cats trapped from different geographic regions of Kashan during four seasons and were necropsied. Different organs including: kidney, heart, liver, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and abdominal cavity were inspected for helminthes and protozoa infection. Animal's characters including: genus, weight, and season, location, microscopic and macroscopic findings were recorded in a special form. Data were classified and statistically analyzed with a confidence interval of 95%. Chi- Squire Test was used to show the relationship between different factors and parasitic infection. From a total 113 stray cats examined, 67(59.3%) were male and 46(40.7%) were female. Fifteen species of endoparasite including helminthes and protozoa were detected in intestine and fecal sample of the examined cats. There were six protozoa, five cestodes and four nematodes. All endoparasite were localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Overall 108 cats (95.6%) have been infected with at least one of the endoparasites. Prevalences of parasites found were Nematodea: Toxocara cati 13.3%, Physaloptera preputialis 39.8%, Rictularia 52.2% and Uncinaria stenocephala 1.8%; Cestodea: Mesocestoides lineatus 7.1%, Taenia taeniaformis 15%, Diplopylidium nolleri 64.6%, Dipylidium caninum 68.1% and Joyeuxiella echinorhyncoides 85%; Sporozoea: Isospora rivolta 5.3%, Isospora felis 5.3%, Sarcocystis spp 8%, Blastocystis spp 16.8% and Zoomastigophorea: Giardia felis 0.9% and Trichomonas spp 1.8%. Contamination rate for zoonotic parasites of cat was greater than expected in Kashan region. In this respect, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive

  12. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico Artisan production of rotifero and algaes for bocachico post-larva feeding

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    Victoria Eugenia Quintero P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 ºC y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 10³ células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamenteIn the Tropical Piscicultural Institute of the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Buga, Cauca, Valley, Colombia (25ºC temperature, 969 m a s l, a research was carried out with the objective to produce and use algaes and rotifers (living food cultures to feed bocachico post-larvas (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae. A complete random design with three treatments and three repetitions was established. 100 bocachico/aquarium post larva were used and fed twice a day according to sown biomass. The cultures of mixed algaes were established by using inorganic fertilizers produced in plastic pails and obtaining an average of 386 x 10³ cells/ml of culture. On the other hand, the cultures of Philodina rotifers were established in glass bottles and feeding them with algaes and yeast. An average of 410 rotifers/ml of culturing was obtained . To evaluate the highest rate of survival, growing and weight of bocachico post-larvas, three kind of food were used: Rotifers enriched with fish oil; rotifers plus

  13. HÁBITOS ALIMENTICIOS, MORFOMETRÍA Y ESTADOS GONADALES DE CINCO ESPECIES DE PECES EN DIFERENTES PERÍODOS CLIMÁTICOS EN EL RÍO SOGAMOSO (SANTANDER

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    Ramírez Caballero Angélica María

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar algunos aspectos bioecológicos para cinco especies de peces del río Sogamoso, a fin de generar información de base que permita analizar los impactos generados por la construcción y operación de la represa de Hidrosogamoso. Para cada ejemplar colectado se registraron la longitud estándar, el peso total, se calculó la relación entre el peso y la longitud (P= aLb, se determinó el estado gonadal, el coeficiente de vacuidad, así como la importancia de cada categoría de alimento. El bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae alcanzó mayor abundancia en el río en la época seca y el inicio del desove se registró en diciembre. El coeficiente de vacuidad fue alto y su dieta se basó en materia orgánica. Los Pimelodus reportaron mayores capturas en diciembre; su dieta estuvo basada en insectos y peces. Los loricaridos Chaetostoma sp. y Sturisoma sp. solo se capturaron en los tramos medios y altos del río. Su dieta se basó en materia orgánica. Se requiere un estudio continúo más detallado para establecer el ciclo reproductivo de los Pimelodus y loricaridos. Dada la condición de especie amenazada y su dinámica migratoria, el bocachico es una de las especies más sensibles a la construcción, llenado y operación de la hidroeléctrica en el río Sogamoso. Para los loricaridos la reducción de caudal del río Sogamoso puede disminuir sus hábitats y limitar la conexión con los afluentes a través de los cuales migra.

  14. Low total mercury in Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) as compared to carnivorous, and non-carnivorous fish consumed by Amazonian indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S J; Pacheco, L F; Achá, D; Molina, C I; Miranda-Chumacero, G

    2016-11-01

    Mercury contamination in the River Beni basin is an important health risk factor, primarily for indigenous communities that live along the river. Among them are the Tacana, living in their original territory with sustainable use of their natural resources, consuming fish, Caiman yacare, and other riverine resources as their main source of protein. To assess mercury exposure to Tacana people, total mercury (THg) was evaluated in the muscle of seven commercial fish, and Caiman yacare (yacare caiman) during 2007 and 2008. THg was extracted by acid digestion and concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean mercury concentrations in C. yacare was 0.21 ± 0.22 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. (wet weight), which is lower than expected given its high trophic level, and its long life-span. It is possible that mercury in C. yacare is accumulated in other organs, not included in this study; but it is also possible that physiological mechanisms are involved that help caimans get rid of ingested mercury, or simply that C. yacare's diverse diet reduces THg accumulation. Carnivorous fishes (Pygocentrus nattereri, Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum, Zungaro zungaro, Plagioscion squamosissimus, and Leiarius marmoratus) had the highest total mercury concentrations, ranging from 0.35 to 1.27 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. moreover, most were above the limit recommended by WHO (0.5 μg g(-1)Hg w.w.); except for Leiarius marmuratus, which presented a mean of 0.353 ± 0.322 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. The two non-carnivorous fish species (Prochilodus nigricans, and Piaractus brachypomus) present mean concentrations of 0.099 ± 0.027, and 0.041 ± 0.019 μg g(-1)Hg w.w., respectively. Finally, recommendations on the consumption habits of Tacana communities are discussed.

  15. ESTADO DEL CONOCIMIENTO DE LAS CONCENTRACIONES DE MERCURIO Y OTROS METALES PESADOS EN PECES DULCEACUÍCOLAS DE COLOMBIA

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    NÉSTOR JAVIER MANCERA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las problemáticas ambientales más importantes en el país se refiere al uso indiscriminado de precursores químicos en actividades ilícitas, el uso de metales pesados como mercurio en actividades mineras, el vertimiento de aguas servidas y otro tipo de compuestos relacionados con actividades industriales y prácticas agrícolas inadecuadas. Lo anterior, ha llevado a que la contaminación química en especial por metales pesados, constituya una de las más peligrosas para los ecosistemas acuáticos y las especies presentes en ellos. Los peces tienen la capacidad de almacenar en su organismo una concentración mayor de estos compuestos en comparación con la presente en el medio, por lo que son un indicador importante de la contaminación, pero también esto implica que su consumo se puede convertir en un problema de salud para las poblaciones que se alimentan de este recurso. La concentración de meta- les pesados en peces de agua dulce es conocida de mejor manera en la cuenca del río Magdalena, especialmente en la región de la Mojana y en las ciénagas del sur del departamento de Bolívar donde se han estudiado los niveles de contaminación por mercurio y otros metales producida por el desarrollo de múltiples actividades indus- triales, entre las cuales sobresalen la minería de oro y la petroquímica. Sin embargo, es escaso el conocimiento que se tiene en el país de la problemática generada por la disposición en los cuerpos de agua de metales pesados y su impacto sobre el recurso íctico, el deterioro de ecosistemas y la salud humana. Con base en las normas vigentes se han realizado bioensayos como criterio para comprobar los efectos de la contami- nación acuática con organismos dulceacuícolas y la evaluación de por lo menos tres parámetros (metales pesados, temperatura, efluentes, utilizando ocho especies de pe- ces dulceacuícolas: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax

  16. Estado del conocimieno de las concentraciones de mercurio y otros metales pesados en peces dulceacuícolas de Colombia Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

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    Álvarez-León Ricardo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las problemáticas ambientales más importantes en el país se refiere al uso indiscriminado de precursores químicos en actividades ilícitas, el uso de metales pesados como mercurio en actividades mineras, el vertimiento de aguas servidas y otro tipo de compuestos relacionados con actividades industriales y prácticas agrícolas inadecuadas. Lo anterior, ha llevado a que la contaminación química en especial por metales pesados, constituya una de las más peligrosas para los ecosistemas acuáticos y las especies presentes en ellos. Los peces tienen la capacidad de almacenar en su organismo una concentración mayor de estos compuestos en comparación con la presente en el medio, por lo que son un indicador importante de la contaminación, pero también esto implica que su consumo se puede convertir en un problema de salud para las poblaciones que se alimentan de este recurso. La concentración de metales pesados en peces de agua dulce es conocida de mejor manera en la cuenca del río Magdalena, especialmente en la región de la Mojana y en las ciénagas del sur del departamento de Bolívar donde se han estudiado los niveles de contaminación por mercurio y otros metales producida por el desarrollo de múltiples actividades  industriales, entre las cuales sobresalen la minería de oro y la petroquímica. Sin embargo, es escaso el conocimiento que se tiene en el país de la problemática generada por la disposición en los cuerpos de agua de metales pesados y su impacto sobre el recurso íctico, el deterioro de ecosistemas y la salud humana. Con base en las normas vigentes se han realizado bioensayos como criterio para comprobar los efectos de la contaminación acuática con organismos dulceacuícolas y la evaluación de por lo menos tres parámetros (metales pesados, temperatura, efluentes, utilizando ocho especies de peces
    dulceacuícolas: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax

  17. ESTADO DEL CONOCIMIENTO DE LAS CONCENTRACIONES DE MERCURIO Y OTROS METALES PESADOS EN PECES DULCEACUÍCOLAS DE COLOMBIA Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

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    NÉSTOR JAVIER MANCERA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las problemáticas ambientales más importantes en el país se refiere al uso indiscriminado de precursores químicos en actividades ilícitas, el uso de metales pesados como mercurio en actividades mineras, el vertimiento de aguas servidas y otro tipo de compuestos relacionados con actividades industriales y prácticas agrícolas inadecuadas. Lo anterior, ha llevado a que la contaminación química en especial por metales pesados, constituya una de las más peligrosas para los ecosistemas acuáticos y las especies presentes en ellos. Los peces tienen la capacidad de almacenar en su organismo una concentración mayor de estos compuestos en comparación con la presente en el medio, por lo que son un indicador importante de la contaminación, pero también esto implica que su consumo se puede convertir en un problema de salud para las poblaciones que se alimentan de este recurso. La concentración de metales pesados en peces de agua dulce es conocida de mejor manera en la cuenca del río Magdalena, especialmente en la región de la Mojana y en las ciénagas del sur del departamento de Bolívar donde se han estudiado los niveles de contaminación por mercurio y otros metales producida por el desarrollo de múltiples actividades industriales, entre las cuales sobresalen la minería de oro y la petroquímica. Sin embargo, es escaso el conocimiento que se tiene en el país de la problemática generada por la disposición en los cuerpos de agua de metales pesados y su impacto sobre el recurso íctico, el deterioro de ecosistemas y la salud humana. Con base en las normas vigentes se han realizado bioensayos como criterio para comprobar los efectos de la contaminación acuática con organismos dulceacuícolas y la evaluación de por lo menos tres parámetros (metales pesados, temperatura, efluentes, utilizando ocho especies de peces dulceacuícolas: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax

  18. Seven new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from colubrid snakes of Guatemala and a discussion of what to call ellipsoid tetrasporocystic, dizoic coccidia of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundsson, I M; Duszynski, D W; Campbell, J A

    2006-06-01

    During a survey of Guatemalan herpetofauna in the summers of 1998-2000, 29 presumed new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 were found, seven of which have a distinct elongate-ellipsoidal shape (L/W ratio >or= 1.7) and are described herein. Six of the seven new species are similar in oöcyst length, width and L/W ratio and sporocyst length, width and L/W ratio, lack a micropyle, oöcyst residuum, Stieda body, sub-- and parastieda bodies, have a polar granule and sporocyst residuum, and their sporocysts appear to have dehiscence sutures. The seventh is slightly smaller and has sporocysts with a Stieda body. The new species are: E. coniophanes n. sp - whose sporulated oöcysts from Coniophanes fissidens are 29.2x14.9 (27-31x13-16) microm, with sporocysts 10.0 x 7.8 microm; E. coniophis n. sp. -from Conophis lineatus are 32.0x16.5 (30-34x14-18) microm, with sporocysts 10.2 x 8.9microm; E. dryomarchoni n. sp. - from Drymarchon corais are 32.2x17.7 (31-34x17-19) microm, with sporocysts 10.7 x 8.6 microm; E. leptophis n. sp. - from Leptophis mexicanus are 29.5x17.0 (28-31x16-18) microm, with sporocysts 10.0 x 9.1 microm; E. oxybelis n. sp. - from Oxybelis aeneus are 31.8x16.5 (29-33x15-18) microm, with sporocysts 10.3 x 8.8 microm; and E. scaphiodontophis n. sp. - from Scaphiodontophis annulatus are 30.0x15.3 (28-33x14-16) microm, with sporocysts 9.9 x 7.9 microm. Sporulated oöcysts of E. siboni n. sp. from Sibon nebulata are 24.3x14.2 (21-27x13-16) microm, with sporocysts 10.0 x 7.1 microm and with a Stieda body. We conclude that until all aspects of each life-cycle are known, it is prudent at this time to name all tetrasporocystic dizoic coccidia from snakes as members of Eimeria rather than place some of them in Choleoeimeria Paperna & Landsberg, 1989.

  19. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in native and reforested areas in Rancho Alegre, Paraná, Brazil

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    Patrícia Helena Gallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Paraná State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8ha and in a reforested area (11.8ha between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours, during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n=328, 65.3%, followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% and Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S=14 and diversity (H’=1.4802 in comparison to the reforested area (S=6, H’=0.57015. The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t=7.1075. Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may

  20. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Angelika Bredt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed

  1. Inventário da quiropterofauna (Mammalia: Chiroptera do campus da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil

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    Edson Silva Barbosa Leal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Após seis meses de captura, com um esforço amostral de 21.600 m2.h.rede, foram capturados 377 morcegos, distribuídos em cinco famílias e  nove espécies no campus da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, em Recife, nordeste do Brasil. Phyllostomidae foi a família com a maior riqueza de espécies (n=6. Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus e Platyrrhinus lineatus foram as espécies mais abundantes, compreendendo mais de 83% das capturas. Comparada a estudos em áreas naturais a riqueza e abundância obtidas foram menores, já que apenas 37,7% das espécies de morcegos brasileiros são adaptadas à áreas antrópicas, sendo a maioria em maior ou menor grau dependente das áreas de mata para conseguir alimento e/ou abrigo. Porém, quando comparado a outros estudos e registros de Chiroptera realizados em áreas urbanas de outras cidades brasileiras, inclusive no próprio estado de Pernambuco, a riqueza da comunidade encontra-se dentro da esperada. Apresentando um índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener de H’=0,5774, a fauna de morcegos do campus é relativamente diversa. Ao contrário do demonstrado pela curva de acumulação de espécies construída para a área, e considerando o viéz metodológico embutido na captura com o uso de redes de neblina, as quais favorecem a coleta de Phyllostomidae e não de espécies insetívoras (Vespertilionidae e Molossidae, principalmente, a riqueza da comunidade pode aumentar conforme a continuidade dos trabalhos, uma vez que os registros feitos por pesquisadores em outras épocas e do material tombado na Coleção de Mamíferos da UFPE demonstram que outras espécies provavelmente podem circular pela área do campus.

  2. Diet and cross-shelf distribution of rabbitfishes (f. Siganidae) on the northern Great Barrier Reef: implications for ecosystem function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, A. S.; Brandl, S. J.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Herbivorous fishes are a critical functional group on coral reefs, and there is a clear need to understand the role and relative importance of individual species in reef processes. While numerous studies have quantified the roles of parrotfishes and surgeonfishes on coral reefs, the rabbitfishes (f. Siganidae) have been largely overlooked. Consequently, they are typically viewed as a uniform group of grazing or browsing fishes. Here, we quantify the diet and distribution of rabbitfish assemblages on six reefs spanning the continental shelf in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Our results revealed marked variation in the diet and distribution of rabbitfish species. Analysis of stomach contents identified four distinct groups: browsers of leathery brown macroalgae ( Siganus canaliculatus, S. javus), croppers of red and green macroalgae ( S. argenteus, S. corallinus, S. doliatus, S. spinus) and mixed feeders of diverse algal material, cyanobacteria, detritus and sediment ( S. lineatus, S. punctatissimus, S. punctatus, S. vulpinus). Surprisingly, the diet of the fourth group ( S. puellus) contained very little algal material (22.5 %) and was instead dominated by sponges (69.1 %). Together with this variation in diet, the distribution of rabbitfishes displayed clear cross-shelf variation. Biomass was greatest on inner-shelf reefs (112.7 ± 18.2 kg.ha-1), decreasing markedly on mid- (37.8 ± 4.6 kg.ha-1) and outer-shelf reefs (9.7 ± 2.2 kg.ha-1). This pattern was largely driven by the browsing S. canaliculatus that accounted for 50 % of the biomass on inner-shelf reefs, but was absent in mid- and outer-shelf reefs. Mixed feeders, although primarily restricted to the reef slope and back reef habitats, also decreased in abundance and biomass from inshore to offshore, while algal cropping taxa were the dominant group on mid-shelf reefs. These results clearly demonstrate the extent to which diet and distribution vary within the Siganidae and emphasise the importance of

  3. A review of the genus Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) from rabbitfishes (Siganidae) in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichelin, Sylvie; Smales, Lesley R; Cribb, Thomas Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Seven of the eleven species of Siganus Richardson (Siganidae) collected off the coasts of Australia, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Palau were infected with species of Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Discriminant Analysis were performed on a morphometric dataset of specimens of Sclerocollum including borrowed type-specimens of Sc. rubrimaris Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 from the Indian Ocean and of Sc. robustum Edmonds, 1964, the only acanthocephalan species known previously from an Australian siganid. These analyses showed that the lengths of proboscis hooks were useful variables for separating specimens into groups and supported the presence of two known species (Sc. robustum and Sc. rubrimaris) and one new species (Sc. australis n. sp.) in Australian waters. We found Sc. robustum in Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) from off Queensland and Sc. rubrimaris in S. fuscescens (Houttuyn) from off Western Australia and Queensland, S. punctatissimus Fowler & Bean from off Queensland and S. argenteus (Quoy & Gaimard), S. corallinus (Valenciennes), S. canaliculatus (Park) and S. doliatus Guérin-Méneville from off New Caledonia (all new host and locality records) which we compared with museum specimens of Sc. rubrimaris from S. rivulatus Forsskål & Niebuhr and S. argenteus [as S. rostratus (Valenciennes)] from the Red Sea. The third species, Sclerocollum australis n. sp., was found only in S. corallinus and S. doliatus from off Queensland. Sclerocollum australis n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of characters of the proboscis armature, including lengths of hooks 1-7. Specimens of Sclerocollum were also found in Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch) (Acanthuridae) from off Queensland, and Coradion altivelis McCulloch (Chaetodontidae) and Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus) (Chaetodontidae) from off New Caledonia. No acanthocephalans were found in siganids collected from

  4. Phantom spiders: notes on dubious spider species from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitling, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    (Simon, 1868 syn. nov.; Styloctetor stativus (Simon, 1881 = Styloctetor compar (Westring, 1861 syn. nov. and comb. nov.; Tapinocyba bilacunata (L. Koch, 1881 = Silometopus incurvatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873 syn. nov.; Theridion varians melanotum Strand, 1907 = Theridion varians Hahn, 1833 syn. nov.; Thomisus trigonus Giebel, 1869 = Pistius truncatus (Pallas, 1772 syn. nov.; Titanoeca psammophila Wunderlich, 1993 = Titanoeca spominima (Taczanowski, 1866 syn. nov. and comb. nov.; Xysticus paniscus L. Koch, 1875 = Xysticus lineatus (Westring, 1851 syn. conf.

  5. Bat-species richness in the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding uplands Riqueza de espécies de morcegos no Pantanal e no planalto em seu entorno

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    CJR. Alho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the bat fauna of the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding plateaus in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, based on the scientific collection at Universidade Anhanguera - Uniderp and on the Projeto Morcegos do Pantanal data bank at UFMS, comprising 9,037 captures of 56 species recorded from 1994 to 2007. The Pantanal surveys were carried out in the Nhecolândia, Aquidauana, Miranda, and Paraguai sub-regions; the uplands surveys took place in the Maracaju, Bodoquena, and Urucum formations. Bat specimens were mist-netted over 376 nights in 35 sites, predominantly near fruiting trees, bat shelters, and forest patches. In the floodplain 46 species were recorded (n = 6,292 individuals, and 44 species were found in the uplands (n = 2,745 individuals. Six families were recorded: Phyllostomidae (30 species, Molossidae (12 species, Verpertilionidae (nine species Noctilionidae (two species, Emballorunidae (two species and Mormoopidae (one species. The bat fauna was predominantly composed of insectivore (32 and frugivore (15 species. The frugivorous Artibeus planirostris (n = 3,101 individuals was the commonest species in floodplain and uplands. Other common species were Myotis nigricans (n = 762, Molossus molossus (n = 692, Noctilio albiventris (n = 681, Platyrrhinus lineatus (n = 633, Sturnira lilium (n = 461, Carollia perspicillata (n = 451, Glossophaga soricina (n = 436, Artibeus lituratus (n = 320, and Desmodus rotundus (n = 281. In the floodplain there were three insectivores among the most common species, contrasting with the uplands dominated by the frugivores. The diversity for the 35 sites assembled (H' = 2.5 is comparable to that recorded for tropical forests. The bat fauna presented here represents 34% of the Brazilian bat species, and 62% of species reported for the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Additionally, five species are reported for the first time in Mato Grosso do Sul.Estudamos a fauna de morcegos na planície do Pantanal e nos

  6. Combate ao Desmodus rotundus rotundus (E. Geoffroy,1810 na região cárstica de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais Combat of Desmodus rotundus rotundus (E. Geofroy, 1810 in the Cordisburgo and Curvelo carstic region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    E.O. Almeida

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar em uma região cárstica o tipo de refúgio, as espécies de morcegos, a população de animais domésticos, as associações interespecíficas nas coabitações com outros mamíferos silvestres suscetíveis à raiva e a eficácia da warfarina aplicada no dorso do Desmodus rotundus rotundus foi realizada uma pesquisa de maio de 1998 a março de 2000, nos municípios de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais. Em 49 refúgios vistoriados, 29 naturais e 20 artificiais, localizados em 14 propriedades, encontrou-se o Desmodus rotundus rotundus em 18 abrigos naturais. Destes, 17 eram cavernas formadas pela dissolução ou abatimento de rocha calcária, típica do carste, e um era túnel escavado na terra pela ação das águas de um rio. As características geomorfológicas e de localização espacial foram registradas com base nas coordenadas geográficas, obtidas com auxílio de um sensor geográfico de posição. Nesses abrigos foram capturados e identificados 1457 morcegos de 14 espécies, sendo 640 Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 566 Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 73 Anoura geoffroyi (Gray 1838, 58 Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, 38 Diphylla ecaudata ecaudata (Spix, 1823, 23 Platyhrrinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 16 Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856, 14 Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, 13 Phyllostomus hastatus hastatus (Pallas, 1767, 9 Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 3 Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838, 2 Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821, 1 Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 e 1 Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843. Não se conseguiu isolar ou detectar o vírus rábico no cérebro de 25 hematófagos selecionados e em 52 de outras espécies. A maioria desses abrigos também era usada por pacas (Agouti paca Linnaues, 1766, capivaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, Linnaues, 1766, guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, G. Cuvier, 1798 e raposas (Lycalopex vetulus, Lund, 1842 que são suscetíveis à raiva. Em 546 Desmodus

  7. 许氏平鲉的食物组成及其食物选择性%Food composition and prey selectivity of Sebastes schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 李忠义; 金显仕

    2014-01-01

    japonicus) was no longer the dominant prey species. According to prey selectivity index, Sebates schlegeli preferred to feed on Alpheus japonicus, Latreutes anoplonyx, Leptochela gracilis and the gobiidae, but dislike small yellow croakers in August. In October, they prefer to feed on Alpheus japonicus, Apogon lineatus and small yellow croaker, but dislike Oratosquilla oratoria. Influenced by the abundance of prey in the environment, there is some difference between the favorite food species and dominant prey species. Prey selectivity of Sebates schlegeli is not entirely determined by the abundance of prey in the environment, but it does have a strong influence. The S. schlegeli showed a preference for prey with low abundance in the environ-ment, such as Leptochela gracilis, Latreutes anoplonyx and Syngnathus acus in August, and Apogon lineatus in October. It also selectively feeds on prey with high abundance in the environment, such as small yellow croaker and gobiidae. It can feed on Loligo japonica with a stable proportion in August and October;however, this is not related to their abun-dance. The results also indicated that seasonal variations in the food composition and prey selectivity of Sebates schle-geli is not only influenced by the abundance of prey in the environment, but also by nutritional requirements and prey selectivity of individual fish. As a released fish species, the biomass of Sebates schlegeli increased slightly in recent surveys, and was restored to some extent by stock enhancement, yet its biomass is still less than 1%of the maximum historical biomass. Therefore, more could be released to restore biomass. The other important aim of this study was to evaluate scientifically and rea-sonably the ecological capacity for stock enhancement, based on food composition and prey selectivity of Sebates schlegeli. According to the results of this study, combined with its biomass and the evaluation of food consumption, Sebates schlegeli needs to feed on 1.7 t

  8. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in native and reforested areas in Rancho Alegre, Paraná, Brazil

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    Patrícia Helena Gallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Paraná State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8ha and in a reforested area (11.8ha between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours, during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n=328, 65.3%, followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% and Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S=14 and diversity (H’=1.4802 in comparison to the reforested area (S=6, H’=0.57015. The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t=7.1075. Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may

  9. Liver lesions in demersal fishes near a large ocean outfall on the San Pedro Shelf, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmadjian, Edward; Perkins, Edwin M; Phillips, Charles R; Heilprin, Daniel J; Watts, Susan D; Diener, Douglas R; Myers, Mark S; Koerner, Kelly A; Mengel, Michael J; Robertson, George; Armstrong, Jeffrey L; Lissner, Andrew L; Frank, Victoria L

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of toxicopathic liver lesions in demersal fish on the San Pedro Shelf, California was determined for a 15-year period (1988-2003). Fish livers were sampled at fixed locations as part of the Orange County Sanitation Districts (OCSD) ocean monitoring program. Histopathological examination of selected fish liver tissues was studied to determine whether the wastewater discharge had affected fish health. The prevalence of toxicopathic lesion classes neoplasms (NEO), preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration (FCA), and hydropic vacuolation (HYDVAC) varied among species and locations. For all species sampled, severe lesions occurred in 6.2% of the fish examined (n=7,694). HYDVAC (4.1%) was the most common toxicopathic lesion type followed by FCA (1.4%) and NEO (0.7%). HYDVAC occurred only in white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), accounting for 84.8% of the toxicopathic lesions for this species. Prevalence of HYDVAC, NEO, and FCA in white croaker was 15.2, 2.0, and 0.7%, respectively. The prevalence of HYDVAC and NEO in white croaker increased with age and size but there was no sexual difference. A linear regression model was used for hypothesis testing to account for significant differences in fish size (and age for croakers) at the different sampling locations. This analysis showed that for HYDVAC there was no spatial or location effect for lesion rate or size/age of onset. For NEO, the model predicted that white croaker near the wastewater outfall may acquire these lesions at a smaller size/younger age, and at a higher rate, than at other sites. However, this result may be biased due to the unequal size frequency distributions and the low prevalence of NEO in white croaker at the different sampling sites. Bigmouth sole (Hippoglossina stomata) had a prevalence of FCA and NEO of 1.3 and 0.35%, respectively, but the prevalence and distribution of lesions was too few for statistical testing. There was no sexual difference for lesion prevalence in hornyhead

  10. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  11. Community structure and species diversity of fish assemblage in the coastal waters of Jiaozhou Bay%胶州湾近岸浅水区鱼类群落结构及多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宾铎; 曾慧慧; 薛莹; 纪毓鹏; 任一平

    2013-01-01

    根据2009年3月-2010年2月在胶州湾西北部近岸浅水区进行的鱼类逐月定置网调查数据,采用生态多样性指数和多元统计分析等方法研究了该海域的鱼类群落结构及多样性特征.结果表明:调查共鉴定出44种鱼类,其中海洋性27种,河口性鱼类17种.鱼类种类组成与底层水温和盐度有密切关系.胶州湾近岸浅水区鱼类群落Margalef种类丰富度指数(R)变化范围为0.33-3.50,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H’)为0.42-2.25,Pielou均匀度指数(J’)为0.23-0.93.聚类分析(CLUSTER)和多维标度排序(MDS)分析表明,不同鱼类种类组成的各月份样品可划分为3个组分:水温较低的冬季组G1(12月-翌年4月)、水温次高的春秋季组G2(5-6月、10-11月)和水温最高的夏季组G3(7-9月).其中G1的典型种主要为尖海龙(Syngnathus acus)、方氏云鳚(Enedrias fangi)和玉筋鱼(Ammodytes personatus)等冷温性常栖类群种类,G2的主要典型种为鳀鱼(Engraulis japonicus)和尖海龙,G3的主要典型种为鲐鱼(Scomber japonicus)、细条天竺鱼(Apogonichthys lineatus)和普氏缰虾虎鱼(Amoya pflaumi)等洄游性鱼类.单因子相似性分析(ANOSIM)表明,3个月份组间鱼类群落结构差异显著,不同月份组间两两差异均显著.生物-环境分析(BIOENV)表明,底层水温是影响胶州湾近岸浅水区鱼类群落结构时间变化的主要环境因子.在胶州湾内近岸浅水区发现40余种幼鱼,但占优势的主要为低值鱼类,表明胶州湾的产卵、肥育场功能有所下降,应加强胶州湾近岸水域生态环境和渔业资源的保护及修复.

  12. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808 in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817 is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae, Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae, and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797. Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792 (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791. Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787, a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802 (from Curculio, Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840 (from Hipporhinus, Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792 (from Curculio, Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785 (from Curculio, Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833 (from Hipporhinus, Coelocephalapion

  13. Embryonic and larval development of Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes: Gerreidae in Tenosique: Tabasco, Mexico

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    Raúl E Hernández

    2012-03-01

    ón, disminuyendo hacia el margen del pedúnculo caudal. Las características descriptivas de la etapa de desarrollo embrionario de E. mexicanus son típicas del período de desarrollo de los peces de la familia Gerreidae, en particular en el caso de las especies E. brasilianus y E. lineatus que habitan en ambientes marinos. Sin embargo, sus caracteres morfométricos son diferentes con respecto al diámetro y el tamaño de los huevos y de la gota de aceite, ya que en E. mexicanus son más grandes que los de las especies marinas y son similares a los de los peces de agua dulce. Con respecto a la pigmentación, la larva con saco de E. mexicanus presenta un olor olivo y amarillo sobre el margen del notocordio, lo cual difiere a lo reportado para E. lineatus,ya que en esta muestra un grupo de melanóforos entre los miomeros nueve al 13 como principal característica, y para Diapturus peruvianus por presentar tres manchas en el margen dorsal de los intestinos desde la inserción de la aleta pectoral hasta el ano. Los resultados de este estudio son los primeros registrados para esta especie y han generado información sobre aspectos de su biología reproductiva y el desarrollo de la vida temprana.