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Sample records for curcas kernel meal

  1. Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Jatropha curcas L. Kernel Meal Extract

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    Abdul Rahman Omar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8% and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8% and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%. Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics, rutin and myricetin (flavonoids and daidzein (isoflavonoid. The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy, acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0–1.63 cm at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe3+ to ferrous ion (Fe2+. Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells.

  2. Effects of Defatting Combined or not to Heating of Jatropha curcas Kernel Meal on Feed Intake and Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens and Chicks in Senegal

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    Nesseim, TDT.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a tropical plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family whose cultivation has been largely promoted in recent years for the production of biofuels. The kernel of the seed contains approximately 55% lipid in dry matter and the meal obtained could be an exceptional source of proteins for family poultry farming, after treatments to remove toxic and anti-nutritional compounds. The ingestion and the growth performance of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM, obtained after partial physico-chemical de-oiling combined or not with heating was evaluated in broiler chickens and chicks. Sixty unsexed broiler chickens, 30 day-old, divided into three groups as well as twenty broiler chicks, 1 day-old, divided into two groups were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, jatropha kernel was de-oiled and incorporated into a control fattening feed at 40 and 80g/kg (diets 4JKM1 and 8JM1. In experiment 2, jatropha kernel meal obtained in experiment 1 was heat treated and incorporated into a growing diet at 80g/kg (diet 8JKM2. Daily dietary intakes as well as weight gain of the animals were affected by the incorporation of jatropha kernel meal in the ration. In experiment 1, average daily feed intake (ADFI1 of 139.2, 55.2 and 23.4g/day/animal and also average daily weight gain (ADWG1 of 61.9, 18.5 and -7.7g/animal were obtained respectively for the groups fed with diets 0JKM1, 4JKM1 and 8JKM1. In experiment 2, Average daily feed intake (ADFI2 of 18.7 and 3.1g/day/animal and also average daily weight gain (ADWG2 of 7.1 and 1.9g/animal were obtained respectively for the groups fed with diets 0JKM2 and 8JKM2. In both experiment, feed conversion ratio (FCR was also affected by the dietary treatments and the overall mortality rate showed an increase according to levels of jatropha kernel meal in diet.

  3. 麻枫仁粕氨基酸及能量营养价值评定%Evaluation of Nutritional Values of Amino Acids and Energy of Jatropha curcas Kernel Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜懿婷; 丁雪梅; 张克英; 陈代文

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the availability of amino acids, the metabolizable energy and the metabolic rate of energy of both detoxified and non-detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal. Sixty 50day-old male Avian broilers were allotted to 6 treatments with 10 replicates per treatment and 1 chick per replicate in a completely randomized design. Four kinds of Jatropha curcas kernel meal from different places of origin with different processing methods were used in this study. Diet 1 was basal diet; diet 2 was 85% basal diet +15% Jatropha curcas kernel meal Ⅰ ; diet 3 was 85% basal diet + 15% Jatropha curcas kernel meai Ⅱ ; diet 4 was 85% basal diet +15% Jatropha curcas kernel meai Ⅲ ; diet 5 was 85% basal diet +15% Jatropha curcas kernel meal Ⅳ ; treatment 6 was fasting to detect the endogenous lost. The experiment lasted for 7 d. The contents of crude protein in the dry matter of the four kinds of Jatropha curcas kernel meal were 66. 87% .56. 69% , 56. 27% , and 43. 07% , respectively; the total energy were 17. 83 , 18. 31, 18. 02 , and 22. 88 MJ/kg, respectively; the apparent metabolizable energy were 11. 73 , 12. 16 , 11. 93 , and 15. 23 MJ/kg, respectively ;the true metabolizable energy were 14. 41, 14. 91, 14. 64, and 18. 66 MJ/kg, respectively. The amino acid patterns were not well balanced for the four kinds of ingredients. The first limiting amino acid was methionine and the second one was lysine in Jatropha curcas meal. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition,2011 ,23 ( 1 ) :136 -146 ]%本试验选用60只艾维茵肉公鸡,采用Sibbald真代谢能法对4种不同来源的麻枫仁粕的氨基酸、能量代谢率进行测定,旨在为麻枫仁粕在肉鸡上的应用提供一定的基础数据.4种原料(Ⅰ~Ⅳ)分别为不同产地不同处理方法得到的麻枫仁粕.本试验共设6个处理,每个处理10个重复,每个重复1只鸡.处理1为基础饲粮组,处理2(T2)为85%基础饲粮+15%

  4. Bioconversion of palm kernel meal for aquaculture: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... countries where so much agro-industry by-products exist such as palm kernel meal, .... as basic ingredients for margarine production, confectionery, animal ..... Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

  5. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

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    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  6. PERFORMANCE OF LAYER HEN FED FERMENTED Jatropha Curcas L. MEAL SUPPLEMENTED WITH CELLULASE AND PHYTASE ENZYME

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    S. Sumiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding fermented Jatropha curcas L.meal (JCM supplemented with cellulase and phytase on the performances of ISA-Brown laying henaged 25-30 weeks. The Jatropha curcas meal was fermented using Rizhopus oligosporus. In this study200 laying hens were used and distributed to 5 treatments and 4 replications in Completely RandomizedDesign. The diet treatments were: R0 = control diet (without JCM, R1; diet contained fermented JCM7.5%, R2; diet contained fermented JCM 7.5% + celullase 200 g/ton, R3; diet contained fermented JCM7.5% + phytase 200 g/ton and R4; diet contained fermented JCM 7.5% + cellulase 200 g/ton + phytase200 g/ton. The parameters observed were feed consumption, hen day egg production, egg massproduction, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. The results showed that feeding fermented JCM 7.5%,both enzyme supplemented as well as unsupplemented significantly decreased (P<0.05 the feedconsumption, hen day egg and egg mass production. However, the treatments did not influence the eggweight. Supplementation of cellulase (R2 or phytase (R3 improved the feed conversion ratio with thevalue as same as the R0 diet.

  7. Comparative evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. seed meals obtained by different methods of defatting on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors.

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    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Different methods of defatting have a great impact on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors in the oilseed meals. In order to find the most suitable methods of defatting for Jatropha curcas seed meals, the Jatropha curcas L. seed meals, defatted by Soxhlet extraction and screw-press were characterized for their toxic, anti-nutritional and nutrient factors in this study. The toxins (phorbolesters, 3.1 and 2.9 mg/g) and some anti-nutritional factors (saponins, 2.9 and 2.6%; phytates, 11.1 and 11.6%) in meals obtained by the two defatting methods were present at high concentrations. However, the trypsin inhibitors activity (TIA) and lectin (2.7 mg/g and 1.5 mg/ml) in the screw-pressed meal were significantly lower, due to the high temperature (120 °C) used in this defatting process. From nutritional side, the values of crude protein (CP), buffer-soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, pepsin insoluble nitrogen, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), as well as essential amino acid index (EAAI), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI) and protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of the meal obtained by Soxhlet extraction were better than the screw-pressed meal. However, taking practical application into account, from detoxification side, screw-pressed meal is better for detoxification.

  8. Multistage Solvent Extraction for High Yield Oil and Phorbol Esters Removal from Thai Toxic Jatropha curcas Meal

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    Rayakorn NOKKAEW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the possibility for the production of high yield oil and phorbol esters removed from Thai toxic Jatropha curcas meal. Optimum oil recovery by hexane extraction to obtain high oil yield was accomplished in 3 stages of batch extraction, following which the de-oiled meal was further determined for the optimum conditions for removal of phorbol esters (PEs by aqueous ethanol extraction from the first to the third stage of batch extraction with the aim of yielding detoxified de-oiled meal product for use as a raw material in animal feed. The optimum conditions for oil extraction was 3-stage extraction with each stage operated at 1:3 (w/v of toxic meal to hexane at 40 °C for 30 min. This condition gave 100 % de-oiling efficiency compared with the Soxhlet extraction method. The optimum condition for PEs removal from the de-oiled meal involved 2-stage extraction with each stage operated at 1:3 (w/v of de-oiled meal to aqueous ethanol at 50 °C for 30 min. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, was used to confirm the PEs residue in the detoxified de-oiled meal. The confirmation showed that the 2 stages of PEs extraction could remove 100 % of the PEs from the de-oiled meal. The results from our study can provide the basis for the efficient commercial production of both J. curcas oil and detoxified de-oiled meal.

  9. Detoxification of Jatropha curcas kernel cake by a novel Streptomyces fimicarius strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Hong; Ou, Lingcheng; Fu, Liang-Liang; Zheng, Shui; Lou, Ji-Dong; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Changhe

    2013-09-15

    A huge amount of kernel cake, which contains a variety of toxins including phorbol esters (tumor promoters), is projected to be generated yearly in the near future by the Jatropha biodiesel industry. We showed that the kernel cake strongly inhibited plant seed germination and root growth and was highly toxic to carp fingerlings, even though phorbol esters were undetectable by HPLC. Therefore it must be detoxified before disposal to the environment. A mathematic model was established to estimate the general toxicity of the kernel cake by determining the survival time of carp fingerling. A new strain (Streptomyces fimicarius YUCM 310038) capable of degrading the total toxicity by more than 97% in a 9-day solid state fermentation was screened out from 578 strains including 198 known strains and 380 strains isolated from air and soil. The kernel cake fermented by YUCM 310038 was nontoxic to plants and carp fingerlings and significantly promoted tobacco plant growth, indicating its potential to transform the toxic kernel cake to bio-safe animal feed or organic fertilizer to remove the environmental concern and to reduce the cost of the Jatropha biodiesel industry. Microbial strain profile essential for the kernel cake detoxification was discussed.

  10. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, palm kernel meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

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    Almaguer, B L; Sulabo, R C; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-06-01

    Sixty-six barrows (initial BW: 27.4 ± 2.8 kg) were used to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in copra meal (CM), palm kernel expellers from Indonesia (PKE-IN), palm kernel expellers from Costa Rica (PKE-CR), palm kernel meal from Costa Rica (PKM), and soybean meal (SBM) without or with exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism cages and allotted to 11 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet in a generalized randomized block design. Five diets were formulated by mixing cornstarch and sugar with CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, or SBM. Five additional diets, which were identical to the initial 5 diets but supplemented with 800 units of phytase, were also formulated. A P-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of P by the pigs. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker approach after a 5-d adaptation period. Analyzed total P in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM was 0.52, 0.51, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.67%, respectively. Phytate P was 0.22, 0.35, 0.38, 0.32, and 0.44% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively. Addition of phytase increased (P < 0.05) the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P from 60.6 to 80.8, 27.3 to 56.5, 32.6 to 59.9, 48.9 to 64.1, and 41.1 to 72.2% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively. The ATTD of P in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in any of the other ingredients. The ATTD of P in SBM and PKM was greater (P < 0.05) than in PKE-IN, with PKE-CR being intermediate. The STTD of P increased (P < 0.05) from 70.6 to 90.3, 37.6 to 66.4, 43.2 to 69.9, 57.9 to 73.5, and 49.6 to 81.1% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively, when microbial phytase was added to the diets. When expressed as a percentage of total P, phytate P concentration in the ingredient negatively affected (P < 0.05) the ATTD of P (107.09 - 1.0564 × % phytate P; R(2) = 87.1) and the STTD of P (116.3 - 1.0487 × % phytate P; R(2) = 89.4). In conclusion, microbial phytase increased P

  11. Detoxification of Toxic Phorbol Esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. Kernel by Trichoderma spp. and Endophytic Fungi

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    Azhar Najjar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phorbol esters (PEs with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1 was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05 removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%–99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%–92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%–96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs.

  12. Use of oil palm kernel meal as a supplement material for abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller cultivation

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    Petcharat, V. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum rate of oil palm kernel meal, for an abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus cultivation. Different concentrations of oil palm kernel meal (5- 20% were added to pararubber sawdust and used to grow the abalone mushroom in plastic bags. Growth rate of the mycelia, number of days from watering to harvesting and yield were compared to those on 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2. The results showed that 10% oil palm kernel meal was the optimum concentration for abalone mushroom cultivation. Yield on 950 g/bag of 89% sawdust + 10% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH2 was 202.12 g/bag (B.E. = 60.79% during 120 days of havesting time. Addition of higher concentration of oil palm kernel meal (15-20% did not increase yield of the basidiocarps.

  13. Effects of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of weaner rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    N. Saleh; K.M. Bello

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal (MSKM) in the diets of Weaner rabbit on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production. Twenty mongrel rabbits were randomly allocated to four diets in which mango seed kernel meal replaced maize at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100% level designed as diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The daily feed intake (42.75-49.76), daily weight gain (8.75-9.72) and feed conversion ratio (4.64-5.19) ob...

  14. Effects of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of weaner rabbits

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    N. Saleh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal (MSKM in the diets of Weaner rabbit on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production. Twenty mongrel rabbits were randomly allocated to four diets in which mango seed kernel meal replaced maize at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100% level designed as diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The daily feed intake (42.75-49.76, daily weight gain (8.75-9.72 and feed conversion ratio (4.64-5.19 obtained were not significantly (P<0.05 affected by the dietary levels of mango seed kernel meal. Carcass yield and weight of organs expressed as percentage of live weight did not significantly differ between the treatment means. The cost in naira per kilogram gain was highest on diet 1 (0%MSKM and lowest on diet 4 (100% MSKM having N338.84 and 245.58 respectively. The result indicates that mango seed kernel meal can replace maize at 100% level in the diet of Weaner rabbit with better performance and tremendous reduction in feed cost.

  15. The Production of Fungal Mannanase, Cellulase and Xylanase Using Palm Kernel Meal as a Substrate

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    Nisa SAE-LEE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular enzymes including mannanase, cellulase and xylanase from Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei TISTR 3080 and Penicillium sp. were investigated. The enzymes were produced in solid-state fermentation using palm kernel meal (PKM as a substrate. All fungal strains produced mainly mannanase. A maximum activity of 24.9 U/g koji was observed in A. wentii TISTR 3075 with a specific activity of 1.5 U/mg protein. During PKM fermentation, there was also found low concomitantly of cellulase and xylanase activities with high mannanase activity in all strains. The degradation of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs in PKM by these fungal strains was indicated by the increased mannanase, cellulase and xylanase activities which correlated with the increase in reducing sugar content and pH profiles during PKM fermentation. PKM was shown to be more suitable for production of mannanase than cellulase and xylanase for all strains because of the high content of mannan as an inducer in PKM. Increases in enzyme yield might be obtained by optimizing the culture conditions.

  16. Feeding behavior of sheep fed diets with Elaeis guineensis palm kernel meal

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    Bianca Damasceno Pinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the feeding behavior of sheep fed with diets containing different levels of palm kernel meal (PKM substituted for corn silage, a metabolic assay was performed on 20 ewes (5 treatments × 4 replicates over 25 d. The animals received corn silage diets with the addition of increasing levels of PKM (0, 15, 30, 45, and 60%. The following parameters were evaluated: dry matter (DM intake, neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake, feeding time, rumination time, idle time, number of merycism mastications per bolus, time spent ruminating each bolus, DM and NDF per bolus, number of ruminated boluses per day, feeding and rumination efficiency, total chewing time, and number of merycism mastications per day. The daily intake of both DM and NDF increased linearly (P < 0.05, and when sheep were fed diets of at least 43.18 and 39.15% PKM, respectively, the consumption values were significantly different than when sheep were fed diets with 0% PKM (P < 0.05. In contrast, feeding time declined linearly, and in response to diets with at least 28.05% PKM, the sheep exhibited significantly different feeding times from those of sheep fed 0% PKM, with a reduction of 0.0613 percentage points per 1% increase in PKM. Idle time, rumination time, and rumination time per bolus each exhibited quadratic responses (P < 0.05, and the minimum rumination time per bolus was 44.37 s with 35.19% PKM. A quadratic response was also observed for total chewing time and both measures of merycism mastications (P < 0.05. Therefore, we concluded that the inclusion of PKM in the diets of sheep improves some parameters of feeding behavior, and the use of PKM is recommended at DM percentages of up to 40%.

  17. A limited survey of aflatoxin B1 contamination in Indonesian palm kernel cake and copra meal sampled from batches.

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    Pranowo, Deni; Nuryono; Agus, Ali; Wedhastri, Sri; Reiter, Elisabeth Viktoria; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    Samples from large (100-200 tons) batches of palm kernel cake (PKC, n = 20) and copra meal (CM, n = 13) were collected at production facilities of four Indonesian feed mill manufacturers and analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA. Recoveries using spiked samples ranged from 86 to 113%, with relative standard deviations of <9% (PKC) and <6% (CM). All batches were positive for AFB1: in PKC, at levels of 5.8-93.1 μg/kg (mean 49 μg/kg), and in CM, at levels of 1.1-147 μg/kg (mean 38.1 μg/kg). AFB1 levels were, in most batches, below the maximum level (100 μg/kg) recommended by the National Standardisation Agency, Republic of Indonesia. However, about half of the batches exceeded both the European Union and USA regulations for AFB1 in animal feed. In conclusion, serious efforts are necessary to control production, storage and shipment of palm kernel cake and copra meal for feed purposes, and clearly not only for products intended for export but also to reduce AFB1 levels in domestic Indonesian feed.

  18. Response of laying hens and growing broilers to the dietary inclusion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed kernel meal.

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    Odunsi, A A

    2005-02-01

    Studies were carried out to assess the nutritive value and utilization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed kernel (MSK) in the diets of layer and broiler chickens. The physical component of mango seeds was found to consist of 678 g/kg kernel, 292 g/kg shell and 30 g/kg testa. Meal from the seed kernel contained 61.6 g crude protein, 136.2 g ether extract, 22.3 g ash, 46.4 g crude fibre, 673.5 g nitrogen-free extract and appreciable mineral content. In the layers trial, MSK replaced maize weight for weight at 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 g/kg. Results indicated a significant decrease (p 0.05) on feed intake and feed efficiency when compared with control diet. Organ weights with the exception of liver and lung were unaffected by dietary MSK. Haematological indices were not influenced (p > 0.05) by dietary MSK except haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin, which were higher (p<0.05) in broilers fed 100 g/kg MSK. Neutrophils, lymphocytes and albumin/ globulin ratio were similar on all diets. The results indicated that at higher weight for weight levels, MSK cannot readily substitute maize in layer diets, whereas a marginal improvement was recorded in the broiler diet, albeit with nutrient supplementation.

  19. Biofuels from Jatropha curcas oil – Perspectives for tropical regions

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    Becker Klaus

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost 40% of the world’s population of 6,7 billion people do not have access to affordable energy resources and drinking water of acceptable quality. But nothing is more important than the alleviation of hunger. The number of hungry people, according to the newest FAO statistics, has risen to close to one billion in 2008. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to research in food and agriculture. To this stock of global problems new challenges are added through the increase in human population of 80 million persons a year and the concomitant loss of large areas of former fertile agricultural land, mostly in the poorest countries. Jatropha curcas is the most primitive member of the large genus Euphorbiaceae. The name is derived from the Greek iatros (doctor and trophe (food. Jatropha curcas is a perennial plant, native and widely spread throughout the tropics. It is not grazed by animals, grows readily on degraded lands, is drought and to some extent disease resistant. It is a multipurpose plant. There are two genotypes of Jatropha curcas, a toxic and a non-toxic one. The latter genotype is found in Mexico only. Well developed dry seeds from Jatropha curcas weigh between 650- 750 mg and contain 30-35% of oil that is suitable for conversion into biodiesel of high quality by the conventional, proven processes. The kernel forms around 65% of the seeds. The de-oiled kernel meal has a crude protein content of between 58% and 60% and a favourable amino acid profile. Extracts of the toxic genotype provide chemicals with potential in medicinal, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide application. In contrast to other fossil fuel alternatives, like biofuels from food crops such as maize, soybean, sugar cane and palm, bioenergy from Jatropha curcas grown on wasteland incurs no carbon debt and thus, offers immediate and sustained greenhouse gas advantages. Potential benefits of large scale Jatropha plantations on degraded land are expected to be

  20. THE EFFECT OF INCREASING LEVEL OF PALM KERNEL MEAL AND COPRA MEAL ON DIET TO THE MICROBIAL PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN THE RUMEN OF STEERS FED LOW QUALITY FORAGE

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    MARSETYO MARSETYO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The effect of increasing the level of palm kernel meal (PKM and copra meal (CM supplementation on the diet to the microbial crude protein (MCP production, efficiency of microbial protein production (eMCP in the rumen and rumen fluid conditions of Brahman crossbred steers given low quality forage based diet has been studied. Ten steers (243?b6.5 kg were allocated to two supplement types diets (PKM and CM. The experimental design included two incomplete 5x5 Latin Squares, each with three runs, for three months. Each run consisted of a 14 d adaptation and 7 d collection period. Steers received Green panic grass hay ad libitum with one of five levels of PKM or CM (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% of body weight (W per day (d. MCP production responded linearly (P<0.05 with increasing PKM or CM intakes. eMCP and rumen NH3-N concentration (taken at 3 and 24 h after feeding responded quadratically (P<0.05 with increasing PKM or CM intakes. It was concluded that supplementation of both PKM and CM up to level of 1.0% W/day resulted in significant increase in MCP production and eMCP in the rumen. These increases were partly due to the increasing of the concentration of rumen NH3-N in the rumen as a result of increasing supplement intakes.

  1. The role of fungal polysaccharidases in the hydrolysis of cell wall materials from sunflower and palm-kernel meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsterhöft, E M; Bonte, A W; Venekamp, J C; Voragen, A G

    1993-09-01

    Main fractions from multi-component polysaccharidase preparations (Driselase, Gamanase and an experimental preparation of fungal origin), previously used for the enzymic treatment of cell wall materials from sunflower and palm-kernel meals, were sub-fractionated by different chromatographic techniques to evaluate the contribution of each of their constituent activities in cell wall degradation. Based on activity measurements, 5- to 10-fold purification was achieved for the major enzymes but residual side-activities were still detectable in most sub-fractions. Solubilization of non-starch polysaccharides from the cell wall materials by the resulting pectolytic, xylanolytic, cellulolytic and mannanolytic sub-fractions and by highly purified glucanases, arabinanases and xylanases was, when acting individually, very low (1% to 5%). With few exceptions, the solubilizing effect of the main fractions could only be slightly enhanced by supplementation with pectolytic, cellulolytic or mannanolytic sub-fractions or by highly purified enzymes. The extent of solubilization remained mostly lower than the sum of both individually obtained values. In the degradation of palm-kernel cell wall material, however, synergistic action of mannanases and glucanases was observed. The hydrolysis of pectic compounds in sunflower cell wall material was most effective when polygalacturonases, arabinanases and rhamnogalacturonan-degrading activities were applied together. The resistance of 4-O-methyl-glucuronoxylan, the major hemicellulosic polymer in the cell wall material from sunflower meal, to enzymic hydrolysis was not only caused by its location in the cell wall or interlinkage to other polymers but also by its primary structure. Neither purified endo-xylanase nor the crude parent preparation were able to achieve complete hydrolysis of this polysaccharide after extraction.

  2. Effect of various levels of dietary Jatropha curcas seed meal on rabbits infested by the adult ticks of Hyalomma marginatum marginatum I. Animal performance, anti-tick feeding and haemogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Nasr, Soad M; Abdel-Rahman, Hashem H; Habeeb, Salwa M

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of Jatropha curcas seed meal (JCSM) in different levels as acaricide in diet of rabbits experimentally infested by Hyalomma marginatum marginatum then determining animal performance, anti-tick feeding and its effects on haemogram of rabbits. Thirty healthy mixed-breed rabbits were randomly divided into five equal groups. The first group was kept as a control fed soya bean meal (20%) as a source of protein. Groups from the second to the fifth fed diets contained 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of JCSM instead of soya bean meal as a source of protein, respectively. Feeding and watering were given freely throughout the study. Animal performance for treatment groups were recorded from the 1st week up to the 6th week. Then each group divided into two subgroups, and the ticks were introduced to all of one subgroup and the other kept as control, following them until dropped at the end of the 8th week for all groups of the experiment. Feeding and reproductive performance of the adult tick females were determined. Blood samples were collected and analysed for haematological examination at the 0, 6th and 8th weeks post-treatment from all animals. Result revealed that rabbits received diets containing 5%, 7.5% and 10% had significantly (P Egg mass and reproductive index per female were marked increase (P drop in the group received 7.5% JCSM. Also, monocytosis was recorded in 7.5% and 10% JCSM groups. In conclusion, JCSM could be use in the treatment of ectoparasites at level less than 10% in diet. Further investigations should be done to detoxification the Jatropha seed meal to decrease the level of its toxicity.

  3. Feeding behavior of crossbred steers fed diets containing babassu mesocarp meal and corn in kernels or ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the use of babassu mesocarp meal (BMM and corn in different physical forms on the feeding behavior of crossbred young bulls of a dairy breed. Twenty-four crossbred (Nellore vs. Holstein steers (307.35 kg were fed four experimental diets containing two levels of inclusion of the babassu mesocarp meal (0 and 412.4 g/kg and corn in two physical forms (kernels or ground for 98 days. Data was collected on three days during the finishing phase, with observations every five minutes, for 24 hours. When the activities performed by the animals were evaluated as a function of the period of the day, the physical form of the corn showed interaction with the BMM inclusion level on the time spent feeding and on other activities. When the activities were evaluated over the day, the defecation frequency was affected and decreased as BMM was included. The feeding time was longer at the moments that followed feed supply, whereas the time used for other activities increased during the morning period, regardless of the diet utilized. Rumination and idle times were affected by the period of the day and remained high during the night and morning periods. There was increase in feeding time and dry matter rumination efficiencies and neutral detergent fiber as BMM was added to the diet. The number of rumination chews per bolus, however, decreased as BMB was included. Inclusion of babassu mesocarp meal increases the animal feeding time but the physical form of corn does not change its feeding behavior.

  4. Effect of xylanase and cellulase supplementation on growth performance, volatile fatty acids and caecal bacteria of broiler chickens fed with palm kernel meal-based diet

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of xylanase and cellulase supplementation in palm kernel meal (PKM) based diet on growth performance, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the caecal bacterial populations of broiler chickens were investigated. Seventy five day old male Cobb broiler chicks were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups receiving T1 (20% PKM-based diet without enzyme), T2 (20% PKM-based diet with xylanase) and T3 (20% PKM-based diet with cellulase). Each enzyme was supplemented ...

  5. Diets Containing Fermented Palm Kernel Meal with Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwat MUANGKEOW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of palm kernel meal (PKM and Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 fermented PKM at various levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens. Four hundred and thirty-two day old Ross-308 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design with one control. Two kinds of PKM (unfermented and A. wentii fermented PKM in broiler rations were used, each at 10, 20, 30 and 40 %. Increasing level of PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM higher than 20 % significantly decreased feed intake and average weight gain also decreased, while feed efficiency declined. Feed intake of growing broilers during 0 to 21 d of age fed with PKM decreased linearly followed by a quadratic response during the finishing period (22 to 42 d of age while those broilers fed with A. wentii fermented PKM exhibited a quadratic response throughout the 42 d feeding trial. Data show that feed intake and average weight gain response when fed with PKM decreased linearly while when fed with A. wentii fermented PKM it was quadratic and then slowly decreased. The poor performance of the birds fed PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM at high levels might be due to the higher in crude fiber content and the lower nitrogen retention. In the growing period PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM no more than 20 % of the broiler ration should be used while in the finishing period PKM up to 30 % is effective.

  6. Determination of True Amino Acid Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy in Fermented Palm Kernel Meal with Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 for Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwat MUANGKEOW

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of energy and digestibility values of new added-value products is important for feed formulation. True amino acid digestibility and metabolizable energy of feedstuffs were evaluated in adult meat type crossbred chickens. Sulfur amino acids (cysteine and methionine and lysine were limiting amino acids in palm kernel meal (solvent extract; PKM and fermented palm kernel meal (FPKM with Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075. The FPKM with Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 lead to an increase in true amino acids digestibility except for arginine. The apparent metabolizable energy (AME; DM basis of corn, PKM and FPKM were 3,628.88, 2,201.83 and 2,080.26 kcal/kg, respectively. The true metabolizable energy (TME of PKM (DM basis: 2,958.21 kcal/kg was slightly higher than FPKM (DM basis: 2,843.01 kcal/kg while the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn of PKM (DM basis: 2,411.84 and 2,603.33 kcal/kg, respectively were significantly higher than FPKM (DM basis: 2,153.11 and 2,333.07 kcal/kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02 respectively. Aspergillus wentii may use up nitrogen-free extract (NFE in PKM as an energy source during the fermenting process, resulting in a lower metabolizable energy of FPKM when compared to PKM (without fermentation.

  7. Effects of Increasing Concentrations of Sodium Sulfite on Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Sulfonate Concentrations of Maize Kernels and Maize Meal Preserved at Various Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Paulick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3 and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction.

  8. PEMANFAATAN BUNGKIL BIJI JARAK PAGAR (JATROPHA CURCAS TERFERMENTASI SEBAGAI PAKAN AYAM KAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiati

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas meal (JCM is very potential as protein source for poultry. The JCM contained high crude protein, i.e. 56,4-63,8% (without hull and 22,39-31,41% (hulled JCM. JCM serves as a highly nutritious and economic protein supplement in animal feed, if the toxins and antinutrients contained in the JCM are removed. The toxic compounds isolated from jatropha seed include curcin, phorbolesters, and the antinutrients include antitrypsins, tannin, saponin, phytic acid, and high fiber. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented JCM on the performances of kampong chickens. In this study, tempeh fungi (fungi using in fermenting soybean used to ferment the JCM. Two hundred kampung chickens were used in this experiment and reared from day old up to 10 weeks of age. The data analyzed with a Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatment diets and 4 replications, with 10 birds in each replicate. The experimental diets were: T0 (the control diet, without Jatropha curcas meal, T1 (the diet contained 5% untreated Jatropha curcas meal, T2 (the diet contained 5% fermented Jatropha curcas meal + cellulase 200 ml/ton of feed, T3 (the diet contained 5% fermented Jatropha curcas meal + 1000 FTU phytase, and T4 (the diet contained 5% fermented Jatropha curcas meal + cellulase 200 ml/ton + 1000 FTU phytase. The results showed that there were no significant difference on the parameters observed due to the treatments. Feeding fermented Jatropha curcas meal supplemented with cellulase + phytase(T4 yielded the final body weight and feed conversion ratio similar to those the control (T0 diet. There was no mortality observed in all treatments. Using JCM 5% in the diet is safe for the kampong chickens

  9. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira R. Segura-Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%. Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides’ inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and <1 kDa fractions were selected for further fractionation by gel filtration chromatography. ACE inhibitory activity (% ranged from 22.66 to 45.96% with the 5–10 kDa ultrafiltered fraction and from 36.91 to 55.83% with the <1 kDa ultrafiltered fraction. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was observed in F2 ( μg/mL from the 5–10 kDa fraction and F1 ( μg/mL from the <1 kDa fraction. ACE inhibitory fractions from Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry.

  10. Growth performance and metabolic efficiency in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed on a diet containing Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as a protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Akinleye, A O; Makkar, H P S; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Becker, K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha platyphylla is available on the pacific coast from Sinaloa to Michoacán including the Nayarit and Jalisco states in Mexico. The seeds of J. platyphylla are rich in oil and protein, and the kernel meal (JPKM) prepared after oil extraction contains 70-75% crude protein (CP). Contents of essential amino acids (except lysine) are higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Phorbol-esters, the main toxin present in most Jatropha species is absent in J. platyphylla. Heat-treated JPKM (H-JPKM) was evaluated as a protein supplement in tilapia feed and compared with that of SBM and fish meal (FM). Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings (15 fish; av. body mass 13.9 ± 0.17 g) were randomly distributed in three groups with five replicates each. A 12-week experiment was conducted in a respirometer system to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient utilization and energy budget. Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed three iso-nitrogenous diets (36% CP): Control containing FM, and Jatropha and Soybean diets in which 62.5% of FM protein was replaced by H-JPKM and SBM respectively. The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent lipid conversion and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. Higher protein productive value was observed in plant protein fed groups. Average metabolic rate, energy expenditure per g protein fed and retained in the body did not differ significantly among the three groups. Conclusively, Nile tilapia fed plant protein (heated JPKM and SBM) and FM protein-based diets exhibited equal average metabolic rate which indicate that JPKM can be used as a protein source in aqua feed.

  11. Effect of dietary Ximenia caffra kernel meal on blood and liver metabolic substrate content and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivandi, E; Moyo, D; Dangarembizi, R; Erlwanger, K

    2016-06-01

    We investigated (at the University of the Witwatersrand: GPS coordinates 26°10' 52.96″S; 28°2' 33.61″E) the effects of substituting soya bean meal (SBM) with Ximenia caffra kernel meal (XCKM) as a dietary protein source on blood and liver metabolic substrates content, serum markers of liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Five diets with similar energy and protein content were formulated (D1-D5) where XCKM replaced SBM on a crude protein basis at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Forty weanling male SD rats were randomly assigned to diets D1-D5, fed for 37 days and weighed twice weekly. The rats were then fasted overnight, and fasting blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations were determined from tail-vein-drawn blood. Immediately thereafter, the rats were euthanised and blood was collected via cardiac puncture. Serum was used to assay for markers of the general health profile. Livers were removed and weighed, and samples were used to determine lipid and glycogen content. Rats fed D4 (75% substitution level) had significantly lower (p  0.05) fasting blood glucose and cholesterol concentrations, liver glycogen and lipid content. Additionally, it had no effect (p > 0.05) on serum activity/concentration of surrogate markers of liver (alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity and urea, total bilirubin, globulin and albumin concentrations) and kidney (phosphorus, calcium and creatinine concentrations) function and the general clinical biochemistry of the rats. Defatted XCKM could substitute SBM in rat diets without compromising blood glucose and cholesterol homeostasis, liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of growing male Sprague Dawley rats.

  12. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P  0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAR RUSLAN; ARTRI; ELFAHMI

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesi...

  14. Effect of fat replacement by inulin or lupin-kernel fibre on sausage patty acceptability, post-meal perceptions of satiety and food intake in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Bridie J; Johnson, Stuart K; Devereux, Helen M; Baxter, Amynta L

    2004-04-01

    The present study examined whether replacing fat with inulin or lupin-kernel fibre influenced palatability, perceptions of satiety, and food intake in thirty-three healthy men (mean age 52 years, BMI 27.4 kg/m(2)), using a within-subject design. On separate occasions, after fasting overnight, the participants consumed a breakfast consisting primarily of either a full-fat sausage patty (FFP) or a reduced-fat patty containing inulin (INP) or lupin-kernel fibre (LKP). Breakfast variants were alike in mass, protein and carbohydrate content; however the INP and LKP breakfasts were 36 and 37 % lower in fat and 15 and 17 % lower in energy density respectively compared with the FFP breakfast. The participants rated their satiety before breakfast then evaluated patty acceptability. Satiety was rated immediately after consuming the breakfast, then over the subsequent 4.5 h whilst fasting. Food consumed until the end of the following day was recorded. All patties were rated above 'neither acceptable or unacceptable', however the INP rated lower for general acceptability (P=0.039) and the LKP lower for flavour (P=0.023) than the FFP. The LKP breakfast rated more satiating than the INP (P=0.010) and FFP (P=0.016) breakfasts. Total fat intake was 18 g lower on the day of the INP (P=0.035) and 26 g lower on the day of the LKP breakfast (P=0.013) than the FFP breakfast day. Energy intake was lower (1521 kJ) only on the day of the INP breakfast (P=0.039). Both inulin and lupin-kernel fibre appear to have potential as fat replacers in meat products and for reducing fat and energy intake in men.

  15. Principes toxiques, toxicité et technologie de détoxification de la graine de Jatropha curcas L. (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesseim, TDT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic principles, toxicity and technology of detoxification of Jatropha curcas L. seed: a review. The use of meal from the crushing of Jatropha curcas seed for livestock feed is limited owing to the variable amounts of seed available. This availability depends on the level and variety of toxic and antinutritional compounds contained in the seed at a given time; the most important of these compounds are phorbol esters and curcin. The phorbol esters present in J. curcas seed are Euphorbiaceae diterpenes, known for their inflammatory action resulting in irritation and toxicity to insects, fish and mammals. These compounds are sometimes completely degraded in soil and they may be reduced by physical, chemical or biological processes, with a reduction ratio of between 50 and 95%. Curcin is an irritating toxalbumin with lectin activity; it is inactivated by heat treatment at 121 °C for 30 min. Other antinutritional compounds are also present in J. curcas seed, such as saponins and an inhibitor of trypsin activity. This trypsin-inhibiting compound interferes with the digestion process and its reduction is achieved through thermal, chemical or biological treatments. The elimination of, or at least a reduction in the levels of, these molecules represents a prerequisite for using J. curcas meal in the livestock feed sector.

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAR RUSLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesia showed to contain relatively the same profile of chemical contents. Dominant compounds that were detected by GCMS are hidrocarbon such as 2-heptenal, decadienal, hexsadecane, pentadecane, cyclooctane etc, fatty acid such as oktadecanoate acid, etthyl linoleate, ethyl stearate, heksadecanoate acid and steroid such as stigmasterol, fucosterol, sitosterol. No phorbol ester and its derivatives have been detected yet by the GCMS method. Callus and suspension cultures of J. curcas have been established to be used for further investigation.

  17. The use of formaldehyde protected palm kernel meal and its effects on animal performance, nitrogen utilization and unsaturated fatty acid composition in Priangan sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G Wiryawan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of formaldehyde-treated Palm Kernel Cake (BIS in male Priangan sheep diet and its effect on animal performance, N utilization, and unsaturated fatty acids composition of musculus longisimus dorsal. The experiment was designed based on completly randomized design with four treatments and nine replications. The treatments consisted of four levels of formaldehyde treated BIS: R1 (0%, R2 (15%, R3 (30% and R4 (45%. Results indicated that formaldehyde treated BIS up to 45% in diet did not negatively affect consumption, dry matter digestibility and daily live weight gain. Formaldehyde protection especially in R4 could significantly reduce ruminal N-NH3 concentration, increased protein digestibility and nitrogen retention, but did not influence allantoin urine concentration. Unsaturated fatty acid composition of musculus longisimus dorsal was not affected by formaldehyde treated BIS in diet. It is concluded that the inclusion of 45% formaldehyde treated BIS in diet did not negatively affect animal performance, and R4 is the most effective in improving nitrogen utilization in male Priangan sheep, but unable to alter the unsaturated fatty acids composition of musculus longisimus dorsal.

  18. Aspergillus-fermented Jatropha curcas seed cake: proximate composition and effects on biochemical indices in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAOZIYAT SULAIMAN ADENIKE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated Jatropha curcas seed cake fermented by Aspergillus niger for use as a potential source of protein in animal feed production. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A–D, of 3 rats each and fed different protein-rich diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 (control was fed with soybean as a protein source, while Groups 2, 3, and 4 were given feeds supplemented instead with Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas, unfermented J. curcas, and a mix of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas and soybean (1:1, respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, and their serum and vital organs were harvested for further analyses. Proximate analyses of the various diet combinations showed significant (P < 0.05 variations in crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, and ash content. Enzyme assays (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in rat serum and tissue homogenates indicate that the detoxification of J. curcas kernel cake by A. niger fermentation is viable and promising. Body weight generally did not differ significantly between the groups, but all rats put on weight in week 1 (Group 2 most strongly. The initial weight gain was followed by a slight decreasing trend in all groups in weeks 2–4, probably due to an adaptation mechanism. One rat fed with the unfermented cake (Group 3 died in week 2, confirming that the cake is not safe for direct consumption until it is processed. Our data support further use of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas as an alternative protein source in animal feed preparation.

  19. Floral Biology and Hybridization Potential of Nine Accessions of Physic Nut Jatropha curcas L. originating from Three Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahoton, LE.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a shrub which has an important economic and medicinal role in tropical and subtropical zones of the world. The oil of its kernels can serve as fuel feedstock to produce diesel, indicating its potential as a renewable source of energy. In an attempt to introduce new variation into cultivated Jatropha curcas, a program of intraspecific hybridization with several ecotypes originating from Africa, Asia and America was undertaken. Field studies were performed over three years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Before achieving hybridization, the floral ratio and the breeding system of physic nut were studied in Southern Benin ecological conditions. Significant differences (P< 0.05 were observed between the analysed ecotypes regarding the number of female flowers. This study has also confirmed that the breeding system of Jatropha curcas is essentially outcrossing and that foraging insects are the main pollination actors of female flowers. New intraspecific hybrid combinations were produced involving nine accessions. Crosses results varied according to the origin and the direction of the hybridization. Crosses between accessions of J. curcas originating from Africa and Asia gave hybrids without difficulty. The data obtained confirm that apomixis might play a major role in J. curcas a reproductive biology. Considering the high number of female flowers per inflorescence produced by the accession from Ecuador, and the large genetic distance existing between this accession and those from Africa and Asia, it should constitute a valuable genetic stock for the development of F1 hybrids with local ecotypes of J. curcas. However, the use of growth regulators might be necessary to improve the hybridization success rate when it is used as female parent.

  20. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of Jatropha curcas seeds from four different agro-climatic areas of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Chikpah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a drought resistant multipurpose small shrub/tree with significant economic importance because of its several potential agricultural, industrial and medicinal uses. The study was conducted to provide quantitative data on the physical and chemical properties of seeds and kernels of Jatropha curcas grown locally in four different agro-climatic areas of Ghana (1. Nyankpala, Northern Region, 2. Dambai, Volta Region, 3. WA, Upper West Region, 4. Techiman, Brong Ahafo Region, that differ in agro-climatic conditions. The average seed weight was between 0.65 – 0.73 g and average kernel and shell weights ranged between (0.41- 0.45 g and (0.24 – 0.28 g respectively. The kernel forms larger proportion of the seed and the percentage kernel weight of whole seed was highest in seeds obtained from Nyankpala, sample 1 (62.74 % and lower in seeds from WA, sample 3 (61.19 %. The seeds have dry matter content of (93.13 – 94.18 %, crude protein (18.21 -19.97 %, lipid (36.52-38.64 %, carbohydrate (14.70 – 16.64 %, crude fibre (14.14 – 19.04 % and total ash (5.03 – 5.71 %. The kernels of Jatropha samples were very rich in lipid (55.51 – 56.83 % that did not vary significantly (p > 0.05 among the four samples. The kernels also contained high crude protein that varied between (23.08 – 25.88 %. Crude fibre was low in the kernels (3.68 – 5.52 %. The seeds and kernels of Jatropha curcas samples also contained varying amounts of antinutrients such as crude phorbol ester, phytic acid and tannins. Crude phorbol ester concentrations in the seed samples are sample 1(5.35 mg/g, sample 2 (6.20 mg/g, sample 3(5.30 mg/g and sample 4(6.82 mg/g. However, the concentration of crude phorbol ester in the kernels (1K, 2K, 3K, and 4K ranged between (5.0 – 6.45 mg/g. The phytic acid content (% dry matter in seeds and kernels were between the range (8.71 -10.15 % and (7.88-9.50 % respectively. Tannins content in the kernel was low (0.05 – 0

  1. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  2. Structure prediction and binding sites analysis of curcin protein of Jatropha curcas using computational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Mugdha; Gupta, Shishir K; Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) are defense proteins in a number of higher-plant species that are directly targeted toward herbivores. Jatropha curcas is one of the biodiesel plants having RIPs. The Jatropha seed meal, after extraction of oil, is rich in curcin, a highly toxic RIP similar to ricin, which makes it unsuitable for animal feed. Although the toxicity of curcin is well documented in the literature, the detailed toxic properties and the 3D structure of curcin has not been determined by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy or any in silico techniques to date. In this pursuit, the structure of curcin was modeled by a composite approach of 3D structure prediction using threading and ab initio modeling. Assessment of model quality was assessed by methods which include Ramachandran plot analysis and Qmean score estimation. Further, we applied the protein-ligand docking approach to identify the r-RNA binding residue of curcin. The present work provides the first structural insight into the binding mode of r-RNA adenine to the curcin protein and forms the basis for designing future inhibitors of curcin. Cloning of a future peptide inhibitor within J. curcas can produce non-toxic varieties of J. curcas, which would make the seed-cake suitable as animal feed without curcin detoxification.

  3. In-situ Alkaline Transesterification of Jatropha curcas seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Jatropha seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novizar Nazir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME by direct in situ alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides (TG in Jatropha curcas seeds was examined. The experimental results showed that the amount of Jatropha curcas seed oil dissolved in methanol was approximately 83% of the total oil and the conversion of this oil could achieve 98% under the following conditions: less than 2% moisture content in Jatropha curcas seed flours, 0.3–0.335 mm particle size, 0.08 mol/L NaOH concentration in methanol, 171:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 45.66 oC reaction temperature and 3.02 h reaction time. The use of alkaline methanol as extraction and reaction solvent, which would be useful for extraction oil and phorbol esters, would reduce the phorbol esters content in the Jatropha curcas seed cake. The cake after in-situ transesterification is rich in protein and is a potential source of livestock feed. Further, the the toxicity studies were also investigated on male rate by feeding the seed cake after after in-situ transesterification as well as the from solvent and mechanical extraction. Food intake, growth rate, protein efficiency ratio (PER and transformation index (TI showed that the meal is potential as protein supplement to livestock feed.

  4. Culture in vitro de Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toussaint, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of Jatropha curcas L.. The extension of Jatropha curcas L. cultivation as a biofuel feedstock species requires the distribution of a very large number of plants to the producers in a very short period of time. These plants have to be able to give a high oil yield and be morphologically and phenotypically homogeneous to facilitate cultural operations. If high oil content can be obtained by varietal selection, the achievement of homogeneous material passes by the in vitro propagation. Various methods of mass production of plant material by axenic culture have been published. This study reviews the protocols published for in vitro propagation of J. curcas and discusses their applicability to an industrial scale.

  5. Phorbol Esters from Jatropha Meal Triggered Apoptosis, Activated PKC-δ, Caspase-3 Proteins and Down-Regulated the Proto-Oncogenes in MCF-7 and HeLa Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahida Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs. The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC50 of 128.6 ± 2.51 and 133.0 ± 1.96 µg PMA equivalents/mL respectively, while the values for the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA as positive control were 114.7 ± 1.73 and 119.6 ± 3.73 µg/mL, respectively. Microscopic examination showed significant morphological changes that resemble apoptosis in both cell lines when treated with PEs and PMA at IC50 concentration after 24 h. Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation results confirmed the apoptosis induction of PEs and PMA in both cell lines. The PEs isolated from Jatropha meal activated the PKC-δ and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun. These changes probably led to the activation of Caspase-3 protein and apoptosis cell death occurred in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines upon 24 h treatment with PEs and PMA. Phorbol esters of Jatropha meal were found to be promising as an alternative to replace the chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy.

  6. Phorbol esters from Jatropha meal triggered apoptosis, activated PKC-δ, caspase-3 proteins and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes in MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Ahmad, Syahida

    2012-09-10

    Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs). The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC₅₀ of 128.6 ± 2.51 and 133.0 ± 1.96 µg PMA equivalents/mL respectively, while the values for the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as positive control were 114.7 ± 1.73 and 119.6 ± 3.73 µg/mL, respectively. Microscopic examination showed significant morphological changes that resemble apoptosis in both cell lines when treated with PEs and PMA at IC₅₀ concentration after 24 h. Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation results confirmed the apoptosis induction of PEs and PMA in both cell lines. The PEs isolated from Jatropha meal activated the PKC-δ and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun). These changes probably led to the activation of Caspase-3 protein and apoptosis cell death occurred in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines upon 24 h treatment with PEs and PMA. Phorbol esters of Jatropha meal were found to be promising as an alternative to replace the chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy.

  7. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Rong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial

  8. Larvicidal activity of a toxin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas Linn. against Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthakan, Nuchsuk; Nuanchawee, Wetprasit; Sittiruk, Roytrakul; Sunanta, Ratanapo

    2012-06-01

    The larvicidal effects of the crude protein extract and purified toxin, Jc-SCRIP, from the seed coat of Jatropha curcas Linn. against the third instar larvae of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, were investigated. This test compared the effects of the purified toxin with crude protein extracts from seed kernels of J. curcas and Ricinus communis. At various concentrations of purified toxin and crude protein extract, the larval mortality of both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were positively correlated with increased exposure time. The larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the toxin and both extracts than the larvae of Ae. aegypti. After 24 hours of exposure, the extract showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 3.89 mg/ml and 0.0575 mg/ml, respectively. The toxin, Jc-SCRIP, showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 1.44 mg/ml and 0.0303 mg/ ml, respectively. These results indicated that the crude protein extract and Jc-SCRIP were more toxic to the third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus than that of Ae. aegypti. The potent larvicidal activities of the seed coat extract and the Jc-SCRIP toxin from J. curcas suggest that they may be used as bioactive agents to control the mosquito population.

  9. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Rong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial

  10. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  11. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced that allows the design of meal solutions (such as chilled and frozen ready meals, menu choices in catering and food service) based on empirical assessments of fit between meal centres and side components. The necessary input data are collected by means of a consumer...... and beer or spirits), a ‘‘Sunday roast’’ segment (shoulder, gammon roast, collar roast or medallions served with potatoes and sauce, combined with beans, carrots or cabbage), a ‘‘Bolognese’’ segment (minced meat with pasta), a ‘‘lean cuisine’’ segment (tenderloin or small cuts combined served with rice...

  12. Anthelmintic activity of latex of Jatropha curcas (ratanjot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Hitesh Kumar Parmar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of plants have been used for the treatment of helmenthiasis throughout the world. One such plant is Jatropha curcas. It is known as ratanjot or biodiesel plant, which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It possesses many uses like antidiabetic, antmicrobial and antioxidant. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh and dried latex showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites that have demonstrated antimicrobial action. The present research work investigated the Anthelmintic activity of latex of leaves of Jatropha curcas. The major finding of the present work illustrates that aqueous latex of Jatropha curcas has shown better Anthelmintic activity than control Jatropha latex and standard drug, piperazine citrate.

  13. Evaluate the effect of mutans Aspergillus niger to the nutritive value of fermentation at coconut meal and karnel palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRESNAWATI PURWADARIA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural wastes, such as coconut meal and kernel palm meal can be used to fulfill the need of feed for ruminants or monogastrics. Fermentation technology using Aspergillus niger has been reported allow to increase their nutritive value. Isolation of the asporogenous strain which could spored at room temperature but could not spored at 37oC is expected to sole the fermentation of spores in the fermentation product. The spore formation of mutants at the fourth day incubation time (10% was less than the wild type (100%. The variance analysis of protein content in vitro Dry Matter Digestibility (IVDMD and in vitro Protein Digestibility (IVPD showed that the kind of mutants were interacted with the incubation time (P<0,01. The highest protein content of coconut meal was obtained from E27 mutant (33.0%, kernel palm meal was obtained from E14 mutant (31.4% at the fourth day of incubation time. The highest IVDMD of coconut meal (62.1%, kernel palms meal (61.8% at the fourth day incubation time and from all E27 mutant. The highest IVPD of coconut meal was obtained from E27 mutant (20.49% at the fourth day incubation time, kernel palm meal was obtained from E27 mutant (18.66% at the fourth days incubation time.

  14. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil catalyzed by whole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... reaction conditions for biodiesel production via transesterification between Jatropha curcas (physic nut) oil and ... to be a potential feedstock for enzyme produced bio- .... The growth rate of A. pullulans var. melanogenum SRY.

  15. Environmental impacts of Jatropha curcas biodiesel in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations.

  16. Insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas extracts against housefly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Verma, Sharad; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati

    2015-10-01

    The hexane and ether extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Jatropha curcas were screened for their toxicity against different developmental stages of housefly. The larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities were analysed at various concentrations (0.78-7.86 mg/cm(2)) of hexane and ether extracts. The lethal concentration values (LC50) of hexane extract of J. curcas leaves were 3.0 and 0.27 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. Similarly, the ether extract of leaf showed the LC50 of 2.20 and 4.53 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly. Least toxicity was observed with hexane root extract of J. curcas with LC50 values of 14.18 and 14.26 mg/cm(2) for adult and larvae of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. The variation in LC50 against housefly pupae was found to be 8.88-13.10 mg/cm(2) at various J. curcas extract concentrations. The GC-MS analysis of J. curcas leaf extract revealed the presence of trans-phytol (60.81 %), squalene (28.58 %), phytol (2.52 %) and nonadecanone (1.06 %) as major components that could be attributed for insecticidal activity of J. curcas extracts.

  17. Capim-elefante amonizado e farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê em dietas para ovinos em crescimento Amnonizated elephant grass and cocoa meal or palm kernel cake in growing sheep diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da amonização do capim-elefante e da substituição parcial do concentrado padrão, à base de milho e farelo de soja, por concentrados contendo farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê sobre o desempenho de ovinos. Utilizaram-se 18 ovinos machos não-castrados da raça Santa Inês, com peso corporal médio de 22,6 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 × 3 com três repetições. O período experimental teve duração de 77 dias: 14 dias de adaptação e três períodos de 21 dias para coleta dos dados. As dietas foram compostas de 60% de volumoso (silagem de capim-elefante não tratado ou tratado com uréia e 40% de concentrado. Utilizaram-se três concentrados, um à base de milho e farelo de soja, outro contendo milho, farelo de soja e farelo de cacau e outro contendo milho, farelo de soja e torta de dendê. Os consumos de matéria seca em %PC foram menores entre os animais alimentados com concentrado contendo torta de dendê, entretanto, não houve diferença entre o concentrado padrão e aquele com farelo de cacau nem entre os volumosos. Também não houve interação volumoso × concentrado. O ganho de peso foi maior nos animais alimentados com o capim-elefante amonizado. A lucratividade parcial por kg de ganho de peso elevou com a amonização do capim-elefante e reduziu com a inclusão dos subprodutos no concentrado.The effect of ammonization of elephant grass and the partial substitution of the standard concentrate based on corn and soybean meal by concentrates containing cocoa meal or palm cake on sheep performance was evaluated. A total of 18 Santa Inês male sheep, with average 22.6 kg BW, was allotted to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangment with three replications. The experimental period consisted of 77 days, with 14 days for adaptation and three periods of 21 days for data collection. The diets constituted of 60% forage (elephant grass no

  18. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine : from toxicity problems to safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insanu, Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is natural sources of biodiesel. It has high potential economic values. Different parts of J. curcas have their own potencies, unfortunately these were not known by the farmers. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of the additional values of Jatropha curcas L. by charact

  19. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine : from toxicity problems to safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insanu, Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is natural sources of biodiesel. It has high potential economic values. Different parts of J. curcas have their own potencies, unfortunately these were not known by the farmers. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of the additional values of Jatropha curcas L. by charact

  20. Subsampling Realised Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper we have introduced the class of realised kernel estimators of the increments of quadratic variation in the presence of noise. We showed that this estimator is consistent and derived its limit distribution under various assumptions on the kernel weights. In this paper we extend our...... analysis, looking at the class of subsampled realised kernels and we derive the limit theory for this class of estimators. We find that subsampling is highly advantageous for estimators based on discontinuous kernels, such as the truncated kernel. For kinked kernels, such as the Bartlett kernel, we show...... that subsampling is impotent, in the sense that subsampling has no effect on the asymptotic distribution. Perhaps surprisingly, for the efficient smooth kernels, such as the Parzen kernel, we show that subsampling is harmful as it increases the asymptotic variance. We also study the performance of subsampled...

  1. Basal Nutrition of Palm Kernel Meal and Preliminary Evaluation in Feeding Juvenile Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus%棕仁粕基础营养分析及其在尼罗罗非鱼养殖中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马方奎; 冷凯良; 吴文民; 马银辉; 陈西广

    2011-01-01

    本文对比研究了棕仁粕、豆柏、花生粕的基础营养及体外胃蛋白酶消化性,通过在实验饲料中添加2%、6%、10%的棕仁粕制备了四份等氮等能的饲料,初步评价了添加棕仁粕对罗非鱼生长、体组分以及血清学参数的影响.结果表明:棕仁柏作为蛋白水平相对略低,纤维含量较高的植物蛋白替代源,其体外胃蛋白酶消化率与豆粕和花生粕无明显差异,可以作为膳食饲料组分适量的添加到水产动物饲料中,而不会影响罗非鱼的正常生长;在罗非鱼养殖实验中,添加2%棕仁粕的饲料组,罗非鱼的增重率,饲料系数,蛋白利用率、鱼体的蛋白组分以及血清学参数与对照组相比无显著差异(P>0.05),添加至6%~10%后,罗飞鱼的生长表现开始下降,饲料系数开始上升,鱼体蛋白组分下降(P<0.05).作为棕仁粕在水产养殖领域的初步探索性应用研究,研究认为棕仁粕是可以用于水产饲料的成分使用的,添加比例不宜超过6%.%A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the basal nutrition and pepsinum digestibility in virtro of Palm kernel meal, soya bean meal and peanut meal. In addition,the palm kernel meal (PKM) was graded and supplemented in a commercial diet to evaluate the effect on growth, feed utilization, body composition, serologic index of juvenile Nile tilapia. Results showed that PKM had relatively low protein content and high fibre content. There were no significant difference in vitro pepsinum digestibility (P > 0.05 ). In feeding experiments, growth performance, feed conversion ratio, body protein composition and serologic index of juvenile Nile tilapia were not affected until PKM was added up to 6% (P > 0.05) asa result of the decrease of feed protein level and digestibility of enteric canal to protein. In conclusion, PKM can be added into fish feed diets no more than 6 % and it was favorable to make further efforts on the utilization of PKM

  2. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  3. Jatropha curcas L:Phytochemical, antimicrobial and larvicidal properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sillma Rampadarath; Daneshwar Puchooa; Rajesh Jeewon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities as well as the phytochemical and lav-icidal properties of different parts of Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) growing in Mauritius. Methods: Determination of the presence of phytochemicals in the crude plants extracts by test tube reactions. Disc diffusion method and microdilution method were used to detect the antimicrobial sensitivity and activity (minimal inhibitory concentration). The crude solvent extracts were also tested on the larvae of two insects, Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera, Tephritidae). Results: The antimicrobial activities were significantly dependent for the different crude plant extracts on the thirteen microorganisms tested. For the Gram-positive bacteria, the crude ethyl acetate extract was more efficient compared to the Gram-negative bacteria with both solvents being effective. The crude ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas bark and mature seed oil showed the highest efficacy. The highest mortality percentage was observed after 24 h for both Diptera flies with (66.67 ± 2.89)%of Bactrocera cucurbitae larvae killed by ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas bark. Conclusions: This paper compared the different J. curcas plant sections with respect to the effectiveness of the plant as a potential candidate for new pharmaceuticals. The lar-vicidal effect was also studied in order to demonstrate the dual purpose of the plant.

  4. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Wang, Ya-Nang; Chung, Chin-Yi

    2014-12-01

    This study employed Jatropha curcas (bioenergy crop plant) to assist in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated field soils. Analyses were conducted on the concentrations of the individual metals in the soil and in the plants, and their differences over the growth periods of the plants were determined. The calculation of plant biomass after 2 years yielded the total amount of each metal that was removed from the soil. In terms of the absorption of heavy metal contaminants by the roots and their transfer to aerial plant parts, Cd, Ni, and Zn exhibited the greatest ease of absorption, whereas Cu, Cr, and Pb interacted strongly with the root cells and remained in the roots of the plants. J. curcas showed the best absorption capability for Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. This study pioneered the concept of combining both bioremediation and afforestation by J. curcas, demonstrated at a field scale.

  5. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities in Jatropha curcas latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoniyi, Omolaja; Onajobi, Funmi

    2003-11-01

    Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant commonly grown in the Tropics, is traditionally used as a haemostatic. Investigation of the coagulant activity of the latex of Jatropha curcas showed that whole latex significantly (Platex, however, prolonged the clotting time: at high dilutions, the blood did not clot at all. This indicates that Jatropha curcas latex possesses both procoagulant and anticoagulant activities. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests on plasma confirm these observations. Solvent partitioning of the latex with ethyl acetate and butanol led to a partial separation of the two opposing activities: at low concentrations, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a procoagulant activity, while the butanol fraction had the highest anticoagulant activity. The residual aqueous fraction had no significant effect on the clotting time of blood and the PT but slightly prolonged the APTT.

  6. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  7. Robust Kernel (Cross-) Covariance Operators in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space toward Kernel Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Md. Ashad; Fukumizu, Kenji; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there are no general well-founded robust methods for statistical unsupervised learning. Most of the unsupervised methods explicitly or implicitly depend on the kernel covariance operator (kernel CO) or kernel cross-covariance operator (kernel CCO). They are sensitive to contaminated data, even when using bounded positive definite kernels. First, we propose robust kernel covariance operator (robust kernel CO) and robust kernel crosscovariance operator (robust kern...

  8. Variabilité morphologiques et conservation des morphotypes de Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphoriaceae au Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlemagne Judes Gbemavo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to Jatropha curcas cultivation and seeks to analyze the morphological variability and identification of morphotypes of Jatropha curcas. The study was conducted in 44 communities equitably distributed among 22 towns (populations and geographically widespread in the 10 phytodistricts of Benin. Per population, at least 30 individuals of the species spaced at least 20 meters apart were randomly selected for the collection of morphological data. In total, 840 individuals, 714 leaves, 2294 fruits and 3465 seeds of Jatropha curcas were measured in all the country. The part of the variability of Jatropha curcas morphological traits due to individual, populations, phytodistricts, climatic zones were determined using the variance component analysis. The stepwise discriminant analysis was performed on Jatropha curcas populations to identify the morphological traits which discriminate them and the numeric classification was realized to regroup Jatropha curcas populations. The results show that variability of Jatropha curcas morphological traits is generally larger at individual level or between individuals of the same population than between populations, phytodistricts and climatic zones except fruits and seeds weight whose variability is larger between populations. Ten of twenty-one morphological traits studied were identified as the most discriminant variables of Jatropha curcas. Four morphological groups of Jatropha curcas were distinguished in Benin considering 10 discriminant variables. Keywords: morphological traits, variability, Jatropha curcas, Benin.

  9. Nonextensive Entropic Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Berg et al., 1984] has been used in a machine learning context by Cuturi and Vert [2005]. Definition 26 Let (X ,+) be a semigroup .2 A function ϕ : X...R is called pd (in the semigroup sense) if k : X × X → R, defined as k(x, y) = ϕ(x + y), is a pd kernel. Likewise, ϕ is called nd if k is a nd...kernel. Accordingly, these are called semigroup kernels. 7.3 Jensen-Shannon and Tsallis kernels The basic result that allows deriving pd kernels based on

  10. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  11. Screening of antioxidants as stabilisers for Jatropha curcas L. oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero Jan; Broekhuis, Antonius Augustinus

    2013-01-01

    The effect of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of oils extracted from Jatropha curcas seeds was measured by the accelerated oxidation test specified in EN 14112 using commercial Rancimat 873 equipment. To find the appropriate antioxidant for jatropha oil, fourteen different antioxidants were

  12. Screening of antioxidants as stabilisers for Jatropha curcas L. oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero Jan; Broekhuis, Antonius Augustinus

    The effect of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of oils extracted from Jatropha curcas seeds was measured by the accelerated oxidation test specified in EN 14112 using commercial Rancimat 873 equipment. To find the appropriate antioxidant for jatropha oil, fourteen different antioxidants were

  13. Jatropha curcas L: Phytochemical, antimicrobial and larvicidal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sillma Rampadarath

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: This paper compared the different J. curcas plant sections with respect to the effectiveness of the plant as a potential candidate for new pharmaceuticals. The larvicidal effect was also studied in order to demonstrate the dual purpose of the plant.

  14. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable, looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The vegetable oils, fats, grease are the source of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Significant work has been reported on the kinetics of transesterification of edible vegetable oils but little work is reported on non-edible oils. Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstocks for biodiesel production in India and limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high FFA containing oil. The present study reports a review of kinetics of biodiesel production. The paper also reveals the results of kinetics study of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process, respectively, under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind dealing with simplified kinetics of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried at optimum temperature of both the steps which took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME. (author)

  15. Características físico-químicas e custo do leite de cabras alimentadas com farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê Physical-chemical characteristics and cost of milk of goats fed with cocoa meal or palm kernel cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G.O. Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o efeito de dietas contendo farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD em substituição ao concentrado padrão, à base de milho e farelo de soja, sobre a composição físico-química e o resultado econômico da produção de leite. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen com 41,66kg de peso e 60 dias de lactação, no delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 5×5. Os períodos experimentais foram de 14 dias, com 10 dias para adaptação e quatro para a coleta dos dados. As rações concentradas isoprotéicas (13,2% foram calculadas para uma produção de 2kg de leite/dia. As dietas constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso e 64% de concentrado. Utilizaram-se silagem de milho e concentrado-padrão (milho e farelo de soja com 0, 15 e 30% de substituição pelo FC ou TD. As dietas não influenciaram (P>0,05 as características físico-químicas do leite. A substituição reduziu o custo das dietas e apenas as com 15% de FC e 15% de TD apresentaram margem bruta superior à da dieta-controle.The effects of cocoa meal (FC or palm kernel cake (TD replacing corn and soybean meal standard concentrate on physical-chemical composition were evaluated and the economical analysis of milk production was performed. Five Saanen goats, with 41.66kg body weight and 60 days of lactation were used in a 5×5 latin square experimental design. The experimental periods of 14 days, had 10 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. The isoprotec diets (13.2%, were formulated to allow a milk production of 2kg/day. The diets were constituted of 36% roughage and 64% concentrate. The standard concentrate was replaced by 0, 15 and 30% of FC or TD. No effects of diets (P>0.05 on milk physical-chemical characteristics were observed. The inclusion of by-products reduced the cost of diets, however, only those with 15% FC and 15% TD showed gross margin higher than the one observed for the control diet.

  16. Potential land for plantation of Jatropha curcas as feedstocks for biodiesel in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a renewable energy,biofuel has attracted great attention in China and the rest of world.Concerned with the national food security,China recently has shifted its biofuel development priority from grain-based to non-grain-based biofuels,including forest-based biodiesel,since 2007.Jatropha curcas is one of major biodiesel feedstocks.However,there is rising debate on availability of land for expanding Jatropha curcas areas.The overall goal of this paper is to evaluate potential land for Jatropha curcas used as feedstock for biodiesel in China.Based on remote sensing data on land use,data on meteorological,soil and land slope,and suitable environment for Jatropha curcas plantation,this study uses Agro Ecological Zone method and considers social-economic constraints to evaluate potential suitable land for Jatropha curcas plantation in China’s major Jatropha curcas production region,Southwest China.The results show that while there are some potential lands to expand Jatropha curcas areas,amount of these lands will hardly meet the government’s target for Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels development in the future.China may need to reconsider its long-term targets on the development of Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels.

  17. Optimized Kernel Entropy Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Verdiguier, Emma; Laparra, Valero; Jenssen, Robert; Gomez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2016-02-25

    This brief addresses two main issues of the standard kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm: the optimization of the kernel decomposition and the optimization of the Gaussian kernel parameter. KECA roughly reduces to a sorting of the importance of kernel eigenvectors by entropy instead of variance, as in the kernel principal components analysis. In this brief, we propose an extension of the KECA method, named optimized KECA (OKECA), that directly extracts the optimal features retaining most of the data entropy by means of compacting the information in very few features (often in just one or two). The proposed method produces features which have higher expressive power. In particular, it is based on the independent component analysis framework, and introduces an extra rotation to the eigen decomposition, which is optimized via gradient-ascent search. This maximum entropy preservation suggests that OKECA features are more efficient than KECA features for density estimation. In addition, a critical issue in both the methods is the selection of the kernel parameter, since it critically affects the resulting performance. Here, we analyze the most common kernel length-scale selection criteria. The results of both the methods are illustrated in different synthetic and real problems. Results show that OKECA returns projections with more expressive power than KECA, the most successful rule for estimating the kernel parameter is based on maximum likelihood, and OKECA is more robust to the selection of the length-scale parameter in kernel density estimation.

  18. Farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. e torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq na alimentação de cabras em lactação: consumo e produção de leite Effects of feeding cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L. and palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq on milk intake and yield for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o consumo e a produção de leite de cabras recebendo dietas contendo farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja da ração concentrada. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen, com produção média diária de 2,0 kg de leite e aos 60 dias de lactação, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os períodos experimentais tiveram duração de 14 dias, em que os dez primeiros foram destinados à adaptação e os quatro últimos, à coleta de amostras. As rações foram isoprotéicas, com 13,2% de proteína bruta. As dietas constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso (silagem de milho e 64% de concentrado na matéria seca. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrado à base de milho e soja com 0, 15 e 30% de FC ou TD. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, nutrientes digestíveis totais, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos reduziram com a inclusão de 30% de FC. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro e extrato etéreo (EE não foram alterados pelas dietas. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido diferiu apenas entre os tratamentos com 30% de TD e 30% de FC, sendo 0,94 e 0,59% do peso vivo animal, respectivamente. O tratamento com 30% de FC proporcionou menor produção de leite (1,208 kg/dia, se assemelhando apenas ao tratamento com inclusão de 30% de TD quando a produção foi corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. O FC e a TD apresentam viabilidade de uso como alternativa na dieta de cabras em lactação em até 9,13 e 18,81% da matéria seca, respectivamente.The effects of replacing corn and soybean meal with cocoa meal (CF or palm kernel cake (PKC in the concentrate on milk intake and yield of goats were evaluated. Five Saanen goats, averaging 2 kg daily milk yield at 60 days of lactation, were assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. The experiment lasted 14 days, with 10 days for adaptation period and four days for sample

  19. Characterization of Jatropha curcas L. Protein Cast Films with respect to Packaging Relevant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gofferje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing research ongoing towards the substitution of petrochemical based plastics by more sustainable raw materials, especially in the field of bioplastics. Proteins of different types such as whey, casein, gelatine, or zein show potential beyond the food and feed industry as, for instance, the application in packaging. Protein based coatings provide different packaging relevant properties such as barrier against permanent gases, certain water vapour barrier, and mechanical resistance. The aim of this study was to explore the potential for packaging applications of proteins from Jatropha curcas L. and to compare the performance with literature data on cast films from whey protein isolate. As a by-product from oil extraction, high amounts of Jatropha meal are obtained requiring a concept for its sustainable utilization. Jatropha seed cake includes up to 40% (w/w of protein which is currently not utilized. The present study provides new data on the potential of Jatropha protein for packaging applications. It was shown that Jatropha protein cast films show suitable barrier and mechanical properties depending on the extraction and purification method as well as on the plasticiser content. Based on these findings Jatropha proteins own potential to be utilized as coating material for food packaging applications.

  20. Regularization in kernel learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Shahar; 10.1214/09-AOS728

    2010-01-01

    Under mild assumptions on the kernel, we obtain the best known error rates in a regularized learning scenario taking place in the corresponding reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). The main novelty in the analysis is a proof that one can use a regularization term that grows significantly slower than the standard quadratic growth in the RKHS norm.

  1. Iterative software kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, I.

    1994-12-31

    This workshop focuses on kernels for iterative software packages. Specifically, the three speakers discuss various aspects of sparse BLAS kernels. Their topics are: `Current status of user lever sparse BLAS`; Current status of the sparse BLAS toolkit`; and `Adding matrix-matrix and matrix-matrix-matrix multiply to the sparse BLAS toolkit`.

  2. Kernel Affine Projection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Príncipe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The combination of the famed kernel trick and affine projection algorithms (APAs yields powerful nonlinear extensions, named collectively here, KAPA. This paper is a follow-up study of the recently introduced kernel least-mean-square algorithm (KLMS. KAPA inherits the simplicity and online nature of KLMS while reducing its gradient noise, boosting performance. More interestingly, it provides a unifying model for several neural network techniques, including kernel least-mean-square algorithms, kernel adaline, sliding-window kernel recursive-least squares (KRLS, and regularization networks. Therefore, many insights can be gained into the basic relations among them and the tradeoff between computation complexity and performance. Several simulations illustrate its wide applicability.

  3. Kernel Affine Projection Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weifeng; Príncipe, José C.

    2008-12-01

    The combination of the famed kernel trick and affine projection algorithms (APAs) yields powerful nonlinear extensions, named collectively here, KAPA. This paper is a follow-up study of the recently introduced kernel least-mean-square algorithm (KLMS). KAPA inherits the simplicity and online nature of KLMS while reducing its gradient noise, boosting performance. More interestingly, it provides a unifying model for several neural network techniques, including kernel least-mean-square algorithms, kernel adaline, sliding-window kernel recursive-least squares (KRLS), and regularization networks. Therefore, many insights can be gained into the basic relations among them and the tradeoff between computation complexity and performance. Several simulations illustrate its wide applicability.

  4. Proteome analysis of developing seeds of Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohibullah Shah

    2014-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an important crop due to its ability of storing high content of oil in the seeds, which can serve as raw material for biodiesel production. Because of the presence of toxic constituents like phorbol esters (PEs) and curcins, the seed cake produced as a result of oil extraction cannot be utilize for animal feed. Development of the genotypes better suited for the industrial applications and biodiesel production as well as with lower level of toxic constituent...

  5. Jatropha curcas L. Root Structure and Growth in Diverse Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Andrea Valdés-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most biofuel species, Jatropha curcas has promise for use in marginal lands, but it may serve an additional role by stabilizing soils. We evaluated the growth and structural responsiveness of young J. curcas plants to diverse soil conditions. Soils included a sand, a sandy-loam, and a clay-loam from eastern Mexico. Growth and structural parameters were analyzed for shoots and roots, although the focus was the plasticity of the primary root system architecture (the taproot and four lateral roots. The sandy soil reduced the growth of both shoot and root systems significantly more than sandy-loam or clay-loam soils; there was particularly high plasticity in root and shoot thickness, as well as shoot length. However, the architecture of the primary root system did not vary with soil type; the departure of the primary root system from an index of perfect symmetry was 14±5% (mean ± standard deviation. Although J. curcas developed more extensively in the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils than in sandy soil, it maintained a consistent root to shoot ratio and root system architecture across all types of soil. This strong genetic determination would make the species useful for soil stabilization purposes, even while being cultivated primarily for seed oil.

  6. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild steel in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild steel coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the corrosion rate. As the extract concentration increased from 4 ml to 10 ml at 30 minutes exposure, the volume of hydrogen gas evolved decreased from 19.1 cm3 to 11.2 cm3 in H2SO4 medium, while it reduced to 5 cm3 from 9 cm3 in HCl medium. Also, the metal surface-phytoconstituent interaction mechanism showed that 6 minutes is the best exposure time for the adsorption of the extract in both acidic media. The Jatropha Curcas leaf extract was adsorbed on the mild steel surface to inhibit corrosion, while the experimental data obtained at 30 minutes exposure in both acidic media were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Hence, Jatropha Curcas leaf extract is a good and safe inhibitor in both acidic solutions.

  7. Floral display and breeding system of Jatropha curcas L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Chang-wei; Li Kun; Chen You; Sun Yong-yu

    2007-01-01

    Plant flowering and breeding characteristics are important for us to understand the reproduction of plant populations. In this paper, we studied the reproduction characteristics of Jatropha curcas in Yuanjiang County (23°36'N, 101°00'E), Yunnan Province.The plant produces flowers in dichasial inflorescences. Normally, the flowers are unisexual, and male and female flowers are produced in the same inflorescence. Only a few male flowers are produced in an inflorescence, and fruits are produced only through pollination between different flowers from the same or different plants. By the treatments of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination in this experiment, there were few but same fruit set ratios when the inflorescences were emasculated, bagged, or bagged with net, except artificial pollination treatments, which showed that Jatropha curcas could produce fruit through apomixis but not wind pollination. When the inflorescences were unbagged, unemasculated and with free pollination treatments, or bagged, emasculated and with artificial cross-pollination treatments, or unbagged, emasculated and with free pollination treatments, there were many fruits produced. It showed that Jatropha curcas shows outcrossing, is self-compatible, and demanding for pollinators. Normally, the male flowers open first and a few flowers bloom in one day in a raceme. These flowers last a long time in bloom. However, a large number of female flowers open from the third to the fifth day, with some female flowers opening first in a few raceme. This shows a tendency to promote xenogamy and minimize geitonogamy.

  8. Phytoremediation of mercury-contaminated soils by Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Díez, Sergi

    2015-05-01

    Jatropha curcas plants species were tested to evaluate their phytoremediation capacity in soils contaminated by different levels of mercury. The experimental treatments consisted of four levels of mercury concentrations in the soil - T0, T1, T5, and T10 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μg Hg per g soil, respectively). The total mercury content absorbed by the different plant tissues (roots, stems and leaves) was determined during four months of exposure. The growth behavior, mercury accumulation, translocation (TF) and bioconcentration (BCF) factors were determined. The different tissues in J. curcas can be classified in order of decreasing accumulation Hg as follows: roots>leaves>stems. The highest cumulative absorption of the metal occurred between the second and third month of exposure. Maximum TF was detected during the second month and ranged from 0.79 to 1.04 for the different mercury concentrations. Values of BCF ranged from 0.21 to 1.43. Soils with T1 showed significantly higher BCF (1.43) followed by T10 (1.32) and T5 (0.91), all of them at the fourth month. On the other hand TFs were low (range 0.10-0.26) at the en of the experiment. The maximum reduction of biomass (16.3%) occurred for T10 (10 μg Hg g(-1)). In sum, J. curcas species showed high BCFs and low TFs, and their use could be a promising approach to remediating mercury-contaminated soils.

  9. POTENSI JARAK PAGAR (JATROPHA CURCAS SEBAGAI LARVASIDA HAYATI PENCEGAH PENYAKIT DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Iswantini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia has big problem caused by dengue haemorraghic fever with A. aegypti as vector. Potential medicine and vaccine for curing this disease have not been found. The effective method to prevent this disease is the use of A. aegypti larvicidal. The chemical larvicidal has disadvantage for evironmental aspect. To solve this problem, the biological larvicidal has a good chance to develop. Indonesia has megadiversity which can be developed as biological larvicidal. Crude aqueous extracts and ethanol extracts of Jatropha curcas (Jarak pagar seed and oil of Jatropha curcas were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Among all extracts, Jatropha curcas oil possessed a highest activity against the 3th instar larvae of Aedes. LC50 values of Jatropha curcas oil was 1507 ppm for 24 h and 866 ppm for 48 h. It was suggested that the Croton tiglium oil and Jatropha curcas oil possess larvicidal properties that could be developed and used as biological larvicidal

  10. Kernels in circulant digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lakshmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A kernel $J$ of a digraph $D$ is an independent set of vertices of $D$ such that for every vertex $w,in,V(D,setminus,J$ there exists an arc from $w$ to a vertex in $J.$ In this paper, among other results, a characterization of $2$-regular circulant digraph having a kernel is obtained. This characterization is a partial solution to the following problem: Characterize circulant digraphs which have kernels; it appeared in the book {it Digraphs - theory, algorithms and applications}, Second Edition, Springer-Verlag, 2009, by J. Bang-Jensen and G. Gutin.

  11. Kernels for structured data

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a unique treatment of an important area of machine learning and answers the question of how kernel methods can be applied to structured data. Kernel methods are a class of state-of-the-art learning algorithms that exhibit excellent learning results in several application domains. Originally, kernel methods were developed with data in mind that can easily be embedded in a Euclidean vector space. Much real-world data does not have this property but is inherently structured. An example of such data, often consulted in the book, is the (2D) graph structure of molecules formed by

  12. Locally linear approximation for Kernel methods : the Railway Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Alberto; González, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new kernel, the Railway Kernel, that works properly for general (nonlinear) classification problems, with the interesting property that acts locally as a linear kernel. In this way, we avoid potential problems due to the use of a general purpose kernel, like the RBF kernel, as the high dimension of the induced feature space. As a consequence, following our methodology the number of support vectors is much lower and, therefore, the generalization capability of the pr...

  13. Linux Kernel in a Nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Kroah-Hartman, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Linux Kernel in a Nutshell covers the entire range of kernel tasks, starting with downloading the source and making sure that the kernel is in sync with the versions of the tools you need. In addition to configuration and installation steps, the book offers reference material and discussions of related topics such as control of kernel options at runtime.

  14. Data-variant kernel analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Motai, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Describes and discusses the variants of kernel analysis methods for data types that have been intensely studied in recent years This book covers kernel analysis topics ranging from the fundamental theory of kernel functions to its applications. The book surveys the current status, popular trends, and developments in kernel analysis studies. The author discusses multiple kernel learning algorithms and how to choose the appropriate kernels during the learning phase. Data-Variant Kernel Analysis is a new pattern analysis framework for different types of data configurations. The chapters include

  15. Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a method of generating Mercer Kernels from an ensemble of probabilistic mixture models, where each mixture model is generated from a Bayesian mixture...

  16. Learning through school meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica

    2014-07-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at evaluating the effects of free school meal interventions on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment in schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offering free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school individual and focus group interviews were conducted with students in grades 5 to 7 and grades 8 to 9. Furthermore, students were observed during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The purpose of the article is to explore the learning potentials of school meals. The cross-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competences in relation to food, meals and health, as well as their involvement in the school meal project. The analysis indicates that the pupils have developed knowledge and skills related to novel foods and dishes, and that school meals can contribute to pupils' learning, whether this learning is planned or not. However, if school meals are to be further developed as an arena for learning, greater consideration must be given to the interaction between pupil, school meal and teacher than in the school meal projects presented in this study, and the potentials for learning through school meals clarified and discussed in the schools. Studying the school meal projects raises a number of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Remarks on kernel Bayes' rule

    OpenAIRE

    Johno, Hisashi; Nakamoto, Kazunori; Saigo, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Kernel Bayes' rule has been proposed as a nonparametric kernel-based method to realize Bayesian inference in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. However, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the prediction result by kernel Bayes' rule is in some cases unnatural. We consider that this phenomenon is in part due to the fact that the assumptions in kernel Bayes' rule do not hold in general.

  18. Linearized Kernel Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golts, Alona; Elad, Michael

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a new approach of incorporating kernels into dictionary learning. The kernel K-SVD algorithm (KKSVD), which has been introduced recently, shows an improvement in classification performance, with relation to its linear counterpart K-SVD. However, this algorithm requires the storage and handling of a very large kernel matrix, which leads to high computational cost, while also limiting its use to setups with small number of training examples. We address these problems by combining two ideas: first we approximate the kernel matrix using a cleverly sampled subset of its columns using the Nystr\\"{o}m method; secondly, as we wish to avoid using this matrix altogether, we decompose it by SVD to form new "virtual samples," on which any linear dictionary learning can be employed. Our method, termed "Linearized Kernel Dictionary Learning" (LKDL) can be seamlessly applied as a pre-processing stage on top of any efficient off-the-shelf dictionary learning scheme, effectively "kernelizing" it. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on several tasks of both supervised and unsupervised classification and show the efficiency of the proposed scheme, its easy integration and performance boosting properties.

  19. Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Yilmaz, Volkan A; Brandolini, Andrea

    .... Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat...

  20. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...... of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals....

  1. Contingent kernel density estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Fortmann-Roe

    Full Text Available Kernel density estimation is a widely used method for estimating a distribution based on a sample of points drawn from that distribution. Generally, in practice some form of error contaminates the sample of observed points. Such error can be the result of imprecise measurements or observation bias. Often this error is negligible and may be disregarded in analysis. In cases where the error is non-negligible, estimation methods should be adjusted to reduce resulting bias. Several modifications of kernel density estimation have been developed to address specific forms of errors. One form of error that has not yet been addressed is the case where observations are nominally placed at the centers of areas from which the points are assumed to have been drawn, where these areas are of varying sizes. In this scenario, the bias arises because the size of the error can vary among points and some subset of points can be known to have smaller error than another subset or the form of the error may change among points. This paper proposes a "contingent kernel density estimation" technique to address this form of error. This new technique adjusts the standard kernel on a point-by-point basis in an adaptive response to changing structure and magnitude of error. In this paper, equations for our contingent kernel technique are derived, the technique is validated using numerical simulations, and an example using the geographic locations of social networking users is worked to demonstrate the utility of the method.

  2. Effect of plant growth regulators on fatty acids composition in Jatropha curcas L. callus culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ludwi Rodríguez; Mendiola, Martha A Rodríguez; Castro, Carlos Arias; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) on callus formation, its morphology and fatty acids profile were examined from Jatropha curcas L. Embryo from seeds of J. curcas L. were sown in Murashige and skoog (MS) medium with NAA and BAP. All treatments induced callus formation, however callus morphology was different in most of the treatments. Higher callus biomass was presented with 1.0 NAA + 0.5 BAP mg/L. Plant growth regulators modifies the fatty acids profile in callus of J. curcas L. BAP was induced linoleic and linolenic acids.

  3. Environmental Impact Calculation of the Production of Biocombustible Derived from the Jatropha curcas Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Rodriguez Ramos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the environmental impact on the life cycle of the Jatropha curcas for its use asbiodiesel using a Numeric Matrix.The sustainability analysis was made using the matrix (22.23: thatis, 22 activities of the life cycle of the production of bio-fuel from the Jatropha Curcas Oil, in Cuba, and23 factors (13 component and 4 sub-systems that influence in the sustainability. Each activity wasqualified according to the positive impact, negative or nil provoked. This study gives the possibility toknow how the implementation of this culture impacts in the Cuban ecosystem to produce bio-fuelfrom the Oil of Jatropha curcas.

  4. Nutrient accumulation, export and cycling in Jatropha curcas L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hissao Kurihara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The knowledge concerning nutrient accumulation rate allows defining the best amount and most appropriate time for its supply. Estimating nutrient amount in the aerial part of the plants is particularly important to species such as Jatropha curcas L., since there are no consistent calibration studies to indicate the amount of fertilizer to be applied. The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrient accumulation, export and cycling in Jatropha curcas. The experiment was carried out in Cassilândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during 52 months in a completely randomized design, with four replications and fifteen treatments, which consisted of different evaluation times. A large variation in the amount of nutrients accumulated in leaves was found due to senescence and leaf abscission in the driest and/or coldest period of the year. Nutrient accumulation in the aerial part is relatively low in the first 22 months. To meet Jatropha curcas requirements, fertilization during the first two years must provide 40; 50; 50; 21; 16; 5; 0.7; 0.3; 4; 8 and 1 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, respectively. From the third year of cultivation, topdressing fertilization should restitute 40, 110, 55 and 3 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, K2O and S, respectively. To replace the exported amount of nutrients, it should be supplied more 50, 100, 30 and 3 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, K2O and S, respectively, per ton of grain to be produced.

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LEAVES OF JATROPHA CURCAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahirrao R.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The various extract of leaves Jatropha curcas Linn. belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae were investigated for its physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash, extractive values, Loss on drying were studied dry weight. Ash content analysis was showed total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash [7.40 %, 4.42 % and 6.12 % respectively]. The moisture content was found to be 1.70 %. Preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins and carbohydrate.

  6. [Cicatrization effect of Jatropha curcas latex (Angiospermae: Euforbiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, J; Tello, V; Zavaleta, A; Villegas, L; Salas, M; Fernández, I; Vaisberg, A

    1994-01-01

    The wound healing effects of Jathopha curcas latex upon surgical wound produced in Balb/c mice skin, were studied with a modification of the Hoowes-Sooy-Harvey method. The effects of topical treatment using single 50 ul doses of latex at different dilutions (10% to 100%) was compared with a multiple dose treatment (four 25 ul/dose q12h, latex 5% to 100%). The single dose treatment with 10%, 50% or 100% latex and the multiple dose treatment with dilutions between 5% and 10%, have a healing effect but only on males. The multiple dose treatment with 50% or pure undiluted latex produced caustic lesions to treated skin.

  7. Effect of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and pycnidial production of Lasiodiplodia theobromae in physic nut (Jatropha curcas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, P; Prakasam, V; Jonathan, E I; Samiyappan, R; Natarajan, C

    2013-07-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas) is an important commercial bio-diesel plant species and is being advocated for development of waste and dry land. The collar and root rot caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae is an important soil borne disease which causes considerable yield loss in this crop. In this study, the effects of culture media, temperature, photoperiod, carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on mycelial growth and pycnidial production were evaluated. Among the growth media tested, potato dextrose agar supported the highest growth followed by potato sucrose agar and corn meal agar. Among several carbon sources tested, carboxy methyl cellulose and sucrose were found superior for growth and pycnidial production. The nitrogen sources viz., ammonium oxalate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were recorded maximum mycelial growth and pycnidial production. The fungus grows at pH 5.0-9.0 and optimum growth was observed at pH 7.0.

  8. Multidimensional kernel estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Milosevic, Vukasin

    2015-01-01

    Kernel estimation is one of the non-parametric methods used for estimation of probability density function. Its first ROOT implementation, as part of RooFit package, has one major issue, its evaluation time is extremely slow making in almost unusable. The goal of this project was to create a new class (TKNDTree) which will follow the original idea of kernel estimation, greatly improve the evaluation time (using the TKTree class for storing the data and creating different user-controlled modes of evaluation) and add the interpolation option, for 2D case, with the help of the new Delaunnay2D class.

  9. for palm kernel oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OEE), ... designed (CRD) experimental approach with 4 factor levels and 2 replications was used to determine the effect of kernel .... palm kernels in either a continuous or batch mode ... are fed through the hopper; the screw conveys, crushes,.

  10. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe;

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The die......The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus......) was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion....

  11. Diffusion Modeling: A Study of the Diffusion of “Jatropha Curcas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffusion of innovation is a versatile social science theory which typically ... Jatropha Curcas based diesel oil (Jacodiesel) in the context of a specific social environment. ... Innovation, Communicative Influence, Multi-media and Communication ...

  12. A field assessment of the agronomic performance and water use of Jatropha curcas in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Everson, CS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available . curcas in a silvopastoral experiment with Pennisetum clandestinum at the Ukulinga research farm of the University of KwaZulu-Natal near Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Measurements of daily total evaporation rates during DecembereFebruary (summer...

  13. Analysis of the genetic diversity of physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. accessions using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, M Y; Shabanimofrad, M; Puteri Edaroyati, M W; Latif, M A

    2012-06-01

    A sum of 48 accessions of physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. were analyzed to determine the genetic diversity and association between geographical origin using RAPD-PCR markers. Eight primers generated a total of 92 fragments with an average of 11.5 amplicons per primer. Polymorphism percentages of J. curcas accessions for Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu states were 80.4, 50.0, and 58.7%, respectively, with an average of 63.04%. Jaccard's genetic similarity co-efficient indicated the high level of genetic variation among the accessions which ranged between 0.06 and 0.81. According to UPGMA dendrogram, 48 J. curcas accessions were grouped into four major clusters at coefficient level 0.3 and accessions from same and near states or regions were found to be grouped together according to their geographical origin. Coefficient of genetic differentiation (G(st)) value of J. curcas revealed that it is an outcrossing species.

  14. Jatropha curcas: from biodiesel generation to medicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulillo, Luis Cesar; Mo, ChengLin; Isaacson, Janalee; Lessa, Luciene; Lopes, Edjacy; Romero-Suarez, Sandra; Brotto, Leticia; Abreu, Eduardo; Gutheil, William; Brotto, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Jatropha curcas (JC) is a multipurpose perennial plant that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is native to arid and semiarid tropical regions worldwide. It has many attributes and considerable potential for renewable energy, fish and livestock feeding. Despite its rich application as a renewable source and for animal feeding, JC has barely been explored for its medicinal potential. Here we review several patents related to JC that show it has been underused for medicinal purposes. For example, only one invention disclosure to date utilizes JC, combined with three other plants, in a preparation for wound healing. Motivated by support from the Brazilian funding agencies and anecdotal accounts in Brazil of the medicinal value of JC, we performed a series of pilot studies that demonstrate that JC is able to protect skeletal muscle cells in vitro against the deleterious effects of ethanol. We were able to determine that JC's effects are mediated by the up regulation of HSP60, a critical mitochondrial heat shock related protein that is essential for intracellular REDOX regulation. Given the fact that ethanol myopathy accounts for more than 50% of all cases of myopathy worldwide, we hope that our studies will sparkle new interest from the scientific community to explore the medicinal properties of Jatropha curcas, including the development of new patents leading to new drugs and new targets for the treatment of muscle diseases and other human diseases.

  15. Proteomic Analysis the Seed Development of Jatropha curcas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liu; Setsuko Komatsu; Qing Yang; Shihua Shen

    2012-01-01

    Differential proteomic analysis and cellular structure observation were employed to analyze the developing seeds at 5,10,15,20,25 and 30 days after flowering.Results revealed that 214 of 355 protein spots with significant changes in abundance were identified through MALDI/TOF-TOF MS.Energy and metabolism related proteins were notable abundant in developing Jatropha curcas seed,accounting for 47% and 36% of the identified differentially expressed proteins respectively.The expressional profiles of energy and metabolic proteins identified in this study ensured a comprehensive overview on the carbon flux to lipid accumulation from the early to late stages of seed development.It seems that glycolysis and OPP are the major pathways for producing carbon flux in developing J.curcas seeds.These data suggested that sugar mobilization from glucose to coenzyme A and its acyl derivative is collaboration between the cytosol and plastids and that temporal control of enzymes and pathways extends beyond transcription.

  16. Evaluation and bioinduction of energy components of Jatropha curcas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose species with many attributes and considerable potential. The oil from the seeds is potentially the most valuable end product. Nearly 40% of the land area in India is wasteland. However, a large number of latex bearing and oil yielding plants can grow under such unfavorable agroclimatic conditions. J. curcas, a Euphorbiaceae grows well under such adverse climatic conditions because of its low moisture demands, fertility requirements, and tolerance to high temperatures. The seed contains 19.0% oil, 4.7% polyphenol, and 3.9% hydrocarbon. This semi-drying oil could be an efficient substitute for diesel fuel. The gross heat value for the seed (0% moisture content) was 4980.3 cal/g (20.85 MJ/kg), oil was 9036.1 cal/g (37.83 MJ/kg), and hydrocarbon was 9704.4 cal/g (40.63 MJ/kg). The oil fraction consists of both saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (14.1%), stearic acid (6.7%) and unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (47.0%), and linoleic acid (31.6%). Treatment of plants with growth regulators significantly influenced the production of hydrocarbons. Among the treatments, ethephon and morphactin induced the maximum production of hydrocarbon with 5.0% and 5.4%, respectively. (author)

  17. Therapeutic biology of Jatropha curcas: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Reena; Sah, Nand K; Sharma, P B

    2008-08-01

    Jatropha curcas is a drought resistant, perennial plant that grows even in the marginal and poor soil. Raising Jatropha is easy. It keeps producing seeds for many years. In the recent years, Jatropha has become famous primarily for the production of biodiesel; besides this it has several medicinal applications, too. Most parts of this plant are used for the treatment of various human and veterinary ailments. The white latex serves as a disinfectant in mouth infections in children. The latex of Jatropha contains alkaloids including Jatrophine, Jatropham and curcain with anti-cancerous properties. It is also used externally against skin diseases, piles and sores among the domestic livestock. The leaves contain apigenin, vitexin and isovitexin etc. which along with other factors enable them to be used against malaria, rheumatic and muscular pains. Antibiotic activity of Jatropha has been observed against organisms including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. There are some chemical compounds including curcin (an alkaloid) in its seeds that make it unfit for common human consumption. The roots are known to contain an antidote against snake venom. The root extract also helps to check bleeding from gums. The soap prepared from Jatropha oil is efficient against buttons. Many of these traditional medicinal properties of Jatropha curcas need to be investigated in depth for the marketable therapeutic products vis-à-vis the toxicological effects thereof. This mini review aims at providing brief biological significance of this plant along with its up-to-date therapeutic applications and risk factors.

  18. Kernel bundle EPDiff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Stefan Horst; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    In the LDDMM framework, optimal warps for image registration are found as end-points of critical paths for an energy functional, and the EPDiff equations describe the evolution along such paths. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Kernel Bundle Mapping (LDDKBM) extension of LDDMM allows scale space...

  19. Multivariate realised kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2011-01-01

    We propose a multivariate realised kernel to estimate the ex-post covariation of log-prices. We show this new consistent estimator is guaranteed to be positive semi-definite and is robust to measurement error of certain types and can also handle non-synchronous trading. It is the first estimator...

  20. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...

  1. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  2. Response of brown hisex chicks to low levels of Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis or their mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Badwi, S M; Mousa, H M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J

    1992-08-01

    Feeding Jatropha curcas seed at 0.5% of the basic diet for 2 w was not lethal to chicks. In chicks fed 0.5% Ricinus communis seed or a mixture of 0.5% J curcas + 0.5% R communis for 2 w, there was dullness, poor growth, locomotor disturbance and death. Pathological changes were correlated with alterations in clinical chemistry and hematology.

  3. Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F; Botelho, Carolina M; Laviola, Bruno G; Palmieri, Marcel J; Praça-Fontes, Milene M

    2014-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is important for biofuel production and as a feed ingredient for animal. However, the presence of phorbol esters in the oil and cake renders the seeds toxic. The toxicity of J. curcas oil is currently assessed by testing in animals, leading to their death. The identification of toxic and nontoxic improved varieties is important for the safe use of J. curcas seeds and byproducts to avoid their environmental toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice any animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects on lettuce, and that phorbol esters act as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells. In conclusion, the tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests.

  4. Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LARISSA F. ANDRADE-VIEIRA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae is important for biofuel production and as a feed ingredient for animal. However, the presence of phorbol esters in the oil and cake renders the seeds toxic. The toxicity of J. curcas oil is currently assessed by testing in animals, leading to their death. The identification of toxic and nontoxic improved varieties is important for the safe use of J. curcas seeds and byproducts to avoid their environmental toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice any animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects on lettuce, and that phorbol esters act as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells. In conclusion, the tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests.

  5. Jatropha curcas latex inhibits the release of collagenase by gingival fibroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazwishni Siregar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Folkloric use of J. curcas latex among others are to cure tooth pain, bleeding gum and as anti-inflammatory drug. Collagenase is a neutral protease released by activated macrophage and also by fibroblasts in small amounts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of J. curcas latex on collagenase released by fibroblasts. Four doses of J. curcas latex from 37.5-300 g/ml were added to 3 human gingival primary fibroblast cell culture. After 1 to 4 days of incubation, collagenase in the supernatant was assayed with collagen. The degradation products were then separated by SDS-PAGE and the density of ¾ A bands were measured semi quantitatively by Adobe Photo computer program. Result showed that J. curcas latex decreased collagenase released by human gingival fibroblast, and increasing dose inhibits more. It may be concluded that the latex of J. curcas inhibits the release of collagenase by human gingival fibroblast. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:219-23Keywords: Jatropha curcas, collagenase, human gingival fibroblast, collagenase assay, SDS-PAGE

  6. Viscosity kernel of molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , temperature, and chain length dependencies of the reciprocal and real-space viscosity kernels are presented. We find that the density has a major effect on the shape of the kernel. The temperature range and chain lengths considered here have by contrast less impact on the overall normalized shape. Functional...... forms that fit the wave-vector-dependent kernel data over a large density and wave-vector range have also been tested. Finally, a structural normalization of the kernels in physical space is considered. Overall, the real-space viscosity kernel has a width of roughly 3–6 atomic diameters, which means...

  7. Meals for the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  8. Multiple Kernel Point Set Registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Minh; Wu, Q M Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    The finite Gaussian mixture model with kernel correlation is a flexible tool that has recently received attention for point set registration. While there are many algorithms for point set registration presented in the literature, an important issue arising from these studies concerns the mapping of data with nonlinear relationships and the ability to select a suitable kernel. Kernel selection is crucial for effective point set registration. We focus here on multiple kernel point set registration. We make several contributions in this paper. First, each observation is modeled using the Student's t-distribution, which is heavily tailed and more robust than the Gaussian distribution. Second, by automatically adjusting the kernel weights, the proposed method allows us to prune the ineffective kernels. This makes the choice of kernels less crucial. After parameter learning, the kernel saliencies of the irrelevant kernels go to zero. Thus, the choice of kernels is less crucial and it is easy to include other kinds of kernels. Finally, we show empirically that our model outperforms state-of-the-art methods recently proposed in the literature.

  9. Testing Monotonicity of Pricing Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeev, Roman

    2007-01-01

    In this master thesis a mechanism to test mononicity of empirical pricing kernels (EPK) is presented. By testing monotonicity of pricing kernel we can determine whether utility function is concave or not. Strictly decreasing pricing kernel corresponds to concave utility function while non-decreasing EPK means that utility function contains some non-concave regions. Risk averse behavior is usually described by concave utility function and considered to be a cornerstone of classical behavioral ...

  10. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  11. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  12. Detoxification of Jatropha curcas Seed Cake by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Fermentation%短帚霉发酵脱除小桐子饼的毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧灵澄; 赵德柱; 王兴红

    2012-01-01

    膏桐饼作为生物柴油产业中产生的最大宗副产物,其高蛋白、低纤维含量的特性有望使其开发成为一种优良的蛋白饲料,但毒性限制了其直接作为饲料利用.发酵是多种饼粕脱毒的常用方法.分离、纯化膏桐根际微生物并分别发酵膏桐饼,用甲醇提取发酵膏桐饼的毒性成分并溶于水中,通过鲤鱼存活时间来评价不同菌株发酵膏桐饼的毒性,筛选获得了一株能够在膏桐饼上快速生长并能有效脱除膏桐饼毒性的短帚霉.脱毒小桐子饼组的小鲤鱼存活时间与对照组相比延长了1.22倍.%The biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas seeds is generating a huge amount of kernel cake. The characteristics of its high protein and low fibre content is beneficial to develop the cake as feed. Toxicity is the biggest factor to limit the cake as feed. Fermentation is the best method for detoxification of the different cakes. Microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of J. curcas, and cake toxic components were extracted by methyl alcohol and dissolved in water. A strain E290 was isolated according to the carp survival time. The strain was identified as Scopulariopsis brevicaulis which could grow rapidly and detoxify effectively. The survival time of carp of detoxified group was prolonged 1. 22 times than that of control group.

  13. 7 CFR 51.1415 - Inedible kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inedible kernels. 51.1415 Section 51.1415 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1415 Inedible kernels. Inedible kernels means that the kernel or pieces of kernels are rancid, moldy, decayed, injured by insects or...

  14. 7 CFR 981.8 - Inedible kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inedible kernel. 981.8 Section 981.8 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.8 Inedible kernel. Inedible kernel means a kernel, piece, or particle of almond kernel with any defect scored as serious damage, or damage due to mold, gum, shrivel,...

  15. 7 CFR 981.7 - Edible kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Edible kernel. 981.7 Section 981.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.7 Edible kernel. Edible kernel means a kernel, piece, or particle of almond kernel that is not inedible....

  16. 7 CFR 981.408 - Inedible kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inedible kernel. 981.408 Section 981.408 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.408 Inedible kernel. Pursuant to § 981.8, the definition of inedible kernel is modified to mean a kernel, piece, or particle of almond kernel with any defect scored...

  17. Determinación de las propiedades físicas y carga crítica del aceite vegetal Jatropha curcas L // Determination of physical properties and critical load of Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Rodríguez-Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron las propiedades físicas y la carga critica del aceite de Jatropha curcas L, obtenido de las plantas cultivadas en la provincia de Guantánamo en Cuba. Estas propiedades fueron comparadas con las propiedades de otros aceites vegetales (aceite ricino, aceite de girasol, aceite de colza y aceite de soya usados como biolubricantes. Los resultados mostraron que las propiedades físicas del aceite de Jatropha curcas L fueron similares a la mayoría de los aceites vegetales. La carga crítica del aceite de la Jatropha curcas L ocupa una posición intermedia entre el aceite ricino y los aceites de girasol, colza y soya, lo cual permite asegurar que el aceite de Jatropha curcas L es un buen candidato para como biolubricante.Palabras claves: biolubricantes, aceites vegetales, Jatropha curcas L, propiedades físicas, carga crítica._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper the physical properties and the critical load of the Jatropha curcas L oil, plantations located in Guantanamo province, Cuba were determined. These properties together with other vegetable oils (castor, sunflower, rapeseed and soybean oils used as biolubricant were compared. These results have showed that the physical properties of the Jatropha curcas L oil were similar to most of vegetable oils.The critical load of Jatropha curcas oil has an intermediate position just castor oil and sunflower, rapeseed and soybean oils. Jatropha curcas oil has good potential as the renewable energy as well as biolubricant feedstock.Key words: biolubricants, vegetable oils, Jatropha curcas L, physical properties, critical load.

  18. Clustering via Kernel Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Girolami, Mark A.; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Methods for spectral clustering have been proposed recently which rely on the eigenvalue decomposition of an affinity matrix. In this work it is proposed that the affinity matrix is created based on the elements of a non-parametric density estimator. This matrix is then decomposed to obtain...... posterior probabilities of class membership using an appropriate form of nonnegative matrix factorization. The troublesome selection of hyperparameters such as kernel width and number of clusters can be obtained using standard cross-validation methods as is demonstrated on a number of diverse data sets....

  19. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant.

  20. Kernel Phase and Kernel Amplitude in Fizeau Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Benjamin J S

    2016-01-01

    Kernel phase interferometry is an approach to high angular resolution imaging which enhances the performance of speckle imaging with adaptive optics. Kernel phases are self-calibrating observables that generalize the idea of closure phases from non-redundant arrays to telescopes with arbitrarily shaped pupils, by considering a matrix-based approximation to the diffraction problem. In this paper I discuss the recent history of kernel phase, in particular in the matrix-based study of sparse arrays, and propose an analogous generalization of the closure amplitude to kernel amplitudes. This new approach can self-calibrate throughput and scintillation errors in optical imaging, which extends the power of kernel phase-like methods to symmetric targets where amplitude and not phase calibration can be a significant limitation, and will enable further developments in high angular resolution astronomy.

  1. Global Polynomial Kernel Hazard Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiabu, Munir; Miranda, Maria Dolores Martínez; Nielsen, Jens Perch;

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bias reducing method for kernel hazard estimation. The method is called global polynomial adjustment (GPA). It is a global correction which is applicable to any kernel hazard estimator. The estimator works well from a theoretical point of view as it asymptotically...

  2. Global Polynomial Kernel Hazard Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiabu, Munir; Miranda, Maria Dolores Martínez; Nielsen, Jens Perch

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bias reducing method for kernel hazard estimation. The method is called global polynomial adjustment (GPA). It is a global correction which is applicable to any kernel hazard estimator. The estimator works well from a theoretical point of view as it asymptotically redu...

  3. SELECTED LIVER AND KIDNEY BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF HYBRID CATFISH EXPOSED TO JATROPHA CURCAS LEAF DUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir M. Adamu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of sublethal concentrations (7.50, 5.00, 2.50 and 0.00 gL (control of Jatropha curcas leaf dust on some liver and kidney biochemical profiles such as total protein, total bilirubin, total albumin and total globulin of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus (♀ and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂ after a 14-day experimental period. The result was significantly different in the mean value of determined liver total bilirubin, while total protein, albumin and globulin were insignificantly different in the exposed fish compared with the control. The kidney revealed varying levels of insignificant difference in its level of total protein, total albumin, total bilirubin and total globulin. Therefore, this investigation has revealed that sublethal concentration of Jatropha curcas has no effect on the basic function of the determined biochemical profiles of hybrid catfish and that the changes were directly proportional to J. curcas concentration.

  4. Graph kernels between point clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Point clouds are sets of points in two or three dimensions. Most kernel methods for learning on sets of points have not yet dealt with the specific geometrical invariances and practical constraints associated with point clouds in computer vision and graphics. In this paper, we present extensions of graph kernels for point clouds, which allow to use kernel methods for such ob jects as shapes, line drawings, or any three-dimensional point clouds. In order to design rich and numerically efficient kernels with as few free parameters as possible, we use kernels between covariance matrices and their factorizations on graphical models. We derive polynomial time dynamic programming recursions and present applications to recognition of handwritten digits and Chinese characters from few training examples.

  5. Kernel Generalized Noise Clustering Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-hong; ZHOU Jian-jiang

    2007-01-01

    To deal with the nonlinear separable problem, the generalized noise clustering (GNC) algorithm is extended to a kernel generalized noise clustering (KGNC) model. Different from the fuzzy c-means (FCM) model and the GNC model which are based on Euclidean distance, the presented model is based on kernel-induced distance by using kernel method. By kernel method the input data are nonlinearly and implicitly mapped into a high-dimensional feature space, where the nonlinear pattern appears linear and the GNC algorithm is performed. It is unnecessary to calculate in high-dimensional feature space because the kernel function can do itjust in input space. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by experiments on three data sets. It is concluded that the KGNC algorithm has better clustering accuracy than FCM and GNC in clustering data sets containing noisy data.

  6. Oilseed Meal Effects on the Emergence and Survival of Crop and Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. Rothlisberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed crops are being widely evaluated for potential biodiesel production. Seed meal (SM remaining after extracting oil may have use as bioherbicides or organic fertilizers. Brassicaceae SM often contains glucosinolates that hydrolyze into biologically active compounds that may inhibit various pests. Jatropha curcas SM contains curcin, a phytoxin. A 14-day greenhouse study determined that Sinapis alba (white mustard, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard, Camelina sativa, and Jatropha curcas applied to soil at varying application rates [0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5% (w/w] and incubation times (1, 7, and 14 d prior to planting affected seed emergence and seedling survival of cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench], johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense, and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus. With each species, emergence and survival was most decreased by 2.5% SM application applied at 1 and 7 d incubations. White mustard SM incubated for 1 d applied at low and high rates had similar negative effects on johnsongrass seedlings. Redroot pigweed seedling survival was generally most decreased by all 2.5% SM applications. Based on significant effects determined by ANOVA, results suggested that the type, rate, and timing of SM application should be considered before land-applying SMs in cropping systems.

  7. Global analysis of transcriptome responses and gene expression profiles to cold stress of Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Jatropha curcas L., also called the Physic nut, is an oil-rich shrub with multiple uses, including biodiesel production, and is currently exploited as a renewable energy resource in many countries. Nevertheless, because of its origin from the tropical MidAmerican zone, J. curcas confers an inherent but undesirable characteristic (low cold resistance that may seriously restrict its large-scale popularization. This adaptive flaw can be genetically improved by elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to cold temperatures. The newly developed Illumina Hiseq™ 2000 RNA-seq and Digital Gene Expression (DGE are deep high-throughput approaches for gene expression analysis at the transcriptome level, using which we carefully investigated the gene expression profiles in response to cold stress to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of cold response in J. curcas. RESULTS: In total, 45,251 unigenes were obtained by assembly of clean data generated by RNA-seq analysis of the J. curcas transcriptome. A total of 33,363 and 912 complete or partial coding sequences (CDSs were determined by protein database alignments and ESTScan prediction, respectively. Among these unigenes, more than 41.52% were involved in approximately 128 known metabolic or signaling pathways, and 4,185 were possibly associated with cold resistance. DGE analysis was used to assess the changes in gene expression when exposed to cold condition (12°C for 12, 24, and 48 h. The results showed that 3,178 genes were significantly upregulated and 1,244 were downregulated under cold stress. These genes were then functionally annotated based on the transcriptome data from RNA-seq analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a global view of transcriptome response and gene expression profiling of J. curcas in response to cold stress. The results can help improve our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant cold resistance and favor the screening of

  8. Toxicidade do pericarpo da Jatropha curcas em ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.R. Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas é uma planta cultivada para a produção de biocombustível. O pericarpo é um coproduto com potencial para alimentação animal, e a presença de componentes tóxicos, principalmente ésteres de forbol, pode limitar sua utilização. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a toxicidade do pericarpo. Vinte ovinos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos - um grupo-controle, que não recebeu a planta, e três experimentais, que receberam o pericarpo nas concentrações de 15% (G15, 30% (G30 e 45% (G45, durante 23 dias. Após o 10º dia, a ingestão do pericarpo promoveu redução do consumo de alimento, diarreia, desidratação e caquexia. Todos os grupos tratados apresentaram redução na concentração de fosfatase alcalina. Animais do G30 apresentaram redução na concentração de ureia e proteínas totais e elevação de potássio e sódio. No G45, houve aumento de aspartato aminotransferase, albumina, creatinina bilirrubina indireta e total. A avaliação anatomo-histopatológica revelou ascite, hidropericárdio, congestão no trato gastrintestinal e nos pulmões, edema pulmonar, aderências à parede torácica, degeneração hepática centrolobular e das células tubulares renais, pneumonia linfo-histiocitica e enterite linfoplasmocitária e histiocítica. À análise fitoquímica, constatou-se 0,3845mg de ésteres de forbol/g de pericarpo. Conclui-se que o pericarpo de J. curcas é tóxico, não sendo recomendado para alimentação de ovinos.

  9. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home......Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  10. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    . This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20......Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home...

  11. Robotic intelligence kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J.

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  12. Flexible kernel memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

    2010-06-11

    This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces.

  13. Flexible kernel memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Nowicki

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces.

  14. Relative Coagulation Effectiveness of Jatropha curcas Press Cake (Physic Nut and Aluminium Sulphate in Purifying Domestic Sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoru Akanni ADENIRAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted on the relative effectiveness of using press cake of dried Jatropha curcas (Physic nut seed and alum (Aluminium sulphate for the purification of domestic sewage. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD replicated three times. Physical and chemical properties of domestic sewage were investigated before and after the purification exercise. Treatments imposed included: the control culture (no alum and Jatropha, 10 mg/l of Aluminium Sulphate (alum treatment, 80 mg/l of J. curcas treatment, 100 mg/l of J. curcas treatment and 120 mg/l of J. curcas treatment. The results showed that for the total dissolved solids, cultured tanks treated with 80 mg/l of J. curcas reduced the sewage concentration from 30.1 mg/l to 23.20 mg/l, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD was reduced from 30.55 mg/l to 30.10 mg/l, increased acidity from 5.33 mg/l to 5.66 mg/l, reduced alkalinity from 6.35 mg/l to 6.0 mg/l, reduced pH from 7.6 to 6.55, and likewise 10 mg/l of alum also reduced pH from 7.6 to 6.55. The cultured tanks treated with 120 mg/l of J. curcas performed best in reducing turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the sewage. The turbidity was reduced from 5.99 NTU to 5.6 NTU; 120 mg/l of J. curcas also reduced total hardness from 9.6 mg/l to 7.15 mg/l, total solids from 55.6 mg/l to 55.17 mg/l. Cultured tanks treated with 10 mg/l of alum reduced total dissolved solids from 30.1 mg/l to 24.30 mg/l, while those treated with 80 mg/l of J. curcas reduced it from 30.1 mg/l to 23.20 mg/l, 100 mg/l and 120 mg/l of J. curcas reduced it to 25.20 mg/l. Total suspended solids increased from 25.5 mg/l to 30.96 mg/l for 10 mg/l of alum, to 30.22 mg/l for 80 mg/l of J. curcas, 30.26 mg/l for 100 mg/l of J. curcas and 30.38 mg/l for 120 mg/l of J. curcas. Conductivity increased withion the study period from 525 μS/cm to 830 μS/cm for 10 mg/l of alum, to 590 μS/cm for 80 mg/l of J. curcas, 634 μS/cm for 100 mg/l of J

  15. Combining Ability for Germination Traits in Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Aminul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P1 and P2 were the best general combiner for most of the characters studied. The cross P1×P5 was the best specific combiner for speed of emergence, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, and seedling vigor index, the cross P2×P5 for mean germination time, time of 50% germination, and seedling length, and the cross P4×P5 for number of days to first germination. The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination (98.96% was observed in hybrid P2×P4, and none of the hybrids or parents showed 100% germination. The highest germination index (GI and seedling vigor index (SVI were found in hybrid P1×P5 and P2×P5, respectively. The results of this study provide clue for the improvement of Jatropha variety through breeding program.

  16. Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M P

    2010-10-01

    Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstock for biodiesel production in India. Limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high free fatty acids containing oil. The present study reports the results of kinetic study of two-step acid base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at an optimum temperature of 65 °C and 50 °C for esterification and transesterification respectively under the optimum methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H₂SO₄ and NaOH. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The results indicate that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min⁻¹ and 0.008 min⁻¹ respectively. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained.

  17. Combining ability for germination traits in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A K M Aminul; Anuar, Nurina; Yaakob, Zahira; Ghani, Jaharah A; Osman, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F 1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P 1 and P 2 were the best general combiner for most of the characters studied. The cross P 1 × P 5 was the best specific combiner for speed of emergence, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, and seedling vigor index, the cross P 2 × P 5 for mean germination time, time of 50% germination, and seedling length, and the cross P 4 × P 5 for number of days to first germination. The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination (98.96%) was observed in hybrid P 2 × P 4, and none of the hybrids or parents showed 100% germination. The highest germination index (GI) and seedling vigor index (SVI) were found in hybrid P 1 × P 5 and P 2 × P 5, respectively. The results of this study provide clue for the improvement of Jatropha variety through breeding program.

  18. Biomass and carbon stock in Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moreira Miquelino Eleto Torres

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to quantify the biomass and carbon stock in a crop of physic nut Jatropha curcas in Viçosa-MG at age three years. For biomass quantification, the direct or destructive method was applied to sample plants selected according to height, crown diameter and number of branches. For the determination of dry biomass in the field, the proportionality method was used. The determination of total carbon content was done in the Laboratory of Forest Soils of the Federal University of Viçosa, and the estimation of CO2 equivalent was based on the 3.67 factor. The carbon stock found in the third year of cultivation was 4.182 tC.ha-1 (15.349 tCO2-e.ha-1 and the mean annual increment (MAI was 1.394 tC.ha-1.year-1. Results revealed that the potential carbon increment in the physic nut crop is similar to values found in other crops and natural forests yet lower than in eucalyptus crops.

  19. Mixture Density Mercer Kernels: A Method to Learn Kernels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a method of generating Mercer Kernels from an ensemble of probabilistic mixture models, where each mixture model is generated from a Bayesian...

  20. 7 CFR 981.9 - Kernel weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kernel weight. 981.9 Section 981.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.9 Kernel weight. Kernel weight means the weight of kernels,...

  1. (Pre)kernel catchers for cooperative games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Chih; Driessen, Theo

    1995-01-01

    The paper provides a new (pre)kernel catcher in that the relevant set always contains the (pre)kernel. This new (pre)kernel catcher gives rise to a better lower bound ɛ*** such that the kernel is included in strong ɛ-cores for all real numbers ɛ not smaller than the relevant bound ɛ***.

  2. 7 CFR 51.2295 - Half kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Half kernel. 51.2295 Section 51.2295 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2295 Half kernel. Half kernel means the separated half of a kernel with not more than one-eighth broken off....

  3. A kernel version of spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2009-01-01

    . Schölkopf et al. introduce kernel PCA. Shawe-Taylor and Cristianini is an excellent reference for kernel methods in general. Bishop and Press et al. describe kernel methods among many other subjects. Nielsen and Canty use kernel PCA to detect change in univariate airborne digital camera images. The kernel...... version of PCA handles nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply kernel versions of PCA, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis...

  4. Kernel model-based diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The methods for computing the kemel consistency-based diagnoses and the kernel abductive diagnoses are only suited for the situation where part of the fault behavioral modes of the components are known. The characterization of the kernel model-based diagnosis based on the general causal theory is proposed, which can break through the limitation of the above methods when all behavioral modes of each component are known. Using this method, when observation subsets deduced logically are respectively assigned to the empty or the whole observation set, the kernel consistency-based diagnoses and the kernel abductive diagnoses can deal with all situations. The direct relationship between this diagnostic procedure and the prime implicants/implicates is proved, thus linking theoretical result with implementation.

  5. Improving Jatropha curcas seed protein recovery by using counter current multistage extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Mulder, W.J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed press cake contains 23 wt% proteins (dry basis). Due to the toxic compounds in Jatropha, we will use the proteins for non-food applications. Related to non-food applications, an efficient protein extraction to obtain a high protein recovery and high protein concentration with go

  6. Manipulation of Auxin Response Factor 19 affects seed size in the woody perennial Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Xiyuan; Mao, Huizhu; Zhu, Changxiang; Wen, Fujiang; Wang, Xianghua; Lu, Zhijun; Yue, Genhua; Xu, Zengfu; Ye, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J. curcas. Importantly, transgenic overexpression of JcARF19 significantly increased seed size and seed yield in plants Arabidopsis thaliana and J. curcas, indicating the importance of auxin pathway in seed yield controlling in dicot plants. Transcripts analysis indicated that ectopic expression of JcARF19 in J. curcas upregulated auxin responsive genes encoding essential regulators in cell differentiation and cytoskeletal dynamics of seed development. Our data suggested the potential of improving seed traits by precisely engineering auxin signaling in woody perennial plants. PMID:28102350

  7. Biodiesel synthesis from Jatropha curcas L. oil and ethanol in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; Kalpoe, Vijay; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik H.; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from Jatropha curcas L. oil was studied in a batch reactor and a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium ethoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like rotational speed, temperature, catalyst concentratio

  8. Planting Jatropha curcas on Constrained Land: Emission and Effects from Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Firdaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess carbon emission and carbon loss caused from land use change (LUC of converting a wasteland into a Jatropha curcas plantation. The study was conducted for 12 months at a newly established Jatropha curcas plantation in Port Dickson, Malaysia. Assessments of soil carbon dioxide (CO2 flux, changes of soil total carbon and plant biomass loss and growth were made on the wasteland and on the established plantation to determine the effects of land preparation (i.e., tilling and removal of the wasteland's native vegetation. Overall soil CO2 flux showed no significant difference (<0.05 between the two plots while no significant changes (<0.05 on soil total carbon at both plots were detected. It took 1.5 years for the growth of Jatropha curcas to recover the biomass carbon stock lost during land conversion. As far as the present study is concerned, converting wasteland to Jatropha curcas showed no adverse effects on the loss of carbon from soil and biomass and did not exacerbate soil respiration.

  9. Tree or shrub: a functional branch analysis of Jatropha curcas L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeuw, J.; Mulia, R.; Slingerland, M.A.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2015-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oil-bearing semi-evergreen shrub or small tree with potential as a source of sustainable biofuel, yet information regarding vegetative and fruit biomass in relation to plant architecture is lacking. Research conducted in Indonesia used the tree based functional branch analysis

  10. Detoxification of Jatropha curcas oil by ultraviolet irradiation combined with ethanol washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao, Jh.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas oil (JCO is non-edible due to the content of phorbolesters (PEs which are very toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of JCO, treated by ultraviolet irradiation combined with ethanol washing, as an edible oil. The results showed that PEs can be significantly decreased by 100% (p Jatropha curcas oil (DJCO. In addition, the quality of DJCO was improved with enhanced DPPH radical scavenging. Therefore, DJCO with good quality will become a good resource for edible oil.El aceite de Jatropha curcas (JCO no es comestible debido a su contenido en esteres de forbol (PES que son muy tóxicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el potencial de JCO como aceite comestible, cuando se trató mediante irradiación ultravioleta en combinación con lavados de etanol. Los resultados mostraron que el contenido de PES puede disminuir significativamente, hasta el 100% (p Jatropha curcas detoxificado (DJCO. Además, las cualidades de DJCO han mejorado teniendo una mayor capacidad de eliminación de radicales DPPH. Por lo tanto, DJCO con estas buenas cualidades se convertirá en un buen recurso de aceite comestible.

  11. Synthesis and properties of highly branched Jatropha curcas L. oil derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Louis; Ardiyanti, Agnes R.; Schuur, Boelo; Manurung, Robert; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of a number of novel branched Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) derivatives containing vicinal di-ester units in the fatty acid chains are reported. Both the length (acetyl vs. hexanoyl) and the stereochemistry of the vicinal di-ester units (cis vs. trans) were varied. The com

  12. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine : from toxicity problems to safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insanu, Muhamad; Dimaki, Chryssa; Wilkins, Richard; Brooker, John; van der Linde, Piet; Kayser, Oliver

    Jatropha curcas L. has become an important plant for biorefinery and production of biodiesel. From its ethnobotanical use, the plant is known for several activities which are associated with high toxicity. The latest development in engineering technology enables detoxification of native oil and

  13. Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose stress resistant plant with a potential for ethnomedicine and renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Mousumi; Bisen, P S

    2008-08-01

    Jatropha curcas is a stress--resistant perennial plant growing on marginal soils. This plant is widespread throughout arid and semiarid tropical regions of the world and has been used as a traditional folk medicine in many countries. J.curcas is a source of several secondary metabolites of medicinal importance. The leaf, fruits, latex and bark contain glycosides, tannins, phytosterols, flavonoids and steroidal sapogenins that exhibit wide ranging medicinal properties. The plant products exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities. The paper highlights the ability of various metabolites present in the plant to act as therapeutic agents and plant protectants. The plant is designated as an energy plant and use of J.curcas oil as biodiesel is a promising and commercially viable alternative to diesel oil. The seeds of the plant are not only a source of biodiesel but also contain several metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Commercial exploitation for biopharmaceuticals and bio-energy production are some of the prospective future potential of this plant. Further reclamation of wastelands and dry lands is also possible with J.curcas cultivation.

  14. Preparation and properties of binderless boards from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Prijanto, U.; Dam, J.E.G. van; Heeres, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake after oil extraction (expelling of seeds followed by hexane extraction) as a raw material for binderless boards was investigated. The composition of the de-oiled seed cake was investigated using a range of techniques (proximate-, ultimate analyses, TG/DG

  15. Ants contribute significantly to the pollination of a biodiesel plant, Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chang W; Li, Kun; Chen, Xiao M; Huang, Zachary Y

    2012-10-01

    Ants are the most abundant visitors to the flowers of Jatropha curcas L., but it is not clear how much they contribute to the pollination of this plant. In this study, we observed floral visitor assemblage and foraging behavior of ants, measured pollen loads carried by ants and deposited on stigmas, and determined the contribution of ants to the female reproductive success of J. curcas through exclusion experiments. Ants were the most abundant pollinators, accounting for 71.03 and 78.17% of total visits at two study sites. Among different ant species, Tapinoma melanocephalum (F.) is always the most abundant and the only common ant species at two study sites, which might suggest its important role in the pollination of J. curcas. Pollen loads carried by ants were significantly different among different species at two study sites. Pollen loads carried by ants increased with increased body length. Although the flowers exposed only to the ants produced less fruit than those exposed only to the winged visitors, ants alone resulted in almost 60% fruit set. Thus, ants could play a major role in the pollination of J. curcas if winged insects are absent.

  16. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine : from toxicity problems to safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insanu, Muhamad; Dimaki, Chryssa; Wilkins, Richard; Brooker, John; van der Linde, Piet; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. has become an important plant for biorefinery and production of biodiesel. From its ethnobotanical use, the plant is known for several activities which are associated with high toxicity. The latest development in engineering technology enables detoxification of native oil and othe

  17. Reply to Jongschaap et al.: The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Hoekstra, A.Y, Gerbens-Leenes, W. and Van der Meer, T.H., 2009. Reply to Jongschaap et al.: The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), 106 (42), E119

  18. Biological control of phytophagous arthropods in the physic nut tree Jatropha curcas L. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas has a high biofuel oil content, which could replace polluting fuels, and has great potential for large scale monoculture cultivation in the conventional system. We explored the occurrence, spatial distribution and the functional response of the main phytophagous species of this plant and their natural enemies to explore the potential for conservative biological control. We began sampling phytophagous species and predators when J. curcas plants were six months old. The most common species of phytophagous insects were nymphs and adults of Empoasca kraemeri, followed by Frankliniella schultzei and Myzus persicae. Among the predators, Ricoseius loxocheles, Iphiseioides zuluagai, Araneidae, larvae and adults of Psyllobora vigintimaculata and Anthicus sp. were the most frequently encountered. The most common parasitoids were the families Encyrtidae and Braconidae. The highest densities of E. kraemeri and F. schultzei on the edges of the J. curcas crop follow spatial patterns similar to those of their natural enemies I. zuluagai and Anthicus sp. These arthropods can be considered efficient predators of immature stages of E. kraemeri and F. schultzei on J. curcas.

  19. Notes on the gamma kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.

    The density function of the gamma distribution is used as shift kernel in Brownian semistationary processes modelling the timewise behaviour of the velocity in turbulent regimes. This report presents exact and asymptotic properties of the second order structure function under such a model......, and relates these to results of von Karmann and Horwath. But first it is shown that the gamma kernel is interpretable as a Green’s function....

  20. Kernel Rootkits Implement and Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianghe; ZHANG Liancheng; LI Shuo

    2006-01-01

    Rootkits, which unnoticeably reside in your computer, stealthily carry on remote control and software eavesdropping, are a great threat to network and computer security. It' time to acquaint ourselves with their implement and detection. This article pays more attention to kernel rootkits, because they are more difficult to compose and to be identified than useland rootkits. The latest technologies used to write and detect kernel rootkits, along with their advantages and disadvantages, are present in this article.

  1. Proteomic analysis of oil bodies in mature Jatropha curcas seeds with different lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Cuiping; Chen, Fan; Shen, Shihua

    2015-01-15

    To reveal the difference among three mature Jatropha curcas seeds (JcVH, variant with high lipid content; JcW, wild type and JcVL, variant with low lipid content) with different lipid content, comparative proteomics was employed to profile the changes of oil body (OB) associated protein species by using gels-based proteomic technique. Eighty-three protein species were successfully identified through LTQ-ES-MS/MS from mature JcW seeds purified OBs. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis of J. curcas OB associated protein species revealed they had essential interactions with other organelles and demonstrated that oleosin and caleosin were the most abundant OB structural protein species. Twenty-eight OB associated protein species showed significant difference among JcVH, JcW and JcVL according to statistical analysis. Complementary transient expression analysis revealed that calcium ion binding protein (CalBP) and glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP) were well targeted in OBs apart from the oleosins. This study demonstrated that ratio of lipid content to caleosins abundance was involved in the regulation of OB size, and the mutant induced by ethylmethylsulfone treatment might be related to the caleosin like protein species. These findings are important for biotechnological improvement with the aim to alter the lipid content in J. curcas seeds. The economic value of Jatropha curcas largely depends on the lipid content in seeds which are mainly stored in the special organelle called oil bodies (OBs). In consideration of the biological importance and applications of J. curcas OB in seeds, it is necessary to further explore the components and functions of J. curcas OBs. Although a previous study concerning the J. curcas OB proteome revealed oleosins were the major OB protein component and additional protein species were similar to those in other oil seed plants, these identified OB associated protein species were corresponding to the protein bands instead of protein

  2. Aquaporin JcPIP2 is involved in drought responses in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yunxiao; Jiang, Luding; Xu, Ying; Wang, Yingchun; Lu, Daihua; Chen, Fang

    2007-10-01

    Water channel proteins, aquaporins, play fundamental roles in transmembrane water movements in plants. A new full-length cDNA encoding aquaporin was isolated from the seedlings of Jatropha curcas. The gene of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) from J. curcas (JcPIP2) contained an 843 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 280 amino acids. The amino acid sequence showed 94% identity with Ricinus communis PIP. Injection of JcPIP2 complementary RNA into Xenopus oocytes increased 10-fold the osmotic water permeability of the oocytes. Immunodetection of JcPIP2 with anti-JcPIP2 antibody indicated that this protein is ubiquitously located in all tested tissues of the plant. To investigate the relationship between aquaporins and drought resistance in J. curcas, the abundance of JcPIP2 was examined in seedlings of two J. curcas populations, GaoYou CSC63 and YanBian S1, under water deficit with PEG6000. Under field conditions, those two populations, GaoYou CSC63 was resistant to water deficit, but YanBian S1 was sensitive to water deprivation. With the increasing degree of drought stress, JcPIP2 level increased in seedlings of GaoYou CSC63, whereas there was no significant change in seedlings of YanBian S1. Compared with YanBian S1, GaoYou CSC63 also showed higher root hydraulic conductivity and lower decreasing trend in the seedlings under water deficit. These results indicated that JcPIP2 probably played a role in drought resistance in J. curcas.

  3. Aquaporin JcPIP2 is Involved in Drought Responses in Jatropha curcas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHANG; Yunxiao WANG; Luding JIANG; Ying XU; Yingchun WANG; Daihua LU; Fang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Water channel proteins, aquaporins, play fundamental roles in transmembrane water movements in plants. A new full-length cDNA encoding aquaporin was isolated from the seedlings of Jatropha curcas.The gene of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) from J. curcas (JcPIP2) contained an 843 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 280 amino acids. The amino acid sequence showed 94% identity with Ricinus communis PIP. Injection of JcPIP2 complementary RNA into Xenopus oocytes increased 10-fold the osmotic water permeability of the oocytes. Immunodetection of JcPIP2 with anti-JcPIP2 antibody indicated that this protein is ubiquitously located in all tested tissues of the plant. To investigate the relationship between aquaporins and drought resistance in J. curcas, the abundance of JcPIP2 was examined in seedlings of two J. curcas populations, Gao You CSC63 and YanBian S1, under water deficit with PEG6000. Under field conditions, those two populations, Gao You CSC63 was resistant to water deficit, but YanBian S1 was sensitive to water deprivation. With the increasing degree of drought stress, JcPIP2 level increased in seedlings of Gao You CSC63, whereas there was no significant change in seedlings of YanBian S1. Compared with YanBian S1, GaoYou CSC63 also showed higher root hydraulic conductivity and lower decreasing trend in the seedlings under water deficit. These results indicated that JcPIP2 probably played a role in drought resistance in J. curcas.

  4. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Aarumugam; P. Saravana Bhavan; T. Muralisankar; N. Manickam; V. Srinevasan; S. Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL) was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-...

  5. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Sorption of 4-Nitrophenol on Activated Kaolinitic Clay and Jatropha Curcas Activated Carbon from Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Samsudeen Olanrewaju Azeez; Folahan Amao Adekola

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption behaviour of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) on activated kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas activated carbon was investigated. The kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas were activated with 1 M HNO3 and 0.5 M NaOH respectively and were characterized by XRF, XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. The effects of processing parameters, such as initial 4-NP concentration, temperature, pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption process were investigated. The results obtained showed that Ja...

  6. Combined effects of low light and water stress on Jatropha curcas L. promotes shoot growth and morphological adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Christina Silveira Carneiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas (physic nut is a plant with economic and pharmaceutical uses. Basic studies on the influence of environmental factors on the early development of J. curcas are important for improving farming techniques and increasing productivity. This study investigated the adjustments of J. curcas to the environmental factors of drought and light stress in order to determine which factors most strongly affect the allocation of biomass during early growth. Leaves, stems, and roots of young plants were sampled and leaf area was measured during January and June in 2011. Plants of J. curcas that were grown in shade and subjected to water stress showed higher biomass allocation to aerial parts (mainly stems, which can be explained as a strategy for maximizing carbon assimilation. The pattern of biomass allocation between aerial components and the root system changed in plants grown in shade. During June 2011, biomass in shade-grown J. curcas was preferentially allocated to stems, indicating long-term adjustment. The lower biomass allocation to the root system suggests reduced exploitation of soil water even when this resource is scarce. Thus, over the long term, growth of J. curcas may be compromised by the combined effects of light stress and water deficit.

  7. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5′UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3′UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5′UTRs and 3′UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302 SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (~70% amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species.

  8. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5'UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3'UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5'UTRs and 3'UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302 SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (∼70%) amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content) value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species) suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species.

  9. Kernel versions of some orthogonal transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    Kernel versions of orthogonal transformations such as principal components are based on a dual formulation also termed Q-mode analysis in which the data enter into the analysis via inner products in the Gram matrix only. In the kernel version the inner products of the original data are replaced...... by inner products between nonlinear mappings into higher dimensional feature space. Via kernel substitution also known as the kernel trick these inner products between the mappings are in turn replaced by a kernel function and all quantities needed in the analysis are expressed in terms of this kernel...... function. This means that we need not know the nonlinear mappings explicitly. Kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel minimum noise fraction (MNF) analyses handle nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function...

  10. An Approximate Approach to Automatic Kernel Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lizhong; Liao, Shizhong

    2016-02-02

    Kernel selection is a fundamental problem of kernel-based learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose an approximate approach to automatic kernel selection for regression from the perspective of kernel matrix approximation. We first introduce multilevel circulant matrices into automatic kernel selection, and develop two approximate kernel selection algorithms by exploiting the computational virtues of multilevel circulant matrices. The complexity of the proposed algorithms is quasi-linear in the number of data points. Then, we prove an approximation error bound to measure the effect of the approximation in kernel matrices by multilevel circulant matrices on the hypothesis and further show that the approximate hypothesis produced with multilevel circulant matrices converges to the accurate hypothesis produced with kernel matrices. Experimental evaluations on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of approximate kernel selection.

  11. Model Selection in Kernel Ridge Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter

    Kernel ridge regression is gaining popularity as a data-rich nonlinear forecasting tool, which is applicable in many different contexts. This paper investigates the influence of the choice of kernel and the setting of tuning parameters on forecast accuracy. We review several popular kernels......, including polynomial kernels, the Gaussian kernel, and the Sinc kernel. We interpret the latter two kernels in terms of their smoothing properties, and we relate the tuning parameters associated to all these kernels to smoothness measures of the prediction function and to the signal-to-noise ratio. Based...... on these interpretations, we provide guidelines for selecting the tuning parameters from small grids using cross-validation. A Monte Carlo study confirms the practical usefulness of these rules of thumb. Finally, the flexible and smooth functional forms provided by the Gaussian and Sinc kernels makes them widely...

  12. Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A;

    2014-01-01

    grain rye kernels on postprandial glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), gut hormones, SCFA and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over study. The test meals each providing 50 g...

  13. Integral equations with contrasting kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Burton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study integral equations of the form $x(t=a(t-\\int^t_0 C(t,sx(sds$ with sharply contrasting kernels typified by $C^*(t,s=\\ln (e+(t-s$ and $D^*(t,s=[1+(t-s]^{-1}$. The kernel assigns a weight to $x(s$ and these kernels have exactly opposite effects of weighting. Each type is well represented in the literature. Our first project is to show that for $a\\in L^2[0,\\infty$, then solutions are largely indistinguishable regardless of which kernel is used. This is a surprise and it leads us to study the essential differences. In fact, those differences become large as the magnitude of $a(t$ increases. The form of the kernel alone projects necessary conditions concerning the magnitude of $a(t$ which could result in bounded solutions. Thus, the next project is to determine how close we can come to proving that the necessary conditions are also sufficient. The third project is to show that solutions will be bounded for given conditions on $C$ regardless of whether $a$ is chosen large or small; this is important in real-world problems since we would like to have $a(t$ as the sum of a bounded, but badly behaved function, and a large well behaved function.

  14. Model selection for Gaussian kernel PCA denoising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We propose kernel Parallel Analysis (kPA) for automatic kernel scale and model order selection in Gaussian kernel PCA. Parallel Analysis [1] is based on a permutation test for covariance and has previously been applied for model order selection in linear PCA, we here augment the procedure to also...... tune the Gaussian kernel scale of radial basis function based kernel PCA.We evaluate kPA for denoising of simulated data and the US Postal data set of handwritten digits. We find that kPA outperforms other heuristics to choose the model order and kernel scale in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR...

  15. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new

  16. Characterizing parameters of Jatropha curcas cell cultures for microgravity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Wagner A.; Pinares, Ania

    2013-06-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a tropical perennial species identified as a potential biofuel crop. The oil is of excellent quality and it has been successfully tested as biodiesel and in jet fuel mixes. However, studies on breeding and genetic improvement of jatropha are limited. Space offers a unique environment for experiments aiming at the assessment of mutations and differential gene expression of crops and in vitro cultures of plants are convenient for studies of genetic variation as affected by microgravity. However, before microgravity studies can be successfully performed, pre-flight experiments are necessary to characterize plant material and validate flight hardware environmental conditions. Such preliminary studies set the ground for subsequent spaceflight experiments. The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro growth of cultures from three explant sources (cotyledon, leaf, and stem sections) of three jatropha accessions (Brazil, India, and Tanzania) outside and inside the petriGAP, a modified group activation pack (GAP) flight hardware to fit petri dishes. In vitro jatropha cell cultures were established in petri dishes containing a modified MS medium and maintained in a plant growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C in the dark. Parameters evaluated were surface area of the explant tissue (A), fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) for a period of 12 weeks. Growth was observed for cultures from all accessions at week 12, including subsequent plantlet regeneration. For all accessions differences in A, FW and DW were observed for inside vs. outside the PetriGAPs. Growth parameters were affected by accession (genotype), explant type, and environment. The type of explant influenced the type of cell growth and subsequent plantlet regeneration capacity. However, overall cell growth showed no abnormalities. The present study demonstrated that jatropha in vitro cell cultures are suitable for growth inside PetriGAPs for a period of 12 weeks. The parameters

  17. Determination of Some Physical Properties of Jatropha (Jatropha Curcas Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasheu, T.I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy crisis and shortage of fuel emanating from total dependence on mineral oil with resultant socioeconomic problems demand the need to explore the use of renewable energy as alternative. This study evaluates the physical properties Jatropha (Jatropha curcas oil as alternative base oil for lubricant in auto engines. A quantity of 32 kg dried base decorticated seeds of Jatropha was locally obtained. Volume of 4 litres of Jatropha oil was extracted from the seeds using existing hydraulic press machine, while its physical properties was determined through laboratory analytical procedure of American Society for Testing and Materials analytical standard 960-52 (ASTM,D960-52. The properties determined were: viscosity, density, flash point, pour point, melting point, refractive index, specific heat and thermal conductivity. Comparisons of the properties were also made with the standard lubricant (SAE 40 engine oil. The principles of flow theories were employed to develop heat generated equation in terms of temperature, density and viscosity of the oil and a computer program in C++ language was thus written. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the effect of temperature change, (30 oC to 100 oC on value of density and viscosity. The physical properties of Jatropha oil are viscosity (162.8 cst, density (0.920 g/ml, flash point (113oC, pour point (7.7oC, melting point (4 to 5oC, refractive index (1.435, specific heat (0.082 KJ/Kg/K and thermal conductivity (4.250 W/moC. Comparative analysis showed that the values of viscosity, density, thermal conductivity and pour point for Jatropha oil were higher than the values of SAE 40 engine oil while specific heat, flash point and refractive index values of Jatropha oil were less than the values of SAE 40 engine oil. The result showed that the average values for density and viscosity of Jatropha oil were 890.75 Kgm-3 and 0.1385 N.S/m2 . Sensitivity analysis showed that Jatropha oil has highest density and

  18. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy.......Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...

  19. Semi-Supervised Kernel PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Henao, Ricardo; Mørup, Morten

    We present three generalisations of Kernel Principal Components Analysis (KPCA) which incorporate knowledge of the class labels of a subset of the data points. The first, MV-KPCA, penalises within class variances similar to Fisher discriminant analysis. The second, LSKPCA is a hybrid of least...... squares regression and kernel PCA. The final LR-KPCA is an iteratively reweighted version of the previous which achieves a sigmoid loss function on the labeled points. We provide a theoretical risk bound as well as illustrative experiments on real and toy data sets....

  20. Congruence Kernels of Orthoimplication Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chajda

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstracting from certain properties of the implication operation in Boolean algebras leads to so-called orthoimplication algebras. These are in a natural one-to-one correspondence with families of compatible orthomodular lattices. It is proved that congruence kernels of orthoimplication algebras are in a natural one-to-one correspondence with families of compatible p-filters on the corresponding orthomodular lattices. Finally, it is proved that the lattice of all congruence kernels of an orthoimplication algebra is relatively pseudocomplemented and a simple description of the relative pseudocomplement is given.

  1. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  2. Model selection in kernel ridge regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Kernel ridge regression is a technique to perform ridge regression with a potentially infinite number of nonlinear transformations of the independent variables as regressors. This method is gaining popularity as a data-rich nonlinear forecasting tool, which is applicable in many different contexts....... The influence of the choice of kernel and the setting of tuning parameters on forecast accuracy is investigated. Several popular kernels are reviewed, including polynomial kernels, the Gaussian kernel, and the Sinc kernel. The latter two kernels are interpreted in terms of their smoothing properties......, and the tuning parameters associated to all these kernels are related to smoothness measures of the prediction function and to the signal-to-noise ratio. Based on these interpretations, guidelines are provided for selecting the tuning parameters from small grids using cross-validation. A Monte Carlo study...

  3. Bergman kernel on generalized exceptional Hua domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; weipng(殷慰萍); ZHAO; zhengang(赵振刚)

    2002-01-01

    We have computed the Bergman kernel functions explicitly for two types of generalized exceptional Hua domains, and also studied the asymptotic behavior of the Bergman kernel function of exceptional Hua domain near boundary points, based on Appell's multivariable hypergeometric function.

  4. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The cost benefit arising from feeding Breadfruit meal based diets to 1000 Heterobranchus ... Diets containing 0 % breadfruit meal (diet A – control) were not easily stroked by fed ...

  5. Meal Elements - a Way of optimising ready to eat Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for improvement of the quality of food produced in large-scale kitchens. Using meal elements in large-scale kitchens in combination with production planning and over-all structuring of activities generally improves the quality of the meal prepared....

  6. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations.......Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  7. Random Feature Maps for Dot Product Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Purushottam; Karnick, Harish

    2012-01-01

    Approximating non-linear kernels using feature maps has gained a lot of interest in recent years due to applications in reducing training and testing times of SVM classifiers and other kernel based learning algorithms. We extend this line of work and present low distortion embeddings for dot product kernels into linear Euclidean spaces. We base our results on a classical result in harmonic analysis characterizing all dot product kernels and use it to define randomized feature maps into explic...

  8. ks: Kernel Density Estimation and Kernel Discriminant Analysis for Multivariate Data in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarn Duong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Kernel smoothing is one of the most widely used non-parametric data smoothing techniques. We introduce a new R package ks for multivariate kernel smoothing. Currently it contains functionality for kernel density estimation and kernel discriminant analysis. It is a comprehensive package for bandwidth matrix selection, implementing a wide range of data-driven diagonal and unconstrained bandwidth selectors.

  9. Saponification of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Optimization by D-Optimal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumat Salimon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of ethanolic KOH concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to free fatty acid (FFA percentage were investigated. D-optimal design was employed to study significance of these factors and optimum condition for the technique predicted and evaluated. The optimum conditions for maximum FFA% were achieved when 1.75 M ethanolic KOH concentration was used as the catalyst, reaction temperature of 65°C, and reaction time of 2.0 h. This study showed that ethanolic KOH concentration was significant variable for saponification of J. curcas seed oil. In an 18-point experimental design, percentage of FFA for saponification of J. curcas seed oil can be raised from 1.89% to 102.2%.

  10. Does Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas Represent a Sustainable Alternative Energy Source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Ovando-Medina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Various government agencies around the world have proposed vegetable oils and their conversion to biodiesel as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels. Due to its adaptability to marginal soils and environments, the cultivation of Jatropha curcas is frequently mentioned as the best option for producing biodiesel. In the present work the current situation of proven and potential reserves of fossil fuel, and the production and consumption model for the same are analyzed, in order to later review the sustainability of the production process which begins with the cultivation of J. curcas, and culminates with the consumption of biodiesel. A review of the following topics is proposed in order to improve the sustainability of the process: areas destined for cultivation, use of external (chemical inputs in cultivation, processes for converting the vegetable oil to biodiesel, and, above all, the location for ultimate consumption of the biofuel.

  11. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ovando-Medina, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062-5016 pollen grains (266-647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species) was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville) and Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Latreille) were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Constituents of the Extract from Jatropha curcas Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Saosoong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of the methanolic extract from J. curcas fruit were evaluated in this study. The crude extract was achieved by extraction with 60 % (v/v methanol. It showed the potencies of antimicrobial activity against P. putida, P. syringae pv. sesami, X. campestris, X. campestris pv. glycines, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and R. solanacearum with the presence of inhibition zone in the range of 8.0 ± 0.0 to 13.7 ± 0.6 mm and MIC value at 214.29 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Furthermore, flavone compound can be proposed by the analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. According to the group of flavonoid compounds have strong bioactive properties; the results suggested that J. curcas fruit has highly potential as effective natural bioactive sources.

  13. Cytological characterization of Jatropha curcas callus in different periods of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalilhia Nazaré dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aimed was characterization and determining the time for Jatropha curcas callus subculture. The pattern of J. curcascallus development is sigmoidal with 5 distinct phases, and transplantation should be performed at the end of the deceleration phase(approximately day 28. During callus development, it was observed that at the onset of growth in the exponential phase the cells wereinternally disorganized; in the linear phase, respiratory metabolism was resumed through reorganization of the first mitochondria;and by the mid-deceleration phase, the cells were entirely active, and several organelles were detected. This organizational status wasmaintained throughout the stationary phase during which somatic pre-embryos were identified. At the end of the stationary phase, intracellulardisruption began, and the cells entered senescence, which characterized the decline phase for the J. curcas calli growth curve.

  14. On the Diamond Bessel Heat Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchak Satsanit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the heat equation in n dimensional by Diamond Bessel operator. We find the solution by method of convolution and Fourier transform in distribution theory and also obtain an interesting kernel related to the spectrum and the kernel which is called Bessel heat kernel.

  15. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  16. Computations of Bergman Kernels on Hua Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷慰萍; 王安; 赵振刚; 赵晓霞; 管冰辛

    2001-01-01

    @@The Bergman kernel function plays an important ro1e in several complex variables.There exists the Bergman kernel function on any bounded domain in Cn. But we can get the Bergman kernel functions in explicit formulas for a few types of domains only,for example:the bounded homogeneous domains and the egg domain in some cases.

  17. Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhou; N. Hu; C.J. Spanos

    2016-01-01

    We propose Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning (VCMKL), a novel way of combining multiple kernels such that one class of samples is described by the logical intersection (consensus) of base kernelized decision rules, whereas the other classes by the union (veto) of their complements. The propose

  18. Indirect measurement of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of Jatropha curcas
    Quantificação indireta de pigmentos fotossintetizantes em folhas de Jatropha curcas

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz Rigon; Silvia Capuani; José Félix de Brito Neto; Napoleão Esberard de Macêdo Beltrão

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi gerar modelos matemáticos capazes de reportar os pigmentos fotossintéticos e proteína solúvel nas folhas de Jatropha curcas por meio da relação entre leituras realizadas por espectrofotometria clássica e por clorofilômetro, ClorofiLOG® 1030. O trabalho foi realizado na Embrapa Algodão, na cidade de Campina Grande (PB). Para a análise indireta, foi usado o equipamento portátil para leituras em discos foliares com diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. A clo...

  19. PLAGAS POTENCIALES DEL CULTIVO DE Jatropha curcas L., EN EL OCCIDENTE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA POTENTIAL PEST OF Jatropha curcas L. CROP IN WESTERN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Cristóbal Yepes Rodríguez; Manyer Ana Luisa Carmona; Norman Correa Zuluaga; Jhon Alveiro Quiroz Gamboa

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. Se da información sobre la biología, comportamiento, hábitos e importancia económica de las chinches Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, 1852 (Hemiptera: Coreidae) y Agonosoma trilineatum (Fabricius, 1781) (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) y se advierte sobre su presencia en una parcela de Jatropha curcas establecida en Santa Fe de Antioquia. Además, se halló que la pringamosa, Echidoscolus rubulosus es el hospedero silvestre de la segunda especie, en este ecosistema de bosque seco tropical. Se co...

  20. Accelerating the Original Profile Kernel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hamp

    Full Text Available One of the most accurate multi-class protein classification systems continues to be the profile-based SVM kernel introduced by the Leslie group. Unfortunately, its CPU requirements render it too slow for practical applications of large-scale classification tasks. Here, we introduce several software improvements that enable significant acceleration. Using various non-redundant data sets, we demonstrate that our new implementation reaches a maximal speed-up as high as 14-fold for calculating the same kernel matrix. Some predictions are over 200 times faster and render the kernel as possibly the top contender in a low ratio of speed/performance. Additionally, we explain how to parallelize various computations and provide an integrative program that reduces creating a production-quality classifier to a single program call. The new implementation is available as a Debian package under a free academic license and does not depend on commercial software. For non-Debian based distributions, the source package ships with a traditional Makefile-based installer. Download and installation instructions can be found at https://rostlab.org/owiki/index.php/Fast_Profile_Kernel. Bugs and other issues may be reported at https://rostlab.org/bugzilla3/enter_bug.cgi?product=fastprofkernel.

  1. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ding

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  2. School meals: building blocks for healthy children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stallings, Virginia A; Suitor, Carol West; Taylor, Christine Lewis

    2010-01-01

    .... Various laws and regulations govern the operation of school meal programs. In 1995, Nutrition Standards and Meal Requirements were put in place to ensure that all meals offered would be high in nutritional quality...

  3. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Oil Extraction from Jatropha curcas L. Using Ethanol as a Solvent

    OpenAIRE

    Silmara Bispo dos Santos; Marcio Arêdes Martins; Ana Lívia Caneschi; Paulo Rafael Morette Aguilar; Jane Sélia dos Reis Coimbra

    2015-01-01

    In the study the yield and kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the oil extraction process from Jatropha curcas L. using ethanol as a solvent were evaluated for different temperatures, moisture contents of the solid phase, and particle sizes. The extraction process yield increased with contact time of solid particles with the solvent until reaching equilibrium (saturation of the solvent), for all the temperatures, moisture contents, and average particle sizes. These parameters significantl...

  4. GC-MS analysis of hexane extract of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Warra, Aliyu A.; Abubakar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The spectral interpretation here was based on compounds identification. The following fatty acids were identified considering the peaks and library fragments; Oleic acid, Stearic acid, Palmitic acid Margaric acid, 6-Octadecenoic acid, Elaidic acid  Erucic acid, Methyl ricinoleate, 11-octadecenoic acid,10-undecenoic acid.  The results indicated that the Jatropha curcas L seed oil has potential in the production of cosmetics, perfumery and pharmaceuticals.The spectral interpretation here was ba...

  5. Comparative toxicity of Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas in Brown Hisex chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Badwi, S M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J

    1995-02-01

    Symptoms, lesions and changes in growth, haematology and clinical chemistry were investigated in Brown Hisex chicks fed diets containing 0.5% Jatropha curcas seed or 0.5% Ricinus communis seed. High mortality and more severe changes occurred in chicks on Ricinus diet than Jatropha feed. The results indicated that caution should be observed in tropical countries where people are accustomed to chewing castor bean when in need of a laxative.

  6. Assessment of genetic stability in micropropagules of Jatropha curcas genotypes by RAPD and AFLP analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.

    2011-07-01

    Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a drought resistant non edible oil yielding plant, has acquired significant importance as an alternative renewable energy source. Low and inconsistent yields found in field plantations prompted for identification of high yielding clones and their large scale multiplication by vegetative propagation to obtain true to type plants. In the current investigation plantlets of J. curcas generated by axillary bud proliferation (micropropagation) using nodal segments obtained from selected high yielding genotypes were assessed for their genetic stability using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analyses. For RAPD analysis, 21 out of 52 arbitrary decamer primers screened gave clear reproducible bands. In the micropropagated plantlets obtained from the 2nd sub-culture, 4 out of a total of 177 bands scored were polymorphic, but in the 8th and 16th sub-cultures (culture cycle) no polymorphisms were detected. AFLP analysis revealed 0.63%, 0% and 0% polymorphism in the 2nd, 8th and 16th generations, respectively. When different genotypes, viz. IC 56557 16, IC 56557 34 and IC 56557 13, were assessed by AFLP, 0%, 0.31% and 0.47% polymorphisms were found, respectively, indicating a difference in genetic stability among the different genotypes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on assessment of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets in J. curcas and suggests that axillary shoot proliferation can safely be used as an efficient micropropagation method for mass propagation of J. curcas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. KARAKTERISTIK PERTUMBUHAN JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L.) YANG DITAMBAHKAN CENDAWAN ENDOFIT PADA LAHAN PASCA TAMBANG TIMAH

    OpenAIRE

    Sukmarayu P. Gedoan; Alex Hartana; Hamim Hamim; Utut Widyastuti; Nampiah Sukarno

    2013-01-01

    Tin mining activity caused canging in physical and chemical characteristic of the soil that were not suitable for growth of plants. The objective of this experiment was to study accessions of Jatropha curcas planted on post tin mining land which were given endophyte. This research was conducted in a Sinar Baru village TS 133, district of Bangka, Bangka Belitung province for field research conducted in May 2007 to April 2008. The experimentas a factorial experiment in the design of the randomi...

  8. Transformation of Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA) Gene into Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Asri Pirade Paserang; Aris Tjahjoleksono; Utut Widyastuti; Suharsono Suharsono

    2015-01-01

    Jatropha is one of the many biodiesel plants developed in tropical countries. Efforts to increase its productivity can be done using various methods of breeding. One of the breeding methods is the introduction of genes into the Jatropha plant. The aim of this study is to assess the success of genetic transformation using the Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA) gene in Jatropha curcas. The research procedures included inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, callus induction, s...

  9. Penggunaan Polistirena Sulfonat Sebagai Katalis Transesterifikasi Minyak Jarak Pagar (Jatropha Curcas) Berkadar Asam Lemak Bebas Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Sidabutar, Adelina

    2012-01-01

    A transesterification of castor oil containing free fatty acid 7 % was catalysed by sulfonated polystyrene. Several factor reaction conditions such as mol ratio, temperature reaction, concentration of catalyst and interval time reaction has been observeted. General reaction materials involving castor oil (jatropha curcas), methanol, cosolvent eter, aerosyl, and polystyrene sulfonated were mixture in stainless stell reactor. The reaction was processed by using 50 gr castor oil, 26 ml methanol...

  10. Chitosan effects on phytopathogenic fungi and seed germination of Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pabón-Baquero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas es una planta con gran potencial agrícola e industrial. En este estudio se aislaron dos hongos de semillas no germinadas. Los aislamientos fúngicos se identificaron morfológica y molecularmente como Fusarium equiseti y Curvularia lunata. Los efectos del quitosano se evaluaron sobre el crecimiento micelial, esporulación y germinación de esporas de F. equiseti y C. lunata. Además, se estudió el efecto sobre la germinación de las semillas de J. curcas. Los resultados demostraron que todas las concentraciones probadas de quitosano (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 y 4.0 mg·mL-1 inhibieron el crecimiento micelial de los hongos. Las respuestas de esporulación y germinación de esporas fueron diferentes dependiendo de la especie fúngica; el quitosano inhibió completamente la esporulación C. lunata y la germinación de esporas de F. equiseti. La inoculación con F. equiseti y C. lunata redujo la germinación de semillas de J. curcas 20 y 26.6 %, respectivamente; sin embargo, la aplicación de quitosano antes de la inoculación inhibió la actividad patogénica. En conclusión, el quitosano no afectó la germinación de las semillas y causó efectos inhibitorios en F. equiseti y C. lunata. Este es el primer reporte del efecto del quitosano en J. curcas.

  11. Extraction and purification of curcain, a protease from the latex of Jatropha curcas Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, L K; Dutta, S K

    1991-02-01

    A proteolytic enzyme, curcain, has been extracted from the latex of Jatropha curcas Linn. The enzyme was purified by chromatography on carboxymethyl cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The homogeneity of protein associated with curcain was established by non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using a discontinuous buffer system. The molecular weight of curcain was estimated by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration using a calibration curve of standard proteins to be around 22,000 daltons.

  12. A novel chloroplastic isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase gene from Jatropha curcas: Cloning, characterization and subcellular localization

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Lei; Yin, Li; Hu,Xiaole; Xu, Ying; Chen,Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Jatropha curcas is a rich reservoir of pharmaceutically active terpenoids. More than 25 terpenoids have been isolated from this plant, and their activities are anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, insecticidal, rodenticidal, cytotoxic and molluscicidal. But not much is known about the pathway involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids. The present investigation describes the cloning, characterization and subcellular localization of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI) gene ...

  13. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the numb...

  14. The meal as a performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NYBERG, MARIA; Olsson, Viktoria; ÖRTMAN, GERD

    2017-01-01

    . By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were...

  15. An Extreme Learning Machine Based on the Mixed Kernel Function of Triangular Kernel and Generalized Hermite Dirichlet Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyue Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics that the kernel function of extreme learning machine (ELM and its performance have a strong correlation, a novel extreme learning machine based on a generalized triangle Hermitian kernel function was proposed in this paper. First, the generalized triangle Hermitian kernel function was constructed by using the product of triangular kernel and generalized Hermite Dirichlet kernel, and the proposed kernel function was proved as a valid kernel function of extreme learning machine. Then, the learning methodology of the extreme learning machine based on the proposed kernel function was presented. The biggest advantage of the proposed kernel is its kernel parameter values only chosen in the natural numbers, which thus can greatly shorten the computational time of parameter optimization and retain more of its sample data structure information. Experiments were performed on a number of binary classification, multiclassification, and regression datasets from the UCI benchmark repository. The experiment results demonstrated that the robustness and generalization performance of the proposed method are outperformed compared to other extreme learning machines with different kernels. Furthermore, the learning speed of proposed method is faster than support vector machine (SVM methods.

  16. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  17. Antimicrobial Compounds from Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%, four (34.66%, and three (50.47% having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  18. Capacity of ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. cake to degrade forbol esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. expeller cake to reduce the phorbol esters and its effect on fermentative losses, by adding soluble carbohydrates or microbial inoculants. The design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three sources of soluble carbohydrates (SC, control, 50 g sucrose/kg or 50 g crude glycerin/kg as fed and two doses of microbial inoculants (MI, 0 or 5 × 10(5 ufc Lactobacillus plantarum + 3.33 × 10(5 ufc Propionibacterium per g as fed. Twenty-four mini-silos (982 cm³ of polyvinyl chloride were created and opened after 60 days of fermentation at room temperature. The pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake (282 g of water/kg contained 0.424 mg of phorbol esters/g of dry matter. Ensiling reduced the phorbol esters in 47.4%, on average, regardless of the SC or MI. There was no interaction effect between SC and MI on effluent, gases or total dry matter losses. However, both losses were increased when SC were added, and it was higher with glycerin that than sucrose. The addition of MI reduced all fermentation losses. The process of ensiling, although partially to reduce the phorbol esters of pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake, is not indicated as a biodestoxification procedure.

  19. Smooth muscle relaxant evaluation of Jatropha curcas Linn (Euphorbiaceae) and isolation of triterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falodun, Abiodun; Nworgu, Z A M; Osayemwenre, Erharuyi

    2011-12-20

    Jatropha curcas is a herbal preparation used in the tropics for the treatment of threatened abortion and related problems associated with pregnancy. The Stem bark of Jatropha curcas is used ethno medicinally in Nigeria especially in the eastern part of the country for the treatment of infertility and spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). The present study was undertaken in order to validate the folkloric claim, using scientific experimental procedures and bioassay guided fractionation. The crude powdered sample was subjected to phytochemical screening testing for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates. Chromatographic analysis (TLC and VLC) were carried out using various solvent systems. The effect of methanolic extracts on rat uterine contractions was studied in vitro, in 40ml organ baths containing physiological salt solution of De Jalon maintained at 370C, aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 with an isometric transducer connected an UgoBasile recorder under a resting tension of 750mg. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. The extract abolished significantly the spontaneous contraction of the uterus and reduced acetylcholine induced uterine contractions at a dose of 50mg/ml. The tocolytic effects indicate the presence of active principle(s) which would explain the ethno medicinal use of the stem bark of Jatropha curcas to treat spontaneous abortion.

  20. Molecular approaches to improvement of Jatropha curcas Linn. as a sustainable energy crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Johnson, T; Eswaran, Nalini; Sujatha, M

    2011-09-01

    With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible oil supplies. Economic relevance of J. curcas for biodiesel production has promoted world-wide prospecting of its germplasm for crop improvement and breeding. However, lack of adequate genetic variation and non-availability of improved varieties limited its prospects of being a successful energy crop. In this review, we present the progress made in molecular breeding approaches with particular reference to tissue culture and genetic transformation, genetic diversity assessment using molecular markers, large-scale transcriptome and proteome studies, identification of candidate genes for trait improvement, whole genome sequencing and the current interest by various public and private sector companies in commercial-scale cultivation, which highlights the revival of Jatropha as a sustainable energy crop. The information generated from molecular markers, transcriptome profiling and whole genome sequencing could accelerate the genetic upgradation of J. curcas through molecular breeding.

  1. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Functional Characterization of the H(+)-Pyrophosphatase from Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yumei; Luo, Zhu; Zhang, Mengru; Liu, Chang; Gong, Ming; Zou, Zhurong

    2016-04-01

    H(+)-pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) is a primary pyrophosphate (PPi)-energized proton pump to generate electrochemical H(+) gradient for ATP production and substance translocations across membranes. It plays an important role in stress adaptation that was intensively substantiated by numerous transgenic plants overexpressing H(+)-PPases yet devoid of any correlated studies pointing to the elite energy plant, Jatropha curcas. Herein, we cloned the full length of J. curcas H(+)-PPase (JcVP1) complementary DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription PCR, based on the assembled sequence of its ESTs highly matched to Hevea brasiliensis H(+)-PPase. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 765 amino acids that was predicted as a K(+)-dependent H(+)-PPase evolutionarily closest to those of other Euphorbiaceae plants. Many cis-regulatory elements relevant to environmental stresses, molecular signals, or tissue-specificity were identified by promoter prediction within the 1.5-kb region upstream of JcVP1 coding sequence. Meanwhile, the responses of JcVP1 expression to several common abiotic stresses (salt, drought, heat, cold) were characterized with a considerable accordance with the inherent stress tolerance of J. curcas. Moreover, we found that the heterologous expression of JcVP1 could significantly improve the salt tolerance in both recombinant Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and this effect could be further fortified in yeast by N-terminal addition of a vacuole-targeting signal peptide from the H(+)-PPase of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  2. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Oil-Seed Crop Jatropha curcas Produces Oil and Exhibit Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

  3. Jatropha curcas: A potential crop for phytoremediation of coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, S.; Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, N.; Sharma, P.N. [National Botany Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    2009-12-15

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to test the heavy metal phytoremediation capacity of Jatropha curcas from fly ash. Both natural accumulation by J. curcas and chemically enhanced phytoextraction was investigated. Plants were grown on FA and FA amended with fertile garden soil, in presence and absence of chemical chelating agent EDTA at 0.1 g kg{sup -1} and 0.3 g kg{sup -1} of soil. EDTA enhanced the uptake of all five elements (Fe, Al, Cr, Cu and Mn) tested. Fe and Mn were retained more in roots while Cu, Al and Cr were translocated more to the shoot. Metal accumulation index indicates that the effect of EDTA at 0.3 g kg{sup -1} was more pronounced than EDTA at 0.1 g kg{sup -1} in terms of metal accumulation. Biomass was enhanced up to 37% when FA was amended with GS. Heavy metal uptake was enhanced by 117% in root, 62% in stem, 86% in leaves when EDTA was applied at 0.3 g kg{sup -1} to FA amended with GS. Study suggest that J. curcas has potential of establishing itself on FA when provided with basic plant nutrients and can also accumulate heavy metals many folds from FA without attenuating plant growth.

  4. Effects of lead (Pb on Jatropha curcas L. growth under hydroponic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Palchetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the environment with pollutants, like heavy metals from human activity, has caused the loss of agricultural land. One possible solution could be the utilization of phytoremediation technique with particular plant, capable of absorbing the contaminants from soil. Jatropha curcas, an important plant for the biodiesel production, in particular in tropical areas, has the capacity to grown in marginal land, compromised for food cultivation. The experiment was conducted in hydroponic conditions with the objective to evaluate the response and growth parameters of juvenile plants grown in presence of different Pb levels (0-100-200 mg/L. It was possible to study the interaction in the plant between some mineral element (Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe and morphological parameters and Pb, and evaluate some tolerance indicators. Results showed that the plants were able to grow in presence of Pb and to accumulate high levels of heavy metal in the roots, followed by the stems and leaves. However, Jatropha curcas subjected to Pb treatment demonstrated stunted growth and alterations in mineral elements contents. The results suggest that J. curcas may tolerate the levels of Pb imposed, but there is low translocation of heavy metal to aerial tissues, within the time period of analysis.

  5. Sex expression and floral diversity in Jatropha curcas: a population study in its center of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano-Anaya, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Castillo, Edilma; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ruiz-González, Sonia; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Grajales-Conesa, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Sex expression and floral morphology studies are central to understand breeding behavior and to define the productive potential of plant genotypes. In particular, the new bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. has been classified as a monoecious species. Nonetheless, there is no information about its reproductive diversity in the Mesoamerican region, which is considered its center of origin and diversification. Thus, we determined sex expression and floral morphology in J. curcas populations from southern Mexico and Guatemala. Our results showed that most of J. curcas specimens had typical inflorescences with separate sexes (monoecious); meanwhile, the rest were atypical (gynoecious, androecious, andromonoecious, androgynomonoecious). The most important variables to group these populations, based on a discriminant analysis, were: male flower diameter, female petal length and male nectary length. From southern Mexico “Guerrero” was the most diverse population, and “Centro” had the highest variability among the populations from Chiapas. A cluster analysis showed that the accessions from southern Mexico were grouped without showing any correlation with the geographical origin, while those accessions with atypical sexuality were grouped together. To answer the question of how informative are floral morphological traits compared to molecular markers, we perform a Mantel correlation test between the distance matrix generated in this study and the genetic distance matrix (AFLP) previously reported for the same accessions. We found significant correlation between data at the level of accessions. Our results contribute to design genetic improvement programs by using sexually and morphologically contrasting plants from the center of origin. PMID:27257548

  6. Seed viability of Jatropha curcas in different fruit maturity stages after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGP MULIARTA ARYANA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Santoso BB, Budianto A, Aryana IGPM. 2012. Seed viability of Jatropha curcas in different fruit maturity stages after storage. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 113-117. The effect of fruit maturity stages and seed storage period to seed viability were investigated. Seed samples of West Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara genotype of Jatropha curcas were collected from standing two year old trees at experimental field. The seed samples obtained were in four different stages of fruit maturity involving early maturity (green fruit, physiological maturity (yellow fruit, over maturity (brownies fruit, and senescence (black-dry fruit. The results showed that fruit maturity had an influence as well storage period on the seed viability of Jatropha curcas. The best fruit maturity stage for seed viability including seed oil content was yellow fruit and brownies fruit. For germination to be maintained or preserved, seeds could be stored in the ambient room storage for at least five months. For the purpose of oil extraction, seed should preferably be stored maximum not more than four months under ambient room conditions.

  7. Diversity and genetic parameter estimates for yield and its components in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R G; Dias, L A S; Cardoso, P M R; Evaristo, A B; Silva, M F; Araújo, N M

    2016-03-24

    Jatropha curcas L. is one of the most promising oilseeds for biodiesel and biokerosene production, but few basic studies or breeding programs have been conducted for the species. We estimated genetic parameters and diversity based on 10 yield traits in 77 half-sib progenies of J. curcas after 52 months in the field, and evaluated correlations between them and the oil content of the seeds. The mean grain yield per plant was 377.9 g (ranging from 169.8 to 772.1 g) and the mean oil content was 36.2% (ranging from 30 to 39.6%). Moderate estimates of heritability at the mean progeny level were obtained for the length of the fruit (84.7%), length (69.1%) and width (68.2%) of the seed, and grain yield per plant (62.2%). Oil content was only positively and significantly correlated with 100-seed weight. Our study revealed a range of possible crosses to be investigated in J. curcas. Progeny production should be evaluated over several crop seasons for the accurate selection of the best progenies.

  8. Transformation of Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA Gene into Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Pirade Paserang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha is one of the many biodiesel plants developed in tropical countries. Efforts to increase its productivity can be done using various methods of breeding. One of the breeding methods is the introduction of genes into the Jatropha plant. The aim of this study is to assess the success of genetic transformation using the Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA gene in Jatropha curcas. The research procedures included inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, callus induction, screening test of selection media, regeneration, and gene expression analysis using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. IMA is one of the genes that controls flowering genes and ovule development. It was first isolated from tomato plants and has been successfully overexpressed in these plants using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV 35S promoter. In this experiment, plant transformation was performed on J. curcas as the target. Explant callus formation in both the control and treated samples was good, but shoot formation decreased dramatically in the treated explants. PCR analysis indicated that IMA genes can be inserted into J. curcas with the size of the IMA gene is 500 bp.

  9. Hydrolysis optimization and characterization study of preparing fatty acids from Jatropha curcas seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimon Jumat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acids (FAs are important as raw materials for the biotechnology industry. Existing methods of FAs production are based on chemical methods. In this study potassium hydroxide (KOH-catalyzed reactions were utilized to hydrolysis Jatropha curcas seed oil. Results The parameters effect of ethanolic KOH concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to free fatty acid (FFA% were investigated using D-Optimal Design. Characterization of the product has been studied using Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, gas chromatography (GC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The optimum conditions for maximum FFA% were achieved at 1.75M of ethanolic KOH concentration, 65°C of reaction temperature and 2.0 h of reaction time. Conclusions This study showed that ethanolic KOH concentration was significant variable for J. curcas seed oil hydrolysis. In a 18-point experimental design, FFA% of hydrolyzed J. curcas seed oil can be raised from 1.89% to 102.2%, which proved by FTIR and HPLC.

  10. Biotechnological approaches for the genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L.: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2015-08-14

    Ever increasing demand for energy sources and reduction of non-renewable fossil fuel reserves have lead to exploration of alternative and renewable energy sources. Due to wide distribution, agronomic suitability, and desirable oil properties, J. curcas has been identified as a renewable and alternative energy source of biodiesel. Large scale commercial cultivation of this crop would not only be environmentally friendly and be worthwhile in carbon sequestration but also in decreasing the energy supply pressures. Wide adaptation across geographic regions, short gestation period compared to most tree species, rapid growth, hardiness, optimum plant size, and easy propagation in combination make this species suitable for large scale cultivation on barren lands. The limited information of the genetics and inheritance of desirable traits, unpredictable and low yields, the limited diversity and susceptibility to diseases and insects are however, key limitations in fruitful farming of J. curcas. In this review, an effort is made to project the current biotechnology and molecular biology tools employed in the direction of, evaluating the genetic diversity and phylogeny revelation of Jatropha spp., identification of genetic markers for desirable traits, development of efficient micropropagation and regeneration system, and genetic transformation methods for J. curcas. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vásquez-Mayorga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the genetic diversity of 50 Jatropha curcas samples from the Costa Rican germplasm bank using 18 EST-SSR, one G-SSR and nrDNA-ITS markers. We also evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among samples using nuclear ribosomal ITS markers. Non-toxicity was evaluated using G-SSRs and SCARs markers. A Neighbor-Joining (NJ tree and a Maximum Likelihood (ML tree were constructed using SSR markers and ITS sequences, respectively. Heterozygosity was moderate (He = 0.346, but considerable compared to worldwide values for J. curcas. The PIC (PIC = 0.274 and inbreeding coefficient (f =  − 0.102 were both low. Clustering was not related to the geographical origin of accessions. International accessions clustered independently of collection sites, suggesting a lack of genetic structure, probably due to the wide distribution of this crop and ample gene flow. Molecular markers identified only one non-toxic accession (JCCR-24 from Mexico. This work is part of a countrywide effort to characterize the genetic diversity of the Jatropha curcas germplasm bank in Costa Rica.

  12. Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas.

  13. Effect of biosludge and biofertilizer amendment on growth of Jatropha curcas in heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha Ashok; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Kumar, Phani; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of arsenic, chromium and zinc contaminated soils, amended with biosludge and biofertilizer on the growth of Jatropha curcas which is a biodiesel crop. The results further showed that biosludge alone and in combination with biofertilizer significantly improved the survival rates and enhanced the growth of the plant. With the amendments, the plant was able to grow and survive upto 500, 250 and 4,000 mg kg(-1) of As, Cr and Zn contaminated soils, respectively. The results also showed that zinc enhanced the growth of J. curcas more as compared to other metals contaminated soils. The heavy metal accumulation in plant increased with increasing concentrations of heavy metals in soil, where as a significant reduction in the metal uptake in plant was observed, when amended with biosludge and biofertilizer and biosludge alone. It seems that the organic matter present in the biosludge acted as metal chelator thereby reducing the toxicity of metals to the plant. Findings suggest that plantation of J. curcas may be promoted in metal contaminated soils, degraded soils or wasteland suitably after amending with organic waste.

  14. Differential antioxidative enzyme responses of Jatropha curcas L. to chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Phani; Sharma, Jitendra; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2010-08-15

    Chromium (Cr) tolerant and accumulation capability of Jatropha curcas L. was tested in Cr spiked soil amended with biosludge and biofertilizer. Plants were cultivated in soils containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) of Cr for one year with and without amendment. Plant tissue analysis showed that combined application of biosludge and biofertilizer could significantly reduce Cr uptake and boost the plant biomass, whereas biofertilizer alone did not affect the uptake and plant growth. Antioxidative responses of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased with increasing Cr concentration in plant. Hyperactivity of the CAT and GST indicated that antioxidant enzymes played an important role in protecting the plant from Cr toxicity. However, APX took a little part in detoxification of H(2)O(2) due to its sensitivity to Cr. Therefore, reduced APX activity was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH) activity was recorded in plant grown on/above 100 mg kg(-1) of Cr in soil. The study concludes that J. curcas could grow under chromium stress. Furthermore, the results encouraged that J. curcas is a suitable candidate for the restoration of Cr contaminated soils with the concomitant application of biosludge and biofertilizer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Random Feature Maps for Dot Product Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Kar, Purushottam

    2012-01-01

    Approximating non-linear kernels using feature maps has gained a lot of interest in recent years due to applications in reducing training and testing times of SVM classifiers and other kernel based learning algorithms. We extend this line of work and present low distortion embeddings for dot product kernels into linear Euclidean spaces. We base our results on a classical result in harmonic analysis characterizing all dot product kernels and use it to define randomized feature maps into explicit low dimensional Euclidean spaces in which the native dot product provides an approximation to the dot product kernel with high confidence.

  16. Testing Infrastructure for Operating System Kernel Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Maxwell; Karlsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Testing is an important part of system development, and to test effectively we require knowledge of the internal state of the system under test. Testing an operating system kernel is a challenge as it is the operating system that typically provides access to this internal state information. Multi......-core kernels pose an even greater challenge due to concurrency and their shared kernel state. In this paper, we present a testing framework that addresses these challenges by running the operating system in a virtual machine, and using virtual machine introspection to both communicate with the kernel...... and obtain information about the system. We have also developed an in-kernel testing API that we can use to develop a suite of unit tests in the kernel. We are using our framework for for the development of our own multi-core research kernel....

  17. Speech Enhancement Using Kernel and Normalized Kernel Affine Projection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolimera Ravi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the speech signal enhancement using Kernel Affine ProjectionAlgorithm (KAPA and Normalized KAPA. The removal of background noise is very important in manyapplications like speech recognition, telephone conversations, hearing aids, forensic, etc. Kernel adaptivefilters shown good performance for removal of noise. If the evaluation of background noise is more slowlythan the speech, i.e., noise signal is more stationary than the speech, we can easily estimate the noiseduring the pauses in speech. Otherwise it is more difficult to estimate the noise which results indegradation of speech. In order to improve the quality and intelligibility of speech, unlike time andfrequency domains, we can process the signal in new domain like Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space(RKHS for high dimensional to yield more powerful nonlinear extensions. For experiments, we have usedthe database of noisy speech corpus (NOIZEUS. From the results, we observed the removal noise in RKHShas great performance in signal to noise ratio values in comparison with conventional adaptive filters.

  18. Progeny evaluation of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata with comparison to bioproductivity and biodiesel parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod Kumar Patil; Prithviraj Bhandare; Pramod B. Kulkarni; G. R. Naik

    2015-01-01

    Progeny studies of Jatropha curcas and Pong-amia pinnata were carried with respect to bioproductivity, pod and seed characters which is one of the selection meth-ods in tree improvement programmes. Variations in bio-productivity and biodiesel parameters of both the plants were compared every 6 months for 4 years of investigation and analyzed by analysis of variance and correlation coefficient by Pearson’s method using software Graphpad instat 3.06 (for Windows and Mac). P. pinnata has better germination rate (71.4%), 100 pod weight (PW) (311.59 g) and 100 seed weight (SW) (173.46 g) as compared to J. curcas for ger-mination rate (43.2%), 100 PW (111.29 g) and 100 SW (67.46 g). P. pinnata has strong correlation for plant height to canopy growth (CG) (0.948), collar diameter (CD) (0.994), number of branches per plant (NBP) (0.995) and to number of leaves per branch (NLB) (0.862) as compared to J. curcas which showed good correlation among plant height to CG (0.976), CD (0.970), NBP (0.988), NLB (0.920) and to number of pods per branch (0.657). However, J. curcas depicted negative correlation for pod breadth to seed length (SL) (-0.447), seed breadth (-0.248) and to seed thickness (ST) (-0.364) and among the 100 PW to SL (-0.199), ST (-0.220) and to 100 SW (-0.704). About 4 kg of P. pinnata seeds were required for each liter of crude oil which yields 896 ml of biodiesel on transesterification as compared to 5.66 kg of J. curcas seeds for a liter of crude oil, producing about 663 ml of biodiesel. The quality of biodiesel meets the major specification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards for biodiesel. The crude glyc-erin and seed cake obtained as byproduct during biodiesel production were also measured which can be purified and used in composting, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries.

  19. PLAGAS POTENCIALES DEL CULTIVO DE Jatropha curcas L., EN EL OCCIDENTE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA POTENTIAL PEST OF Jatropha curcas L. CROP IN WESTERN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cristóbal Yepes Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se da información sobre la biología, comportamiento, hábitos e importancia económica de las chinches Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, 1852 (Hemiptera: Coreidae y Agonosoma trilineatum (Fabricius, 1781 (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae y se advierte sobre su presencia en una parcela de Jatropha curcas establecida en Santa Fe de Antioquia. Además, se halló que la pringamosa, Echidoscolus rubulosus es el hospedero silvestre de la segunda especie, en este ecosistema de bosque seco tropical. Se considera que ambos artrópodos podrían ser plagas potenciales del cultivo de esta oleaginosa en la región del occidente de Antioquia.Abstract. This paper provides information about the biology, the behavior, the habits and the economic importance of both the Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, 1852 (Hemiptera: Coreidae bug and Agonosoma trilineatum (Fabricius, 1781 (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae bug. We warn about the discovery of these insects in a parcel of J. curcas, established in Santa Fe de Antioquia. We also found that the Pringamosa plant, Echidoscolus rubulosus, is the wild host of the second specie in this tropical dry forest ecosystem. Both arthropods might be considered as potential pests of the oilseed crop in this region of western Antioquia.

  20. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  1. The quality of meal elements for professional prepared meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    Meal elements are convenience products which are partially prepared meal components to be used in professional kitchens. Examples are meat, vegetables or fish which are preprepared for example by heat-treatment before distribution to the professional kitchens. The pre-fried vegetables and meat can...... robust against freezing, thawing and reheating without excessive drip losses as observed from raw or blanched vegetables. The results show that the pre-fried vegetables have a potential to be used as meal elements for professional prepared meals....... for examples be used as ingredients in hot or cold dishes. We have evaluated the quality of several kinds of pre-fried vegetables. The vegetables were prepared in pilot plan using a continuous stir-frying process, frozen and analysis during the thawing period. The results show that the shelf life determined...

  2. Production of additives from Jatropha Curcas L. methyl esther as a way to improve diesel engine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silitonga, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Medan State Polytechnic (Indonesia)], email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id, email: a_atabani2@msn.com; Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, (Indonesia); Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Ghofur, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University (Indonesia); Abdullahe [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University (Indonesia)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays we are searching for ideal alternative fuels in order to reduce harmful gas emissions and improve air quality. And many kinds of bio-diesel have been proposed. This paper introduces a bio-diesel converted from the oil of Jatropha curcas L. through a series of physical and chemical processes. This bio-diesel, which has a high cetane number, is better adapted than diesel or other, edible, vegetable oils to be an ideal alternative fuel. Moreover, the additive promotes the physico-chemical characteristics of Jatropha curcas methyl ester, further enhancing its desirability as a substitute for diesel oil. This paper analyzes and reports the results of a laboratory-scale investigation of the feasibility of blending diesel with an additive produced from Jatropha curcas methyl ester. It finds that this additive can improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions.

  3. Nonlinear Deep Kernel Learning for Image Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Mingyuan; Sahbi, Hichem

    2017-02-08

    Multiple kernel learning (MKL) is a widely used technique for kernel design. Its principle consists in learning, for a given support vector classifier, the most suitable convex (or sparse) linear combination of standard elementary kernels. However, these combinations are shallow and often powerless to capture the actual similarity between highly semantic data, especially for challenging classification tasks such as image annotation. In this paper, we redefine multiple kernels using deep multi-layer networks. In this new contribution, a deep multiple kernel is recursively defined as a multi-layered combination of nonlinear activation functions, each one involves a combination of several elementary or intermediate kernels, and results into a positive semi-definite deep kernel. We propose four different frameworks in order to learn the weights of these networks: supervised, unsupervised, kernel-based semisupervised and Laplacian-based semi-supervised. When plugged into support vector machines (SVMs), the resulting deep kernel networks show clear gain, compared to several shallow kernels for the task of image annotation. Extensive experiments and analysis on the challenging ImageCLEF photo annotation benchmark, the COREL5k database and the Banana dataset validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  5. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest serving size or children's size. YOUR DIABETES CARE TEAM IS THERE TO HELP YOU In the beginning, meal planning may be overwhelming. But it will become easier as your knowledge grows about foods and their effects on your ...

  6. Nonlinear projection trick in kernel methods: an alternative to the kernel trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Nojun

    2013-12-01

    In kernel methods such as kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machines, the so called kernel trick is used to avoid direct calculations in a high (virtually infinite) dimensional kernel space. In this brief, based on the fact that the effective dimensionality of a kernel space is less than the number of training samples, we propose an alternative to the kernel trick that explicitly maps the input data into a reduced dimensional kernel space. This is easily obtained by the eigenvalue decomposition of the kernel matrix. The proposed method is named as the nonlinear projection trick in contrast to the kernel trick. With this technique, the applicability of the kernel methods is widened to arbitrary algorithms that do not use the dot product. The equivalence between the kernel trick and the nonlinear projection trick is shown for several conventional kernel methods. In addition, we extend PCA-L1, which uses L1-norm instead of L2-norm (or dot product), into a kernel version and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Theory of reproducing kernels and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saitoh, Saburou

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a large extension of the general theory of reproducing kernels published by N. Aronszajn in 1950, with many concrete applications. In Chapter 1, many concrete reproducing kernels are first introduced with detailed information. Chapter 2 presents a general and global theory of reproducing kernels with basic applications in a self-contained way. Many fundamental operations among reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces are dealt with. Chapter 2 is the heart of this book. Chapter 3 is devoted to the Tikhonov regularization using the theory of reproducing kernels with applications to numerical and practical solutions of bounded linear operator equations. In Chapter 4, the numerical real inversion formulas of the Laplace transform are presented by applying the Tikhonov regularization, where the reproducing kernels play a key role in the results. Chapter 5 deals with ordinary differential equations; Chapter 6 includes many concrete results for various fundamental partial differential equations. In Chapt...

  8. Filters, reproducing kernel, and adaptive meshfree method

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Chen, J.-S.; Lu, H.

    Reproducing kernel, with its intrinsic feature of moving averaging, can be utilized as a low-pass filter with scale decomposition capability. The discrete convolution of two nth order reproducing kernels with arbitrary support size in each kernel results in a filtered reproducing kernel function that has the same reproducing order. This property is utilized to separate the numerical solution into an unfiltered lower order portion and a filtered higher order portion. As such, the corresponding high-pass filter of this reproducing kernel filter can be used to identify the locations of high gradient, and consequently serves as an operator for error indication in meshfree analysis. In conjunction with the naturally conforming property of the reproducing kernel approximation, a meshfree adaptivity method is also proposed.

  9. Kernel principal component analysis for change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Morton, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    region acquired at two different time points. If change over time does not dominate the scene, the projection of the original two bands onto the second eigenvector will show change over time. In this paper a kernel version of PCA is used to carry out the analysis. Unlike ordinary PCA, kernel PCA...... with a Gaussian kernel successfully finds the change observations in a case where nonlinearities are introduced artificially....

  10. Tame Kernels of Pure Cubic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yun CHENG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study the p-rank of the tame kernels of pure cubic fields.In particular,we prove that for a fixed positive integer m,there exist infinitely many pure cubic fields whose 3-rank of the tame kernel equal to m.As an application,we determine the 3-rank of their tame kernels for some special pure cubic fields.

  11. Kernel Factor Analysis Algorithm with Varimax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Guoen; Jin Weidong; Zhang Gexiang

    2006-01-01

    Kernal factor analysis (KFA) with varimax was proposed by using Mercer kernel function which can map the data in the original space to a high-dimensional feature space, and was compared with the kernel principle component analysis (KPCA). The results show that the best error rate in handwritten digit recognition by kernel factor analysis with varimax (4.2%) was superior to KPCA (4.4%). The KFA with varimax could more accurately image handwritten digit recognition.

  12. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří

    2016-02-12

    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  13. Efficient classification for additive kernel SVMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Subhransu; Berg, Alexander C; Malik, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    We show that a class of nonlinear kernel SVMs admits approximate classifiers with runtime and memory complexity that is independent of the number of support vectors. This class of kernels, which we refer to as additive kernels, includes widely used kernels for histogram-based image comparison like intersection and chi-squared kernels. Additive kernel SVMs can offer significant improvements in accuracy over linear SVMs on a wide variety of tasks while having the same runtime, making them practical for large-scale recognition or real-time detection tasks. We present experiments on a variety of datasets, including the INRIA person, Daimler-Chrysler pedestrians, UIUC Cars, Caltech-101, MNIST, and USPS digits, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for efficient evaluation of SVMs with additive kernels. Since its introduction, our method has become integral to various state-of-the-art systems for PASCAL VOC object detection/image classification, ImageNet Challenge, TRECVID, etc. The techniques we propose can also be applied to settings where evaluation of weighted additive kernels is required, which include kernelized versions of PCA, LDA, regression, k-means, as well as speeding up the inner loop of SVM classifier training algorithms.

  14. Toxicity, tunneling and feeding behavior of the termite, Coptotermes vastator, in sand treated with oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2009-01-01

    Oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), was evaluated in the laboratory for its barrier and repellent activity against the Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The study showed that J. curcas oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality in C. vastator. Behavior of termites exposed to sand treated with J. curcas oil indicated that it is toxic or repellent to C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds, were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite.

  15. A method for seedling recovery in Jatropha curcas after cryogenic exposure of the seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de C. Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Actually, the germplasm of Jatropha spp. is conserved as whole plants in field collections. Under this storage method, the genetic resources are exposed to disease, pest and natural hazards such as human error, drought and weather damage. Besides, field genebanks are costly to maintain and with important requirements of trained personnel. Thus, the development of efficient techniques to ensure its safe conservation and regeneration is therefore of paramount importance. In this work we describe a method for Jatropha curcas seeds cryoexposure and seedling recovery after thawed. In a first experiment, an efficient protocol for in vitro plant recovery was carried out using zygotic embryo or seeds with or without coat. In a second experiment, desiccated seeds with or without coat were exposed to liquid nitrogen and evaluated after cryoexposure. Germination percentages were variable among treatments, and seeds demonstrated tolerance to liquid nitrogen exposure under certain conditions. Seeds of J. curcas presented up to 99.6% germination after seed coat removal. Seeds with coat cultured in vitro did not germinate, and were 60% contaminated. The germination of the zygotic embryos was significantly higher in the ½ MS medium (93.1% than in WPM medium (76.2%, but from zygotic embryo, abnormal seedlings reached up to 99%. Seeds with coat exposed to liquid nitrogen showed 60% germination in culture after coat removal with good plant growth, and seeds cryopreserved without coat presented 82% germination, but seedlings showed a reduced vigor and a significant increase in abnormal plants. Seeds cultured in vitro with coat did not germinate, independently of cryoexposure or not. This study reports the first successful in vitro seedling recovery methodology for Jatropha curcas seeds, after a cryopreservation treatment, and is recommended as an efficient procedure for in vitro plant recovery, when seeds are conserved in germplasm banks by low or cryotemperatures.

  16. Growth and Physiological Response of Jatropha Interspecific Hybrid (Jatropha curcas x J. integerrima under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhimas Handhi Putranto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrid of Jatropha curcas x J. integerrima is expected to answer the low oil yield problem of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.. However, as a novel invention, research concerning on Jatropha interspecific hybrid is still limited especially in the aspect of its adaptability to unfavorable environment such as salt stress condition. It is interesting to know how Jatropha interspecific hybrid responses to salt stress condition due to the moderate salt tolerance ability of its mother plant (J. curcas L.. The objectives of this study were to compare the growth and physiological response of interspecific hybrid and non-hybrid Jatropha under salt stress. Three varieties of both interspecific hybrid and non-hybrid Jatropha seedling were exposed with 3 levels of sodium chloride treatment in Hoagland media solution which are 2.0 (control, 8.0, and 16.0 dS m-1 for 7 weeks. The parameters measured include plant height, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, specific leaf area, chlorophyll content (SPAD Index, leaf water potential, and leaf solute concentration. V2 (interspecific hybrid showed the highest potential as moderate salt tolerant variety among experimental Jatropha varieties due to its increasing trend of leaf number, dry weight, and total leaf area at moderate salinity level   (8 dS m-1. KUBP 35 and KUBP 40 showed the best growth performance under salt stress among experimental Jatropha varieties, but its potential to be moderate salt tolerant variety was still lower than V2 variety. The solute concentration, osmotic potential, and turgor potential of both interspecific hybrid (V2 and non-hybrid variety (KUBP 35 and KUBP 40 showed an increasing pattern which could be implied as an adaptive response to salt stress. This study has showed that Jatropha interspecific hybrid might have an adaptive physiological response to salt stress and could be considered as potential moderate salt tolerant variety under salt stress.

  17. Molecular hydrodynamics from memory kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Lesnicki, Dominika; Carof, Antoine; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The memory kernel for a tagged particle in a fluid, computed from molecular dynamics simulations, decays algebraically as $t^{-3/2}$. We show how the hydrodynamic Basset-Boussinesq force naturally emerges from this long-time tail and generalize the concept of hydrodynamic added mass. This mass term is negative in the present case of a molecular solute, at odds with incompressible hydrodynamics predictions. We finally discuss the various contributions to the friction, the associated time scales and the cross-over between the molecular and hydrodynamic regimes upon increasing the solute radius.

  18. Hilbertian kernels and spline functions

    CERN Document Server

    Atteia, M

    1992-01-01

    In this monograph, which is an extensive study of Hilbertian approximation, the emphasis is placed on spline functions theory. The origin of the book was an effort to show that spline theory parallels Hilbertian Kernel theory, not only for splines derived from minimization of a quadratic functional but more generally for splines considered as piecewise functions type. Being as far as possible self-contained, the book may be used as a reference, with information about developments in linear approximation, convex optimization, mechanics and partial differential equations.

  19. Fenologia reprodutiva e produÃÃo de sementes de Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Francisca Michelon Herzog

    2012-01-01

    O pinhÃo-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) pertencente à famÃlia Euphorbiaceae, à nativo das AmÃricas, apresenta-se disseminado nas regiÃes tropicais e subtropicais do globo e amplamente distribuÃdo nos continentes AsiÃtico e Africano. Esta espÃcie tem as sementes como principal forma de dispersÃo. De modo geral, sabe-se que o material reprodutivo (sementes e frutos) à bastante influenciado pelas caracterÃsticas das plantas genitoras, pelas condiÃÃes climÃticas do local em que atua sobre o desenvolv...

  20. Fenologia reprodutiva e produÃÃo de sementes de Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Francisca Michelon Herzog

    2012-01-01

    O pinhÃo-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) pertencente à famÃlia Euphorbiaceae, à nativo das AmÃricas, apresenta-se disseminado nas regiÃes tropicais e subtropicais do globo e amplamente distribuÃdo nos continentes AsiÃtico e Africano. Esta espÃcie tem as sementes como principal forma de dispersÃo. De modo geral, sabe-se que o material reprodutivo (sementes e frutos) à bastante influenciado pelas caracterÃsticas das plantas genitoras, pelas condiÃÃes climÃticas do local em que atua sobre o desenvolv...

  1. Curcacycline A--a novel cyclic octapeptide isolated from the latex of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, A J; Horsten, S F; Kettenes-van den Bosch, J J; Kroes, B H; Beukelman, C J; Leeflang, B R; Labadie, R P

    1995-01-30

    From the latex of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) a novel cyclic octapeptide was isolated, which we named curcacycline A. The compound was found to contain one threonine, one valine, two glycine, and four leucine residues. By two-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy (HOHAHA and ROESY), its sequence was determined to be Gly1-Leu2-Leu3-Gly4-Thr5-Val6-Leu7-Leu8-Gly1+ ++. Curcacycline A displays a moderate inhibition of (i) classical pathway activity of human complement and (ii) proliferation of human T-cells.

  2. Utilization of palm empty fruit bunch for the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, Zahira; Sukarman, Irwan Sukma Bin; Narayanan, Binitha; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Ismail, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Transesterification reaction of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of ash generated from Palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a heterogeneous catalyzed process. The ash was doped with KOH by impregnation to achieve a potassium level of 20 wt.%. Under optimum conditions for the EFB-catalyzed (65 °C, oil/methanol ratio of 15, 90 min, 20 wt.% EFB ash catalyst) and the KOH-EFB-catalyzed reactions (65 °C, oil/methanol ratio of 15, 45 min, 15 wt.% of KOH doped EFB ash), biodiesel (>98%) with specifications higher than those stipulated by European biodiesel quality standard EN 14214 was obtained.

  3. Producción de biodiesel a partir de cultivos alternativos: experiencia con Jatropha curcas

    OpenAIRE

    Huerga, Ignacio Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Fil: Huerga, Ignacio Roberto. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Facultad de Ingeniería Química; Argentina. En la búsqueda de nuevos cultivos para producción de biodiesel, Jatropha Curcas surge como una alternativa a aquellos que se utilizan actualmente. Para evaluar su factibilidad del cultivo, se utilizaron muestras de semillas provenientes de la localidad de Yuto (Jujuy, Argentina), clasificadas en función del período de cosecha y estado de maduración del fruto. La extracción d...

  4. Differentiable Kernels in Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kästner, M.; Nebel, D.; Riedel, M.; Biehl, M.; Villmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we investigate the application of differentiable kernel for generalized matrix learning vector quantization as an alternative kernel-based classifier, which additionally provides classification dependent data visualization. We show that the concept of differentiable kernels allo

  5. Kernel current source density method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potworowski, Jan; Jakuczun, Wit; Lȩski, Szymon; Wójcik, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Local field potentials (LFP), the low-frequency part of extracellular electrical recordings, are a measure of the neural activity reflecting dendritic processing of synaptic inputs to neuronal populations. To localize synaptic dynamics, it is convenient, whenever possible, to estimate the density of transmembrane current sources (CSD) generating the LFP. In this work, we propose a new framework, the kernel current source density method (kCSD), for nonparametric estimation of CSD from LFP recorded from arbitrarily distributed electrodes using kernel methods. We test specific implementations of this framework on model data measured with one-, two-, and three-dimensional multielectrode setups. We compare these methods with the traditional approach through numerical approximation of the Laplacian and with the recently developed inverse current source density methods (iCSD). We show that iCSD is a special case of kCSD. The proposed method opens up new experimental possibilities for CSD analysis from existing or new recordings on arbitrarily distributed electrodes (not necessarily on a grid), which can be obtained in extracellular recordings of single unit activity with multiple electrodes.

  6. Filtering algorithms using shiftable kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhury, Kunal Narayan

    2011-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated in [4][arxiv:1105.4204] that the non-linear bilateral filter \\cite{Tomasi} can be efficiently implemented using an O(1) or constant-time algorithm. At the heart of this algorithm was the idea of approximating the Gaussian range kernel of the bilateral filter using trigonometric functions. In this letter, we explain how the idea in [4] can be extended to few other linear and non-linear filters [18,21,2]. While some of these filters have received a lot of attention in recent years, they are known to be computationally intensive. To extend the idea in \\cite{Chaudhury2011}, we identify a central property of trigonometric functions, called shiftability, that allows us to exploit the redundancy inherent in the filtering operations. In particular, using shiftable kernels, we show how certain complex filtering can be reduced to simply that of computing the moving sum of a stack of images. Each image in the stack is obtained through an elementary pointwise transform of the input image. Thi...

  7. The potential of white-rot fungi to degrade phorbol esters of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, de C.R.M.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Nunes, F.M.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of solid-state cultivation, with three white-rot fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma resinaceum and Phlebia rufa), to decrease phorbol esters concentration of Jatropha curcas L. was evaluated in this study. Incubation was conducted in 250¿mL Erlenmeyer flasks without agitation at 28°C

  8. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  9. The biomedical significance of the phytochemical, proximate and mineral compositions of the leaf, stem bark and root of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamgba Agbor Asuk

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The outcome of this study suggests that the leaf, stem bark and root of J. curcas have very good medicinal potentials, meet the standard requirements for drug formulation and serve as good sources of energy and nutrients except for the presence of some anti-nutritional elements predominant in the leaf.

  10. Dilute H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment to enhance enzymatic digestibility of Jatropha curcas fruit hull for ethanol fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Kootstra, Maarten; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2012-01-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of the Jatropha curcas fruit hull at high temperatures (140°C to 180°C) performed in a 110-mL stainless steel reactor was investigated to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of its lignocellulosic components. Carbohydrates accounted for 43% of the dry matter of t

  11. The use of Jatropha curcas to achieve a self sufficient water distribution system: A case study in rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Alexandra

    The use of Jatropha curcas as a source of oil for fueling water pumps holds promise for rural communities struggling to achieve water security in arid climates. The potential for use in developing communities as an affordable, sustainable fuel source has been highly recommended for many reasons: it is easily propagated, drought resistant, grows rapidly, and has high-oil-content seeds, as well as medicinal and economic potential. This study uses a rural community in Senegal, West Africa, and calculates at what level of Jatropha curcas production the village is able to be self-sufficient in fueling their water system to meet drinking, sanitation and irrigation requirements. The current water distribution system was modelled to represent irrigation requirements for nine different Jatropha curcas cultivation and processing schemes. It was found that a combination of using recycled greywater for irrigation and a mechanical press to maximize oil recovered from the seeds of mature Jatropha curcas trees, would be able to operate the water system with no diesel required.

  12. Jatrophidin I, a cyclic peptide from Brazilian Jatropha curcas L.: isolation, characterization, conformational studies and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altei, Wanessa F; Picchi, Douglas G; Abissi, Barbara M; Giesel, Guilherme M; Flausino, Otavio; Reboud-Ravaux, Michèle; Verli, Hugo; Crusca, Edson; Silveira, Edilberto R; Cilli, Eduardo M; Bolzani, Vanderlan S

    2014-11-01

    A cyclic peptide, jatrophidin I, was isolated from the latex of Jatropha curcas L. Its structure was elucidated by extensive 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, with additional conformational studies performed using Molecular Dynamics/Simulated Annealing (MD/SA). Jatrophidin I had moderate protease inhibition activity when compared with pepstatin A; however, the peptide was inactive in antimalarial, cytotoxic and antioxidant assays.

  13. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Sorption of 4-Nitrophenol on Activated Kaolinitic Clay and Jatropha Curcas Activated Carbon from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsudeen Olanrewaju Azeez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption behaviour of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP on activated kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas activated carbon was investigated. The kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas were activated with 1 M HNO3 and 0.5 M NaOH respectively and were characterized by XRF, XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. The effects of processing parameters, such as initial 4-NP concentration, temperature, pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption process were investigated. The results obtained showed that Jatropha curcas activated carbon exhibited higher performance than activated kaolinitic clay for the removal of 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solution. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were used to describe the adsorption isotherms. The adsorption data were best fitted with Freundlich model. The experimental data of the two adsorbate-adsorbent systems fitted very well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model with r2 values of 0.999 respectively. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. The results revealed that the adsorption of 4-nitrophenol onto both adsorbents were exothermic processes and spontaneous for Jatropha curcas activated carbon but non spontaneous for activated kaolinitic clay.

  14. Application of metal triflate catalysts for the trans-esterification of Jatropha curcas L. oil with methanol and higher alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Louis; Rasrendra, Carolus B.; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on the application of metal triflate salts for the (trans-) esterification of fatty esters (triolein, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate), fatty acid (oleic acid), as well as Jatropha curcas L. oil with methanol and higher alcohols (ethanol, n-propanol, iso-pr

  15. The potential of white-rot fungi to degrade phorbol esters of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, de C.R.M.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Nunes, F.M.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of solid-state cultivation, with three white-rot fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma resinaceum and Phlebia rufa), to decrease phorbol esters concentration of Jatropha curcas L. was evaluated in this study. Incubation was conducted in 250¿mL Erlenmeyer flasks without agitation at 28°C

  16. Kernel parameter dependence in spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2010-01-01

    feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply a kernel version of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) [7, 8] analysis to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemistry data from South Greenland and illustrate the dependence...

  17. Improving the Bandwidth Selection in Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Björn; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the current bandwidth selection methods in kernel equating and propose a method based on Silverman's rule of thumb for selecting the bandwidth parameters. In kernel equating, the bandwidth parameters have previously been obtained by minimizing a penalty function. This minimization process has been criticized by practitioners…

  18. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Li, Rongchun; Dou, Yong; Liang, Zhengfa; Lv, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.

  19. Generalized Derivative Based Kernelized Learning Vector Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleif, Frank-Michael; Villmann, Thomas; Hammer, Barbara; Schneider, Petra; Biehl, Michael; Fyfe, Colin; Tino, Peter; Charles, Darryl; Garcia-Osoro, Cesar; Yin, Hujun

    2010-01-01

    We derive a novel derivative based version of kernelized Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (KGLVQ) as an effective, easy to interpret, prototype based and kernelized classifier. It is called D-KGLVQ and we provide generalization error bounds, experimental results on real world data, showing t

  20. PALM KERNEL SHELL AS AGGREGATE FOR LIGHT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cement, sand, gravel andpalm kernel shells respectively gave the highest compressive strength of ... Keywords: Aggregate, Cement, Concrete, Sand, Palm Kernel Shell. ... delivered to the jOb Slte in a plastic ... structures, breakwaters, piers and docks .... related to cement content at a .... sheet and the summary is shown.

  1. Panel data specifications in nonparametric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    parametric panel data estimators to analyse the production technology of Polish crop farms. The results of our nonparametric kernel regressions generally differ from the estimates of the parametric models but they only slightly depend on the choice of the kernel functions. Based on economic reasoning, we...

  2. Hospitality within hospital meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    Hospital meals and their role in nutritional care have been studied primarily from a life and natural science perspective. This article takes a different approach and explores the idea of hospitality inspired by Jacques Derrida’s work on the ontology of hospitality. By drawing on ethnographic...... fieldwork in a Danish hospital, hospitality practices were studied using a socio-material assemblage approach. The study showed that rethinking the meal event could change the wards into temporary “pop-up-restaurants,” transcending the hospital context and providing a scene for shifting host...... and management involved in hospital food service and in nutritional care to work more systematically with the environment for improved hospital meal experiences in the future...

  3. Kernel Model Applied in Kernel Direct Discriminant Analysis for the Recognition of Face with Nonlinear Variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A kernel-based discriminant analysis method called kernel direct discriminant analysis is employed, which combines the merit of direct linear discriminant analysis with that of kernel trick. In order to demonstrate its better robustness to the complex and nonlinear variations of real face images, such as illumination, facial expression, scale and pose variations, experiments are carried out on the Olivetti Research Laboratory, Yale and self-built face databases. The results indicate that in contrast to kernel principal component analysis and kernel linear discriminant analysis, the method can achieve lower (7%) error rate using only a very small set of features. Furthermore, a new corrected kernel model is proposed to improve the recognition performance. Experimental results confirm its superiority (1% in terms of recognition rate) to other polynomial kernel models.

  4. Parameter-Free Spectral Kernel Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Due to the growing ubiquity of unlabeled data, learning with unlabeled data is attracting increasing attention in machine learning. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised kernel learning method which can seamlessly combine manifold structure of unlabeled data and Regularized Least-Squares (RLS) to learn a new kernel. Interestingly, the new kernel matrix can be obtained analytically with the use of spectral decomposition of graph Laplacian matrix. Hence, the proposed algorithm does not require any numerical optimization solvers. Moreover, by maximizing kernel target alignment on labeled data, we can also learn model parameters automatically with a closed-form solution. For a given graph Laplacian matrix, our proposed method does not need to tune any model parameter including the tradeoff parameter in RLS and the balance parameter for unlabeled data. Extensive experiments on ten benchmark datasets show that our proposed two-stage parameter-free spectral kernel learning algorithm can obtain comparable...

  5. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  6. Meals, art, and artistic value

    OpenAIRE

    John, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The notion of a meal is explored in relation to questions of art status and artistic value. Meals are argued not to be works of art, but to have the capacity for artistic value. These claims are used to respond to Dominic Lopes?s arguments in Beyond Art that demote artistic value in favour of the values that emerge from specific kinds of art. A conception of artistic value that involves ?taking reflective charge? of the possibilities for goodness available in an activity is sketched.

  7. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallare, Arnold V; Ruiz, Paulo Lorenzo S; Cariño, J C Earl D

    2014-05-01

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction.

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Gynoecious and Monoecious Plants Identifies Regulatory Networks Controlling Sex Determination in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao-Sheng; Pan, Bang-Zhen; Fu, Qiantang; Tao, Yan-Bin; Martínez-Herrera, Jorge; Niu, Longjian; Ni, Jun; Dong, Yuling; Zhao, Mei-Li; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Most germplasms of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas are monoecious. A gynoecious genotype of J. curcas was found, whose male flowers are aborted at early stage of inflorescence development. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of transition from monoecious to gynoecious plants, a comparative transcriptome analysis between gynoecious and monoecious inflorescences were performed. A total of 3,749 genes differentially expressed in two developmental stages of inflorescences were identified. Among them, 32 genes were involved in floral development, and 70 in phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Six genes homologous to KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX GENE 6 (KNAT6), MYC2, SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE 5 (SRS5), SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP), TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), and TASSELSEED2 (TS2), which control floral development, were considered as candidate regulators that may be involved in sex differentiation in J. curcas. Abscisic acid, auxin, gibberellin, and jasmonate biosynthesis were lower, whereas cytokinin biosynthesis was higher in gynoecious than that in monoecious inflorescences. Moreover, the exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3) promoted perianth development in male flowers and partly prevented pistil development in female flowers to generate neutral flowers in gynoecious inflorescences. The arrest of stamen primordium at early development stage probably causes the abortion of male flowers to generate gynoecious individuals. These results suggest that some floral development genes and phytohormone signaling pathways orchestrate the process of sex determination in J. curcas. Our study provides a basic framework for the regulation networks of sex determination in J. curcas and will be helpful for elucidating the evolution of the plant reproductive system.

  9. Cloning and expression analysis of carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase from Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wu-Wei; Gao, Shun; Wang, Sheng-Hua; Zhu, Jin-Qiu; Xu, Ying; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang

    2010-01-01

    A full-length cDNA of the carboxyltransferase (accA) gene of acetyl-coenzym A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase from Jatropha curcas was cloned and sequenced. The gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1149 bp encodes a polypeptide of 383 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 41.9 kDa. Utilizing fluorogenic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the expression levels of the accA gene in leaves and fruits at early, middle and late stages under pH 7.0/8.0 and light/darkness stress were investigated. The expression levels of the accA gene in leaves at early, middle and late stages increased significantly under pH 8.0 stress compared to pH 7.0. Similarly, the expression levels in fruits showed a significant increase under darkness condition compared to the control. Under light stress, the expression levels in the fruits at early, middle and late stages showed the largest fluctuations compared to those of the control. These findings suggested that the expression levels of the accA gene are closely related to the growth conditions and developmental stages in the leaves and fruits of Jatropha curcas.

  10. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Wang, Xiao-teng; Gan, Cai-ling; Fang, Yan-qiong; Zhang, Meng

    2012-09-01

    To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N+ with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N+ beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 × 1016 to 15 × 1016 ions cm-2 severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 × 1016 ion cm-2, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 × 1016 ions cm-2 may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  11. Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha curcas is induced by stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wei Qin; Huang Ming-Xing; Xu Ying; Zhang Xin-Shen; Chen Fang

    2005-06-01

    The open reading frame (ORF) encoding curcin 2 was cloned from total genomic and cDNA of Jatropha curcas leaves, which were treated by drought, temperature stress and fungal infection, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR amplification. The ORF has 927 bp that encodes a precursor protein of 309 amino acid residues. There are high similarities with curcin and the conserved domain of ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Antiserum to curcin recognized one band of 32 kDa on Western blot of the leaves treated by temperature stresses at 4°C and 50°C and by fungal infections of Pestalotia funerea, Curvularia lunata (Walk) Boed, Gibberelle zeae (Schw.) Petch. Two bands of 32 kDa and 65 kDa were recognized on Western blot of the leaves treated by 10%–40% polyethylene glycol (PEG). In addition, the 32 kDa band is nearly the molecular weight of curcin 2. This finding suggests that the protein of 32 kDa should be related to curcin 2. The presence of this protein molecular marker under stresses may provide an experimental foundation to study the stress proteins in J. curcas.

  12. Arabinogalactan protein cluster from Jatropha curcas seed embryo contains fasciclin, xylogen and LysM proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlbach, Maria; König, Simone; Mormann, Michael; Sendker, Jandirk; Hensel, Andreas

    2013-10-15

    An non-GPI-anchored AGP cluster (Y2) was isolated from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) composed of 4.8% polypeptides (mainly Ala, Ser, Gly, Hyp, Glu) and a carbohydrate moiety composed of Gal, Ara, GlcA, Rha, Man and GlcN. Besides the typical structural features of arabinogalactan proteins, typical N-glycan linker of the complex type (GlcNAc4Man3Gal2Fuc1Xyl1) were identified. O-glycosylation occurred mainly via Hyp and to a lesser extent via Thr and Ser. N-glycans from the complex type, carrying at the innermost GlcNAc at position O-3 one α-Fuc-residue, were also present. MS analysis of the tryptic digest assigned peptides of three major protein groups: fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins, xylogen-like proteins and LysM domain-containing proteins. They could not be separated further and it is indicated that various homologous protein forms co-exist. Histological investigation of J. curcas seeds revealed the presence of AGPs in the vessels of cotyledons and in the procambium ring of the embryo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of auxins and associated biochemical changes during clonal propagation of the biofuel plant - Jatropha curcas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, Sunita; Singh, S.P.; Kochhar, V.K. [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Rooting and sprouting behaviour of stem cuttings of biofuel plant Jatropha curcas and their performance under field conditions have been studied in relation to auxin application. Pretreatment with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) increased both the rooting and sprouting. Sprouting of buds on the cuttings preceded rooting. The rooting and sprouting in J. curcas was more with IBA than NAA. The endogenous auxin contents were found to increase almost 15 days prior to rooting, indicating that mobilization of auxin rather than the absolute contents of auxin may be involved in root initiation. Indole acetic acid oxidase (IAA-oxidase) seems to be involved for triggering and initiating the roots/root primordia, whereas peroxidase is involved in both root initiation and the elongation processes as supported by the peroxidase and IAA-oxidase isoenzyme analysis in the cuttings. The clonally propagated plants (cutting-raised plants) performed better in the field as compared to those raised from the seeds. The plants produced from auxin-treated cuttings produced fruits and seeds in the same year as compared to the plants raised from seeds or from untreated or control cuttings that did not produce any seeds in 1 year of this study. Jatropha plants in general produce seeds after 2-3 years. (author)

  14. Energy potential of biomass and charcoal of Jatropha curcas peel and pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas, are produced residues in the peel and of pie form. One alternative use of these residues is in the energy production. The present work analyzed the energy potential of the peel and the pie of Jatropha curcas in the following conditions: in natura and charcoal, determining: the moisture content (VITAL, 1997; the ash, fixed carbon and volatile matter (ABNT NBR 8112/86; the density and the gravimetric yield. The peel presented: moisture of 18,9%; density of 100kg/m3; volatile matter of 72,6%, fixed carbon of 13% and 14,4% of ashes and heat combustion of 3.641kcal/kg. The carbonized peel produced 38.1% of charcoal, with: 29% of volatile matter, 45% of fixed carbon and 25% of ashes; and heat combustion of 3.954kcal/kg. The pie presented: moisture of 2.41%, 601kg/m3 of density; volatile matter of 77.84%, fixed carbon 14.21% and 7,95% ashes and 5.122kcal/kg of heat combustion. In the carbonization of the pie, 32% of charcoal was produced containing: 18.27% of volatile matter, 71.29% of fixed carbon, 10.43% of ashes and heat combustion of 6.234kcal/kg. The high ashe contents are related to the fertilization of the plant.

  15. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein composition. A simple, efficient, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from petiole explants of non-toxic J. curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ). The best induction of shoot buds (57.61%), and number of shoot buds (4.98) per explant were obtained when in vitro petiole explants were placed horizontally on MS medium supplemented with 2.27 mu M TDZ. The Induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 mu M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 mu M 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA), and 5.5 mu M alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation and subsequent elongation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 mu M BA and 8.5 mu M IAA. The elongated shoots could be rooted on half-strength MS medium with 15 mu M IBA, 11.4 mu M IAA and 5.5 mu M NAA with more than 90% survival rate. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. KARAKTERISTIK PERTUMBUHAN JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L. YANG DITAMBAHKAN CENDAWAN ENDOFIT PADA LAHAN PASCA TAMBANG TIMAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmarayu P. Gedoan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activity caused canging in physical and chemical characteristic of the soil that were not suitable for growth of plants. The objective of this experiment was to study accessions of Jatropha curcas planted on post tin mining land which were given endophyte. This research was conducted in a Sinar Baru village TS 133, district of Bangka, Bangka Belitung province for field research conducted in May 2007 to April 2008. The experimentas a factorial experiment in the design of the randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot is 7 accessions consisting of: accession Madiun, Ponorogo, Jember, Dompu, Lampung, Bengkulu, andSukabumi, while the subplot of the land without giving endophyte fungal (control and the provision of endophyte fungal in baglog 250 g. Each experimental unit contained four plants per plot.The result showed that vegetative growth the highest for the former tin mining land given endophyte fungal vary in some accessions. Accession to the highest Sukabumi: plant height, branch number, plant dry weight, dry weight of the shoot, and root dry weight, the largest diameter have Jember accession, accession Dompu had the highest canopy diameter, and the accession of Lampung has the lowest ratio of shoot roots.Keywords: Jatropha curcas, accession, fungal endophyte

  17. Optimalisasi ekstraksi DNA jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas melalui pemilihan daun yang sesuai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EINSTIVINA NURYANDANI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Prayitno E, Nuryandani E. 2011. Optimalisasi ekstraksi DNA jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas melalui pemilihan daun yang sesuai. Bioteknologi 8: 24-31. Jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas L. mempunyai peran penting sebagai sumber bahan bakar nabati. Usaha pemuliaan tanaman ini secara molekuler sering terkendala sulitnya ekstraksi DNA. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui daun yang sesuai untuk digunakan sebagai sumber DNA. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada empat aksesi jarak pagar yaitu J1 dan J2 (Jawa Tengah, S1 (Sumatera Selatan, dan S2 (Bengkulu. Ekstraksi dilakukan pada daun pertama, ketiga, kelima, ketujuh, dan daun kuning dari setiap aksesi dengan metode Doyle and Doyle (1987 yang dimodifikasi. Kualitas dan kuantitas DNA hasil ekstraksi diketahui melalui visualisasi dengan pembanding DNA lambda, spektrofotometer UV-Vis pada panjang gelombang 260/280, dan pemotongan menggunakan enzim EcoRI. Hasil penelitiaan menunjukkan bahwa daun ketiga memadai untuk digunakan sebagai sumber DNA. Kuantitas DNA daun ketiga J1 (19,33 µg/mL, J2 (26,21 µg/mL, S1 (31,20 µg/mL, dan S2 (61,03 µg/mL. Sedangkan kemurniannya masing-masing yaitu 1,9063 (J11, 2,0162 (J2, 2,0116 (S1, dan 2,0856 (S2.

  18. Assessment of Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Potential of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Grown in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Teresa; Barreca, Davide; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L., no information is currently available on plants grown in pedoclimatic and soil conditions different from the autochthon regions. The aim of the present work was to characterize the antioxidant system developed by the plant under a new growing condition and to evaluate the polyphenol amount in a methanolic extract of leaves. Along with these analyses we have also tested the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities on lymphocytes. RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of flavonoids revealed a chromatographic profile dominated by the presence of flavone C-glucosydes. Vitexin is the most abundant identified compound followed by vicenin-2, stellarin-2, rhoifolin, and traces of isovitexin and isorhoifolin. Methanolic extract had high scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays tested and cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes exposed to tertz-buthylhydroperoxide. The results highlighted a well-defined mechanism of adaptation of the plant and a significant content of secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties, which are of interest for their potential uses, especially as a rich source of biologically active products. PMID:28335473

  19. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rincón-Rabanales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L. in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther. The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville and Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world.

  20. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  1. Molecular analysis of ARF1 expression profiles during development of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaobo; Lin, Fanrong; Lii, Yifan; Gou, Chunbao; Chen, Fang

    2011-03-01

    A cDNA clone designated arf1 was isolated from a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) endosperm cDNA library which encodes a small GTP-binding protein and has significant homology to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARF) in plants, animals and microbes. The cDNA contains an open reading frame that encodes a polypeptide of 181 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 20.7 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high homology to known ARFs from other organisms. The products of the arf1 obtained by overexpression in E. coli revealed the specific binding activity toward GTP. The expression of arf1 was observed in flowers, roots, stems and leaves as analyzed by RT-PCR, and its transcriptional level was highest in flowers. In particular, the accumulation of arf1 transcripts was different under various environmental stresses in seedlings. The results suggest that arf1 plays distinct physiological roles in Jatropha curcas cells.

  2. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Darwich Gassan; Björgell Ola; Lindstedt Sandra; Jönsson Jenny; Hlebowicz Joanna; Almér Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 ...

  3. Cramble meal: evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein content which provides potential a

  4. Emotions associated to mealtimes: Memorable meals and typical evening meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the current interest in food-related emotions in eating occasions. Previous research has studied contextual influences on food-related emotions, but the food products used as stimuli were single food items (i.e., chocolate brownie, fruit, potato crisps) and not meals. In

  5. Linkage mapping in the oilseed cropJatropha curcasL. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring ‘nontoxic’ provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F2 mappi...

  6. Heat-kernel approach for scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wen-Du

    2015-01-01

    An approach for solving scattering problems, based on two quantum field theory methods, the heat kernel method and the scattering spectral method, is constructed. This approach has a special advantage: it is not only one single approach; it is indeed a set of approaches for solving scattering problems. Concretely, we build a bridge between a scattering problem and the heat kernel method, so that each method of calculating heat kernels can be converted into a method of solving a scattering problem. As applications, we construct two approaches for solving scattering problems based on two heat-kernel expansions: the Seeley-DeWitt expansion and the covariant perturbation theory. In order to apply the heat kernel method to scattering problems, we also calculate two off-diagonal heat-kernel expansions in the frames of the Seeley-DeWitt expansion and the covariant perturbation theory, respectively. Moreover, as an alternative application of the relation between heat kernels and partial-wave phase shifts presented in...

  7. Ideal regularization for learning kernels from labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Binbin; Lai, Jianhuang; Shen, Lixin

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new form of regularization that is able to utilize the label information of a data set for learning kernels. The proposed regularization, referred to as ideal regularization, is a linear function of the kernel matrix to be learned. The ideal regularization allows us to develop efficient algorithms to exploit labels. Three applications of the ideal regularization are considered. Firstly, we use the ideal regularization to incorporate the labels into a standard kernel, making the resulting kernel more appropriate for learning tasks. Next, we employ the ideal regularization to learn a data-dependent kernel matrix from an initial kernel matrix (which contains prior similarity information, geometric structures, and labels of the data). Finally, we incorporate the ideal regularization to some state-of-the-art kernel learning problems. With this regularization, these learning problems can be formulated as simpler ones which permit more efficient solvers. Empirical results show that the ideal regularization exploits the labels effectively and efficiently.

  8. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from...

  9. Kernel score statistic for dependent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzahn, Dörthe; Friedrichs, Stefanie; Rosenberger, Albert; Bickeböller, Heike

    2014-01-01

    The kernel score statistic is a global covariance component test over a set of genetic markers. It provides a flexible modeling framework and does not collapse marker information. We generalize the kernel score statistic to allow for familial dependencies and to adjust for random confounder effects. With this extension, we adjust our analysis of real and simulated baseline systolic blood pressure for polygenic familial background. We find that the kernel score test gains appreciably in power through the use of sequencing compared to tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms for very rare single nucleotide polymorphisms with <1% minor allele frequency.

  10. Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wei; QU Jiao; LI Benxi

    2007-01-01

    With the development of Support Vector Machine (SVM),the "kernel method" has been studied in a general way.In this paper,we present a novel Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering algorithm (KMEC).By using mercer kernel functions,the proposed algorithm is firstly map the data from their original space to high dimensional space where the data are expected to be more separable,then perform MEC clustering in the feature space.The experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance in the non-hyperspherical and complex data structure.

  11. Kernel adaptive filtering a comprehensive introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Weifeng; Haykin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Online learning from a signal processing perspective There is increased interest in kernel learning algorithms in neural networks and a growing need for nonlinear adaptive algorithms in advanced signal processing, communications, and controls. Kernel Adaptive Filtering is the first book to present a comprehensive, unifying introduction to online learning algorithms in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. Based on research being conducted in the Computational Neuro-Engineering Laboratory at the University of Florida and in the Cognitive Systems Laboratory at McMaster University, O

  12. Multiple Operator-valued Kernel Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Kadri, Hachem; Bach, Francis; Preux, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning a finite linear combination of operator-valued kernels. We study this problem in the case of kernel ridge regression for functional responses with a lr-norm constraint on the combination coefficients. We propose a multiple operator-valued kernel learning algorithm based on solving a system of linear operator equations by using a block coordinate descent procedure. We experimentally validate our approach on a functional regression task in the context of finger movement prediction in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI).

  13. Polynomial Kernelizations for $\\MINF_1$ and $\\MNP$

    CERN Document Server

    Kratsch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The relation of constant-factor approximability to fixed-parameter tractability and kernelization is a long-standing open question. We prove that two large classes of constant-factor approximable problems, namely $\\MINF_1$ and $\\MNP$, including the well-known subclass $\\MSNP$, admit polynomial kernelizations for their natural decision versions. This extends results of Cai and Chen (JCSS 1997), stating that the standard parameterizations of problems in $\\MSNP$ and $\\MINF_1$ are fixed-parameter tractable, and complements recent research on problems that do not admit polynomial kernelizations (Bodlaender et al. ICALP 2008).

  14. Approximating W projection as a separable kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Merry, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    W projection is a commonly-used approach to allow interferometric imaging to be accelerated by Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs), but it can require a huge amount of storage for convolution kernels. The kernels are not separable, but we show that they can be closely approximated by separable kernels. The error scales with the fourth power of the field of view, and so is small enough to be ignored at mid to high frequencies. We also show that hybrid imaging algorithms combining W projection with ...

  15. Approximating W projection as a separable kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    W projection is a commonly used approach to allow interferometric imaging to be accelerated by fast Fourier transforms, but it can require a huge amount of storage for convolution kernels. The kernels are not separable, but we show that they can be closely approximated by separable kernels. The error scales with the fourth power of the field of view, and so is small enough to be ignored at mid- to high frequencies. We also show that hybrid imaging algorithms combining W projection with either faceting, snapshotting, or W stacking allow the error to be made arbitrarily small, making the approximation suitable even for high-resolution wide-field instruments.

  16. Extension of Wirtinger's Calculus in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces and the Complex Kernel LMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bouboulis, Pantelis

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, kernel methods for nonlinear processing have successfully been used in the machine learning community. The primary mathematical tool employed in these methods is the notion of the Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space. However, so far, the emphasis has been on batch techniques. It is only recently, that online techniques have been considered in the context of adaptive signal processing tasks. Moreover, these efforts have only been focussed on and real valued data sequences. To the best of our knowledge, no kernel-based strategy has been developed, so far, that is able to deal with complex valued signals. In this paper, we present a general framework to attack the problem of adaptive filtering of complex signals, using either real reproducing kernels, taking advantage of a technique called \\textit{complexification} of real RKHSs, or complex reproducing kernels, highlighting the use of the complex gaussian kernel. In order to derive gradients of operators that need to be defined on the associat...

  17. Kernel map compression for speeding the execution of kernel-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Omar; Vela, Patricio A

    2011-06-01

    The use of Mercer kernel methods in statistical learning theory provides for strong learning capabilities, as seen in kernel principal component analysis and support vector machines. Unfortunately, after learning, the computational complexity of execution through a kernel is of the order of the size of the training set, which is quite large for many applications. This paper proposes a two-step procedure for arriving at a compact and computationally efficient execution procedure. After learning in the kernel space, the proposed extension exploits the universal approximation capabilities of generalized radial basis function neural networks to efficiently approximate and replace the projections onto the empirical kernel map used during execution. Sample applications demonstrate significant compression of the kernel representation with graceful performance loss.

  18. The Linux kernel as flexible product-line architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, M. de

    2002-01-01

    The Linux kernel source tree is huge ($>$ 125 MB) and inflexible (because it is difficult to add new kernel components). We propose to make this architecture more flexible by assembling kernel source trees dynamically from individual kernel components. Users then, can select what component they real

  19. 7 CFR 51.2296 - Three-fourths half kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Three-fourths half kernel. 51.2296 Section 51.2296 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...-fourths half kernel. Three-fourths half kernel means a portion of a half of a kernel which has more...

  20. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusted kernel weight. 981.401 Section 981.401... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.401 Adjusted kernel weight. (a) Definition. Adjusted kernel weight... kernels in excess of five percent; less shells, if applicable; less processing loss of one percent...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1441 - Half-kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Half-kernel. 51.1441 Section 51.1441 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1441 Half-kernel. Half-kernel means one of the separated halves of an entire pecan kernel with not more than one-eighth of its original volume...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1403 - Kernel color classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kernel color classification. 51.1403 Section 51.1403... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Kernel Color Classification § 51.1403 Kernel color classification. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the...

  3. NLO corrections to the Kernel of the BKP-equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Fadin, V.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vacca, G.P. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna (Italy)

    2012-10-02

    We present results for the NLO kernel of the BKP equations for composite states of three reggeized gluons in the Odderon channel, both in QCD and in N=4 SYM. The NLO kernel consists of the NLO BFKL kernel in the color octet representation and the connected 3{yields}3 kernel, computed in the tree approximation.

  4. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Gang, E-mail: xg335300@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Research and Development of Fine Chemicals, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Wang Xiaoteng [Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment, College of Agricultural, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Gan Cailing; Fang Yanqiong; Zhang Meng [College of Life Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed biological effects of N{sup +} implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sup +} implantation greatly decreased seedling survival rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At doses beyond 15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ion cm{sup -2}, biological repair took place. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CAT was essential for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal. POD mainly functioned as seed was severely hurt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAsA-GSH cycle mainly contributed to the regeneration of HAsA. - Abstract: To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N{sup +} with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N{sup +} beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} to 15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ion cm{sup -2}, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  5. Amélioration du taux de multiplication in vitro de Jatropha curcas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the Rate of in vitro Multiplication of Jatropha curcas L. In order to improve the in vitro multiplication rate (number of shoots/explant/subculture of Jatropha curcas L. axillary nodes taken from young plants of two accessions of this species (originating from Cameroon and Senegal have been cultivated for three weeks on a MS medium supplemented with 8.87 μM BAP, 4.92 μM IBA, and 30 g/l sucrose at pH 5.7 ± 0.1, and solidified with 0.7% agar. The shoots obtained from each original explant were then transferred to proliferation media (PM consisting of MS medium supplemented with 2.21 to 8.9 μM BA or 2.21 to 8.9 μM kinetin in combination with 2.46 μM IBA. Each combination was completed with 33.12 μM adenine sulfate, 82.92 μM of glutamine and 30 g / L sucrose. The best multiplication rate was obtained for the PM medium containing 6.65 μM BA and 2.46 μM AIB. On this medium 42.72 ± 3.22 and 38.15 ± 4.7 shoots/explant were obtained respectively for the accessions from Cameroon and Senegal after 6 weeks of culture, and the mean multiplication rates were 8.27 ± 1.27 (accession from Cameroon and 7.89 ± 1.13 (accession from Senegal shoots per explant during the 7 following subcultures (3 weeks/subculture. This medium was also the one that allowed the best overall growth in shoot height. Leafy shoots obtained have been rooted in a medium containing half of the major mineral components of MS supplemented with 5.7 μM IBA, 1.5% sucrose and solidified with 0.7% agar, then acclimated with a survival rate of 97%. These results allow considering the establishment of industrial units of plantlet multiplication from elite clones of Jatropha curcas.

  6. Relative n-widths of periodic convolution classes with NCVD-kernel and B-kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the relative n-widths of two kinds of periodic convolution classes,Kp(K) and Bp(G),whose convolution kernels are NCVD-kernel K and B-kernel G. The asymptotic estimations of Kn(Kp(K),Kp(K))q and Kn(Bp(G),Bp(G))q are obtained for p=1 and ∞,1≤ q≤∞.

  7. Reproducing Kernel for D2(Ω, ρ) and Metric Induced by Reproducing Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhen Gang

    2009-01-01

    An important property of the reproducing kernel of D2(Ω, ρ) is obtained and the reproducing kernels for D2(Ω, ρ) are calculated when Ω = Bn × Bn and ρ are some special functions. A reproducing kernel is used to construct a semi-positive definite matrix and a distance function defined on Ω×Ω. An inequality is obtained about the distance function and the pseudodistance induced by the matrix.

  8. Discriminant Kernel Assignment for Image Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue; Zhao, Yanyu; Ren, Zhiquan; Kong, Youyong; Bao, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes discriminant kernel assignment (DKA) in the bag-of-features framework for image representation. DKA slightly modifies existing kernel assignment to learn width-variant Gaussian kernel functions to perform discriminant local feature assignment. When directly applying gradient-descent method to solve DKA, the optimization may contain multiple time-consuming reassignment implementations in iterations. Accordingly, we introduce a more practical way to locally linearize the DKA objective and the difficult task is cast as a sequence of easier ones. Since DKA only focuses on the feature assignment part, it seamlessly collaborates with other discriminative learning approaches, e.g., discriminant dictionary learning or multiple kernel learning, for even better performances. Experimental evaluations on multiple benchmark datasets verify that DKA outperforms other image assignment approaches and exhibits significant efficiency in feature coding.

  9. Multiple Kernel Spectral Regression for Dimensionality Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional manifold learning algorithms, such as locally linear embedding, Isomap, and Laplacian eigenmap, only provide the embedding results of the training samples. To solve the out-of-sample extension problem, spectral regression (SR solves the problem of learning an embedding function by establishing a regression framework, which can avoid eigen-decomposition of dense matrices. Motivated by the effectiveness of SR, we incorporate multiple kernel learning (MKL into SR for dimensionality reduction. The proposed approach (termed MKL-SR seeks an embedding function in the Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS induced by the multiple base kernels. An MKL-SR algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of kernel-based SR (KSR further. Furthermore, the proposed MKL-SR algorithm can be performed in the supervised, unsupervised, and semi-supervised situation. Experimental results on supervised classification and semi-supervised classification demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm.

  10. Quantum kernel applications in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lulu; Massa, Lou

    2012-07-01

    Progress in the quantum mechanics of biological molecules is being driven by computational advances. The notion of quantum kernels can be introduced to simplify the formalism of quantum mechanics, making it especially suitable for parallel computation of very large biological molecules. The essential idea is to mathematically break large biological molecules into smaller kernels that are calculationally tractable, and then to represent the full molecule by a summation over the kernels. The accuracy of the kernel energy method (KEM) is shown by systematic application to a great variety of molecular types found in biology. These include peptides, proteins, DNA and RNA. Examples are given that explore the KEM across a variety of chemical models, and to the outer limits of energy accuracy and molecular size. KEM represents an advance in quantum biology applicable to problems in medicine and drug design.

  11. Kernel method-based fuzzy clustering algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhongdong; Gao Xinbo; Xie Weixin; Yu Jianping

    2005-01-01

    The fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm(FCM) to the fuzzy kernel C-means clustering algorithm(FKCM) to effectively perform cluster analysis on the diversiform structures are extended, such as non-hyperspherical data, data with noise, data with mixture of heterogeneous cluster prototypes, asymmetric data, etc. Based on the Mercer kernel, FKCM clustering algorithm is derived from FCM algorithm united with kernel method. The results of experiments with the synthetic and real data show that the FKCM clustering algorithm is universality and can effectively unsupervised analyze datasets with variform structures in contrast to FCM algorithm. It is can be imagined that kernel-based clustering algorithm is one of important research direction of fuzzy clustering analysis.

  12. Kernel representations for behaviors over finite rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, M.; Pinto, R.; Polderman, J.W.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider dynamical systems finite rings. The rings that we study are the integers modulo a power of a given prime. We study the theory of representations for such systems, in particular kernel representations.

  13. Ensemble Approach to Building Mercer Kernels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive...

  14. Convolution kernels for multi-wavelength imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boucaud, Alexandre; Bocchio, Marco; Abergel, Alain; Orieux, François; Dole, Hervé; Hadj-Youcef, Mohamed Amine

    2016-01-01

    .... Given the knowledge of the PSF in each band, a straightforward way of processing images is to homogenise them all to a target PSF using convolution kernels, so that they appear as if they had been...

  15. Difference image analysis: Automatic kernel design using information criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Bramich, D M; Alsubai, K A; Bachelet, E; Mislis, D; Parley, N

    2015-01-01

    We present a selection of methods for automatically constructing an optimal kernel model for difference image analysis which require very few external parameters to control the kernel design. Each method consists of two components; namely, a kernel design algorithm to generate a set of candidate kernel models, and a model selection criterion to select the simplest kernel model from the candidate models that provides a sufficiently good fit to the target image. We restricted our attention to the case of solving for a spatially-invariant convolution kernel composed of delta basis functions, and we considered 19 different kernel solution methods including six employing kernel regularisation. We tested these kernel solution methods by performing a comprehensive set of image simulations and investigating how their performance in terms of model error, fit quality, and photometric accuracy depends on the properties of the reference and target images. We find that the irregular kernel design algorithm employing unreg...

  16. Preparing UO2 kernels by gelcasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wenli; LIANG Tongxiang; ZHAO Xingyu; HAO Shaochang; LI Chengliang

    2009-01-01

    A process named gel-casting has been developed for the production of dense UO2 kernels for the high-ten-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Compared with the sol-gel process, the green microspheres can be got by dispersing the U3O8 slurry in gelcasting process, which means that gelcasting is a more facilitative process with less waste in fabricating UO2 kernels. The heat treatment.

  17. The Bergman kernel functions on Hua domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We get the Bergman kernel functions in explicit formulas on four types of Hua domain.There are two key steps: First, we give the holomorphic automorphism groups of four types of Hua domain; second, we introduce the concept of semi-Reinhardt domain and give their complete orthonormal systems. Based on these two aspects we obtain the Bergman kernel function in explicit formulas on Hua domains.

  18. Fractal Weyl law for Linux Kernel Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of spectrum and eigenstates of the Google matrix of a directed network formed by the procedure calls in the Linux Kernel. Our results obtained for various versions of the Linux Kernel show that the spectrum is characterized by the fractal Weyl law established recently for systems of quantum chaotic scattering and the Perron-Frobenius operators of dynamical maps. The fractal Weyl exponent is found to be $\

  19. Varying kernel density estimation on ℝ+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnatsakanov, Robert; Sarkisian, Khachatur

    2015-01-01

    In this article a new nonparametric density estimator based on the sequence of asymmetric kernels is proposed. This method is natural when estimating an unknown density function of a positive random variable. The rates of Mean Squared Error, Mean Integrated Squared Error, and the L1-consistency are investigated. Simulation studies are conducted to compare a new estimator and its modified version with traditional kernel density construction. PMID:26740729

  20. Adaptively Learning the Crowd Kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Tamuz, Omer; Belongie, Serge; Shamir, Ohad; Kalai, Adam Tauman

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm that, given n objects, learns a similarity matrix over all n^2 pairs, from crowdsourced data alone. The algorithm samples responses to adaptively chosen triplet-based relative-similarity queries. Each query has the form "is object 'a' more similar to 'b' or to 'c'?" and is chosen to be maximally informative given the preceding responses. The output is an embedding of the objects into Euclidean space (like MDS); we refer to this as the "crowd kernel." The runtime (empirically observed to be linear) and cost (about $0.15 per object) of the algorithm are small enough to permit its application to databases of thousands of objects. The distance matrix provided by the algorithm allows for the development of an intuitive and powerful sequential, interactive search algorithm which we demonstrate for a variety of visual stimuli. We present quantitative results that demonstrate the benefit in cost and time of our approach compared to a nonadaptive approach. We also show the ability of our appr...

  1. Evaluating the Gradient of the Thin Wire Kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Donald R.; Champagne, Nathan J.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a formulation for evaluating the thin wire kernel was developed that employed a change of variable to smooth the kernel integrand, canceling the singularity in the integrand. Hence, the typical expansion of the wire kernel in a series for use in the potential integrals is avoided. The new expression for the kernel is exact and may be used directly to determine the gradient of the wire kernel, which consists of components that are parallel and radial to the wire axis.

  2. On the Inclusion Relation of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haizhang; Zhao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    To help understand various reproducing kernels used in applied sciences, we investigate the inclusion relation of two reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. Characterizations in terms of feature maps of the corresponding reproducing kernels are established. A full table of inclusion relations among widely-used translation invariant kernels is given. Concrete examples for Hilbert-Schmidt kernels are presented as well. We also discuss the preservation of such a relation under various operations of ...

  3. Mothers and meals. The effects of mothers' meal planning and shopping motivations on children's participation in family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, William Alex; Kubena, Karen S; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley R; Jan, Jie-sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2010-12-01

    Participation in family meals has been associated with benefits for health and social development of children. The objective of the study was to identify the impact of mothers' work of caring through planning regularly scheduled meals, shopping and cooking, on children's participation in family meals. Parents of children aged 9-11 or 13-15 years from 300 Houston families were surveyed about parents' work, meal planning for and scheduling of meals, motivations for food purchases, importance of family meals, and children's frequency of eating dinner with their families. The children were interviewed about the importance of eating family meals. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis to calculate indirect and total effects of variables on the outcome variable of frequency of children eating dinner with their family. Mothers' belief in the importance of family meals increased likelihood of children eating dinner with families by increasing likelihood that mothers planned dinner and that dinners were regularly scheduled. Mothers' perception of time pressures on meal preparation had a negative, indirect effect on the frequency of children's participation in family dinners by reducing mothers' meal planning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In-situ Transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biodiesel Production using Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ supercritical methanol transesterification for production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. (JCL seeds was successfully being carried out via batch-wise reactor system, under varying temperatures of 180 - 300 °C, pressures of 6 - 18 MPa, reaction time of 5 - 35 min and seeds-to-methanol ratio of 1:15 - 1:45 (w/v. In this study, the extracted oil obtained showed the presence of FAME referring as biodiesel, indicating that transesterification reaction had occurred during the extraction process. The results showed that the biodiesel yield was obtained at optimum conditions of 280 °C, 12 MPa, 30 min and 1:40 (w/v were 97.9%.

  5. Conversion of crude Jatropha curcas seed oil into biodiesel using liquid recombinant Candida rugosa lipase isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ting-Chun; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Lee, Guan-Chiun

    2015-09-01

    The versatile Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) has been widely used in biotechnological applications. However, there have not been feasibility reports on the transesterification of non-edible oils to produce biodiesel using the commercial CRL preparations, mixtures of isozymes. In the present study, four liquid recombinant CRL isozymes (CRL1-CRL4) were investigated to convert various non-edible oils into biodiesel. The results showed that recombinant CRL2 and CRL4 exhibited superior catalytic efficiencies for producing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Jatropha curcas seed oil. A maximum 95.3% FAME yield was achieved using CRL2 under the optimal conditions (50 wt% water, an initial 1 equivalent of methanol feeding, and an additional 0.5 equivalents of methanol feeding at 24h for a total reaction time of 48 h at 37 °C). We concluded that specific recombinant CRL isozymes could be excellent biocatalysts for the biodiesel production from low-cost crude Jatropha oil.

  6. Isolation of high-quality RNA from various tissues of Jatropha curcas for downstream applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Raja Krishna; Eswaran, Nalini; Johnson, T Sudhakar

    2011-06-01

    A method for isolating transcriptionally active RNA for downstream applications from diverse tissues of Jatropha curcas, a plant rich in latex, lipids, waxes, polysaccharide, polyphenols, and secondary metabolites, is described. The described method uses alkaline borate buffer during tissue homogenization to negate the formation of viscous gel observed in guanidium-salt-containing methods. By this method, quality RNA was extracted from leaf, immature inflorescence, endosperm, and root tissues with yields ranging from 1.80 to 7.80mg/100mg fresh weight (FW). The total RNA obtained was found to be suitable for poly(A)(+)RNA purification, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, cloning of full-length cDNA, and cDNA library construction.

  7. Synthesis And Characterization Of Ester Trimethylolpropane Based Jatropha Curcas Oil As Biolubricant Base Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hafizah Arbain

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biolubricant production of ester trimethylolpropane (ET was conducted via esterification of fatty acid (FA of Jatropha curcas oil with trimethylolpropane (TMP. The condition for this reaction was as follows: temperature was 150°C, time of reaction was 3 hours, molar ratio of FA: TMP was 4:1, and 2 % w/w catalyst (based on weight of FA. Sulfuric acid was used as the catalyst in this reaction. The composition of ET was determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID. The ester group was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and the structure was confirmed by proton and carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra. 55% of product was successfully synthesized in this research. The pour point of the product was observed as low as –30°C, flash point was >300 °C and viscosity was 79 cP.

  8. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  9. Nutritive value of fish meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M.E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the variations in the chemical composition of different types of fish meal available in the metropolitan areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Fifteen different types of fish meal samples were collected from study areas. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extract (NFE, ether extract (EE and total ash (TA in the animal nutrition and poultry research and training centre (PRTC laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME was estimated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, DM, CP, NFE, EE, TA and ME content significantly differed (P0.05 variation was found in the CF contents of the samples. DM content varied from 86.7 to 96.7%, CP content varied from 31.3 to 61.2%, EE content varied from 0.8 to 23.5%, NFE content varied from 0.6 to 14.6%, Ash content varied from 13.3 to 36.7% and ME content varied from 1788.4 to 3478.8 kcal/kg. It could therefore be inferred that, the chemical composition of fish meal available in the local market are widely variable. Therefore, every sample needs to be analyzed before use for ration formulation.

  10. Colecta y caracterización de procedencias de Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar la caracterización de nueve procedencias de Jatropha curcas, colectadas en varias provincias de Cuba, durante la fase de vivero y la de establecimiento. Para caracterizar estos materiales se utilizó la metodología para la colecta y caracterización de germoplasma. En el vivero, la brotación de los propágulos se produjo a partir de los 7 o los 14 días de la plantación; mientras que la emergencia de las plántulas, al utilizar semilla, ocurrió a los 14 días. El porcentaje de supervivencia de los propágulos fluctuó entre 20 y 86,6 %, y a partir de semilla, entre 86,6 y 90 %. La supervivencia en el campo varió entre 66,6 y 100 % en las procedencias trasplantadas por propágulos y, en sentido general, resultó superior a la que se detectó en el vivero. En las procedencias trasladadas por plántulas no se detectó variación en la supervivencia (90,9 % para las dos accesiones: CSSS-5 y CSS-6. Se concluye que el porcentaje de brotación, la emergencia, el arraigamiento y la supervivencia fueron indicadores muy variables, tanto en condiciones de vivero como en campo, lo que estuvo indisolublemente ligado al genotipo, la edad y la calidad de la semilla de los materiales colectados (tanto propágulos como semilla. Se recomienda colectar J. curcas en otras zonas, con el fin de contribuir al incremento del germoplasma de esta importante especie, que constituye un recurso genético alternativo para la producción de biocombustible.

  11. Antibacterial potential of Jatropha curcas synthesized silver nanoparticles against food borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Chauhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha curcas was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Jc-AgNps which were further evaluated for its antibacterial potential against food borne pathogens. J. curcas leaf extract could synthesize stable silver nanoparticles (Zeta potential: -23.4 mV with absorption band at 430 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR indicated various biological compounds responsible for capping and stabilizing Jc-AgNps in suspension, while the presence of silver was authenticated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX. Jc-AgNps were confirmed to be uniform in shape, size and behaviour through dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis. To investigate the antibacterial activity, disc diffusion and microplate dilution assays were performed and zone of inhibition (ZOI as well as minimum inhibitory/bactericidal concentrations (MIC/MBCs were evaluated against selected bacterial strains. Overall results showed that Escherichia coli (ZOI: 23 mm, MBC: 0.010 mg/ml was the most sensitive organism, whereas Staphylococcus aureus (ZOI: 14.66 mm, MBC: 0.041 mg/ml and Salmonella enterica (ZOI: 16.66 mm, MBC: 0.041 mg/ml were the least sensitive against Jc-AgNps. The detailed microscopic investigations using SEM, TEM and AFM were performed to understand the antibacterial impacts of Jc-AgNps against Listeria monocytogenes. SEM and TEM analysis showed the clear deformation and disintegration of treated L. monocytogenes cells, whereas AFM established a decrease in the height and cell surface roughness (RMS value in the treated L. monocytogenes.

  12. Microorganismos patógenos en Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. Estrategias potenciales para su manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alonso

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (piñón botija, considerada la gran promesa verde para el biodiesel, es una planta de la que existen considerables incógnitas en el ámbito científico desde el punto de vista agronómico, sobre todo en lo referente a los microorganismos causantes de enfermedades, entre las que sobresale la conocida como damping off (estrangulamiento de las plántulas que es provocada por varias especies de hongos. Por ello, el objetivo de este artículo es compilar la mayor cantidad de información sobre los principales microorganismos fitopatógenos que afectan a J. curcas, así como las posibles estrategias para su manejo, con el fin de obtener rendimientos eficientes y rentables de este cultivo energético en Cuba. Se encontraron 48 agentes causales de enfermedades; los más representativos fueron los hongos, entre los que predominan los que producen la roya y el mildiu polvoso, fundamentalmente. En cuanto al manejo fitosanitario, se citan las medidas culturales preventivas y las químicas, como curativas. De ahí que en Cuba, al igual que en otros países donde se cultiva el piñón botija, sea imprescindible conocer los fitopatógenos que pueden reducir los rendimientos de dicha planta, para después implementar un sistema de manejo fitosanitario que contribuya a evitar pérdidas considerables en la producción de biodiesel como producto final.

  13. Shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaf explants of jatropha curcas: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana

    2010-03-07

    A simple, high frequency, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from cotyledonary leaf explants of Jatropha curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Medium containing TDZ has greater influence on regeneration as compared to BAP. The induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 lM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 lM BAP, and 5.5 lM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), NAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). MS medium with 2.25 lM BAP and 8.5 lM IAA was found to be the best combination for shoot elongation. However, significant differences in plant regeneration and shoot elongation were observed among the genotypes studied. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing dif- ferent concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA, and NAA for 4 days, followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg l-1 activated charcoal. Elongated shoot treated with 15 lM IBA, 5.7 lM IAA, and 11 lM NAA resulted in highest percent rooting. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate. The method developed may be useful in improvement of J. curcas through genetic modification. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2010.

  14. Efficient culture protocol for plant regeneration from cotyledonary petiole explants of Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-frequency and reproducible protocol for induction of adventitious shoot buds and plant regeneration from cotyledonary petiole explants of Jatropha curcas L. has been developed. The cotyledonary petiole explants of J. curcas cultured directly on medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ induce regeneration of poor quality shoot buds that have a low regeneration frequency. However, treating the explants with high concentrations (10–60 mg/L of TDZ solution for certain time periods (5–80 min significantly increased the regeneration frequency and improved the quality of the regenerated shoot buds. The best shoot buds induction (88.42% and number of shoot buds (12.67 per explant were observed when in vitro explants were treated with 20 mg/L TDZ solution for 20 min before being transferred on hormone-free medium after 30 days. Regeneration was also influenced by the orientation (horizontal or vertical of the explants on the medium, and by the origin of the cotyledonary petioles (in vitro or in vivo used for the preparation of explants. We performed subsequent experiments for elongation and rooting of the regenerated shoot buds. Addition of L-arginine to the medium was conducive to the elongation of the shoot buds. A concentration of 7.5 mg/L L-arginine yielded the best results. The elongated shoots could initiate roots to become intact plantlets in half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0.1 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. After acclimatization, these plantlets could be transplanted to the soil and the growth was normal. Therefore, application of the methods described here helped to increase plant regeneration efficiency.

  15. Biochemical evaluation of protein fractions from physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chel-Guerrero, L.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available J. curcas seed proteins were fractioned according to the Osborne method and some biochemical properties were determined for these fractions. Glutelins (378 g kg–1 protein and globulins (201 g kg–1 protein were the main components. Albumins and prolamins were the minor components. Protein digestibility was highest in glutelins and globulins with values of 81 and 80% respectively. Electrophoresis analysis showed that globulins and glutelins exhibited similar polypeptide profiles. Electrophoresis patterns suggested that there could be a structural relationship among 2S, 7S and 11S storage proteins from plant sources. According to the FAO⁄WHO reference, the protein fractions had acceptable levels of most of the essential amino acids, but its globulins and glutelins were low in lysine and tryptophan.Las proteínas de semillas de J. curcas L. se fraccionaron empleando el método de Osborne y posteriormente se determinaron algunas de sus propiedades bioquímicas y nutricionales. Las fracciones mayoritarias resultaron ser glutelinas (378 g kg–1 de proteína y globulinas (201 g kg–1 de proteína mientras que las albúminas y prolaminas fueron las fracciones minoritarias. La digestibilidad de la proteína resultó ser más alta en las glutelinas y globulinas, con valores de 81 y 80% respectivamente. El análisis por electroforesis mostró que las globulinas y glutelinas presentaron perfiles similares, los resultados sugieren que podría existir una relación con proteínas de almacenamiento 2S, 7S y 11S de origen vegetal. Asimismo, de acuerdo con la FAO/WHO, las fracciones proteínicas tuvieron niveles aceptables para la mayoría de los aminoácidos esenciales, sin embargo, las globulinas y glutelinas fueron deficientes en Lys y Trp.

  16. Rapid detection of kernel rots and mycotoxins in maize by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, Nicola; Pisacane, Vincenza; Battilani, Paola; Scandolara, Andrea; Pietri, Amedeo; Marocco, Adriano

    2005-10-19

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a practical spectroscopic procedure for the detection of organic compounds in matter. It is particularly useful because of its nondestructiveness, accuracy, rapid response, and easy operation. This work assesses the applicability of NIR for the rapid identification of micotoxigenic fungi and their toxic metabolites produced in naturally and artificially contaminated products. Two hundred and eighty maize samples were collected both from naturally contaminated maize crops grown in 16 areas in north-central Italy and from ears artificially inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides. All samples were analyzed for fungi infection, ergosterol, and fumonisin B1 content. The results obtained indicated that NIR could accurately predict the incidence of kernels infected by fungi, and by F. verticillioides in particular, as well as the quantity of ergosterol and fumonisin B1 in the meal. The statistics of the calibration and of the cross-validation for mold infection and for ergosterol and fumonisin B1 contents were significant. The best predictive ability for the percentage of global fungal infection and F. verticillioides was obtained using a calibration model utilizing maize kernels (r2 = 0.75 and SECV = 7.43) and maize meals (r2 = 0.79 and SECV = 10.95), respectively. This predictive performance was confirmed by the scatter plot of measured F. verticillioides infection versus NIR-predicted values in maize kernel samples (r2 = 0.80). The NIR methodology can be applied for monitoring mold contamination in postharvest maize, in particular F. verticilliodes and fumonisin presence, to distinguish contaminated lots from clean ones, and to avoid cross-contamination with other material during storage and may become a powerful tool for monitoring the safety of the food supply.

  17. Oyster and Pyramidella Shells as Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Microwave-Assisted Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanai Buasri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted biodiesel production via transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol using solid oxide catalyst derived from waste shells of oyster and Pyramidella was studied. The shells were calcined at 900°C for 2 h and calcium oxide (CaO catalyst characterizations were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area measurements. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, microwave power, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the economic and environmentally friendly catalysts derived from oyster and Pyramidella shells showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts under microwave-assisted transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol.

  18. Evaluation of plant performance of Jatropha curcas L. under different agro-practices for optimizing biomass - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Srivastava, Pankaj; Singh, Nandita [National Botanical Research Institute, CSIR, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, UP (India); Tripathi, Ritu; Singh, J.P. [Solar Energy Centre, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon (India)

    2010-01-15

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family has gained lot of importance for the production of biodiesel. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider Jatropha as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, basic agronomic properties of Jatropha are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Grey literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields. Studies were undertaken at Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon, India to evaluate the plant performance under different agro-practices with special reference to irrigation scheduling, VAM and biofertilizers' applications, plant spacing, pruning trials for maximizing tree architecture and higher biomass. Parallel experiments were undertaken to understand the scope of J. curcas for intercropping practices in the under storey of dominating monoculture tree stands (Prosopis, Acacia and Neem). (author)

  19. Kernel abortion in maize : I. Carbohydrate concentration patterns and Acid invertase activity of maize kernels induced to abort in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanft, J M; Jones, R J

    1986-06-01

    Kernels cultured in vitro were induced to abort by high temperature (35 degrees C) and by culturing six kernels/cob piece. Aborting kernels failed to enter a linear phase of dry mass accumulation and had a final mass that was less than 6% of nonaborting field-grown kernels. Kernels induced to abort by high temperature failed to synthesize starch in the endosperm and had elevated sucrose concentrations and low fructose and glucose concentrations in the pedicel during early growth compared to nonaborting kernels. Kernels induced to abort by high temperature also had much lower pedicel soluble acid invertase activities than did nonaborting kernels. These results suggest that high temperature during the lag phase of kernel growth may impair the process of sucrose unloading in the pedicel by indirectly inhibiting soluble acid invertase activity and prevent starch synthesis in the endosperm. Kernels induced to abort by culturing six kernels/cob piece had reduced pedicel fructose, glucose, and sucrose concentrations compared to kernels from field-grown ears. These aborting kernels also had a lower pedicel soluble acid invertase activity compared to nonaborting kernels from the same cob piece and from field-grown ears. The low invertase activity in pedicel tissue of the aborting kernels was probably caused by a lack of substrate (sucrose) for the invertase to cleave due to the intense competition for available assimilates. In contrast to kernels cultured at 35 degrees C, aborting kernels from cob pieces containing all six kernels accumulated starch in a linear fashion. These results indicate that kernels cultured six/cob piece abort because of an inadequate supply of sugar and are similar to apical kernels from field-grown ears that often abort prior to the onset of linear growth.

  20. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor (Ricinus communis) Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean ( Ricinus communis ) in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio...

  1. Performance of Jatropha curcas L. in Semi-arid Zone: Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Early Field Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif AHAMAD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information on basic agronomic properties of Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha cultivation on the marginal lands in the semi-arids. Evaluation of agronomic performance of identified elite strains of J. curcas in marginal lands would be of paramount importance for addressing gap areas in their agronomic properties and subsequently for harnessing their optimum economic potentials. The present study undertook the task of analysing the growth performance of a high oil bearing elite strain of J. curcas–DARL-2 in degraded land in semi-arid zone of Deccan Plateau, India. While undertaking the assessment of growth performance of elite strain DARL-2, two other native (wild strains (namely AHN-1 and AHN-2 of J. curcas were also considered so that a comparative evaluation could be carried out. The role of gypsum was also investigated on J. curcas in the nursery stage as well its carry over effects on growth performance of transplanted trees in the field. Two types of substrates, gypsum-treated soil (GS and untreated soil (SL were used for growing seedlings of all the three jatropha strains. Seedlings (120-days-old of DARL-2 exhibited greater plant height, collar diameter and number of branches but root length was greater in the local strains. In the second year of field transplantation, DARL-2 strain exhibited significantly (p<0.05 greater plant height and number of branches/plant. No carry over effects of gypsum treatment were observed in field transplanted plants as none of the growth parameters significantly varied among the substrate types.

  2. A comparative analysis of physical and chemical properties of Jatropha Curcas. L, Calophyllum Inophyllum. L and Sterculia Feotida. L oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silitonga, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Medan State Polytechnic (Indonesia)], email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id, email: a_atabani2@msn.com; Atabani, A.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum (Sudan); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, (Indonesia); Masjuki, H.H.; Badruddin, I.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Production of bio-diesel converted from edible oil has raised the issue of competition for resources between food production and fuel production, as well as other questions of environmental impact. It has been established that producing bio-diesel from non-edible vegetable oils was one of the effective ways to resolve these issues. Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. are all non-edible oils and all can be potential sources for future energy supply. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the results of a comparative analysis of the physical and chemical properties of Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. oils. Physical and chemical properties of these vegetable oils, such as density, iodine value, free fatty acid, etc. were investigated and measured. These properties were then compared with those of other non-edible vegetable oils in terms of potential. This paper finds that the results of analysis indicate that there is high potential for using Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. crude oil as an alternative fuel.

  3. Roots distribution of Jatropha curcas trees in Brazilian savana; Distribuicao das raizes de plantas adultas de pinhao manso no cerrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Fausto J.M.; Costa, Hugo T.; Alves Junior, Jose; Evangelista, Adao W.P.; Oliveira, Pedro H. L. de [Universidade Federal de Goias (EA/UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Agronomia e Eng. de Alimentos], E-mail: jose.junior@pq.cnpq.br

    2010-07-01

    The Jatropha curcas L. presents a great potential for fuel, but there are few studies to assess roots distribution of this species. The root system is responsible for water uptake and should be considered in irrigation water requirement calculations. Studies show that Jatropha curcas trees irrigated can be double productivity. The objective of the work was to evaluate root distribution of Jatropha curcas L. trees spacing 3 x 2 m in a Clay soil of Brazilian Savana (Porangatu, north of Goias state). The evaluation was carried in three trees non-irrigated with three years old, five deeps 0.0-0.30 m, 0.30-0.60 m, 0.60-0.90 m, 0.90-1.2, 1.2-1.5 m and five distances from the trunk 0.0-0.25; 0.25-0.50; 0.50-0.75, 0.75-1.0 and 1.0-1.25 m. Trenches were dug from the plant trunk longitudinally and orthogonally in respect to row plants. Afterwards, root samples were collected according to the monolith method and separated from the soil. Root length and root density were determined by using grid 1 cm{sup 2}. The results showed more than 80% of roots concentrated at 0.0-1.0 m of deep, 1.0 m horizontal distance from the trunk. (author)

  4. ISOLATION, CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIN-ENCODING cDNAs FROM Jatropha curcas L. IP-2P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Akashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Actin is a major component of the plant cytoskeleton, so all cells contain this protein. Actin is expressed constitutivelyand is involved in basic housekeeping functions required for cell maintenance. Because of this, it has been frequentlyused as an internal control to normalize changes in gene expressions analysis. Actually, the information of nucleotidesequence of actin gene of Jatropha curcas L. population IP-2P from Indonesia is not available yet. The objective of thisresearch was to isolate, clone and characterize cDNA of actin genes of J. curcas IP-2P. Three partial actin genesequences had been successfully isolated by PCR using total cDNA as template, and actin primer designed fromconserved region of Arabidopsis thaliana. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the length of JcACT fragment is610, 534, and 701 bp encoding 203, 177, and 234 amino acids respectively. Local alignment analysis based on mRNAsequences shows that JcACT fragment shares 98% similarity with actin mRNA of Hevea brasiliensis and 99% withactin mRNA of Ricinus communis. Based on deduced amino acid sequence, JcACT is 100% identical to actins fromPrunus salicina, Gossypium hirsutum, and Betula luminifera. Even though these clones of cDNA are not completed yet,they can be used as reference in J. curcas L. gene expression analysis.

  5. Physical localization and DNA methylation of 45S rRNA gene loci in Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyun Gong

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays of repeat units, and not all copies are transcribed during mitosis. DNA methylation is considered to be an epigenetic marker for rDNA activation. Here, we established a clear and accurate karyogram for Jatropha curcas L. The chromosomal formula was found to be 2n=2x=22=12m+10 sm. We found that the 45S rDNA loci were located at the termini of chromosomes 7 and 9 in J. curcas. The distribution of 45S rDNA has no significant difference in J. curcas from different sources. Based on the hybridization signal patterns, there were two forms of rDNA - dispersed and condensed. The dispersed type of signals appeared during interphase and prophase, while the condensed types appeared during different stages of mitosis. DNA methylation analysis showed that when 45S rDNA stronger signals were dispersed and connected to the nucleolus, DNA methylation levels were lower at interphase and prophase. However, when the 45S rDNA loci were condensed, especially during metaphase, they showed different forms of DNA methylation.

  6. Single pass kernel -means clustering method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Hitendra Sarma; P Viswanath; B Eswara Reddy

    2013-06-01

    In unsupervised classification, kernel -means clustering method has been shown to perform better than conventional -means clustering method in identifying non-isotropic clusters in a data set. The space and time requirements of this method are $O(n^2)$, where is the data set size. Because of this quadratic time complexity, the kernel -means method is not applicable to work with large data sets. The paper proposes a simple and faster version of the kernel -means clustering method, called single pass kernel k-means clustering method. The proposed method works as follows. First, a random sample $\\mathcal{S}$ is selected from the data set $\\mathcal{D}$. A partition $\\Pi_{\\mathcal{S}}$ is obtained by applying the conventional kernel -means method on the random sample $\\mathcal{S}$. The novelty of the paper is, for each cluster in $\\Pi_{\\mathcal{S}}$, the exact cluster center in the input space is obtained using the gradient descent approach. Finally, each unsampled pattern is assigned to its closest exact cluster center to get a partition of the entire data set. The proposed method needs to scan the data set only once and it is much faster than the conventional kernel -means method. The time complexity of this method is $O(s^2+t+nk)$ where is the size of the random sample $\\mathcal{S}$, is the number of clusters required, and is the time taken by the gradient descent method (to find exact cluster centers). The space complexity of the method is $O(s^2)$. The proposed method can be easily implemented and is suitable for large data sets, like those in data mining applications. Experimental results show that, with a small loss of quality, the proposed method can significantly reduce the time taken than the conventional kernel -means clustering method. The proposed method is also compared with other recent similar methods.

  7. Kernel-Based Reconstruction of Graph Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel; Ma, Meng; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2017-02-01

    A number of applications in engineering, social sciences, physics, and biology involve inference over networks. In this context, graph signals are widely encountered as descriptors of vertex attributes or features in graph-structured data. Estimating such signals in all vertices given noisy observations of their values on a subset of vertices has been extensively analyzed in the literature of signal processing on graphs (SPoG). This paper advocates kernel regression as a framework generalizing popular SPoG modeling and reconstruction and expanding their capabilities. Formulating signal reconstruction as a regression task on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces of graph signals permeates benefits from statistical learning, offers fresh insights, and allows for estimators to leverage richer forms of prior information than existing alternatives. A number of SPoG notions such as bandlimitedness, graph filters, and the graph Fourier transform are naturally accommodated in the kernel framework. Additionally, this paper capitalizes on the so-called representer theorem to devise simpler versions of existing Thikhonov regularized estimators, and offers a novel probabilistic interpretation of kernel methods on graphs based on graphical models. Motivated by the challenges of selecting the bandwidth parameter in SPoG estimators or the kernel map in kernel-based methods, the present paper further proposes two multi-kernel approaches with complementary strengths. Whereas the first enables estimation of the unknown bandwidth of bandlimited signals, the second allows for efficient graph filter selection. Numerical tests with synthetic as well as real data demonstrate the merits of the proposed methods relative to state-of-the-art alternatives.

  8. A new Mercer sigmoid kernel for clinical data classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, André M; Fieguth, Paul W; Chen, Helen H

    2014-01-01

    In classification with Support Vector Machines, only Mercer kernels, i.e. valid kernels, such as the Gaussian RBF kernel, are widely accepted and thus suitable for clinical data. Practitioners would also like to use the sigmoid kernel, a non-Mercer kernel, but its range of validity is difficult to determine, and even within range its validity is in dispute. Despite these shortcomings the sigmoid kernel is used by some, and two kernels in the literature attempt to emulate and improve upon it. We propose the first Mercer sigmoid kernel, that is therefore trustworthy for the classification of clinical data. We show the similarity between the Mercer sigmoid kernel and the sigmoid kernel and, in the process, identify a normalization technique that improves the classification accuracy of the latter. The Mercer sigmoid kernel achieves the best mean accuracy on three clinical data sets, detecting melanoma in skin lesions better than the most popular kernels; while with non-clinical data sets it has no significant difference in median accuracy as compared with the Gaussian RBF kernel. It consistently classifies some points correctly that the Gaussian RBF kernel does not and vice versa.

  9. Caracterización de una biograsa de aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio//Characterization of biogrease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil and Lithium Soap Thickener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Chitue de Assunção Nascimento

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites vegetales poseen un gran potencial como fluido base y como sustituto de los aceites minerales para la formulación de grasas lubricantes, estos aceites son biodegradables y renovables. En el trabajo se determinaron las propiedades  fisicoquímicas, antidesgaste y de extrema presión de una biograsa de aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio empleando los métodos de pruebas estándar para las grasas lubricantes. La biograsa posee un color amarillo claro, una textura suave y homogénea,  un grado de penetración NLGI 1, una temperatura de goteo de 145 oC, magnitudes adecuadas del contenido de álcalis libre y corrosión al cobre; así como  propiedades antidesgaste y de extrema presión similares a otras grasas minerales y biograsas formuladas con diferentes aceites vegetales. Palabras claves: biograsa, aceite de Jatropha curcas L, jabón de litio, propiedades fisicoquímicas, propiedades antidesgaste, propiedades de extrema presión. Characterization of biogrease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil and Lithium Soap Thickener. Abstract Vegetable oils have a great potential as a base fluid and a substitute for mineral oil in grease formulation, these oils are biodegradable and renewable. In this paper were determined the  physicochemical, antiwear and extreme pressure properties of a biogrease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil and lithium soap thickener using the lubricanting greases standard test methods. The biogrease have a light yellow color, soft and homogeneous texture, a penetration grade NLGI 1, a drop point of 145 oC, appropriate magnitudes of free alkalis and copper corrosion; as well as antiwear and extreme pressure properties similar to the other mineral lubricating grease and formulated biogreases with differents vegetable oils. Key words: biogrease, Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil, lithium soap thickener, physicochemical properties, antiwear properties, extreme pressure properties.

  10. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  11. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  12. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. [Can family meals protect adolescents from obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the frequency of family meals and the body weight of 13-year-olds and its selected determinants. The study was conducted in 2008 as the last stage in a prospective cohort study of 605 children. Questionnaires containing questions about the frequency of family meals, the general regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and the number of hours spent watching television or at the computer were sent to 13-year-olds by mail. School nurses performed anthropometric measurements of the pupils' weight and height. Statistical analyses were performed, i.e. Pearson's correlations, the two-step cluster analysis and the logistic regression analysis. Most of the young people (80-90%) eat each of the main meals in the company of their parents at least once a week, 21% have breakfast with their parents every day, 41% - dinner, and 45% - supper. The frequency of family meals correlated negatively with the girls' BMI and the number of hours they spent watching television or at the computer, while positively with physical activity, regular meals and vegetable consumption in adolescents of both genders. The lowest mean values of BMI were found in a group of adolescents often eating family meals, the highest - in the group of young people who rarely ate family meals (over 20% of young people in this group were overweight), but the differences were statistically significant only for girls (p=0.025). The probability of less than 2 hours of sedentary behaviour daily, physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day and everyday vegetable and fruit consumption is twice as high in adolescents often consuming meals with their parents, and with the daily consumption of all the meals in this way - more than fourfold higher than in other groups. Family meals treated as a predictor of a healthy lifestyle can indirectly protect adolescents from overweight and obesity. Promoting family meals should be an important method of

  14. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  15. Pattern Classification of Signals Using Fisher Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashodhan Athavale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study is to gauge the performance of Fisher kernels for dimension simplification and classification of time-series signals. Our research work has indicated that Fisher kernels have shown substantial improvement in signal classification by enabling clearer pattern visualization in three-dimensional space. In this paper, we will exhibit the performance of Fisher kernels for two domains: financial and biomedical. The financial domain study involves identifying the possibility of collapse or survival of a company trading in the stock market. For assessing the fate of each company, we have collected financial time-series composed of weekly closing stock prices in a common time frame, using Thomson Datastream software. The biomedical domain study involves knee signals collected using the vibration arthrometry technique. This study uses the severity of cartilage degeneration for classifying normal and abnormal knee joints. In both studies, we apply Fisher Kernels incorporated with a Gaussian mixture model (GMM for dimension transformation into feature space, which is created as a three-dimensional plot for visualization and for further classification using support vector machines. From our experiments we observe that Fisher Kernel usage fits really well for both kinds of signals, with low classification error rates.

  16. Analog forecasting with dynamics-adapted kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Analog forecasting is a nonparametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning and state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems. A key ingredient of our approach is to replace single-analog forecasting with weighted ensembles of analogs constructed using local similarity kernels. The kernels used here employ a number of dynamics-dependent features designed to improve forecast skill, including Takens’ delay-coordinate maps (to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations) and a directional dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. Mathematically, our approach is closely related to kernel methods for out-of-sample extension of functions, and we discuss alternative strategies based on the Nyström method and the multiscale Laplacian pyramids technique. We illustrate these techniques in applications to forecasting in a low-order deterministic model for atmospheric dynamics with chaotic metastability, and interannual-scale forecasting in the North Pacific sector of a comprehensive climate model. We find that forecasts based on kernel-weighted ensembles have significantly higher skill than the conventional approach following a single analog.

  17. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol in finishing diets could not be confirmed.

  18. Caracterización morfológica y productiva de procedencias de Jatropha curcas L. Morphological and productive characterization of Jatropha curcas L. provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la variabilidad morfológica y productiva de procedencias de Jatropha curcas. Para ello se midió o estimó: la altura; el grosor de las ramas primarias y del tallo; la altura de la primera rama; las enfermedades; el número de ramas primarias, secundarias y terciarias; el número y el peso de los frutos; el rendimiento de semillas; el peso de 100 semillas; las dimensiones de la semilla y el contenido de aceite. Para interpretar los resultados se utilizó ACP y análisis de conglomerados. La altura fue el indicador más variable, seguido por el grosor de las ramas primarias, el número de ramas secundarias y primarias, y el grosor del tallo, los cuales explicaron el 57,7% de la variabilidad. Sobre la base de estos indicadores se formaron seis grupos. Los valores extremos superiores, en todos los indicadores morfológicos, se encontraron en el grupo I (SSCS-3, y los inferiores en el grupo IV (SSCS-7 y SSCS-6. Solo seis de las diez procedencias sembradas produjeron frutos; mientras que las plantadas lo hicieron en todos los casos. De las sembradas sobresalieron: San Miguel, D-1 y SSCS-3, con rendimientos estimados de 2 325; 243 y 169 kg de semilla/ha; y de las plantadas: Cabo Verde, SSCE-10 y SSCE-7 con 814; 327 y 93,2 kg de semilla/ha, respectivamente. En la SSCE-10 y en la Cabo Verde el porcentaje de aceite alcanzó un 32,8 y 35,0%, respectivamente. Los resultados permitieron identificar las procedencias sobresalientes, tanto en los indicadores morfológicos (SSCS-3 como en los productivos (Cabo Verde, SSCE-10 y San Miguel.The objective of this work was to characterize the morphological and productive variability of Jatropha curcas provenances. For that purpose the following indicators were measured or estimated: height; diameter of primary branches and stem; height of the first branch; diseases; number of primary, secondary and tertiary branches; fruit number and weight; seed yield; weight of 100

  19. Indirect measurement of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of Jatropha curcasQuantificação indireta de pigmentos fotossintetizantes em folhas de Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz Rigon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi gerar modelos matemáticos capazes de reportar os pigmentos fotossintéticos e proteína solúvel nas folhas de Jatropha curcas por meio da relação entre leituras realizadas por espectrofotometria clássica e por clorofilômetro, ClorofiLOG® 1030. O trabalho foi realizado na Embrapa Algodão, na cidade de Campina Grande (PB. Para a análise indireta, foi usado o equipamento portátil para leituras em discos foliares com diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. A clorofila nestes discos foi então determinada usando o método clássico, enquanto que para a determinação da proteína solúvel utilizou-se a metodologia de Bradford. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância e de regressão em que as leituras obtidas com o medidor portátil de clorofila foram as variáveis dependentes e os pigmentos fotossintéticos e de proteínas solúveis, determinadas pelo método clássico foram as variáveis independentes. Os resultados indicaram que, com exceção da clorofila b, e proteína solúvel, os modelos matemáticos obtidos por meio do clorofilômetro portátil ClorofiLOG® 1030 podem ser utilizados para estimar a concentração dos pigmentos fotossintéticos com alta precisão, poupando tempo e reagentes químicos normalmente utilizados em procedimentos convencionais.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi gerar modelos matemáticos capazes de reportar os pigmentos fotossintéticos e proteína solúvel nas folhas de Jatropha curcas por meio da relação entre leituras realizadas por espectrofotometria clássica e por clorofilômetro, ClorofiLOG® 1030. O trabalho foi realizado na Embrapa Algodão, na cidade de Campina Grande (PB. Para a análise indireta, foi usado o equipamento portátil para leituras em discos foliares com diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. A clorofila nestes discos foi então determinada usando o método clássico, enquanto que para a determinação da proteína solúvel utilizou

  20. Object classification and detection with context kernel descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Context information is important in object representation. By embedding context cue of image attributes into kernel descriptors, we propose a set of novel kernel descriptors called Context Kernel Descriptors (CKD) for object classification and detection. The motivation of CKD is to use spatial...... consistency of image attributes or features defined within a neighboring region to improve the robustness of descriptor matching in kernel space. For feature selection, Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KECA) is exploited to learn a subset of discriminative CKD. Different from Kernel Principal Component...

  1. OS X and iOS Kernel Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorsen, Ole Henry

    2011-01-01

    OS X and iOS Kernel Programming combines essential operating system and kernel architecture knowledge with a highly practical approach that will help you write effective kernel-level code. You'll learn fundamental concepts such as memory management and thread synchronization, as well as the I/O Kit framework. You'll also learn how to write your own kernel-level extensions, such as device drivers for USB and Thunderbolt devices, including networking, storage and audio drivers. OS X and iOS Kernel Programming provides an incisive and complete introduction to the XNU kernel, which runs iPhones, i

  2. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal S. Borja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

  3. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  4. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    and red meat) greatly increase both sales and the market share of the healthy labeled meal. We conclude that a careful design of the healthy food supply may be efficient in encouraging healthier meal choices, e.g. supplying healthy labeled versions of popular conventional meals. We find no impact...

  5. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  6. The scalar field kernel in cosmological spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koksma, Jurjen F; Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Rigopoulos, Gerasimos I [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland)], E-mail: J.F.Koksma@phys.uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@phys.uu.nl, E-mail: gerasimos.rigopoulos@helsinki.fi

    2008-06-21

    We construct the quantum-mechanical evolution operator in the functional Schroedinger picture-the kernel-for a scalar field in spatially homogeneous FLRW spacetimes when the field is (a) free and (b) coupled to a spacetime-dependent source term. The essential element in the construction is the causal propagator, linked to the commutator of two Heisenberg picture scalar fields. We show that the kernels can be expressed solely in terms of the causal propagator and derivatives of the causal propagator. Furthermore, we show that our kernel reveals the standard light cone structure in FLRW spacetimes. We finally apply the result to Minkowski spacetime, to de Sitter spacetime and calculate the forward time evolution of the vacuum in a general FLRW spacetime.

  7. Robust Visual Tracking via Fuzzy Kernel Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Wen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A robust visual kernel tracking approach is presented for solving the problem of existing background pixels in object model. At first, after definition of fuzzy set on image is given, a fuzzy factor is embedded into object model to form the fuzzy kernel representation. Secondly, a fuzzy membership functions are generated by center-surround approach and log likelihood ratio of feature distributions. Thirdly, details about fuzzy kernel tracking algorithm is provided. After that, methods of parameter selection and performance evaluation for tracking algorithm are proposed. At last, a mass of experimental results are done to show our method can reduce the influence of the incomplete representation of object model via integrating both color features and background features.

  8. Fractal Weyl law for Linux Kernel architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of spectrum and eigenstates of the Google matrix of a directed network formed by the procedure calls in the Linux Kernel. Our results obtained for various versions of the Linux Kernel show that the spectrum is characterized by the fractal Weyl law established recently for systems of quantum chaotic scattering and the Perron-Frobenius operators of dynamical maps. The fractal Weyl exponent is found to be ν ≈ 0.65 that corresponds to the fractal dimension of the network d ≈ 1.3. An independent computation of the fractal dimension by the cluster growing method, generalized for directed networks, gives a close value d ≈ 1.4. The eigenmodes of the Google matrix of Linux Kernel are localized on certain principal nodes. We argue that the fractal Weyl law should be generic for directed networks with the fractal dimension d < 2.

  9. Optoacoustic inversion via Volterra kernel reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Melchert, O; Roth, B

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we address the numeric inversion of optoacoustic signals to initial stress profiles. Therefore we put under scrutiny the optoacoustic kernel reconstruction problem in the paraxial approximation of the underlying wave-equation. We apply a Fourier-series expansion of the optoacoustic Volterra kernel and obtain the respective expansion coefficients for a given "apparative" setup by performing a gauge procedure using synthetic input data. The resulting effective kernel is subsequently used to solve the optoacoustic source reconstruction problem for general signals. We verify the validity of the proposed inversion protocol for synthetic signals and explore the feasibility of our approach to also account for the diffraction transformation of signals beyond the paraxial approximation.

  10. Tile-Compressed FITS Kernel for IRAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    2011-07-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a ubiquitously supported standard of the astronomical community. Similarly, the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, is a widely used astronomical data reduction package. IRAF supplies compatibility with FITS format data through numerous tools and interfaces. The most integrated of these is IRAF's FITS image kernel that provides access to FITS from any IRAF task that uses the basic IMIO interface. The original FITS kernel is a complex interface of purpose-built procedures that presents growing maintenance issues and lacks recent FITS innovations. A new FITS kernel is being developed at NOAO that is layered on the CFITSIO library from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The simplified interface will minimize maintenance headaches as well as add important new features such as support for the FITS tile-compressed (fpack) format.

  11. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  12. A kernel-based approach for biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Rakesh; Saha, Sujan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is one of the popular machine learning techniques used in various text processing tasks including named entity recognition (NER). The performance of the SVM classifier largely depends on the appropriateness of the kernel function. In the last few years a number of task-specific kernel functions have been proposed and used in various text processing tasks, for example, string kernel, graph kernel, tree kernel and so on. So far very few efforts have been devoted to the development of NER task specific kernel. In the literature we found that the tree kernel has been used in NER task only for entity boundary detection or reannotation. The conventional tree kernel is unable to execute the complete NER task on its own. In this paper we have proposed a kernel function, motivated by the tree kernel, which is able to perform the complete NER task. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed kernel, we have applied the kernel function on the openly available JNLPBA 2004 data. Our kernel executes the complete NER task and achieves reasonable accuracy.

  13. Full Waveform Inversion Using Waveform Sensitivity Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Florian; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    We present a full waveform inversion concept for applications ranging from seismological to enineering contexts, in which the steps of forward simulation, computation of sensitivity kernels, and the actual inversion are kept separate of each other. We derive waveform sensitivity kernels from Born scattering theory, which for unit material perturbations are identical to the Born integrand for the considered path between source and receiver. The evaluation of such a kernel requires the calculation of Green functions and their strains for single forces at the receiver position, as well as displacement fields and strains originating at the seismic source. We compute these quantities in the frequency domain using the 3D spectral element code SPECFEM3D (Tromp, Komatitsch and Liu, 2008) and the 1D semi-analytical code GEMINI (Friederich and Dalkolmo, 1995) in both, Cartesian and spherical framework. We developed and implemented the modularized software package ASKI (Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion) to compute waveform sensitivity kernels from wavefields generated by any of the above methods (support for more methods is planned), where some examples will be shown. As the kernels can be computed independently from any data values, this approach allows to do a sensitivity and resolution analysis first without inverting any data. In the context of active seismic experiments, this property may be used to investigate optimal acquisition geometry and expectable resolution before actually collecting any data, assuming the background model is known sufficiently well. The actual inversion step then, can be repeated at relatively low costs with different (sub)sets of data, adding different smoothing conditions. Using the sensitivity kernels, we expect the waveform inversion to have better convergence properties compared with strategies that use gradients of a misfit function. Also the propagation of the forward wavefield and the backward propagation from the receiver

  14. Inverse of the String Theory KLT Kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Mizera, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The field theory Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) kernel, which relates scattering amplitudes of gravitons and gluons, turns out to be the inverse of a matrix whose components are bi-adjoint scalar partial amplitudes. In this note we propose an analogous construction for the string theory KLT kernel. We present simple diagrammatic rules for the computation of the $\\alpha'$-corrected bi-adjoint scalar amplitudes that are exact in $\\alpha'$. We find compact expressions in terms of graphs, where the standard Feynman propagators $1/p^2$ are replaced by either $1/\\sin (\\pi \\alpha' p^2)$ or $1/\\tan (\\pi \\alpha' p^2)$, which is determined by a recursive procedure.

  15. Reduced multiple empirical kernel learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lu, MingZhe; Gao, Daqi

    2015-02-01

    Multiple kernel learning (MKL) is demonstrated to be flexible and effective in depicting heterogeneous data sources since MKL can introduce multiple kernels rather than a single fixed kernel into applications. However, MKL would get a high time and space complexity in contrast to single kernel learning, which is not expected in real-world applications. Meanwhile, it is known that the kernel mapping ways of MKL generally have two forms including implicit kernel mapping and empirical kernel mapping (EKM), where the latter is less attracted. In this paper, we focus on the MKL with the EKM, and propose a reduced multiple empirical kernel learning machine named RMEKLM for short. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first to reduce both time and space complexity of the MKL with EKM. Different from the existing MKL, the proposed RMEKLM adopts the Gauss Elimination technique to extract a set of feature vectors, which is validated that doing so does not lose much information of the original feature space. Then RMEKLM adopts the extracted feature vectors to span a reduced orthonormal subspace of the feature space, which is visualized in terms of the geometry structure. It can be demonstrated that the spanned subspace is isomorphic to the original feature space, which means that the dot product of two vectors in the original feature space is equal to that of the two corresponding vectors in the generated orthonormal subspace. More importantly, the proposed RMEKLM brings a simpler computation and meanwhile needs a less storage space, especially in the processing of testing. Finally, the experimental results show that RMEKLM owns a much efficient and effective performance in terms of both complexity and classification. The contributions of this paper can be given as follows: (1) by mapping the input space into an orthonormal subspace, the geometry of the generated subspace is visualized; (2) this paper first reduces both the time and space complexity of the EKM-based MKL; (3

  16. Volatile compound formation during argan kernel roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; Giordano, Manuela; Guillaume, Dominique; Kartah, Badreddine; Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Denhez, Clément; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Virgin edible argan oil is prepared by cold-pressing argan kernels previously roasted at 110 degrees C for up to 25 minutes. The concentration of 40 volatile compounds in virgin edible argan oil was determined as a function of argan kernel roasting time. Most of the volatile compounds begin to be formed after 15 to 25 minutes of roasting. This suggests that a strictly controlled roasting time should allow the modulation of argan oil taste and thus satisfy different types of consumers. This could be of major importance considering the present booming use of edible argan oil.

  17. Learning Rates for -Regularized Kernel Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a family of classification algorithms generated from a regularization kernel scheme associated with -regularizer and convex loss function. Our main purpose is to provide an explicit convergence rate for the excess misclassification error of the produced classifiers. The error decomposition includes approximation error, hypothesis error, and sample error. We apply some novel techniques to estimate the hypothesis error and sample error. Learning rates are eventually derived under some assumptions on the kernel, the input space, the marginal distribution, and the approximation error.

  18. Face Recognition Using Kernel Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Linear Discrimiant Analysis (LDA) has demonstrated their success in face recognition. But LDA is difficult to handle the high nonlinear problems, such as changes of large viewpoint and illumination in face recognition. In order to overcome these problems, we investigate Kernel Discriminant Analysis (KDA) for face recognition. This approach adopts the kernel functions to replace the dot products of nonlinear mapping in the high dimensional feature space, and then the nonlinear problem can be solved in the input space conveniently without explicit mapping. Two face databases are used to test KDA approach. The results show that our approach outperforms the conventional PCA(Eigenface) and LDA(Fisherface) approaches.

  19. Mecanismos de interacción entre el extracto etanólico de Jatropha curcas L. y metoclopramida en el sistema gastrointestinal.

    OpenAIRE

    Goicochea-Lugo, Sergio; Zavala-Flores, Ernesto; Salazar-Granara, Alberto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVODeterminar los mecanismos de interacción entre el extracto etanólico de Jatrohpa curcas L. y la metoclopramida sobre el sistema gastrointestinal.MATERIAL Y MÉTODOSe usó 30 ratones albinos machos, en5 grupos; los que recibieron por vía oral: Grupo 1: Jatropha curcas L. 800 mg/Kg, y 0, 5mg/Kg de metoclopramida. Grupo 2: 0.5 mg/mL de metoclopramida. Grupo 3: 1.5 mg/Kg de Atropina. Grupo 4: 800 mg/kg de Jatropha curcas L. Grupo 5: no recibió medicamento. A todos, se les administró por vía...

  20. Regularization techniques for PSF-matching kernels - I. Choice of kernel basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A. C.; Homrighausen, D.; Connolly, A. J.; Genovese, C. R.; Owen, R.; Bickerton, S. J.; Lupton, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    We review current methods for building point spread function (PSF)-matching kernels for the purposes of image subtraction or co-addition. Such methods use a linear decomposition of the kernel on a series of basis functions. The correct choice of these basis functions is fundamental to the efficiency and effectiveness of the matching - the chosen bases should represent the underlying signal using a reasonably small number of shapes, and/or have a minimum number of user-adjustable tuning parameters. We examine methods whose bases comprise multiple Gauss-Hermite polynomials, as well as a form-free basis composed of delta-functions. Kernels derived from delta-functions are unsurprisingly shown to be more expressive; they are able to take more general shapes and perform better in situations where sum-of-Gaussian methods are known to fail. However, due to its many degrees of freedom (the maximum number allowed by the kernel size) this basis tends to overfit the problem and yields noisy kernels having large variance. We introduce a new technique to regularize these delta-function kernel solutions, which bridges the gap between the generality of delta-function kernels and the compactness of sum-of-Gaussian kernels. Through this regularization we are able to create general kernel solutions that represent the intrinsic shape of the PSF-matching kernel with only one degree of freedom, the strength of the regularization λ. The role of λ is effectively to exchange variance in the resulting difference image with variance in the kernel itself. We examine considerations in choosing the value of λ, including statistical risk estimators and the ability of the solution to predict solutions for adjacent areas. Both of these suggest moderate strengths of λ between 0.1 and 1.0, although this optimization is likely data set dependent. This model allows for flexible representations of the convolution kernel that have significant predictive ability and will prove useful in implementing

  1. Effects of soil moisture conservation practice, irrigation and fertilization on Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran Phiwngam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on an Ultic Haplustalf at the Kanchanaburi Research Station, Muang district, Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand between July 2011 and June 2012. Split plots in a randomized complete block design with four replications were employed, having eight main plots (soil moisture conservation practice and irrigation, W1–W8 and 2 sub plots (fertilization, F1 and F2. Jatropha curcas (KUBP 78-9 Var., having been planted at 2 × 2 m spacing, was aged 2 yr when the experiment was commenced. The highly significantly heaviest 100-seed weight of 42 g was obtained 1 mth after water irrigation which had been applied at the rate of 16 L/plant, particularly in the treatment with crop residue mulching (W8 but there were no significant differences among the other treatments where irrigation had been applied (W5–W7. Fertilization and a combination between different fertilizers and soil moisture conservation schemes plus irrigation showed no different effect on the weight of 100 seeds throughout the year of measurement. Growing J. curcas with drip-irrigated water at the rate of 16 L/plant applied every 2 d and crop residue mulching (W8 significantly gave the highest seed yield of 1301.3 kg/ha at 15% moisture content. There were no significant differences among the seed yields from the plots applied with the same amount of irrigated water but with no mulching (W7 and half that amount of irrigated water with crop residue mulching (W6, producing yields of 1112.0 kg/ha and 1236.3 kg/ha, respectively. Three-year-old J. curcas gave inferior seed yield when grown with no irrigated water supply (W1–W4. The application of 50–150–150 kg/ha of N–P2O5–K2O significantly induced a higher amount of seed yield (933.9 kg/ha than did the addition of 93.75–93.75–93.75 kg/ha of N–P2O5–K2O (786.3 kg/ha. The interaction between soil moisture conservation plus irrigation and fertilizer was clear. Applying 50–150

  2. Jatropha curcas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-08

    Nov 8, 2014 ... :atropha biodiesel for about 80% reduction in CO2 emission from the use of fossil fuel. It is therefore ... total energy consumption in the transport sector globally (IEA .... dioxide by both mechanical and solvent extraction was.

  3. Kernel methods and minimum contrast estimators for empirical deconvolution

    CERN Document Server

    Delaigle, Aurore

    2010-01-01

    We survey classical kernel methods for providing nonparametric solutions to problems involving measurement error. In particular we outline kernel-based methodology in this setting, and discuss its basic properties. Then we point to close connections that exist between kernel methods and much newer approaches based on minimum contrast techniques. The connections are through use of the sinc kernel for kernel-based inference. This `infinite order' kernel is not often used explicitly for kernel-based deconvolution, although it has received attention in more conventional problems where measurement error is not an issue. We show that in a comparison between kernel methods for density deconvolution, and their counterparts based on minimum contrast, the two approaches give identical results on a grid which becomes increasingly fine as the bandwidth decreases. In consequence, the main numerical differences between these two techniques are arguably the result of different approaches to choosing smoothing parameters.

  4. Kernel methods in orthogonalization of multi- and hypervariate data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2009-01-01

    A kernel version of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis is described very briefly and applied to change detection in remotely sensed hyperspectral image (HyMap) data. The kernel version is based on a dual formulation also termed Q-mode analysis in which the data enter into the analysis...... via inner products in the Gram matrix only. In the kernel version the inner products are replaced by inner products between nonlinear mappings into higher dimensional feature space of the original data. Via kernel substitution also known as the kernel trick these inner products between the mappings...... are in turn replaced by a kernel function and all quantities needed in the analysis are expressed in terms of this kernel function. This means that we need not know the nonlinear mappings explicitly. Kernel PCA and MAF analysis handle nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite...

  5. Variable kernel density estimation in high-dimensional feature spaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, Christiaan M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the joint probability density function of a dataset is a central task in many machine learning applications. In this work we address the fundamental problem of kernel bandwidth estimation for variable kernel density estimation in high...

  6. HEAT KERNEL AND HARDY'S THEOREM FOR JACOBI TRANSFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. KAWAZOE; LIU JIANMING(刘建明)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the authors obtain sharp upper and lower bounds for the heat kernel associatedwith Jacobi transform, and get some analogues of Hardy's Theorem for Jacobi transform byusing the sharp estimate of the heat kernel.

  7. Analysis of maize ( Zea mays ) kernel density and volume using microcomputed tomography and single-kernel near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, Jeffery L; Jackson, Sean; Williams, Chekeria; Patel, Anokhee; Armstrong, Paul; Peter, Gary F; Settles, A Mark

    2013-11-20

    Maize kernel density affects milling quality of the grain. Kernel density of bulk samples can be predicted by near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy, but no accurate method to measure individual kernel density has been reported. This study demonstrates that individual kernel density and volume are accurately measured using X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Kernel density was significantly correlated with kernel volume, air space within the kernel, and protein content. Embryo density and volume did not influence overall kernel density. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression of μCT traits with single-kernel NIR spectra gave stable predictive models for kernel density (R(2) = 0.78, SEP = 0.034 g/cm(3)) and volume (R(2) = 0.86, SEP = 2.88 cm(3)). Density and volume predictions were accurate for data collected over 10 months based on kernel weights calculated from predicted density and volume (R(2) = 0.83, SEP = 24.78 mg). Kernel density was significantly correlated with bulk test weight (r = 0.80), suggesting that selection of dense kernels can translate to improved agronomic performance.

  8. Cyclic electron flow, NPQ and photorespiration are crucial for the establishment of young plants of Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas exposed to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, M C; Cerqueira, J V A; da Cunha, J R; Ribeiro, R V; Silveira, J A G

    2017-07-01

    Although plant physiological responses to drought have been widely studied, the interaction between photoprotection, photorespiration and antioxidant metabolism in water-stressed plants is scarcely addressed. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological adjustments preserving photosynthesis and growth in two plant species with different tolerance to drought: Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis. We measured stress indicators, gas exchange, photochemistry of PSII and PSI, antioxidant enzymes, cyclic electron flow and photorespiration. Physiological stress indicators associated with reduction in growth confirmed R. communis as sensitive and J. curcas as tolerant to drought. Drought induced loss of photosynthesis in R. communis, whereas J. curcas maintained higher leaf gas exchange and photochemistry under drought. In addition, J. curcas showed higher dissipation of excess energy and presented higher cyclic electron flow when exposed to drought. Although none of these mechanisms have been triggered in R. communis, this species showed increases in photorespiration. R. communis displayed loss of Rubisco content while the Rubisco relative abundance did not change in J. curcas under drought. Accordingly, the in vivo maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax ) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate driving RuBP regeneration (Jmax ) were less affected in J. curcas. Both species displayed an efficient antioxidant mechanism by increasing activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Overall, we suggest that the modulation of different photoprotective mechanisms is crucial to mitigate the effects caused by excess energy, maintaining photosynthetic apparatus efficiency and promoting the establishment of young plants of these two species under drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Meal and Snacking Patterns of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nan; Rhoads, Dianne S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the responses of 3,309 Louisiana students was used to determine students' meal and snacking habits at the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. Student responses concerned: (1) where and why food was consumed; (2) vitamin supplements; (3) reasons meals were omitted; and (4) reaction to school lunches. (PP)

  10. The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits and meal enjoyment relate to young children's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict the quality of children's diets after controlling for indicators of maternal capital that influence both meal rituals and taste preferences. Eating the same food as parents is the aspect of family meals most strongly linked to better diets in children, highlighting the detrimental effect in the rise of 'children's food'. Although theoretical and empirical work pointed to the important health advantage in children eating together with parents, the results suggested that eating together was a far less important aspect of family meals. In evaluating the importance of the family meal, this article redirects attention away from issues of form and function towards issues of food choice. Policy implications and the importance for public health to recognise the way eating habits are defined by and reproduce social and cultural capital are discussed.

  11. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  12. Stable genetic transformation of Jatropha curcas via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer using leaf explants

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2010-07-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel crop. A simple and reproducible protocol was developed for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated stable genetic transformation of J. curcas using leaf explains. Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1304 having sense-dehydration responsive element binding (S-DREB2A), beta-glucuronidase (gus), and hygromycin-phosphotransferase (hpt) genes were used for gene transfer. A number of parameters such as preculture of explains, wounding of leaf explants, Agrobacterium growth phase (OD), infection duration, co-cultivation period, co-cultivation medium pH, and acetosyringone, were studied to optimized transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency was achieved using 4-day precultured, non-wounded leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium culture corresponding to OD(600)=0.6 for 20 min, followed by co-cultivation for 4 days in a co-cultivation medium containing 100 mu M acetosyringone, pH 5.7. Co-cultivated leaf explants were initially cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.27 mu M thidiazuron (TDZ) for regeneration of shoot buds, followed by selection on same medium with 5 mu g ml(-1) hygromycin. Selected shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 mu M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 mu M 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA), and 5.5 mu M alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for proliferation. The proliferated shoots were elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 mu M BA and 8.5 mu M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The elongated shoots were rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 15 mu M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 5.7 mu M IAA, 5.5 mu M NAA, and 0.25 mg l(-1) activated charcoal. GUS histochemical analysis of the transgenic tissues further confirmed the transformation event. PCR and DNA gel blot hybridization were performed to confirm the presence of transgene. A transformation efficiency of 29% was

  13. Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: Factors affecting the efficiency of in vitro regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.

    2011-07-01

    Factors influencing in vitro regeneration through direct shoot bud induction from hypocotyl explants of Jatropha curcas were studied in the present investigation. Regeneration in J. curcas was found to be genotype dependent and out of four toxic and one non-toxic genotype studied, non-toxic was least responsive. The best results irrespective of genotype were obtained on the medium containing 0.5mgL-1 TDZ (Thidiazuron) and in vitro hypocotyl explants were observed to have higher regeneration efficiency as compared to ex vitro explant in both toxic and non-toxic genotypes. Adventitious shoot buds could be induced from the distal end of explants in all the genotypes. The number of shoot buds formed and not the number of explants responding to TDZ treatment were significantly affected by the position of the explant on the seedling axis. Explants from younger seedlings (≤15 days) were still juvenile and formed callus easily, whereas the regeneration response declined with increase in age of seedlings after 30 days. Transient reduction of Ca2+ concentrations to 0.22gL-1 in the germination medium increased the number of responding explants.Induced shoot buds, upon transfer to MS medium containing 2mgL-1 Kn (Kinetin) and 1mgL-1 BAP (6-benzylamino purine) elongated. These elongated shoots were further proliferated on MS medium supplemented with 1.5mgL-1 IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and 0.5mgL-1 BAP and 3.01-3.91cm elongation was achieved after 6 weeks. No genotype specific variance in shoot elongation was observed among the toxic genotypes except the CSMCRI-JC2, which showed reduced response. And for proliferation among the toxic genotypes, CSMCRI-JC4 showed highest number of shoots formed. Among the rest, no significant differences were observed. The elongated shoot could be rooted by pulse treatment on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 3mgL-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), 1mgL-1 IAA, 1mgL-1 NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and subsequent transfer on 0

  14. Kernel Partial Least Squares for Nonlinear Regression and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosipal, Roman; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent results on applying the method of partial least squares (PLS) in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). A previously proposed kernel PLS regression model was proven to be competitive with other regularized regression methods in RKHS. The family of nonlinear kernel-based PLS models is extended by considering the kernel PLS method for discrimination. Theoretical and experimental results on a two-class discrimination problem indicate usefulness of the method.

  15. Mitigation of artifacts in rtm with migration kernel decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2012-01-01

    The migration kernel for reverse-time migration (RTM) can be decomposed into four component kernels using Born scattering and migration theory. Each component kernel has a unique physical interpretation and can be interpreted differently. In this paper, we present a generalized diffraction-stack migration approach for reducing RTM artifacts via decomposition of migration kernel. The decomposition leads to an improved understanding of migration artifacts and, therefore, presents us with opportunities for improving the quality of RTM images.

  16. Sparse Event Modeling with Hierarchical Bayesian Kernel Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    the kernel function which depends on the application and the model user. This research uses the most popular kernel function, the radial basis...an important role in the nation’s economy. Unfortunately, the system’s reliability is declining due to the aging components of the network [Grier...kernel function. Gaussian Bayesian kernel models became very popular recently and were extended and applied to a number of classification problems. An

  17. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present article specifies and broadens our understanding of the concept of commensality by investigating what it means to ‘share a meal’. The study utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011/2012. It shows how different types of school meal arrangement influence...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  18. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conduct economic evaluation of a school meal programme based on principles of a New Nordic Diet (NND) by assessing the costs of the NND lunch, compared with packed lunch from home, and investigating potential effects of adjusting the NND principles...... underlying the school meals on the costs and on the rate of food waste.Design/methodology/approach - The analysis combines recipes, dietary records and food waste data from a school meal intervention with collected price data within an economic optimization framework.Findings - A New Nordic School meal...... programme consisting of a morning snack and a hot lunch based on fixed seasonal menu plans and with 75 per cent organic content is 37 per cent more expensive in terms of ingredient costs than corresponding packed school meals. This cost differential can be almost halved by introducing more flexible...

  19. IDENTIFICACIÓN, CARACTERIZACIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN DE RIZOBACTERIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE HONGOS FITOPATÓGENOS DE SEMILLAS DE Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo Hernández, Erubiel

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. ha ganado importancia en los últimos años debido a su gran potencial para obtener biodiesel, característica por la cual es conocida mundialmente. Algunos estudios han evidenciado que diferentes partes de la planta están expuestas al ataque de hongos fitopatógenos tales como Aspergillus, Fusarium, Rhizopus, entre otros. Existen escasos trabajos acerca del potencial de las rizobacterias de J. curcas en el control biológico de fitopatógenos. El objetivo de este trabajo f...

  20. Dosis-respuesta sobre la motilidad intestinal y el sistema nervioso de la interacción entre Jatropha curcas L. y metoclopramida

    OpenAIRE

    Zavala Flores, Ernesto; Goicochea Lugo, Sergio; Agurto Muñóz, Thalia; Adrianzen Rodriguéz, Sandra; Coronel Bustamante, Gianmarco; Salazar Granara, Alberto Alcibíades

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar el efecto dosis-respuesta sobre la motilidad intestinal y el sistema nervioso, de la interacción entre el extracto etanólico de las semilla de J. curcas L. y metoclopramida. MÉTODO: Se utilizaron 90 ratones albinos,formando 10 grupos de interacción que recibieron por vía oral (VO), en dosis establecida metoclopramida 0,5 mg/kg y en dosis escalonada extracto etanólico de la semilla de J. curcas L. (100 a 1000 mg/kg). Otros 5 grupos recibieron por VO, 0,5 mg/kg de metocl...

  1. Integración de Jatropha curcas L. en agroecosistemas como materia prima para biodiesel en la región centro de Chiapas, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Solís Guzmán, Blanca Flor

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. es una opción de importancia en Chiapas como materia prima para biodiesel y se han establecido alrededor de 10 mil hectáreas, aún con escasa información como cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el potencial de integración de J. curcas en agroecosistemas de la Región Centro de Chiapas, México. Esta investigación se realizó en tres etapas de 2008 a 2011. Primero se determinaron áreas potenciales con el programa ArcView GIS Ver. 3.2®, en dos escenarios: 1) pend...

  2. Caracterización e Incidencia de hongos fitopatógenos foliares en tres biotipos de Jatropha curcas en Sinaloa, México

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Álvarez, Enrique Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas es una planta resistente a la sequía y debido al alto contenido de aceite en su semilla, es considerada una fuente importante para la producción de biodiesel. En diferentes países se han reportado algunas enfermedades fúngicas en J. curcas; sin embargo, en México aún son escasos los estudios de caracterización de hongos fitopatógenos en este cultivo. Por lo que, el objetivo de este proyecto fue caracterizar y determinar la incidencia de hongos fitopatógenos f...

  3. An Extended Ockham Algebra with Endomorphism Kernel Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie FANG

    2007-01-01

    An algebraic structure (∮) is said to have the endomorphism kernel property if every congruence on (∮) , other than the universal congruence, is the kernel of an endomorphism on (∮) .Inthis paper, we consider the EKP (that is, endomorphism kernel property) for an extended Ockham algebra (∮) . In particular, we describe the structure of the finite symmetric extended de Morgan algebras having EKP.

  4. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat has very hard kernels. We developed soft kernel durum wheat via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination. The Hardness locus was transferred from Chinese Spring to Svevo durum wheat via back-crossing. ‘Soft Svevo’ had SKC...

  5. 7 CFR 981.61 - Redetermination of kernel weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Redetermination of kernel weight. 981.61 Section 981... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.61 Redetermination of kernel weight. The Board, on the basis of reports by handlers, shall redetermine the kernel weight of...

  6. Multiple spectral kernel learning and a gaussian complexity computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhani, Nima

    2013-07-01

    Multiple kernel learning (MKL) partially solves the kernel selection problem in support vector machines and similar classifiers by minimizing the empirical risk over a subset of the linear combination of given kernel matrices. For large sample sets, the size of the kernel matrices becomes a numerical issue. In many cases, the kernel matrix is of low-efficient rank. However, the low-rank property is not efficiently utilized in MKL algorithms. Here, we suggest multiple spectral kernel learning that efficiently uses the low-rank property by finding a kernel matrix from a set of Gram matrices of a few eigenvectors from all given kernel matrices, called a spectral kernel set. We provide a new bound for the gaussian complexity of the proposed kernel set, which depends on both the geometry of the kernel set and the number of Gram matrices. This characterization of the complexity implies that in an MKL setting, adding more kernels may not monotonically increase the complexity, while previous bounds show otherwise.

  7. A Fast and Simple Graph Kernel for RDF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.K.D.; de Rooij, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study a graph kernel for RDF based on constructing a tree for each instance and counting the number of paths in that tree. In our experiments this kernel shows comparable classification performance to the previously introduced intersection subtree kernel, but is significantly faster

  8. 7 CFR 981.60 - Determination of kernel weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of kernel weight. 981.60 Section 981.60... Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.60 Determination of kernel weight. (a) Almonds for which settlement is made on kernel weight. All lots of almonds, whether shelled or unshelled, for which...

  9. 21 CFR 176.350 - Tamarind seed kernel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tamarind seed kernel powder. 176.350 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.350 Tamarind seed kernel powder. Tamarind seed kernel powder may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in...

  10. Heat kernel analysis for Bessel operators on symmetric cones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . The heat kernel is explicitly given in terms of a multivariable $I$-Bessel function on $Ω$. Its corresponding heat kernel transform defines a continuous linear operator between $L^p$-spaces. The unitary image of the $L^2$-space under the heat kernel transform is characterized as a weighted Bergmann space...

  11. Stable Kernel Representations as Nonlinear Left Coprime Factorizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paice, A.D.B.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    1994-01-01

    A representation of nonlinear systems based on the idea of representing the input-output pairs of the system as elements of the kernel of a stable operator has been recently introduced. This has been denoted the kernel representation of the system. In this paper it is demonstrated that the kernel

  12. Kernel Temporal Differences for Neural Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Bae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the feasibility and capability of the kernel temporal difference (KTD(λ algorithm for neural decoding. KTD(λ is an online, kernel-based learning algorithm, which has been introduced to estimate value functions in reinforcement learning. This algorithm combines kernel-based representations with the temporal difference approach to learning. One of our key observations is that by using strictly positive definite kernels, algorithm’s convergence can be guaranteed for policy evaluation. The algorithm’s nonlinear functional approximation capabilities are shown in both simulations of policy evaluation and neural decoding problems (policy improvement. KTD can handle high-dimensional neural states containing spatial-temporal information at a reasonable computational complexity allowing real-time applications. When the algorithm seeks a proper mapping between a monkey’s neural states and desired positions of a computer cursor or a robot arm, in both open-loop and closed-loop experiments, it can effectively learn the neural state to action mapping. Finally, a visualization of the coadaptation process between the decoder and the subject shows the algorithm’s capabilities in reinforcement learning brain machine interfaces.

  13. Bergman kernel and complex singularity exponent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE; HanJin

    2009-01-01

    We give a precise estimate of the Bergman kernel for the model domain defined by Ω F={(z,w) ∈ C n+1:Im w |F (z)| 2 > 0},where F=(f 1,...,f m) is a holomorphic map from C n to C m,in terms of the complex singularity exponent of F.

  14. Kernel based subspace projection of hyperspectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Arngren, Morten

    In hyperspectral image analysis an exploratory approach to analyse the image data is to conduct subspace projections. As linear projections often fail to capture the underlying structure of the data, we present kernel based subspace projections of PCA and Maximum Autocorrelation Factors (MAF...

  15. Analytic properties of the Virasoro modular kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Nemkov, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    On the space of generic conformal blocks the modular transformation of the underlying surface is realized as a linear integral transformation. We show that the analytic properties of conformal block implied by Zamolodchikov's formula are shared by the kernel of the modular transformation and illustrate this by explicit computation in the case of the one-point toric conformal block.

  16. A Cubic Kernel for Feedback Vertex Set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The FEEDBACK VERTEX SET problem on unweighted, undirected graphs is considered. Improving upon a result by Burrage et al. [7], we show that this problem has a kernel with O(κ3) vertices, i.e., there is a polynomial time algorithm, that given a graph G and an integer κ, finds a graph G' and integer

  17. Analytic properties of the Virasoro modular kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemkov, Nikita [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISIS, The Laboratory of Superconducting metamaterials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    On the space of generic conformal blocks the modular transformation of the underlying surface is realized as a linear integral transformation. We show that the analytic properties of conformal block implied by Zamolodchikov's formula are shared by the kernel of the modular transformation and illustrate this by explicit computation in the case of the one-point toric conformal block. (orig.)

  18. Hyperbolic L2-modules with Reproducing Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David EELPODE; Frank SOMMEN

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, the Dirac operator on the Klein model for the hyperbolic space is considered. A function space containing L2-functions on the sphere Sm-1 in (R)m, which are boundary values of solutions for this operator, is defined, and it is proved that this gives rise to a Hilbert module with a reproducing kernel.

  19. Protein Structure Prediction Using String Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-03

    Prediction using String Kernels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...consists of 4352 sequences from SCOP version 1.53 extracted from the Astral database, grouped into families and superfamilies. The dataset is processed

  20. Bergman kernel and complex singularity exponent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN BoYong; LEE HanJin

    2009-01-01

    We give a precise estimate of the Bergman kernel for the model domain defined by Ω_F = {(z,w) ∈ C~(n+1) : Imw - |F(z)|~2 > 0},where F = (f_1,... ,f_m) is a holomorphic map from C~n to C~m,in terms of the complex singularity exponent of F.

  1. Symbol recognition with kernel density matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Kun

    2006-12-01

    We propose a novel approach to similarity assessment for graphic symbols. Symbols are represented as 2D kernel densities and their similarity is measured by the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Symbol orientation is found by gradient-based angle searching or independent component analysis. Experimental results show the outstanding performance of this approach in various situations.

  2. Developing Linux kernel space device driver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Wei; Wang Qinruo; Wu Naiyou

    2003-01-01

    This thesis introduces how to develop kernel level device drivers on Linux platform in detail. On the basis of comparing proc file system with dev file system, we choose PCI devices and USB devices as instances to introduce the method of writing device drivers for character devices by using these two file systems.

  3. Heat Kernel Renormalization on Manifolds with Boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Benjamin I.

    2016-01-01

    In the monograph Renormalization and Effective Field Theory, Costello gave an inductive position space renormalization procedure for constructing an effective field theory that is based on heat kernel regularization of the propagator. In this paper, we extend Costello's renormalization procedure to a class of manifolds with boundary. In addition, we reorganize the presentation of the preexisting material, filling in details and strengthening the results.

  4. Convolution kernels for multi-wavelength imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucaud, A.; Bocchio, M.; Abergel, A.; Orieux, F.; Dole, H.; Hadj-Youcef, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Astrophysical images issued from different instruments and/or spectral bands often require to be processed together, either for fitting or comparison purposes. However each image is affected by an instrumental response, also known as point-spread function (PSF), that depends on the characteristics of the instrument as well as the wavelength and the observing strategy. Given the knowledge of the PSF in each band, a straightforward way of processing images is to homogenise them all to a target PSF using convolution kernels, so that they appear as if they had been acquired by the same instrument. We propose an algorithm that generates such PSF-matching kernels, based on Wiener filtering with a tunable regularisation parameter. This method ensures all anisotropic features in the PSFs to be taken into account. We compare our method to existing procedures using measured Herschel/PACS and SPIRE PSFs and simulated JWST/MIRI PSFs. Significant gains up to two orders of magnitude are obtained with respect to the use of kernels computed assuming Gaussian or circularised PSFs. A software to compute these kernels is available at https://github.com/aboucaud/pypher

  5. Covariant derivative expansion of the heat kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, L.L. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Granada (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    Using the technique of labeled operators, compact explicit expressions are given for all traced heat kernel coefficients containing zero, two, four and six covariant derivatives, and for diagonal coefficients with zero, two and four derivatives. The results apply to boundaryless flat space-times and arbitrary non-Abelian scalar and gauge background fields. (orig.)

  6. A Kernel Approach to Multi-Task Learning with Task-Specific Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wu; Hang Li; Yun-Hua Hu; Rong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Several kernel-based methods for multi-task learning have been proposed,which leverage relations among tasks as regularization to enhance the overall learning accuracies.These methods assume that the tasks share the same kernel,which could limit their applications because in practice different tasks may need different kernels.The main challenge of introducing multiple kernels into multiple tasks is that models from different reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs) are not comparable,making it difficult to exploit relations among tasks.This paper addresses the challenge by formalizing the problem in the square integrable space (SIS).Specially,it proposes a kernel-based method which makes use of a regularization term defined in SIS to represent task relations.We prove a new representer theorem for the proposed approach in SIS.We further derive a practical method for solving the learning problem and conduct consistency analysis of the method.We discuss the relationship between our method and an existing method.We also give an SVM (support vector machine)-based implementation of our method for multi-label classification.Experiments on an artificial example and two real-world datasets show that the proposed method performs better than the existing method.

  7. Physical properties of soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas and associated green vegetation covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian José Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is a sustainable option for biodiesel production due to its adaptation to different agro-ecological conditions and its high content of non-edible oil grains. The possibility of its cultivation in degraded low fertility soils makes the physic nut attractive to the Paraíba do Sul Valley region. This study evaluated physical attributes and water processes of an Oxisol which had been previously used for livestock and later converted to experimental farming. The soil was intercropped with perennial herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi and Calopogonio muconoides in place of the original cover of Brachiaria brizantha, largely cultivated in the region. We determined the soil texture, the levels of saturation and water retention, soil resistance to root penetration and the basic infiltration rate of water into the soil (VIB. The soil resistance to root penetration in B. brizantha ranged from high to moderate at 30 cm depth, while the addition of perennial herbaceous legumes as cover crops intercropped with Jatropha reduced this resistance and increased the average soil VIB from 4 mm h-1 (B. brizantha to 33 mm h-1. We conclude that the association of herbaceous legumes with Jatropha contributed to the improvement of the soil’s physical properties.

  8. Genetic Diversity in Jatropha curcas L. Assessed with SSR and SNP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Montes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha is an undomesticated plant that has recently received great attention for its utilization in biofuel production, rehabilitation of wasteland, and rural development. Knowledge of genetic diversity and marker-trait associations is urgently needed for the design of breeding strategies. The main goal of this study was to assess the genetic structure and diversity in jatropha germplasm with co-dominant markers (Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in a diverse, worldwide, germplasm panel of 70 accessions. We found a high level of homozygosis in the germplasm that does not correspond to the purely outcrossing mating system assumed to be present in jatropha. We hypothesize that the prevalent mating system of jatropha comprise a high level of self-fertilization and that the outcrossing rate is low. Genetic diversity in accessions from Central America and Mexico was higher than in accession from Africa, Asia, and South America. We identified makers associated with the presence of phorbol esters. We think that the utilization of molecular markers in breeding of jatropha will significantly accelerate the development of improved cultivars.

  9. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Oil Extraction from Jatropha curcas L. Using Ethanol as a Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Bispo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study the yield and kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the oil extraction process from Jatropha curcas L. using ethanol as a solvent were evaluated for different temperatures, moisture contents of the solid phase, and particle sizes. The extraction process yield increased with contact time of solid particles with the solvent until reaching equilibrium (saturation of the solvent, for all the temperatures, moisture contents, and average particle sizes. These parameters significantly influenced (95% confidence the extracted oil yield. A convective mass transfer model was used to simulate the extraction process and estimate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. For all conditions evaluated, values of oil yield in the liquid phase close to equilibrium were obtained in approximately 20 min. The variations of enthalpy and entropy were positive, indicating that the process is endothermic and irreversible. Values obtained for the variation in Gibbs free energy showed that the extraction process using ethanol as a solvent is spontaneous and thermodynamically favorable for the moisture content of 0%, where the smaller the average particle size the greater the spontaneity of the process.

  10. Branching, flowering and fruiting of Jatropha curcas treated with ethephon or benzyladenine and gibberellins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne P. Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. has been identified for biofuel production but it presents limited commercial yields due to limited branching and a lack of yield uniformity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of single application of ethephon or a combination of 6-benzyladenine (BA with gibberellic acid isomers A4 and A7 (GA4+7 on branch induction, flowering and fruit production in jatropha plants with and without leaves. Plants with and without leaves showed differences for growth and reproductive variables. For all variables except inflorescence set, there were no significant statistical interactions between the presence of leaves and plant growth regulators concentration. The total number of flowers per inflorescence was reduced as ethephon concentration was increased. As BA + GA4 +7 concentration increased, seed dry weight increased. Thus, ethephon and BA + GA4 +7 applications appeared to affect flowering and seed production to a greater extent than branching. The inability to discern significant treatment effects for most variables might have been due to the large variability within plant populations studied and thus resulting in an insufficient sample size. Therefore, data collected from this study were used for statistical estimations of sample sizes to provide a reference for future studies.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions and land use change from Jatropha curcas-based jet fuel in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailis, Robert E; Baka, Jennifer E

    2010-11-15

    This analysis presents a comparison of life-cycle GHG emissions from synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) produced as jet fuel substitute from jatropha curcas feedstock cultivated in Brazil against a reference scenario of conventional jet fuel. Life cycle inventory data are derived from surveys of actual Jatropha growers and processors. Results indicate that a baseline scenario, which assumes a medium yield of 4 tons of dry fruit per hectare under drip irrigation with existing logistical conditions using energy-based coproduct allocation methodology, and assumes a 20-year plantation lifetime with no direct land use change (dLUC), results in the emissions of 40 kg CO₂e per GJ of fuel produced, a 55% reduction relative to conventional jet fuel. However, dLUC based on observations of land-use transitions leads to widely varying changes in carbon stocks ranging from losses in excess of 50 tons of carbon per hectare when Jatropha is planted in native cerrado woodlands to gains of 10-15 tons of carbon per hectare when Jatropha is planted in former agro-pastoral land. Thus, aggregate emissions vary from a low of 13 kg CO₂e per GJ when Jatropha is planted in former agro-pastoral lands, an 85% decrease from the reference scenario, to 141 kg CO₂e per GJ when Jatropha is planted in cerrado woodlands, a 60% increase over the reference scenario. Additional sensitivities are also explored, including changes in yield, exclusion of irrigation, shortened supply chains, and alternative allocation methodologies.

  12. Ascorbate peroxidase from Jatropha curcas enhances salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Cai, J; Yang, F X; Zhou, B; Zhou, L R

    2015-05-11

    Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) plays a central role in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and is a key enzyme in cellular H2O2 me-tabolism. It includes a family of isoenzymes with different character-istics, which are identified in many higher plants. In the present study, we isolated the APX gene from Jatropha curcas L, which is similar with other previously characterized APXs as revealed by alignment and phylogenetic analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence. Real-time qPCR analysis showed that the expression level of JcAPX transcript significantly increased under NaCl stress. Subsequently, to elucidate the contribution of JcAPX to the protection against salt-induced oxi-dative stress, the expression construct p35S: JcAPX was created and transformed into Arabidopsis and transcribed. Under 150-mM NaCl stress, compared with wild type (WT), the overexpression of JcAPX in Arabidopsis increased the germination rate, the number of leaves, and the rosette area. In addition, the transgenic plants had longer roots, higher total chlorophyll content, higher total APX activity, and lower H2O2 content than the WT under NaCl stress conditions. These results suggested that higher APX activity in transgenic lines increases the salt tolerance by enhancing scavenging capacity for reactive oxygen spe-cies under NaCl stress conditions.

  13. Biodiesel Production from Crude Jatropha curcas L.Oil with Trace Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖颖; 鲁厚芳; 蒋炜; 李东升; 刘世界; 梁斌

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel produced from crude Jatropha curcas L.oil with trace sulfuric acid catalyst(0.02%-0.08% oil) was investigated at 135-184 ℃.Both esterification and transesterification can be well carried out simultane-ously.Factors affecting the process were investigated,which included the reaction temperature,reaction time,the molar ratio of alcohol to oil,catalyst amount,water content,free fatty acid(FFA) and fatty acid methyl ester(FAME) content.Under the conditions at 165 ℃,0.06%(by mass) H2SO4 of the oil mass,1.6 MPa and 20:1 methanol/oil ratio,the yield of glycerol reached 84.8% in 2 hours.FFA and FAME showed positive effect on the transesterification in certain extent.The water mass content below 1.0% did not show a noticeable effect on trans-esterification.Reaction kinetics in the range of 155 ℃ to 175 ℃ was also measured.

  14. Biodiesel preparation from Jatropha curcas oil catalyzed by hydrotalcite loaded with K2CO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Guangyuan; Gao, Lijing; Xiao, Guomin; Liu, Hu; Lv, Jianhua

    2010-11-01

    This paper discusses the synthesis of biodiesel catalyzed by solid base of K(2)CO(3)/HT using Jatropha curcas oil as feedstock. Mg-Al hydrotalcite was prepared using co-precipitation methods, in which the molar ratio of Mg to Al was 3:1. After calcined at 600 degrees C for 3 h, the Mg-Al hydrotalcite and K(2)CO(3) were ground and mixed according to certain mass ratios, in which some water was added. The mixture was dried at 65 degrees C, and after that it was calcined at 600 degrees C for 3 h. Then, this Mg-Al hydrotalcite loaded with potassium carbonate was obtained and used as catalyst in the experiments. Analyses of XRD and SEM characterizations for catalyst showed the metal oxides formed in the process of calcination brought about excellent catalysis effect. In order to achieve the optimal technical reaction condition, five impact factors were also investigated in the experiments, which were mass ratio, molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst amount and reaction time. Under the best condition, the biodiesel yield could reach up to 96%.

  15. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida for Promoting Growth of Jatropha curcas Seedling Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumarsih

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida are Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR that can produce growth hormone. The objective of this study is to know the effects of those two combined species of PGPR on seedling root growth of Jatropha curcas. The condition of the seedling root determines the success of dry land cultivation. The root which has wider coverage, is larger in number, and is bigger in diameter makes seedling more resistant to stress in dry land environment. In the experiment, two kinds of plant materials are used for seedling, the Jatropha seed and stem material, which are treated in a mixed culture of PGPR. For the Jatropha seed, this mixed culture of PGPR is given at the same time of cultivating the sprout on the seedling medium. For the stem cutting, the PGPR is poured in together during the first watering of the seedling cultivation medium. In the fourthweek, the observed growth parameters are root length, root diameter, primary and secondary lateral root numbers, Root Length Density (RLD, Frequency of Lateral Root (FLR, and Specific Root Length (SRL. These data are analyzed using analysis of variant with DMRT test at 0.05 level of significance. The result of this study shows that PGPR tend to reduce FLR values on the seedling root made from seeds. On the seedling root made from stem cutting, PGPR increase the root length, primary and secondary lateral root numbers, root diameter, FLR and SRL values as well.

  16. The Effects of Biofuel Feedstock Production on Farmers’ Livelihoods in Ghana: The Case of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Acheampong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The widespread acquisition of land for large-scale/commercial production of biofuel crops in Ghana has raised concerns from civil society organizations, local communities and other parties, regarding the impact of these investments on local livelihoods. This paper assessed the effect of large-scale acquisition of land for production of Jatropha curcas on farmers’ livelihoods in Ghana. The study was conducted in 11 communities spanning the major agro-ecological zones and political divisions across Ghana. Methods of data collection included questionnaire survey, interviews and focus group discussions. Results show that several households have lost their land to Jatropha plantations leading, in some cases, to violent conflicts between biofuel investors, traditional authorities and the local communities. Most people reported that, contrary to the belief that Jatropha does well on marginal lands, the lands acquired by the Jatropha Companies were productive lands. Loss of rights over land has affected households’ food production and security, as many households have resorted to reducing the area they have under cultivation, leading to shortening fallow periods and declining crop yields. In addition, although the cultivation of Jatropha led to the creation of jobs in the communities where they were started, such jobs were merely transient. The paper contends that, even though the impact of Jatropha feedstock production on local livelihoods in Ghana is largely negative, the burgeoning industry could be developed in ways that could support local livelihoods.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich seed of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Raquel C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, oil-rich plants are the main source of biodiesel products. Because concerns have been voiced about the impact of oil-crop cultivation on the price of food commodities, the interest in oil plants not used for food production and amenable to cultivation on non-agricultural land has soared. As a non-food, drought-resistant and oil-rich crop, Jatropha curcas L. fulfils many of the requirements for biofuel production. Results We have generated 13,249 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing and germinating Jatropha seeds. This strategy allowed us to detect most known genes related to lipid synthesis and degradation. We have also identified ESTs coding for proteins that may be involved in the toxicity of Jatropha seeds. Another unexpected finding is the high number of ESTs containing transposable element-related sequences in the developing seed library (800 when contrasted with those found in the germinating seed library (80. Conclusions The sequences generated in this work represent a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in public databases. These results can be used to produce genetically improved varieties of Jatropha with increased oil yields, different oil compositions and better agronomic characteristics.

  18. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prueksakorn, Kritana; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (JCL) has been considered for partial substitution of diesel fuel for transportation in Thailand. The aim of this study is to investigate the energy consumption for long-term investment (20 years) of Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) production in Thailand using a life cycle approach. Apart from the average result, two scenarios--best and worst case--are set up to illustrate the range of results due to the variety of management practices. The main contributors to the energy use are JCL cultivation, transesterification, and transportation process. The net energy gain (NEG) and net energy ratio (NER) of biodiesel and coproducts from the life cycle of JCL are 4720 GJ/ha and 6.03, respectively. Even if only biodiesel is considered without coproducts, the NER is 1.42, still higher than 1. The study will support decision makers in the energy policy sector to make informed decisions vis-a-vis promotion of JCL plantations for biodiesel.

  19. Drivers and Consequences of the First Jatropha curcas Plantations in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Andrea Valdés Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas has received great attention and national support by Mexican authorities interested in promoting cash crops to alleviate poverty and rural crises. Thus, several states have implemented programs to sponsor its cultivation and research. This paper analyzes the policies generated by the Mexican government to promote the establishment of Jatropha plantations for biofuel purposes. The supporting schemes, the state-of-the-art national research and the environmental implications of establishing this new crop were reviewed to assess their impact on small-scale producers that participated in these programs. Scientific research on native germplasm indicates the existence of great diversity in Mexico, including non-toxic ecotypes, from which highly productive varieties are being developed. However, when the plantation programs started, producers were not technically or economically prepared to face the risks associated with this new crop, nor was there a good internal supply-chain. Consequently, some programs have been abandoned and the low productivity and income generated by the plantations have not satisfied producer expectations. Thus, there is a need to review the national strategy to support this crop and to develop a well-structured biofuel market in the country for the success of Jatropha plantations in Mexico.

  20. Does epigenetic polymorphism contribute to phenotypic variances in Jatropha curcas L.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Ha TN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha as a biodiesel feedstock plant. Variations in its morphology and seed productivity have been well documented. However, there is the lack of systematic comparative evaluation of distinct collections under same climate and agronomic practices. With the several reports on low genetic diversity in jatropha collections, there is uncertainty on genetic contribution to jatropha morphology. Result In this study, five populations of jatropha plants collected from China (CN, Indonesia (MD, Suriname (SU, Tanzania (AF and India (TN were planted in one farm under the same agronomic practices. Their agronomic traits (branching pattern, height, diameter of canopy, time to first flowering, dormancy, accumulated seed yield and oil content were observed and tracked for two years. Significant variations were found for all the agronomic traits studied. Genetic diversity and epigenetic diversity were evaluated using florescence Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (fAFLP and methylation sensitive florescence AFLP (MfAFLP methods. Very low level of genetic diversity was detected (polymorphic band Conclusion Our study confirmed climate and practice independent differences in agronomic performance among jatropha collections. Such agronomic trait variations, however, were matched by very low genetic diversity and medium level but significant epigenetic diversity. Significant difference in inner cytosine and double cytosine methylation at CCGG sites was also found among populations. Most epigenetic differential markers can be inherited as epialleles following Mendelian segregation. These results suggest possible involvement of epigenetics in jatropha development.

  1. Dynamic Modeling of Reversible Methanolysis of Jatropha curcas Oil to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari M. Syam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many kinetics studies on methanolysis assumed the reactions to be irreversible. The aim of the present work was to study the dynamic modeling of reversible methanolysis of Jatropha curcas oil (JCO to biodiesel. The experimental data were collected under the optimal reaction conditions: molar ratio of methanol to JCO at 6 : 1, reaction temperature of 60°C, 60 min of reaction time, and 1% w/w of catalyst concentration. The dynamic modeling involved the derivation of differential equations for rates of three stepwise reactions. The simulation study was then performed on the resulting equations using MATLAB. The newly developed reversible models were fitted with various rate constants and compared with the experimental data for fitting purposes. In addition, analysis of variance was done statistically to evaluate the adequacy and quality of model parameters. The kinetics study revealed that the reverse reactions were significantly slower than forward reactions. The activation energies ranged from 6.5 to 44.4 KJ mol−1.

  2. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Y; Wu, P Z; Chen, Y P; Li, M R; Wu, G J; Jiang, H W

    2015-12-29

    GRAS proteins play vital roles in plant growth and development. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) was found to have a total of 48 GRAS family members (JcGRAS), 15 more than those found in Arabidopsis. The JcGRAS genes were divided into 12 subfamilies or 15 ancient monophyletic lineages based on the phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from both flowering and lower plants. The functions of GRAS genes in 9 subfamilies have been reported previously for several plants, while the genes in the remaining 3 subfamilies were of unknown function; we named the latter families U1 to U3. No member of U3 subfamily is present in Arabidopsis and Poaceae species according to public genome sequence data. In comparison with the number of GRAS genes in Arabidopsis, more were detected in physic nut, resulting from the retention of many ancient GRAS subfamilies and the formation of tandem repeats during evolution. No evidence of recent duplication among JcGRAS genes was observed in physic nut. Based on digital gene expression data, 21 of the 48 genes exhibited differential expression in four tissues analyzed. Two members of subfamily U3 were expressed only in buds and flowers, implying that they may play specific roles. Our results provide valuable resources for future studies on the functions of GRAS proteins in physic nut.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the WRKY gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wangdan; Xu, Xueqin; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2013-07-25

    The WRKY proteins, which contain highly conserved WRKYGQK amino acid sequences and zinc-finger-like motifs, constitute a large family of transcription factors in plants. They participate in diverse physiological and developmental processes. WRKY genes have been identified and characterized in a number of plant species. We identified a total of 58 WRKY genes (JcWRKY) in the genome of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). On the basis of their conserved WRKY domain sequences, all of the JcWRKY proteins could be assigned to one of the previously defined groups, I-III. Phylogenetic analysis of JcWRKY genes with Arabidopsis and rice WRKY genes, and separately with castor bean WRKY genes, revealed no evidence of recent gene duplication in JcWRKY gene family. Analysis of transcript abundance of JcWRKY gene products were tested in different tissues under normal growth condition. In addition, 47 WRKY genes responded to at least one abiotic stress (drought, salinity, phosphate starvation and nitrogen starvation) in individual tissues (leaf, root and/or shoot cortex). Our study provides a useful reference data set as the basis for cloning and functional analysis of physic nut WRKY genes.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of the NAC Gene Family in Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenying; Xu, Xueqin; Xiong, Wangdan; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wu, Guojiang; Jiang, Huawu

    2015-01-01

    The NAC proteins (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) are plant-specific transcriptional regulators that have a conserved NAM domain in the N-terminus. They are involved in various biological processes, including both biotic and abiotic stress responses. In the present study, a total of 100 NAC genes (JcNAC) were identified in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structures, 83 JcNAC genes were classified as members of, or proposed to be diverged from, 39 previously predicted orthologous groups (OGs) of NAC sequences. Physic nut has a single intron-containing NAC gene subfamily that has been lost in many plants. The JcNAC genes are non-randomly distributed across the 11 linkage groups of the physic nut genome, and appear to be preferentially retained duplicates that arose from both ancient and recent duplication events. Digital gene expression analysis indicates that some of the JcNAC genes have tissue-specific expression profiles (e.g. in leaves, roots, stem cortex or seeds), and 29 genes differentially respond to abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, phosphorus deficiency and nitrogen deficiency). Our results will be helpful for further functional analysis of the NAC genes in physic nut.

  6. Integrated genome sequence and linkage map of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingzhi; Zhou, Changpin; Cheng, Shifeng; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Yan; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xun; Huang, Ying; Song, Chi; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Nan; Zhang, Xudong; Fang, Xiaohua; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Huawu; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wang, Ying; Chen, Fan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-03-01

    The family Euphorbiaceae includes some of the most efficient biomass accumulators. Whole genome sequencing and the development of genetic maps of these species are important components in molecular breeding and genetic improvement. Here we report the draft genome of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant. The assembled genome has a total length of 320.5 Mbp and contains 27,172 putative protein-coding genes. We established a linkage map containing 1208 markers and anchored the genome assembly (81.7%) to this map to produce 11 pseudochromosomes. After gene family clustering, 15,268 families were identified, of which 13,887 existed in the castor bean genome. Analysis of the genome highlighted specific expansion and contraction of a number of gene families during the evolution of this species, including the ribosome-inactivating proteins and oil biosynthesis pathway enzymes. The genomic sequence and linkage map provide a valuable resource not only for fundamental and applied research on physic nut but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae.

  7. Enriching Genomic Resources and Marker Development from Transcript Sequences of Jatropha curcas for Microgravity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenlan; Paudel, Dev

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is an economically important species with a great potential for biodiesel production. To enrich the jatropha genomic databases and resources for microgravity studies, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome of jatropha and developed SSR and SNP markers from the transcriptome sequences. In total 1,714,433 raw reads with an average length of 441.2 nucleotides were generated. De novo assembling and clustering resulted in 115,611 uniquely assembled sequences (UASs) including 21,418 full-length cDNAs and 23,264 new jatropha transcript sequences. The whole set of UASs were fully annotated, out of which 59,903 (51.81%) were assigned with gene ontology (GO) term, 12,584 (10.88%) had orthologs in Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), and 8,822 (7.63%) were mapped to 317 pathways in six different categories in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) database, and it contained 3,588 putative transcription factors. From the UASs, 9,798 SSRs were discovered with AG/CT as the most frequent (45.8%) SSR motif type. Further 38,693 SNPs were detected and 7,584 remained after filtering. This UAS set has enriched the current jatropha genomic databases and provided a large number of genetic markers, which can facilitate jatropha genetic improvement and many other genetic and biological studies. PMID:28154822

  8. The placemat protocol: Measuring preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas with pretend meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Peralta, Mericarmen; Jacobsohn, Gwen Costa; Grider, David T

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition instruction can lead to more healthful food choices among children, but little is known about preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas because there are few developmentally appropriate measures. This study validated the Placemat Protocol, a novel measure of preschooler healthy-meal schemas using realistic food models to assemble pretend meals. Preschoolers (N = 247, mean age 4 years 8 months) created 2 meals (preferred and healthy), completed measures of verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and were weighed and measured for BMI. Parents reported healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, and family demographics. Children used an average of 5.1 energy-dense (ED) and 3.4 nutrient-dense (ND) foods for their preferred meal, but reversed the ratio to 3.1 ED and 5.1 ND foods for their healthy meal. Healthy meals contained fewer estimated kcal, less fat, less sugar, and more fiber than preferred meals. Meal differences held for younger children, children with lower verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and child subgroups at higher risk for obesity. Placemat Protocol data correlated with parent healthy eating guidance and child obesogenic dietary intake as expected. The Placemat Protocol shows promise for assessing developing healthy-meal schemas before children can fully articulate their knowledge on verbal measures.

  9. Kernel based orthogonalization for change detection in hyperspectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    Kernel versions of principal component analysis (PCA) and minimum noise fraction (MNF) analysis are applied to change detection in hyperspectral image (HyMap) data. The kernel versions are based on so-called Q-mode analysis in which the data enter into the analysis via inner products in the Gram...... the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. An example shows the successful application of (kernel PCA and) kernel MNF analysis to change detection in HyMap data covering a small agricultural area near Lake Waging-Taching, Bavaria, in Southern Germany. In the change detection...

  10. Geodesic exponential kernels: When Curvature and Linearity Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aase; Lauze, François; Hauberg, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We consider kernel methods on general geodesic metric spaces and provide both negative and positive results. First we show that the common Gaussian kernel can only be generalized to a positive definite kernel on a geodesic metric space if the space is flat. As a result, for data on a Riemannian...... Laplacian kernel can be generalized while retaining positive definiteness. This implies that geodesic Laplacian kernels can be generalized to some curved spaces, including spheres and hyperbolic spaces. Our theoretical results are verified empirically....

  11. The pre-image problem in kernel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, James Tin-yau; Tsang, Ivor Wai-hung

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of finding the pre-image of a feature vector in the feature space induced by a kernel. This is of central importance in some kernel applications, such as on using kernel principal component analysis (PCA) for image denoising. Unlike the traditional method which relies on nonlinear optimization, our proposed method directly finds the location of the pre-image based on distance constraints in the feature space. It is noniterative, involves only linear algebra and does not suffer from numerical instability or local minimum problems. Evaluations on performing kernel PCA and kernel clustering on the USPS data set show much improved performance.

  12. Generalization Performance of Regularized Ranking With Multiscale Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yicong; Chen, Hong; Lan, Rushi; Pan, Zhibin

    2016-05-01

    The regularized kernel method for the ranking problem has attracted increasing attentions in machine learning. The previous regularized ranking algorithms are usually based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces with a single kernel. In this paper, we go beyond this framework by investigating the generalization performance of the regularized ranking with multiscale kernels. A novel ranking algorithm with multiscale kernels is proposed and its representer theorem is proved. We establish the upper bound of the generalization error in terms of the complexity of hypothesis spaces. It shows that the multiscale ranking algorithm can achieve satisfactory learning rates under mild conditions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for drug discovery and recommendation tasks.

  13. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    2016-01-01

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal preparat......When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... in everyday life. Furthermore getting the appropriate and nutritious food will be a step in the right direction regarding prevention of malnutrition. The aim of this project is to develop a guide to increase the possibility for people with dementia to continue everyday life through participating in meal...... preparation. The guide includes ideas for constructing recipes, methods for planning and guiding the process and examples of utensils that can increase the ability to cook in the persons own home or in an institutionalized setting. This supports the person with dementia both nutritionally, cognitively...

  15. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  16. Survival and growth responses of Jatropha curcas L. to three restoration techniques on degraded soils in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Wenemi Kagambèga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a major problem in the Sahelian countries. Erosion control through establishment of vegetation cover is at important strategy to reverse the trend. Our research objective was to analyse the e-ffects of three restoration techniques on Jatropha curcas L. seedlings growth and survivorship. Were conducted two separate field trials, involving the sowing and planting of J. curcas, in which several different soil restoration techniques were applied. The trial was monitored using a ran-domized block study design over a period of two years. The design included ten different treatments, six in the sowing trial and four in the planting trial, each with three replicates. In the first experiment, growth rate was found to be significantly higher in the Sub-Soiling treatment, that received additional organic matter than other treatments. However, overall survival rate was low (18%. In the second experiment, the Half-moon treatment yielded a significantly higher growth both in height (df = 3, F = 56.74, p < 0.05 and diameter (df = 3, F = 31.76, p < 0.05 and survival rate compared to those of the other treatments (df = 3, F = 50.4, p < 0.05. In conclusion, planting seedlings produced a greater survival rate than sowing seeds. Among tested the soil restoration and water conservation techniques the Half-moon technique was found as the most effective. This is recommended to be used for improving the revegetation of J. curcas in the future. 

  17. Bioaccumulation of nutrient elements from fly ash-amended soil in Jatropha curcas L.: a biofuel crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Doongar R; Ghosh, Arup

    2013-08-01

    Fly ash (FA) from coal-burning industries may be a potential inorganic soil amendment; the insight of its nutrient release and supply to soil may enhance their agricultural use. The study was conducted to assess the ability of fly ash (a coal fired thermal plant waste) to reduce soil fertility depletion and to study bioaccumulation of mineral nutrients in Jatropha curcas grown on soils amended with fly ash. Fly ash was amended to field soil at six rates (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 70 % w/w) on which J. curcas was grown. After 8 months of growth, the height of jatropha plants was significantly increased at 5 and 10 % FA-amended soil, whereas, biomass significantly increased at 5, 10, and 20 % FA-amended soil compared to control soil (0 % FA). Leaf nutrients uptake, followed by stems and roots uptake were highly affected by fly ash amendment to soil. Most of nutrients accumulation were increased up to 20 % fly ash and decreased thereafter. The results of available nutrient analysis of soil revealed that availability of nitrogen, potassium, sulfur, copper, iron, mangnese, and zinc declined significantly at higher levels of fly ash amendments, whereas, availability of phosphorus increased at these levels. However, pH, organic carbon, and available boron were not influenced significantly by fly ash amendment to soil. Microbial biomass C, N, and ratio of microbial-C to organic C were significantly reduced at 20 % fly ash and higher amounts. This study revealed that J. curcas plants could gainfully utilize the nutrients available in fly ash by subsequently amending soil.

  18. The correlation of chemical and physical corn kernel traits with production performance in broiler chickens and laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S M; Stalder, K J; Beitz, D C; Stahl, C H; Fithian, W A; Bregendahl, K

    2008-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence on broiler chicken growth and laying hen performance of chemical and physical traits of corn kernels from different hybrids. A total of 720 male 1-d-old Ross-308 broiler chicks were allotted to floor pens in 2 replicated experiments with a randomized complete block design. A total of 240 fifty-two-week-old Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were allotted to cages in a randomized complete block design. Corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for 3 broiler growth phases and one 14-wk-long laying hen phase to be marginally deficient in Lys and TSAA to allow for the detection of differences or correlations attributable to corn kernel chemical or physical traits. The broiler chicken diets were also marginally deficient in Ca and nonphytate P. Within a phase, corn- and soybean-based diets containing equal amounts of 1 of 6 different corn hybrids were formulated. The corn hybrids were selected to vary widely in chemical and physical traits. Feed consumption and BW were recorded for broiler chickens every 2 wk from 0 to 6 wk of age. Egg production was recorded daily, and feed consumption and egg weights were recorded weekly for laying hens between 53 and 67 wk of age. Physical and chemical composition of kernels was correlated with performance measures by multivariate ANOVA. Chemical and physical kernel traits were weakly correlated with performance in broiler chickens from 0 to 2 wk of age (Ptraits were correlated with broiler chicken performance (Pphysical and chemical traits and laying hen performance (Pphysical traits for any single kernel trait were not large enough to base corn hybrid selection on for feeding poultry.

  19. Jatropha curcas L., una especie arbórea con potencial energético en Cuba Jatropha curcas L., a tree species with energetic potential in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys C Toral

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas es una especie multipropósito, con innumerables atributos y un potencial considerable. Es una planta de origen tropical, de la familia Euphorbiaceae, que puede crecer tanto en zonas de altas como de bajas precipitaciones anuales. Es altamente resistente a la sequía y se puede cultivar en áreas marginales, por lo que resulta excepcional para la recuperación de tierras degradadas, sin competir con la producción de cultivos para la alimentación humana y animal. Además, se usa como cercas y setos vivos, se le atribuyen propiedades medicinales e insecticidas, e incluso puede ser utilizado como cultivo comercial. Esta especie es de rápido crecimiento y la producción de semillas puede comenzar incluso en el primer año de establecida la plantación, lo que depende de muchos factores, como las precipitaciones y la forma de propagación que se utilice (por semillas o por estacas. Su establecimiento, manejo y productividad en diferentes condiciones climatológicas aún no está bien documentado, principalmente en lo que concierne a sus requerimientos de nutrientes o fertilizantes y, en el caso de Cuba, la mayoría de los estudios relacionados con su agrotecnia y producción están en ciernes. Esta planta aporta muchos productos beneficiosos, especialmente a partir de sus semillas, de las cuales se puede extraer aceite, con una calidad similar al de la palma aceitera. Este aceite puede reemplazar al keroseno, al petróleo y a la leña/carbón con relativo éxito, por lo que se promueve su uso internacionalmente para satisfacer las demandas de las zonas rurales en cuanto a la iluminación, cocina y fuerza motriz. Otros usos muy importantes lo constituyen la producción de biocombustible a partir del aceite, la fabricación de jabón y la extracción de glicerina con fines industriales. Su cultivo y expansión podría proporcionar nuevas fuentes de empleo, así como mejorar el medio ambiente y el nivel y la calidad de vida de la

  20. Existing landraces of Jatropha Curcas L. (physic nut) in Nepal and analysis of their bio-diesel content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ram Prasad

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work was to find the existing landraces of Jatropha curcas in different agro ecological regions of Nepal and their Bio-Diesel content. More specifically, research efforts focused on (1) existing landraces (varieties) in all three topographic regions of Nepal (2) Bio-diesel content in those varieties (3) Bio-Diesel content in varieties from Laos (4) Constraints faced by the Nepalese Jatropha grower (5) Compare the quality of Bio-diesel between the Nepalese varieties and Laos varieties. To collect all the information, Seeds were collected from Nepal (Terai: Chitwan; Hill: Palpa and Syanja; Mountain: Tanahu and Gorkha) and Vientiane province from Laos.