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Sample records for cuprous chloride cucl

  1. Fabrication of cuprous chloride films on copper substrate by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Ci, Ji-Wei; Tu, Wei-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Shen, Chin-Chang; Wu, Chih-Hung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-30

    Polycrystalline CuCl films were fabricated by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on a Cu substrate at a low solution temperature of 90 °C. Continuous CuCl films were prepared using the copper (II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) compound as the precursor for both the Cu{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} sources, together with repeated HCl dip treatments. An HCl dip pretreatment of the substrate favored the nucleation of CuCl crystallites. Further, interrupting the film deposition and including an HCl dip treatment of the film growth surface facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. A dual beam (FIB/SEM) system with energy dispersive spectrometry facilities attached revealed a homogeneous CuCl layer with a flat-top surface and an average thickness of about 1 μm. Both the excitonic and biexcitonic emission lines were well-resolved in the 6.4 K photoluminescence spectra. In particular, the free exciton emission line was observable at room temperature, indicating the good quality of the CuCl films prepared by CBD. - Highlights: • Cuprous chloride (CuCl) was prepared on Cu substrate by chemical bath deposition. • HCl dip treatments facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. • A homogeneous elemental distribution was recognized for the deposited CuCl layer. • Excitonic and biexcitonic photoluminescence lines of CuCl films were well-resolved. • The free exciton emission line of CuCl films was observable at room temperature.

  2. Copper electrodeposition from cuprous chloride solutions containing lead, zinc or iron ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Tchoumou; M. Roynette Ehics

    2005-01-01

    Cuprous chloride hydrochloric acid solutions were electrolysed in a two compartments cell without agitation for copper extraction. It is found that the current density affects the colour and the size of copper deposits. During electrodeposition of copper from cuprous solution in the presence of various concentrations of lead, zinc or iron ions at different current densities, it is observed that lead is codeposited with copper by increasing current density.In all experiments, the current efficiency for the copper deposition reaction fluctuates between 88.50% and 95.50%.

  3. Reduction of hazards from copper(I) chloride in a Cu-Cl thermochemical hydrogen production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandehariun, Samane, E-mail: samane.ghandehariun@uoit.ca [Clean Energy Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Wang, Zhaolin, E-mail: zhaolin.wang@uoit.ca [Clean Energy Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Rosen, Marc A., E-mail: marc.rosen@uoit.ca [Clean Energy Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Naterer, Greg F., E-mail: greg.naterer@uoit.ca [Clean Energy Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hazards are quantified for each process of the cycle where the CuCl may be present. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using Cu{sub 2}OCl{sub 2} to absorb CuCl vapour is the most preferable option. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of a cooler at the outlet of the oxygen reactor is unadvisable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer If an atomization method is used for heat recovery, the fluid should be circulated. - Abstract: The copper-chlorine cycle of thermochemical water splitting, using various heat sources, is a promising technology for hydrogen production. The chemical hazards accompanying the new technology affect significantly the industrialization of the cycle, but have scarcely been examined. This paper addresses this need by examining the copper(I) chloride (CuCl) hazards that may be generated in the cycle. Regardless of the variations of Cu-Cl cycle, copper(I) chloride is always present, serving as an intermediate compound that may cause health concerns. In this paper, the CuCl hazards are quantified for each process from the generation source of the hazards along with the paths where the CuCl may be present. The processes of greatest relevance include oxygen production, heat recovery, solidification, and dissolution. The options for reducing the CuCl hazards in a Cu-Cl thermochemical hydrogen production plant are evaluated from the perspectives of variations of the Cu-Cl cycle, process integration, heat recovery, and equipment design. It is concluded that using the intake reactant Cu{sub 2}OCl{sub 2} for the oxygen production step to absorb CuCl vapor is the most preferable option compared with other alternatives such as absorbing CuCl vapor with water or CuCl{sub 2}, building additional structures inside the oxygen production reactor, and cooling the exiting gas at the outlet of the oxygen reactor.

  4. Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium study for removal of mercuric chloride by CuCl2-impregnated activated carbon sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Liu, Zhouyang; Lee, Joo-Youp

    2013-05-15

    The intrinsic adsorption kinetics of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was studied for raw, 4% and 10% CuCl2-impregnated activated carbon (CuCl2-AC) sorbents in a fixed-bed system. An HgCl2 adsorption kinetic model was developed for the AC sorbents by taking into account the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium, and internal and external mass transfer. The adsorption kinetic constants determined from the comparisons between the simulation and experimental results were 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5m(3)/(gs) for DARCO-HG, 4%(wt), and 10%(wt) CuCl2-AC sorbents, respectively, at 140 °C. CuCl2 loading was found to slightly increase the adsorption kinetic constant or at least not to decrease it. The HgCl2 equilibrium adsorption data based on the Langmuir isotherm show that high CuCl2 loading can result in high binding energy of the HgCl2 adsorption onto the carbon surface. The adsorption equilibrium constant was found to increase by ~10 times when CuCl2 loading varied from 0 to 10%(wt), which led to a decrease in the desorption kinetic constant (k2) by ~10 times and subsequently the desorption rate by ~50 times. Intraparticle pore diffusion considered in the model showed good accuracy, allowing for the determination of intrinsic HgCl2 adsorption kinetics.

  5. Comparison of Poly Aluminum Chloride and Chlorinated Cuprous for Chemical Oxygen Demand and Color Removal from Kashan Textile Industries Company Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseindoost Gh.1 MSPH,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Textile wastewaters are the most important health and environmental problems in Kashan. This research was aimed to compare the poly aluminum chloride and chlorinated cuprous efficiency for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and color from Kashan Textile Industries Company wastewater. Materials & Methods This experimental bench scale study in a batch system was conducted on 20 composed wastewater samples collected from Kashan Textile Industries Company raw wastewater. During 5 months, in the beginning of every week a day was selected randomly and in the day a composed sample was taken and studied. PAC at the doses of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mg.l-1 and chlorinated cuprous at the doses of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500mg.l-1 were applied. The optimum pH also optimum concentration of PAC and chlorinated cuprous were determined using Jar test. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 using descriptive statistics and Fisher Exact test. Findings The average concentration of COD in the raw textile wastewater was 2801.56±1398.29mg.l-1. The average COD concentration has been decreased to 1125.47±797.55mg.l-1. There was a significant difference between the effects of these two coagulants efficiency (p<0.05. The average COD removal efficiency for chlorinated cuprous and PAC was 58.52% and 72.56%, respectively. Also, the average color removal efficiency by chlorinated cuprous and PAC were 17.23 and 64.45%, respectively. Conclusion PAC is more efficient than chlorinated cuprous for both COD and color removal from KTIC wastewater.

  6. X-ray diffraction study of multiphase reverse reaction with molten CuCl and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, G.D.; Wang, Z. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada L1H 7K4 (Canada); Naterer, G.F., E-mail: greg.naterer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada L1H 7K4 (Canada); Gabriel, K. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2011-09-20

    Highlights: {yields} This paper examines the reverse reactions associated with copper oxychloride decomposition in the copper-chlorine cycle of hydrogen production. {yields} Experiments are designed to disperse oxygen gas into a molten CuCl bath to study its reaction at 450-500 {sup o}C and the composition of the products is quantified with X-ray diffraction measurements. {yields} It is found that the optimal operating parameters for minimizing the reverse reaction lie in the pressure range of 1-2 bar and a temperature range of 500-525 {sup o}C. - Abstract: The thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for hydrogen production includes three chemical reactions of hydrolysis, decomposition and electrolysis. The decomposition of copper oxychloride for oxygen production establishes the high-temperature limit of the cycle. At 450-530 {sup o}C, copper oxychloride (Cu{sub 2}OCl{sub 2}) decomposes to produce a molten salt of cuprous chloride (CuCl, copper I chloride) and oxygen gas. Minimization of the reverse reaction and undesirable products is critical for the proper operation of the Cu-Cl cycle. This paper examines the operating conditions that disfavor the reverse reaction of the oxygen production, and the parameters that maximize the extent of the forward reaction. Experiments were designed to disperse oxygen gas into a molten CuCl bath to study its reaction at 450-500 {sup o}C. The composition of the products was quantified with X-ray diffraction measurements. Experimental results indicate that a high decomposition extent of copper oxychloride is obtained at equilibrium when the temperature is higher than 500 {sup o}C, and the oxygen pressure is below 2 bar. The thermochemistry data of the reactants and products were also determined and reported. These thermodynamic data provide a key missing gap in the understanding of the Cu-Cl cycle of thermochemical hydrogen production. The data includes the standard formation entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy at

  7. Vapor compression CuCl heat pump integrated with a thermochemical water splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirescu, C., E-mail: Calin.Zamfirescu@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Naterer, G.F., E-mail: Greg.Naterer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Dincer, I., E-mail: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    In this paper, the feasibility of using cuprous chloride (CuCl) as a working fluid in a new high temperature heat pump with vapor compression is analyzed. The heat pump is integrated with a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical water splitting cycle for internal heat recovery, temperature upgrades and hydrogen production. The minimum temperature of heat supply necessary for driving the water splitting cycle can be lowered because the heat pump increases the working fluid temperature from 755 K up to {approx}950 K, at a high COP of {approx}6.5. Based on measured data available in past literature, the authors have determined the T-s diagram of CuCl, which is then used for the thermodynamic modeling of the cycle. In the heat pump cycle, molten CuCl is flashed in a vacuum where the vapor quality reaches {approx}2.5%, and then it is boiled to produce saturated vapor. The vapor is then compressed in stages (with inter-cooling and heat recovery), and condensed in a direct contact heat exchanger to transfer heat at a higher temperature. The heat pump is then integrated with a copper-chlorine water splitting plant. The heat pump evaporator is connected thermally with the hydrogen production reactor of the water splitting plant, which performs an exothermic reaction that generates heat at 760 K. Additional source heat is obtained from heat recovery from the hot reaction products of the oxy-decomposer. The heat pump transfers heat at {approx}950 K to the oxy-decomposer to drive its endothermic chemical reaction. It is shown that the heat required at the heat pump source can be obtained completely from internal heat recovery within the plant. First and second law analyses and a parametric study are performed for the proposed system to study the influence of the compressor's isentropic efficiency and temperature levels on the heat pump's COP. Two new indicators are presented: one represents the heat recovery ratio (the ratio between the thermal energy obtained by

  8. Magnetoexcitons in cuprous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiner, Frank; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Freitag, Marcel; Heckötter, Julian; Uihlein, Christoph; Aßmann, Marc; Fröhlich, Dietmar; Bayer, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Two of the most striking experimental findings when investigating exciton spectra in cuprous oxide using high-resolution spectroscopy are the observability and the fine structure splitting of F excitons reported by J. Thewes et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 027402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.027402]. These findings show that it is indispensable to account for the complex valence band structure and the cubic symmetry of the solid in the theory of excitons. This is all the more important for magnetoexcitons, where the external magnetic field reduces the symmetry of the system even further. We present the theory of excitons in Cu2O in an external magnetic field and especially discuss the dependence of the spectra on the direction of the external magnetic field, which cannot be understood from a simple hydrogenlike model. Using high-resolution spectroscopy, we also present the corresponding experimental spectra for cuprous oxide in Faraday configuration. The theoretical results and experimental spectra are in excellent agreement as regards not only the energies but also the relative oscillator strengths. Furthermore, this comparison allows for the determination of the fourth Luttinger parameter κ of this semiconductor.

  9. Radiation annealing in cuprous oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajda, P.

    1966-01-01

    Experimental results from high-intensity gamma-irradiation of cuprous oxide are used to investigate the annealing of defects with increasing radiation dose. The results are analysed on the basis of the Balarin and Hauser (1965) statistical model of radiation annealing, giving a square-root relati......-root relationship between the rate of change of resistivity and the resistivity change. The saturation defect density at room temperature is estimated on the basis of a model for defect creation in cuprous oxide....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with potassium iodide under slightly acidic conditions. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cuprous iodide. 184.1265 Section 184.1265 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1265 Cuprous iodide. (a) Cuprous iodide (copper (I) iodide, CuI, CAS...

  11. Interaction of a pseudo-π C—C bond with cuprous and argentous chlorides: Cyclopropane⋯CuCl and cyclopropane⋯AgCl investigated by rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Mullaney, John C.; Bittner, Dror M.; Walker, Nicholas R., E-mail: a.c.legon@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: nick.walker@newcastle.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Bedson Building, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Tew, David P.; Legon, Anthony C., E-mail: a.c.legon@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: nick.walker@newcastle.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-28

    Strongly bound complexes (CH{sub 2}){sub 3}⋯MCl (M = Cu or Ag), formed by non-covalent interaction of cyclopropane and either cuprous chloride or argentous chloride, have been generated in the gas phase by means of the laser ablation of either copper or silver metal in the presence of supersonically expanded pulses of a gas mixture containing small amounts of cyclopropane and carbon tetrachloride in a large excess of argon. The rotational spectra of the complexes so formed were detected with a chirped-pulse, Fourier transform microwave spectrometer and analysed to give rotational constants and Cu and Cl nuclear quadrupole coupling constants for eight isotopologues of each of (CH{sub 2}){sub 3}⋯CuCl and (CH{sub 2}){sub 3}⋯AgCl. The geometry of each of these complexes was established unambiguously to have C{sub 2v} symmetry, with the three C atoms coplanar, and with the MCl molecule lying along a median of the cyclopropane C{sub 3} triangle. This median coincides with the principal inertia axis a in each of the two complexes (CH{sub 2}){sub 3}⋯MCl. The M atom interacts with the pseudo-π bond linking the pair of equivalent carbon atoms {sup F}C (F = front) nearest to it, so that M forms a non-covalent bond to one C—C edge of the cyclopropane molecule. The (CH{sub 2}){sub 3}⋯MCl complexes have similar angular geometries to those of the hydrogen- and halogen-bonded analogues (CH{sub 2}){sub 3}⋯HCl and (CH{sub 2}){sub 3}⋯ClF, respectively. Quantitative details of the geometries were determined by interpretation of the observed rotational constants and gave results in good agreement with those from ab initio calculations carried out at the CCSD(T)(F12*)/aug-cc-pVTZ-F12 level of theory. Interesting geometrical features are the lengthening of the {sup F}C—{sup F}C bond and the shrinkage of the two equivalent {sup B}C—{sup F}C (B = back) bonds relative to the C—C bond in cyclopropane itself. The expansions of the {sup F}C—{sup F}C bond are 0

  12. Analysis of cucl thin-film deposition and growth by close-space sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anthony

    There is a growing need to implement high fidelity, scalable computational models to various thin-film photovoltaic industries. Developing accurate simulations that govern the thermal and species-transport diffusion characteristics within thin-film manufacturing processes will lead to better predictions of thin-film uniformity at varied deposition conditions that ultimately save time, money, and resources. Thin-film deposition and growth of Copper I Chloride (CuCl) by the Close-Space Sublimation (CSS) process was investigated in an extensive range of operating and thermal conditions. A simulation model based on the ANSYS FLUENT RTM solver platform was developed to encompass the kinetic behavior of the CuCl species within the CSS domain while predicting the growth rate at varied system parameters. Surface physics associated with the process, notably sublimation and adsorption, were studied, quantified, and applied to the continuum-based thin-film deposition model. Experimentation of CuCl thin-film growth was performed across a range of substrate and source temperatures for verification of the model's computational accuracy. Furthermore, characterization of the inherent growth mode exhibited by CuCl was studied in conjunction with simulation and experimental tasks. It was concluded that the simulation model provided predictions for the CuCl thickness as a function of temperature within the range of typical CSS conditions. Equally important was the elucidation of the CuCl growth mechanism, which displays a Volmer-Weber growth mode on the Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide coated layer of the substrate. Such knowledge along with the current modeling capabilities will be useful in extending the computational method to predicting the non-uniformities present in CuCl and other thin-film depositions.

  13. Determination of aluminum in aluminum electrolyte by EDTA back titration with ethanol-cuprous chloride-ammonium chloride-hydrochloric acid complex solvent separation%乙醇-氯化亚铜-氯化铵-盐酸复合溶剂分离-EDTA返滴定法测定铝电解质中单质铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲秋梅; 任凤莲; 曹福悦

    2011-01-01

    新型低温铝电解质体系物相组成复杂,单质铝的分离测定尤为困难.本文采用高选择性复合溶剂乙醇-氯化亚铜-氯化铵-盐酸(ECAH)直接分离后测定铝电解质中单质铝,成功解决了单质铝与其它铝的化合物分离困难的问题,有效降低了铝电解质溶样时铝的氟化物的微溶效应带来的误差,为铝电解质中单质铝的物相分析提供了可靠的研究方案.采用经典ED-TA络合返滴定法测得铝电解质样品中单质铝含量,加标回收率在97%~103%之间,RSD(n=6)为1.1%和1.5%.测定结果和Al-CAS-OP-CPC四元络合光度法测定结果进行比对,结果一致.%It was particularly difficult to separate and determine aluminum in new low-temperature aluminum electrolyte system because of its complicated components. In this paper, aluminum in aluminum electrolyte was directly separated and determined using high-selectivity ethanol -cuprous chlorideammomum chloride-hydrochloric acid (ECAH) as complex solvent. This method successfully settled the problem of difficult separation of aluminum from aluminum compounds, effectively reduced the determination error introduced by slight soluble effect of fluoride of aluminum during the dissolution of aluminum electrolyte, and provided a reliable research method for the phase analysis of aluminum in aluminum electrolyte. Aluminum in aluminum electrolyte samples was determined by classic EDTA complexing back titration method. The standard addition recoveries were 97%-103 %, and the relative standard deviations (RSD, n=6) were 1. 1 % and 1. 5 %, respectively. The determination results were in good agreement with those obtained by Al-CAS-OP-CPC quaternary complex photometry.

  14. Enormous excitonic effects in bulk, mono- and bi- layers of cuprous halides using many-body perturbation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhikodan, Dilna; Nautiyal, Tashi

    2017-10-01

    Cuprous halides (CuX with X = Cl, Br, I), intensely studied about four decades ago by experimentalists for excitons, are again drawing attention of researchers recently. Potential of cuprous halide systems for device applications has not yet been fully explored. We go beyond the one-particle picture to capture the two-particle physics (electron-hole interaction to form excitons). We have deployed the full tool kit of many-body perturbation technique, GW approximation + Bethe Salpeter equation, to unfurl the rich excitonic physics of the bulk as well as layers of CuX. The negative spin-orbit contribution at the valence band top in CuCl, compared to CuBr and CuI, is in good agreement with experiments. We note that CuX have exceptionally strong excitons, defying the linear fit (between the excitonic binding energy and band gap) encompassing many semiconductors. The mono- and bi- layers of cuprous halides are predicted to be rich in excitons, with exceptionally large binding energies and the resonance energies in UV/visible region. Hence this work projects CuX layers as good candidates for optoelectronic applications. With advancement of technology, we look forward to experimental realization of CuX layers and harnessing of their rich excitonic potential.

  15. Seletividade do pirofosfato de sódio e de cloretos não tamponados (CuCl2 e LaCl3 como extratores de alumínio associado à matéria orgânica em solos de restinga do estado de São Paulo Selectivity of sodium pyrophosphate and unbuffered chlorides (CuCl2 and LaCl3 as extractants of aluminum bound to soil organic matter in soils of the sandy coastal plain in São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rizzato Coelho

    2010-10-01

    dos processos envolvidos na gênese dos Espodossolos tropicais derivados de sedimentos quartzosos costeiros.Aluminum in complexes with soil organic matter is usually determined by selective extraction techniques. A common extractant for this Al form is sodium pyrophosphate. Due to its lack of selectivity for some soil samples, unbuffered Al extractants, such as CuCl2 and LaCl3, have been recommended. The selectivity of sodium pyrophosphate (Al p and of unbuffered Cu (AlCu and La (AlLa chlorides to extract aluminum bound to soil organic matter (Al-humus was evaluated in soil samples from 31 pedons (Spodosols and Quartzipsamments representative of the sandy coastal plains of the state of São Paulo. The results were compared with those obtained by ammonium oxalate and KCl and the extraction capacity and selectivity of the reagents interpreted as commonly used in the literature. Pyrophosphate was not totally selective for some samples containing inorganic aluminum. CuCl2 and LaCl3, in turn, were more selective for Al-humus in the same samples and their order of extractability was: Al p>AlCu>AlLa . Based on the different extraction capacities and the relations between the reagents used the analytic evidences were converged in order to analyze and interpret parameters such as Al saturation in the soil organic matter and stability of C-metal interactions. The stability of the interaction C-metal and humus Al saturation of all horizons studied was greater in the Bs, Bhs and Bsm spodic horizons. Based on the results it was concluded that all reagents studied can be used as Al extractants since they allow establishing relations and interpretations that may help understanding the complex chemistry of Al-humus on the studied Restinga soil. These extractors are therefore adequate and promising to study and understand processes involved in the genesis of tropical Spodosols derived from sandy coastal plain sediments.

  16. Resistance switching of electrodeposited cuprous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanparast, Sanaz

    In this work, the resistance switching behavior of electrodeposited cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films in Au/Cu2O/top electrode (Pt, Au-Pd, Al) cells was studied. After an initial FORMING process, the fabricated cells show reversible switching between a low resistance state (16.6 O) and a high resistance state (0.4 x 106 O). Changing the resistance states in cuprous oxide films depends on the magnitude of the applied voltage which corresponds to unipolar resistance switching behavior of this material. The endurance and retention tests indicate a potential application of the fabricated cells for nonvolatile resistance switching random access memory (RRAM). The results suggest formation and rupture of one or several nanoscale copper filaments as the resistance switching mechanism in the cuprous oxide films. At high electric voltage in the as-deposited state of Au/Cu 2O/Au-Pd cell structure, the conduction behavior follows Poole-Frenkel emission. Various parameters, such as the compliance current, the cuprous oxide microstructure, the cuprous oxide thickness, top electrode area, and top electrode material, affect the resistance switching characteristics. The required FORMING voltage is higher for Au/Cu2O/Al cell compared with the Au/Cu2O/Pt which is related to the Schottky behavior of Al contact with Cu2O. Cu2O nanowires in Au-Pt/ Cu 2O/Au-Pt cell also show resistance switching behavior, indicating scalable potential of this cell for usage as RRAM. After an initial FORMING process under an electric field of 3 x 106 V/m, the Cu2O nanowire is switched to the LRS. During the FORMING process physical damages are observed in the cell, which may be caused by Joule heating and gas evolution.

  17. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic Measurements of Sexithiophene-Effect of the Electrode Nature and the Dopant (CuCl2) Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NESSARK,Belkacem; MAOUCHE,Na(i)ma

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements of sexithiophene (6T) were carried out according to the Pt/6T/M sandwich structure configuration,for various electrode materials (M=GC,ITO,Ag,Cu,AI) and for different doping levels of copper chloride (CuCl2).The results demonstrate that two types of charge transport are involved in the redox process at the electrode/6T interface and inside the bulk oligomer.The complex-plane impedance plots obtained for various doping levels of CuCl2 exhibit arc shapes.The charge-transfer resistance measured from the diagrams decreases systematically with the addition of the salt,leading to an increase of the oligothiophene conductivity.

  18. Preparation and Instability of Nanocrystalline Cuprous Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Malinda D; White, Miles A; Thompson, Michelle J; Miller, Gordon J; Vela, Javier

    2015-07-06

    Low-dimensional cuprous nitride (Cu3N) was synthesized by nitridation (ammonolysis) of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanocrystals using either ammonia (NH3) or urea (H2NCONH2) as the nitrogen source. The resulting nanocrystalline Cu3N spontaneously decomposes to nanocrystalline CuO in the presence of both water and oxygen from air at room temperature. Ammonia was produced in 60% chemical yield during Cu3N decomposition, as measured using the colorimetric indophenol method. Because Cu3N decomposition requires H2O and produces substoichiometric amounts of NH3, we conclude that this reaction proceeds through a complex stoichiometry that involves the concomitant release of both N2 and NH3. This is a thermodynamically unfavorable outcome, strongly indicating that H2O (and thus NH3 production) facilitate the kinetics of the reaction by lowering the energy barrier for Cu3N decomposition. The three different Cu2O, Cu3N, and CuO nanocrystalline phases were characterized by a combination of optical absorption, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and electronic density of states obtained from electronic structure calculations on the bulk solids. The relative ease of interconversion between these interesting and inexpensive materials bears possible implications for catalytic and optoelectronic applications.

  19. Excitons and biexcitons in CuCl nanocrystallites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenerlage, B. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux, Strasbourg (France). Groupe d`Optique Nonlineaire et d`Optoelectronique; Levy, R. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux, Strasbourg (France). Groupe d`Optique Nonlineaire et d`Optoelectronique; Grun, J.B. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux, Strasbourg (France). Groupe d`Optique Nonlineaire et d`Optoelectronique

    1995-06-01

    Because of the important binding energies of excitons and biexcitons in CuCl, these elementary excitations can be treated in the weak confinement regime if excited in semiconductor nanocrystallites. Their optical properties and dynamics are similar to those of CuCl bulk material. Besides the well-known blue shift of resonances due to the confinement and their inhomogeneous broadening due to the size distribution of the nanocrystallites, the main difference between both systems results from surface effects and the lack of translational invariance in nanocrystallites. The latter affects the selection rules of optical transitions and the exchange interaction of the quasiparticules. (orig.).

  20. Electrocrystallizations of copper on glassy carbon in CuCl2 silica sol and aqueous solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yan Feng; Min Gu; Yun Gui Du

    2012-01-01

    Electrocrystallizations of copper from both CuCl2 silica sol and aqueous solutions were studied by the chronoamperometry technique.It was found that current density contributions of the double-layer charging (iDL) in current-time transients (CTTs) from both of the solutions were large.An adsorption-nucleation based model was proposed to analyze quantitatively the CTTs,by which copper electrocrystallization mechanism was characterized as progressive nucleation with 3D growth (3DP) under diffusion control.The diffusion coefficient of copper ions and the AN∞ products in aqueous solutions were larger than that in silica sols,which indicated that copper nucleation was inhibited in sol solution.The large iDL may be resulted from the adsorption of chloride ions on the electrode surface.

  1. Preparation and Structural Investigation of CuCl2 Graphite Intercalation Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIN Xiaopei; CHEN Jiazang; CAO Hong; MA Enbao; WANG Xuehua; YUAN Jizhu

    2008-01-01

    Superfine graphite powder was prepared by ball-milling exfoliated graphite containing anhydrous CuCl2 in planetary ball milling systems. Nano-scale CuCl2 graphite intercalation compounds were synthesized by heating a mixture of anhydrous CuCl2 and graphite nanosheets.Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were performed to characterize the microstructures of stage-1 nano-scale CuCl2 graphite intercalation compounds. The structure and components of the domain wall and core in thenano-scale CuCl2 graphite intercalation compounds are described. The results show that the contentof CuCl2 in the mixture plays a crucial role in the size of the nano-scale CuCl2 graphite intercalation compound.

  2. Evaluation of defects in cuprous oxide through exciton luminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazer, Laszlo, E-mail: jl@laszlofrazer.com [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Lenferink, Erik J. [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chang, Kelvin B. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Stern, Nathaniel P. [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ketterson, John B. [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The various decay mechanisms of excitons in cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) are highly sensitive to defects which can relax selection rules. Here we report cryogenic hyperspectral imaging of exciton luminescence from cuprous oxide crystals grown via the floating zone method showing that the samples have few defects. Some locations, however, show strain splitting of the 1s orthoexciton triplet polariton luminescence. Strain is reduced by annealing. In addition, annealing causes annihilation of oxygen and copper vacancies, which leads to a negative correlation between luminescence of unlike vacancies. - Highlights: • We use luminescence to observe defects in high quality cuprous oxide crystals. • Strain is reduced by annealing. • Annealing causes annihilation of oxygen and copper vacancies.

  3. The Absorption of Benzotriazole on Copper and Cuprous Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Cornell University, Ithaca INY, 14853 Copper surfaces are commonly treated with benzotriazole ( BTA ), 1. to inhibit cor- rosion. H1+ is thought to be...00 00 SIOFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Contract N00014-82-K-0576 Technical Report No. 38 THE ADSORPTION OF BENZOTRIAZOLE ON COPPER AND CUPROUS OXIDE by M... Benzotriazole on Copper and Cuprous Oxide 12 7- `SONAL AUTHOR(S) M. C. Zonnevylle and R. Hoffmann 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year

  4. Exciton-thermal analysis of nonisothermal nucleation in solid solution of CuCl in glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiman, V. I.; Ashkalunin, A. L.; Derkacheva, O. Yu.; Maksimov, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    The work presents results of investigation of nucleation of CuCl nanocrystals in glass by method of exiton-thermal analysis (ETA) which is based on measuring the optical absorbance of CuCl phase in sample under heating up to the melting temperature of CuCl nanocrystals. The melting temperature of nanoparticle depends on its radius. Therefore analysis of curve of melting CuCl phase allows to determine distribution curve of nanoparticles on their radii. By the method of ETA the features of variation of CuCl nanoparticles distributions in glass when changing regime of sample annealing (nonisothermal nucleation) were studied. For example, by reducing the heating rate of the sample the concentration of particles of CuCl phase increases considerably while reducing average radius.

  5. Potentiostatic Deposition and Characterization of Cuprous Oxide Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposition technique was employed to deposit cuprous oxide Cu2O thin films. In this work, Cu2O thin films have been grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) transparent conducting glass as a substrate by potentiostatic deposition of cupric acetate. The effect of deposition time on the morphologies, crystalline, and optical quality of Cu2O thin films was investigated.

  6. Effect of cuprous halide interlayers on the device performance of ZnPc/C{sub 60} organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jinho; Park, Dasom; Heo, Ilsu; Yim, Sanggyu, E-mail: sgyim@kookmin.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Effect of CuX interlayers on subsequently deposited films and devices was studied. • CuI is the most effective for the performance of ZnPc/C{sub 60}-based solar cells. • Results were related to the molecular geometry of ZnPc and HOMO level of interlayers. - Abstract: The effect of various cuprous halide (CuX) interlayers introduced between a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) layer and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layer on the physical properties of the ZnPc thin films and device performances of ZnPc/C{sub 60}-based small-molecule organic solar cells was studied. Strong substrate–molecule interaction between the CuX and ZnPc partly converted surface-perpendicular stacking geometry of ZnPc molecules into surface-parallel one. This flat-lying geometry led to an enhancement in electronic absorption and charge transport within the ZnPc films. As a result, the overall power conversion efficiency of the cell with CuI interlayer increased by ∼37%. In the case of the cells with CuBr and CuCl interlayer, however, the enhancement in device performances was limited because of the reduced conversion of the molecular geometry and increased energy barrier for hole extraction due to the low highest occupied molecular orbital level of the interlayer.

  7. Sensitivity of cuprous azide towards heat and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartar Singh

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available "Rates of thermal decomposition of azide at six different temperatures have been measured. The sigmoid shapes of the curves representing increase in pressure with time suggest that a given temperature a fixed number of nuclei are formed at the end of the induction period. The nuclei increase in size in three dimensions. The radius of any nucleus at any instant (tis directly proportional to (t-t/Sub/owhere t/Sub/o is the induction period. The activation energy involved in thermal has been found decomposition to be 26.5K calories. It is suggested that this activation energy corresponds to the energy required for thermal transition of an electron 3 d band to the Fermi level of the metallic copper nuclei. The impact sensitivity and induction period necessary for explosion at various temperatures for crystalline and precipitated samples of cuprous azide have been measured. The results indicate that cuprous azide is more sensitive towards heat and impact than lead azide. The impact sensitivity of cuprous azide is found to increase in crystal size."

  8. Hydrometallurgical process for the recycling of copper using anodic oxidation of cuprous ammine complexes and flow-through electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, T.; Yaguchi, M.; Koyama, K.; Tanaka, M. [Metals Recycling Group, Research Institute for Environmental Management Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Lee, J.-C. [Minerals and Materials Processing Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 30 Gajeong-dong, Yuseong-ku, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea)

    2008-01-01

    Flow-through electrolysis for copper electrowinning from cuprous ammine complex was studied in order to develop a hydrometallurgical copper recycling process using an ammoniacal chloride solution, focusing on the anodic oxidation of cuprous to cupric ammine complexes. The current efficiency of this anodic oxidation was 96% at a current density of 200 A m{sup -2} under a batch condition. In a flow-through electrolysis using a sub-liter cell and a carbon felt anode, the anodic current efficiency increased with the flow rate and was typically higher than 97%. This tendency was explained by the backward flow of the cupric ammine complex, which was formed on the anode, through the diaphragm. The anodic overpotential was lower than 0.3 V even at an apparent current density of 1500 A m{sup -2}. A similar current efficiency and overpotential were also achieved in a liter scale cell, which indicates the scale flexibility of this electrolysis. The power consumption requirements for copper electrowinning in this cell were 460 and 770 kWh t{sup -1} at the current densities of 250 and 500 A m{sup -2}, respectively, which were much lower than that of the conventional copper electrowinning despite the longer interpolar distance. (author)

  9. Green chemistry synthesis of nano-cuprous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceja-Romero, L R; Ortega-Arroyo, L; Ortega Rueda de León, J M; López-Andrade, X; Narayanan, J; Aguilar-Méndez, M A; Castaño, V M

    2016-04-01

    Green chemistry and a central composite design, to evaluate the effect of reducing agent, temperature and pH of the reaction, were employed to produce controlled cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles. Response surface method of the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy is allowed to determine the most relevant factors for the size distribution of the nanoCu2O. X-ray diffraction reflections correspond to a cubic structure, with sizes from 31.9 to 104.3 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the different shapes depend strongly on the conditions of the green synthesis.

  10. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds : (NH4)(2)CuCl4, (CH3NH3)(2)CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)(2)CuCl4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolfaghari, P.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions (NH4)(2)CuCl4

  11. (64)CuCl2 PET/CT in prostate cancer relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, Arnoldo; Paparo, Francesco; Puntoni, Matteo; Righi, Sergio; Bottoni, Gianluca; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Silvia; DeCensi, Andrea; Ferrarazzo, Giulia; Gambaro, Monica; Grillo Ruggieri, Filippo; Campodonico, Fabio; Tomasello, Laura; Timossi, Luca; Sola, Simona; Lopci, Egesta; Cabria, Manlio

    2017-09-08

    To evaluate the biodistribution, kinetics and radiation dosimetry of (64)CuCl2 in humans and to assess the ability of (64)CuCl2-PoPET/CT to detect prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence in patients with biochemical relapse. Methods: we prospectively evaluated 50 PCa patients with biochemical relapse after surgery or external-beam radiation therapy. All patients underwent (64)CuCl2-PET/CT, (18)F-Choline-PET/CT and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) within 15 days of each other. Experienced readers interpreted the images, and the detection rate (DR) of each imaging modality was calculated. Histopathology, when available, clinical or laboratory response and multidisciplinary follow-up were used to confirm the site of disease. In parallel, biodistribution, kinetics of the lesions and radiation dosimetry of (64)CuCl2 were evaluated. Results: From a dosimetric point-of view, an administered dose of 200 MBq for (64)CuCl2 translates into 5.7mSv of effective dose. Unlike (18)F-Choline, (64)CuCl2 is not excreted nor accumulated in the urinary tract, thus allowing thorough pelvic exploration. The maximum (64)CuCl2 uptake at the sites of PCa relapse was observed one hour after tracer injection. In our cohort, (64)CuCl2-PET/CT proved positive in 41 of 50 patients, with an overall DR of 82%. The DRs of (18)F-Choline-PET/CT and mpMRI were 56% and 74% respectively. The difference between the DRs of (64)CuCl2-PET/CT and (18)F-Choline-PET/CT was statistically significant (pPET/CT had a higher DR than (18)F-Choline-PET/CT in patients with PSA PET tracers. In patients with biochemical relapse and a low PSA level, (64)CuCl2-PET/CT shows a significantly higher DR than (18)F-Choline-PET/CT. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. Femtosecond spectroscopy and TD-DFT calculations of CuCl4(2-) excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Elena N; Zubanova, Ekaterina M; Melnikov, Michail Ya; Gostev, Fedor E; Shelaev, Ivan V; Nadtochenko, Victor A

    2014-12-21

    Photoinduced processes of tetrahexylammonium tetrachlorocuprate [(C6H13)4N]2Cu(II)Cl4 in chloro-organic solvents were investigated by steady state photolysis and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The quantum yield of photoreduction of CuCl4(2-) was estimated to be about 1%; the process resulted in the formation of the copper(i) chlorocomplex Cu(I)Cl3(2-) and a chlorine atom. Femtosecond laser photolysis with a 422 nm, 40 fs pulse revealed a three-exponential decay of the LMCT excited state of [(C6H13)4N]2CuCl4. A global fitting SVD analysis of the femtosecond transient spectra suggested three relaxation times, ∼400 fs, ∼1.4 ps and ∼5.8 ps. Oscillations in transient absorption kinetic traces were documented for CuCl4(2-) solutions in 2-chlorobutane. The oscillation Fourier transform analysis of the oscillations and linear predictive singular value decomposition revealed peaks at 283 cm(-1) (damping time ∼600 fs) and 181 cm(-1) (damping time ∼400 fs). These peaks can be tentatively attributed to νs(Cu-Cl) symmetric stretching frequency A1 and T2 reflecting excited state vibrational coherence. Quantum chemical calculations suggest a possible scheme for relaxation pathways in CuCl4(2-). The observed transient excited state absorption bands agree semiquantitatively with the calculated transition bands of CuCl4(2-).

  13. Microwave-assisted synthesis and optical properties of cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dandan [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass and Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Du, Yi, E-mail: duyi234@126.com [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass and Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Tian, Xiuying, E-mail: xiuyingt@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hunan Institute of Humanities Science and Technology, Loudi 417000 (China); Li, Zhongfu; Chen, Zhongtao; Zhu, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass and Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were fabricated by a facile and green microwave-assisted method using soluble starch as reductant and dispersant. Spheres with the diameter of about 100 and 600 nm, octahedron and truncated octahedron with the edge length of about 0.8–3 μm cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were successfully obtained. Microwave heating was proved to be a efficient method and was advantageous to the homogeneous nucleation. Growth mechanism of the prepared Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals were investigated carefully. Furthermore, the optical properties of the prepared cuprous oxide microcrystals were investigated by UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, demonstrating that their band gaps of obtained samples were 1.96–2.07 eV, assigned to their different sizes and morphologies. - Abstract: Cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were fabricated by a facile and green microwave-assisted method using soluble starch as reductant and dispersant. It was observed that the addition amounts of NaOH had a prominent effect on the morphologies and size of cuprous oxide products, and microwave heating was proved to be a efficient method and was advantageous to the homogeneous nucleation. The as-obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results indicated that the samples were pure cuprous oxide. Spheres with the diameter of about 100 and 600 nm, octahedron and truncated octahedron with the edge length of about 0.8–3 μm cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were successfully obtained. Furthermore, the UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used to investigate the optical properties of the prepared cuprous oxide microcrystals, demonstrating that their band gaps of obtained samples were 1.96–2.07 eV, assigned to their different sizes and morphologies.

  14. Recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based hydrogen production and the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naterer, G. [Canada Research Chair Professor, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Suppiah, S. [Manager, Hydrogen Isotopes Technology Branch, AECL, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Lewis, M. [Chemist, Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gabriel, K. [Associate Provost, Research, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. [Professor of Mechanical Engineering, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Fowler, M. [Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Rizvi, G. [Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Easton, E.B. [Assistant Professor of Chemistry, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Ikeda, B.M.; Pioro, I. [Associate Professor, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe St., Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4 (Canada); Kaye, M.H.; Lu, L. [Assistant Professor, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Spekkens, P. [Vice President of Science and Technology Development, Ontario Power Generation, 889 Brock Road, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Tremaine, P. [Professor of Chemistry, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mostaghimi, J. [Canada Research Chair Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Avsec, J. [Assistant Professor, Faculty of Energy Technology, Univ. of Maribor, Hocevarjev trg 1, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia); Jiang, J. [Professor and NSERC/UNENE Senior Industrial Research Chair, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based production of hydrogen by electrolysis and the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. This includes individual process and reactor developments within the Cu-Cl cycle, thermochemical properties, advanced materials, controls, safety, reliability, economic analysis of electrolysis at off-peak hours, and integrating hydrogen plants with Canada's nuclear power plants. These enabling technologies are being developed by a Canadian consortium, as part of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for hydrogen production from the next generation of nuclear reactors. (author)

  15. Fabrication of CuCl quantum dots and the size dependence of the biexciton binding energy

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S T; Kim, H Y; Kim, I G

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated CuCl quantum dots (QDs) in an aluminoborosilicate glass matrix. The photoluminescence of the CuCl QDs was surveyed by using the band-to-band excitation and the site selective luminescence methods. The excitation density dependence of the exciton and the biexciton luminescence was measured, and the saturation effects of the luminescence intensities were observed. The biexciton binding energies measured using the site selective luminescence method increased with decreasing QD size. The data were well fitted by a function resulting from the numerical matrix-diagonalization method.

  16. Formation processes of CuCl and regenerated Cu crystals on bronze surfaces in neutral and acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Julin [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: julinwang@126.com; Xu Chunchun [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Lv Guocheng [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The paper is devoted to investigating the formation of CuCl and regenerated Cu crystals on bronze. Electrochemical behaviour of bronze in simulated anoxic edaphic media and occluded cell (O.C.) solutions was studied with cycle voltammetry (CV) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Within potential range of -800 to +800 mV, oxidation occurred was largely a process in which Cu is oxidized to CuCl and the reduction process was a reverse of it. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to observe the morphology of CuCl crystals, regenerated Cu crystals and corrosion interface at nm level. The deposition of regenerated Cu on simulated archaeological bronzes was simulated under experimental conditions for the first time. CuCl could be thoroughly reduced to pure Cu if reduction time interval were sufficiently prolonged. This provided a theoretical and experimental basis for getting rid of harmful CuCl patina from archaeological bronzes with electrochemical means.

  17. Quantitative separation of the influence of copper (II) chloride mass migration on the chemo-responsive shape memory effect in polyurethane shape memory polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haibao; Lu, Chunrui; Huang, Wei Min; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-10-01

    Chemo-responsive shape memory effect in polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) composite triggered by mass migration of copper (II) chloride (CuCl2) has been experimentally demonstrated. In this study, we present a comprehensive study on quantitative separation of the effect of CuCl2 particle mass migration on the chemo-responsive shape recovery behavior of polyurethane SMP composites with different concentrations of CuCl2 particles. It is found that the SMP is featured with a critical release rate of the mechanical energy storage associated with the shape recovery behavior due to mass migration of the CuCl2 particle. A sequence of molecular interactions among CuCl2 particles, polyurethane macromolecules and water molecules, i.e., assembly of the CuCl2 particle with polyurethane macromolecules, and then disassembly and dissolution of the CuCl2 particle in water, results in an acceleration of water-induced shape recovery of polyurethane SMP. This study focuses on the quantitative separation of the influence of mass migration on the chemo-responsive shape recovery behavior of polyurethane SMP in response to water. It is expected to promote and achieve the actuation of chemo-responsive SMPs in a fully controllable manner.

  18. Oxidation of cuprous stellacyanin by aminopolycarboxylatocobaltate(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, G S; Mitchel, G L; Blackmer, G L; Holwerda, R A

    1978-01-01

    Rate parameters are reported for the oxidation of cuprous stellacyanin by Co(PDTA)-(k(25.0 degrees) = 17.9 M(-1)sec(-1), deltaH not equal to = 8.5 kcal/mol, deltaH not equal to = 8.5 kcal/mol, deltaS not equal to = -24 cal/mol-deg; pH 7.0, Mu 0.5 M) and Co(CyDTA)-(k(25.1 degrees) = 17.0 M(-1)sec(-1), deltaH not equal to = 8.7 kcal/mol, deltaS not equal to = -24 cal/mol-deg; pH 7.0 mu 0.5 M). The first order Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- dependences observed over wide concentration ranges contrast with the saturation behavior reported previously for Co(EDTA)- as the oxidant. It is concluded that the- CH3 and -(CH2)4-substituents of PDTA and CyDTA, respectively, prevent the alkylated derivatives of Co(EDTA)- from hydrogen bonding with the reduced blue protein, causing precursor complex formation constants to fall far below that of 149M(-1) (25.1 degrees) observed for the EDTA complex. The similarity between deltaH not equal to and deltaS not equal to values for the oxidation of stellacyanin by Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- indicates that the size of alkyl substituents linked to the carbon atoms of the EDTA ethylenediamine backbone has little influence on activation requirements for Cu(I) to Co(III) electron transfer. The electron transfer reactivity of aminopolycarboxylatocobalt(III) complexes with cuprous stellacyanin therefore appears to be linked to the accessibility of one or more of the ligated acetate groups to outer-sphere contact with the type 1 Cu(I) center. Saturation in kobsd vs. [oxidant] plots found for the reactions of Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- with stellacyanin at pH 6 and at pH 7 in the presence of EDTA is attributed to the formation of "dead-end" oxidant-protein complexes.

  19. Effect of dissociation pulse circuit inductance on the CuCl laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, A. A.; Nerheim, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of the double-pulsed CuCl laser is improved by a decrease in the inductance of the dissociation pulse circuit. Higher efficiency is obtained due to a larger ground-state copper atom population and lower optimum dissociation energy.

  20. Excitonic-biexcitonic polariton interference in thin platelet of CuCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinov, Z. G.

    1999-04-01

    The spectral position in Q-space of the transmission maxima of a 0.15 μm thick CuCl single crystal with parallel plates in Z 3-excitonic resonance region, measured by Mita and Nagasawa, has been interpreted as an indication for the mutual interference effect between two propagating excitonic-biexcitonic polariton modes.

  1. Dynamics of the Exciton Screening in CuCl on a Subpicosecond Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulin, D.; Antonetti, A.; Chase, L. L.; Martin, J. L.; Migus, A.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Löwenau, J. P.; Schmitt-Rink, S.; Haug, H.

    1984-02-01

    The dynamics of exciton screening in CuCl, following optical injection of a high-density hot plasma, is studied with subpicosecond resolution. A delayed response for exciton bleaching of ~1 ps is attributed to thermal relaxation of the plasma. The results are compared to a theoretical treatment of the particle density- and temperature-dependent dielectric function.

  2. Removing chlorine of CuCl residue from zinc hydrometallurgy by microwave roasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢帅丹; 夏仡; 黄昌元; 吴国钦; 彭金辉; 巨少华; 张利波

    2014-01-01

    Most Zn hydrometallurgy factories adopt Cu2SO4 as a dechlorination reagent from zinc solution nowadays, thus much CuCl residue is produced. The existing process of treating this residue is washing with water or sodium carbonate solution, which would cause a lot of troubles to water treatment and waste discharge. A method of microwave roasting was adopted for dechlorination of CuCl residue. A 1.5 kW microwave roasting equipment with dust collection and tail gas adsorption systems was set up and applied during the experiment. By investigating the effect of temperature, heat preservation time, moisture content of raw material and grain size of samples on the dechlorination, the optimal experimental condition is obtained. When the samples with 2%moisture and <150 μm grain size are microwave roasted at 400 °C for 2 h, the Cl content turns from 14.27% to 1.35% and the dechlorination rate is as high as 90%, while that with conventional heating is only 60%-80%. The phase change of the roasting process investigated with X-ray diffraction verifies that CuCl in CuCl residue is removed by being transformed into CuO.

  3. The coordination chemistry of two symmetric fluorene-based organic ligands with cuprous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Chao-Wei; Ma, Jian-Ping; Liu, Qi-Kui; Dong, Yu-Bin

    2013-12-15

    Two novel symmetric fluorene-based ligands, namely, 2,7-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluorene [L1 or (I), C21H18N4] and 2,7-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-9,9-dipropyl-9H-fluorene (L2), have been used to construct the coordination polymers catena-poly[[dichloridodicopper(I)(Cu-Cu)]-μ-2,7-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluorene], [Cu2Cl2(C21H18N4)]n, (II), and catena-poly[[tetra-μ2-chlorido-tetracopper(I)]-bis[μ-2,7-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-9,9-dipropyl-9H-fluorene

  4. Catalysis of ethylene oxychlorination into 1,2-dichlorethane in the presence of CuCl2/CuCl active centres on the surface of g-Al2O3

    OpenAIRE

    Kurta, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The structure of CuCl2, CuCl catalyst active centres on the surface of γ-Al2O3 has been investigated on the basis of X-ray diffraction analysis. The influence of the catalyst structure on the mechanism of ethylene oxidative chlorination has been determined. Using mass spectroscopy the difference in the structure of active centers and the mechanism of the deposited and impregnated types of CuCl2, CuCl/γ-Al2O3 catalysts in the process of ethylene oxidative chlorination into 1,2-dichloreth...

  5. Microwave Synthesis of Cuprous Oxide Micro-/Nanocrystals with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingwei Zhu; Yihe Zhang; Jiajun Wang; Fengshan Zhou; Paul K. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Cuprous oxide micro-/nanocrystals were synthesized by using a simple liquid phase reduction process under microwave irradiation. Copper sulfate was used as the starting materials and macromolecule surfactants served as the templates.The morphologies phase and optical properties of them are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection absorptive spectra (UV-vis/DRS), respectively. The crystals had four different shapes, namely spheres, strips, octahedrons, and dandelions. The photocatalytic behavior of the cuprous oxide particles were investigated by monitoring the degradation of rhodamine B. In spite of the different morphologies, all of the cuprous oxide micro-/nanocrystals exhibited photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation in the following order: dandelions, strips, spheres, and octahedral crystals. The photocatalytic degradation rates of rhodamine B are 56.37%, 55.68%, 51.83% and 46.16%, respectively. The morphology affects significantly the photocatalytic performance.

  6. Enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient of ethylene glycol base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ali; Ramzan, Naveed; Umer, Asim; Ahmad, Ayyaz; Muryam, Hina

    2017-08-01

    The enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the ethylene glycol (EG) base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids were investigated. The nanofluids of different volume concentrations i-e 1%, 2.5% and 4.5% were prepared by the two step method. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles were ultrasonically stirred for four hours in the ethylene glycol (EG). The experimental study has been performed through circular tube geometry in laminar flow regime at average Reynolds numbers 36, 71 and 116. The constant heat flux Q = 4000 (W/m2) was maintained during this work. Substantial enhancement was observed in the convective heat transfer coefficient of ethylene glycol (EG) base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids than the base fluid. The maximum 74% enhancement was observed in convective heat transfer coefficient at 4.5 vol% concentration and Re = 116.

  7. Thermochromic effects in a Jahn–Teller active CuCl64– layered hybrid system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caretta, A.; Miranti, R.; Arkenbout, A.H.; Polyakov, A.O.; Meetsma, A.; Hidayat, R.; Tjia, M.O.; Palstra, T.T.M.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid material copper (II) tetrachloro-bis(phenyl ethyl ammonium) (C6H5CH2CH2NH3)2CuCl4, or PEACuCl, has been investigated by temperature-dependent spectroscopic absorption experiments. The absorption bands observed in the near-infrared region (1.3–1.9 eV) generally exhibit redshifts with incre

  8. 64CuCl2 PET/CT imaging of mouse muscular injury induced by electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Cai, Huawei; Peng, Fangyu

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury is common in body injuries suffered in sports and car accidents. Development of new tracers is significant for assessing muscular injury with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and monitoring repair of muscle injury in response to treatment. Copper is required for wound healing and increased copper ions were detected in the soft tissue of wound in rodents and human. Based on the recent finding of increased 64Cu uptake in the traumatic brain injury, this study aimed to explore use of 64CuCl2 as a radiotracer for molecular imaging of muscular injury using PET/CT. Focally increased 64Cu uptake by the injured muscular tissue (5.4 ± 1.2% ID/g) was detected in the C57BL/6 mice with electroporation-induced skeletal muscle injury by PET/CT after intravenous injection of 64CuCl2 as a tracer, compared to low 64Cu uptake associated with muscular inflammation induced by intramuscular injection of lipopolysaccharides (0.82 ± 0.26% ID/g, P < 0.01) or physiological 64Cu uptake of the non-injured muscular tissues (0.78 ± 0.20% ID/g, P < 0.01). The findings support further investigation of 64CuCl2 as a new radiotracer for molecular imaging of skeletal muscle injury using PET/CT. PMID:28123866

  9. Towards printed perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide hole transporting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed p-type metal oxide materials have shown great promise in improving the stability of perovskite-based solar cells and offering the feasibility for a low cost printing fabrication process. Herein, we performed a device modeling study on planar perovskite solar cells with cuprous ...

  10. Optical characterization of gold-cuprous oxide interfaces for terahertz emission applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanandan, G.K.P.; Adam, A.J.L.; Ramakrishnan, G.; Petrik, P.; Hendrikx, R.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the interface between gold and thermally formed cuprous oxide, which emits terahertz radiation when illuminated with ultrafast femtosecond lasers, is in fact an AuCu/Cu2O interface due to the formation of the thermal diffusion alloy AuCu. The alloy enables the formation of a Schottky-ba

  11. The calculation of specific heats for some important solid components in hydrogen production process based on CuCl cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsec Jurij

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy sources of the future enabling direct production of power and heat in fuel cells, hydrogen engines or furnaces with hydrogen burners. One of the last remainder problems in hydrogen technology is how to produce a sufficient amount of cheap hydrogen. One of the best options is large scale thermochemical production of hydrogen in combination with nuclear power plant. copper-chlorine (CuCl cycle is the most promissible thermochemical cycle to produce cheap hydrogen.This paper focuses on a CuCl cycle, and the describes the models how to calculate thermodynamic properties. Unfortunately, for many components in CuCl cycle the thermochemical functions of state have never been measured. This is the reason that we have tried to calculate some very important thermophysical properties. This paper discusses the mathematical model for computing the thermodynamic properties for pure substances and their mixtures such as CuCl, HCl, Cu2OCl2 important in CuCl hydrogen production in their fluid and solid phase with an aid of statistical thermodynamics. For the solid phase, we have developed the mathematical model for the calculation of thermodynamic properties for polyatomic crystals. In this way, we have used Debye functions and Einstein function for acoustical modes and optical modes of vibrations to take into account vibration of atoms. The influence of intermolecular energy we have solved on the basis of Murnaghan equation of state and statistical thermodynamics.

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  13. The fictile coordination chemistry of cuprous-thiolate sites in copper chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushie, M Jake; Zhang, Limei; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N

    2012-06-01

    Copper plays vital roles in the active sites of cytochrome oxidase and in several other enzymes essential for human health. Copper is also highly toxic when dysregulated; because of this an elaborate array of accessory proteins have evolved which act as intracellular carriers or chaperones for the copper ions. In most cases chaperones transport cuprous copper. This review discusses some of the chemistry of these copper sites, with a view to some of the structural factors in copper coordination which are important in the biological function of these chaperones. The coordination chemistry and accessible geometries of the cuprous oxidation state are remarkably plastic and we discuss how this may relate to biological function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biogenesis/Assembly of Respiratory Enzyme Complexes.

  14. Adsorption of H2O,OH,and O on CuCl(111) Surface: A Density Functional Theory Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Wang; Wen-kai Chen; Bao-zhen Sun; Chun-hai Lu

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of H2O molecule and its dissociation products,O and OH,on CuCl(111) surface was studied with periodic slab model by PW91 approach of GGA within the framework of density functional theory.The results of geometry optimization indicate that the top site is stable energetically for H2O adsorbed over the CuCl(111) surface.The threefold hollow site is found to be the most stable adsorption site for OH and O,and the calculated adsorption energies are 309.5 and 416.5 k J/mol,respectively.Adsorption of H2O on oxygen-precovered CuCl(111) surface to form surface hydroxyl groups is predicted to be exothermic by 180.1 kJ/mol.The stretching vibrational frequencies,MuUiken population analysis and density of states analysis are employed to interpret the possible mechanism for the computed results.

  15. Adsorption Behavior for CO on Modified MCM-41 with Zn and CuCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Zn-Cu(Ⅰ)/HMCM-41 catalysts were successfully prepared in laboratory scale by solid-state ion exchange with CuCl salt, together with introduction of Zn to improve the dispersion degree of the active component Cu(Ⅰ) on the surface. With increase of the amounts of Zn and CuCl from 0% to 9.0% and 25.0% respectively, CO adsorption the amounts of increased from 10.6 μmol/g to 183.0 μmol/g correspondingly. The in situ FT-IR spectra for CO adsorption demonstrated that there existed two dynamic equilibriums between surface carbonyl complexes: Cu(CO)3+ Cu(CO)2++ CO and Cu(CO)2+ Cu(CO)+ + CO. The equilibriums can be shifted reversibly by changing the temperature and pressure. Due to the modified MCM-41 mesoporous materials possess both of the acidic and metallic carbonyl centers, this kind of material can be developed into mesoporous bifunctional catalysts for carbonylation reactions, in which larger molecules are involved.

  16. Picosecond nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide with different nano-morphologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Harshavardhan Reddy; H Sekhar; D Narayana Rao

    2014-02-01

    Cuprous oxide nanoclusters, microcubes and microparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method. Phase purity and crystallinity of the samples were studied by using X-ray powder diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show different morphologies like nanoclusters, microcubes and microparticles. For linear and nonlinear optical measurements, the as-synthesized Cu2O with different morphologies were dispersed in isopropanol solution. The absorption spectrum recorded in the visible regions shows peaks that depend on the morphology of the particles and the peak shifts towards red region as one goes from nanoclusters to microparticles. Simple open-aperture Z-scan technique is used to measure nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide at 532 nm, 30 ps excitation at 10 Hz repetition rate. Cuprous oxide nanoclusters show reverse saturable absorption (RSA) behaviour, the microcubes and microparticles at a similar concentration exhibit saturable absorption (SA) type of behaviour at lower peak intensities and exhibit RSA within SA at higher peak intensities. The results show that the transition from SA to RSA can be ascribed to the two-photon absorption (TPA) process.

  17. SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY OF POLYNUCLEAR DABCO ADDUCTS WITH NiCl2 AND CuCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMADOU NDIAYE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed structures for the studied adducts - DABCO.3[NiCl2·2H2O].EtOH and 2DABCO.3CuCl2.4EtOH or 3DABCO. 4CuCl2.5EtOH are discrete with two or three metallic components, the environments around the Nickel centres being octahedral or square planar, while being octahedral , linear or a square based prism around the Copper centres, the DABCO behaving as a monodentate or bridging bidentate ligand or being lattice. Extra intermolecular interactions via hydrogen bonds when considered, may lead to supramolecular architectures.

  18. Contrasting effects of sulfur dioxide on cupric oxide and chloride during thermochemical formation of chlorinated aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Shiota, Kenji; Takaoka, Masaki

    2014-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas has been reported to be an inhibitor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) formation in fly ash. However, other research has suggested little or no inhibitory effect of SO2 gas. Although these studies focused on reactions between SO2 gas and gas-phase chlorine (Cl) species, no attention was paid to thermochemical gas-solid reactions. In this study, we found contrasting effects of SO2 gas depending on the chemical form of copper (CuO vs CuCl2) with a solid-phase inorganic Cl source (KCl). Chlorinated aromatics (PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorobenzenes) increased and decreased in model fly ash containing CuO + KCl and CuCl2 + KCl, respectively, with increased SO2 injection. According to in situ Cu K-edge and S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Cl gas and CuCl2 were generated and then promoted the formation of highly chlorinated aromatics after thermochemical reactions of SO2 gas with the solid-phase CuO + KCl system. In contrast, the decrease in aromatic-Cls in a CuCl2 + KCl system with SO2 gas was caused mainly by the partial sulfation of the Cu. The chemical form of Cu (especially the oxide/chloride ratio) may be a critical factor in controlling the formation of chlorinated aromatics using SO2 gas.

  19. Experimental study of CdCl(2):CuCl photochromic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, H; Rincon, J M; Celaya, L E

    1990-09-01

    We present measurements of the spectral transmittance and photochromic response of CdCl(2):CuCl coatings. The coatings are also examined with the aid of electron micrographs. We explain the features observed in the spectral transmittance of darkened photochromic films, using a colloidal model obtained from the generalized Maxwell-Garnett theory. The colloidal model indicates the presence of ellipsoidal copper particles with a shape factor (minor axis/major axis) between 0.39 and 0.42 and mean ratios between 2.03 and 1.73 nm. The optical transmittance curve obtained in the faded state shows a peak near 280 nm attributed to Cu(+), and the curve in the darkened state shows two bands, a band located at 375 nm attributed to Cu(2+) and another at 600-610 nm assigned to colloidal copper particles.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance for differentiating two inequivalent M sites in double anhydrous M2CuCl4 (M = K, Cs, and NH4) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Yoon, Ma Byong

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and the spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) for the M nuclei (M = K, Cs, and NH4) in M2CuCl4 crystals were studied as functions of temperature. The K2CuCl4, Cs2CuCl4, and (NH4)2CuCl4 single crystals all have the same M2BX4 structure, and their two inequivalent sites M(1) and M(2) were differentiated using the NMR results. Because M(2) is surrounded by fewer but closer Cl ligands than M(1), it has a shorter T1 value than M(1). However, the three crystals have different T1 temperature dependences and dynamic properties. The rotational tumbling motion defined by the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound theory was found to occur in (NH4)2CuCl4, but not in K2CuCl4 or Cs2CuCl4. The differences observed in the spin-lattice relaxation times of the M nuclei may be related to their ionic masses.

  1. Oxidation of elemental mercury vapor over gamma-Al2O3 supported CuCl2 catalyst for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhouyang; Liu, Xin; Lee, Joo-Youp; Bolin, Trudy B.

    2015-09-01

    In our previous studies, CuCl2 demonstrated excellent Hg(0) oxidation capability and holds potential for Hg(0) oxidation in coal-fired power plants. In this study, the properties and performances of CuCl2 supported onto gamma-Al2O3 with high surface area were investigated. From various characterization techniques using XPS, XAFS, XRD, TPR, SEM and TGA, the existence of multiple copper species was identified. At low CuCl2 loadings, CuCl2 forms copper aluminate species with gamma-Al2O3 and is inactive for Hg(0) oxidation. At high loadings, amorphous CuCl2 forms onto the gamma-Al2O3 surface, working as a redox catalyst for Hg(0) oxidation by consuming Cl to be converted into CuCl and then being regenerated back into CuCl2 in the presence of O-2 and HCl gases. The 10%(wt) CuCl2/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst showed excellent Hg(0) oxidation performance and SO2 resistance at 140 degrees C under simulated flue gas conditions containing 6%(v) O-2 and 10 ppmv HCl. The oxidized Hg(0) in the form of HgCl2 has a high solubility in water and can be easily captured by other air pollution control systems such as wet scrubbers in coal-fired power plants. The CuCl2/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst can be used as a low temperature Hg(0) oxidation catalyst. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy of simultaneous processes: Corrosion inhibition of cuprous oxide by benzotriazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Allred, Daniel B.; Saito, Nagahiro; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Takai, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy was used to perform in situ studies of the corrosion inhibition of cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) by benzotriazole (BTA) in aqueous solution at concentrations from 1 to 20 μM. Because two separate processes occur simultaneously, that of Cu 2O corrosion and corrosion inhibition by BTA adsorption, the spectral information was subjected to deconvolution by a conjugate gradient minimization algorithm. Under these conditions, a solution phase concentration of 7-10 μM BTA nearly completely inhibited the corrosion of Cu 2O in deionized water. Using a Langmuir adsorption model, this represented only 25% of the maximally covered surface area.

  3. A photoemission study of benzotriazole on clean copper and cuprous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bo-Shung; Olson, Clifford G.; Lynch, David W.

    1986-11-01

    Photoemission spectra of benzotriazole (BTA) chemisorbed on clean Cu and on cuprous oxide were compared with the spectra of condensed- and gas-phase BTA. Chemisorbed BTA bonds to both Cu and Cu 2O via lone-pair orbitais on the nitrogen ring. The lack of a chemical shift for the π- orbitais indicates that BTA does not lie flat on the surface. We propose a model for the geometry and bonding of chemisorbed BTA which accounts for its corrosion inhibition on Cu, and for the corrosion inhibition, or lack of inhibition, by molecules similar to BTA.

  4. Numerical simulation of exciton dynamics in cuprous oxide at ultra low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, Sunipa

    2015-06-29

    This thesis is a theoretical investigation of the relaxation behaviour of excitons in Cuprous Oxide at ultra low temperatures when the excitons are confined within a potential trap and also in a homogeneous system. Under the action of deformation potential phonon scattering only, Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) occurs for all temperatures in the investigated range. In the case of Auger decay, we do not find at any temperature a BEC due to the heating of the exciton gas. In the case of elastic and phonon-scattering together BEC occurs in this case of 0.1 K.

  5. Physico-chemical studies of cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) nanoparticles coated on amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johan, Mohd Rafie, E-mail: mrafiej@um.edu.my; Meriam Suhaimy, Syazwan Hanani; Yusof, Yusliza, E-mail: yus_liza@siswa.um.edu.my

    2014-01-15

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNTs) were synthesized by a chemical reaction between ferrocene and ammonium chloride at a temperature (∼250 °C) in an air furnace. As- synthesized α-CNTs were purified with deionized water and hydrochloric acid. A purified α-CNTs were hybridized with cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu{sub 2}O) through a simple chemical process. Morphology of the samples was analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the attachment of acidic functional groups onto the surface of α-CNTs and the formation of hybridized α-CNTs-Cu{sub 2}O. Raman spectra reveal the amorphous nature of the carbon. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the amorphous phase of the carbon and the formation of Cu{sub 2}O crystalline phase. The coating of Cu{sub 2}O was confirmed by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. Optical absorption of the samples has also been investigated and the quantum confinement effect was illustrated in the absorption spectra.

  6. Constructing heterostructure on highly roughened caterpillar-like gold nanotubes with cuprous oxide grains for ultrasensitive and stable nonenzymatic glucose sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anran; Ding, Yu; Yang, Zhimao; Yang, Shengchun

    2015-12-15

    In this study, a metal-metal oxide heterostructure was designed and constructed by growing cuprous oxide (Cu2O) grains on highly surface roughened caterpillar-like Au nanotubes (CLGNs) for ultrasensitive, selective and stable nonenzymatic glucose biosensors. The Cu2O grains are tightly anchored to the surface of CLGNs by the spines, resulting in a large increase in the contact area between Cu2O grains and the CLGNs, which facilitates the electron transport between metal and metal oxide and improves the sensitivity and stability of the sensors. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (ks) for redox reaction of Cu2O-CLGNs/GCE are found to be 0.50114 and 3.24±0.1 s(-1), respectively. The biosensor shows a linear response to glucose over a concentration range of 0.1-5mM and a high sensitivity of 1215.7 µA mM(-1) cm(-2) with a detection limit of 1.83 μM. Furthermore, the Cu2O-CLGNs biosensor exhibited strong anti-interference capability against uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium ascorbate (SA), as well as a high stability and repeatability. Our current research indicates that the Cu2O-CLGNs hybrid electrode is a promising choice for constructing nonenzyme based electrochemical biosensors.

  7. Cuprous Oxide Scale up: Gram Production via Bulk Synthesis using Classic Solvents at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Han, T. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Cuprous oxide is a p-type semiconducting material that has been highly researched for its interesting properties. Many small-scale syntheses have exhibited excellent control over size and morphology. As the demand for cuprous oxide grows, the synthesis method need to evolve to facilitate large-scale production. This paper supplies a facile bulk synthesis method for Cu₂O on average, 1-liter reaction volume can produce 1 gram of particles. In order to study the shape and size control mechanisms on such a scale, the reaction volume was diminished to 250 mL producing on average 0.3 grams of nanoparticles per batch. Well-shaped nanoparticles have been synthesized using an aqueous solution of CuCl₂, NaOH, SDS surfactant, and NH₂OH-HCl at mild temperatures. The time allotted between the addition of NaOH and NH₂OH-HCl was determined to be critical for Cu(OH)2 production, an important precursor to the final produce The effects of stirring rates on a large scale was also analyzed during reagent addition and post reagent addition. A morphological change from rhombic dodecahedra to spheres occurred as the stirring speed was increased. The effects of NH₂OH-HCl concentration were also studied to control the etching effects of the final product.

  8. A Facile One Step Solution Route to Synthesize Cuprous Oxide Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy U. Sandhya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A cuprous oxide nanofluid stabilized by sodium lauryl sulfate, synthesized by using the one step method, has been reported. Nanofluids were synthesized by using a well‐ controlled surfactant‐assisted solution phase synthesis. The method involved reduction of copper acetate by glucose in a mixture of water and ethylene glycol serving as the base fluid. The synthesized fluid was characterized by X‐ray and electron diffraction techniques, in addition, transmission and field emission microscopic techniques and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopic analysis was undertaken. The rheological property, as well as the thermal conductivity of the fluid, were measured. The variation of reaction parameters considerably affected the size of the particles as well as the reaction rate. The uniform dispersion of the particles in the base fluid led to a stability period of three months under stationary state, augmenting the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. The method is found to be simple, reliable and fast for the synthesis of Newtonian nanofluids containing cuprous oxide nanoparticles.

  9. Formation and Decay of Electron-Hole Plasma Clusters in a Direct-Gap Semiconductor CuCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lei(姜磊); WU Ming-Wei(吴明卫); M. Nagai; M. Kuwata-Gonokami

    2003-01-01

    The master equation for the cluster-size distribution function is solved numerically to investigate the electronhole droplet formation claimed to be discovered in the direct-gap CuCl excited by picosecond laser pulses [Nagai et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001)5795; J. Lumin. 100 (2002)233]. Our result shows that for the excitation in the experiment, the average number of pairs per cluster (ANPC) is only around 5.2, much smaller than that (106 typically for Ge) of the well studied electron-hole droplet in indirect-gap semiconductors such as Ge and Si.These results indicate that what measured in CuCl by Nagai et al. may not come from the EHD formed from exciton gas, instead possibly come from some bubbles of excitons in metallic liquid.

  10. Recycling of waste gasket rubber granules by bulk CuCl2 and nano CuCl2: removal of Hg(II) ions by recycled rubber granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deivasigamani, Kalpana; Nanjan, Jayakumar; Mani, Hari Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Environmental problems arise due to the millions of tons of waste rubber that are thrown away in the natural environment. Management of this waste rubber is a big environmental challenge. So, a new, simple and cost-effective recycling method for obtaining recycled waste rubber should be developed. In this study, we found that waste gasket rubber can be desulfurized by means of bulk and nano-sized transition metal halides in the presence of solvents. The recycled product of desulfurized waste gasket rubber granules that is obtained can be used as the cheapest adsorbent in the removal of mercury(II) ions from aqueous solution. Comparative batch studies have been conducted to elucidate the adsorption efficiency of desulfurized rubber using bulk copper chloride and also using nano-sized copper chloride under optimum conditions with commercial activated carbon.

  11. Intrinsic Defect Engineering of Cuprous Oxide to Enhance Electrical Transport Properties for Photovoltaic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Michael A.; Siah, Sin-Cheng; Brandt, Riley E.; Serdy, James; Johnston, Steve W.; Lee, Yun Seog; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2014-06-08

    Intrinsic point-defect species in cuprous oxide films are manipulated based on their thermodynamic properties via the implementation of a controlled annealing process. A wide range of electrical properties is demonstrated, with a window suitable for high-quality solar cell devices. A variation of carrier concentration over two orders of magnitude is demonstrated. Minority carrier lifetime is investigated by means of microwave photoconductance decay measurements, demonstrating a strong correlation with carrier concentration. Spectrally resolved photoluminescence yields are analyzed to provide insight into lifetime limiting mechanisms as a function of Cu2O processing parameters. Hall measurements of carrier mobility and concentration are taken at room temperature to provide insight into the effect of these processing conditions on net ionized defect concentration.

  12. Investigations of the interaction between cuprous oxide nanoparticles and Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN ChengLing; LI YuanFang; QI WenJing; HUANG ChengZhi

    2009-01-01

    Cuprous oxide nanoparticles of 30-50 nm in size were prepared in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB).By taking Staphylococcus aureus (S.a),which always causes a variety of suppurative infections and toxinoses in humans,as a model bioparticle,the negative bioeffect of nano-Cu2O on S.a cells was evaluated,and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by imitating the MIC of antibiotics.Cellularity and bactericidal effect were measured by flow cytometry (FCM),dark field light scattering imaging and SEM photography.The results showed that nano-Cu2O particles may,by absorbing on the cell surface,impair the cell wall,damage the cell membrane,and finally increase permeability of the cell membrane,thus leading to a decrease in the viability of bacteria in the nano-Cu2O solution.

  13. Theory and experiment on the cuprous-cupric electron transfer rate at a copper electrode.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halley, J. W.; Smith, B. B.; Walbran, S.; Curtiss, L. A.; Rigney, R. O.; Sutjianto, A.; Hung, N. C.; Yonco, R. M.; Nagy, Z.; Univ. of Minnesota; NREL

    1999-04-01

    We describe results of experiment and theory of the cuprous-cupric electron transfer rate in an aqueous solution at a copper electrode. The methods are similar to those we reported earlier for the ferrous-ferric rate. The comparison strongly suggests that, in marked distinction to the ferrous-ferric case, the electron transfer reaction is adiabatic. The model shows that the activation barrier is dominated by the energy required for the ion to approach the electrode, rather than by the energy required for rearrangement of the solvation shell, also in sharp distinction to the case of the ferric-ferrous electron transfer at a gold electrode. Calculated activation barriers based on this image agree with the experimental results reported here.

  14. Theory and experiment on the cuprous{endash}cupric electron transfer rate at a copper electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halley, J.W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Smith, B.B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (United States); Walbran, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Curtiss, L.A.; Rigney, R.O.; Sutjianto, A.; Hung, N.C.; Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z. [Argonne National Laboratory, Divisions of Materials Science, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4837 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We describe results of experiment and theory of the cuprous{endash}cupric electron transfer rate in an aqueous solution at a copper electrode. The methods are similar to those we reported earlier for the ferrous{endash}ferric rate. The comparison strongly suggests that, in marked distinction to the ferrous{endash}ferric case, the electron transfer reaction is adiabatic. The model shows that the activation barrier is dominated by the energy required for the ion to approach the electrode, rather than by the energy required for rearrangement of the solvation shell, also in sharp distinction to the case of the ferric{endash}ferrous electron transfer at a gold electrode. Calculated activation barriers based on this image agree with the experimental results reported here. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Investigations of the interaction between cuprous oxide nanoparticles and Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cuprous oxide nanoparticles of 30-50 nm in size were prepared in the presence of cetyltrimethylam-monium bromide (CTAB). By taking Staphylococcus aureus (S.a), which always causes a variety of suppurative infections and toxinoses in humans, as a model bioparticle, the negative bioeffect of nano-Cu2O on S.a cells was evaluated, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by imitating the MIC of antibiotics. Cellularity and bactericidal effect were measured by flow cytometry (FCM), dark field light scattering imaging and SEM photography. The results showed that nano-Cu2O particles may, by absorbing on the cell surface, impair the cell wall, damage the cell membrane, and finally increase permeability of the cell membrane, thus leading to a decrease in the viability of bacteria in the nano-Cu2O solution.

  16. Epitaxially aligned cuprous oxide nanowires for all-oxide, single-wire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittman, Sarah; Yoo, Youngdong; Dasgupta, Neil P; Kim, Si-in; Kim, Bongsoo; Yang, Peidong

    2014-08-13

    As a p-type semiconducting oxide that can absorb visible light, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an attractive material for solar energy conversion. This work introduces a high-temperature, vapor-phase synthesis that produces faceted Cu2O nanowires that grow epitaxially along the surface of a lattice-matched, single-crystal MgO substrate. Individual wires were then fabricated into single-wire, all-oxide diodes and solar cells using low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 and ZnO films to form the heterojunction. The performance of devices made from pristine Cu2O wires and chlorine-exposed Cu2O wires was investigated under one-sun and laser illumination. These faceted wires allow the fabrication of well-controlled heterojunctions that can be used to investigate the interfacial properties of all-oxide solar cells.

  17. Cuprous Sulfide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials: Solvothermal Synthesis and Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhanjun; Zhu, Yabo; Xing, Zheng; Wang, Zhengyuan

    2016-01-01

    The cuprous sulfide nanoparticles (CuS NPs)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites have been successfully prepared via a facile and efficient solvothermal synthesis method. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated that CuS micronspheres composed of nanosheets and distributed on the rGO layer in well-monodispersed form. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that graphene oxide (GO) had been reduced to rGO. The electrochemical performances of CuS/rGO nanocomposites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge techniques, which showed that the specific capacitance of CuS/rGO nanocomposites was enhanced because of the introduction of rGO.

  18. Chloride transference during electrochemical chloride extraction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chemical titration method and lab-made chloride probes were jointly adopted to investigate the effects of water-to-cement (W/C) ratio and the impressed current density on chloride transport for cement-based materials during electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) process.The dissolution of bound chlorides and the effect of current density on dissolution were analyzed.The variations of chloride concentration at different depths and the chloride transference process were monitored.Test results show that W/C ratios adopted have slight influence on chloride extraction,while chloride extraction efficiency is mainly determined by the impressed current density.During ECE process a portion of bound chloride ions dissolved and the amount of bound chlorides released is directly proportional to current density.

  19. Life cycle assessment of nuclear-based hydrogen production via thermochemical water splitting using a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbilen, Ahmet Ziyaettin

    The energy carrier hydrogen is expected to solve some energy challenges. Since its oxidation does not emit greenhouse gases (GHGs), its use does not contribute to climate change, provided that it is derived from clean energy sources. Thermochemical water splitting using a Cu-Cl cycle, linked with a nuclear super-critical water cooled reactor (SCWR), which is being considered as a Generation IV nuclear reactor, is a promising option for hydrogen production. In this thesis, a comparative environmental study is reported of the three-, four- and five-step Cu-Cl thermochemical water splitting cycles with various other hydrogen production methods. The investigation uses life cycle assessment (LCA), which is an analytical tool to identify and quantify environmentally critical phases during the life cycle of a system or a product and/or to evaluate and decrease the overall environmental impact of the system or product. The LCA results for the hydrogen production processes indicate that the four-step Cu-Cl cycle has lower environmental impacts than the three- and five-step Cu-Cl cycles due to its lower thermal energy requirement. Parametric studies show that acidification potentials (APs) and global warming potentials (GWPs) for the four-step Cu-Cl cycle can be reduced from 0.0031 to 0.0028 kg SO2-eq and from 0.63 to 0.55 kg CO2-eq, respectively, if the lifetime of the system increases from 10 to 100 years. Moreover, the comparative study shows that the nuclear-based S-I and the four-step Cu-Cl cycles are the most environmentally benign hydrogen production methods in terms of AP and GWP. GWPs of the S-I and the four-step Cu-Cl cycles are 0.412 and 0.559 kg CO2-eq for reference case which has a lifetime of 60 years. Also, the corresponding APs of these cycles are 0.00241 and 0.00284 kg SO2-eq. It is also found that an increase in hydrogen plant efficiency from 0.36 to 0.65 decreases the GWP from 0.902 to 0.412 kg CO 2-eq and the AP from 0.00459 to 0.00209 kg SO2-eq for the

  20. The effect of particle size on the electrical conductivity of CuCl (Al2O3) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M. R.-W.; Shahi, K.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of CuCl containing Al2O3 of 0.06, 0.3, 1, 3, 8, and 15 micron sized particles was measured between 25 and 390 C. Conductivity was enhanced for the 0.06 and 0.3 sized Al2O3 particles for temperatures below approximately 250 C. The maximum enhancement occurred at 10 m/o of 0.06 micron Al2O3 at 25 C. Uncertain degrees of agglomeration as well as the grain size of the matrix were found to be significant.

  1. Quasi-1D s=1/2 antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4 in a magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coldea, R.; Tennant, D.A.; Cowley, R.A.;

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic excitations of the quasi-1D S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet (HAF) Cs2CuCl4 have beer measured as a function of magnetic field using neutron scattering. For T Fields greater than B-c = 1.66 T, but less...... than the field (similar or equal to 8 T) required to fully align the spins, are observed to decouple the chains, and the system enters a disordered intermediate-field phase (IFP). The IFP excitations are in agreement with the predictions of Muller et al. for the 1D S = 1/2 HAF, and Talstra and Haldane...

  2. Electrical properties and conduction mechanism of [C2H5NH3]2CuCl4 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, C. Ben; Karoui, K.; Jomni, F.; Guidara, K.; Rhaiem, A. Ben

    2015-02-01

    The [(C2H5)NH3]2CuCl4 compound was prepared and characterized by several technique: the X-ray powder diffraction confirms the purity of the synthetized compound, the differential scanning calorimetric show several phase transitions at 236 K, 330 K, 357 K and 371 K, the dialectical properties confirms the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition at 238 K, which is reported by V. Kapustianyk et al. (2007) [1]. The two semi-circles observed in the complex impedance identify the presence of the grain interior and grain boundary contributions to the electrical response in this material. The equivalent circuit is modeled by a combination series of two parallel RP-CPE circuits. The temperature dependence of the alternative current conductivity (σg) and direct current conductivity (σdc) confirm the observed transitions in the calorimetric study. The (AC) electrical conduction in [(C2H5)NH3]2CuCl4 was studied by two processes that can be attributed to a hopping transport mechanism: the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling (NSPT) model in phase III and the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model in phases I, II, IV, V and VI.

  3. Tribenzylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  4. Improvement in structural and electrical properties of cuprous oxide-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shivani Dhall; Neena Jaggi

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles are coated on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using Fehling’s reaction. The coating of Cu2O nanoparticles on the nanotubes was confirmed by SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The calculated D/G ratio of Cu2O (using 3% CuSO4 by wt)-coated MWCNTs by Raman spectra is found to decrease to 0.94 as compared to 1.14 for pristine MWCNTs. It shows that the presence of Cu2O nanoparticles on nanotubes decreases the inherent defects present in the form of some pentagons/heptagons in the honeycomb hexagonal carbon atoms in the structure of graphene sheets of MWCNTs and increases the crystalline nature of MWCNTs, which is also confirmed by the XRD peaks. Whereas the value of D/G ratio increases to 1.39 for sample 2 (using 5% CuSO4 by wt), which represents the structural deformation. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of MWCNTs was increased by 3 times after coating the nanotubes with Cu2O (using 3% CuSO4 by wt).

  5. Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Nanocrystalline Cuprous Oxide Thin Film Deposited By Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Bansilal Ahirrao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O is an interesting p-type semiconductor material used in solar cell applications.  The Modified Chemical Bath Deposition (M-CBD method is suitable for growing thin multilayer structure due to low deposition temperature. This method does not require any sophisticated instrument and substrate need not to be conductive. The nanocrystalline Cu2O thin films were deposited on glass substrates by M-CBD method. The deposited films were characterized by different characterization techniques to study structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties. The structural studies show that, the formation of Cu2O thin films with an average crystallite size of 14 nm. Optical studies show a direct band gap 2.48 eV. The room temperature electrical resistivity is of the order of 1.3 kW-cm and activation energy 0.33 eV. The films exhibit p-type electrical conductivity as seen by thermo-emf measurements.

  6. Cuprous oxide photovoltaic cells. Final report, September 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivich, D.

    1979-01-01

    The research described represents the beginning of a second phase of research on cuprous oxide photovoltaic cells. The first phase was concerned with the development of procedures of making Schottky barriers on isolated films of Cu/sub 2/O, including single crystals. It was found that properties of these Schottky barrier cells, in particular the barrier heights, were limited by chemical changes at the junction especially with metals of low work function which tend to be more active chemically, e.g., Al. The motivation of the present phase of the research was to construct junctions that would avoid this chemical degradation while maintaining electrical contact between the Cu/sub 2/O and a low work function material in order to attain larger barrier heights. Essentially the approach involved placing the Cu/sub 2/O in contact with a stable oxide. When this oxide is used as a thin layer between the Cu/sub 2/O and a top metal contact this gives an MIS structure. As another approach the other oxide can be an n-type semiconductor in thicker layers to form a heterojunction. Results are reported. (WHK)

  7. Parameters controlling microstructures and resistance switching of electrodeposited cuprous oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanparast, Sanaz

    2016-12-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films were electrodeposited cathodically from a highly alkaline bath using tartrate as complexing agent. Different microstructures for Cu2O thin films were achieved by varying the applied potential from -0.285 to -0.395 V versus a reference electrode of Ag/AgCl at 50 °C in potentiostatic mode, and separately by changing the bath temperature from 25 to 50 °C in galvanostatic mode. Characterization experiments showed that both grain size and orientation of Cu2O can be controlled by changing the applied potential. Applying a high negative potential of -0.395 V resulted in smaller grain size of Cu2O thin films with a preferred orientation in [111] direction. An increase in the bath temperature in galvanostatic electrodeposition increased the grain size of Cu2O thin films. All the films in Au/Cu2O/Au-Pd cell showed unipolar resistance switching behavior after an initial FORMING process. Increasing the grain size of Cu2O thin films and decreasing the top electrode area increased the FORMING voltage and decreased the current level of high resistance state (HRS). The current in low resistance state (LRS) was independent of the top electrode area and the grain size of deposited films, suggesting a filamentary conduction mechanism in unipolar resistance switching of Cu2O.

  8. Cuprous oxide nanoparticle-inhibited melanoma progress by targeting melanoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Wang, Ye; Yu, Xinlu; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhu, Ji; Wang, Chen; Chen, Fei; Liu, Changcheng; Wang, Jingqiang; Zhu, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that metal and metal oxide have a potential function in antitumor therapy. Our previous studies demonstrated that cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) not only selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro but also inhibit the growth and metastasis of melanoma by targeting mitochondria with little hepatic and renal toxicities in mice. As a further study, our current research revealed that CONPs induced apoptosis of human melanoma stem cells (CD271(+/high) cells) in A375 and WM266-4 melanoma cell lines and could significantly suppress the expression of MITF, SOX10 and CD271 involved in the stemness maintenance and tumorigenesis of melanoma stem cells. CD271(+/high) cells could accumulate more CONPs than CD271(-/low) through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In addition, lower dosage of CONPs exhibited good anti-melanoma effect by decreasing the cell viability, stemness and tumorigenesis of A375 and WM266-4 cells through reducing the expression of SOX10, MITF, CD271 and genes in MAPK pathway involved in tumor progression. Finally, CONPs obviously suppressed the growth of human melanoma in tumor-bearing nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD-SCID) mice, accompanied with tumors structural necrosis and fibrosis remarkably and decreased expression of CD271, SOX10 and MITF. These results above proved the effectiveness of CONPs in inhibiting melanoma progress through multiple pathways, especially through targeting melanoma stem cells.

  9. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Wang, Di; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2016-10-01

    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  10. Towards printed perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide hole transporting layers: a theoretical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liang, Jun; Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Yiming; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhou, Hang

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed p-type metal oxide materials have shown great promise in improving the stability of perovskite-based solar cells and offering the feasibility for a low cost printing fabrication process. Herein, we performed a device modeling study on planar perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide (Cu2O) hole transporting layers (HTLs) by using a solar cell simulation program, wxAMPS. The performance of a Cu2O/perovskite solar cell was correlated to the material properties of the Cu2O HTL, such as thickness, carrier mobility, mid-gap defect, and doping concentrations. The effect of interfacial defect densities on the solar cell performance was also investigated. Our simulation indicates that, with an optimized Cu2O HTL, high performance perovskite solar cells with efficiencies above 13% could be achieved, which shows the potential of using Cu2O as an alternative HTL over other inorganic materials, such as NiOx and MoOx. This study provides theoretical guidance for developing perovskite solar cells with inorganic hole transporting materials via a printing process.

  11. Relaxation Process of Excitonic Molecules in CuCl under the Two-Photon Resonant Excitation. II. Transverse Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tadashi; Katohno, Takashi; Kirihara, Toshio; Ueta, Masayasu

    1984-02-01

    Under the off-resonant excitation at the slightly higher energy side of the giant two-photon absorption band (GTA) for the direct generation of excitonic molecules (EM) in CuCl, new narrow emission bands designated as XT and XL have been found in the energy region of the MT and ML broad bands, respectively. Their photon energies increase with the decrease of the pump photon energy from the higher-energy side of the resonance and finally, at the on-resonant excitation, their bands merge into MT0 and ML0 bands, respectively, previously reported by Mita et al. Based on the detailed studies on these bands, it is found that there exists a certain kind of transverse relaxation process which acts on the EM just after their generation by the GTA and brings about the X emission as a hot luminescence.

  12. Theoretical analysis of polariton interference in a thin platelet of CuCl. II - Effect of selective pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K.

    1985-11-01

    Pumping effect on the polariton dynamics in a thin platelet of CuCl has been theoretically analyzed from the viewpoint of nonlinear change in polariton dispersion relation. In terms of (1) the dielectric function of Haug et al. (1980), which includes the effect of pumping excitons into excitonic molecule states, and (2) an extended form of the Pekar's (1958) additional boundary condition, the observed pumping spectra by Mita and Nagasawa (1982) for a very thin platelet, which show a characteristic dependence on the (fixed) probe light frequency are well reproduced. Application of the theory to thicker samples, where a puzzling, pump-induced correlation effect is observed between upper and lower polaritons, shows that the consideration of the nonlinear change in polariton dispersion is not enough to solve the puzzle.

  13. Theoretical analysis of polariton interference in a thin platelet of CuCl. I - Additional boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K.; Kawata, M.

    1985-11-01

    Interference patterns in reflectance and transmittance of a thin platelet of CuCl in the Z3 exciton region have been analyzed in terms of an extended version of the D'Andrea-Del Sole theory about microscopic treatment of additional boundary condition (ABD). In the extension, quantization effect has been explicitly considered with respect to exciton motion in a slab. The effect of internal multiple reflection of polariton waves and the energy dependence of exciton damping factor have been taken into account. The decay constant of the evanescent exciton wave near surface has been treated as an adjustable parameter. The observed spectra by Mita and Nagasawa (1982) are well reproduced by the simplest extreme case of this theory, i.e., the case of vanishing contribution from the evanescent wave, which is equivalent to the Pekar's ABC.

  14. Thermokinetic Study on the Complexation Reaction of the First-Row Transitional Metal Chlorides with Histidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,San-Ping(陈三平); GAO,Sheng-Li(高胜利); SHI,Qi-Zhen(史启祯)

    2004-01-01

    The enthalpy change of the complexation reactions of the first-row transitional metal chlorides including CrCl3,MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, NiCl2 and CuCl2 with L-α-histidine in water were determined by a microcalorimeter at 298.15-323.15 K. The standard enthalpy of formation of Cr(His)3+2 (aq) and M(His)2+2 (aq) (M=Mn, Fe, Co,Ni and Cu) were calculated. Based on the thermodynamic and kinetic equations of the reactions, three thermodynamic parameters (the activation enthalpy, the activation entropy, the activation free energy), the rate constants, and three kinetic parameters (the apparent activation energy, the pre-exponential constant and the reaction order) are obtained. The solid complexes of CrCl3, MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, NiCl2 and CuCl2 with histidine were prepared and acterized by IR as well. The results showed that, with the atomic number increasing, three thermodynamic parameters, △G≠(-), △H≠(-) and △S≠(-) of the complexation reaction of these metal chlorides with L-α-histidine in water present an analogy regularity.

  15. Synthesis of tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride by high-concentration phosphine in industrial off-gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Yanfu; Zhou, Tao; Qin, Yangsong; Gao, Kunyang; Ding, Xinyue

    2013-01-01

    With increasing consumption of phosphate rock and acceleration of global phosphate production, the shortage of phosphate resources is increasing with the development and utilization of phosphate. China's Ministry of Land and Resources has classified phosphate as a mineral that cannot meet China's growing demand for phosphate rock in 2010. The phosphorus chemical industry is one of the important economic pillars for Yunnan province. Yellow phosphorus production in enterprises has led to a significant increase in the amount of phosphorus sludge. This paper focuses on phosphine generation in the process of phosphoric sludge utilization, where the flame retardant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) is synthesized by high concentrations of phosphine. The optimum conditions are determined at a space velocity of 150 h(-1), a reaction temperature of 60 °C, 0.75 g of catalyst, and a ratio of raw materials of 4:1. Because of the catalytic oxidation of copper chloride (CuCl2), the synthesis of THPC was accelerated significantly. In conclusion, THPC can be efficiently synthesized under optimal conditions and with CuCl2 as a catalyst.

  16. Carbon-layer-protected cuprous oxide nanowire arrays for efficient water reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-02-26

    In this work, we propose a solution-based carbon precursor coating and subsequent carbonization strategy to form a thin protective carbon layer on unstable semiconductor nanostructures as a solution to the commonly occurring photocorrosion problem of many semiconductors. A proof-of-concept is provided by using glucose as the carbon precursor to form a protective carbon coating onto cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowire arrays which were synthesized from copper mesh. The carbon-layer-protected Cu2O nanowire arrays exhibited remarkably improved photostability as well as considerably enhanced photocurrent density. The Cu2O nanowire arrays coated with a carbon layer of 20 nm thickness were found to give an optimal water splitting performance, producing a photocurrent density of -3.95 mA cm-2 and an optimal photocathode efficiency of 0.56% under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2). This is the highest value ever reported for a Cu 2O-based electrode coated with a metal/co-catalyst-free protective layer. The photostability, measured as the percentage of the photocurrent density at the end of 20 min measurement period relative to that at the beginning of the measurement, improved from 12.6% on the bare, nonprotected Cu2O nanowire arrays to 80.7% on the continuous carbon coating protected ones, more than a 6-fold increase. We believe that the facile strategy presented in this work is a general approach that can address the stability issue of many nonstable photoelectrodes and thus has the potential to make a meaningful contribution in the general field of energy conversion. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Cytotoxicity of cuprous oxide nanoparticles to fish blood cells: hemolysis and internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liqiang, E-mail: chenlq@ynu.edu.cn; Kang Bin [Yunnan University, Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Trans-boundary Eco-security (China); Ling Jian [Yunnan University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2013-03-15

    Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu{sub 2}O NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties which are employed in a broad variety of applications. However, little is known about the adverse effects of Cu{sub 2}O NPs on organisms. In the current study, in vitro cytotoxicity of Cu{sub 2}O NPs (ca. 60 nm in diameter) to the blood cells of freshwater fish Carassius auratus was evaluated. A concentration-dependent hemolytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O NPs to red blood cells (RBCs) and the phagocytosis of Cu{sub 2}O NPs by leukocytes were revealed. The results showed that dosages of Cu{sub 2}O NPs greater than 40 {mu}g/mL were toxic to blood cells, and could cause serious membrane damage to RBCs. The EC{sub 50} value of Cu{sub 2}O NPs as obtained from RBCs and whole blood exposure was 26 and 63 {mu}g/mL, respectively. The generation of reactive oxygen species and the direct interaction between Cu{sub 2}O NPs and the cell membrane were suggested as the possible mechanism for cytotoxicity, and the intrinsic hemolytic active of Cu{sub 2}O NPs was the main contributor to the toxicity rather than solubilized copper ions. The adsorption of plasma proteins on the surfaces of Cu{sub 2}O NPs led to their aggregation in whole blood, and aggregate formation can significantly alleviate the hemolytic effect and subsequently mediate the phagocytosis of Cu{sub 2}O NPs by leukocytes.

  18. Novel doxorubicin loaded PEGylated cuprous telluride nanocrystals for combined photothermal-chemo cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianwen; Ma, Yan; Chen, Huajian; Wu, Xiaoyi; Qian, Haisheng; Yang, Xianzhu; Zha, Zhengbao

    2017-02-06

    Recently, combined photothermal-chemo therapy has attracted great attention due to its enhanced anti-tumor efficiency via synergistic effects. Herein, PEGylated cuprous telluride nanocrystals (PEGylated Cu2Te NCs) were developed as novel drug nanocarriers for combined photothermal-chemo treatment of cancer cells. PEGylated Cu2Te NCs were fabricated through a simple two-step process, comprised of hot injection and thin-film hydration. The as-prepared PEGylated Cu2Te NCs (average diameter of 5.21±1.05nm) showed a noticeable photothermal conversion efficiency of 33.1% and good capacity to load hydrophobic anti-cancer drug. Due to the protonated amine group at low pH, the doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded PEGylated Cu2Te NCs (PEGylated Cu2Te-DOX NCs) exhibited an acidic pH promoted drug release profile. Moreover, a three-parameter model, which considers the effects of drug-carrier interactions on the initial burst release and the sustained release of drug from micro- and nano-sized carriers, was used to gain insight into how pH and laser irradiation affect drug release from PEGylated Cu2Te-DOX NCs. Based on the results from in vitro cell study, PEGylated Cu2Te-DOX NCs revealed remarkably photothermal-chemo synergistic effect to HeLa cells, attributed to both the PEGylated Cu2Te NCs mediated photothermal ablation and enhanced cellular uptake of the drug. Thus, our results encourage the usage of Cu2Te-DOX drug nanocarriers for enhanced treatment of cancer cells by combined photothermal-chemo therapy.

  19. EFFECT OF UV LASER ON SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF BORATE GLASSES DOPED WITH COPPER CHLORIDE NANOCRYSTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Babkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the pulsed ultraviolet laser effect on the spectral properties of the potassium-aluminium-borate glasses doped with the copper chloride nanocrystals with the average size of 3.1-6.3 nm. We have studied the changes of the exciton absorption spectra of the CuCl nanocrystals induced by different duration of the laser exposure. The results show the possibility of the laser-induced crystallization and growth of the nanocrystals. For the first time the effect of the irreversible photochromism has been obtained in the potassium-aluminium-borate glasses doped with the copper chloride nanocrystals. The effect is associated with the formation of the temperature stable Cu0n colloidal color centers.

  20. Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride UPD phases on Au(111)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ilya V Pobelov; Gábor Nagy; Thomas Wandlowski

    2009-09-01

    Structure transitions between copper UPD adlayers on Au(111)-(1 × 1) in sulfuric acid and chloride containing electrolyte were investigated by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. We demonstrate that co-adsorbed sulphate ions in the (√3 × √3)R30° UPD adlayer are replaced by chloride ions and, depending on the halide coverage, a commensurate (2 × 2) or a slightly distorted (5 × 5)-like Cu-Cl UPD adlayer are formed. The stability ranges of these phases are controlled both by the electrode potential and the Cl- concentration. Phase transitions between the three UPD phases were monitored by time-resolved in situ STM. The observed structure details were attributed to mechanisms based on two-dimensional nucleation and growth processes.

  1. Plasmon-induced selective carbon dioxide conversion on earth-abundant aluminum-cuprous oxide antenna-reactor nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatjazi, Hossein; Zhao, Hangqi; Swearer, Dayne F; Hogan, Nathaniel J; Zhou, Linan; Alabastri, Alessandro; McClain, Michael J; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2017-06-21

    The rational combination of plasmonic nanoantennas with active transition metal-based catalysts, known as 'antenna-reactor' nanostructures, holds promise to expand the scope of chemical reactions possible with plasmonic photocatalysis. Here, we report earth-abundant embedded aluminum in cuprous oxide antenna-reactor heterostructures that operate more effectively and selectively for the reverse water-gas shift reaction under milder illumination than in conventional thermal conditions. Through rigorous comparison of the spatial temperature profile, optical absorption, and integrated electric field enhancement of the catalyst, we have been able to distinguish between competing photothermal and hot-carrier driven mechanistic pathways. The antenna-reactor geometry efficiently harnesses the plasmon resonance of aluminum to supply energetic hot-carriers and increases optical absorption in cuprous oxide for selective carbon dioxide conversion to carbon monoxide with visible light. The transition from noble metals to aluminum based antenna-reactor heterostructures in plasmonic photocatalysis provides a sustainable route to high-value chemicals and reaffirms the practical potential of plasmon-mediated chemical transformations.Plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis holds promise for the control of chemical reactions. Here the authors report an Al@Cu2O heterostructure based on earth abundant materials to transform CO2 into CO at significantly milder conditions.

  2. Reduced graphene oxide–cuprous oxide composite via facial deposition for photocatalytic dye-degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, MingYan, E-mail: mingyanlyg@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005 (China); Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Australian Institute of Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Huang, JunRao; Tong, ZhiWei [Department of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005 (China); Li, WeiHua [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Chen, Jun, E-mail: junc@uow.edu.au [Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Australian Institute of Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Cubic Cu{sub 2}O were effectively loaded on n-propylamine (PA) intercalated graphene oxide. •The addition of PA on the carbon sheets supports the stable structure of the composites. •Cu{sub 2}O/PA/rGO showed superior adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Cubic Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized on n-propylamine (PA) intercalated graphene oxide (GO) with uniform distribution followed with a subsequent hydrazine hydrate reduction process to generate Cu{sub 2}O/PA/rGO composite. For comparison, Cu{sub 2}O conjugated reduced graphene oxide (Cu{sub 2}O/rGO) composite was also synthesized using the same method. The as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O/PA/rGO and Cu{sub 2}O/rGO nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements. UV/vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band gap energies of cuprous oxide composites. The results show that the intercalation of PA into the layered GO increases the surface area of the composites and provides an efficient strategy to load Cu{sub 2}O due to the large and uniform distribution of active sites for anchoring copper ions. The surface area of the Cu{sub 2}O/PA/rGO (123 m{sup 2}/g) nanocomposite was found to be almost 2.5 times higher than that of Cu{sub 2}O/rGO (55.7 m{sup 2}/g). The as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O/PA/rGO show significant improvement on both adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity towards organic pigment pollution compared with Cu{sub 2}O/rGO under identical performance conditions.

  3. The SGK1 Kinase Inhibitor SI113 Sensitizes Theranostic Effects of the 64CuCl2 in Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Catalogna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The importance of copper in the metabolism of cancer cells has been widely studied in the last 20 years and a clear-cut association between copper levels and cancer deregulation has been established. Copper-64, emitting positrons and β-radiations, is indicated for the labeling of a large number of molecules suitable for radionuclide imaging as well as radionuclide therapy. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the CNS tumor with the worse prognosis, characterized by high number of recurrences and strong resistance to chemo-radio therapy, strongly affecting patients survival. We have recently discovered and studied the small molecule SI113, as inhibitor of SGK1, a serine/threonine protein kinase, that affects several neoplastic phenotypes and signaling cascades. The SI113-dependent SGK1 inhibition induces cell death, blocks proliferation, perturbs cell cycle progression and restores chemo-radio sensibility by modulating SGK1-related substrates. In the present paper we aim to characterize the combined effects of 64CuCl2 and SI113 on human GBM cell lines with variable p53 expression. Methods: Cell viability, cell death and stress/authopagic related pathways were then analyzed by FACS and WB-based assays, after exposure to SI113 and/or 64CuCl2. Results: We demonstrate here, that i 64CuCl2 is able to induce a time and dose dependent modulation of cell viability (with different IC50 values in highly malignant gliomas and that the co-treatment with SI113 leads to ii additive/synergistic effects in terms of cell death; iii enhancement of the effects of ionizing radiations, probably by a TRC1 modulation; iv modulation of the autophagic response. Conclusions: Evidence reported here underlines the therapeutic potential of the combined treatment with SI113 and 64CuCl2 in GBM cells.

  4. Alternative current conduction mechanisms of organic-inorganic compound [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bechir, M.; Karoui, K.; Tabellout, M.; Guidara, K.; Ben Rhaiem, A.

    2014-05-01

    The [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4 single crystal has been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and electrical impedance spectroscopy. [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4 crystallizes at room temperature in the monoclinic system with P21/C space group. Three phase transitions at T1 = 226 K, T2 = 264 K, and T3 = 297 K have been evidenced by DSC measurements. The electrical technique was measured in the 10-1-107 Hz frequency range and 203-313 K temperature intervals. The frequency dependence of alternative current (AC) conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonscher's law (developed). The AC electrical conduction in [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4 compound is studied by two processes which can be attributed to a hopping transport mechanism: the correlated barrier hopping model in phases I, II, and III, the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model in phase IV. The conduction mechanism is interpreted with the help of Elliot's theory, and the Elliot's parameters are found.

  5. Magneto-acoustic study near the quantum critical point of the frustrated quantum antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, P. T.; Postulka, L.; Wolf, B.; van Well, N.; Ritter, F.; Assmus, W.; Krellner, C.; Lang, M.

    2016-10-01

    Magneto-acoustic investigations of the frustrated triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4 were performed for the longitudinal modes c11 and c33 in magnetic fields along the a-axis. The temperature dependence of the sound velocity at zero field shows a mild softening at low temperature and displays a small kink-like anomaly at TN. Isothermal measurements at T sound attenuation α reveal two closely spaced features of different characters on approaching the material's quantum-critical point (QCP) at Bs ≈ 8.5 T for B || a. The peak at slightly lower fields remains sharp down to the lowest temperature and can be attributed to the ordering temperature TN(B). The second anomaly, which is rounded and which becomes reduced in size upon cooling, is assigned to the material's spin-liquid properties preceding the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering with decreasing temperature. These two features merge upon cooling suggesting a coincidence at the QCP. The elastic constant at lowest temperatures of our experiment at 32 mK can be well described by a Landau free energy model with a very small magnetoelastic coupling constant G/kB ≈ 2.8 K. The applicability of this classical model indicates the existence of a small gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum which drives the system away from quantum criticality.

  6. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles inhibit prostate cancer by attenuating the stemness of cancer cells via inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Yang, Qi-Wei; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Tie; Shi, Min-Feng; Sun, Chen-Xia; Gao, Xiu-Xia; Cheng, Yan-Qiong; Cui, Xin-Gang; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Disordered copper metabolism plays a critical role in the development of various cancers. As a nanomedicine containing copper, cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) exert ideal antitumor pharmacological effects in vitro and in vivo. Prostate cancer is a frequently diagnosed male malignancy prone to relapse, and castration resistance is the main reason for endocrine therapy failure. However, whether CONPs have the potential to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer is still unknown. Here, using the castration-resistant PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line as a model, we report that CONPs can selectively induce apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo without affecting normal prostate epithelial cells. CONPs can also attenuate the stemness of cancer cells and inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway, both of which highlight the great potential of CONPs as a new clinical castration-resistant prostate cancer therapy.

  7. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  8. One-pot synthesis of cuprous oxide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite with enhanced photocatalytic and electrocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fugui; Li, Heping; Yang, Jun; Cai, Xiaodong; Fu, Li

    2016-03-01

    We report on the facile one-step synthesis of porous cuprous oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (Cu2O-RGO) by synchronously reducing Cu2+ ions and GO with ethylene glycol. The basic chemical components, crystal structure and surface morphology of prepared nanocomposite was carefully characterized. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared nanocomposite was investigated by photodegrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light. The electrocatalytic property of the nanocomposite was investigated by electrocatalytic determination of acetaminophen. The results indicate that the corporation of RGO with Cu2O nanoparticles could high enhance the both photocatalytic and electrocatalytic properties. Moreover, we found that the content of RGO introduced into nanocomposite could highly affect the product properties.

  9. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  10. Rapid conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using single and combined metal chloride catalysts in ionic liquid%Rapid conversion of cellulose to5-hydroxymethylfurfural using single and combined metal chloride catalysts in ionic liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hussein Abou-Yousef; El Barbary Hassan; Philip Steele

    2013-01-01

    Direct conversion of cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was performed by using single or combined metal chloride catalysts in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIM] Cl) ionic liquid.Our study demonstrated formation of 2-furyl hydroxymethyl ketone (FHMK),and furfural (FF) simultaneously with the formation of HMF.Various reaction parameters were addressed to optimize yields of furan derivatives produced from cellulose by varying reaction temperature,time,and the type of metal chloride catalyst.Catalytic reaction by using FeCl3 resulted in 59.9% total yield of furan derivatives (HMF,FHMK,and FF) from cellulose.CrCl3 was the most effective catalyst for selective conversion of cellulose into HMF (35.6%) with less concentrations of FHMK,and FF.Improving the yields of furans produced from cellulose could be achieved via reactions catalyzed by different combinations of two metal chlorides.Further optimization was carried out to produce total furans yield 75.9% by using FeC13/CuCl2 combination.CrCl3/CuCl2 was the most selective combination to convert cellulose into HMF (39.9%) with total yield (63.8%) of fttrans produced from the reaction.The temperature and time of the catalytic reaction played an important role in cellulose conversion,and the yields of products.Increasing the reaction temperature could enhance the cellulose conversion and HMF yield for short reaction time intervals (5 ~ 20 min).

  11. A NEW METHOD ON THE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF DOPED POLYPYRROLE INITIATED BY CuCl2-C2H5OH SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; SHE Yongbo; LU Bin; ZHOU Yuliang; FU Kejian

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to develop a new chemical method for the polymerization of pyrrole. CuCl2 dissolved in C2H5OH solvent is primarily used for the initiation polymerization of pyrrole. The polymers with different yield and conductivity were obtained by varing the initial concentration of Cu2+. The initial concentrations of Cu2+ varied from 1.2 × 10-4 mole to 6.48 ×10-3 mole Cu2+ with 2. 16 × 10-2mole pyrrole. The polypyrrole obtained was characterized with elemental analyzer, XPS, IR spectroscopy, Four-point probe and SEM.

  12. A monomeric complex of ammonia and cuprous chloride: H{sub 3}N⋯CuCl isolated and characterised by rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Dror M.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Stephens, Susanna L.; Walker, Nicholas R., E-mail: nick.walker@newcastle.ac.uk, E-mail: a.c.legon@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Bedson Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Tew, David P.; Legon, Anthony C., E-mail: nick.walker@newcastle.ac.uk, E-mail: a.c.legon@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-14

    The H{sub 3}N⋯CuCl monomer has been generated and isolated in the gas phase through laser vaporisation of a copper sample in the presence of low concentrations of NH{sub 3} and CCl{sub 4} in argon. The resulting complex cools to a rotational temperature approaching 2 K during supersonic expansion of the gas sample and is characterised by broadband rotational spectroscopy between 7 and 18.5 GHz. The spectra of six isotopologues are measured and analysed to determine rotational, B{sub 0}; centrifugal distortion, D{sub J}, D{sub JK}; and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of Cu, Cl, and {sup 14}N nuclei, χ{sub aa} (X). The geometry of the complex is C{sub 3v} with the N, Cu, and Cl atoms located on the a inertial axis. Bond distances and the ∠(H —N⋯Cu) bond angle within the complex are precisely evaluated through fitting of geometrical parameters to the experimentally determined moments of inertia and through ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)(F12*)/AVQZ level. The r(Cu —Cl), r(Cu —N), and ∠(H —N⋯Cu) parameters are, respectively, evaluated to be 2.0614(7) Å, 1.9182(13) Å, and 111.40(6)° in the r{sub 0} geometry, in good agreement with the ab initio calculations. Geometrical parameters evaluated for the isolated complex are compared with those established crystallographically for a solid-state sample of [Cu(NH{sub 3})Cl].

  13. The role of Jahn-Teller distortion in insulator to semiconductor phase transition in organic-inorganic hybrid compound (p-chloroanilinium)2CuCl4 at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalsasi, Pallavi; Garg, Nandini; Deo, M N; Garg, Alka; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna; Sharma, Surinder M

    2015-12-28

    (p-Chloroanilinium)2CuCl4(C2H14Cl6CuN2) is from an important family of organic-inorganic layered hybrid compounds which can be a possible candidate for multiferroicity. In situ high pressure FTIR, Raman and resistivity measurements on this compound indicate the weakening of Jahn-Teller distortion and the consequent removal of puckering of the CuCl6(4-) octahedra within the layer. These effects trigger insulator to semiconductor phase transition along with a change in the sample colour from yellow to dark red. This article explains the crucial role of the anisotropic volume reduction of the CuCl6(4-) octahedron (caused due to the quenching of Jahn-Teller distortion) in the observed insulator to semiconductor phase transition.

  14. Crystal structure, thermochromic and magnetic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid compound: (C7H7N2S)2CuCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Ashok K.; Kumari, Reema; Ghalsasi, Prasanna S.; Arulsamy, Navamoney

    2017-08-01

    The synthesis, thermal analysis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4, organic-inorganic hybrid compound, have been described. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two formula units in a unit cell of dimensions a = 6.9522(4) Å, b = 9.6979(4) Å, c = 13.9633(6) Å, β = 97.849(3)° and volume 930.83(8) Å3 at 150(2) K. The structure consists of isolated nearly square planer [CuC14]2- units, with somewhat longer than normal Cusbnd Cl bond lengths [Cusbnd Cl (average) = 2.2711 Å]. The magnetic measurements of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4 using SQUID magnetometer show paramagnetic nature of the compound. Thermal measurements (TG-DTA and DSC) on this compound showed reversible phase transition at 83 °C. This transition is accompanied by the reversible change in colour of the prismatic crystal from green to dark brown, thermochromic behaviour. Temperature dependent EPR measurements on powdered sample ascertain change in coordination sphere around Cu(II) with shift in g|| = 2.150 and g⊥ = 2.071 at room temperature, typical of square planar, to g|| = 2.201 and g⊥ = 2.182 at 170 °C, typical of distorted tetrahedral geometry.

  15. Effects of enhanced electronic correlation on magnetic properties of light non-metallic element (B, C, N, and O)-doped CuCl: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Baozeng [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dong, Shengjie [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Jianchun [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Hui [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wu, Ping, E-mail: pingwu@tju.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-08-14

    Based on density functional calculations within both standard generalized gradient approximation and plus on-site Coulomb interactions approaches, we have investigated the electronic structure and magnetic properties of the first-row element-doped CuCl semiconductors. The electronic correlations in both 2p and 3d orbitals are enhanced by adding the on-site Coulomb repulsion (Hubbard U and Hund exchange J). After a comparative study, we find that, for both standard and beyond approaches, B-doped CuCl is a half-metallic magnet with majority-spin impurity bands touching the Fermi level, C-doped CuCl is a magnetic semiconductor, and N-doped CuCl is a half-metallic magnet with minority-spin impurity bands crossing the Fermi level. Nevertheless, for O-doped CuCl, it transforms from a nonmagnetic semiconductor to a half-metallic magnet with metallic up-spins by considering the correlation effects. The calculation shows that the enhanced electronic correlation not only corrects the error of band-gap, but also influences the magnetic ground state and the distribution of local magnetic moments. The location of impurity bands with different dopants was understood based on the elements' electronegativity and interaction between dopant and host atoms. Strong hybridization between the dopant's 2p states and the filled 3d orbitals of adjacent Cu yields the main contribution to magnetization. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties of the first-row element-doped CuCl are investigated. • The electronic correlations in both 2p and 3d orbitals are taken into account. • Strong p–d hybridization yields the main contributions to magnetization. • The enhanced electronic correlation may influence the magnetic ground state.

  16. Effect of organic chain length on structure, electronic composition, lattice potential energy, and optical properties of 2D hybrid perovskites [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]CuCl4, n = 2-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, Seham K.; Kocher-Oberlehner, Gudrun; Ionov, Andrei; Mozhchil, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    Diammonium series of Cu hybrid perovskites of the formula [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]CuCl4, n = 6-9 are prepared from an ethanolic solution in stoichiometric ratio 1:1 (organic/inorganic). Formation of the desired material was confirmed and characterizes by microchemical analysis, FTIR, XRD and XPS spectra. The structure consists of corner-shared octahedron [CuCl4]2- anion alternative by organic [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]2+ cations. The organic and inorganic layers form infinite 2D sheet that are connected via NH···Cl hydrogen bond. The calculated lattice potential energy U pot (kJ/mol) and lattice enthalpy Δ H L (kJ/mol) are inversely proportional to the molecular volume V m (nm3) and organic chain length. Optical properties show strong absorption peak at UV-visible range. The band gap energy calculated using Kubelka-Munk equation shows the decrease of the energy gap as organic chain length increases. The introduction of bromide ion to [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]CuCl2Br2 denoted 2C7CuCB hybrid has shifted the energy gap to lower values from 2.6 to 2.18 eV for 2C7CuCl (yellow) and 2C7CuCB (brown), respectively, at the same organic chain length. All elements of [(NH3)(CH2)9(NH3)]CuCl4 and [(NH3)(CH2)7(NH3)]CuCl2Br2 were found in XPS spectra, as well as valence band spectra.

  17. Coexistence of Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn oxides and chlorides as a determinant of chlorinated aromatics generation in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Tanino, Yuta; Takaoka, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    We investigated chemical determinants of the generation of chlorinated aromatic compounds (aromatic-Cls), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorobenzenes (CBzs), in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. The influences of the following on aromatic-Cls formation in model fly ash (MFA) were systematically examined quantitatively and statistically: (i) inorganic chlorides (KCl, NaCl, CaCl2), (ii) base materials (SiO2, Al2O3, CaCO3), (iii) metal oxides (CuO, Fe2O3, PbO, ZnO), (iv) metal chlorides (CuCl2, FeCl3, PbCl2, ZnCl2), and (v) "coexisting multi-models." On the basis of aromatic-Cls concentrations, the ∑CBzs/∑PCBs ratio, and the similarity between distribution patterns, MFAs were categorized into six groups. The results and analysis indicated that the formation of aromatic-Cls depended strongly on the "coexistence condition", namely multimodels composed of not only metal chlorides, but also of metal oxides. The precise replication of metal chloride to oxide ratios, such as the precise ratios of Cu-, Fe-, Pb-, and Zn-chlorides and oxides, may be an essential factor in changing the thermochemical formation patterns of aromatic-Cls. Although CuCl2 acted as a promoter of aromatic-Cls generation, statistical analyses implied that FeCl3 also largely influenced the generation of aromatic-Cls under mixture conditions. Various additional components of fly ash were also comprehensively analyzed.

  18. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  19. Nonlinear optical properties of bulk cuprous oxide using single beam Z-scan at 790 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna, J.; Rueda, E. [Grupo de Óptica y Fotónica, Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia U de A, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); García, H., E-mail: hgarcia@siue.edu [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, Illinois 60026 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    The two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient β and the nonlinear index of refraction n{sub 2} for bulk cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) direct gap semiconductor single crystal have been measured by using a balance-detection Z-scan single beam technique, with an excellent signal to noise ratio. Both coefficients were measured at 790 nm using a 65 fs laser pulse at a repetition rate of 90.9 MHz, generated by a Ti:Sapphire laser oscillator. The experimental values for β were explained by using a model that includes allowed-allowed, forbidden-allowed, and forbidden-forbidden transitions. It was found that the forbidden-forbidden transition is the dominant mechanism, which is consistent with the band structure of Cu{sub 2}O. The low value for β found in bulk, as compared with respect to thin film, is explained in terms of the structural change in thin films that result in opposite parities of the conduction and valence band. The n{sub 2} is also theoretically calculated by using the TPA dispersion curve and the Kramers-Kronig relations for nonlinear optics.

  20. Novel Facile Technique for Synthesis of Stable Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O Nanoparticles – an Ageing Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin S. Sawant

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel facile method to synthesize stable phase of Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O nanoparticles at room temperature is demonstrated. The structural and optical properties of (Cu2O nanoparticles were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-VIS Spectroscopy. XRD analysis has indexed nanocrystalline nature of cubical phase Cu2O with an average edge length of about 20 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM measurements also ascertain the cubical morphology. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR affirms the presence of characteristic functional group of Cu2O. The absorbance peak at 485 nm in UV-VIS spectra also confirms the Cu2O synthesis. Furthermore, UV-VIS absorbance spectra at different ageing time substantiate the phase stability of Cu2O nanoparticles. The ageing leads to blue shift of absorbance peak mainly due to decrease in Cu2O particle size with no additional absorbance peak in UV-VIS spectra indicating the formation of secondary phase. The reduction in particle size may be attributed to tiny conversion Cu2O to CuO. The energy band gap measurements from Tauc plots for Cu2O nanoparticles shows the increasing trend (2.5 eV to 2.8 eV with ageing time (2 months, owing to quantum confinement effects.

  1. Preparation of cuprous oxides with different sizes and their behaviors of adsorption, visible-light driven photocatalysis and photocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Peng, Feng; Yu, Hao; Wang, Hongjuan

    2009-01-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) nanoparticles and microparticles have been prepared by liquid phase chemical synthesis. The samples were characterized by means of SEM, XRD, UV/DRS and XPS. It was presented that as-prepared Cu 2O nanoparticles are substantially stable in ambient atmosphere and the Cu + as main state exists on the surface of Cu 2O nanoparticles. As-prepared Cu 2O microparticles can exist stably as a Cu 2O/CuO core/shell structure; and the Cu 2+ as main state exists on the surface of Cu 2O microparticles. The behaviors of adsorption, photocatalysis and photocorrosion of Cu 2O particles with different sizes were investigated in detail. The results show that Cu 2O nanoparticles are very easy to photocorrosion during the photocatalytic reaction, which cannot be used as photocatalyst directly to degrade organic compound, although as-prepared Cu 2O nanoparticles exhibit special property of adsorption. Cu 2O microparticles have a higher photocatalytic activity than Cu 2O nanoparticles because of its slower photocorrosion rate, although Cu 2O microparticles have much lower adsorption capacity than Cu 2O nanoparticles. The mechanisms of photocatalysis and photocorrosion for Cu 2O under visible light were also discussed.

  2. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, benzenes and phenols from thermal degradation of 2-chlorophenol promoted by CuCl2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visez, N.; Baillet, C.; Sawerysyn, J.P. [Lille-1 Univ. (France). Physicochimie des Processus de Combustion et de l' Atmosphere - UMR-CNRS

    2004-09-15

    processes of PCDD/Fs from chlorophenols as precursors. These investigations have shown that other organic byproducts, potentially toxic, could also be formed with PCDD/Fs. Born et al. have studied the formation of PCDD/Fs from isomers of monochlorophenol on model and real fly ashes using a fixed bed reactor. The reaction products observed were carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, 2,4- dichlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, PCDDs, monobenzofuran, polychlorodiphenylethers, polychlorobenzenes, methylene chloride and tetrachloroethylene. By investigating the PCDD/Fs formation from ortho-chlorinated phenols and copper chloride, Ryu and Mulholland have identified the following products: chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes, PCDD/Fs, tetrachloroethylene and benzoquinones Hell et al. have studied the reaction of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on real and model fly ash using a fixed bed reactor. They have observed that polychlorobenzenes formation was favored when time and temperature were increased. This work is aimed at highlighting the organic compounds formed by thermal degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2CP) promoted by copper chloride using sealed tubes as closed reactors. It is clear that this experimental method is unrealistic when compared to conditions of industrial processes. However, it enables us to use residence times (from minutes to hours) long enough to get more informations on reactions pathways responsible for PCCD/Fs formation and degradation which would be difficult to obtain from experiments with much smaller residence times.

  3. Optical Study of Cuprous Oxide and Ferric Oxide Based Materials for Applications in Low Cost Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Thi Cuc; Bui, Bao Thoa; Wegmuller, Benjamin; Nguyen, Minh Hieu; Hoang Ngoc, Lam Huong; Bui, Van Diep; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Hoang, Chi Hieu; Nguyen-Tran, Thuat

    2016-05-01

    One of the interesting forms of cuprous oxide and ferric oxide based materials is CuFeO2 which can be a delafossite-type compound and is a well known p-type semiconductor. This compound makes up an interesting family of materials for technological applications. CuFeO2 thin films recently gained renewed interest for potential applications in solar cell devices especially as absorption layers. One of the interesting facts is that CuFeO2 is made from cheap materials such as copper and iron. In this study, CuFeO2 thin films are intentionally deposited on corning glass and silicon substrates by the radio-frequency and direct current sputtering method with complicated and well developed co-sputtering recipes. The deposition was performed at room temperature which leads to an amorphous phase with extremely low roughness and high density. The films also were annealed at 500°C in 5% H2 in Ar for the passivation. A detailed optical study was performed on these thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and by ultra-violet visible near infrared spectroscopy. Depending on sputtering conditions, the direct band gap was extrapolated to be from 1.96 eV to 2.2 eV and 2.92 eV to 2.96 eV and the indirect band gap is about 1.22 eV to 1.42 eV. A good electrical conduction is also observed which is suitable for solar cell applications. In future more study on the structural properties will be carried out in order to fully understand these materials.

  4. A novel reducing graphene/polyaniline/cuprous oxide composite hydrogel with unexpected photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Congo red

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Jie; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Cao, Juan; Shen, Yuhua, E-mail: yhshen@ahu.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excellent photocatalytic activity of the RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel for CR degradation under UV–vis light irradiation. - Highlights: • The RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel was first synthesized via a facile method. • Photocatalytic performance was studied under UV–vis light. • The ternary composite hydrogel shows unexpected photocatalytic activity. • A possible photocatalysis mechanism was illustrated. - Abstract: In this work, a novel reducing graphene/polyaniline/cuprous oxide (RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O) composite hydrogel with a 3D porous network has been successfully prepared via a one-pot method in the presence of cubic Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles. The as-synthesized ternary composites hydrogel shows unexpected photocatalytic activity such that Congo red (CR) degradation efficiency can reaches 97.91% in 20 min under UV–vis light irradiation, which is much higher than that of either the single component (Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles), or two component systems (RGO/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel and PANI/Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposites). Furthermore, the ternary composite hydrogel exhibits high stability and do not show any significant loss after five recycles. Such outstanding photocatalytic activity of the RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel was ascribed to the high absorption ability of the product for CR and the synergic effect among RGO, PANI and Cu{sub 2}O in photocatalytic process. The product of this work would provide a new sight for the construction of UV–vis light responsive photocatalyst with high performance.

  5. Two Novel Tyrosinase Inhibitory Sesquiterpenes Induced by CuCl2 from a Marine-Derived Fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. Z233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenes, 1β,5α,6α,14-tetraacetoxy-9α-benzoyloxy-7β H-eudesman-2β,11-diol (1 and 4α,5α-diacetoxy-9α-benzoyloxy-7βH-eudesman-1β,2β,11, 14-tetraol (2, were produced as stress metabolites in the cultured mycelia of Pestalotiopsis sp. Z233 isolated from the algae Sargassum horneri in response to abiotic stress elicitation by CuCl2. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means. New compounds 1 and 2 showed tyrosinase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 14.8 µM and 22.3 µM.

  6. Large-scale single-crystal growth of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 for neutron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Garam; Oh, In-Hwan; Park, J. M. Sungil; Park, Seong-Hun; Hong, Chang Seop; Lee, Kwang-Sei

    2016-05-01

    Neutron scattering studies on low-dimensional quantum spin systems require large-size single-crystals. Single-crystals of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 showing low-dimensional magnetic behaviors were grown by a slow solvent evaporation method in a two-solvent system at different temperature settings. The best results were obtained for the bilayer solution of methanol and isopropanol with a molar ratio of 2:1 at 35 °C. The quality of the obtained single-crystals was tested by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction and single-crystal neutron diffraction. In addition, to confirm structural phase transitions (SPTs), thermal analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 300 K and 175 K, respectively, were conducted, confirming the presence of a SPT at Tup=288 K on heating and Tdown=285 K on cooling.

  7. Theoretical calculations of spin-Hamiltonian parameters for the square planer CuCl4 2 - cluster in Cs2ZrCl6 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Mei, Yang; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2015-05-01

    The high-order perturbation formulas based on a two-mechanism model (where in addition to the contributions from the crystal-field (CF) mechanism in the usually-applied CF theory, those from the generally-neglected charge-transfer (CT) mechanism are also contained) are employed to calculate the spin-Hamiltonian parameters (g factors g//, g⊥ and the hyperfine structure constants A//, A⊥) of the square planar CuCl4 2 - clusters in Cs2ZrCl6 crystal. The needed CF energy levels in the calculations are obtained from the observed optical spectra. The calculated results show reasonable agreement with the experimented values. The negative sign of A// and positive sign of A⊥ are proposed from the calculations. The calculations also suggest that one should take account of the contributions due to both the CF and CT mechanisms for the exact and rational calculations of spin-Hamiltonian parameters of Cu2+-Cl- combination in crystals.

  8. Synthesis of Cu2O, CuCl, and Cu2OCl2 nanoparticles by ultrafast laser ablation of copper in liquid media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syed Hamad; G Krishna Podagatlapalli; Surya P Tewari; S Venugopal Rao

    2014-02-01

    Copper complex nanoparticles were fabricated from bulk copper using picosecond laser ablation in water and chloroform. We found that composition of the nanoparticles was CuCl and Cu2OCl2 in chloroform at three different input fluences; Cu2O in water which was confirmed from the data of EDAX, UV-Visible absorption spectra, and selected area electron diffraction pattern. We have also performed nonlinear optical studies of colloidal nanoparticles using Z-scan technique at 800 nm and ∼2 ps laser pulses. Cu2O NPs exhibited two-photon absorption at lower peak intensities while three-photon absorption was observed at higher peak intensities. Other samples exhibited two-photon absorption at all peak intensities.

  9. Effect of atomic vibrations in XANES: polarization-dependent damping of the fine structure at the Cu K-edge of (creat)2CuCl4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šipr, Ondřej; Vackář, Jiří; Kuzmin, Alexei

    2016-11-01

    Polarization-dependent damping of the fine structure in the Cu K-edge spectrum of creatinium tetrachlorocuprate [(creat)2CuCl4] in the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) region is shown to be due to atomic vibrations. These vibrations can be separated into two groups, depending on whether the respective atoms belong to the same molecular block; individual molecular blocks can be treated as semi-rigid entities while the mutual positions of these blocks are subject to large mean relative displacements. The effect of vibrations can be efficiently included in XANES calculations by using the same formula as for static systems but with a modified free-electron propagator which accounts for fluctuations in interatomic distances.

  10. chloride mass balance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    1Geology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University ... characterization of groundwater, rainfall and the unsaturated zone were also carried out using a .... 2008 in collaboration with the Senegal National Meteorological .... [Cl]sm is estimated as average chloride concentration in ..... sands of Australia.

  11. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    and time, and where both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time; the Mejlbro-Poulsen model is the general solution to Fick’s 2nd law. The paper also presents conversion formulas for the four decisive but rather abstract parameters to parameters, which...

  12. Preparation of Cystein from Cysteine Cuprous Mercaptide%由半胱氨酸亚铜制取半胱氨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勋; 胡敏; 姚小平

    2015-01-01

    In this paper ,a new preparation method of cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate from cysteine cu‐prous mcercaptide ,which is prepared by the reduction and precipitation of cystine with cuprous oxide has been introduced ,including re‐precipitation of cysteine cuprous mercaptide ,removal of copper using H2 S , decoloration ,crystallization and recrystalization .The yield of the product is up to 12 .4% ,with the quality according with the Japanese AJI standards .%研究了一种用氧化亚铜将胱氨酸还原沉淀为半胱氨酸亚铜,再由此制备半胱氨酸盐酸盐一水物的新方法.该方法包含半胱氨酸亚铜再沉淀,H2 S法脱铜,脱色,产品结晶,重结晶等步骤,半胱氨酸盐酸盐一水物收率达12.4%,产品质量符合日本味之素标准.

  13. Preparation of Copper Telluride Films by Co-Reduction of Cu(I) and Te(IV) Ions in Choline Chloride: Ethylene Glycol Ionic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golgovici, Florentina; Catrangiu, Adriana-Simona; Stoian, Andrei Bogdan; Anicai, Liana; Visan, Teodor

    2016-07-01

    Cathodic processes of direct co-reduction of Cu+ and Te4+ ions on Pt electrode at 60°C were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The ionic liquid as background electrolyte consisted of a mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol (ChCl-EG 1:2 mol ratio) in which 5-20 mM CuCl and 8 mM TeO2 were dissolved. The voltammograms exhibited the following successive cathodic processes: Cu2+/Cu+ reduction, Te underpotential deposition, simultaneous deposition of Cu metal and CuTe compound, and deposition of Te-rich CuTe compound at the most negative potentials (from -0.5 V to -0.8 V). Corresponding dissolution or oxidation peaks were recorded on the anodic branch. The voltammetric results were confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectra. Copper telluride films have been synthesized on platinum substrate via potentiostatic electrodeposition at 60°C. It was found from atomic force microscopy that CuTe film samples prepared from ChCl-EG + 5 mM CuCl + 8 mM TeO2 ionic liquid have high growth rates. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the deposited films from ChCl-EG + 10 mM CuCl + 8 mM TeO2 ionic liquid indicated the presence of a Cu2Te phase for film deposited at -0.7 V and a Cu0.656Te0.344 phase for film deposited at -0.6 V.

  14. Electrocatalytic Production of C3-C4 Compounds by Conversion of CO2 on a Chloride-Induced Bi-Phasic Cu2O-Cu Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghwa; Kim, Dahee; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2015-12-01

    Electrocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently received considerable attention as one of the most feasible CO2 utilization techniques. In particular, copper and copper-derived catalysts have exhibited the ability to produce a number of organic molecules from CO2. Herein, we report a chloride (Cl)-induced bi-phasic cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and metallic copper (Cu) electrode (Cu2OCl) as an efficient catalyst for the formation of high-carbon organic molecules by CO2 conversion, and identify the origin of electroselectivity toward the formation of high-carbon organic compounds. The Cu2OCl electrocatalyst results in the preferential formation of multi-carbon fuels, including n-propanol and n-butane C3-C4 compounds. We propose that the remarkable electrocatalytic conversion behavior is due to the favorable affinity between the reaction intermediates and the catalytic surface.

  15. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Carol A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapo...

  16. Study on the covalence of Cu and chemical bonding in an inorganic fullerene-like molecule, [CuCl]20[Cp*FeP5]12[Cu-(CH3CN)2+Cl-]5, by a density functional approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bingwu; XU Guangxian; CHEN Zhida

    2004-01-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding in a recently synthesized inorganic fullerene-like molecule, {[CuCl]20[Cp*FeP5]12 [Cu(CH3CN)+2Cl-]5}, has been studied by a density functional approach. Geometrical optimization of the three basic structural units of the molecule is performed with Amsterdam Density Functional Program. The results are in agreement with the experiment. Localized MO's obtained by Boys-Foster method give a clear picture of the chemical bonding in this molecule. The reason why CuCl can react with Cp*FeP5 in solvent CH3CN to form the fullerene-like molecule is explained in terms of the soft-hard Lewis acid base theory and a new concept of covalence.

  17. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  18. Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Zhang, Xian; Goidanich, Sara; Le Bozec, Nathalie; Herting, Gunilla; Leygraf, Christofer

    2014-02-15

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn>Cu sheet>Cu15Zn>Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu2(OH)3Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2 (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O/Zn2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8·H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu2(OH)3Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterizations of Cuprous Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Technique with Different Additives for the Photoelectrochemical Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. C. Halin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique using different additives, namely, polyethylene glycol and ethylene glycol. It was found that the organic additives added had a significant influence on the formation of Cu2O films and lead to different microstructures and optical properties. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis. Based on the FESEM micrographs, the grain size of film prepared using polyethylene glycol additive has smaller grains of about 83 nm with irregular shapes. The highest optical absorbance film was obtained by the addition of polyethylene glycol. The Cu2O thin films were used as a working electrode in the application of photoelectrochemical solar cell (PESC.

  20. A perfectly aligned 63 helical tubular cuprous bromide single crystal for selective photo-catalysis, luminescence and sensing of nitro-explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ru-Xin; Hailili, Reshalaiti; Cui, Xin; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2015-02-21

    A perfectly aligned 63 helical tubular cuprous bromide single crystal has been synthesized and characterized, which can selectively decompose negatively charged dyes of Methyl Orange (MO) and Kermes Red (KR), and the photocatalytic efficiency is higher than that of nanosized (∼25 nm) TiO2 and ZnO. The direction and magnitude of the dipole moments as well as the band structure were calculated to reveal high photocatalytic efficiency. Moreover, luminescence studies indicate that the CuBr tube materials show very strong yellowish green emissions in the solid state and emulsion even at room temperature, and exhibit extremely high detection sensitivity towards nitro-explosives via fluorescence quenching. Detectable luminescence responses were observed at a very low concentration of 20 ppm with a high quenching efficiency of 94.90%. The results suggest that they may be promising multifunctional materials for photo-catalysis, luminescence and sensing of nitro-explosives.

  1. Electrical properties and conduction mechanism of [N(C2H5)4][N(CH3)4]CuCl4 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, N.; Karoui, K.; Jomni, F.; Rhaiem, A. Ben

    2016-09-01

    The [N(CH3)4][N(C2H5)4]CuCl4 single crystal has been synthetized in order to determinate the temperatures transition and to study the electrical properties and the conduction mechanism. At room temperature, this compound crystallizes in the tetragonal system with P-421m space group. The calorimetric study shows three anomalies at 248, 284 and 326 K. Electrical conduction and dielectrical relaxation mechanisms at various frequencies and temperatures were analyzed by impedance spectroscopy and the equivalent circuit based on the Z-View-software was proposed. The variation of fp relaxation determinate by the modulus study and σdc specific to the AC conductivity as a function of temperature and confirm the all transitions for our sample. The values of the activation energy are determined and compared by those, which are found in the similar compound. Frequencies dependence of alternative current (AC) conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonscher's law and the conduction mechanisms for each phase are determined with the Elliot's theory.

  2. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  3. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  4. 氯化铜脱除硫化氢气体制硫磺研究%H2S Removal with Cupric Chloride for Producing Sulfur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊丰; 童志权

    2006-01-01

    A novel technology of removing H2S with cupric chloride solution was developed in this paper. Cupric as the form of CuS deposition, the CuS produced was then oxidized by excessive cupric ion in another reactor meanwhile cupric ion that has been consumed can be recovered by the oxidization of CuCl2- with oxygen in air,and the solution can be circulated. Moreover, the leaching kinetics of CuS by cupric ion was studied. The removal efficiency of H2S is close to 100%, and the required operating condition is mild. Compared with other wet oxidization methods, no raw material is consumed except O2 in air, the process has no secondary pollution and no problem of degradation and scale, and the absorbent is much stable and reliable.

  5. The structure of molten CuCl: Reverse Monte Carlo modeling with high-energy X-ray diffraction data and molecular dynamics of a polarizable ion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Olga; Trullàs, Joaquim; Tahara, Shuta; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2016-09-01

    The results of the structural properties of molten copper chloride are reported from high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements, reverse Monte Carlo modeling method, and molecular dynamics simulations using a polarizable ion model. The simulated X-ray structure factor reproduces all trends observed experimentally, in particular the shoulder at around 1 Å-1 related to intermediate range ordering, as well as the partial copper-copper correlations from the reverse Monte Carlo modeling, which cannot be reproduced by using a simple rigid ion model. It is shown that the shoulder comes from intermediate range copper-copper correlations caused by the polarized chlorides.

  6. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  7. Parameters Affecting Hydrogen Chloride Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    contain sea salt, which is hygroscopic because of the magnesium chloride present, or ammonium bisulfate , which mostly comes from sulfur pollution and is...boosters release hydrogen chloride as a combustion product, and hydrazines or nitric acid can be spilled from liquid fuel motors. Monitoring the...solubility constant, and the second is the acid ionization constant. From experimental work, the product of the two constants is well established (Reference

  8. Cuprous Iodide Catalyzed Synthesis of Diaryl Selenide and Telluride from Organoboronic Acids with Diphenyl Diselenide and Ditelluride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Lei; WANG,Min; YAN,Jin-Can; LI,Pin-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ Organoselenium and tellurium compounds have received much attention not only as synthetic reagents or intermediates in organic synthesis but also as promising donor molecules for conductive materials.[1] A number of synthetic methods have been reported to prepare organoselenium and tellurium derivatives. A convenient and general method to introduce a selenium or tellurium moiety into organic molecules is the reaction of a metal selenolate or tellurolate with appropriate electrophiles such as organic halides, acyl chlorides, epoxides, and α, β-enones.[2] However, it is difficult to synthesize the unsymmetrical diarylselenides and tellurides through the reaction of selenide anion with organic halides because of the less reactivity of aryl halides. To accomplish this purpose, the reaction (iodobenzene with phenylselenol)was generally carried out in the presence of catalysts, ligands and strong bases. But, the reaction needs longer time to accomplish and form the products in moderate yields.

  9. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  12. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene...

  13. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  14. Multilayer core-shell structured composite paper electrode consisting of copper, cuprous oxide and graphite assembled on cellulose fibers for asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caichao; Jiao, Yue; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    An easily-operated and inexpensive strategy (pencil-drawing-electrodeposition-electro-oxidation) is proposed to synthesize a novel class of multilayer core-shell structured composite paper electrode, which consists of copper, cuprous oxide and graphite assembled on cellulose fibers. This interesting electrode structure plays a pivotal role in providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions, facilitating ion and electron transport and shorting their diffusion pathways. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties with a high specific capacitance of 601 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and retains 83% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrahigh current density of 100 A g-1. In addition, a high energy density of 13.4 W h kg-1 at the power density of 0.40 kW kg-1 and a favorable cycling stability (95.3%, 8000 cycles) were achieved for this electrode. When this electrode was assembled into an asymmetric supercapacitor with carbon paper as negative electrode, the device displays remarkable electrochemical performances with a large areal capacitances (122 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2), high areal energy density (10.8 μW h cm-2 at 402.5 μW cm-2) and outstanding cycling stability (91.5%, 5000 cycles). These results unveil the potential of this composite electrode as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

  15. Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B by Cuprous Oxide%氧化亚铜光催化降解罗丹明 B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛; 吕重安; 杨水金

    2014-01-01

    Cuprous oxide ( Cu2 O) was successfully prepared by the method of reduction in aqueous at room temperature.All the powders were characterized by X -rays diffraction ( XRD) and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) .The effect of different factors on the degradation was investigated .The best reaction conditions were found out.The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B by Cu 2 O under simulated natural light irradiation was investiga-ted.The results demonstrated that initial concentration of rhodamine B is 10 mg/L, catalyst dosage is 0.38 g/L and the pH is 5.2, the degradation ratio of rhodamine B is as high as 96.5%after 30 minutes simulated natural light ir-radiation .%利用室温液相还原法制备了氧化亚铜,通过XRD、 SEM对其进行了表征,探讨了该催化剂对罗丹明B的光催化降解的活性。在催化剂用量为0.38 g/L,过氧化氢量为1.8 mL,罗丹明B的浓度为10 mg/L, pH为5.2的条件下,光照30 min后罗丹明B的降解率为96.5%。

  16. 铜粉处理酸性镀铜溶液中氯离子的机理%Mechanism of Treating Chloride Ion in Acidic Copper Plating Bath with Copper Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武

    2011-01-01

    阐明了用铜粉处理酸性镀铜溶液中氯离子的机理,理论分析和实验表明,在酸性镀铜溶液中,Cu2+离子与铜粉反应生成Cu+离子,同时氯离子与Cu+离子反应生成氯化亚铜沉淀.向镀液中加铜粉1g/L,氯离子的起始质量浓度为174mg/L时,氯离子的去除率为58.9%,而向镀液中加锌粉1g/L,氯离子的去除率为47.0%,用铜粉处理氯离子的效率较高.%The mechanism of treating chloride ion in acidic copper plating bath by using copper powder was illustrated. Theoretical analyses and experimental tests indicated that in acidic copper plating solution Cu2+ ion could react with copper powder to form Cu + ion and the Cu + ion could react with chloride ion in the solution to produce cuprous chloride precipitation. When the initial mass concentration of the chloride ions in the acidic copper plating solution was 174 mg/L, the elimination rate of chloride ions after adding 1 g/L copper powders to the solution was 58.9% while that after adding 1 g/L zinc powders was 47.0%. This indicates that the treatment efficiency of chloride ion in the acidic copper plating solution with copper powders is higher than that with zinc powders.

  17. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  18. Influence of Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn chlorides and oxides on formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds in MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2009-11-01

    Model fly ashes containing admixed Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn chlorides and oxides were heated at a temperature corresponding to the postcombustion zone of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI), resulting in the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorobenzenes (CBzs). The concentrations of these compounds were measured and compared with those occurring in real fly ash. The order with respect generative capacity of each metal additive was calculated from principal component analysis of the concentrations of the different chlorinated aromatic compounds as CuCl(2)*2H(2)O > Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl > FeCl(3)*6H(2)O > FeCl(2)*4H(2)O > CuO > Fe(2)O(3) > PbCl(2) > blank (no metal added) > ZnCl(2) > PbO > ZnO. From hierarchical cluster analysis of the concentrations and congener distribution patterns of the PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and CBzs, the metallic compounds were divided into five groups: Group A (CuCl(2)*2H(2)O and Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl), B (FeCl(3)*6H(2)O and FeCl(2)*4H(2)O), C (CuO and PbCl(2)), D (Fe(2)O(3), blank, and ZnCl(2)), and E (PbO and ZnO). Cluster analysis showed the congener distribution patterns of model fly ashes to be similar to the pattern of real MSWI fly ash. The formation of PCDDs was influenced mainly by group B, blank, and PbO; PCDFs, mainly by CuO, Fe(2)O(3) and ZnCl(2); PCBs, mainly by groups B and C; and CBzs, mainly by groups A and B. Thus, the multiple promotion of chlorinated aromatic compound formation by metallic chlorides and oxides in the fly ashes of MSWIs and other thermal processes has considerable importance for the environment.

  19. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  20. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general d

  1. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  2. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki

    2005-02-01

    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  3. Ultrasound promoted mild and facile one-pot, three component synthesis of 2H-indazoles by consecutive condensation, CN and NN bond formations catalysed by copper-doped silica cuprous sulphate (CDSCS) as an efficient heterogeneous nano-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Rad, Mohammad Navid

    2017-01-01

    An ultrasonic promoted facile and convenient one-pot three-component procedure for the synthesis of 2H-indazole derivatives using copper-doped silica cuprous sulphate (CDSCS) as a heterogeneous nano-catalyst has been described. In this approach, ultrasonic mediated reaction of different substituted 2-bromobenzaldehydes, structurally diverse primary amines, and tetrabutylammonium azide (TBAA) as an azide source in the presence of CDSCS in DMSO at room temperature furnishes 2H-indazoles in good to excellent yields. Utilizing ultrasonic irradiation techniques provided the dramatic improvements in terms of higher yields and shorter reaction times compared with conventional heating method.

  4. Electrodeposition of copper on a Pt(111) electrode in sulfuric acid containing poly(ethylene glycol) and chloride ions as probed by in situ STM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, YunLin; Pao, Te; Chen, Sih-Zih; Yau, ShuehLin; Dow, Wei-Ping; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2012-07-03

    This study employed real-time in situ STM imaging to examine the adsorption of PEG molecules on Pt(111) modified by a monolayer of copper adatoms and the subsequent bulk Cu deposition in 1 M H(2)SO(4) + 1 mM CuSO(4)+ 1 mM KCl + 88 μM PEG. At the end of Cu underpotential deposition (~0.35 V vs Ag/AgCl), a highly ordered Pt(111)-(√3 × √7)-Cu + HSO(4)(-) structure was observed in 1 M H(2)SO(4) + 1 mM CuSO(4). This adlattice restructured upon the introduction of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, molecular weight 200) and chloride anions. At the onset potential for bulk Cu deposition (~0 V), a Pt(111)-(√3 × √3)R30°-Cu + Cl(-) structure was imaged with a tunneling current of 0.5 nA and a bias voltage of 100 mV. Lowering the tunneling current to 0.2 nA yielded a (4 × 4) structure, presumably because of adsorbed PEG200 molecules. The subsequent nucleation and deposition processes of Cu in solution containing PEG and Cl(-) were examined, revealing the nucleation of 2- to 3-nm-wide CuCl clusters on an atomically smooth Pt(111) surface at overpotentials of less than 50 mV. With larger overpotential (η > 150 mV), Cu deposition seemed to bypass the production of CuCl species, leading to layered Cu deposition, starting preferentially at step defects, followed by lateral growth to cover the entire Pt electrode surface. These processes were observed with both PEG200 and 4000, although the former tended to produce more CuCl nanoclusters. Raising [H(2)SO(4)] to 1 M substantiates the suppressing effect of PEG on Cu deposition. This STM study provided atomic- or molecular-level insight into the effect of PEG additives on the deposition of Cu.

  5. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No... Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or...

  6. Cupric and cuprous oxide by reactive ion beam sputter deposition and the photosensing properties of cupric oxide metal–semiconductor–metal Schottky photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min-Jyun; Lin, Yong-Chen; Chao, Liang-Chiun, E-mail: lcchao@mail.ntust.edu.tw; Lin, Pao-Hung; Huang, Bohr-Ran

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CuO and Cu{sub 2}O were deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. • Single phase CuO thin film is obtained with Ar:O{sub 2} = 2:1. • CuO MSM PD shows photoresponse from 400 nm to 1.30 μm. • CuO MSM PD is RC limited with a decay time less than 1 μs. - Abstract: Cupric (CuO) and cuprous (Cu{sub 2}O) oxide thin films have been deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition at 400 °C with an Ar:O{sub 2} ratio from 2:1 to 12:1. With an Ar:O{sub 2} ratio of 2:1, single phase polycrystalline CuO thin films were obtained. Decreasing oxygen flow rate results in CuO + Cu{sub 2}O and Cu{sub 2}O + Cu mixed thin films. As Ar:O{sub 2} ratio reaches 12:1, Cu{sub 2}O nanorods with diameter of 250 nm and length longer than 1 μm were found across the sample. Single phase CuO thin film exhibits an indirect band gap of 1.3 eV with a smooth surface morphology. CuO metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) Schottky photodiodes (PD) were fabricated by depositing Cu interdigitated electrodes on CuO thin films. Photosensing properties of the CuO PD were characterized from 350 to 1300 nm and a maximum responsivity of 43 mA/W was found at λ = 700 nm. The MSM PD is RC limited with a decay time constant less than 1 μs.

  7. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P. A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  8. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  9. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ... It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an inherited disorder that makes kids sick ...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O,...

  11. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the...

  12. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review... revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...

  13. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. ON THE KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF THE COPOLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE WITH STYRENE IN THE PRESENCE OF COPPER CHLORIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroko Sato; Hiroshi Tsuji; Hitoshi Sasaki; Shinichi Ikemura; Yasuhito Gotoh; Junzo Ishikawa; Sei-ichi Nishimoto

    2003-01-01

    The copolymerization of styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) complexed with CuCl2 monomer by a free radical mechanism was performed using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator at 65℃ under N2 atmosphere for 150 min. The rate of polymerization (Rp) was found to increase linearly with the concentration (in mol/L) of CuCl2, AN and St through scaling relations. The activation energy of the copolymerization process in the presence and absence of CuCl2 was found to be 46.5 kJ/mol and 102 kJ/mol, respectively. The viscosity average molecular weight of the copolymer and the kp2/kt ratio were determired to further assess the accelerating effect of CuCl2 on the copolymerization process. The copolymerization process in the presence of CuCl2 has a radical complex mechanism.

  16. Preparation of semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghaway, J; Soine, T O

    1979-05-01

    Semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride (II) was prepared by monoquaternization of (+)-tubocurine. The method involved treating (+)-tubocurine with a 0.5 M equivalent of hydrochloric acid prior to quaternization with methyl iodide, followed by neutralization and iodide-chloride ion-exchange. Column chromatography and crystallization procedures were utilized for pure semisynthetic II preparation. The neuromuscular junction blocking activities of the semisynthetic and commercial II were determined by the in vivo cat hypoglossal nerve-tongue muscle preparation. No delectable differences among physical constants, spectral data, and neuromuscular junction blocking activities were noted between the commercial product and the semisynthetic II. This result substantiates the chemical and biological data for the well-accepted new formula for II. The unexplained M + n14 mass spectral peaks shown by the curare-type bases are characteristic of the molecular species rather than a result of contaminants.

  17. Investigating the two inequivalent NH2(CH3)2 ions in [NH2(CH3)2]2CuCl4 using magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Paik, Younkee

    2017-03-01

    The structural change near the phase transition temperatures of [NH2(CH3)2]2CuCl4 is discussed in terms of the chemical shifts and the spin-lattice relaxation times T1ρ in the rotating frame for 1H MAS NMR and 13C CP/MAS NMR. The 1H T1ρ undergoes molecular motion near the phase-transition temperature (TC2 = 253 K). In addition, the two inequivalent [NH2(CH3)2] (1) and [NH2(CH3)2] (2) sites were distinguishable by the 13C chemical shift. And, the most significant change was observed at TC2 for the 13C CP/MAS NMR spectrum; this temperature corresponds to a ferroelastic phase transition with different orientations.

  18. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Mehmet Akkurt; Yathirajan, H.S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxophenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethylpropanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothiazine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions.

  19. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  20. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  1. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  2. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; El-Mohr, M.A.K.; Dyer, T.D. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-11-01

    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimize resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole/liter were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50% and to then decline. It increased with chloride exposure concentration as well as water/binder ratio. The coefficient of chloride diffusion of concrete samples was found to be dependent on both the intrinsic permeability of the concrete and the ability of its cement matrix to bind chlorides.

  3. An efficient method for N-arylation of nitrogen-containing heterocycles catalyzed by CuCl2/Al2O3%CuCl2/Al2O3催化氮杂环的N-芳基化反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施介华; 王炯杰

    2013-01-01

    研究了以CuCl2/Al2 O3作为金属铜催化剂高效催化氮杂环与卤代芳烃的N-芳基化反应制备N-芳基杂环化合物.实验结果表明:在无有机配体存在下CuCl2/Al2O3催化剂具有良好的催化活性和重复使用性.以咪唑与碘苯的反应作为模板反应优化反应条件,考察了反应物配比、催化剂种类、碱的种类、溶剂的选择、反应温度以及反应时间等因素对反应收率的影响,确定了最佳反应条件,在此条件下制备N-苯基咪唑的收率达99%.而且,所选择的催化反应体系可应用于合成一系列N-芳基杂环化合物.%An efficient method for N-arylation of nitrogen-containing heterocycles with aryl halides has been developed using CUC12/Al2O3 as an efficient catalyst to prepare a variety of N-arylheterocycles. The experimental results showed that the CuCl2/Al2O3 catalyst has good catalytic activity and can be reused without any added organic ligand. The coupling reaction of iodobenzene with imidazole was used as the model reaction to optimize the reaction conditions, and the influences of molar ratio of reactants, catalyst, base, solvent, temperature and time were investigated. Under the selected reaction conditions, the yield for the preparation of N-phenyl imidazole is 99%. And, the selected catalytic reaction system can be applied in synthesis of a variety of N-arylheterocycles.

  4. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  5. Crystal structure of a chloride-bridged copper(II) dimer: piperazine-1,4-dium bis-(di-μ-chlorido-bis[(4-carboxypyridine-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2)N,O(2))chlorido-cuprate(II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inah, Bassey Enyi; Ayi, Ayi Anyama; Adhikary, Amit

    2017-02-01

    Crystals of a new dimeric chloride-bridged cuprate(II) derived from pyridine-2,4-di-carb-oxy-lic acid were obtained solvothermally in the presence of piperazine and hydro-chloric acid. The crystal structure determination of the title salt, (C4H12N2)[Cu2(C7H4NO4)2Cl4], revealed one of the carboxyl groups of the original pyridine-2,4-di-carb-oxy-lic acid ligand to be protonated, whereas the other is deprotonated and binds together with the pyridine N atom to the Cu(II) atom. The coordination environment of the Cu(II) atom is distorted square-pyramidal. One of the chloride ligands bridges two metal cations to form a centrosymmetric dimer with two different Cu-Cl distances of 2.2632 (8) and 2.7853 (8) Å, whereby the longer distance is associated with the apical ligand. The remaining chloride ligand is terminal at one of the basal positions, with a distance of 2.2272 (9) Å. In the crystal, the dimers are linked by inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, together with N-H⋯O and N-H⋯Cl inter-actions involving the centrosymmetric organic cation, into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. Further but weaker C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl inter-actions consolidate the packing.

  6. Nanometer-Thick Gold on Silicon as a Proxy for Single-Crystal Gold for the Electrodeposition of Epitaxial Cuprous Oxide Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Jay A; Hill, James C; Mahenderkar, Naveen K; Liu, Ying-Chau

    2016-06-22

    Single-crystal Au is an excellent substrate for electrochemical epitaxial growth due to its chemical inertness, but the high cost of bulk Au single crystals prohibits their use in practical applications. Here, we show that ultrathin epitaxial films of Au electrodeposited onto Si(111), Si(100), and Si(110) wafers can serve as an inexpensive proxy for bulk single-crystal Au for the deposition of epitaxial films of cuprous oxide (Cu2O). The Au films range in thickness from 7.7 nm for a film deposited for 5 min to 28.3 nm for a film deposited for 30 min. The film thicknesses are measured by low-angle X-ray reflectivity and X-ray Laue oscillations. High-resolution TEM shows that there is not an interfacial SiOx layer between the Si and Au. The Au films deposited on the Si(111) substrates are smoother and have lower mosaic spread than those deposited onto Si(100) and Si(110). The mosaic spread of the Au(111) layer on Si(111) is only 0.15° for a 28.3 nm thick film. Au films deposited onto degenerate Si(111) exhibit ohmic behavior, whereas Au films deposited onto n-type Si(111) with a resistivity of 1.15 Ω·cm are rectifying with a barrier height of 0.85 eV. The Au and the Cu2O follow the out-of-plane and in-plane orientations of the Si substrates, as determined by X-ray pole figures. The Au and Cu2O films deposited on Si(100) and Si(110) are both twinned. The films grown on Si(100) have twins with a [221] orientation, and the films grown on Si(110) have twins with a [411] orientation. An interface model is proposed for all Si orientations, in which the -24.9% mismatch for the Au/Si system is reduced to only +0.13% by a coincident site lattice in which 4 unit meshes of Au coincide with 3 unit meshes of Si. Although this study only considers the deposition of epitaxial Cu2O films on electrodeposited Au/Si, the thin Au films should serve as high-quality substrates for the deposition of a wide variety of epitaxial materials.

  7. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  8. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  9. Oxidative damage of copper chloride overload to the cultured rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao-Lu; Ni, Xiu-Shi; Duff-Canning, Sarah; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of copper metabolism are associated with neurological dysfunction including Wilson's disease (WD). WD is a autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene resulting in the inability of the hepatocytes to remove excess copper. Gradual copper accumulation causes damage to liver, brain and other organs manifesting in liver disease, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Also scond copper-neurometaboic disorder: Menkes disease charaterized with mutated ATP7A gene, is ralated with abnormally neuroal transmission and synaptogenesis. Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease both are refered to some degree of copper/iron metabolism changes. The precise mechanisms by which excess copper causes neurological damage remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of excessive amounts of Cu(2+) on the oxidative damage response and survival of primary astrocytes from newborn rats. Primary cultured rat astrocytes were divided into three groups: 30 μmol/L CuCl2, 100 μmol/L CuCl2 and control. At 12, 24, 48, 96 and 120 hours of CuCl2 intervention, cell viability, intracellular reduced glutathione level and glutathion reductase activity, and nitric oxide secretion were determined. It was found that 30 μmol/L CuCl2 might stimulate the exaltation and the compensatory proliferation of astrocytes. The survival rate of astrocytes in the 100 μmol/L CuCl2 group was significantly decreased relative to the 30 μmol/L CuCl2 group. At 24 hours of CuCl2 intervention, intracellular reduced glutathione level and glutathion reductase activity were significantly decreased in the 100 μmol/L CuCl2 group compared to the control group. At 120 hours of CuCl2 intervention, nitric oxide secretion in the 100 μmol/L CuCl2 group was significantly greater than in the control group. Under pathological conditions, excessive amounts of Cu(2+) greatly damaged the growth and proliferation of astrocytes, reduced the anti-oxidative capacity of

  10. Chloride Ion Critical Content in Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chloride ion critical content was studied under soaking and cycle of dry and wet conditions,with three electrochemical nondestructive measuring techniques, i e, half-cell potential, A C impedance, and time potential. The experimental results show that chloride ion critical content is primarily determined by the water cement ratio, while for the same concrete mixture the chloride ion critical content in soaking conditions is larger than that in a cycle of dry and wet conditions.

  11. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

  12. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  14. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-10-01

    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  15. Electrochemical Behavior of Copper in Thionyl Chloride Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Thionyl chloride is known *3 to react...electrolyte for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . 8R. K. McAlpine and B. A. Soule, Prescott and Johnson’s Qualitative Chemical Analysis, D. Van...black carbon electrodes, cupric chloride appears to be a useful cathode additive for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Preliminary results2l

  16. Copper chloride electrolyzer for the production of hydrogen via the copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rahul Dev

    Hydrogen is considered a key element in solving the upcoming energy crisis, it is not the primary fuel source but an "energy carrier" similar to electricity and has to be produced using some other hydrogen rich source. Thermochemical water decomposition is a promising alternative to steam-methane reforming and electrolytic water splitting for a sustainable method of large-scale hydrogen production. The Copper-Chlorine thermochemical cycle is one of prime contenders among all the other thermochemical cycles being studied because of its low energy requirements compared to others and mild operating conditions, therefore making it available to be readily integrated to the available nuclear reactors or solar energy installations. This present work focuses on the study and development of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer cell for the Copper-Chlorine thermo chemical cycle to obtain a better understanding through experiments and models of this process. Different operating and design parameters such as temperature, flow rate, current density, membranes and gas diffusion layers were considered to reduce the voltage and hence increase the efficiency of the electrolyzer. The effects of catalyst and mass transfer were studied on the thin film electrode using a rotating disk electrode (RDE) setup. A mathematical model was also developed to monitor the performance of the electrolyzer by predicting the change in concentration of copper chloride in the system with respect to time. It is observed that flow rate and temperature plays a major role in decreasing the voltage drop. There was no effect of catalyst in the anode when compared to a bare anode at lower flow rates; but at higher flow rates there was significant decrease in voltage drop when a carbon cloth was placed at the anode end. High surface area carbon black has comparable activity towards CuCl oxidation with conventional catalyst like Platinum or Ruthenium oxide. It is also seen that mass transfers possess a

  17. Treatment of port-wine stains by photodynamic therapy of cuprous bromide laser%溴化亚铜激光光动力学疗法治疗鲜红斑痣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建民; 刘爱琴; 陈祖林; 杨名娟

    2000-01-01

    运用溴化亚铜激光光动力学疗法治疗鲜红斑痣296例,红斑完全消退185例(62.5%),部分消退111例(37.5%),无效0,并发疤痕15例,证实该疗法疗效确切同时仍需完善。%296 Cases of port-wine stains(PWS) were treated by photodynamic therapy(PDT) of cuprous bromide laser,including which 185 cases (62.5%)gained the result of thorough remission,111 cases (37.5%)gained the result of partial remission and 15 cases complicated with scar formation.PDT is proved to be an effective therapy for PWS while it also needs improving.

  18. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  19. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Y.; Graaf, de D.B.; Olthuis, W.; Berg, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference electr

  20. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  1. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  4. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de result

  5. Ageing effect of chloride diffusion coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Most of the currently used models to predict chloride ingress a constant diffusion coefficient over time. However, a reduction of the diffusion coefficient over time, is ob-served at specimens that are exposed to chlorides. This reduction of the diffusion coefficient is expressed with the ageing coe

  6. Double catalytic effect of (PhNH32CuCl4 in a novel, highly efficient synthesis of 2-oxo and thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydopyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative route for the construction of 2-oxo and thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines was delineated through a multicomponent reaction under Biginelli conditions, starting from different aromatic aldehydes, β-ketoesters and urea or thiourea. Proper choice of copper complex (PhNH32CuCl4, as a novel homogeneous catalyst, enables facile, efficient, and inexpensive reaction under mild experimental conditions. Moreover, we present the first application of this complex salts in organic synthesis ever. The obtained products are of high purity, and can be easily isolated from the reaction mixture in good to excellent yields. Also, compared to the classical Biginelli reaction conditions, the present method has the advantages in higher yields and experimental and work-up simplicity. To illustrate the joint catalytic action of the Cu2+ and phenylammonium ions, two key steps of Biginelli reaction were examined using the M06 functional. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172011 i br. 172016

  7. Spin density distribution in open-shell transition metal systems: A comparative post-Hartree-Fock, Density Functional Theory and quantum Monte Carlo study of the CuCl2 molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Caffarel, Michel; Scemama, Anthony; Ramírez-Solís, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the spatial distribution of the spin density (SD) of the ground state of CuCl2 using Density Functional Theory (DFT), quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), and post-Hartree-Fock wavefunction theory (WFT). A number of studies have shown that an accurate description of the electronic structure of the lowest-lying states of this molecule is particularly challenging due to the interplay between the strong dynamical correlation effects in the 3d shell of the copper atom and the delocalization of the 3d hole over the chlorine atoms. It is shown here that qualitatively different results for SD are obtained from these various quantum-chemical approaches. At the DFT level, the spin density distribution is directly related to the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange introduced in hybrid functionals. At the QMC level, Fixed-node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) results for SD are strongly dependent on the nodal structure of the trial wavefunction employed (here, Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham with a particula...

  8. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  9. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used......In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...

  10. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 kPa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly infl...

  11. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  12. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures.......The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k...

  13. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  14. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  15. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  16. Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

  17. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  18. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  19. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes

    OpenAIRE

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear ...

  20. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  1. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  2. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  3. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  4. Spin Density Distribution in Open-Shell Transition Metal Systems: A Comparative Post-Hartree-Fock, Density Functional Theory, and Quantum Monte Carlo Study of the CuCl2 Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarel, Michel; Giner, Emmanuel; Scemama, Anthony; Ramírez-Solís, Alejandro

    2014-12-09

    We present a comparative study of the spatial distribution of the spin density of the ground state of CuCl2 using Density Functional Theory (DFT), quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), and post-Hartree-Fock wave function theory (WFT). A number of studies have shown that an accurate description of the electronic structure of the lowest-lying states of this molecule is particularly challenging due to the interplay between the strong dynamical correlation effects in the 3d shell and the delocalization of the 3d hole over the chlorine atoms. More generally, this problem is representative of the difficulties encountered when studying open-shell metal-containing molecular systems. Here, it is shown that qualitatively different results for the spin density distribution are obtained from the various quantum-mechanical approaches. At the DFT level, the spin density distribution is found to be very dependent on the functional employed. At the QMC level, Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) results are strongly dependent on the nodal structure of the trial wave function. Regarding wave function methods, most approaches not including a very high amount of dynamic correlation effects lead to a much too high localization of the spin density on the copper atom, in sharp contrast with DFT. To shed some light on these conflicting results Full CI-type (FCI) calculations using the 6-31G basis set and based on a selection process of the most important determinants, the so-called CIPSI approach (Configuration Interaction with Perturbative Selection done Iteratively) are performed. Quite remarkably, it is found that for this 63-electron molecule and a full CI space including about 10(18) determinants, the FCI limit can almost be reached. Putting all results together, a natural and coherent picture for the spin distribution is proposed.

  5. A comprehensive probabilistic model of chloride ingress in unsaturated concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Bastidas-Arteaga, Emilio; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio; Bressolette, Philippe; Schoefs, Franck

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Corrosion induced by chloride ions has become a critical issue for many reinforced concrete structures. The chloride ingress into concrete has been usually simplified as a diffusion problem where the chloride concentration throughout concrete is estimated analytically. However, this simplified approach has several limitations. For instance, it does not consider chloride ingress by convection which is essential to model chloride penetration in unsaturated conditions as ...

  6. Electrochemistry of metal chloride cathodes in sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental electrochemical studies on three candidate materials, i.e., FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, were carried out using various techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, linear polarization, potentiodynamic polarization, and ac impedance. These studies were aimed at identifying various rate processes in the reduction, elucidating the reaction mechanisms, and determining the kinetic parameters for the reduction. The limitations in the performance of these cathode materials in high power density applications were also examined. Finally, recommendations were made from these studies for the selection of a candidate system among these materials for future NASA applications.

  7. 水相中金属铜表面生成亚铜-邻菲罗啉配合物的反应%FORMATION OF BIS ( 1 , 10-PHENANTHROLINE) CUPROUS COMPLEXES ON METALLIC COPPER SURFACE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂崇实; 顾亦君; 孙杰

    1996-01-01

    本文研究了零价铜在邻菲罗啉水溶液中的反应.当溶液敞露于空气并存在有机阴离子X-时,例如苯甲酸盐(Bz)、对甲基苯磺酸盐(Ts)等,铜的表面生成了致密的反应产物的薄层,经IR、UV/VIS、MS和元素分析证明了该薄层为相当纯的亚铜的邻菲罗啉配位化合物,结构为[Cu(phen)2]+X-.在乙醇/甲苯混合溶剂中得到了表面反应产物的晶体[Cu(phen)2](CH3C4H6SO3)C2HsOH,并用X-ray测得了结构.本工作表明溶液中的Cu1离子抑制Cu0氧化成Cu1而影响反应层的形成,同时又促进Cu1氧化成Cu1的过程.%The formation of cuprous complex on metallic copper surface in 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) aqueous solution has been investigated as exposed in air and in the presence of common organic anions (X-) such as benzoate (Bz-) and toluene sulphonate (Ts-). The complexes deposited on the surface of metallic copper have been proved to be rather pure cuprous phenanthroline complexes having the structure [Cu(phen)2]X based on the elemental analysis, IR, UV/C2H5OH was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The work demonstrated that the Cu1 ion in the reaction solution hindered the process of Cu0 to Cu1 and in the meanwhile accelerated the process of Cu 1 to Cu 1.

  8. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  9. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  10. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  11. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  12. Dynamic Electrochemical Measurement of Chloride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-02-05

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement, long-term and continuous monitoring is limited due to the inherent drift and the requirement of a stable reference electrode. We utilized the chronopotentiometric approach to minimize drift and avoid the use of a conventional reference electrode. A galvanostatic pulse is applied to an Ag/AgCl electrode which initiates a faradic reaction depleting the Cl- ions near the electrode surface. The transition time, which is the time to completely deplete the ions near the electrode surface, is a function of the ion concentration, given by the Nernst equation. The square root of the transition time is in linear relation to the chloride ion concentration. Drift of the response over two weeks is negligible (59 µM/day) when measuring 1 mM [Cl-]using a current pulse of 10 Am(-2). This is a dynamic measurement where the moment of transition time determines the response and thus is independent of the absolute potential. Any metal wire can be used as a pseudo-reference electrode, making this approach feasible for long-term measurement inside concrete structures.

  13. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  14. Is sodium chloride worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Euan; Andrews, Peter J

    2013-06-11

    The choice of fluid for resuscitation of the brain-injured patient remains controversial, and the 'ideal' resuscitation fluid has yet to be identified. Large volumes of hypotonic solutions must be avoided because of the risk of cerebral swelling and intracranial hypertension. Traditionally, 0.9% sodium chloride has been used in patients at risk of intracranial hypertension, but there is increasing recognition that 0.9% saline is not without its problems. Roquilly and colleagues show a reduction in the development of hyperchloremic acidosis in brain-injured patients given 'balanced' solutions for maintenance and resuscitation compared with 0.9% sodium chloride. In this commentary, we explore the idea that we should move away from 0.9% sodium chloride in favor of a more 'physiological' solution.

  15. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry.

  16. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  17. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  18. EVALUATION OF BACTERICIDAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammounium Compounds derivative under different names such as Afxhang, Hamoon, Mahan etc, which have great and expanded use in sanitation and medical affairs. Bactericidal activity of these disinfectants was fulfilled according to National Standard Method No.2842 on Staph. Aureus, Sal. Typhimouium and E. coli. This laboratory test showed that, except Mahan that has not bactericidal efficacy on E.coli at concentration 0.4 percent, other disinfectants under the study in concentrations of 0.4, 0.8, 1, 1.2 percent have reliable antibacterial properties, and bacterial resistance to benzalkonium chloride has not occurred yet.

  19. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-09-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

  20. Partially reversible photochromic behavior of organic-inorganic perovskites with copper(Ⅱ)chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-wei PAN; Gang WU; Mang WANG; Hong-zheng CHEN

    2009-01-01

    We report that the ultraviolet(UV)light induced photochromic behavior of layered organic-inorganic perovskite material of(C4H9NH3)2CuCl4,changed from yellow to brown after irradiation with UV light(10 mW/cm2)and partially recovered through storage in the dark.(C4H9NH3)2CuCl4 exhibited two distinct absorption bands centered at 286 nm(band Ⅰ)and 384 nm band Ⅱ),which were attributed to the photo-induced exciton formed in 2D inorganic layers sandwiched by organic layers.The blue shift of band Ⅰ from 287 to 269 nm as well as the decrease of the intensity of band Ⅰ and band Ⅱ could be found when samples were irradiated under UV light for djfferent length of time.The simultaneous weakening of the intensity of the N-H…Clhydrogen bond as well as the vibration of the long Cu-Cl bond in the distorted CuCl64- octahedron could be detected from the Fourier transform infrared(FTIR)spectra,which resulted the change of charge distribution of the dissymmetric Cl-Cu…Cl bond and the resulting photochromic behavior.

  1. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  2. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  3. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  4. Gebromeerde vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van H.J.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sinds begin 2008 worden in het Nationaal Plan Diervoeder Choline Chloride monsters (= diervoeder additief) gevonden waarbij de DR CALUX screenings-assay een sterk verdacht signaal geeft, maar bij de GC-HRMS geen dioxines en dl-PCB's worden gevonden. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van nader ond

  5. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2013-11-28

    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle.

  6. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  7. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2013-11-01

    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle.

  8. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Kleizen, B.; Jonge, H.R. de

    2000-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Wh

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... possible exposure conditions. (2) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each use. (i... Required Authorized Personnel Only (3) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other... which may be useful: A. For kidney dysfunction: urine examination for albumin, red blood cells,...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  11. Spatial variability of chloride in concrete within homogeneously exposed areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angst, U.M.; Polder, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of variability is increasingly considered in service life predictions. This paper reports experimental data on the spatial distribution of chloride in uncracked concrete subjected to homogeneous exposure. Chloride concentrations were measured with potentiometric sensors embedded in concr

  12. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  13. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  14. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the

  15. Aspergilli Response to Benzalkonium Chloride and Novel-Synthesized Fullerenol/Benzalkonium Chloride Nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Unković; Milica Ljaljević Grbić; Miloš Stupar; Jelena Vukojević; Vesna Janković; Danica Jović; Aleksandar Djordjević

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles’ dimensions within 30–143 nm and maximum number...

  16. Prenatal susceptibility to carcinogenesis by xenobiotic substances including vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, J M

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride for experimental animals when administered transplacentally is reviewed in comparison with known transplacental carcinogens, including those that, like vinyl chloride, are dependent on enzyme-mediated metabolic conversion to a reactive intermediate in maternal or fetal tissues. Vinyl chloride is converted by mixed-function oxidases to the reactive metabolite chlorooxirane, the carcinogenicity of which is also reviewed. Vinyl chloride is unequivocally a tr...

  17. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  18. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride capsules. 520.260 Section 520.260... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules. (a)(1) Specifications. n-Butyl chloride capsules, veterinary contain 272 milligrams or 816 milligrams...

  19. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...

  20. Palladium-catalyzed silylation of aryl chlorides with hexamethyldisilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Eric; Barder, Timothy E; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2007-09-13

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed silylation of aryl chlorides has been developed. The method affords desired product in good yield, is tolerant of a variety of functional groups, and provides access to a wide variety of aryltrimethylsilanes from commercially available aryl chlorides. Additionally, a one-pot procedure that converts aryl chlorides into aryl iodides has been developed.

  1. Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Youngbeom Ahn; Jeong Myeong Kim; Ohgew Kweon; Seong-Jae Kim; Jones, Richard C.; Kellie Woodling; Goncalo Gamboa da Costa; LiPuma, John J.; David Hussong; Marasa, Bernard S.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK) cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl), decyldimethyl...

  2. Retention of vinyl chloride in the human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Krajewski, J.; Dobecki, M; Gromiec, J

    1980-01-01

    Experiments with volunteers showed that 42% of an inhaled dose of vinyl chloride is retained in the lungs. This value is independent of the concentration of vinyl chloride in the air. Elimination of vinyl chloride through the lungs is negligible since its concentration in expired air decreases immediately after the cessation of exposure.

  3. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  4. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  5. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  6. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...

  7. A facile one-pot oxidation-assisted dealloying protocol to massively synthesize monolithic core-shell architectured nanoporous copper@cuprous oxide nanonetworks for photodegradation of methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Chen, Long; Dong, Xin; Yan, Jiazhen; Li, Ning; Shi, Sanqiang; Zhang, Shichao

    2016-11-01

    In this report, a facile and effective one-pot oxidation-assisted dealloying protocol has been developed to massively synthesize monolithic core-shell architectured nanoporous copper@cuprous oxide nanonetworks (C-S NPC@Cu2O NNs) by chemical dealloying of melt-spun Al 37 at.% Cu alloy in an oxygen-rich alkaline solution at room temperature, which possesses superior photocatalytic activity towards photodegradation of methyl orange (MO). The experimental results show that the as-prepared nanocomposite exhibits an open, bicontinuous interpenetrating ligament-pore structure with length scales of 20 ± 5 nm, in which the ligaments comprising Cu and Cu2O are typical of core-shell architecture with uniform shell thickness of ca. 3.5 nm. The photodegradation experiments of C-S NPC@Cu2O NNs show their superior photocatalytic activities for the MO degradation under visible light irradiation with degradation rate as high as 6.67 mg min-1 gcat-1, which is a diffusion-controlled kinetic process in essence in light of the good linear correlation between photodegradation ratio and square root of irradiation time. The excellent photocatalytic activity can be ascribed to the synergistic effects between unique core-shell architecture and 3D nanoporous network with high specific surface area and fast mass transfer channel, indicating that the C-S NPC@Cu2O NNs will be a promising candidate for photocatalysts of MO degradation.

  8. Preparation of poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglyceldimethacrylate) monolithic column modified with β-cyclodextrin and nano-cuprous oxide and its application in polymer monolithic microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haijiao; Liu, Qingwen; Jia, Qiong

    2014-05-23

    A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglyceldimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) monolithic column was prepared with in situ polymerization method and modified with allylamine-β-cyclodextrin (ALA-β-CD) and nano-cuprous oxide (Cu2O). A polymer monolith microextraction method was developed with the modified monolithic column for the preconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, we obtained acceptable linearities, low limits of detection, and good intra-day/inter-day relative standard deviations. Because of the hydrophobic properties of β-CD and the porous nano structure of Cu2O, the enrichment capacity of the poly(BMA-EDMA) monolithic column was significantly improved. The extraction efficiency followed the order: poly(BMA-EDMA-ALA-β-CD-Cu2O)>poly(BMA-EDMA-ALA-β-CD)>poly(BMA-EDMA)>direct GC analysis. When applied to the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in wine samples, low limits of detection (0.09ngmL(-1)) were obtained under the preoptimized conditions (sample volume 1.0mL, sample flow rate 0.1mLmin(-1), eluent volume 0.1mL, and eluent flow rate 0.05mLmin(-1)). In addition, the present method was employed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls in red wine samples and the accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments. The obtained recovery values were in the range of 78.8-104.1% with relative standard deviations less than 9.0%.

  9. Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, T.

    1985-12-01

    This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project was divided into two main tasks. Task One was to consist of component optimization and stability studies. Once sufficiently advanced, the ongoing results of Task One were to be integrated with Task Two. Task Two was to consist of demonstration of an optimized primary cell. In July, 1983, the program was redirected. Task Two was split, with effort to be directed toward both the original primary cell and toward a high discharge rate reserve configuration cell. Additional electrolyte salts were to be evaluated as a means of improving the storability of the active calcium-thionyl chloride cell.

  10. Carbonisation of coal with chlorides content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Plevova

    2002-07-01

    From accessible literature it is evident that the addition of Lewis acids to coal before carbonisation can effect the course of reactions in the way of getting required products. An investigation was carried out into the effects of addition of chloride solutions. For experiments low concentration of solutions of three chlorides (PbCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, AlC{sub 3}) were used. Then samples were carbonised in a special coking retort. Volatile products were collected to establish the mass balance of this process. The resultant properties of obtained char and coal tar were estimated. Evaluation of the solid phase showed the increasing of specific surface although the used solution concentration was quite low. Estimation of obtained tar indicated mainly increasing of aromatic hydrocarbons in consequence of charring and aromatisation of carbon skeleton. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholc, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  12. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1996-01-01

    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  13. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  14. Iron (III) chloride doping of CVD graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Hsu, Allen L; Kong, Jing

    2014-10-03

    Chemical doping has been shown as an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. We present the results of our investigations into doping large area chemical vapor deposition graphene using Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl(3)). It is shown that evaporating FeCl(3) can increase the carrier concentration of monolayer graphene to greater than 10(14) cm(-2) and achieve resistances as low as 72 Ω sq(-1). We also evaluate other important properties of the doped graphene such as surface cleanliness, air stability, and solvent stability. Furthermore, we compare FeCl(3) to three other common dopants: Gold (III) Chloride (AuCl(3)), Nitric Acid (HNO(3)), and TFSA ((CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH). We show that compared to these dopants, FeCl(3) can not only achieve better sheet resistance but also has other key advantages including better solvent stability.

  15. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... mixtures are tested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures. Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP water absorption in fresh concrete and without extra water, the internal curing water held by SAP may...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient...

  16. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a... is not to exceed 0.02 g vinyl chloride/kg (0.04 lb vinyl chloride/ton) of polyvinyl chloride...

  17. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. .... Impurities contents in the feedstock brine. Component. LiCl. Na. Ca. Mg. SO4. 2- ... The pH was varied from 5.0 to 9.0 by careful addition of 0.01 M HCl or ... effect on the structure. ... with sodium ion in lithium chloride brine as follows. +. +. +. +. −= +. yLi. PO. Zr. La.

  18. Electrochemical Studies in Aluminum Chloride Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-31

    Molten Salt Systems", Symposium on Molten Salts, Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , in press (1976). Manuscripts in Preparation--Related to...Fused Salt Technology, Electrochemical Society Meeting, Chicaao, May 8-13, 1973. R. A. Osteryoung, R. H. Abel, L. G. Boxall and B. H. Vassos, "An...aluminate Melts", Electrochemical Society , San Francisco, CA, May, 1974. R. A. Osteryoung, "Chemistry in Aluminum Chloride Melts", Fifth International

  19. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Ekrem; Olgar, Şeref; Davutoğlu, Mehmet; Garipardıç, Mesut; Karabiber, Hamza

    2011-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is ...

  20. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Güler; Şeref Olgar; Mehmet Davutoğlu; Mesut Garipardıç; Hamza Karabiber

    2014-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is...

  1. EVALUATION OF BACTERICIDAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    K. Imandel; M.B. Shaywaard; F. Mobaraki

    1996-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammounium Compounds derivative under different names such as Afxhang, Hamoon, Mahan etc, which have great and expanded use in sanitation and medical affairs. Bactericidal activity of these disinfectants was fulfilled according to National Standard Method No.2842 on Staph. Aureus, Sal. Typhimouium and E. coli. This laboratory test showed that, except Mahan that has not bactericidal efficacy on E.coli at concentration 0.4 percent, other disinfectants under ...

  2. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  3. The Accelerated Test of Chloride Permeability of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ke-feng; ODD E Gjφrv

    2003-01-01

    The availability of accelerated chloride permeability test and the effect of w/c ratio, incorporation of silica fume, maximum aggregate size and aggregate type on the chloride permeability were studied. The mathematic analysis certifies that there is a linear relationship between accelerated test and natural diffusion. Test results show that the chloride permeability of concrete increases as w/c ratio increases whilst a limited amount of replacement of cement with silica fume, the chloride permeability decreases dramatically. The maximum aggregate size in the range of 8 to 25 mm seems also affect chloride permeability but with a much less significant level. The chloride permeability of silica fume lightweight aggregate concrete is very low, especially the concrete made with dry lightweight concrete. The chloride permeability can be evaluated by this accelerated test method.

  4. Developing Polymer Cathode Material for the Chloride Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhigang; Yang, Meng; Xia, Hui; Yu, Tingting; Shen, Xiaodong

    2017-01-25

    The chloride ion battery is an attractive rechargeable battery owing to its high theoretical energy density and sustainable components. An important challenge for research and development of chloride ion batteries lies in the innovation of the cathode materials. Here we report a nanostructured chloride ion-doped polymer, polypyrrole chloride, as a new type of potential cathode material for the chloride ion battery. The as-prepared polypyrrole chloride@carbon nanotubes (PPyCl@CNTs) cathode shows a high reversible capacity of 118 mAh g(-1) and superior cycling stability. Reversible electrochemical reactions of the PPyCl@CNTs cathode based on the redox reactions of nitrogen species and chloride ion transfer are demonstrated. Our work may guide and offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of rechargeable batteries with anion transfer.

  5. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-10-01

    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature.

  6. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  7. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS.

  8. Anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility of a green high performance concrete admixture in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongbao; LIU Xinrong; LIU Dongyan; CHEN Jiangong; HUANG Xiongjun

    2003-01-01

    The effects of green high performance concrete (GHPC) admixture on the anti-chloride permeability and anti- chloride corrodibility of concrete are studied by a series of experiments designed on the basis of the diffusion principle and electrochemical principle. The GHPC admixture consists of fly ash, gangue, slag, red mud, etc., of which the mass fraction of industrial residues is over 96 %. The anti-permeabilities and anti-corrodibilities of the tested GHPC and normal concrete (NC) are evaluated by the Diffusion Coefficients of chloride which was obtained by measuring the concentration of chloride in the tested systems by the voltage difference method. It is found that the adoption of GHPC admixture greatly improves the anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility by modifying the inner structure and contracting the porosity of concrete to the reduce considerably the diffusion rate of chloride. The admixture is desirable regarding its engineering performances as well as economical and environmental interests.

  9. Disparate Behavior of Carbonyl and Thiocarbonyl Compounds: Acyl Chlorides vs Thiocarbonyl Chlorides and Isocyanates vs Isothiocyanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Kenneth B.; Wang, Yi-gui; Miller, Scott J.; Puchlopek, Angela L.A.; Bailey, William F.; Fair, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of benzoyl chloride with methanol catalyzed by pyridine is 9 times more rapid than is the same reaction with thiobenzoyl chloride. The difference in reactivity, as well as the dealkylation reactions that occur when the reaction of thiobenzoyl chloride is catalyzed by bases such as Et3N, can be understood in terms of the charge distributions in the intermediate acylammonium ions. The reaction of PhNCO with ethanol occurs at a much higher rate (4.8 × 104) than that of PhNCS, corresponding to a difference in activation free energies for the additions of 6 kcal/mol. Transition states for each of these reactions were located, and each involves two alcohol molecules in a hydrogen bonded six-membered ring arrangement. Information concerning differences in reactivity was derived from analysis of Hirshfeld atomic charge distributions and calculated hydrogenolysis reaction energies. PMID:19371054

  10. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...... that the effect of the extra time of hydration obtained when casting in spring increases the expected service life of the concrete structure significantly....

  11. N-(2-Benzoylethylpropan-2-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C12H18NO+·Cl−, N—H...Cl interactions between the free chloride anions and the organic cations connect the molecules into hydrogen-bond dimers, forming a R22(8 motif. The dimers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [301]. The carbonyl group is co-planar with the phenyl ring [C—C—C=O torsion angle = −3.3 (7°]. The side chain has an E conformation.

  12. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  13. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...

  14. Synthesis of Aminolaurylpyridinium Chloride as Antimicrobial Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tao; SONG Xin-yuan; SUN Gang

    2008-01-01

    4-amino-laurylpyridinium chloride (ALPC) was synthesized and employed in antimicrobial finishing of wool fabrics. The structures of the salt was fully characterized by using FTIR, 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR analysis. The effects of pH conditions of finishing baths, finishing time and temperature, and salt concentrations were investigated. ALPC could form ionic interactions with anionic groups on wool, which contribute to durable antimicrobial functions. The finished wool fabrics exhibited antimicrobial efficacy against Escherichia coli. The washing durability of antimicrobial functions on the finished wool fabrics was also studied.

  15. Magnesium anode for chloride ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Li, Qiang; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Gao, Ping; Fink, Karin; Shen, Xiaodong; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2014-07-23

    A key advantage of chloride ion battery (CIB) is its possibility to use abundant electrode materials that are different from those in Li ion batteries. Mg anode is presented as such a material for the first time and Mg/C composite prepared by ball milling of Mg and carbon black powders or thermally decomposed MgH2/C composite has been tested as anode for CIB. The electrochemical performance of FeOCl/Mg and BiOCl/Mg was investigated, demonstrating the feasibility of using Mg as anode.

  16. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg....../m(3) rapid-hardening Portland cement, w/c = 0.5, maturity minimum 6 months) stored at 65% and 85% RH, as well as in vacuum-saturated mortar samples, illustrate the applicability of the method. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. 3,4-Dimethylanilinium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C8H12N+·Cl−·H2O, consists of hydrophobic layers of dimethylanilinium cations parallel to the bc plane alternated by hydrophilic layers of chloride anions and water molecules. The layers are linked by N—H...O and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds involving the ammonium groups of the cations. The cohesion of the ionic structure is further stabilized by O—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  18. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    . The results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors......-Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...

  19. Investigation of Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTERY SAFETY HAZARDS(U) GOULD RESEARCH CENTER ROLLING MEADOWS IL MATERIALS LAB A I ATTIA ET...838-012 7 ontract No. 60921-81-C-0363 6// Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards AD A 1 T 2 , Alan I. Attia Gould Research...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Final Report Battery Safety Hazards 9/28/81 - 12/31/82 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  20. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Liu; Kaifeng Tang; Dong Pan; Zongru Lei; Weilun Wang; Feng Xing

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions...

  1. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Structural Engineering and Materials; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-11-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonstrated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA.

  2. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  3. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  4. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions are immersed in NaCl solution with a mass concentration of 5%, to simulate the shallow immersion condition in sea water, and the surface chloride concentrations are measured at different ages. It is found that the surface chloride concentration increases following the increasing immersion durations, and varies from a weight percentage of 0.161%–0.781% in concretes with different mix proportions. The w/c (water-to-cement ratio influences the surface chloride concentration significantly, and the higher the w/c is, the higher the surface chloride concentration will be, at the same age. However, following the prolonging of immersion duration, the difference in surface chloride concentration induced by w/c becomes smaller and smaller. The incorporation of fly ash leads to higher surface chloride concentration. The phenomena are explained based on pore structure analyses.

  5. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride......For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...

  6. Fire's effect on chloride ingress related durability of concrete structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Wei-liang; ZHANG Yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of fire on durability of reinforced concrete structures, and points out that fire not only damages the chemical composition and physical structure of concrete by high temperature, but also leads to an additional risk due to the generation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)combustion gases. A mathematical model is proposed to calculate chloride ingress profiles in fire damaged concrete, so as to explore the service life prediction of the structure. Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test was carried out to determine the chloride diffusion coefficients for the application of the mathematical model. Finally, the detected results of a reported case testified to the validity of the mathematical model.

  7. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well......Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  8. 氧化锌/氧化亚铜异质结太阳能电池的研究进展∗%Research Progress in Zinc Oxide/Cuprous Oxide Heterojunction Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯云珠; 董磊; 于良民

    2015-01-01

    Much attention recently has been paid on p-n heterojunction solar cells fabricated with cuprous oxide combined with zinc oxide owing to the advantage of favorable alignment of conductive band edges and lattice matching. The formation of heterojunctions can enhance the seperation of photoinduced electrons and holes,as well as the absor-bance of the light.This review compiles the main milestones reached during the last decades in the development of ZnO/Cu2 O heterojunction solar cells comprehensively.Different junction structures of these cells as planar and ZnO nanoarray based ones related to deposition sequences and synthesis methods are introduced separately,while photovol-taic property influence factors as well as improving methods are discussed.Considering the accomplishments achieved in a relatively short period of time,it can be said that this kind of solar cell can be promisingly applied in clean energy exploitation in the future,in spite of improvement of cell performance still in need.%因氧化亚铜(Cu2 O)、氧化锌(ZnO)能级和晶格匹配较好,近年来较多的研究者将两者复合制备异质结太阳能电池。异质结的形成可提高光生电子-空穴对的分离效率,同时拓展复合结构的光响应范围,从而有效提高太阳能电池性能。介绍了3类主流的 ZnO/Cu2 O 异质结结构,分别阐述主要的进展,综述了异质结结构中 Cu2 O、ZnO的制备方法以及制备条件对电池效率的影响,讨论了电池性能的改进措施,并对 ZnO/Cu2 O 异质结太阳能电池未来的发展前景进行展望。

  9. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  10. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  11. Cesium chloride compatibility testing program: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, G.H.

    1989-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the geologic disposal of the doubly encapsulated cesium chloride (CsCl) produced at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). Reliable estimates of long-term corrosion of the inner capsule material by the CsCl under repository storage conditions are needed to assess the hazards associated with geologic disposal of the fission product Cs. The Cesium Chloride Compatibility Program was carried out at PNL to obtain the short-term corrosion data required to accurately estimate long-term attack. In the compatibility tests six standard WESF CsCl capsules were placed vertically in individual insulated containers and allowed to self-heat to a nominal maximum 316L SS/CsCl interface temperature of 450{degree}C. The capsules were held at temperature for times ranging from 0.25 to 6 years. When a test was completed, the capsule was removed from the container and sectioned. Four samples were cut from the inner capsule at prescribed locations and subjected to metallographic examination. Corrosion was determined from photomicrographs of the samples. 16 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.

  13. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleizen, B; Braakman, I; de Jonge, H R

    2000-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Whereas a key role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in CFTR-channel gating has been firmly established, more recent studies have provided clear evidence for the existence of a second level of cAMP regulation, i.e. the exocytotic recruitment of CFFR to the plasma membrane and its endocytotic retrieval. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR Cl- channel has sofar been demonstrated only in a subset of CFTR-expressing cell types. However, with the introduction of more sensitive methods to measure CFTR cycling and submembrane localization, it might turn out to be a more general phenomenon that could contribute importantly to both the regulation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport itself and to the regulation of other transporters and CFTR-modulated cellular functions. This review aims to summarize the present state of knowledge regarding polarized and regulated CFTR trafficking and endosomal recycling in epithelial cells, to discuss present gaps in our understanding of these processes at the cellular and molecular level, and to consider its possible implications for cystic fibrosis.

  14. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  15. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  16. THE COMPATIBILITY OF BLENDS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) OR CHLORINATED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingguo; CHENG Rongshi

    1988-01-01

    IR spectral shifts of carbonyl vibrational absorption for ethyl acetate, which acts analogically as the structural unit of poly(methyl methacrylate), in cyclohexane, chloroform, chlorinated paraffins, poly(vinyl chloride) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) were measured. The results suggest that there are specific interactions between the carbonyl groups and the chlorinated hydrocarbons which could be responsible for the apparent compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Additionally, the effects of the preparation mode of blend films on phase separation and observed compatibility are discussed.

  17. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  18. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels

    OpenAIRE

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A.; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epi...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745 Section 154.1745 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl...

  20. Isolation of polyvinyl chloride degrading bacterial strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of polyvinyl chloride degrading bacterial strains from environmental samples using enrichment culture technique. ... by their ability to release chloride from PVC polymer, increase their cell density in test media, carbon dioxide production and growth on the surface of PVC film in plate assay. ... Article Metrics.

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šavija, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized as the most common deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete structures. As such, it has been in focus of research for more than thirty years. Numerous studies of chloride ingress, corrosion initiation, and corrosion propagati

  2. Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, G.; Stunnenberg, B.C.; Trip, J.; Borm, G.F.; McGill, K.C.; Ginjaar, I.H.; Kooi, A.W. van der; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Faber, C.G.; Stegeman, D.F.; Lateva, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myo

  3. Chloride penetration into cementitious mortar at early age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero, J.; Polder, R.B.; Leegwater, G.A.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern service life design methods for concrete structures use chloride diffusion data as an input parameter. Abundant data exist for concrete at 28 days and, to a lesser extent, at later ages. This paper presents chloride diffusion data for mortar at ages between 1 day and 28 days age. Rapid Chlori

  4. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete as protection against chloride penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Hydrophobic treatment was studied as a protection agninst chloride penetration from deicing salts. Test methods were designed. Nine hydrophobic products were tested, of which three complied to the requirements on fin

  5. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  6. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  7. Electrochemical properties of actinides in molten chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertin, D.; Lacquement, J. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification, DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France); Sanchez, S.; Picard, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Lab. d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique, UMR 7575 du CNRS, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The chemical properties of plutonium and cerium chlorides have been studied in the fused CaCl{sub 2}-NaCl equimolar mixture at 550 deg. C using a tungsten working electrode and a pO{sup 2-} indicator electrode. The standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu was determined using cyclic voltammetry. The solubility product of Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} was calculated by potentiometric titration. The standard potential of Ce(III)/Ce have been determined by a potentiometry method. Potentiometric titrations of Ce(III) have been shown the existence of a soluble cerium oxychloride. All these data allowed us to draw the potential-pO{sup 2-} diagram which summarises the properties of plutonium and cerium compounds in the melt. (authors)

  8. Kainate receptor modulation by sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plested, Andrew J R

    2011-01-01

    The kainate-type glutamate receptor displays strong modulation by monovalent anions and cations. This modulation is independent of permeation of the ion channel. Instead, structural, computational and biophysical evidence shows that receptor activity is controlled by binding of sodium and chloride ions at sites that stabilize active dimers of glutamate binding domains. Modulation by monovalent ions is a surprisingly general property across ion channel families. However, evidence of a physiological role for ion-dependent effects on glutamate receptors is lacking, perhaps reflecting the adventitious use of ions as structural components of the kainate receptor. "ergo, Hercules, vita humanior sine sale non quit degree […]" "Heaven known, a civilized life is impossible without salt" -Pliny the Elder, Natural History XXXI 88.

  9. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=cΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  10. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  11. Behavior and products of mechano-chemical dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride and poly (vinylidene chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Zeng, Zigao; Xiao, Songwen

    2008-02-28

    The mechano-chemical (MC) dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) was performed by mechanical milling PVC/PVDC powder with zinc powder in a planetary ball mill, and the products of dechlorination were characterized by Infrared spectra (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results show that PVC/PVDC can be easily dechlorinated by milling with zinc powder, and formed various kinds of inorganic and organic products. Inorganic compounds included Zn2OCl(2).2H2O, Zn5(OH)8Cl2.H2O etc., and organic products involved diamond-like carbon, carbyne fragment, polyacetylene etc. Organic products formed following the paths of dechlorination, dehydrochlorination, crosslink, and oxidation. The mechano-chemical dechlorination process of PVC/PVDC may be an effective approach for carbyne synthesizing in the appropriate condition.

  12. Chloride permeability of concrete under static and repeated compressive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Ishimori, Hiroshi [Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    The chloride permeability of normal weight concrete subjected to static and repeated compressive loading was evaluated by using the AASHTO T277 test method. The results of concrete under static loading showed that the application of loads up to 90% of the ultimate strength had little effect on the chloride permeability. It was found from the results of concrete under repeated loading that load repetitions at the maximum stress levels of 60% or more caused the chloride permeability to increase significantly. The test results also indicated that the chloride permeability of concrete subjected to static and repeated loading increased at an increasing rate with its residual strain. The relation between the chloride permeability obtained and the cracking behavior of concrete previously reported was discussed.

  13. Effects of cyclic chloride exposure on penetration of concrete cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, K.; Hooton, R.D.

    1999-09-01

    Concretes are in a state of flux between saturated and partially saturated conditions as they undergo continuous cycles of wetting and drying. In saturated concrete, dissolved ions enter through diffusion, whereas in partially saturated concrete, ion-containing fluids are absorbed by capillary suction and concentrated by evaporation of water. The primary focus of this study was to examine the effects of cyclic wetting and drying with sodium chloride solution on chloride ingress into concrete. Chloride profiles of samples exposed to various lengths and numbers of cycles were determined for three mixtures of concrete: two containing slag and/or silica fume with a 0.4 w/cm (water to cementing materials ratio) and one with a 0.3 w/cm. It was found that longer drying times increase the rate of chloride ingress. A good relationship exists between the depth of chloride penetration and the square root of the number of cycles.

  14. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-12-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  15. Mechanisms of solvolyses of acid chlorides and chloroformates. Chloroacetyl and phenylacetyl chloride as similarity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, T William; Harris, H Carl; Ryu, Zoon Ha; Lim, Gui Taek; Sung, Dae Dong; Szajda, Stanley R

    2005-10-28

    [reaction: see text] Rate constants and product selectivities (S = ([ester product]/[acid product]) x ([water]/[alcohol solvent]) are reported for solvolyses of chloroacetyl chloride (3) at -10 degrees C and phenylacetyl chloride (4) at 0 degrees C in ethanol/ and methanol/water mixtures. Additional kinetic data are reported for solvolyses in acetone/water, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol(TFE)/water, and TFE/ethanol mixtures. Selectivities and solvent effects for 3, including the kinetic solvent isotope effect (KSIE) of 2.18 for methanol, are similar to those for solvolyses of p-nitrobenzoyl chloride (1, Z = NO(2)); rate constants in acetone/water are consistent with a third-order mechanism, and rates and products in ethanol/ and methanol/water mixtures can be explained quantitatively by competing third-order mechanisms in which one molecule of solvent (alcohol or water) acts as a nucleophile and another acts as a general base (an addition/elimination reaction channel). Selectivities increase for 3 as water is added to alcohol. Solvent effects on rate constants for solvolyses of 3 are very similar to those of methyl chloroformate, but acetyl chloride shows a lower KSIE, and a higher sensitivity to solvent-ionizing power, explained by a change to an S(N)2/S(N)1 (ionization) reaction channel. Solvolyses of 4 undergo a change from the addition/elimination channel in ethanol to the ionization channel in aqueous ethanol (<80% v/v alcohol). The reasons for change in reaction channels are discussed in terms of the gas-phase stabilities of acylium ions, calculated using Gaussian 03 (HF/6-31G(d), B3LYP/6-31G(d), and B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) MO theory).

  16. PHASE EQUILIBRIUM FOR THE TERNARY SYSTEM VINYL CHLORIDE-CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE-POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Jianfeng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1991-01-01

    Swelling capacity of vinyl chloride (VC) in chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) with 25- 40 wt% Cl at temperature 30- 57 ℃ was studied and their relationships were correlated with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations. A ternary phase diagram for VC-CPE-PVC was also established.In-situ polymerization conditions of CPE-g -VC were proposed and CPE content control was analyzed for the manufacturing process of CPE-g-VC graft product based on results of phase equilibrium study.

  17. Genetically encoded optical sensors for monitoring of intracellular chloride and chloride-selective channel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bregestovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review briefly discusses the main approaches for monitoring chloride (Cl−, the most abundant physiological anion. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular Cl− ([Cl−]i is a challenging task owing to two main difficulties: (i the low transmembrane ratio for Cl−, approximately 10:1; and (ii the small driving force for Cl−, as the Cl− reversal potential (ECl is usually close to the resting potential of the cells. Thus, for reliable monitoring of intracellular Cl−, one has to use highly sensitive probes. From several methods for intracellular Cl− analysis, genetically encoded chloride indicators represent the most promising tools. Recent achievements in the development of genetically encoded chloride probes are based on the fact that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP exhibits Cl−-sensitivity. YFP-based probes have been successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cl− transport in different cells and for high-throughput screening of modulators of Cl−-selective channels. Development of a ratiometric genetically encoded probe, Clomeleon, has provided a tool for noninvasive estimation of intracellular Cl− concentrations. While the sensitivity of this protein to Cl− is low (EC50 about 160 mM, it has been successfully used for monitoring intracellular Cl− in different cell types. Recently a CFP–YFP-based probe with a relatively high sensitivity to Cl− (EC50 about 30 mM has been developed. This construct, termed Cl-Sensor, allows ratiometric monitoring using the fluorescence excitation ratio. Of particular interest are genetically encoded probes for monitoring of ion channel distribution and activity. A new molecular probe has been constructed by introducing into the cytoplasmic domain of the Cl−-selective glycine receptor (GlyR channel the CFP–YFP-based Cl-Sensor. This construct, termed BioSensor-GlyR, has been successfully expressed in cell lines. The new genetically encoded chloride probes offer means of screening

  18. Optical, thermal and magnetic studies of pure and cobalt chloride doped L-alanine cadmium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benila, B. S.; Bright, K. C.; Delphine, S. Mary; Shabu, R.

    2017-03-01

    Single crystals of L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) and cobalt chloride (Co2+) doped LACC have been grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations such as powder XRD, SXRD, FTIR, UV-vis, EDAX, TG/DTA, VSM, Dielectric and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) measurements. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Co2+ ion in the host material. The functional group and optical behavior of the crystals were identified from FTIR and UV-vis spectrum analysis. Electrical parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss have been studied. The thermal stability of the compound was found out using TGA/DTA analysis. Second Harmonic Generation of the samples was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. Magnetic properties of the crystals studied by VSM were also reported. The encouraging results show that the cobalt chloride doped LACC crystals have greater potential applications in optical devices.

  19. Comparative effects of hydrogen chloride gas on tomato and chrysanthemum. I. Distribution and accumulation of chloride following exposure. II. Pathological anatomy of hydrogen chloride gas injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1969-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas damage to plants has not been a historically important problem. However, recent practices in a number of industries, particularly glass manufacturing and pyrolysis of waste plastics, have increased the seriousness of the problem. Studies were carried out under carefully controlled exposure conditions to determine the effects of HCl gas on a relatively sensitive and a relatively resistant plant species. The macroscopic symptoms of most importance in acute damage to tomato and chrysanthemum are glazing of the lower surface, and a bifacial bronzing of interveinal and marginal areas of leaves. Microscopically, glazing was shown to be caused by a collapse of the lower epidermal cells and a partial disorganization of the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Bronzing was shown to be caused by the further collapse of the spongy mesophyll, and in some cases the palisade mesophyll and upper epidermis. Analysis of plant tissues for their free chloride content following an exposure to HCl gas was done with cell-free water extracts which were titrated on an automatic chloride titrator. On the basis of such studies, evidence suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of chlorides in plants is similar to that of fluorides, and that in subacute doses, chlorides are translocated toward the extremities of the foliar portions of the plant. In areas where a number of different types of pollution sources exist, and symptomotology is not definitive in pinpointing the source, chloride analysis of plant tissues should prove valuable as an aid to diagnosis if HCl gas was suspected.

  20. Acute lethal and teratogenic effects of tributyltin chloride and copper chloride on mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) eggs and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adema-Hannes, Rachel; Shenker, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    Acute and chronic bioassays were used to evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects of copper chloride and tributyltin chloride on mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos, a pelagic life stage often found in the surface microlayer where anthropogenic contaminants can accumulate. Acute bioassay testing determined the median lethal concentration (LC50) for the test organism after 48 h of exposure. Chronic toxicity tests were used to determine the measurement of sublethal parameters, such as developmental abnormalities after 72-h exposures to the toxicants. Embryos were collected 4 h postfertilization and subsequently exposed to 1, 5, 25, 50, and 100 microg/L of copper chloride and 3, 10, 20, 30, and 50 microg/L of tributyltin chloride. Analysis of hatch rate percentage determined that the mean 48-h LC50 of copper chloride and tributyltin chloride was 32.8 and 16.7 microg/L, respectively, based on the pooled data of four experiments with four replicates for each metal. Consistent abnormalities, such as yolk sac swelling, spinal deformities, and decreased hatch rates, were observed for each metal. Teratogenic responses to copper chloride and tributyltin chloride demonstrate the need to investigate further the impacts of pollution in the open oceans to a species indigenous to, and commercially important to, the Florida (USA) coasts. This information could then lead to the future development of a surface microlayer bioassay using mahi mahi embryos.

  1. An Apical-Membrane Chloride Channel in Human Tracheal Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanism of chloride transport by airway epithelia has been of substantial interest because airway and sweat gland-duct epithelia are chloride-impermeable in cystic fibrosis. The decreased chloride permeability prevents normal secretion by the airway epithelium, thereby interfering with mucociliary clearance and contributing to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Because chloride secretion depends on and is regulated by chloride conductance in the apical cell membrane, the patch-clamp technique was used to directly examine single-channel currents in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelium. The cells contained an anion-selective channel that was not strongly voltage-gated or regulated by calcium in cell-free patches. The channel was also blocked by analogs of carboxylic acid that decrease apical chloride conductance in intact epithelia. When attached to the cell, the channel was activated by isoproterenol, although the channel was also observed to open spontaneously. However, in some cases, the channel was only observed after the patch was excised from the cell. These results suggest that this channel is responsible for the apical chloride conductance in airway epithelia.

  2. Chloride penetration into concrete under simulated field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, K.; Misra, S.; Yamamoto, A. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-31

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of field conditions such curing period, slump, maximum size of aggregate, etc. on chloride penetration into concrete. With a view to closely simulate the field conditions, all specimens were exposed to chloride attack for five days after casting. From the preliminary results obtained after a six month immersion in 3.3% NaCl solution, higher degrees of chloride ingress were observed in cases when the concrete was prematurely exposed to chloride attack or had a higher slump. In addition, apart from properties, such as water-cement ratio, etc., the relative orientation of the direction of penetration to that of casting, the mortar content of the mix, and the properties of the transition zone between the coarse aggregate and mortar were found to affect the diffusivity of the chloride. Under a limited number of conditions, soluble chloride content was also illustrated in addition to the total chlorides. 10 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Studies on Hypokalemia Induced by Trimethyltin Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To determine the possible relationship between plasma potassium concentration and severity of acute trimethyltin chloride (TMT) poisoning and to assess the mechanism of TMT induced hypokalemia. Methods SD rats were treated with various dosages of TMT (ip). All the indices were measured and analysed for determing their possible relations with plasma K+. Results With increase of dosage, the plasma K+ level dropped rapidly, and deaths appeared more quickly. The LDs0 of TMT (ip) was 14.7 mg/kgbw. In the low dosage group (10 mg/kgbw), the plasma K+ level dropped slowly with the lowest dosage on day 6 (4.85 mmol/L). It rose again on day 11 (5.06 mmol/L), and recoverd on day 28. The poisoning signs corresponded with decline of the span of K+ level. The plasma Na+ level dropped half an hour after TMT treatment, but recovered 24 h later. In the high dosage group (46.4 mg/kgbw), the levels of plasma K+ and Na+ fell rapidly within half an hour (P<0.05), the intracellular potassium concentration of RBC did not decrerase obviously (P>0.05), the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase in RBC membrane were depressed remarkably (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively), the plasma aldosterone concentrations rose as high as tenfold (P<0.01), the arterial blood pH fell from 7.434 to 7.258 (P<0.01),pCO2 was raised from 29.62 to 45.33 mmHg (P<0.01). In the 24 h urine test, when rats were treated with TMT (21.5 mg/kgbw, ip), urine volume, urinary potassium, sodium and chloride increased significantly in comparison with those in the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion TMT could induce hypokalemia in SD rats. The available evidence suggests that TMT can induce acute renal leakage of potassium. At the same time, a significant rise of plasma aldosterone may play an important role in promoting potassium leakage from kidney to result in severe hypokalemia with inhaling acid-base abnormalities produced, which aggravate the poisoning symptoms. In the end the rats would die of respiratory

  4. Acetogenic microbial degradation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Under methanogenic conditions, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) resulted in significant (14 ?? 3% maximum recovery) but transient recovery of radioactivity as 14C-acetate. Subsequently, 14C- acetate was degraded to 14CH4 and 14CO2 (18 ?? 2% and 54 ?? 3% final recoveries, respectively). In contrast, under 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) amended conditions, 14C-acetate recovery remained high (27 ?? 1% maximum recovery) throughout the study, no 14CH4 was produced, and the final recovery of 14CO2 was only 35 ?? 4%. These results demonstrate that oxidative acetogenesis may be an important mechanism for anaerobic VC biodegradation. Moreover, these results (1) demonstrate that microbial degradation of VC to CH4 and CO2 may involve oxidative acetogenesis followed by acetotrophic methanogenesis and (2) suggest that oxidative acetogenesis may be the initial step in the net oxidation of VC to CO2 reported previously under Fe(III)-reducing, SO4-reducing, and humic acids- reducing conditions.Under methanogenic conditions, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) resulted in significant (14 ?? 3% maximum recovery) but transient recovery of radioactivity as 14C-acetate. Subsequently, 14C-acetate was degraded to 14CH4 and 14CO2 (18 ?? 2% and 54 ?? 3% final recoveries respectively). In contrast, under 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) amended conditions, 14C-acetate recovery remained high (27 ?? 1% maximum recovery) throughout the study, no 14CH4 was produced, and the final recovery of 14CO2 was only 35 ?? 4%. These results demonstrate that oxidative acetogenesis may be an important mechanism for anaerobic VC biodegradation. Moreover, these results (1) demonstrate that microbial degradation of VC to CH4 and CO2 may involve oxidative acetogenesis followed by acetotrophic methanogenesis and (2) suggest that oxidative acetogenesis may be the initial step in the net oxidation of VC to CO2 reported previously under Fe(III)-reducing, SO4-reducing, and

  5. Memristive Properties of Thin Film Cuprous Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Banerjee and D Chakravorty, "Optical absorption by nanoparticles of Cu2O," Europhysics Letters , vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 468-473, November 2000. [20] Gunter...Kotsugi, "Inhomogeneous chemical states in resistance-switching devices with a planar-type Pt/CuO/Pt structure," Applied Physics Letters , vol. 95, p...11] R Dong et al., "Reproducible hysteresis and resistive switching in metal-CuxO- metal," Applied Physics Letters , vol. 90, p. 042107, 2007. [12

  6. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    concentration and reinforcement cover depth are modeled by stochastic fields. The paper contains a description of the parameters to be included in a stochastic model and a proposal for the information needed to obtain values for the parameters in order to be ab le to perform reliability investigations...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride...

  7. Chloride ion erosion experiment research in cracked concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shu; Yang, Li

    2017-08-01

    For the study of chloride ion erosion in cracked concrete, this essay tries to take advantages of relevant trails to build up concrete chloride ion diffusion model based on the Fick’s second law. The parameter of this model is easy to be set, and many factors such as the effect of cracks are taken into consideration in this experiment. The concept of “chloride ion diffusion coefficient of equivalent apparent” is introduced to simplify the calculation. It can help simplify the calculation process, and get a more accurate test result, as well as facilitating the practical application of this parameter.

  8. Calcium chloride in stabilised soil roads and runways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Vardhan

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available Mudless, dustless, hard and all weather driving surfaces is a serious requirement of the forces.  surfacing by mixtures of definite amounts of locally available stone, gravel, sand, clay and Silt to which calculated amount of calcium chloride is added quickly compact and ultimately harden like concrete. This provides an easy, quick and economic- means of meeting the requirement.  Necessity of such surfaces, use and action of calcium chloride and resulting effects are discussed. Different methods of construction and application of calcium chloride are briefly related.

  9. The ionic product of water in concentrated tetramethylammonium chloride solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, P; Bódi, I; May, P M; Hefter, G T

    1997-04-01

    The ionic product of water, pK(w) = - log[H(+)][OH(-)] has been determined in aqueous solutions of tetramethylammonium chloride over the concentration range of 0.1-5.5 M at 25 degrees C using high-precision glass electrode potentiometric titrations. pK(w) data relating to aqueous potassium and sodium chlorides at ionic strengths up to 5 M are markedly lower than the tetramethylammonium chloride results. These differences are almost certainly due to weak associations between potassium and (especially) sodium and hydroxide ions.

  10. Ionometric determination of chloride ion in circulating and waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebeshko, G.I.; Afanas' eva, V.I.; Danielova, I.I.; Dmitriev, M.A.; Radchenko, A.F.

    1986-09-01

    The authors attempt to develop selective ionometric methods to determine chloride ion in waste and circulating waters from technological ore processing, containing significant amounts of sulfide ion and various flotation reagents. These waters contain practically no cations that form hard to dissolve compounds with chloride ion such as Ag/sup +/, Cu/sup +/, Hg/sup +/ or Pb/sup 2 +/. The chloride ion concentration in water varies between 10 and 100 mg/liter. Information is shown on the concentration of the main anions and flotation reagents in waters that were analyzed.

  11. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  12. Microwave evaluation of accelerated chloride ingress in mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C.; Case, T.; Castle, M.; Zoughi, R.; Kurtis, K.

    2001-04-01

    Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures can be induced by the presence of chloride ions near the steel/concrete interface. To show the potential of microwave nondestructive testing techniques for evaluating chloride ingress, 8″×8″×8″ mortar specimens with different mixture designs were prepared. To accelerate chloride ingress, they were exposed to cyclical wet/dry conditions, where the wet condition included exposure to salt bath. A complete discussion of the results will be presented in this paper.

  13. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C......Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.4...

  14. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  15. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  16. Piezoresistive Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprakci, Hatice Aylin Karahan

    Textile based sensors provide an interface between the user and the electronic system by converting any type of physiological or environmental signal into electrical signals. Common applications include health monitoring, rehabilitation, multimedia, and surveillance. In this research we demonstrate fabrication of piezoresistive sensors on textile fabrics through application of a screen-printed conductive nanocomposite layer of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and carbon nanofiber (CNF). In order to understand the behavior of conductive plastisol, morphological, mechanical and electrical properties of composite films were investigated for different molecular weights of PVC. Homogeneous filler dispersion and good filler/polymer interphase were observed without any dominant filler orientation. Mechanical and electrical properties were found to be affected by CNF, plasticizer content and matrix molecular weight. CNFs were found to provide substantial bridging in the matrix and enhance strength. These nanostructured composite sensors were found to be sensitive under different levels of strain which can be monitored by change in electrical resistance. Finally, we demonstrate the fabrication of piezoresistive sensors on textile fabrics through application of a screen-printed conductive nanocomposite layer of conductive plastisol. Conductive plastisol was found to show good adhesion to fabric with homogeneous CNF distribution. As in composite films, samples were found to show negative piezoresistance at different levels of strain. Strain level and filler concentration were found to affect the piezoresistive behavior and sensitivity of the printed sensors.

  17. Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Miao Miao; Hong, Sen; Zhou, Hong Yan; Wang, Hong Wei; Wang, Li Na; Zheng, Ya Juan

    2014-01-01

    Chloride channels (ClCs) have gained worldwide interest because of their molecular diversity, widespread distribution in mammalian tissues and organs, and their link to various human diseases. Nine different ClCs have been molecularly identified and functionally characterized in mammals. ClC-2 is one of nine mammalian members of the ClC family. It possesses unique biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, and molecular features that distinguish it from other ClC family members. ClC-2 has wide organ/tissue distribution and is ubiquitously expressed. Published studies consistently point to a high degree of conservation of ClC-2 function and regulation across various species from nematodes to humans over vast evolutionary time spans. ClC-2 has been intensively and extensively studied over the past two decades, leading to the accumulation of a plethora of information to advance our understanding of its pathophysiological functions; however, many controversies still exist. It is necessary to analyze the research findings, and integrate different views to have a better understanding of ClC-2. This review focuses on ClC-2 only, providing an analytical overview of the available literature. Nearly every aspect of ClC-2 is discussed in the review: molecular features, biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, cellular function, regulation of expression and function, and channelopathies. PMID:24378849

  18. Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Miao Bi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channels (ClCs have gained worldwide interest because of their molecular diversity, widespread distribution in mammalian tissues and organs, and their link to various human diseases. Nine different ClCs have been molecularly identified and functionally characterized in mammals. ClC-2 is one of nine mammalian members of the ClC family. It possesses unique biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, and molecular features that distinguish it from other ClC family members. ClC-2 has wide organ/tissue distribution and is ubiquitously expressed. Published studies consistently point to a high degree of conservation of ClC-2 function and regulation across various species from nematodes to humans over vast evolutionary time spans. ClC-2 has been intensively and extensively studied over the past two decades, leading to the accumulation of a plethora of information to advance our understanding of its pathophysiological functions; however, many controversies still exist. It is necessary to analyze the research findings, and integrate different views to have a better understanding of ClC-2. This review focuses on ClC-2 only, providing an analytical overview of the available literature. Nearly every aspect of ClC-2 is discussed in the review: molecular features, biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, cellular function, regulation of expression and function, and channelopathies.

  19. Study on the Effects of Structure of Second Ligands and [CuCl_4]~(2-)Configuration on Channel Framework between Layers%二次配体结构和[CuCl_4]~(2-)构型对层间隧道结构的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭放; 夏芳; 宋纯亮; 郭文生

    2009-01-01

    The designed and synthesized protonated ligands,N,N,N'N'-etra-(p-methylbenzyl)ethylenedia-mine (SL1) and N,N,N'N'-tetra-benzylethylenediamine (SL2),are both the N-bidentate ligands with the bulky substituent groups,and can form the channel between layers with the directional group [CuCL_4]~(2-) through the second-sphere coordination.Molecules of cyclopentyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol are accommodated in the channel constructed by SL1 and SL2,respectively,thus forming the inclusion compounds.The analysis results of crystal structure show that such ligands are easy to form bidentate complexes with [CuCl_4]~(2-) by NH~+…Cl~- hydrogen bond and construct ID ribbon and 2D layer structure.In the crystal of SL1,benzyl groups of SL1 between 2D layers stack in parallel motif,leading to ID hydrophilic channel framework between layers; while in the crystal of SL2,the benzyl groups of SL2 between 2D layers stack in staggered motif,resulting in ID hydrophobic channel framework between layers.The experimental results show that the size and polarity of channel framework are affected by the molecule length of second ligand,configuration of [CuCL_4]~(2-),and the shape,size of the guest molecules.%设计合成的质子配体,N,N,N'-N'-四(对甲基苄基)乙二胺(SL1)和N,N,N'-N'-四苄基乙二胺(SL2),是连有大体积取代基团的含N双齿配体,它可通过二次球形配位,与第一络合物[CuCl_4]~(2-)形成层问隧道框架结构.环戊醇分子和乙醇分子分别被填入由SL1和SL2构筑的隧道中,形成包结化合物.晶体结构分析结果表明,这样的配体易于与指导基团通过NH+…Cl-氢键作用进行双齿配位并形成1D带和2D层结构;SL1 2D层问的苄基呈平行堆砌,形成1D亲水性隧道框架,SL2 2D层间的苄基呈交错堆砌,形成了1D疏水性隧道框架.实验结果表明,层间隧道框架结构的孔径及极性与第二配体的分子长度、指导基团的构型以及客体分子的形状大小有关.

  20. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Arlen R.; Delnick, Frank M.; Miller, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented.

  1. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  2. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonst......Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  3. Prediction of chloride ingress and binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Nielsen, Erik Pram; Herforth, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on an analytical model for predicting the ingress rate of chlorides in cement-based materials. An integral part of this is a thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement. The model’s ability to predict chloride binding...... in Portland cement pastes at any content of chloride, alkalis, sulfates and carbonate was verified experimentally and found to be equally valid when applied to other data in the literature. The thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement was introduced into an existing...... Finite Difference Model for the ingress of chlorides into concrete which takes into account its multi-component nature. The “composite theory” was then used to predict the diffusivity of each ion based on the phase assemblage present in the hydrated Portland cement paste. Agreement was found between...

  4. Analysis of chloride diffusivity in concrete containing red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process and, due to its high pH, is classified as hazardous. Its incorporation in concrete mixtures, acting as filler due to the particles fineness, might be an interesting reuse alternative. The focus of this paper is to study the chloride diffusivity of concrete mixtures containing red-mud. The concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which was distilled water initially. In addition, the estimation of the chloride ions diffusion coefficients in steady and non-steady conditions, Ds and Dns, was obtained from the ''time-lag'' and ''equivalent time'' between diffusion and migration experiments. Due to superfine particle-size distribution and the "filler" effect, the red mud addition seems to assure lower chloride diffusivity.

  5. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  6. 1300-nm gain obtained with dysprosium-doped chloride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Beach, R.J.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-03-01

    Dy{sup 3+} - doped chloride crystals have high 1300-nm emission quantum yields. Pump - probe experiments on La Cl{sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+} demonstrate optical gain consistent with predictions based on spectroscopic cross sections and lifetimes.

  7. Probabilistic evaluation of initiation time of chloride-induced corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Val, Dimitri V. [Department of Structural Engineering and Construction Management, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)], E-mail: val@tx.technion.ac.il; Trapper, Pavel A. [Department of Structural Engineering and Construction Management, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2008-03-15

    The paper presents a model for chloride ingress into concrete. The model accounts for two mechanisms which control the chloride ingress-diffusion and convection. Using one-dimensional (1-D) formulation of the model, the influence of chloride binding and ambient humidity on chloride ingress into concrete has been investigated. Based on results of this investigation parameters for probabilistic analysis have been selected. Probabilistic evaluation of the time to corrosion initiation has then been carried out for a reinforced concrete (RC) wall (1-D problem) and a RC column (2-D problem) in a marine environment. Results of the analysis show that for the same thickness of the concrete cover the probability of corrosion initiation in the corner reinforcing bars of the RC column is much higher than in reinforcing bars in the middle part of the RC wall. The results demonstrate the importance of 2-D modelling for correct prediction of corrosion initiation in such RC elements as columns and beams.

  8. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhupinder Kaur; Harish Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  9. Chloride supporting electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Feng; Hu, Jianzhi; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-28

    This paper examines vanadium chloride solutions as electrolytes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery. The chloride solutions were capable of dissolving more than 2.3 M vanadium at varied valence states and remained stable at 0-50 °C. The improved stability appeared due to the formation of a vanadium dinuclear [V(2)O(3)·4H(2)O](4+) or a dinuclear-chloro complex [V(2)O(3)Cl·3H(2)O](3+) in the solutions over a wide temperature range. The all-vanadium redox flow batteries with the chloride electrolytes demonstrated excellent reversibility and fairly high efficiencies. Only negligible, if any, gas evolution was observed. The improved energy capacity and good performance, along with the ease in heat management, would lead to substantial reduction in capital cost and life-cycle cost, making the vanadium chloride redox flow battery a promising candidate for stationary applications.

  10. Homocoupling of Aryl Bromides Catalyzed by Nickel Chloride in Pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO, Xiao-Chun; ZHOU, Wei; ZHANG, Yue-Ping; DAI, Chun-ya; SHEN, Dong; HUANG, Mei

    2006-01-01

    Pyridine was used as a solvent for homocoupling of aryl bromides catalyzed by nickel chloride/triarylphosphine in the presence of zinc and recycled easily. Triphenylphosphine was the best ligand for nickel in this coupling reaction.

  11. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes: First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied the structural properties, thermal stability, and electrochemical response of the membranes to understand chloride migration and transport. Finally, the membranes are tested in a prototype solid-state chloride-ion battery setup. The feasibility of the membranes for their potential use in anion batteries is discussed.

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asha, E-mail: arana5752@gmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Bhagat Phool Singh Mahilla Vishwavidyalaya, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat-131305 (India); Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  13. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  14. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N22]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  15. KINETICS OF VINYL CHLORIDE (CO)POLYMERIZATION AT HIGH CONVERSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-ren Pan; Zhi-xue Weng; Zhi-ming Huang

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a summarized review on the kinetics of vinyl chloride homopolymerization in the absence and presence of chain transfer agents, of VC/DAP(diallyl phthalate) copolymerization with chain extension and/or slightly crosslinking functions, and of vinylidene chloride/VC random copolymerization.Models of rate, degree of polymerization or molecular weight, copolymer composition, gel fraction and crosslinking density were proposed and interpreted mechanistically.

  16. Mechanism of chloride interaction with neurotransmitter:sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomot, Elia; Bendahan, Annie; Quick, Matthias; Zhao, Yongfang; Javitch, Jonathan A; Kanner, Baruch I

    2007-10-11

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) have a critical role in regulating neurotransmission and are targets for psychostimulants, anti-depressants and other drugs. Whereas the non-homologous glutamate transporters mediate chloride conductance, in the eukaryotic NSS chloride is transported together with the neurotransmitter. In contrast, transport by the bacterial NSS family members LeuT, Tyt1 and TnaT is chloride independent. The crystal structure of LeuT reveals an occluded binding pocket containing leucine and two sodium ions, and is highly relevant for the neurotransmitter transporters. However, the precise role of chloride in neurotransmitter transport and the location of its binding site remain elusive. Here we show that introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at or near one of the two putative sodium-binding sites of the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) transporter GAT-1 from rat brain (also called SLC6A1) renders both net flux and exchange of GABA largely chloride independent. In contrast to wild-type GAT-1, a marked stimulation of the rate of net flux, but not of exchange, was observed when the internal pH was lowered. Equivalent mutations introduced in the mouse GABA transporter GAT4 (SLC6A11) and the human dopamine transporter DAT (SLC6A3) also result in chloride-independent transport, whereas the reciprocal mutations in LeuT and Tyt1 render substrate binding and/or uptake by these bacterial NSS chloride dependent. Our data indicate that the negative charge, provided either by chloride or by the transporter itself, is required during binding and translocation of the neurotransmitter, probably to counterbalance the charge of the co-transported sodium ions.

  17. Hafnium extraction from acidic chloride solutions by Cyanex 923

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ammouri, E.; Distin, P.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium extraction from hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride solutions into Cyanex 923 in kerosene has been studied. Variables investigated were hydrochloric acid, total chloride and hafnium concentrations in the aqueous phase, and extractant/modifier (isodecanol) levels in the organic phase. Hafnium is considered to load as the tetrachloride complex forming a disolvate with Cyanex 923. Results are compared with equivalent data for zirconium extraction. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Durability Analysis of Subway Station in Chloride Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang LuFeng; Yu Bo; Hong Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a finite element model for chloride ions transport in saturated concrete was proposed based on the Fick’s second law of diffusion. The governing partial differential equation was solved numerically in space as a boundary-value problem and in time as an initial-value problem by means of the finite element formulations. The maximum allowable value of chloride diffusion coefficient within different locations of subway station with service life of 100a was achieved and suggestions ...

  19. Recovering germanium from coal ash by chlorination with ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new process of enriching germanium from coal ash was developed. The process involves in mixing the coal ash and ammonium chloride and then roasting the mixture to produce germanium chloride that is then absorbed by dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrolyzed to germanium oxide. The germanium recovery reached to 80.2% at the optimum condition: mass ratio of NH4Cl/coal ash is 0.15, roasting temperature 400℃ and roasting time 90 min.

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl2.6H2O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  1. Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

  2. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: zhu@hse.gcoe.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  3. Chloride ion transport performance in slag mortar under fatigue loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG CaiHui; SUN Wei; JIANG JinYang; HAN JianDe; YE BangTu

    2012-01-01

    The transport performance of chloride ion in slag cement mortar was investigated experimentally.In the self-designed experiment,fatigue loading was coupled simultaneously with ion transportation process,the diffusion law of chloride ion was obtained by titration and the AE (acoustic emission) technique was employed to detect the real-time damage distribution in the mortar specimen.The results for fatigue stress levels of 0.3,0.4 and 0.5 and slag contents of 0,10%,30% and 50% showed that fatigue loading accelerated the diffusion of chloride ion in mortar and the acceleration effect increased with the increase in stress levels.Slag addition was found to improve anti-chloride ion erosion performance effectively with the best substitution level at 30%,because the inhibition effect of slag on chloride ion diffusion diminished when the slag content exceeded 30%.The comparative experiments indicated that dynamic load has a significant effect on the transport performance of chloride ion in slag cement mortar.

  4. Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Chang, Fang-Chih

    2011-06-15

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes and water washing processes. In the roasting process, EAF dust was heated in a tube furnace to evaluate the parameters of atmospheric conditions, roasting temperature, and roasting time. Results indicate that sulfation roasting is more efficient in reducing chloride content than other roasting processes. The water washing process can totally remove water-soluble chloride at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. However, the remaining water-insoluble substance is difficult to dechlorinate. For example, lead chloride forms a hydroxyl-halide (PbOHCl) and lead chloride carbonate (Pb(2)CO(3)Cl(2)) agglutinative matrix that is hard to wash away.

  5. Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Benzalkonium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngbeom; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Jones, Richard C; Woodling, Kellie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; LiPuma, John J; Hussong, David; Marasa, Bernard S; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2016-11-22

    Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK) cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl), decyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C10BDMA-Cl), hexyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride was determined by incubation in 1/10-diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB) to determine if BCC bacteria have the ability to survive and inactivate these disinfectants. With BZK, C14BDMA-Cl, and C12BDMA-Cl, inhibition of the growth of 20 BCC strains was observed in disinfectant solutions that ranged from 64 to 256 µg/ml. The efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone increased the sensitivity of bacteria to 64 µg/ml BZK. The 20 BCC strains grew well in 1/10-diluted TSB medium with BZK, C12BDMA-Cl, and C10BDMA-Cl; they absorbed and degraded the compounds in 7 days. Formation of benzyldimethylamine and benzylmethylamine as the initial metabolites suggested that the cleavage of the C alkyl-N bond occurred as the first step of BZK degradation by BCC bacteria. Proteomic data confirmed the observed efflux activity and metabolic inactivation via biodegradation in terms of BZK resistance of BCC bacteria, which suggests that the two main resistance mechanisms are intrinsic and widespread.

  6. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  7. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the effect of topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal nerves in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mouse eyes were treated topically with vehicle or BAK (0.01% or 0.1%). Wide-field stereofluorescence microscopy was performed to sequentially image the treated corneas in vivo every week for 4 weeks, and changes in stromal nerve fiber density (NFD) and aqueous tear production were determined. Whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of corneas was performed with antibodies to axonopathy marker SMI-32. Western immunoblot analyses were performed on trigeminal ganglion and corneal lysates to determine abundance of proteins associated with neurotoxicity and regeneration. Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether BAK affects neurite outgrowth. Results. BAK-treated corneas exhibited significantly reduced NFD and aqueous tear production, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration and fluorescein staining at 1 week (P < 0.05). These changes were most significant after 0.1% BAK treatment. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration in the cornea showed a significant negative correlation with NFD. Sequential in vivo imaging of corneas showed two forms of BAK-induced neurotoxicity: reversible neurotoxicity characterized by axonopathy and recovery, and irreversible neurotoxicity characterized by nerve degeneration and regeneration. Increased abundance of beta III tubulin in corneal lysates confirmed regeneration. A dose-related significant reduction in neurites occurred after BAK addition to compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells. Although both BAK doses (0.0001% and 0.001%) reduced nerve fiber length, the reduction was significantly more with the higher dose (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Topical application of BAK to the eye causes corneal neurotoxicity, inflammation, and reduced aqueous

  8. Aspergilli Response to Benzalkonium Chloride and Novel-Synthesized Fullerenol/Benzalkonium Chloride Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unković, Nikola; Ljaljević Grbić, Milica; Stupar, Miloš; Vukojević, Jelena; Janković, Vesna; Jović, Danica; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles' dimensions within 30-143 nm and maximum number of particles at 44 nm. The effect of pure and fullerenol nanocarrier-bound biocide was evaluated in eight Aspergillus species. In mycelial growth assay, nanocomposite was more potent, as fungicidal effect of 1.04/0.6 μg mL(-1) was obtained in all but one of the isolates (A. niger), while proportional concentration of pure biocide (0.6 μg mL(-1)) completely inhibited mycelial growth of only three Aspergillus species. However, conidia appear to be less susceptible to nanocomposite treatment, as lower fungistatic (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were obtained with biocide alone (MIC in range from 0.03 to 0.15 μg mL(-1) and MFC from 0.075 to 0.45 μg mL(-1)). To a different degree, both substances stimulated aflatoxin B1 production and inhibited ochratoxin A synthesis. Very low mycelium biomass yield, in range from 1.0 to 3.0 mg dry weight, was documented in both biocide and nanocomposite enriched medium.

  9. Behavior and products of mechano-chemical dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride and poly (vinylidene chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xiao [College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsha 410012 (China); Zeng Zigao [Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsha 410012 (China); Xiao Songwen [Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsha 410012 (China)], E-mail: swinxiao@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-02-28

    The mechano-chemical (MC) dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) was performed by mechanical milling PVC/PVDC powder with zinc powder in a planetary ball mill, and the products of dechlorination were characterized by Infrared spectra (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results show that PVC/PVDC can be easily dechlorinated by milling with zinc powder, and formed various kinds of inorganic and organic products. Inorganic compounds included Zn{sub 2}OCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O etc., and organic products involved diamond-like carbon, carbyne fragment, polyacetylene etc. Organic products formed following the paths of dechlorination, dehydrochlorination, crosslink, and oxidation. The mechano-chemical dechlorination process of PVC/PVDC may be an effective approach for carbyne synthesizing in the appropriate condition.

  10. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard for vinyl chloride... for Vinyl Chloride § 61.63 Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a vinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a) Vinyl...

  11. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt of...

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER CHLORIDE, METHYLENE CHLORIDE,AND 6-AMINONICOTINAMIDE TO EMBRYOS OF THE GRASS SHRIMPPALAEMONETES PUGIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, cop...

  13. 城市生活垃圾焚烧中氯化物对铜迁移转化特性的影响%Effects of Chlorides on Copper Partitioning and Speciation During Municipal Solid Waste Incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙进; 李清海; 李国岫; 周会; 秦岭; 张衍国

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chlorides on the Cu partitioning and speciation in the municipal solid waste (MSW)incineration was investigated using thermodynamic equilibrium calculation and a simulated tubular furnace experiment. The thermodynamic calculation and experimental results show that the form and amount of chloride and the temperature impacted significantly on the Cu partitioning and speciation. Both organic PVC and inorganic NaCl could chlorides copper to form volatile CuCl, as a result, it promotes Cu distribution in fly ash. The NaCl had a more significant effect than the PVC does. The combustion temperature and properties of pyrolysis and combustion of chloride affected Cu partitioning and speciation synergistically. As the temperature increased, the chlorization effect of PVC decreased, whereas the chorization effect of NaCl increased. Incineration time had apparent influence on NaCl but almost no influence on PVC. The results of SEM-EDS show that Cu is present as oxide in bottom ash with PVC addition, while with NaCl addition, Cu as oxide and chloride. The element of Cu in the fly ash is in the form of chloride in small particles.%采用热力学平衡计算和管式炉实验的方法对垃圾焚烧中氯化物对铜迁移转化特性的影响进行了研究。热力学平衡计算和实验研究结果表明,氯化物的形态、含量及焚烧温度对铜的迁移转化特性有显著影响。无论是有机PVC还是无机NaCl对铜都有氯化作用,使其生成易蒸发的CuCl,从而促进铜向飞灰中的迁移分布,NaCl的影响大于PVC。焚烧温度、氯化物的热解特性与焚烧方式协同作用影响铜的迁移转化特性,随温度升高 PVC 的氯化作用减弱而 NaCl 的作用增强。焚烧时间对 PVC 没有显著影响,对 NaCl 的影响显著。扫描电镜-能谱分析(SEM-EDS)结果显示,添加PVC时铜在底渣中以氧化物的形态存在,而添加NaCl时铜以氧化物和氯化物的形态共存,飞灰中铜

  14. [Pulmonary manifestations of polyvinyl chloride exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süyür, Hüseyin; Bayram, Nazan; Aydın, Neriman; Uyar, Meral; Gündoğdu, Nevhiz; Elbek, Osman

    2011-01-01

    There is currently no national data on the effects of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) exposure on pulmonary function. In this study we recruited workers and administrative staff from two PVC plants between July 2008 and July 2009. A questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and peak flows were recorded. Particulate matter analyses were performed by the Adana Central Laboratory of the Directorate of Occupational Health and Safety. Data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software. Nine of the 147 subjects were female. The incidence of a cough was more common in the administrative group. Of the study population, 59.1% were smokers. Tobacco addiction significantly increased cough and dyspnea [OR= 1.10 (1.00-1.20, 95% CI) p= 0.007 and OR= 1.08 (1.02-1.14, 95% CI), p= 0.008, respectively]. Dust exposure was correlated with the incidence of a cough [OR= 0.20 (0.04-0.80, 95% CI) p= 0.008]. The period of work correlated with sputum production [OR= 1.00 (1.00-1.02, 95% CI) p= 0.044]. The FVC% was significantly higher in the administrative group, and FEV1/FVC and DLCO were higher in the exposed group. Tobacco addiction increased the risk of airflow limitation, as evaluated by FEV1/FVC < 70% and FEF25-75 < 50% [OR= 1.15 (1.06-1.25, 95% CI) p= 0.001 and OR= 1.09 (1.02-1.17, 95% CI) p= 0.010, respectively]. Tobacco addiction and increasing duration of work had a negative influence on DLCO in the exposed group (r= -0.270, p= 0.025 and r= -0.210, p= 0.037). In the exposed group PEF variability was significantly greater on workdays, compared with rest days. This study shows that tobacco consumption has a greater affect on the airways than PVC dust exposure. A median of 36 months exposure to PVC dust had no significant impact on pulmonary function parameters, except for DLCO and PEF variability.

  15. Aspergilli Response to Benzalkonium Chloride and Novel-Synthesized Fullerenol/Benzalkonium Chloride Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Unković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles’ dimensions within 30–143 nm and maximum number of particles at 44 nm. The effect of pure and fullerenol nanocarrier-bound biocide was evaluated in eight Aspergillus species. In mycelial growth assay, nanocomposite was more potent, as fungicidal effect of 1.04/0.6 μg mL−1 was obtained in all but one of the isolates (A. niger, while proportional concentration of pure biocide (0.6 μg mL−1 completely inhibited mycelial growth of only three Aspergillus species. However, conidia appear to be less susceptible to nanocomposite treatment, as lower fungistatic (MIC and fungicidal (MFC concentrations were obtained with biocide alone (MIC in range from 0.03 to 0.15 μg mL−1 and MFC from 0.075 to 0.45 μg mL−1. To a different degree, both substances stimulated aflatoxin B1 production and inhibited ochratoxin A synthesis. Very low mycelium biomass yield, in range from 1.0 to 3.0 mg dry weight, was documented in both biocide and nanocomposite enriched medium.

  16. Development and critical evaluation of fluorescent chloride nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graefe, Anja; Stanca, Sarmiza E; Nietzsche, Sandor; Kubicova, Lenka; Beckert, Rainer; Biskup, Christoph; Mohr, Gerhard J

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we describe the preparation and evaluation of new fluorescent sensor nanoparticles for the ratiometric measurement of chloride concentrations. Both a chloride-sensitive dye (lucigenin) and a reference dye (sulforhodamine derivative) were incorporated into polyacrylamide nanoparticles via inverse microemulsion polymerization and investigated for their response to chloride ions in buffered suspension as well as in living cells. The fluorescence intensity of lucigenin reversibly decreased in the presence of chloride ions due to a collisional quenching process, which can be described with the Stern-Volmer equation. The determined Stern-Volmer constant K SV for the quenching of lucigenin incorporated into particles was found to be 53 M (-1) and is considerably smaller than the Stern-Volmer constant for quenching of free lucigenin ( K SV = 250 M (-1)) under the same conditions. To test the nanosensors in living cells, we incorporated them into Chinese hamster ovary cells and mouse fibroblasts by using the conventional lipofectamin technique and monitored the response to changing chloride concentrations in the cell.

  17. Antiangiogenic activity of 2-formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K-H; Lee, K K-H; Kok, S H-L; Wong, R S-M; Lau, F-Y; Cheng, G Y-M; Wong, W-Y; Tong, S-W; Chan, K-W; Chan, R Y-K; Tang, J C-O; Cheng, C-H; Hau, D K-P; Bian, Z-X; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2016-05-01

    Tumour growth is closely related to the development of new blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrients to cancer cells. Without the neovascular formation, tumour volumes cannot increase and undergo metastasis. Antiangiogenesis is one of the most promising approaches for antitumour therapy. The exploration of new antiangiogenic agents would be helpful in antitumour therapy. Quinoline is an aromatic nitrogen compound characterized by a double-ring structure which exhibits a benzene ring fused to pyridine at two adjacent carbon atoms. The high stability of quinoline makes it preferable in a variety of therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications, including antitumour treatment. This work is to examine the potential antiangiogenic activity of the synthetic compound 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride. We found that 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could inhibit the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Using the diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model, 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride showed strong antiangiogenic activity. Furthermore, 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could inhibit the growth of large Hep3B xenografted tumour from the nude mice. We assume that 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could be a potential antiangiogenic and antitumour agent and it is worthwhile to further study its underlying working mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The Chloride Permeability of Persulphated Phosphogypsum-Slag Cement Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Youqiang; LU Jianxin; CHEN Feixiang; SHUI Zhonghe

    2016-01-01

    The chloride permeability and microstructure of persulphated phosphogypsum-slag cement concrete (PPSCC), the Portland slag cement concrete (PSCC) and ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPCC) were investigated comparatively. Some test methods were used to evaluate the chloride permeability and explain the relationship between the permeability and microstructure of concrete. The results show that the resistance to chloride penetration in PPSCC is signiifcantly better than that in OPCC, the reasons are as follows: 1) the slag in PPSCC is activated by clinker (alkali activation) and phosphogypsum (sulfate activation), forming more low Ca/Si C-S-H gel and gel pores below 10 nm than OPCC, improving the resistance to chloride penetration; 2) the hydration products of PPSCC have a much stronger binding capacity for chloride ions; and 3) in the same mix proportion, PPSCC has a better workability without large crystals calcium hydroxide in the hydration products, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is smoother and denser, which can cut off the communicating pores between the pastes and aggregates.

  19. Microstructural Evolution of Chloride-Cleaned Silicon Carbide Aluminum Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Balogun, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the synergy between reinforcement surface modifications on the evolution of microstructures of AA6011-silicon carbide particle (SiCp) composites in multidirectional solidification. Silicon carbide particles (SiCp) were cleaned with ammonium chloride, tin(II) chloride, sodium chloride, and palladium(II) chloride and used as reinforcement to cast AA6011-SiCp composites by applying the stir casting method. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the morphology and phases present, respectively, in the composite material. Results show that wetting agents were effective as they inhibited the formation of Al4C3 in all modified composites. The modified SiCp was found to have varying effects on the morphology, dendrite arm size and direction, size and configuration of AlFeSi, and the amount of eutectic silicon depending on the concentration of the reagent and cleaning time. The highest effect was shown by the use of 40 g/L of tin(II) chloride. The composites had short dendritic arms, good interfacial interaction, and only a few crystals of AlFeSi.

  20. Interactions between chloride and cement-paste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberon, Fabien; Baroghel-Bouny, Véronique; Zanni, Hélène; Bresson, Bruno; d'Espinose de la Caillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Malosse, Lucie; Gan, Zehong

    2005-02-01

    The durability of cement-based materials with respect to exterior aggressions is one of the current priorities in civil engineering. Depending on their use, the cement-based materials can be exposed to different types of aggressive environments. For instance, damages to concrete structures in contact with a saline environment (sea water on bridges, deicing salts on roads, etc.) are of utmost importance. Upon exposure to saline water, Cl- ions penetrate into the structures and subsequently lead to reinforcement corrosion. Chloride attack is often combined with other aggressive influences such as temperature (e.g., freezing) or the ingress of other ions (e.g., sulfates in sea water). We therefore aim to explore the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the structural chemistry of cement paste. Existing studies about reinforcement corrosion by chloride have focused on the penetration of Cl- ions and the comparison between "free" ions (water-soluble ions) and bound ones. However, little is known about the fixation mechanisms, the localization of Cl in the cement matrix and the structural interaction between Cl and the silicate and aluminate hydrate phases present in cement paste. We present here results of a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance study on the fixation of chloride in the hydration products and the characterization of new phases potentially appearing due to chloride ingress.

  1. Enhancement of trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum by cobalt chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Rie; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Naoko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2011-03-09

    The effects of cobalt chloride on the production of trichothecene and ergosterol in Fusarium graminearum were examined. Incorporation experiments with (13)C-labeled acetate and leucine confirmed that both 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and ergosterol were biosynthesized via a mevalonate pathway by the fungus, although hydroxymethyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) from intact leucine was able to be partially used for ergosterol production. Addition of cobalt chloride at concentrations of 3-30 μM into liquid culture strongly enhanced 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol production by the fungus, whereas the amount of ergosterol and the mycelial weight of the fungus did not change. The mRNA levels of genes encoding trichothecene biosynthetic proteins (TRI4 and TRI6), ergosterol biosynthetic enzymes (ERG3 and ERG25), and enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway (HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR)) were all strongly up-regulated in the presence of cobalt chloride. Precocene II, a specific trichothecene production inhibitor, suppressed the effects of cobalt chloride on Tri4, Tri6, HMGS, and HMGR, but did not affect erg3 and erg25. These results indicate that cobalt chloride is useful for investigating regulatory mechanisms of trichothecene and ergosterol production in F. graminearum.

  2. Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Gea; Stunnenberg, Bas C; Trip, Jeroen; Borm, George; McGill, Kevin C; Ginjaar, Ieke H B; van der Kooi, Arendina W; Zwarts, Machiel J; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Faber, Catharina G; Stegeman, Dick F; Lateva, Zoia

    2015-01-01

    Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myotonia has its basis in an electrical instability of the sarcolemmal membrane. In the present study we examine the discriminative power of the resulting myotonic discharges for these disorders. Needle electromyography was performed by an electromyographer blinded for genetic diagnosis in 66 non-dystrophic myotonia patients (32 chloride and 34 sodium channelopathy). Five muscles in each patient were examined. Individual trains of myotonic discharges were extracted and analyzed with respect to firing characteristics. Myotonic discharge characteristics in the rectus femoris muscle almost perfectly discriminated chloride from sodium channelopathy patients. The first interdischarge interval as a single variable was longer than 30 ms in all but one of the chloride channelopathy patients and shorter than 30 ms in all of the sodium channelopathy patients. This resulted in a detection rate of over 95%. Myotonic discharges of a single muscle can be used to better guide toward a molecular diagnosis in non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Elusive Presence of Chloride in Mixed Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Silvia; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pellegrino, Giovanna; Alberti, Alessandra; Guerra, Valentino L P; Masi, Sofia; Listorti, Andrea; Rizzo, Aurora; Condorelli, Guglielmo Guido; De Angelis, Filippo; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2014-10-16

    The role of chloride in the MAPbI3-xClx perovskite is still limitedly understood, albeit subjected of much debate. Here, we present a combined angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) and first-principles DFT modeling to investigate the MAPbI3-xClx/TiO2 interface. AR-XPS analyses carried out on ad hoc designed bilayers of MAPbI3-xClx perovskite deposited onto a flat TiO2 substrate reveal that the chloride is preferentially located in close proximity to the perovskite/TiO2 interface. DFT calculations indicate the preferential location of chloride at the TiO2 interface compared to the bulk perovskite due to an increased chloride-TiO2 surface affinity. Furthermore, our calculations clearly demonstrate an interfacial chloride-induced band bending, creating a directional "electron funnel" that may improve the charge collection efficiency of the device and possibly affecting also recombination pathways. Our findings represent a step forward to the rationalization of the peculiar properties of mixed halide perovskite, allowing one to further address material and device design issues.

  4. Chloride channels of platelets%血小板氯通道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琳; 尹松梅

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channels distribute widely in the body, and participate in many physiological actions and regulatory processes. Based on their physiological roles and molecular structures, six kinds of chloride channels have been identified: (1) The chloride channels family; (2) Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; (3) Swelling-activated chloride channels; (4) Calcium-activated chloride channels; (5) The p64 (CLIC) gene family; (6) γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors. The chloride channels do exist in platelets, and their appearances are dependent on the presence of intracellular calcium. Blocking agents of chloride channels inhibit the thrombin-activated platelet aggregation and the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that chloride channels play a role in the activation of platelets. In addition, chloride channels act on both the cell volume regulation and the intracellular pH regulation in platelets.

  5. Separating refractory and non-refractory particulate chloride and estimating chloride depletion by aerosol mass spectrometry in a marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nuaaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol composition and concentration measurements along the coast of California were obtained using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS onboard the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex study in 2010. This paper focuses on the measurement of aerosol chloride using the HR-AMS that can be ambiguous in regions with significant quantities of sea salt aerosols. This ambiguity arises due to large differences in the sensitivity of the HR-AMS to refractory chloride species (i.e., NaCl and non refractory chloride species (i.e., NH4Cl, HCl, etc.. Using the HR-AMS, the aerosol chloride signal is typically quantified using ion signals for 35Cl+, H35Cl+, 37Cl+ and H37Cl+ (HxCl+. During this study, the highest aerosol chloride signal was observed during sea sweep experiments when the source of the aerosol chloride was NaCl present in artificially generated sea salt aerosols even though the HR-AMS has significantly lower sensitivity to such refractory species. Other prominent ion signals that arise from NaCl salt were also observed at m/z 22.99 for Na+ and m/z 57.96 for Na35Cl+ during both sea sweep experiments and during periods of ambient measurements. Thus, refractory NaCl contributes significantly to the HxCl+ signal, interfering with attempts to quantify non sea salt chloride (nssCl. It was found that during ambient aerosol measurements, the interference in the HxCl+ signal from sea salt chloride (ssCl was as high as 89%, but with a study wide average of 10%. The Na35Cl+ ion signal was found to be a good tracer for NaCl. We outline a method to establish nssCl in the ambient aerosols by subtracting the sea salt chloride (ssCl signal from the HxCl+ signal. The ssCl signal is derived from the Na35Cl+ ion tracer signal and the HxCl+ to Na35Cl+ ratio established from the sea sweep experiments. Ambient submicron concentrations of ssCl were also established using the

  6. Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    A 1-D math model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell is used in conjunction with a parameter estimation technique in order to estimate the electro-kinetic parameters of this electrochemical system. The electro-kinetic parameters include the anodic transfer coefficient and exchange current density of the lithium oxidation, alpha sub a,1 and i sub o,i,ref, the cathodic transfer coefficient and the effective exchange current density of the thionyl chloride reduction, alpha sub c,2 and a sup o i sub o,2,ref, and a morphology parameter, Xi. The parameter estimation is performed on simulated data first in order to gain confidence in the method. Data, reported in the literature, for a high rate discharge of an experimental lithium/thionyl chloride cell is used for an analysis.

  7. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Svend; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which t...... the chloride content in a 1reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORMISORM-analysis.......Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...

  8. Binder content influences on chloride ingress in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; Jones, M.R.; McCarthy, M.J. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The reported study looked at the effect of reducing free water contents, and thereby binder contents, and thereby binder contents, on the ingress of chloride in concrete. Concretes with equal water/binder ratio (and design strength), but with water contents reduced by up to 30 liters/m{sup 3}, were tested for chloride diffusion (D) and penetration. The quality of the microstructure was inferred from initial surface absorption tests (ISAT). The results show no practical difference in chloride durability between the corresponding concretes, and that reducing the binder content, (providing that the water/binder ratio is maintained) is not likely to be detrimental. However, the results reported underline the importance of binder type, in this case PFA. Implications of the results are discussed and, in light of the findings, whether specifications which demand minimum cement contents are justified.

  9. Role of Quercetin in Modulating Chloride Transport in the Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Jin, Lingling; Ma, Tonghui; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial chloride channels provide the pathways for fluid secretion in the intestine. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are the main chloride channels in the luminal membrane of enterocytes. These transmembrane proteins play important roles in many physiological processes. In this study, we have identified a flavonoid quercetin as a modulator of CaCC chloride channel activity. Fluorescence quenching assay showed that quercetin activated Cl− transport in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 ~37 μM. Short-circuit current analysis confirmed that quercetin activated CaCC-mediated Cl− currents in HT-29 cells that can be abolished by CaCCinh-A01. Ex vivo studies indicated that application of quercetin to mouse ileum and colon on serosal side resulted in activation of CFTR and CaCC-mediated Cl− currents. Notably, we found that quercetin exhibited inhibitory effect against ANO1 chloride channel activity in ANO1-expressing FRT cells and decreased mouse intestinal motility. Quercetin-stimulated short-circuit currents in mouse ileum was multi-component, which included elevation of Ca2+ concentration through L-type calcium channel and activation of basolateral NKCC, Na+/K+-ATPase, and K+ channels. In vivo studies further revealed that quercetin promoted fluid secretion in mouse ileum. The modulatory effect of quercetin on CaCC chloirde channels may therefore represent a potential therapeutic strategy for treating CaCC-related diseases like constipation, secretory diarrhea and hypertension. The inverse effects of quercetin on CaCCs provided evidence that ANO1 and intestinal epithelial CaCCs are different calcium-activated chloride channels. PMID:27932986

  10. Role of quercetin in modulating chloride transport in the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial chloride channels provide the pathways for fluid secretion in the intestine. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs are the main chloride channels in the luminal membrane of enterocytes. These transmembrane proteins play important roles in many physiological processes. In this study, we have identified a flavonoid quercetin as a modulator of CaCC chloride channel activity. Fluorescence quenching assay showed that quercetin activated Clˉ transport in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 ~37 µM. Short-circuit current analysis confirmed that quercetin activated CaCC-mediated Clˉ currents in HT-29 cells that can be abolished by CaCCinh-A01. Ex-vivo studies indicated that application of quercetin to mouse ileum and colon on serosal side resulted in activation of CFTR and CaCC-mediated Clˉ currents. Notably, we found that quercetin exhibited inhibitory effect against ANO1 chloride channel activity in ANO1-expressing FRT cells and decreased mouse intestinal motility. Quercetin-stimulated short-circuit currents in mouse ileum was multi-component, which included elevation of Ca2+ concentration through L-type calcium channel and activation of basolateral NKCC, Na+/K+-ATPase and K+ channels. In vivo studies further revealed that quercetin promoted fluid secretion in mouse ileum. The modulatory effect of quercetin on CaCC chloirde channels may therefore represent a potential therapeutic strategy for treating CaCC-related diseases like constipation, secretory diarrhea and hypertension. The inverse effects of quercetin on CaCCs provided evidence that ANO1 and intestinal epithelial CaCCs are different calcium-activated chloride channels.

  11. Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Benzalkonium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngbeom Ahn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl, dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl, decyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C10BDMA-Cl, hexyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride was determined by incubation in 1/10-diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB to determine if BCC bacteria have the ability to survive and inactivate these disinfectants. With BZK, C14BDMA-Cl, and C12BDMA-Cl, inhibition of the growth of 20 BCC strains was observed in disinfectant solutions that ranged from 64 to 256 µg/ml. The efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone increased the sensitivity of bacteria to 64 µg/ml BZK. The 20 BCC strains grew well in 1/10-diluted TSB medium with BZK, C12BDMA-Cl, and C10BDMA-Cl; they absorbed and degraded the compounds in 7 days. Formation of benzyldimethylamine and benzylmethylamine as the initial metabolites suggested that the cleavage of the C alkyl-N bond occurred as the first step of BZK degradation by BCC bacteria. Proteomic data confirmed the observed efflux activity and metabolic inactivation via biodegradation in terms of BZK resistance of BCC bacteria, which suggests that the two main resistance mechanisms are intrinsic and widespread.

  12. Inhibitory effects of beryllium chloride on rat liver microsomal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C F; Yasaka, W J; Silva, L F; Oshiro, T T; Oga, S

    1990-04-30

    A single i.v. dose (0.1 mmol Be2+/kg) of beryllium chloride prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, in rats. The effects are correlated with changes of the pharmacokinetic parameters and with the in vitro inhibition of both aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation of pentobarbital and zoxazolamine. In vitro N-demethylation of meperidine and aminopyrine was partially inhibited while O-demethylation of quinidine was unaffected by liver microsomes of rats pretreated with beryllium salt. The findings give clues that beryllium chloride inhibits some forms of cytochrome P-450, especially those responsible for hydroxylation of substrates, like pentobarbital and zoxazolamine.

  13. Controversy: Is Benzalkonium Chloride Necessary in Antiglaucoma Drops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louati, Y

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Medical therapy is the first-line option in glaucoma management, with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) being the most frequently used preservative in antiglaucoma medications. Its use is however, known to be associated with deleterious effects on the ocular surface. This review is an attempt to critically evaluate whether BAC really is indispensable for better bioavailability of antiglaucoma drugs and consequently, better IOP control. How to cite this article: Louati Y, Shaarawy T. Controversy: Is Benzalkonium Chloride Necessary in Antiglaucoma Drops? J Current Glau Prac 2012;6(3):104-107. PMID:26997764

  14. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORM/SORM-analysis....

  15. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  16. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  17. Physical Properties of Nematic Decylammonium Chloride/ammonium Chloride/water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Michael Edwin

    This study reports new measurements of some physical properties (i.e., density and diamagnetic susceptibility) and also measurements on the curvature elasticity and flow properties of the amphiphilic nematic system of decylammonium chloride (DACl), ammonium chloride (NH(,4)Cl) and water. The mixtures exhibit a lamellar-smectic (neat soap) phase, a nematic lamellar (N(,L)) phase, and an isotropic micellar region. The densities were determined to an accuracy of 10('-4) by weighing an immersed calibrated bulb. The density does not show a discontinuous change at the nematic-isotropic transition and is estimated to be less than 0.01%. There is also only a small difference in the expansion coefficients between the nematic and isotropic regions. The diamagnetic susceptibilities were determined using the Gouy method with the error of the measurement on the order of 10('-4). The anisotropy in the diamagnetic susceptibility varies in the nematic range from 2 x 10(' -9) near T(,N(--->)I) to 5 x 10('-9) near T(,S(--->)N). The elasticity coefficients were measured by deforming a surface-aligned film by a magnetic field. An effective viscosity coefficient was calculated using the Leslie-Erickson hydrodynamic theory in the limit of small distortions. For the mixtures studied, the ratio of K(,11)/K(,33) is 0.9 near the N(--->)I transition. The ratio of (gamma)(,1)('*)/K(,33) varies from 7.74 x 10('6) s/cm('2) at 40.4(DEGREES)C to a maximum of 9.26 x 10('6) s/cm('2) at 33.5(DEGREES)C and then decreases to a value of 8.60 x 10('6) s/cm('2) at 30.0(DEGREES)C. Absolute values of K(,11), K(,33) and (gamma)(,1)('*) are derived by combining these results for (chi)(,a) with previously reported results for K(,11)/(chi)(,a), K(,33)/(chi)(,a), and (gamma)(,1)('*)/(chi)(,a). The absolute value of K(,11) varies from 1 x 10('-7) dynes at the N(--->)I transition to (TURN)5 x 10('-7) dynes at the neat soap-nematic transition. K(,33) varies accordingly from 2 x 10('-7) to the highest measured

  18. Nutritive value of timothy fertilized with chloride or chloride-containing liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, S; Tremblay, G F; Bélanger, G; Chantigny, M H; Seguin, P; Drapeau, R; Allard, G

    2008-02-01

    Chloride fertilization of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) decreases forage dietary cation-anion difference to an acceptable value [(fertilization might affect nutritive value. Two experiments were used to evaluate the effects of chloride fertilization on timothy spring growth and summer regrowth by determining concentrations of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), in vitro true digestibility of DM (IVTD), and in vitro digestibility of NDF (dNDF). In an inorganic fertilization experiment, forages grown at 4 locations were fertilized with CaCl(2) (0, 80, 160, and 240 kg of Cl/ha per yr) or NH(4)Cl (160 kg of Cl/ha per yr) in combination with 2 N application rates (70 and 140 kg of N/ha per yr). The increase in Cl fertilization rate affected forage NDF concentration (+1.4%), IVTD (-0.8%), and dNDF (-1.2%) only at the highest rate of N fertilization, but this effect was not of biological importance. Crude protein concentration was not affected by Cl fertilization. Both Cl fertilizer types had a similar impact on forage nutritive value. In an organic fertilization experiment, forages grown at 2 locations received 1 of 7 experimental treatments [unfertilized control, inorganic fertilizer, raw liquid swine manure (LSM), and liquid fractions of 4 pretreated LSM types (decanted, filtered, anaerobically digested, and flocculated)] that provided, respectively, 0, 60, 41, 44, 44, 36, and 101 kg of Cl/ha per yr. The last 6 fertilizer treatments also provided 140 kg of N/ha per yr. The IVTD, dNDF, and concentration of NDF in timothy forage were not affected by the Cl content of the different LSM types. Nitrogen fertilization increased concentration of forage NDF and decreased IVTD and dNDF, but this effect was not biologically important. In both experiments, soil types and harvests had a negligible effect on forage nutritive value. Organic or inorganic Cl fertilizers applied to decrease timothy dietary cation-anion difference have little or no effect on forage nutritive

  19. SUBSTITUTION REACTION OF HYDROXY OF CITRONELLOL WITH CHLORIDE USING A MIXTURE OF AMMONIUM CHLORIDE AND SULPHURIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Sayekti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Substitution reaction of hydroxy of citronellol with chloride using a mixture of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl and sulphuric acid (H2SO4 has been conducted. The citronellol was obtained from the reduction of citronellal using sodium borohydride (NaBH4 at room temperature for 30 minutes. Substitution of hydroxy of citronellol with chloride ion was carried out at 80 oC and molarity ratio of citronellol and NH4Cl 1:1, 1:2; 1:3; and 1:4 respectively. Identification of the product by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS showed that the substitution reaction produced 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1-chlorocyclohexane compound with rendemen 64,49 % in mol ratio of 1:4. The infra red (IR analysis showed that there was a vibration at wave number 763 cm-1 which is a typical C-Cl vibrations.

  20. Mercury toxicity in the shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland: apical CFTR chloride channels are inhibited by mercuric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Martha A; Decker, Sarah E; Aller, Stephen G; Weber, Gerhard; Forrest, John N

    2006-03-01

    In the shark rectal gland, basolateral membrane proteins have been suggested as targets for mercury. To examine the membrane polarity of mercury toxicity, we performed experiments in three preparations: isolated perfused rectal glands, primary monolayer cultures of rectal gland epithelial cells, and Xenopus oocytes expressing the shark cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. In perfused rectal glands we observed: (1) a dose-dependent inhibition by mercury of forskolin/3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated chloride secretion; (2) inhibition was maximal when mercury was added before stimulation with forskolin/IBMX; (3) dithiothrietol (DTT) and glutathione (GSH) completely prevented inhibition of chloride secretion. Short-circuit current (Isc) measurements in monolayers of rectal gland epithelial cells were performed to examine the membrane polarity of this effect. Mercuric chloride inhibited Isc more potently when applied to the solution bathing the apical vs. the basolateral membrane (23 +/- 5% and 68 +/- 5% inhibition at 1 and 10 microM HgCl2 in the apical solution vs. 2 +/- 0.9% and 14 +/- 5% in the basolateral solution). This inhibition was prevented by pre-treatment with apical DTT or GSH; however, only the permeant reducing agent DTT reversed mercury inhibition when added after exposure. When the shark rectal gland CFTR channel was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and chloride conductance was measured by two-electrode voltage clamping, we found that 1 microM HgCl2 inhibited forskolin/IBMX conductance by 69.2 +/- 2.0%. We conclude that in the shark rectal gland, mercury inhibits chloride secretion by interacting with the apical membrane and that CFTR is the likely site of this action.

  1. [Evaluation of professional exposure to chloride vinyl monomer and vinyl idene chloride for a pharmaceutical packaging worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsi, F; De Grandis, D; Laurelli, R; Narda, R; Pietrantonio, E; Scarlini, E; Soldati, P S

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted by Judicial Policy investigations of Prosecution's Office. The event was connected by a professional founded suspicion disease of a pharmaceutical worker. First information coming from the Authority indicated a chloride vinyl monomer (CVM) exposure. We applied a chemical risk assessment method to estimate real professional exposure. The method was based on the productive cycle, physical and chemical and toxicological properties. The method combined to environmental data permitted to formulate etiological hypothesis. The worker during drugs packaging was exposed to CVM and vinylidene chloride (CVDM) caused by blister warming and by glue deposition. We explain the evaluations by which we could consider the pollutant different distribution in workplaces.

  2. Toxic effects of mercuric chloride, methylmercuric chloride, and Emisan 6 (an organic mercurial fungicide) on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirubagaran, R.; Joy, K.P.

    1988-12-01

    Mercurial toxicity in fishes has been focused mainly on tissue uptake and subcellular distribution, nephrotoxicity, development, hatching and survivability of young ones and teratology. Very few studies have been attempted to investigate Hg toxicity on gonadal activity of fishes throughout the breeding season. In a previous investigation the authors have studied the toxic effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/), methylmercuric chloride (CH/sub 3/HgCl) and emisan 6 (an alkoxyalkyl fungicide) on the survival and histology of the kidney of the catfish, Clarias batrachus. The present report deals with toxic effects of these mercurials on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish, an economically important species in the subcontinent.

  3. The Effect of Silver Chloride Formation on the Kinetics of Silver Dissolution in Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hung; Payer, Joe

    2011-01-01

    The precipitation and growth of AgCl on silver in physiological NaCl solution were investigated. AgCl was found to form at bottom of scratches on the surface which may be the less effective sites for diffusion or the favorable sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Patches of silver chloride expanded laterally on the substrate until a continuous film formed. The ionic transport path through this newly formed continuous film was via spaces between AgCl patches. As the film grew, the spaces between AgCl patches closed and ion transport was primarily via micro-channels running through AgCl patches. The decrease of AgCl layer conductivity during film growth were attributed to the clogging of micro-channels or decrease in charge carrier concentration inside the micro-channels. Under thin AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of a micrometer, the dissolution of silver substrate was under mixed activation-Ohmic control. Under thick AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of tens of micrometers, the dissolution of silver substrate was mediated by the Ohmic resistance of AgCl layer. PMID:21516171

  4. The Effect of Silver Chloride Formation on the Kinetics of Silver Dissolution in Chloride Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hung; Payer, Joe

    2011-02-28

    The precipitation and growth of AgCl on silver in physiological NaCl solution were investigated. AgCl was found to form at bottom of scratches on the surface which may be the less effective sites for diffusion or the favorable sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Patches of silver chloride expanded laterally on the substrate until a continuous film formed. The ionic transport path through this newly formed continuous film was via spaces between AgCl patches. As the film grew, the spaces between AgCl patches closed and ion transport was primarily via micro-channels running through AgCl patches. The decrease of AgCl layer conductivity during film growth were attributed to the clogging of micro-channels or decrease in charge carrier concentration inside the micro-channels. Under thin AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of a micrometer, the dissolution of silver substrate was under mixed activation-Ohmic control. Under thick AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of tens of micrometers, the dissolution of silver substrate was mediated by the Ohmic resistance of AgCl layer.

  5. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen;

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea...

  6. Formaldoxime hydrogen bonded complexes with ammonia and hydrogen chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Barbara; Mucha, Małgorzata; Sałdyka, Magdalena; Barnes, Austin; Mielke, Zofia

    2015-02-01

    An infrared spectroscopic and MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) study of hydrogen bonded complexes of formaldoxime with ammonia and hydrogen chloride trapped in solid argon matrices is reported. Both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes between formaldoxime and ammonia, hydrogen chloride have been identified in the CH2NOH/NH3/Ar, CH2NOH/HCl/Ar matrices, respectively, their structures were determined by comparison of the spectra with the results of calculations. In the 1:1 complexes present in the argon matrices the OH group of formaldoxime acts as a proton donor for ammonia and the nitrogen atom acts as a proton acceptor for hydrogen chloride. In the 1:2 complexes ammonia or hydrogen chloride dimers interact both with the OH group and the nitrogen atom of CH2NOH to form seven membered cyclic structures stabilized by three hydrogen bonds. The theoretical spectra generally agree well with the experimental ones, but they seriously underestimate the shift of the OH stretch for the 1:1 CH2NOH⋯NH3 complex.

  7. Maintenance Planning for Chloride Initiated Corrosion in Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can be initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In order to prevent the corrosion from reaching a stage where the load-bearing capacity of a given structure suffers a substantial decrease...

  8. Using polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromocresol purple in radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Munzer; al Kassiri, Haroun; Daher, Yarob

    2011-02-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with bromocresol purple was investigated as a high-dose radiation dosimeter. The absorbance at 417 nm depends linearly on the dose below 50 kGy. The response depends neither on dose rate nor on the irradiation temperature. The effects of post-irradiation storage in the dark and in indirect sunlight are also discussed.

  9. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes;

    2005-01-01

    was similar for both sets and the maximum crack width was kept constant throughout the exposure period by means of precracking and an external prestressed reinforcement. Chloride profiles after 40 days revealed a considerable increase in ingress towards the crack tip in contrast to data from the literature...

  10. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  11. Methyl chloride and other chlorocarbons in polluted air during INDOEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J; de Gouw, JA; van der Veen, C; Fischer, H

    2002-01-01

    [1] Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant, natural, chlorine-containing gas in the atmosphere, with oceans and biomass burning as major identified sources. Estimates of global emissions suffer from large uncertainties, mostly for the tropics, partly due to a lack of measurements. We present a

  12. Contact dermatitis in workers processing polyvinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, R; Kansky, A

    1985-01-01

    Out of 401 workers employed in a factory producing shoes from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) granulate, 388 were investigated. By patch testing with the standard tests and 4 phthalate compounds, a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis was confirmed in 11 of these. Six of them were sensitized to phthalates and 5 to coal tar.

  13. Chloride transport in normal and cystic fibrosis epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Kansen (Maarten)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe experimental work described in this thesis was aimed at a better understanding of the pathogenesis of CF with the emphasis on electrophysiological studies on Cl" transport. Chloride transport was studied with Ussing chamber, isotopic ('25I")-efflux and fluorescent (SPQ) measurements

  14. The Vinyl Chloride Problem: Several Routes to One Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechvatal, A.; And Others

    This unit is one of a group of units written to fit the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies (CSYS) chemistry course, but it could be used in most Sixth Form courses. These materials are designed for use in a group decision-making format with each of three groups representing a different manufacturing process which produces vinyl chloride. The unit…

  15. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  16. Methylene chloride: two-generation inhalation reproductive study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, K.D.; Eisenbrandt, D.L.; Lomax, L.G.; Rao, K.S.

    1988-07-01

    Reproductive parameters in Fischer 344 rats were evaluated following inhalation of methylene chloride (MeCl/sub 2/) for two successive generations. Thirty male and female rats were exposed to 0, 100, 500, or 1500 ppm MeCl/sub 2/ for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks and then mated to produce f1 litters. After weaning, 30 randomly selected f1 pups/sex/group were exposed to MeCl/sub 2/ for 17 weeks and subsequently mated to produce f2 litters. Reproductive parameters examined included fertility, litter size and neonatal growth, and survival. All adults and selected weanlings were examined for grossly visible lesions. Tissues from selected weanlings were examined histopathologically. No adverse effects on reproductive parameters, neonatal survival, or neonatal growth were noted in animals exposed to methylene chloride in either the f0 or f1 generations. Similarly, there were no treatment-related gross pathologic observations in f0 or f1 adults or f1 and f2 weanlings. Histopathologic examination of tissues from f1 and f2 weanlings did not reveal any lesions attributed to methylene chloride. Thus, exposure of rats to concentrations as high as 1500 ppm methylene chloride, which has been shown in a 2-year study to produce treatment-related effects, did not affect any reproductive parameters.

  17. Comment on "Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voipio, Juha; Boron, Walter F; Jones, Stephen W; Hopfer, Ulrich; Payne, John A; Kaila, Kai

    2014-09-05

    Glykys et al. (Reports, 7 February 2014, p. 670) conclude that, rather than ion transporters, "local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration" and thereby determine "the magnitude and direction of GABAAR currents at individual synapses." If this were possible, perpetual ion-motion machines could be constructed. The authors' conclusions conflict with basic thermodynamic principles.

  18. Study on the Reaction Mechanism of Naphthalene with Oxalyl Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reaction of naphthalene with oxalyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3 was investigated. The homolog of dinaphthyl methanone can be obtained mainly from this reaction. Naphthalene conversion does not have evident correlation with the amount of AlCl3. The results show that the reaction proceeds via carbon cation electrophilic substitution reaction-free radical substitution reaction pathway.

  19. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in horses, dogs, and cats as an antidote in the treatment of poisoning due to those pesticides and chemicals of the organophosphate class which have anticholinesterase activity... for at least 48 hours. Following severe poisoning, a second dose of sterile pralidoxime chloride...

  20. Methyl chloride and other chlorocarbons in polluted air during INDOEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J; de Gouw, JA; van der Veen, C; Fischer, H

    2002-01-01

    [1] Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant, natural, chlorine-containing gas in the atmosphere, with oceans and biomass burning as major identified sources. Estimates of global emissions suffer from large uncertainties, mostly for the tropics, partly due to a lack of measurements. We present a

  1. Prenatal Mercuric Chloride Exposure Causes Developmental Deficits in Rat Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Rastegar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution with heavy metals such as mercury is a major health problem. Growing studies on the field have shown the deleterious effects of mercury on human and nonhuman nervous system, especially in infants, however the effects of prenatal exposure to mercuricchloride on cortical development are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride on morphological characteristics of brain cortex. Methods: Mercuric chloride (2 mg/kg or normal saline were injected (I.P. to 36 Sprague – dawley rats in the 8th, 9th or 10th day of gestation. The embryos were surgically removed in the 15th day of gestation, and brain cortices were studied by histological techniques. Results: Histological studies showed that embryos of mercuric chloride treated rats hadcortical neuronal disarrangement withdifferent orientations of nuclei, increased diameter of cortex, increased mitosis of cells, increased cell death, decreased cellular density and increased intracellular space. Conclusion: These findings suggest some micro structural abnormalities in cortical regions after prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride. These structural abnormalities may underliesome neurologic disturbances following mercury intoxication.

  2. Methyl chloride and other chlorocarbons in polluted air during INDOEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J; de Gouw, JA; van der Veen, C; Fischer, H

    2002-01-01

    [1] Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant, natural, chlorine-containing gas in the atmosphere, with oceans and biomass burning as major identified sources. Estimates of global emissions suffer from large uncertainties, mostly for the tropics, partly due to a lack of measurements. We present

  3. Factors other than chloride level influencing rate of reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castel, A.; Arliguie, G. [Paul Sabatier Univ., Toulouse (France); Francois, R. [Institut National Des Sciences Appliques, Toulouse (France)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the degree of corrosion a 14 year-old concrete member was completely bared and three meter-long beams were stored in three-point flexion in an aggressive environment by sequences of drying and wetting by a salt fog. Total chloride content was measured at the level of all reinforcements. Despite the small concrete cover of 10 mm at the stirrups and 16 mm for the longitudinal reinforcement, no evidence was found to relate corrosion to chloride content, since a large part of the reinforcement was not affected by corrosion. It was concluded that the steel-concrete interface had a major influence on being able to predict the onset of corrosion in relation to chloride content. Indeed, corrosion damage was only present when the steel-concrete interface was damaged. These results call into question the validity of the chloride threshold as the single determining criterion to forecast corrosion development. It is suggested that the nature of the interface between steel and concrete, which may be randomly distributed along the reinforcements, should also be considered. Experimental evidence shows that steel-concrete interface damage is linked to non-elastic behaviour of bond that occurs at a given level of mechanical loading. Therefore, corrosion damage is best considered as a deterministic phenomenon linked to a bonding damage. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Autogeneous healing and chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of autogeneous healing on chloride ingress in cracked concrete is presented. In the study, two concrete mixtures (a Portland cement mix and a blast furnace slag mix), two healing regimes (submerged and fog room regime), two cracking ages (14 and 28 days), and m

  5. Computational modelling of chloride ion transport in reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, S.J.H.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.; De Borst, R.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to a saline environment is a major threat with respect to the durability of reinforced concrete structures. The chloride ions, which are present in seawater and de-icing salts, are able to penetrate the concrete up to the depth of the reinforcement. They can eventually trigger a pitting cor

  6. The toxicology of zinc chloride smoke producing bombs and screens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Idrissi, Ayman; van Berkel, Lisanne; Bonekamp, Nadia E; Dalemans, Diana J Z; van der Heyden, Marcel A G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14276082X

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due t

  7. Autogeneous healing and chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of autogeneous healing on chloride ingress in cracked concrete is presented. In the study, two concrete mixtures (a Portland cement mix and a blast furnace slag mix), two healing regimes (submerged and fog room regime), two cracking ages (14 and 28 days), and m

  8. The toxicology of zinc chloride smoke producing bombs and screens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Idrissi, Ayman; van Berkel, Lisanne; Bonekamp, Nadia E; Dalemans, Diana J Z; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due

  9. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  10. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...

  11. Synthesis of functional aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides and their masked precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, V; Bera, T K; De, B B; Sanai, Y; Smith, J; Holerca, M N; Barboiu, B; Grubbs, R B; Fréchet, J M

    2001-03-23

    The synthesis of functional aromatic bis(sulfonyl chlorides) containing an acetophenone and two sulfonyl chloride groups, i.e., 3,5-bis[4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyl]-1-acetophenone (16), 3,5-bis(chlorosulfonyl)-1-acetophenone (17), and 3,5-bis(4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyloxy)-1-acetophenone (18) via a sequence of reactions, involving in the last step the quantitative oxidative chlorination of S-(aryl)- N,N'-diethylthiocarbamate, alkyl- or benzyl thiophenyl groups as masked nonreactive precursors to sulfonyl chlorides is described. A related sequence of reactions was used for the synthesis of the aromatic trisulfonyl chloride 1,1,1-tris(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethane (24). 4-(Chlorosulfonyl)phenoxyacetic acid, 2,2-bis[[[4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenoxyacetyl]oxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediyl ester (27), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(chlorosulfonyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (38), 5,11,17,23,29,35-hexakis(chlorosulfonyl)-37,38,39,40,41,42-hexakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[6]arene (39), 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octakis(chlorosulfonyl)-49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56-octakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[8]arene (40), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(tert-butyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(chlorosulfonyl phenoxyacetoxy)calix[4]arene (44), 5,11,17,23,29,35-hexakis(tert-butyl)-37,38,39,40,41,42-hexakis(chlorosulfonylphenoxyacetoxy)calix[6]arene (45), and 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octakis(tert-butyl)-49,40,51,52,53,54,55,56-octakis(chlorosulfonylphenoxyacetoxy)calix[8]arene (46) were synthesized by two different multistep reaction procedures, the last step of both methods consisting of the chlorosulfonation of compounds containing suitable activated aromatic positions. 2,4,6-Tris(chlorosulfonyl)aniline (47) was obtained by the chlorosulfonation of aniline. The conformation of two series of multisulfonyl chlorides i.e., 38, 39, 40 and 44, 45, 46, was investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The masked nonreactive precursor states of the functional aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides and the aromatic

  12. Synthesis of tertiary benzamides via Pd-catalyzed coupling of arylboronic esters and carbamoyl chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, M.; Kelleher, Susan; Begtrup, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ortho-substituted arylboronic esters are efficiently coupled with carbamoyl chlorides under Pd-catalysis to give tertiary benzamides.......Ortho-substituted arylboronic esters are efficiently coupled with carbamoyl chlorides under Pd-catalysis to give tertiary benzamides....

  13. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zixiao; YU Lei; LIU Zhiyong; SONG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor (OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chlo-ride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chlo-ride solution were investigated. The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution. Within a certain chloride ion concentration range, the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution. Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  14. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zixiao; YU; Lei; LIU; Zhiyong; SONG; Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor(OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chloride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chloride solution were investigated.The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution.Within a certain chloride ion concentration range,the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution.Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer.Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  15. [Effect of sodium chloride on elasticity of silicone matrices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snejdrová, E; Zelenka, J; Rehula, M

    2002-09-01

    An increase in the availability of the active ingredient from silicone matrices can be achieved by using sodium chloride as the filler. An addition of sodium chloride also influences the mechanical properties of silicone systems. The temperature dependence of real Young's model E' of addition silicone systems with sodium chloride was measured. With increasing NaCl concentration in the silicone system, the values of Young's module E are increased. The increase is also influenced by the particle size of NaCl. The values of the module are moderately increased also with increasing temperature, which corresponds to the kinetic theory of caoutchouc elasticity. A significant increase in E takes place at NaCl concentrations higher than 20%. With a 50% NaCl content in the system, E is increased approximately 3.5 times in comparison with an unfilled sample. Various theories of elastic behaviour of composites can be employed for the description of the effect of the filler on the mechanical properties of silicone systems under small deformations. The effect of chloride is best described by the relation proposed by Nielsen. The value of the constant A in Nielsen's relation, dependent on the shape of the filler particles and Poisson's constant of the unfilled matrix, decreases with increasing particle size. With a change in particle size, a certain change in particle shape takes place. Hydrodynamic theory provides good results for sodium chloride particle size of 102.5 microns, but for particle sizes of 20 microns and 60 microns it is less successful than Nielsen's relation.

  16. High-order Cu(II) chloro-complexes in LiCl brines: Insights from density function theory and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ji; Yi, Hai-Bo; Xu, Jia-Jia

    2015-09-01

    Cu(II) complexation by chloride is relevant to the transport of copper in near-surface geologic environments, yet the existence of high-order Cu(II) chloro-complexes still remains in dispute. In this study, the structure characteristics and stabilities of [CuClx]2-xaq (x = 3, 4, 5) complexes have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. [CuCl3]- and [CuCl4]2- species can both be tracked, while the [CuCl5]3-aq complex cannot be recorded during MD simulations of trace Cu2+ in chloride-rich brines. DFT calculations indicate that contact ion pair (CIP) conformers of [CuCl3]- species are less stable than its solvent separated ion pair (SSIP) conformers, in which one Cl- stays in the second coordination sphere of the centered Cu2+. MD simulations also reveal that the SSIP conformer is apt to appear in the aqueous solution than its CIP conformer. It seems that the third Cl- is more likely in the second coordination shell of center Cu2+ in [CuCl3]-. Meanwhile, the characteristic peak around 385 nm resolved in UV-Vis spectra experiments, which was attributed to the [CuCl3]- complex, could also be resulted from some SSIP structures of the [CuCl3]- complex. In MD simulations, the complex [CuCl4]2-aq is found more stable than [CuCl3]-aq. The surrounding water molecules around [CuClx]2-xaq (x = 3, 4) enhance their stabilities in Cl- brines, especially for [CuCl4]2-aq. The hydration shell of [CuCl4]2-aq species is more intact than that of [CuCl3]2-aq, and the residence time of a water molecule in the second coordination sphere of Cu ion in the [CuCl4]2-aq complex is also obviously longer than that of [CuCl3]-aq. The [CuCl4]2-aq complex can even be recorded in the less concentrated (6.33 m) Cl- solution, while the [CuCl3]-aq complex is tracked only in the 16.32 m Cl- brine. Meanwhile, the possibilities of [CuCl3]-aq and [CuCl4]2-aq complexes found in 16.32 m Cl- solutions both decrease with increasing temperature

  17. The Influence of Mineral Functional Materials on Chloride Ion Penetration of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hongmei; MA Baoguo

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of chloride ion penetration in high performance concrete was analyzed. The experimental results indicate that there are two important reasons that influence the anti-chloride penetration of high performance concrete. One is the function effect of mineral functional material, so that it increases concrete's capability to resist chloride ion penetration. The other is combined action of mineral functional material's original capability of binding the chloride ion (physical adsorption) and physicochemical adsorption after hydration.

  18. AMELIORATION OF MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS BY GARLIC EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami, N; Jagadeeswari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of Garlic against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of mercuric chloride (100mg/kg/p.o) for 30 days resulted in significant increase in LPO Basal level and LPO FeSO4 induced and significant decrease in GSH (Glutathione) and Vit C as compared to the normal and control group. Simultaneous administration of Garlic along with Mercuric chloride, produced a pronounced neproprotective effect against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in rats by...

  19. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  20. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc

  1. Solubilities ,Densities and Refractive Indices of Rubidium Chloride or Cesium Chloride in Ethanol Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO,Wen-Xia; HU,Man-Cheng; JIANG,Yu-Cheng; LI,Shu-Ni

    2007-01-01

    The data of solubilities.densities and refractive indices of rubidium chloride or cesium chloride in the system C2H5OH-H2O were measured by using a simple accurate analytical method at different temperatures,with mass fractions of ethanol in the range of O to 1.0.In all cases,the presence of ethanol significantly reduced the solubility of rubidium chloride and cesium chloride in aqueous solution.The solubilities of the saturated solutions were fitted via polynomial equations as a function of the mass fraction of ethanol.The CsCl-C2H5OH-H2O temary system appeared in two liquid phases:alcoholic phase and water phase.when the mass fractions of ethanol were in the range of 10.37% to 49.59%at 35℃.Density and refractive index were also determined for the same ternary systems with varied unsaturated salt concentrations.Values for both experiment and theory were correlated with the salt concentrations and proportions of alcohol in the solutions.The equations proposed could also account for the saturated solutions.

  2. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industr

  3. High Energy Density Battery Lithium Thionyl Chloride Improved Reverse Voltage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    BATTERY LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE IMPROVED R-ETC(U) DEC 81 A E ZOLLA N660011-C-0310...HIGH ENERGY DENSITY BATTERY LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE IMPROVED REVERSE VOLTAGE DESIGN Dr. A. E. Zolla Altus Corporation C:1 1610 Crane Court San Jose...reverse aide If necesary and identify by block number) Lithium Battery Lithium Thionyl Chloride High Energy Density Battery Voltage Reversal Battery

  4. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0037 (available at...

  5. 76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is being extended for 14... extend the public comment period for the May 20, 2011, Proposed Polyvinyl Chloride and...

  6. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October 29... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No....

  7. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  8. Determination of Vinyl Chloride at ug/l. Level in Water by Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, Thomas A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of vinyl chloride in water is presented. Vinyl chloride is transfered to the gas phase by bubbling inert gas through the water. After concentration on silica gel or Carbosieve-B, determination is by gas chromatography. Confirmation of vinyl chloride is by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Author/BT)

  9. 21 CFR 177.1960 - Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers. 177.1960... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1960 Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers. The vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section or...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1970 Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. The vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers identified in...

  11. 21 CFR 178.2650 - Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics... AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2650 Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride... vinyl chloride homopolymers and copolymers complying with the provisions of § 177.1950 or § 177.1980...

  12. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride... § 520.310 Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of 5st caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and 80 milligrams of ammonium chloride.1 1...

  13. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.240 Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  14. The Influence of C3A Content in Cement on the Chloride Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of C3A in cement on chloride transport in reinforced concrete. Three modified cement was manufactured in the variation of the C3A content, ranging from 6.0 and 10.5 up to 16.9%. The setting time of fresh concrete was measured immediately after mixing, together with the temperature at the time of initial set. For properties of hardened concrete in the variation in the C3A, a development of the compressive strength and chloride permeation were measured using mortar specimens. Simultaneously, chloride binding capacity was measured by the water extraction method. To ensure the influence of pore structure on chloride transport, the pore structure was examined by the mercury intrusion porosimetry. As a result, it was found that an increase in the C3A content resulted in an increase in chloride binding capacity. However, it seemed that increased binding of chlorides is related to the higher ingress of chlorides, despite denser pore structure. It may be attributed to the higher surface chloride, which could increase the gradient of chloride concentration from the surface, thereby leading to the higher level of chloride profiles. Substantially, the benefit of high C3A in resisting corrosion, arising from removal of free chlorides in the pore solution, would be offset by increased chloride ingress at a given duration, when it comes to the corrosion-free service life.

  15. Connecting to concrete: wireless monitoring of chloride ions in concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Have, ten Bas; Hoekstra, Gerrit I.; Douma, Arjan; Bruijn, de Douwe; Olthuis, Wouter; Berg, van den Albert

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, chloride ions are measured wirelessly in concrete. The half-cell potential of a silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode, which corresponds to the concentration of chloride ions, is measured wirelessly. The sensor system (the Ag/AgCl and a reference electrode) is embedded in co

  16. Resistant mechanism study of benzalkonium chloride selected Salmonella Typhimurium mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Haoyan

    2014-02-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is one of the invaluable biocides that is extensively used in healthcare settings as well as in the food processing industry. After exposing wild-type Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s or its AcrAB inactivation mutant to gradually increasing levels of benzalkonium chloride, resistance mutants S-41, S-150, S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73 were selected and these mutants also showed a 2-64-fold stable minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increase to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. In S-41 and S-150, the expression of acrB was increased 2.7- and 7.6-fold, and ΔtolC or ΔacrAB mutants of S-41 and S-150 showed the same MICs to all tested antimicrobials as the equivalent Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s mutants. However, in S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73, the expression of acrF was increased 96-, 230-, and 267-fold, respectively, and ΔtolC or ΔacrEF mutants of S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73 showed the similar MICs to all tested antimicrobials as the ΔtolC mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s. Our data showed that constitutively over-expressed AcrAB working through TolC was the main resistance mechanism in ST14028s benzalkonium chloride resistance mutants. However, after AcrAB had been inactivated, benzalkonium chloride-resistant mutants could still be selected and constitutively over-expressed, AcrEF became the dominant efflux pump working through TolC and being responsible for the increasing antimicrobial resistance. These data indicated that different mechanisms existed for acrB and acrF constitutive over-expression. Since exposure to benzalkonium chloride may lead to Salmonella mutants with a decreased susceptibility to quinolones, which is currently one of the drugs of choice for the treatment of life-threatening salmonelosis, research into the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the benzalkonium chloride resistance mutants will be of increasing importance.

  17. [Evaluating risk of health disorders in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production (according to data collected by polls)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iakovich, O A

    2014-01-01

    The authors represent data of automated system for quantitative risk evaluation of main pathologic syndromes in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production. Vinyl chloride and mercury levels at the investigation time corresponded with MAC. Relationship was seen between value of arterial hypertension risk and duration of contact with both vinyl chloride and mercury. Risk values for functional disorders of liver, endocrine system and nervous system were in weak correlation with length of exposure to mercury at work. Workers exposed to mercury appeared to have lower self-estimation of health state and higher dissatisfaction with the work.

  18. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    of the steady-state conductance and the steady-state chloride current reveal that the chloride pathway has maximum conductance for V approximately -80 mV (outside of the skin being negative) and approaches a non-conducting safe for V greater than 0 mV. This strong outward going rectification is a steady......-compartment model indicate that the strong steady-state chloride current rectification cannot be obtained if only the intracellular chloride concentration and the membrane potentials are allowed to vary ("Goldman-rectification"). It is suggested, therefore, that the premeability of the chloride pathway varies...

  19. Antidepressants and seizure-interactions at the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatynska, E.; Knapp, R.J.; Ikeda, M.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    Convulsive seizures are a potential side effect of antidepressant drug treatment and can be produced by all classes of antidepressants. It is also know that some convulsant and anticonvulsant drug actions are mediated by the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex. Drugs acting at this complex appear to induce convulsions by inhibiting chloride conductance through the associated chloride channel. Using the method of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl-uptake by rat cerebral cortical vesicles, we show that some antidepressant drugs can inhibit the GABA-receptor chloride uptake, and that the degree of chloride channel inhibition by these drugs correlates with the frequency of convulsive seizures induced by them.

  20. Enthalpy and entropy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with some monosaccharides in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO; Kelei; WANG; Jianji; BAI; Guangyue; YAN; Haike; WANG

    2004-01-01

    Dilution enthalpies of sodium chloride and some monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fructose) in water and mixing enthalpies of aqueous sodium chloride and these monosaccharide solutions were measured by using an improved precision semimicro-titration calorimeter. Transfer enthalpies of sodium chloride from water to aqueous saccharide solutions were evaluated as well as enthalpy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with these monosaccharides in water. Combined with Gibbs energy interaction parameters, entropy interaction parameters were also obtained. The results show that interactions of the saccharides with sodium chloride depend on the stereochemistry of saccharide molecules. These interaction parameters can identify stereochemical structure of saccharide molecules.

  1. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Mathiyarasu; N Palaniswamy; V S Muralidharan

    2001-02-01

    Cupronickels offer enhanced corrosion protection in marine environments by the formation of passive films on the surface. Cyclic voltammetric studies were carried on cupronickels in chloride solutions at H 6.3 to understand the role of chloride ions in passive film formation. Increase in nickel content of the alloy and of chloride ions in solution decreases film resistance. Chloride ions take part in reduction of the passive film to copper. A solid-state model for passive film formation involving chloride ions has been attempted.

  2. Temperature dependence of electron attachment to methylene chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Tav, C.; McCorkle, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

    1999-05-01

    Temperature dependence of dissociative electron attachment to methylene chloride in the electron energy range of 0-10 eV was studied in a high-temperature electron swarm apparatus. The measurements were made using N2 and Ar as buffer gases. From the measured electron attachment rate constants, the electron attachment cross sections at 300, 400, and 500 K were determined using an unfolding technique. The maximum electron attachment cross sections at 300, 400, and 500 K were ≈3.1×10-18, ≈8.2×10-18, and ≈1.7×10-17 cm2, and occurred at electron energies of ≈0.8, ≈0.65, and ≈0.55 eV, respectively. The increase in electron attachment to methylene chloride with temperature is attributed to the increase in the vibrational energy of the molecule.

  3. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  4. Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Weidner, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.

  5. Viscosity and density of some lower alkyl chlorides and bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, W.M.

    1988-07-01

    A high-pressure capillary viscometer, used previously to measure the viscosity of methyl chloride was rebuilt to eliminate the first-order dependence of the measured viscosity on the value assumed for the density of the fluid being investigated. At the same time, the system was arranged so that part of the apparatus could be used to measure density by a volumetric displacement technique. Viscosity and density were measured for ethyl chloride, 1-chloropropane, 1-chlorobutane, methyl bromide, ethyl bromide, and 1-bromopropane. The temperature and pressure ranges of the experiments were 20-150 /sup 0/C and 0.27-6.99 MPa, respectively. The accuracy of the viscosity measurements was estimated to be +-1% and of the density measurements, +-0.2%.

  6. INTERACTION OF POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE WITH METAL CHLORIDE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan; Khaista Gul; Najeeb Ur Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with metal chlorides (MgCl2, CaCl2, KC1 and BaC12) have been investigated by viscometric and spectrophotometric techniques in aqueous solutions. Intrinsic viscosity [η] of (PVP) has shown a discontinuity with varying concentration of metal chlorides. The decreasing order of effectiveness of cation is K1+>Ca2+> Mg2+> Ba2+ for poly(vinylpyrrolidone) solution. Changes in the absorption spectra of the cosolutes were observed in the presence of PVP in the lower limit of the UV-visible region i.e. 200-210 nm. These changes were attributed to interaction of PVP molecules with the cosolute molecules. As the concentration of the cosolute increased, a red shift in the peaks was observed, indicating an increase in interaction between PVP and cosolutes.

  7. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of chloride doped polyaniline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Pharhad Hussain; A Kumar

    2003-04-01

    Chloride doped polyaniline conducting polymer films have been prepared in a protic acid medium (HCl) by potentiodynamic method in an electrochemical cell and studied by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR techniques. The FTIR spectra confirmed Cl– ion doping in the polymers. The polymerization rate was found to increase with increasing concentration of aniline monomer. But the films obtained at high monomer concentration were rough having a nonuniform flaky polyaniline distribution. Results showed that the polymerization rate did not increase beyond a critical HCl concentration. Cyclic voltammetry suggested that, the oxidation-reduction current increased with an increase in scan rate and that the undoped polyaniline films were not hygroscopic whereas chloride doped polyaniline films were found to be highly hygroscopic.

  8. Molybdenum chloride catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Joo; Nguyen, Thach T.; Lam, Jonathan K.; Torker, Sebastian; Hyvl, Jakub; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2017-01-01

    The development of catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis processes has been a pivotal recent advance in chemistry. The incorporation of appropriate ligands within complexes based on molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium has led to reactivity and selectivity levels that were previously inaccessible. Here we show that molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes furnish higher-energy (Z) isomers of trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes through cross-metathesis reactions with the commercially available, inexpensive and typically inert Z-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene. Furthermore, otherwise inefficient and non-stereoselective transformations with Z-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,2-dibromoethene can be effected with substantially improved efficiency and Z selectivity. The use of such molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes enables the synthesis of representative biologically active molecules and trifluoromethyl analogues of medicinally relevant compounds. The origins of the activity and selectivity levels observed, which contradict previously proposed principles, are elucidated with the aid of density functional theory calculations.

  9. Captopril in congenital chloride diarrhoea: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Islam, Shoeb; Mazumder, Ramendra Nath; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sharifuzzaman; Sahreen, Lubaba; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Haque Alam, Nur

    2015-03-01

    An 11 months 22 days old girl presented with a history of watery diarrhoea since birth, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Her diagnosis was congenital chloride diarrhoea (CCD) with raised level of chloride (>90 mmol/L) in stool in the absence of cystic fibrosis. Management of CCD included replacement of NaCl, KCl, and correction of dehydration. Diarrhoea of the patient was resolved with Captopril, which was initially provided to the patient for managing heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CCD that shows the beneficial effect of Captopril. Therefore, we suggest that further study is warranted as to the potential for Captopril as additional option in the treatment for CCD. We present this case report with the informed consent of the patient's guardian.

  10. Chlorine Nuclear Quadrupole Hyperfine Structure in the Vinyl - Chloride Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Helen O.; Marshall, Mark D.; Messinger, Joseph P.

    2015-06-01

    The microwave spectrum of the vinyl chloride--hydrogen chloride complex, presented at last year's symposium, is greatly complicated by the presence of two chlorine nuclei as well as an observed, but not fully explained tunneling motion. Indeed, although it was possible at that time to demonstrate conclusively that the complex is nonplanar, the chlorine nuclear quadrupole hyperfine splitting in the rotational spectrum resisted analysis. With higher resolution, Balle-Flygare Fourier transform microwave spectra, the hyperfine structure has been more fully resolved, but appears to be perturbed for some rotational transitions. It appears that knowledge of the quadrupole coupling constants will provide essential information regarding the structure of the complex, specifically the location of the hydrogen atom in HCl. Our progress towards obtaining values for these constants will be presented.

  11. Plastics and carcinogenesis: The example of vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wesley Brandt-Rauf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture, use and disposal of various plastics can pose numerous health risks, including the risk of cancer. A model example of carcinogenic risk from plastics is provided by polyvinyl chloride, since it is composed of the known human carcinogen vinyl chloride (VC. In recent years, much has been learned about the molecular biological pathways of VC carcinogenesis. This has led to molecular epidemiologic studies of VC carcinogenesis in exposed human populations which have identified useful biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility for VC. These studies have in turn provided the basis for new molecular approaches for the prevention and treatment of VC cancers. This model could have much wider applicability for many other carcinogenic exposures and many other human cancers.

  12. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  13. Solvolyses of Benzoyl Chlorides in Weakly Nucleophilic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldon Carl Harris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rate constants and activations parameters are reported for solvolyses of p-Z-substituted benzoyl chlorides (1, Z = OMe, Me, H, and Cl in 97% w/w hexafluoroisopropanol-water (97H. Additional kinetic data are reported for solvolyses in acetic and formic acids. Plots of log k vs. σp in 97H are consistent with previous research showing that a cationic reaction channel is dominant, even for solvolyses of 1, Z = NO2. A benzoyl cation intermediate was trapped by Friedel-Crafts reaction with 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene in hexafluoroisopropanol. The results are explained by an SN2-SN1 spectrum of mechanisms with variations in nucleophilic solvent assistance. Ab initio calculations of heterolytic bond dissociation energies of various chloro- and fluoro-substituted and other benzoyl chlorides are correlated with log k for solvolyses.

  14. Physical and conductivity properties of poly (vinyl chloride) ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Nira; Panda, H. S.; Kapusetti, Govinda; Jaiswal, Shilpa; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2011-02-01

    Poly (vinyl chloride)(PVC) is a cheapest plastic. Importance of PVC based ionomer has been gradually being popularizing due to compatibility of PVC with a number of salts to replace polyethylene oxide based ionomer. Under present investigation few of chloride group of PVC chain have been replaced by basic thiouronium group and these thiouronium groups are further oxidized to sulfonate group. Introduction of thiouronium group in PVC is confirmed through FTIR and further its oxidation to sulfonate group is also confirmed by FTIR. Conductivity in different stoichiometric ratio of PVCTU and PVCSO3H was studied and found that PVCTU: PVCSO3H in 1:1 ratio has conductivity near to pure PVC (10-9 Ohm-1 cm-1) and increases with proportion of PVCSO3Na in the mixture (10-6 Ohm-1 cm-1) for pure PVC, PVCTU has less conductivity not much significant.

  15. Probabilistic Models and Computational Methods for Chloride Ingress in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.

    Within the last decades it has been recognized that reinforced concrete structures are subject to a number of destructive mechanisms which might affect the structure in such a way that it is not able to fulfil its purpose efficiently. The present report focuses on chloride ingress and chloride......-initiated corrosion of the reinforcement, because experience has shown that in Denmark this is one of the most common destructive mechanisms. In order to ensure that a given reinforced concrete structure is able to fulfil its purpose extensive measurements are performed and on the basis of these measurements...... are costly, and careful planning is mandatory. The planning can be performed on the basis of classical decision theory (see e.g. Raiffa and Schlaifer). However, in order to use decision theory, it is necessary to formulate a probabilistic model of the considered problem....

  16. 21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pyrophosphate. Copper sulfate. Iodine Calcium iodate. Calcium iodobehenate. Cuprous iodide. 3,5-Diiodosalicylic acid. Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide. Potassium iodate. Potassium iodide. Sodium iodate. Sodium iodide. Thymol iodide. Iron Iron ammonium citrate. Iron carbonate. Iron chloride. Iron gluconate. Iron...

  17. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application. (orig.)

  18. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G.; Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lithium/thionyl chloride system is capable of providing both high power and high energy density when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. Electrode current densities in excess of 300mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved during pulse discharge. The present work is concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells.

  19. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  20. Chemical Attribution Signatures of Cyanogen Chloride from Commercial Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    HP GAS, LLC .........................................15  C: LISTING OF IMPURITIES DETECTED IN CYANOGEN CHLORIDE CYLINDERS FROM SEMICONDUCTOR ...most recent spectra in the front. Spectra were normalized to the H2O resonance at 2.17 ppm: (top) HP Gas, (middle) Semiconductor Resources, and...LLC (Baytown, TX), including Stillwater Consultants (Stillwater, MN), LMTG (Roanoke, LA), and TL2 Gases (Sulphur, LA); 28 from   4 Semiconductor