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Sample records for cumulative urinary excretion

  1. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  2. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...... controls. Urinary orosomucoid was measured using a particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM) were measured using ELISA. Endothelial function measured as vasodilatory capacity...... of the brachial artery and echocardiography were done in all participants. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and increased UOER had subclinically increased serum orosomucoid (pprotein (CRP) (p

  3. KINETICS OF CORTISOL METABOLISM AND EXCRETION - A HYPOTHETICAL MODEL BASED ON THE CUMULATIVE URINARY RADIOACTIVITY IN 8 MULTIPLE PITUITARY DEFICIENT PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAN, GPB; DRAYER, NM; DEBRUIN, R

    A new model is proposed to study the kinetics of [H-3]cortisol metabolism by using urinary data only. The model consists of 5 pools, in which changes of the fractions of dose are given by a system of 5 ordinary differential equations. After i.v. administration of [H-3]cortisol to 8 multiple

  4. KINETICS OF CORTISOL METABOLISM AND EXCRETION - A HYPOTHETICAL MODEL BASED ON THE CUMULATIVE URINARY RADIOACTIVITY IN 8 MULTIPLE PITUITARY DEFICIENT PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAN, GPB; DRAYER, NM; DEBRUIN, R

    1992-01-01

    A new model is proposed to study the kinetics of [H-3]cortisol metabolism by using urinary data only. The model consists of 5 pools, in which changes of the fractions of dose are given by a system of 5 ordinary differential equations. After i.v. administration of [H-3]cortisol to 8 multiple pituitar

  5. Urinary excretion of Iopamidol following intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrè, D; Zingales, M F; Trevisan, C

    1983-01-01

    No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro "300". The compound was neither metabolized nor altered in its optical configuration and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection.

  6. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  7. Urinary iron excretion test in iron deficiency anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura,Ikuro

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available A urinary iron excretion test was carried out in 22 patients with iron deficiency anemia. The iron excretion index was significantly higher in patients with intractable iron deficiency anemia compared with normal subjects and anemic patients who were responsive to iron therapy. The findings suggest that iron excretion may be a factor that modulates the response of patients to iron therapy.

  8. Effect of chloroquine on the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilo, Cajetan E; Ezejiofor, Ndidi A; Agbakoba, Nneka; Brown, Sinye A; Maduagwuna, Chinonye A; Agbasi, Patrick U; Orisakwe, Orish E; Orisakweph, Orish E

    2008-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is an inexpensive antibacterial, whereas chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial. The coadministration of chloroquine and ciprofloxacin is easily encountered because both drugs are commonly prescribed to patients in the tropics. Five healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 31 years who were not taking any of the prescribed medications and who had no sensitivity to either ciprofloxacin or chloroquine each received 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally with 250 mL of water, and after a 2-week washout period, 500 mg ciprofloxacin plus 600 mg chloroquine was administered orally with 250 mL of water after providing informed consent. A urine sample (7 mL) was collected just before taking the drug at 8:00 AM representing 0 hour and continued afterward at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours the next day. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations by diffusion through agar technique were used for the assay of urine ciprofloxacin. The rate of ciprofloxacin excretion and cumulative urine ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. The coadministration of chloroquine increased the cumulative urinary concentration and excretion rate of ciprofloxacin.

  9. Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, R P; Rafferty, K

    2001-09-01

    Intake of carbonated beverages has been associated with increased fracture risk in observational studies. The usual explanation given is that one or more of the beverage constituents increase urinary calcium. We assessed the short-term effects on urinary calcium excretion of carbonated beverages of various compositions. An incomplete random block design was used to study 20-40-y-old women who customarily consumed > or =680 mL carbonated beverages daily. Four carbonated beverages were tested: 2 with caffeine and 2 without. Two contained phosphoric acid as the acidulant and 2 contained citric acid. The study included one neutral control (water) and one positive control (skim or chocolate milk). Serving size was 567 mL for the carbonated beverages and water and 340 mL for the milks. Beverages were consumed with a light breakfast after an overnight fast; no other foods were ingested until urine collection was complete. pH, titratable and total acidity, sodium, creatinine, and calcium were measured in 2-h (morning) fasting and 5-h postbeverage urine specimens. Relative to water, urinary calcium rose significantly only with the milks and the 2 caffeine-containing beverages. The excess calciuria was approximately 0.25 mmol, about the same as previously reported for caffeine alone. Phosphoric acid without caffeine produced no excess calciuria; nor did it augment the calciuria of caffeine. The excess calciuria associated with consumption of carbonated beverages is confined to caffeinated beverages. Acidulant type has no acute effect. Because the caffeine effect is known to be compensated for by reduced calciuria later in the day, we conclude that the net effect of carbonated beverage constituents on calcium economy is negligible. The skeletal effects of carbonated beverage consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.

  10. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  11. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  12. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  13. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic. Subje

  14. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic. Subje

  15. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

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    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  16. Changes in urinary potassium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Ueda

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that urinary potassium excretion decreased with reductions in renal function. Furthermore, urinary potassium excretion was mainly affected by urinary sodium excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with CKD, whereas the presence of diabetes mellitus and use of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors were not associated with urinary potassium excretion in this study.

  17. [Fluoride urinary excretion in Mexico City's preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Murrieta-Pruneda, Francisco; López-Jiménez, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of urinary fluoride excretion during dental developing stage has been reported for different countries with community fluoride programs. Also, one of the factors that could influence on retention and excretion of fluoride is the deficient nutrition so the aim of this study was to determine fluoride urinary excretion by a group of preschool children with and without malnutrition. Urinary samples from 24 hours were collected from 60 preschool children selected by convenience from Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, 30 with malnutrition and 30 with standard nutritrional status by weight for age. The samples were analyzed by fluoride especific electrode. Orion 720A. The average concentration of fluoride in urine from preschool children with and without malnutrition were 0.89 +/- 0.4 mg/L and 0.80 +/- 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The mean of 24 hours total fluoride excreted were 367 +/- 150 microg/24 hrs. in malnutrition children and 355 +/- 169 microg/24 hrs. for those with standard nutritional status. There were no differences statistically significant between groups. The urinary fluoride excretion for children with and without malnutrition were in the optimal range of fluoridation for the prevention of caries decay. Malnutrition was no associated with changes on fluoride orine concentration and excretion rates.

  18. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  19. Urinary carnitine excretion in surgical patients on total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanphaichitr, V; Lerdvuthisopon, N

    1981-01-01

    Urinary free and total carnitine excretions were measured in 41 normal adults and seven surgical patients on fat-free total parenteral nutrition for 8 to 45 days. The means (+/-SEM) of urinary free and total carnitine excretion in normal adults were 162 +/- 19 and 328 +/- 28 micrometers/days, respectively. All of the patients exhibited protein-calorie malnutrition with a mean carnitine intake of 11.6 +/- 1.5 micrometers/day. Under this stringent carnitine economy with the adequate supply of lysine and methionine, urinary total carnitine excretion significantly reduced to 127 to 162 micrometers/day. This probably reflects the carnitine biosynthetic rate. However, during the periods of operation and/or infection, urinary total carnitine excretion significantly increased 2- to 7-fold that of normal levels. Significant positive correlation was found between the two forms of urinary carnitine and total nitrogen excretions. Serum free and total carnitine levels in patients were significantly higher than normal adults. Such findings can be explained by the endocrine responses to the stress phenomenon and indicate a catabolic response of skeletal muscle in which most of the body carnitine resides. This can impair their carnitine status.

  20. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P

  1. Internal dosimetry of plutonium using the late urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Abani, M C

    2000-10-01

    An attempt has been made to standardize the methodology of internal dose computation from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC-based computational software LUDEP 2.05, which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of plutonium aerosols more than 25 years ago were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardized methodology. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any plutonium handling facility could be used to show the compliance with the life-time dose limit.

  2. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion: Insights from Genetic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine; Dimke, Henrik; Eladari, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G. M.; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  4. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G M; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  5. Elevated urinary excretion of aluminium and iron in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Mamutse, Godwin; Korchazhkina, Olga; Pye, Eleanor; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Hawkins, Clive

    2006-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of as yet unknown aetiology. A consensus of opinion has suggested that the disorder is the result of an interplay between environmental factors and susceptibility genes. We have used a battery of analytical techniques to determine if the urinary excretion of i) markers of oxidative damage; ii) iron and iii) the environmental toxin aluminium and its antagonist, silicon, are altered in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Urinary concentrations of oxidative biomarkers, MDA and TBARS, were not found to be useful indicators of inflammatory disease in MS. However, urinary concentrations of another potential marker for inflammation and oxidative stress, iron, were significantly increased in SPMS (P0.05). Urinary concentrations of aluminium were also significantly increased in RRMS (Paluminium excretion in the former were similar to those observed in individuals undergoing metal chelation therapy. The excretion of silicon was lower in MS and significantly so in SPMS (Paluminium excretion similar to those seen in aluminium intoxication suggested that aluminium may be a hitherto unrecognized environmental factor associated with the aetiology of MS. If aluminium is involved in MS then an increased dietary intake of its natural antagonist, silicon, might be a therapeutic option.

  6. Sodium loading changes urinary protein excretion: a proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongboonkerd, Visith; Klein, Jon B; Pierce, William M; Jevans, Anthony W; Arthur, John M

    2003-06-01

    Plasma sodium concentration is maintained even when sodium intake is altered. Sodium homeostasis may involve changes in renal tubular protein expression that are reflected in the urine. We used proteomic analysis to investigate changes in urinary protein excretion in response to acute sodium loading. Rats were given deionized water followed by hypertonic (2.7%) saline for 28 h each. Urinary protein expression was determined during the final 4 h of each treatment. Acute sodium loading increased urinary sodium excretion (4.53 +/- 1.74 vs. 1.70 +/- 0.27 mmol/day, P = 0.029). Urinary proteins were separated by two-dimensional PAGE and visualized by Sypro ruby staining. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by peptide mass fingerprinting. The abundance of a total of 45 protein components was changed after acute sodium loading. Neutral endopeptidase, solute carrier family 3, meprin 1alpha, diphor-1, chaperone heat shock protein 72, vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, ezrin, ezrin/radixin/moesin-binding protein, glutamine synthetase, guanine nucleotide-binding protein, Rho GDI-1, and chloride intracellular channel protein 1 were decreased, whereas albumin and alpha-2u globulin were increased. Some of these proteins have previously been shown to be associated with tubular transport. These data indicate that alterations in the excretion of several urinary proteins occur during acute sodium loading.

  7. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p ... in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  8. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0.......0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u...... in nanograms per gram creatinine did not diminish the observed variation and blunted the pubertal increase in u-GH excretion. In conclusion, (1) u-GH excretion depends significantly on age, sex and pubertal maturation as does the day/night ratio of u-GH excretion. (2) The interindividual variation in u...

  9. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p ....32 +/- 1.45 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.83 +/- 0.12 mmol) (p normal urinary acidification (23.8 +/- 0.8) and healthy women (22.7 +/- 0.......6) (p urinary excretion of citrate (0.93 +/- 0.25 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.58 +/- 0.51) and healthy women (2.78 +/- 0.49) (p

  10. Iron deficiency anemia and increased urinary norepinephrine excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhess, M L; Stuart, M J; Stockman, J A; Oski, F A

    1975-04-01

    Chronic iron deficiency in rats resulted in decreased MAO activity both in vitro and in vivo. Since MAO is an important enzyme in inactivation of catecholamines, urinary excretion of DA, NE, E, MN-NMN, and VMA was measured in 24-hour samples from 11 iron-deficient children before and after treatment with intramuscular iron. Pretreatment NE excretion was abnormally high and returned to normal (P=0.001) within one week of therapy. VMA excretion also was higher before than after treatment (P greater than 0.05), but most values were within the normal range for healthy children of comparable size. There was no significant difference between DA, E, and MN-NMN excretion before and after iron therapy. Anemic, non-iron-deficient children had normal urinary NE, E, and VMA excretion before and after transfusion. These findings suggest that the irritability, lack of attentiveness, and low performance scores of iron-deficient children may be related to alterations in catecholamine metabolic pathways secondary to dependence of MAO on adequate iron stores.

  11. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, M; Gaudry, A; Revel, G; Martínez, T; Cabrera, L

    2001-02-01

    In this work, we report on a relationship between urinary selenium and the development of cervical uterine cancer. A simple chemical method was developed to concentrate trace amounts of selenium from relatively large urine samples by use of small activated carbon filters. When these filters are irradiated with thermal neutrons, selenium can be determined either by 77mSe (t1/2 = 17.5 s) or 75Se (t1/2 = 120 d). In this article, we report the results for 82 urine samples from women with cervical uterine cancer in several stages of development and from healthy controls. These results show a statistically significant increase of selenium excretion in cancer patients as compared to controls. Urinary selenium excretion is highest for patients in the intermediate stages of the disease.

  12. Urinary excretion of indolyl-3-acryloylglycine in some skin affections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklová, E; Malina, L; Hais, I M

    1975-11-03

    1. Urinary excretion of indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (chromogen of the so-called Kimmig's light band) in 15 normal subjects was highly significantly increased in June-September ("summer") against the November-April ("winter") collection in the same subjects. Possible explanation of this phenomenon is discussed. 2. In the "winter" period, the mean of 23 patients with chronic polymorphous light eruption was significantly higher than the mean of the 29 controls. In the "summer" period, though an increaes of the average against "winter" was also noted, this difference against the control group (29) disappeared. 3. In 24 patients with skin tuberculosis the mean excretion in "winter" was significantly higher than in controls. This increase cannot be simply attributed to heliotherapy. 4. In "winter", there was no significant difference between the normal subjects and 12 patients with lupus erythematosus and 10 patients with porphyria cutanea tarda. In both these groups there was marked "summer" increase in excretion, though in the case of porphyria cutanea tarda, the "summer" mean was significantly lower than that of the controls. 5. All results were expressed on creatinine basis. In part of the subjects it was possible to calculate the excretion per unit time. Identical conclusions could be drawn.

  13. Urinary nitrite excretion after prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, H; Uzuner, N; Oren, H; Cabuk, N; Işlekel, H

    2000-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between the prophylactic administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to preterm infants and urinary nitrite levels, which can be utilized as an index of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) formation, and to determine if NO formation plays a role in both therapeutic and adverse effects of IVIG. 28 healthy preterm infants were included in this prospective study. They had a mean gestational age of 29.4 +/- 2.2 weeks and weight of 1,387 +/- 371 g. Prophylactic IVIG infusion at a dose of 0.5 g/kg/day was administered when they were 3-10 days old. Urine samples of the neonates were obtained for analysis on days 1, 2 and 3 after IVIG administration as well as 1 day before. Urinary nitrite levels obtained in the subjects were normalized for urinary creatinine concentrations. The mean urinary nitrite levels were: 2.77 +/- 1.66 micromol/mmol creatinine before IVIG administration; 4.33 +/- 3.88 micromol/mmol creatinine on the 1st day of IVIG; 3.77 +/- 2.73 micromol/mmol creatinine on the 2nd day, and 3.64 +/- 3.28 micromol/mmol creatinine on the 3rd day. There was a significant increase in urinary nitrite levels between before and after IVIG administration. There was no statistical difference in urinary nitrate levels between days 1, 2 and 3 after IVIG administration. We demonstrated that urinary nitrite excretion is significantly elevated in preterm infants after prophylactic IVIG administration and this result suggests that endogenous NO formation may play an important role in both the therapeutic and adverse effects of IVIG. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothfuss, K. S.; Bode, J.C.; Stange, E.F.

    2006-01-01

    . In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal permeability and PEG absorption were previously reported to be higher than in normal subjects. In the current study, we investigated the absorption of PEG 3350 in patients undergoing routine gut lavage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Urine specimens were...... collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG...... excretion in patients with impaired mucosa such as inflammation or ulceration of the intestine (0.24 % +/- 0.19, n = 11) was not significantly higher (p = 0.173) compared to that in subjects with macroscopically normal intestinal mucosa (0.13 % +/- 0.13, n = 13). CONCLUSION: The results indicate...

  15. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  16. Reduction of urinary uric acid excretion in patients with proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huiqing; Xiang, Mingfeng; Ye, Xinming; Xiong, Yuanzhen; Xie, Baogang; Shao, Jianghua

    2015-12-01

    Serum uric acid (UA) concentration is positively associated with proteinuria. However, the relationship between proteinuria and urinary metabolites of purine metabolism remains unknown. This study developed a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-based HPLC method with ultraviolet detection (UV) to quantify creatinine (Cr), UA, xanthine, and hypoxanthine in human urine simultaneously. The urinary concentrations of UA and Cr obtained by our method are consistent with those measured by an autoanalyzer. The HPLC-HILIC-UV method was validated as selective and robust with simple sample preparation for measuring UA, xanthine, hypoxanthine and Cr, which is suitable for large clinical studies. The UA/Cr ratios in random urine samples were 5.5 times lower in proteinuria patients (0.077±0.008) than in healthy individuals (0.424±0.037). Moreover, the UA/hypoxanthine ratio in proteinuria patients was approximately 10 times lower than that in healthy individuals. Our findings revealed a reduced urinary UA excretion, which is one of the factors leading to increased serum UA in proteinuria patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed...... the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American...... and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0...

  18. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  19. Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillege, HL; Fidler, [No Value; Diercks, GFH; van Gilst, WH; de Zeeuw, D; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Gans, ROB; Janssen, WMT; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, PE

    2002-01-01

    Background-For the general population, the clinical relevance of an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is still debated. Therefore, we examined the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and all-cause mortality and mortality caused by cardiovascular (CV) disease and non-CV disease in t

  20. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Hansen, P M; Jensen, T;

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU ...

  1. RENAL ENDOGENOUS ET-1 AND URINARY SODIUM EXCRETION AND MICROALBUMINURIA IN HUMAN SALT-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the urinary endothelin-1 (ET-1) excretion and urinary sodium excretion,microalbuminuria and ambulatory blood pressure(ABP) in salt-sensitive(SS) hypertension patients. Methods Twenty-one cases of normotensive subjects and 32 cases of uncomplicated hypertensive patients were recruited in this study. Salt sensitivity was determined by acute venous saline loading test. Before saline loading, 24-hour ABP measurements were performed. Urine samples were collected to assay ET-1 ,urinary sodium excretion and urinary albumin excretion(UAF). Results Compared to slat-resistant(SR) subgroup, SS showed low urinary ET-1 excretion in normotensive group (P<0.05) or hypertensive group (P<0.01) ,regardless of saline loading or not. The nighttime MAP of SS was higher than SR subgroup in normotensive or hypertensive group. Urinary sodium excretion during 4h of saline loading was significantly lower in SS than that in SR hypertensive patients (P<0. 05). Twenty-four-hour UAE of SS patients was higher than SR group (P<0.01). Results of further correlation analysis indicated that the urinary ET-1 excretion was positively related to urinary sodium content and negatively to ABP and UAE. Conclusion Urinary ET-1 is low in SS normotensives or hypertension patients,which may play a role in renal sodium retention and renal impairment of SS hypertension patients.

  2. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor and Tamm-Horsfall protein in three rat models with increased renal excretion of urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Jørgensen, P E; Torffvit, O

    1997-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) are synthesized in the kidneys by the distal tubular cells and excreted into urine. The urinary excretion of these peptides has been suggested as a potential index for distal tubular function. The urinary excretion rates of EGF and THP...

  4. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF KANAMYCIN IN DOMESTIC RUMINANT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, Z. IQBAL AND B. ASLAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Species dependent geonetical differences in renal clearance and urinary excretion of kanamycin were investigated in adult female buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats. The drug was administered as a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg b.wt. Blood and urine samples were collected at various time intervals after drug administration. The plasma and urine concentrations of the drug were determined using the microbiological assay. The mean (± SE values for endogenous creatinine clearance (an index of glomerular filtration rate were 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.07, 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.98 ± 0.13 ml/min.kg in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats, respectively. Experiments regarding kidney handling of kanamycin in these ruminant species revealed respective values of renal clearance as 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.04 ml/min.kg. Besides glomerular filtration, kanamycin was reabsorbed from the renal tubules of all ruminant species and actively secreted into the renal tubules of buffaloes and goats. The cumulative percentages of intravenous dose of kanamycin excreted through urine during 12 hours in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats were 4.31 ± 0.37, 2.53 ± 0.30, 11.0 ± 1.04 and 15.8 ± 2.22, respectively. This species variation in the percentage of urinary excretion in these domestic ruminants coincides with their respective glomerular filtration rates, being the highest in goats, lowest in cows and intermediate in sheep and buffaloes.

  5. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Nicolli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females. Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine.

  6. The Reduction in Urinary Glutamate Excretion Is Responsible for Lowering Urinary pH in Pink Urine Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Susumu; Takiguchi, Junko; Shimizu, Manami; Nako, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Masashi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2016-06-01

    We frequently encounter brownish-red, cloudy urine in some obese subjects, which occurs due to pink urine syndrome (PUS). PUS is a phenomenon in which uric acid precipitates into the urine due to reduced urinary pH (UpH). The mechanism underlying urinary acidification has not been elucidated so far. UpH level is adjusted by urinary excretion of ammonia synthesized from glutamate or glutamine, suggesting that renal synthesis of ammonia from glutamate or glutamine is decreased in PUS. However, this hypothesis has not been examined yet. We therefore examined the changes in the urinary excretion of these amino acids in PUS. One-hundred-fifty male students who had undergone a physical examination were enrolled. To determine the presence [PUS (+), n = 72] or absence [PUS (-), n = 78] of PUS, urinary amino acid excretion and UpH were evaluated. Independent risk factors of lower UpH were determined using multiple regression analyses. The PUS (+) subjects, who had lower UpH values than PUS (-) subjects, showed lower urinary excretion of glutamate and some other glucogenic amino acids. Thus, UpH correlated positively with the urinary excretion of glutamate in the PUS (+) subjects. A reduction in urinary glutamate but not in glutamine excretion proved to be an independent risk factor for reduced UpH. In conclusion, PUS appears to occur when a reduction in the synthesis of ammonia from glutamate causes a decrease in UpH. Our results showed that urinary glutamate excretion was reduced in PUS because renal glutamate was consumed by a reaction different from ammonia production.

  7. Comparison of urinary excretion characteristics of ethanol and ethyl glucuronide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Helen; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Helander, Anders

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the urinary excretion characteristics of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) with that of ethanol, with focus on the effect of water-induced diuresis. Six healthy volunteers ingested an ethanol dose of 0.5 g/kg (range 25.0-41.5 g) as 5% (v/v) beer in 30 min and the same volume of water after 3 h. Urine collections were made before starting the experiment and at timed intervals over 31.5 h. The concentration of EtG was determined by an LC-MS method (LOQ = 0.1 mg/L). The urine samples collected immediately before starting drinking were all negative for ethanol and EtG, thus confirming that the participants had not recently ingested alcohol. Intake of beer resulted in a marked increase in excreted urine volume and a concomitant drop in creatinine concentration. The concentration of ethanol peaked at a mean value of 17 mmol/L in the 1.5-h urine collection. Except for one subject, EtG was first detectable (range 0.9-5.5 mg/L) at 1 h. Intake of water at 3 h produced another increase in urine volume and a drop in creatinine. The ethanol concentration curve was not influenced by the water diuresis, whereas this caused a distinct drop in the EtG concentration. When EtG was expressed relative to the creatinine value, this ratio was seemingly not affected by the intake of water. The ethanol concentration returned to zero at 6.5 h, whereas EtG was still detectable for up to 22.5-31.5 h, albeit at low levels in the end (water prior to voiding, whereas this strategy did not influence the EtG/creatinine ratio or the concentration of ethanol.

  8. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgate, J L; Reid, H F; Morris, R; Helms, R W; Berg, R A; Hu, P C; Cheng, P W; Wang, O L; Muelenaer, P A; Collier, A M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between average and peak personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine was investigated in a population of preschool children and their mothers. Weekly average personal nitrogen dioxide exposures for subjects who resided in homes with one or more potential nitrogen dioxide source (e.g., a kerosene space heater, gas stove, or tobacco smoke) ranged between 16.3 and 50.6 ppb (30.6 and 95.1 micrograms/m3) for children and between 16.9 and 44.1 ppb (12.8 and 82.9 micrograms/m3) for mothers. In these individuals, the hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were unrelated to personal nitrogen dioxide exposure--even though continuous monitoring documented home nitrogen dioxide concentration peaks of 100-475 ppb lasting up to 100 h in duration. Significantly higher hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were observed in children, compared with mothers (p < .001 and .003, respectively).

  9. Assessment of urinary iodine excretion among normal Kuwaiti adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yatama, Fatma I; Al-Bader, Maie D; Al-Mazidi, Zaidan M; Ali, Ameena; Al-Omair, Ali S; Al-Jehma, Nasser A; Mohammed, Fawziah

    2009-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of iodine intake among the Kuwaiti population and its effect on thyroid function. The study group was comprised of 139 females and 86 males with a mean age of 33 and 35 years, respectively. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and serum free T4 (FT4), thyrotropin hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibodies (anti- TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TGAb) were determined. Median UIE was 148 μg/L (within the recommended level by the World Health Organization [WHO]). However, UIE levels of iodine intake, which was reflected in an increased UIE of 590 μg/L. Elevated anti-TPOAb >75 IU/mL and anti-TGAb >150 IU/mL were detected in 15% and 34% of subjects; only 10% of them had elevated levels of both anti-TPOAb and anti-TGAb. Thus, based on the WHO recommendations, the iodine intake for the Kuwaiti population is adequate. However, it is recommended that a national study be conducted by the appropriate authority in order to eliminate any artifacts which may have appeared in this study.

  10. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, E A; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h), group 2 comprised 10 with incipient diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion 30-300 mg/24 h, and group 3 comprised 10 with clinical diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion greater than 300 mg/24 h). Ten non-diabetic subjects matched for sex...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  11. Urinary sulphate excretion and progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrésdóttir, Gudbjörg; Bakker, S J L; Hansen, H P

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide levels are reduced in many disease states, including diabetes and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine whether urinary sulphate excretion, as a proxy for hydrogen sulphide, was associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy....

  12. Splanchnic and peripheral release of 3-methylhistidine in relation to its urinary excretion in human infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölin, J; Stjernström, H; Henneberg, S;

    1989-01-01

    ) and from the splanchnic region 0.012 +/- 0.013 mumol/min. These releases of 3MH constitute 27% +/- 2% and 8% +/- 6% of the individual urinary excretions, respectively. With increasing degree of catabolism, measured as individual 3MH increase above baseline excretion or as the 3MH to creatinine ratio (3MH......:Cr), the relative contribution to urinary excretion from the leg was increased (individual increase, P = 0.08; 3MH:Cr, P less than 0.01). Since this contribution was not decreased in the more catabolic patients, as would have been expected if the increase in urinary 3MH originated elsewhere, it is concluded...... that skeletal muscle is the source, and these results thus validate the use of urinary 3MH excretion as a marker of myofibrillar protein catabolism in infected patients....

  13. Association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity in Korean adults: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Tai-Sun; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sodium intake, as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and various obesity parameters among South Korean adults. The associations of 24-h urinary sodium excretion and sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire with obesity parameters also were compared. This multicenter, cross-sectional study analyzed data of 640 healthy adults from eight provinces in South Korea. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was calculated from repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples. Participants' dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall interview on the days before 24-h urine collection. In both sexes, the means of all anthropometric measurements tended to increase proportionally with 24-h urinary sodium excretion quartiles, regardless of adjustment. Men in the highest quartile (Q4) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion had increased odds of obesity (as assessed by BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR) compared with men in the three lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Women in Q4 of 24-h urinary sodium excretion exhibited a higher chance of general obesity and abdominal obesity. Sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire was not significantly associated with obesity in either sex. In Korean adults, there was a positive association between higher sodium intake as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity independent of energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-05-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from <1 to 8 {micro}Bq per day and are well below action levels established under the latest Department regulation 10 CFR 835 in the United States for in vitro bioassay monitoring of {sup 239}Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of {sup 239}Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both.

  15. Urinary excretion of orally administered oxalic acid in saccharin and o-phenylphenol-fed NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, E; Salminen, S

    1986-01-01

    Both saccharin and o-phenylphenol have been suggested to be carcinogenic to the urinary bladder in experimental animals, but the mechanism has remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary saccharin and o-phenylphenol on the urinary excretion of dietary oxalic acid. Male NMRI mice were gradually adapted to either 3% o-phenylphenol or 5% saccharin in their diet. Having being adapted to these diets for 1 week or after consuming them for 3 months, the animals were fasted for 6 h and given a 2.5-microCi oral dose of U-14C-oxalic acid. Dosed animals were kept in metabolism cages for 48 h to monitor urinary and fecal excretion of the label. Adaptation to dietary o-phenylphenol appeared to increase the urinary excretion of orally administered U-14C-oxalic acid when food and water were available during urinary and fecal collections. Adaptation to dietary saccharin had little effect on urinary oxalate levels when compared to control animals. These results indicate that changes in urinary oxalate levels should be more carefully studied in connection with potential urinary bladder carcinogens to avoid the possibility of bladder irritation by increased urinary oxalate excretion.

  16. Modelling and sensitivity analysis of urinary platinum excretion in anticancer chemotherapy for the recovery of platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folens, Karel; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Baeten, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Platinum (Pt) based antineoplastics are important in cancer therapy. To date the Pt which is urinary excreted by the patients ends up in wastewater. This is disadvantageous from both an economic as from an ecological point of view because Pt is a valuable material and the excretion products are t...

  17. Urinary excretion of bile acid glucosides and glucuronides in extrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietholtz, H; Marschall, H U; Reuschenbach, R; Matern, H; Matern, S

    1991-04-01

    Recently the formation of bile acid glucosides has been described as a novel conjugation mechanism in vitro and in vivo. In 10 patients with extrahepatic cholestasis caused by carcinoma of the head of the pancreas we investigated excretion rates and profiles of urinary bile acid glucosides. Urinary bile acid glucosides and, for comparison, bile acid glucuronides were extracted and characterized according to established methods. In controls total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.22 +/- 0.03 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- S.E.M.)-in the range of bile acid glucuronide excretion (0.41 +/- 0.06 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- S.E.M.). A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-characterized trihydroxy bile acid glucoside of still-unknown hydroxyl positions accounted for 65% of total urinary bile acid glucosides. In extrahepatic cholestasis total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.52 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- SEM), yet significantly lower than bile acid glucuronide excretion (1.53 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- SEM; p less than 0.001). In cholestasis the primary bile acid derivatives cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid glucosides amounted to 90%, whereas the trihydroxy bile acid glucoside had decreased to 5% of total bile acid glucoside excretion, indicating its alteration during enterohepatic circulation. The data establish the composition and quantity of urinary bile acid glucosides in healthy controls and cholestasis and constitute a quantitative comparison with another glycosidic conjugation reaction, bile acid glucuronidation.

  18. Urinary epidermal growth factor is excreted from the rat isolated perfused kidney in the absence of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Hilchey, S D; Nexø, Ebba;

    1993-01-01

    . Administration of the proteinase inhibitor aprotinin reduced urinary EGF excretion from the rat isolated perfused kidney by approximately 50%. In conclusion, the rat isolated perfused kidney excreted significant amounts of urinary EGF without having access to plasma, and EGF excretion was reduced by aprotinin...

  19. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  20. Urinary sialyloligosaccharide excretion as an indicator of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, C P; Wegelius, O

    1981-01-01

    Urinary trisaccharides containing sialic acid, urinary total sialic acid, and serum sialic acid were studied in 51 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The urinary excretion of sialyllactose and sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine was measured by quantitative gas chromatography. The output of sialyllactose was significantly greater in patients with RA (31.9 +/- 17.3 mg/24, SD) than in control subjects (15.9 +/- 5.4, P less than 0.001). The RA patients also had higher mean levels of urinary sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine (P less than 0.05), total urinary sialic acid (P less than 0.001), and serum sialic acid (P less than 0.001). Urinary excretion of sialyllactose was considerably higher in patients with active and aggressive RA and moderately higher in patients with moderate disease activity. Excretion in those with mild or almost inactive RA did not differ significantly from that in the controls. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between urinary sialyllactose levels and clinical disease activity (P less than 0.001), as well as between excretion of sialyllactose and sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine in RA. These results suggest that the urinary content of trisaccharides containing sialic acid is an indicator of disease activity of RA.

  1. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

  2. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana; Damasceno, Albertino; Jessen, Neusa; Novela, Célia; Moreira, Pedro; Lunet, Nuno; Padrão, Patrícia

    2017-08-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus(®) was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  3. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  4. Day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Christiansen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine the day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion and the day-to-day variation in iodine intake. Design: Collection of consecutive 24-h urine samples and casual urine samples over 24 h. Setting: The study population consisted of highly motivated subjects from...... our Institute. Subjects: Study 1: Ten healthy subjects (seven females and three males) aged 30-46 y. Study 2. Twenty-two healthy subjects (9 males and 13 females) aged 30-55 y. Methods: Study 1: 24-h urine samples were collected for four consecutive days. Study 2. Each urine voided over 24 h...... was collected into separate containers. In both studies dietary records were kept. Main outcome measures: Twenty-four-hour urinary iodine excretion, 24-h urinary iodine excretion estimated as I/Cr*24 h Cr and as a concentration in casual urine samples. Results: Study 1: Both iodine excreted in 24-h urine...

  5. Diet, but not oral probiotics, effectively reduces urinary oxalate excretion and calciumoxalate supersaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, John C.; Tremaine, William J.; De Simone, Claudio; O’Connor, Helen M.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Goldfarb, David S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of a controlled diet and two probiotic preparations on urinary oxalate excretion, a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation, in patients with mild hyperoxaluria. Patients were randomized to a placebo, a probiotic, or a synbiotic preparation. This tested whether these probiotic preparations can increase oxalate metabolism in the intestine and/or decrease oxalate absorption from the gut. Patients were maintained on a controlled diet to remove the confounding variable of differing oxalate intake from food. Urinary oxalate excretion and calcium oxalate supersaturation on the controlled diet were significantly lower compared with baseline on a free-choice diet. Neither study preparation reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor calcium oxalate supersaturation. Fecal lactobacilli colony counts increased on both preparations, whereas enterococcal and yeast colony counts were increased on the synbiotic. Total urine volume and the excretion of oxalate and calcium were all strong independent determinants of urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Hence, dietary oxalate restriction reduced urinary oxalate excretion, but the tested probiotics did not influence urinary oxalate levels in patients on a restricted oxalate diet. However, this study suggests that dietary oxalate restriction is useful for kidney stone prevention. PMID:20736987

  6. Urinary, biliary and faecal excretion of rocuronium in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, JH; Eriksson, LI; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    The excretion of rocuronium and its potential metabolites was studied in 38 anaesthetized patients, ASA I-III and 21-69 yr old. Rocuronium bromide was administered as an i.v. bolus dose of 0.3 or 0.9 mg kg(-1). in Part A of the study, the excretion into urine and bile, and the liver content were stu

  7. Relationship Between Urinary Nitrate Excretion and Blood Pressure in the InChianti Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Miranda J; Ble, Alessandro; Melzer, David; Winyard, Paul G; Benjamin, Nigel; Shore, Angela C; Gilchrist, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic nitrate from the oxidation of endogenously synthesized nitric oxide (NO) or consumed in the diet can be reduced to NO via a complex enterosalivary circulation pathway. The relationship between total nitrate exposure by measured urinary nitrate excretion and blood pressure in a large population sample has not been assessed previously. For this cross-sectional study, 24-hour urinary nitrate excretion was measured by spectrophotometry in the 919 participants from the InChianti cohort at baseline and blood pressure measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. After adjusting for age and sex only, diastolic blood pressure was 1.9 mm Hg lower in subjects with ≥2 mmol urinary nitrate excretion compared with those excreting <1 mmol nitrate in 24 hours: systolic blood pressure was 3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.5 to -0.4) lower in subjects for the same comparison. Effect sizes in fully adjusted models (for age, sex, potassium intake, use of antihypertensive medications, diabetes, HS-CRP, or current smoking status) were marginally larger: systolic blood pressure in the ≥2 mmol urinary nitrate excretion group was 3.9 (CI: -7.1 to -0.7) mm Hg lower than in the comparison <1 mmol excretion group. Modest differences in total nitrate exposure are associated with lower blood pressure. These differences are at least equivalent to those seen from substantial (100 mmol) reductions in sodium intake.

  8. Renal Expression and Urinary Excretion of Na-K-2Cl Cotransporter in Obstructive Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Brandoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal damage due to urinary tract obstruction accounts for up to 30% of acute kidney injury in paediatrics and adults. Bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO is associated with polyuria and reduced urinary concentrating capacity. We investigated the renal handling of water and electrolytes together with the renal expression and the urinary excretion of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC2 after 1 (BUO-1, 2 (BUO-2, and 7 (BUO-7 days of release of BUO. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies showed that NKCC2 expression was upregulated in apical membranes both from BUO-2 and from BUO-7 rats. The apical membrane expression, where NKCC2 is functional, may be sufficient to normalize water, potassium, sodium, and osmolytes tubular handling. NKCC2 abundance in homogenates and mRNA levels of NKCC2 was significantly decreased in almost all groups suggesting a decrease in the synthesis of the transporter. Urinary excretion of NKCC2 was increased in BUO-7 groups. These data suggest that the upregulation in the expression of NKCC2 in apical membranes during the postobstructive phase of BUO could contribute to improving the excretion of sodium and consequently also the excretion of potassium, osmolytes, and water. Moreover, the increase in urinary excretion of NKCC2 in BUO-7 group could be a potential additional biomarker of renal function recovery.

  9. Variation of {sup 210}Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Hyza, M.; Mihalik, J.; Rulik, P.; Skrkal, J. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-15

    {sup 210}Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of {sup 210}Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted {sup 210}Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95 % confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of {sup 210}Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of {sup 210}Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of {sup 210}Po excretion in daily urine is made. (orig.)

  10. [Urinary electrolyte excretion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Iordanova, P; Penkova, S

    1991-01-01

    In 33 patients with autosomal dominant renal polycystosis the urine excretion of the electrolytes sodium and potassium was examined and analyzed in relation to the renal function and the arterial pressure. The clearances, the urine ratio and the excreted fractions of both electrolytes were calculated. It was established that by normal renal function and without arterial hypertension there were no significant differences in the parameters studied between the patients and the healthy controls. In the patients with arterial hypertension and preserved renal function the sodium clearance and urine excretion were lower, but the differences with the normotensive patients were not statistically significant. In the patients with chronic renal failure (when diuretic was applied) higher mean values of the excreted fractions of sodium and potassium were established. The results support the thesis that hypertension in renal polycystosis is of volumetric character.

  11. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism, or urinary excretion. This study shows that dietary MRP in commercial diets are absorbed and excreted via the kidneys in cats.

  12. Abnormal urinary excretion of polyamines in HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H; Maekawa, K; Eto, Y

    1990-01-01

    The HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria) is characterized by a very rare genetic defect of ornithine transport in mitochondrial membrane. We first demonstrated that a patient with HHH syndrome excreted about 6 times higher amount of polyamines in urine than the control when supplemented with high protein diets and ornithine loading. Each urinary polyamine fraction measured by HPLC method in HHH syndrome appears to be increased, as compared with those of the control. These data suggest that increased urinary excretion of polyamines in this syndrome is closely related to overflowing of plasma polyamine due to an ornithine transport defect in the mitochondrial membrane.

  13. Variation in urinary excretion of FDG, yet another uncertainty in quantitative PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Bach-Gansmo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The standardized uptake value (SUV is the most common estimate of metabolic activity used in clinical positron emission tomography (PET. Several biological and technological factors influence the accurate SUV calculation. Purpose To assess another potential source of variability of the SUV, the variations in urinary excretion of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG. Material and Methods Twenty patients with various malignancies scheduled for PET/CT with 18F-FDG were included in the present study. The activity in urine voided immediately before image acquisition was measured and decay corrected. An estimation of FDG content in the urinary bladder was made during imaging, and the two components of urinary FDG were added. The urinary output of FDG, and the quantity of FDG divided by the time to measurements, was estimated. Results The excretion of FDG in urine was between 5.7% and 15.2% of injected dose (decay corrected, and from 0.06% to 0.3%/min after injection, a five-fold difference in clearance. Conclusion About 10% of injected dose is excreted in urine at 70 min post injection, but the urinary FDG excretion was found to be highly variable, yet another uncertainty affecting the SUV measurements.

  14. NHANES Data Support Link between Handling of Thermal Paper Receipts and Increased Urinary Bisphenol A Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehn, Rebecca Simonne

    2016-01-01

    Some thermal paper receipts, commonly referred to as cash register receipts, contain high levels of bisphenol A (BPA). The goal of this study is to investigate whether increased contact with thermal paper receipts is associated with an increase in urinary BPA excretion. Individuals from the NHANES 2003-2004 survey were stratified based on occupation to compare urinary BPA excretion levels. The first major finding demonstrates that individuals with potential occupational exposure to thermal paper receipts are more likely to have detectable levels of urinary BPA compared to individuals with unlikely occupational exposure (p-value paper receipts have significantly higher levels of urinary BPA excretion (geometric mean (GM): 5.45 μg/L, 95% CI: (4.02, 7.39)) compared to females with unlikely occupational exposure (GM: 2.16 μg/L, 95% CI: (1.73, 2.70)). This association continues to remain statistically significant when controlling for creatinine, race, body mass index (BMI), and age. Notably, there was no statistically significant association between occupation and urinary BPA excretion among males. These results suggest that exposure to BPA from thermal paper should be considered when determining aggregate BPA exposure.

  15. Urinary excretion of biomarkers of oxidatively damaged DNA and RNA in hereditary hemochromatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Poulsen, Henrik E; Weimann, Allan

    2009-01-01

    to measure the urinary excretion of oxidatively generated 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and related 2'-deoxyribonucleoside and ribonucleoside derivatives in hereditary hemochromatosis patients, and we investigated the effect of treatment on the levels of these modifications. The study was carried out......, and after phlebotomy treatment the excretion of the RNA oxidation product 8-oxoGuo returned to control values and the excretion of the DNA product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine was reduced by 30%. In patients with hereditary hemochromatosis oxidative stress on nucleic acids is an important feature...

  16. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    rate (GFR) as an indicator for the general renal function, lithium clearance (C(Li)) as an indicator for proximal tubular function, and absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADR(Na)) as an indicator for distal tubular function. The excretion rate of EGF was rather closely correlated with GFR, C...... analyses, the excretion rates of the two peptides were still associated with ADR(Na) but not with C(Li). In conclusion, the urinary excretion rates of especially EGF but also those of THP were correlated with renal function and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium in patients with chronic nephropathy....

  17. Urinary excretion of arsenicals following daily intake of various seafoods during a two weeks intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, M.; Ulven, S.M.; Dahl, L.

    2014-01-01

    of arsenicals. In the cod group, rapid excretion after the single dose was associated with lower total As in blood and less accumulation after two weeks with seafood indicating lower accumulation. In the blue mussels group only, inorganic As (iAs) excretion increased significantly, whilst methylarsonate (MA...... subjects following 15days daily consumption of either 150g cod, salmon, blue mussels or potato (control), followed by a 72h period with a low-As diet. In all seafood groups, total As (tAs) in plasma and urinary excretion of tAs, arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) increased significantly after...... the intervention. Confirming the single dose study AB and DMA excreted were apparently endogenously formed from other arsenicals ingested. Total tAs excretion was 1386, 763 and 303μg in the cod, blue mussel and salmon groups, respectively; about twice the amounts after the single dose study indicating accumulation...

  18. Urinary excretion and bactericidal activities of gemifloxacin and ofloxacin after a single oral dose in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, C K; Hammer, M; Kinzig-Schippers, M; Sauber, C; Sörgel, F; Bygate, E A; Fairless, A J; Machka, K; Naber, K G

    2001-12-01

    In a randomized crossover study, 16 volunteers (8 men, 8 women) received single oral doses of 320 mg of gemifloxacin and 400 mg of ofloxacin on two separate occasions in the fasting state to assess the urinary excretion and urinary bactericidal titers (UBTs) at intervals for up to 144 h. Ofloxacin showed higher concentrations in urine compared with those of gemifloxacin. The median (range) cumulative excretion of gemifloxacin was 29.7% (8.4 to 48.7%) of the parent drug administered, and median (range) cumulative excretion of ofloxacin was 84.3% (46.5 to 95.2%) of the parent drug administered. The UBTs, i.e., the highest twofold dilutions (with antibiotic-free urine as the diluent) of urine that were still bactericidal, were determined for a reference strain and nine uropathogens for which the MICs of gemifloxacin and ofloxacin were as follows: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, 0.016 and 0.06 microg/ml, respectively; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0.03 and 0.06 microg/ml, respectively; Proteus mirabilis, 0.125 and 0.125 microg/ml, respectively; Escherichia coli, 0.06 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.008 and 0.25 microg/ml, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.06 and 2 microg/ml, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.25 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.5 and 32 microg/ml, respectively; and Staphylococcus aureus, 2 and 32 microg/ml, respectively. Generally, the UBTs for gram-positive uropathogens were higher for gemifloxacin than for ofloxacin and the UBTs for gram-negative uropathogens were higher for ofloxacin than for gemifloxacin. According to the UBTs, ofloxacin-resistant uropathogens (MICs, >or=4 mg/liter) should also be considered gemifloxacin resistant. Although clinical trials have shown that gemifloxacin is effective for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, whether an oral dosage of 320 mg of gemifloxacin once daily is also adequate for the

  19. Comparison of urinary excretion of Deoxypiridinoline and value of serum Osteocalcin within the Knee Osteoarthritis grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Isbagio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of molecular markers, which reflects differences in disease progression rates in Osteoarthritis (OA, would greatly facilitate clinical studies. Urinary Deoxypyridinoline (UDPD and serum osteocalcin (OC had been widely used for marker of bone metabolism, but the use for molecular marker in OA was lack of data. Recent studies show that there were conflicted results between urinary excretion of DPD and serum OC value within knee OA grading. The aim of this study is to compare of urinary excretion of DPD and the level of serum OC as destructive parameter of cartilage within the knee OA grading. This cross sectional study comprise of 69 patients with OA of knee joints. Kellgren and Lawrence scale was use for grading of OA. Group of patients with knee OA grade 2 call as group of early OA and group of patients with knee OA grade 3 and 4 calls as group of late OA. DPD in urine was measured using Immuno-chemilunescence, serum osteocalcin was measured using Elisa method. The mean value of urinary concentrations of DPD in OA patients was higher than normal value (9.79 ± 7.28 nM DPD/mM Creatinin, and the mean value of serum OC within normal value (8.49 ± 4.68 ng/mL. There were no significant differences of age, body mass index (BMI, duration of illness, urinary excretion of UDPD and serum OC level between early and late OA. In conclusion, there is no significant difference of urinary excretion of DPD and serum OC level within knee OA grading. The use of urinary DPD and serum OC as molecular markers of progression of OA needed to be explored by other longitudinal study. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 96-101 Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis, deoxypiridinoline, osteocalcin

  20. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Buendía, Abraham Said; García-Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Loredo-Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia-Rodríguez, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and oxidized protein (OP) were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), osteopontin (uOPN), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes. PMID:25243053

  1. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Said Arellano-Buendía

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD; additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, and oxidized protein (OP were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL, osteopontin (uOPN, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes.

  2. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieneker, L.M.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Boer, de R.; Brouwers, Frank P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Navis, G.; Bakker, Stephan L.J.; Joosten, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies on dietary potassium and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations. Long-term prospective studies with multiple 24-h urinary samples for accurate estimation of habitual potassium intake, however, are scarce.

  3. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension: The PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, M.A. van; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Jong, P.E. de; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women. METHODS: We analyzed data of 3997

  4. Urinary sulphate excretion and progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresdottir, G.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Hansen, H. P.; Parving, H-H; Rossing, P.

    Aims Hydrogen sulphide levels are reduced in many disease states, including diabetes and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine whether urinary sulphate excretion, as a proxy for hydrogen sulphide, was associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Methods We conducted a post-hoc study

  5. Normal urinary albumin excretion in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, B; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    The urinary excretion of albumin and retinol binding protein were measured in 51 recently diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 control subjects, matched for age and sex. The diabetic patients, admitted consecutively to the Steno Memorial Hospital, were all studied 3 to 6 months after the onset...... were found between recently diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and normal subjects....

  6. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension : the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, Susanne M. A. J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Engberink, Marielle F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women.Methods:We analyzed data of 3997 men

  7. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension: the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, van M.A.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Jong, P.E.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women. METHODS:: We analyzed data of 399

  8. The impact of gender and puberty on reference values for urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jarden, M; Angelo, L

    1994-01-01

    Some recent studies have indicated that measurement of urinary GH (U-GH) excretion may be a useful tool for the evaluation of GH insufficiency in children with growth disorders, although some investigators are skeptical about the diagnostic value of U-GH. Most current assays are only available fo...

  9. What predicts progression and regression of urinary albumin excretion in the nondiabetic population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsma, Auke H.; Atthobari, Jarir; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Zeeuw, Dick; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.

    2007-01-01

    An increase or decrease in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with, respectively, a higher or lower risk for renal and cardiovascular disease, independent of widely known cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to identify factors that are associated with changes in UAE in the nondi

  10. Association between Urinary Excretion of Cortisol and Markers of Oxidatively Damaged DNA and RNA in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Anders; Broedbaek, Kasper; Weimann, Allan

    2011-01-01

    to cellular constituents such as DNA and RNA, a phenomenon which has been implicated in aging processes. We investigated the relationship between 24 h excretion of urinary cortisol and markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine...

  11. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were measured with sensitive radioimmunoassays in 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The duration of SLE ranged from 0.5 to 18 years, mean 10 years. The mean age was 37 years. All patients except 5 received...

  12. Urinary albumin excretion and the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. M. A.; Voors, A. A.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Microalbuminuria has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic and hypertensive patients, but also in the general population. Moreover, several reports suggest that reduction of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with improvement of cardiova

  13. Genome-wide association study of urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An abnormal urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) is often the first clinically detectable manifestation of diabetic nephropathy. Our aim was to estimate the heritability and to detect genetic variation associated with elevated AER in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The di...

  14. Urinary sulphate excretion and progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresdottir, G.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Hansen, H. P.; Parving, H-H; Rossing, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Hydrogen sulphide levels are reduced in many disease states, including diabetes and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine whether urinary sulphate excretion, as a proxy for hydrogen sulphide, was associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Methods We conducted a post-hoc study

  15. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate...... through dermal absorption, but there are no published data on absorption, metabolism, and excretion after dermal application. This study investigates urinary concentrations of BP and metabolites of DEP and DBP after topical application. In a 2-week single-blinded study, 26 healthy Caucasian male subjects...... (MBP) metabolites were analysed by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). All 26 subjects showed increased excretion of MEP, MBP and BP following topical application. Total MEP, MBP and BP (mean +/- SEM) excreted in urine in the treatment week were, respectively, 41 +/- 1.9, 11...

  16. Testosterone urinary excretion rate increases during hypergravity in male monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, F.; Barger, L.; Fuller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Real and simulated microgravity impairs T secretion both in animals and in the human. To verify whether hypergravity might enhance T secretion as a consequence of an opposite mechanical effect, 6 male monkeys were centrifuged at 2 G for 3 weeks after a 1 G stabilization period lasting 3 weeks and then taken back to 1 G for 1 week and urine were collected daily for T excretion measurement. Significantly higher level were observed during the initial 2 G phase as compared to pre- and post centrifugation periods and the trend was the same during the remaining 2 G period. This may reflect changes in testicular perfusion rather than endocrine adaptation per se.

  17. The effect of phototherapy on urinary calcium excretion in term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Safaei Asl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy is the most common, most effective, and least dangerous treatment method for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and is the treatment of the first choice for neonatal icterus. Hypocalcemia is one of the lesser-known complications of phototherapy. Some studies have shown a relationship between increased urinary calcium excretion and phototherapy-induced hypocalcemia. We aimed to assess the effect of phototherapy on urinary calcium excretion in term neonates. This before-after study was performed on 80 term neonates having hyper- bilirubinemia referred to the 17thShahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan Province, Northern Iran, over a one-year period from May 2013 to May 2014. Electrocardiography was performed to measure QTc in all neonates at admission and 48 h after phototherapy. Blood and urine samples were taken from all neonates before and 48 h after phototherapy. Phototherapy was performed using four lamps with similar wavelengths from a distance of 20 cm. The serum and urinary calcium and sodium levels and urinary creatinine level before and after phototherapy were measured and compared. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16. The mean age of the study subjects was 7.01 ± 4.13 days. We did not find any significant difference between urinary calcium levels (P = 0.0001, urinary creatinine levels (P = 0.954, or the calcium/creatinine ratio (P = 0.086 before and after phototherapy. The neonates′ mean ± standard deviation plasma as well as urinary sodium levels differed before and after phototherapy; the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.658. Phototherapy might increase urinary calcium excretion although it does not cause hypocalcemia.

  18. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions...... onboard the MIR station and on the ground (control). Mission duration before first urine collection in the four astronauts was 4, 26, 26, and 106 days, respectively. On the ground, data were collected 2 months before mission in two astronauts, 6 months after in the other astronauts. A total of twenty......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...

  19. Phase I and pharmacologic study of liposomal lurtotecan, NX 211: urinary excretion predicts hematologic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, Diederik F S; Bos, Annelies M; Verweij, Jaap; Groen, Harry J; Loos, Walter J; Sparreboom, Alex; de Jonge, Maja J A; Hamilton, Marta; Cameron, Terri; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    2002-03-01

    To determine the maximum-tolerated and recommended dose, toxicity profile, and pharmacokinetics of the liposomal topoisomerase I inhibitor lurtotecan (NX 211) administered as a 30-minute intravenous infusion once every 3 weeks in cancer patients. NX 211 was administered by peripheral infusion. Dose escalation decisions were based on all toxicities during the first cycle as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Serial plasma, whole blood, and urine samples were collected for up to 96 hours after the end of infusion, and drug levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Twenty-nine patients (16 women; median age, 56 years; range, 39 to 74 years) received 77 courses of NX 211 at dose levels of 0.4 (n = 3), 0.8 (n = 6), 1.6 (n = 3), 3.2 (n = 6), 3.8 (n = 6), and 4.3 mg/m(2) (n = 5). Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the dose-limiting toxicities and were not cumulative. Other toxicities were mild to moderate. Nine patients had stable disease while undergoing treatment. The systemic clearance of lurtotecan in plasma and whole blood was 0.82 +/- 0.78 L/h/m(2) and 1.15 +/- 0.96 L/h/m(2), respectively. Urinary recovery (Fu) of lurtotecan was 10.1% +/- 4.05% (range, 4.9% to 18.9%). In contrast to systemic exposure measures, the dose excreted in urine (ie, dose x Fu) was significantly related to the percent decrease in neutrophil and platelet counts at nadir (P NX 211 are neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. The recommended dose for phase II studies is 3.8 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks. Pharmacologic data suggest a relationship between exposure to lurtotecan and NX 211-induced clinical effects.

  20. Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Haraldsdottir, J.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of intake of flavonoid-containing black currant and apple juice on urinary excretion of quercetin and on markers of oxida......Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of intake of flavonoid-containing black currant and apple juice on urinary excretion of quercetin and on markers...... of oxidative status. Design: This was a crossover study with 3 doses of juice (750, 1000, and 1500 mL) consumed for 1 wk by 4 women and 1 man corresponding to an intake of 4.8, 6.4, and 9.6 mg quercetin/d. Results: Urinary excretion of quercetin increased significantly with dose and with time. The fraction...... excreted in urine was 0.29-0.47%. Plasma quercetin did not change with juice inter vention, Plasma ascorbate increased during intervention because of the ascorbate in the juice. Total plasma malondialdehyde decreased with time during the 1500-mL juice intervention, indicating reduced lipid oxidation...

  1. Influence of irbesartan on the urinary excretion of cytokines in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Jie; HUANG Hai-quan; L(O) Lin-li; ZHENG Min; LIU Bi-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The non-hemodynamic effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in the delay of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain unclear.In this study,we investigated the influence of irbesartan on the urinary excretion of cytokines in patients with CKD.Methods In this randomized perspective clinical trial,different doses of irbesartan (150 mg/d and 300 mg/d) were given to two groups of patients in a cross-over design.Blood pressure (BP),creatinine clearance (Ccr) and 24-hour proteinuria were examined.Urinary excretion of cytokines was determined by human inflammatory cytokine antibody array.A two-fold change in spot intensity was considered significant.Results Urinary excretion of cytokines (granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF),intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1),interferon γ (IFN-γ),intedeukin 1β (IL-1β),IL-2,IL-6,IL-8,IL-11,IL-15 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1δ (MIP-1δ)) in group B (irbesartan 300 mg/d) was significantly decreased in comparison to group A (irbesartan 150 mg/d) after 8-week treatment.In group A,8 weeks of treatment induced a two- to nine-fold reduction in urinary cytokine levels (GCSF,GM-CSF,IFN-γ,IL-1α,IL-11,IL-12p40,MCP-2,MIP-1α),while increasing the dosage to 300 mg/d further decreased the excretion of GCSF,GM-CSF,IL-12p40,MCP-2 and MIP-1α by week 18.There was no significant difference in BP or Ccr between the two groups.However,24-hour proteinuria was significantly reduced in both groups,and in group A the reduction was dose dependent.Conclusion Irbesartan offers additional renoprotection in a dose-dependent manner by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines excretion in the urine of CKD patients.

  2. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of amino acids by subjects with renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Stoyanka Slavcheva; Panchev, P; Ivanova, M

    2010-05-01

    Plasma levels and urinary amino acid excretions were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography in 15 control subjects and 36 stone formers (SFs) classified according to the stone type: (1) 22 cases with calcium oxalate stones; (2) four cases with pure uric acid stones; (3) 10 cases with magnesium-ammonium phosphate stones, either pure or mixed with apatite. Some types of stones (namely oxalate and uric acid calculi) are mainly formed as a result of a metabolic deficiency that may affect the amino acid metabolism, and thus may be reflected in the urinary amino acid pattern. Data demonstrated clearly that there is a general tendency towards decreased amino acid excretions in all SFs with all types of stones. As a whole, one can observe a higher percentage of patients with calcium oxalate and phosphate calculosis, who have low urine excretions of amino acids; about 50% are the SFs with lower urine excretion of serine, glycine, taurine and i-leucine; the high percentage of patients with CaOX calculi shows lower urine excretions of tyrosine and ornithine.

  3. Urinary excretion of phytoestrogens and risk of breast cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qi; Franke, Adrian A; Jin, Fan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Hebert, James R; Custer, Laurie J; Cheng, Jiarong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2002-09-01

    Although the majority of ecological and experimental studies have suggested a potential role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer prevention, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. Part of the inconsistencies may be attributable to the difficulty in measuring intake levels of phytoestrogens. Overnight urine samples from 250 incident breast cancer cases and their individually matched controls were analyzed for urinary excretion rates of isoflavonoids, mammalian lignans, and citrus flavonoids. The study subjects were a subset of the participants in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a large population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai from 1996-1998. To minimize potential influence of treatment on the exposure of interest, urine samples from breast cancer cases were collected before cancer therapy. Urinary excretion of total isoflavonoids and mammalian lignans was substantially lower in breast cancer cases than in controls. The median excretion rate of total isoflavonoids was 13.97 nmol/mg creatinine in cases and 23.09 in controls (P = 0.01), and the median excretion rate of total lignans was 1.77 in cases and 4.16 in controls (P rate of both total lignans and isoflavonoids compared with those with a low excretion of both groups of phytoestrogens. No association was observed with citrus flavonoids. The results from this study suggest that high intake of certain phytoestrogens may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  4. Comparison of 24-hour urinary citrate excretion in stone formers and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low urinary citrate excretion is a risk factor in stone formers (SF. This study aimed to measure the urinary citrate excretion in SF and healthy volunteers at our center from 12 June 2008 to 20 August 2009. There were 28 SF patients (18 males and ten females and 27 (18 males and nine females age-matched healthy adult volunteers who participated in this study. Both groups had a similar living environment, extrinsic factors, diet and genetic descent. After collecting 24-h urine, citrate was measured using an enzymatic kit. Routine urinalysis and 24-h creatinine and uric acid were also performed. There was a significant difference in urinary citrate excretion level among SF (mean 310, SD 260 mg/L and normal volunteer subjects (mean 800, SD 300 mg/L. By applying the previously defined normal values (320 mg/24 h of urinary citrate in the local population, 43% of the SF in our study group was hypocitric, and none among the controls. We conclude that prevalence of hypocitraturia in stone formers was higher than that in healthy volunteers in our population.

  5. Secretion of melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin urinary excretion in functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cezary Chojnacki; Tomasz Poplawski; Gra(z)yna Klupinska; Janusz Blasiak; Jan Chojnacki; Russel J Reiter

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate blood concentration of melatonin and urinary excretion of its metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-OHMS), in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS: Ninety individuals were enrolled in the study: 30 in each study group: patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), epigastric pain syndrome (EPS), and controls. Blood samples were drawn at 02:00 and 09:00 h and 24-h urine collection was performed. Serum melatonin and urinary 6-OHMS concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Serum melatonin concentration at night and in the morning was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in PDS patients [at 02:00 h-93.3 pg/mL, quartile range (QR): 79.8-116.2; at 09.00 h-14.3 pg/mL, QR: 7.06-19.0] than in EPS (57.2 pg/mL, QR: 42.6-73.1; 8.1 pg/mL, QR: 4.1-9.3) and control patients (57.7 pg/mL, QR: 51.2-62.5; 8.1 pg/mL, QR: 5.4-10.3). A similar relationship was observed for urinary 6-OHMS excretion. Patients with severe PDS symptoms had a higher melatonin concentration than these with moderate syndromes, whereas patients with severe EPS had a lower urinary 6-OHMS excretion than patients with moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of melatonin serum concentrations and 24-h urinary 6-OHMS excretion are useful methods for differential diagnosis of various clinical forms of FD.

  6. Amylase: creatinine clearance ratio and urinary excretion of lysozyme in acute pancreatitis and acute duodenal perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G M; Cowlin, J; Turner, T J

    1976-09-18

    The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio in patients suffering from acute pancreatitis or acute duodenal perforation was higher than normal in both groups of patients. These findings cast doubt on the value of this parameter as a specific index of acute pancreatitis. The mechanism or mechanisms underlying the increased amylase excretion have not been determined. However, the markedly elevated urinary excretion of lysozyme observed in some patients suggests, by analogy, that diminished tubular reabsorption of amylase may contribute towards the elevated amylase:creatinine ratio.

  7. Relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation, using urinary excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswania, O A; Corlett, S A; Chrystyn, H

    1999-01-01

    Aims To determine if a urinary excretion method, previously described for salbutamol, could also indicate the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation from a metered dose inhaler. Method Inhaled (INH), inhaled+oral charcoal (INHC), oral (ORAL) and oral+oral charcoal (ORALC) 20 mg doses of sodium cromoglycate were given via a randomised cross-over design to 11 healthy volunteers trained on how to use a metered dose inhaler. Urine samples were collected at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and up to 24 h post dosing and the sodium cromoglycate urinary concentration was measured using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Results No sodium cromoglycate was detected in the urine up to 24 h following ORALC dosing. A mean (s.d.) of 3.6 (4.3) μg, 10.4 (10.9) μg and 83.7 (71.1) μg of the ORAL dose was excreted, in the urine, during the 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h post dose collection periods, respectively. Following INH dosing, the renal excretion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) with 32.9 (14.5) μg, 61.2 (28.3) μg and 305.6 (82.3) μg excreted, respectively. The SCG excreted at 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h collection periods following INHC dosing were 26.3 (8.4) μg, 49.3 (18.1) μg and 184.9 (98.4) μg, respectively. There was no significant difference between the excretion rate of sodium cromoglycate following INHC when compared with INH dosing in the first 0.5 and 1.0 h. Conclusions The urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate in the first 0.5 h post inhalation can be used to compare the relative lung deposition of two inhaled products or of the same product using different inhalation techniques. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation. Similar 24 h urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate can be use to compare the total dose delivered to the body from two different inhalation products/inhalation methods. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the body

  8. Skin contamination, airborne concentrations, and urinary metabolite excretion of propoxur during harvesting of flowers in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, R; van Maarleveld, K; Ravensberg, L; Meuling, W; de Kort, W; van Hemmen, J J

    1993-11-01

    In eight greenhouses used for carnation culture, workers engaged in harvesting (n = 16), were monitored for dermal and respiratory exposure and urinary excretion of propoxur. Dermal exposure of hands and forearms was estimated from dislodgable foliar residue, using a transfer factor (a measure of transfer of pesticides from leaves to the skin) and the total number of working hours. Total estimated dermal and respiratory exposure during harvesting ranged from 0.2 to 46 mg and from 3 to 278 micrograms, respectively. To study the relationship between external and internal exposure to propoxur, respiratory and dermal exposure levels were compared with the total amount of 2-isopropoxyphenol (IPP), the major metabolite of propoxur, excreted in urine in 24 hr. The Pearson correlation coefficient between dermal exposure and the total amount of excreted IPP was 0.95. A correlation coefficient of 0.84 was found between respiratory exposure and the amount of IPP excreted. The latter association was probably caused by the covariation of respiratory and dermal exposure levels (r = 0.85). Assuming negligible oral absorption, calculations indicated that dermal exposure could account for > 80% of the amount of excreted IPP. On the basis of the amount of IPP excreted, there was no reason to suspect increased health risks for workers from exposure to propoxur during harvesting.

  9. Urinary excretion of carnitine in multiply injured patients on different regimens of total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederblad, G; Schildt, B; Larsson, J; Liljedahl, S O

    1983-04-01

    Carnitine derives from intake of preformed exogenous carnitine and synthesis from lysine and methionine, but is absent in parenteral fluids. Urinary excretions of carnitine and its derivatives was measured in 30 patients 2-8 days after severe multiple injuries and compared with controls. The patients received five different isocaloric parenteral nutritional regimens;group 1 glucose and fat, group 2 glucose, fat and amino acids, group 3 glucose and insulin, group 4 glucose and amino acids, and group 5 branched-chain amino acids. The mean total carnitine excretion in healthy men was 420 mumol/24 h +/- 57 (SEM), and in women 266 mumol/24 h +/- 29, 41% of which was free carnitine. Mean excretion of total carnitine during days 2-8 after trauma for the five groups was: 900 +/- 100, 1169 +/- 112, 1251 +/- 102, 1023 +/- 117, and 668 +/- 128 mumol/24 h, being significantly higher in groups 1-4 than in healthy men. The free carnitine fraction in the patients was significantly higher than in controlled healthy subjects. Total carnitine excretion was unaffected by different nutritional regimens in the very first days. During days 6-8, group 5, receiving branched-chain amino acids had lower excretion of total carnitine (compared to groups 2-4) and free carnitine (compared to groups 3-4). Groups 3 and 4 excreted a higher percentage as free carnitine compared to the other groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Urinary adiponectin excretion rises with increasing albuminuria in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Anders; Petersen, Emilie Hein; Tarnow, Lise

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Urinary adiponectin (u-adiponectin) excretion has been suggested to reflect early glomerular damage. Inspired by this, we studied the levels of u-adiponectin in type 1 diabetic patients with different levels of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). METHODS: U-adiponectin was analysed by ELISA...... in type 1 diabetic patients: Fifty-eight with normoalbuminuria (300mg/24h). For comparison, a control group of 55 healthy individuals was included. RESULTS: U-adiponectin increased...... with increasing levels of UAE (padiponectin median (interquartile range): Normoalbuminuria 0.38 (0.14-1.31), microalbuminuria 1.12 (0.20-2.68), macroalbuminuria 9.20 (1.10-23.35) and controls 0.09 (0.06-0.24) μg/g creatinine. Levels were unrelated to sex, age, cholesterol, diastolic BP and BMI. U-adiponectin...

  11. Urinary iron excretion induced by intravenous infusion of deferoxamine in ß-thalassemia homozygous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boturão-Neto E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify noninvasive methods to evaluate the severity of iron overload in transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia and the efficiency of intensive intravenous therapy as an additional tool for the treatment of iron-overloaded patients. Iron overload was evaluated for 26 ß-thalassemia homozygous patients, and 14 of them were submitted to intensive chelation therapy with high doses of intravenous deferoxamine (DF. Patients were classified into six groups of increasing clinical severity and were divided into compliant and non-compliant patients depending on their adherence to chronic chelation treatment. Several methods were used as indicators of iron overload. Total gain of transfusion iron, plasma ferritin, and urinary iron excretion in response to 20 to 60 mg/day subcutaneous DF for 8 to 12 h daily are useful to identify iron overload; however, urinary iron excretion in response to 9 g intravenous DF over 24 h and the increase of urinary iron excretion induced by high doses of the chelator are more reliable to identify different degrees of iron overload because of their correlation with the clinical grades of secondary hemochromatosis and the significant differences observed between the groups of compliant and non-compliant patients. Finally, the use of 3-9 g intravenous DF for 6-12 days led to a urinary iron excretion corresponding to 4.1 to 22.4% of the annual transfusion iron gain. Therefore, continuous intravenous DF at high doses may be an additional treatment for these patients, as a complement to the regular subcutaneous infusion at home, but requires individual planning and close monitoring of adverse reactions.

  12. Urinary excretion of dietary maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Butre, C.I.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Download »Citation Alerts »Sign up for TOC email alerts Share »Email this content »Recommend to librarian Facebook Twitter doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9550 Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats12 C. van Rooijen*, G. Bosch 3*, C. I. Butré†, A. F. B. van der Poe

  13. Evaluation of internal exposure to plutonium from the late urinary excretion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R.C. [Internal Dosimetry Divesion, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Abani, M.C. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Reserch Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to standardise the methodology for evaluation of internal exposure to plutonium from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP Publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC based users friendly computational software LUDEP 2.05 (Lung Dose Evaluation Program) which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of Pu aerosols more than 25 years ago and reported by others in literature, were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardised methodology. In order to demonstrate the effects of using different urinary excretion functions of Pu on the intake estimates, the results were generated from LUDEP 2.05 for Durbin and Jones functions respectively for aerosol sizes of 1 and 5 {mu}m AMAD. The committed effective doses (CEDs) for the three subjects were obtained from the intake estimates calculated using Jones function and inhalation of aerosols of 1 and 5 {mu}m AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter). Interestingly, the CEDs for the two particle sizes turned out to be essentially similar. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any Pu handling facility could be used to ascertain the compliance with the life time dose limit thereby supplementing the yearly evaluations of internal dose and yearly compliances with the dose limits. (author)

  14. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    with chronic nephropathy. Four groups of patients with moderate to severely reduced renal function were studied: glomerulonephritis (n = 10), diabetic nephropathy (n = 11), tubulointerstitial nephropathy (n = 13), and polycystic kidney disease (n = 8). The renal function was evaluated by glomerular filtration...... rate (GFR) as an indicator for the general renal function, lithium clearance (C(Li)) as an indicator for proximal tubular function, and absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADR(Na)) as an indicator for distal tubular function. The excretion rate of EGF was rather closely correlated with GFR, C...... analyses, the excretion rates of the two peptides were still associated with ADR(Na) but not with C(Li). In conclusion, the urinary excretion rates of especially EGF but also those of THP were correlated with renal function and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium in patients with chronic nephropathy....

  15. Studies on the pathogenesis in iron deficiency anemia Part 1. Urinary iron excretion in iron deficiency anemia patients and rats in various iron states

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    In the "iron excretion test" , urinary iron excretion after injection of saccharated iron oxide has been reported to be accelerated in relapsing idiopathic iron deficiency anemia. To determine the relevance of urinary iron excretion to clinical factors other than iron metabolism, 15 clinical parameters were evaluated. The serum creatinine level was positively and the serum albumin level was negatively correlated with urinary iron excretion, showing coefficients of r=0.97,-0.86 respectively, a...

  16. Organic Anion Transporter 5 (Oat5) Urinary Excretion Is a Specific Biomarker of Kidney Injury: Evaluation of Urinary Excretion of Exosomal Oat5 after N-Acetylcysteine Prevention of Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulacio, Romina Paula; Anzai, Naohiko; Ouchi, Motoshi; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2015-08-17

    Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. Its main side-effect is nephrotoxicity. It was reported that the organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5) urinary excretion is elevated, implying renal perturbation, when no modifications of traditional markers of renal damage are still observed in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). It was also demonstrated that Oat5 is excreted in urine by the exosomal pathway. This study was designated to demonstrate the specific response of the urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 to kidney injury independently of other cisplatin toxic effects, in order to strengthen Oat5 urinary levels as a specific biomarker of AKI. To accomplish that aim, we evaluated if urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 returns to its basal levels when cisplatin renal damage is prevented by the coadministration of the renoprotective compound N-acetylcysteine. Four days after cisplatin administration, AKI was induced in cisplatin-treated male Wistar rats (Cis group), as it was corroborated by increased urea and creatinine plasma levels. Tubular damage was also observed. In cotreated animals (Cis + NAC group), plasma urea and creatinine concentrations tended to return to their basal values, and tubular damage was improved. Urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was notably increased in the Cis group, but when renal injury was ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine coadministration, that increase was undetected. So, in this work we observed that urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was only increased if renal insult is produced, demonstrating its specificity as a renal injury biomarker.

  17. Urinary albumin excretion in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and correlation to left ventricle wall thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G B

    1998-01-01

    /creatinine concentration ratio above 1 mg/mmol. Urinary albumin excretion (0.88 [95% confidence interval 0.69-1.11] versus 0.51 [0.40-0.63] mg/mmol; p = 0.001) and frequency of microalbuminuria (33 [95% confidence interval 25-41] versus 16 [9-23]%; p = 0.03) were higher in patients than controls. This difference......Microalbuminuria, a subclinical rise in the urinary albumin excretion, is a risk indicator of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to measure the urinary albumin excretion in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and to correlate this with known atherosclerotic...... risk factors. One-hundred-and-twenty-six patients and 56 healthy controls matched for age and sex were studied. The albumin/creatinine concentration ratio in morning urine specimens was calculated as an index of the albumin excretion. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin...

  18. Evaluation of Salt Intake, Urinary Sodium Excretion and Their Relationship to Overhydration in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallvass, Andrea E C; Claro, Lígia Maria; Gonçalves, Simone; Olandoski, Márcia; Nerbass, Fabiana Baggio; Aita, Carlos Alberto Mayora; de Moraes, Thyago Proença; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate sodium intake in a group of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to correlate the results with the urinary excretion values of sodium and signs of fluid overload. We included patients with CKD in different stages. Urinary sodium was measured in 24 h urine samples. Body composition monitor (BCM) was used to estimate the hydration status. Sixty patients (38 ± 15 ml/min of GFR) presented 4.14 ± 1.71 g/24 h of urinary sodium excretion. Overhydration was detected in 50% of the patients by the BCM. There was a positive correlation between the measured sodium excretion values and BCM, ICW, ECW and TBW. In conclusion, markers of overhydration evaluated by BCM were positively correlated with urinary sodium excretion.

  19. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    up. SETTING: Diabetes centre in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetic nephropathy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline variables: urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow...

  20. Urinary albumin excretion and 24-hour blood pressure as predictors of pre-eclampsia in Type I diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekbom, P; Damm, P; Nøgaard, K;

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.......To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus....

  1. The Kinetics of Urinary Fumonisin B1 Excretion in Humans Consuming Maize-Based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ronald T.; Torres, Olga; Showker, Jency L.; Zitomer, Nicholas C.; Matute, Jorge; Voss, Kenneth A.; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Maddox, Joyce R.; Gregory, Simon G.; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in maize. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the relationship between FB1, FB2 and FB3 intake and urinary excretion in humans, 2) validate a method to isolate urinary FB on C18-SPE cartridges for international shipment, and 3) test the method using samples from Guatemala. Volunteers (n=10) consumed 206 grams/day of tortillas and biscuits prepared from masa flour and a product containing maize flour. Volunteers estimated their daily urine output and samples were analyzed for FB1, FB2 and FB3 and hydrolyzed FB1. Only FB1 was detected in urine suggesting lower absorption of FB2 and FB3. Excretion was highly variable peaking soon after consumption began and decreasing rapidly after consumption stopped. Within five days after consumption ended FB1 was not detected in urine. In a study with eight volunteers, the average total urinary FB1 was 0.5% of the intake. FB1 was detected in 61% (107/177) of the samples collected in Guatemala. The results support the use of urinary FB1 to assess ongoing exposure in population based studies. However, relating the FB1 concentration in urine to dietary intake of FB by individual subjects will be complicated due to inter-individual variability and the rapidity of clearance. PMID:22815244

  2. Urinary sodium excretion and kidney failure in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Tighiouart, Hocine; Levey, Andrew S; Beck, Gerald J; Sarnak, Mark J

    2014-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend under 2 g/day sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but there are a few studies relating sodium intake to long-term outcomes. Here we evaluated the association of mean baseline 24-h urinary sodium excretion with kidney failure and a composite outcome of kidney failure or all-cause mortality using Cox regression in 840 participants enrolled in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 3.46 g/day. Kidney failure developed in 617 participants, and the composite outcome was reached in 723. In the primary analyses, there was no association between 24-h urine sodium and kidney failure (HR 0.99 (95% CI 0.91-1.08)) nor on the composite outcome (HR 1.01 (95% CI 0.93-1.09)), each per 1 g/day higher urine sodium. In exploratory analyses, there was a significant interaction of baseline proteinuria and sodium excretion with kidney failure. Using a two-slope model, when urine sodium was under 3 g/day, higher urine sodium was associated with increased risk of kidney failure in those with baseline proteinuria under 1 g/day and with lower risk of kidney failure in those with baseline proteinuria of ⩾ 1 g/day. There was no association between urine sodium and kidney failure when urine sodium was ⩾ 3 g/day. Results were consistent using first baseline and time-dependent urinary sodium excretion. Thus, we noted no association of urine sodium with kidney failure. Results of the exploratory analyses need to be verified in additional studies and the mechanism explored.

  3. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA.

  4. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  5. Urinary corticosteroid excretion predicts left ventricular mass and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Freel, E Marie; Mark, Patrick B; Fraser, Robert; Patel, Rajan K; Dargie, Henry G; Connell, John M C; Jardine, Alan G

    2012-09-01

    Blockade of the MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) in CKD (chronic kidney disease) reduces LVMI [LV (left ventricular) mass index] and proteinuria. The MR can be activated by aldosterone, cortisol and DOC (deoxycorticosterone). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of mineralocorticoids on LVMI and proteinuria in patients with CKD. A total of 70 patients with CKD and 30 patients with EH (essential hypertension) were recruited. Patients underwent clinical phenotyping; biochemical assessment and 24 h urinary collection for THAldo (tetrahydroaldosterone), THDOC (tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone), cortisol metabolites (measured using GC-MS), and urinary electrolytes and protein [QP (proteinuira quantification)]. LVMI was measured using CMRI (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Factors that correlated significantly with LVMI and proteinuria were entered into linear regression models. In patients with CKD, significant predictors of LVMI were male gender, SBP (systolic blood pressure), QP, and THAldo and THDOC excretion. Significant independent predictors on multivariate analysis were THDOC excretion, SBP and male gender. In EH, no association was seen between THAldo or THDOC and LVMI; plasma aldosterone concentration was the only significant independent predictor. Significant univariate determinants of proteinuria in patients with CKD were THAldo, THDOC, USod (urinary sodium) and SBP. Only THAldo excretion and SBP were significant multivariate determinants. Using CMRI to determine LVMI we have demonstrated that THDOC is a novel independent predictor of LVMI in patients with CKD, differing from patients with EH. Twenty-four hour THAldo excretion is an independent determinant of proteinuria in patients with CKD. These findings emphasize the importance of MR activation in the pathogenesis of the adverse clinical phenotype in CKD.

  6. Response of urinary purine derivatives excretion to different levels of ruminal glucose infusion in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoefer, Uta; Ahnert, Sandra; Schoof, Hartwig; Moritz, Niels; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the response of urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion to increasing levels of intraruminal glucose infusion to evaluate how well this indicator reflects induced changes in microbial crude protein flow. Four rumen-cannulated heifers (482 ± 25 kg body weight) were fed at maintenance energy level with a basal diet (on fresh matter basis) of 4 kg/d hay, 1.5 kg/d concentrate and 60 g/d minerals in two equal meals. The trial comprised a control period (Control I) without glucose infusion followed by four consecutive periods in which all animals received 125 g, 250 g, 500 g or 1000 g/d of glucose, respectively. For this, daily dosages of glucose and urea (90 g/d during all periods) were divided into three portions that were dissolved in water and directly administered into the rumen during morning and afternoon feedings and once during noon. After the highest glucose dosage, a second control period was carried out (Control II). Urinary PD excretion increased with glucose infusion of 125 g/d (71.4 mmol/d) and 1000 g/d (74.2 mmol/d) over the level at Control I (53.9 mmol/d (standard error of the mean (SEM) 3.4; p = 0.012). After withdrawing glucose infusion, PD excretion (79.0 mmol/d) did not return to Control I level (p = 0.001). In contrast, faecal nitrogen (N) excretions linearly increased with incremental glucose infusion (p infusions highlight the limited accuracy of the PD excretion as a non-invasive indicator when incremental dosages of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates are supplied.

  7. Effect of water deprivation, desmopressin (DDAVP) infusion, and oral loads of water, Na+ and NH4+ on urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is synthesized in the kidneys and excreted in urine. Administration of exogenous EGF modulates the reabsorption of Na+ and the vasopressin stimulated reabsorption of water in the collecting tubules. In order to clarify whether this reflects a physiological role...... for urinary EGF we examined the effects of changes in the oral loads of water, Na+ and NH4+ as well as the effect of infusion of the vasopressin analogue, desmopressin (DDAVP) on the endogenous urinary EGF excretion in the rat. Water deprivation for 48 h reduced the urinary excretion of EGF by 25......% and the urinary EGF/creatinine ratio by 8%. Also, urinary volume, Na+ excretion, and urinary pH were reduced by water deprivation. Infusion of DDAVP, low plasma vasopressin induced by polydipsia, and changes in the renal excretion of Na+ and H+ did not affect the urinary excretion of EGF. In conclusion: it seems...

  8. Impact of supervised cardiac rehabilitation on urinary albumin excretion in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Sahika; Ueda, Yuka; Ise, Takayuki; Yagi, Shusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Nishikawa, Koji; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Katoh, Shinsuke; Akaike, Masashi; Yasui, Natsuo; Sata, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor of cardiovascular death. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) with exercise training (ET) has been shown to improve exercise capacity and prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it remains unclear whether CR reduces urinary albumin excretion in CVD patients. We performed a retrospective, observational study using data obtained from 98 male CVD patients without macroalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) who participated in CR with ET during hospitalization. Twenty-three patients continued supervised ET for 6 months (supervised group) and 75 patients quit supervised ET (non-supervised group). The supervised ET program consisted of 60 minutes of supervised sessions 1-3 times a week and 30-60 minutes of home exercise at least twice a week. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was significantly decreased in the supervised group at 6 months after enrollment (43 ± 71 mg/g to 17 ± 20 mg/g creatinine, P < 0.05) but not in the non-supervised group. eGFR was unchanged in the supervised group but was significantly decreased in the non-supervised group (72 ± 18 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) to 67 ± 17 mL/minute/1.73 m(2), P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that only supervised ET was an independent contributor to ΔACR. CR with supervised ET decreased urinary albumin excretion without deterioration of renal function. These findings suggest that continuation of a supervised ET program is associated with reduction in the development of CVD and reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CVD patients.

  9. Evaluation of urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion in infection by measurements of 1-methylhistidine and the creatinine ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölin, J; Stjernström, H; Henneberg, S;

    1989-01-01

    as an indicator of meat intake. We studied the basal urinary excretion of 1MH and whether this was influenced by infection and we compared the use of 3MH vs the 3MH:creatinine ratio (3MH:Cr) in detecting changes during infection. The basal excretion of 1MH was 84.9 mumol/24 h and its creatinine molar ratio (1MH...... with only 4 in 3MH. This was due to a higher precision in 3MH:Cr despite the concomitant significant increase in urinary creatinine excretion....

  10. Effect of a prostacyclin analogue, iloprost, on urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Ruello, Antonella; Floccari, Fulvio; Aloisi, Carmela; Latassa, Giuseppe; Corsonello, Andrea; Sturiale, Alessio; Corica, Francesco; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-06-01

    The regulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel excretion in the collecting duct depends mainly on the action of vasopressin (AVP). Recently, however, other regulatory factors have been identified: atrial natriuretic factor, oxytocin and prostaglandins. In healthy volunteers (5 males, 5 females; mean age 23 +/- 3 years) we therefore evaluated the effect of a stable analogue of prostacyclin-2 (PGI(2)), iloprost, on renal function and on the urinary excretion of AQP2 (U-AQP2). After 6 h of iloprost infusion, U-AQP2 increased from 0.8 +/- 0.15 to 1.8 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg creatinine (p < 0.001), while the urinary flow rate increased from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 1.8 +/- 4 (p < 0.01). No significant change was found in the AVP serum concentration, with a basal value of 3.17 +/- 0.12 vs. 3.15 +/- 0.12 pg/ml after 6 h of prostacyclin infusion. All the values returned to pre-study levels after a recovery period of 6 h. In conclusion, the PGI(2) analogue, iloprost, can induce U-AQP2 excretion independent of AVP.

  11. The effect of zinc supplementation on the urinary excretion of elements in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Gunay; Gunay, Mehmet; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to find out how oral zinc supplementation to elite athletes affects the element changes in the urine. The study registered 10 female athletes who were on the women's volleyball team of Gazi University Sports Club and whose mean age, weight, and height were 14.2±0.42 years, 59.8±7.79kg and 173.6±6.15 cm. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. The athletes who continued their daily routine training sessions (6 days/week) were supplemented with 220mg/day oral zinc sulfate for 4 weeks. In order to induce exhaustion, the subjects were put to a 20-meter shuttle run test before and after supplementation. A total, 7 times urine samples were collected follows as pre and post exercise before the start of the experiment and at the end (4 times), at the end of first, second and third week (3 times). Urinary levels of magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium (mg/dl), as well as zinc, copper, and selenium (μg/dl) were analyzed in the atomic emission device (ICP-MS). Arithmetic means and standard errors of the data were calculated. Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine differences between weeks. Values for which p<0,05 were considered significant. When compared to resting values, urinary excretion of copper and selenium decreased in exercise (p<0,05), but increased with zinc supplementation (p<0,05). Pre- and post-supplementation exercise resulted in reduced urinary zinc excretion (p<0,05). Zinc supplementation increased urinary zinc excretion in one-week intervals over the course of 4 weeks (p<0,05), and reduced selenium levels (p<0,05). When zinc is supplemented to athletes, the relation between the duration and dose of supplementation is important. The results of the study indicated that zinc does not have any negative effect on the urinary excretion of the concerned elements. It can thus be concluded that athletes may benefit from zinc support.

  12. Relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate inhaled products using urinary drug excretion post inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswania, Osama; Chrystyn, Henry

    2002-05-01

    The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation by different methods have been determined using a urinary excretion pharmacokinetic method. On three separate randomised study days, 7 days apart, subjects inhaled (i) 4x5 mg from an Intal metered dose inhaler (MDI), (ii) 4x5 mg from an MDI attached to a large volume spacer (MDI+SP) and (iii) 20 mg from an Intal Spinhaler (DPI). Urine samples were provided at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 24 h post dose. The mean (S.D.) amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted in the urine during the first 30 min post inhalation was 38.1 (27.5), 222.3 (120.3) and 133.1 (92.2) microg following MDI, MDI+SP and DPI, respectively. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of these amounts excreted in the urine over the first 30 min for MDI+SP vs. MDI, DPI vs. MDI and MDI+SP vs. DPI was 801.0 (358.0, 1244; psodium cromoglycate excreted over the 24 h post inhalation the ratios were 375.4 (232.9, 517.9; psodium cromoglycate from a metered dose inhaler attached to a large volume spacer.

  13. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    and the (n-3) rats, even though large differences were found in the percentage of arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]), icosapentaenoic acid (20:5[n-3]), and icosatrienoic acid (20:3[n-9]) of total kidney fatty acids as well as of kidney phosphatidylinositol fatty acids. Fractionation of urine extracts on high...... excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased...... an arachidonic acid pool, which is rather resistant to restriction in dietary linoleate. © 1983 American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS)....

  14. Urinary calcium excretion in healthy children and children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the role of urinary Ca excretion in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and defined normality and intra-individual variability in Ca excretion in healthy children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 46 Danish children with desmopressin resistant nocturnal enuresis and 96...... healthy controls. We performed fractional urine collections at home during 2 days in controls or during hospitalization in children with enuresis. Urine volume, osmolality, and Ca and creatinine measurements were performed and Ca-to-creatinine ratios were calculated and compared between groups. Based...... on nocturnal urine output children with enuresis were characterized as having polyuria (nocturnal urine volume greater than 130% of expected bladder capacity) or not having polyuria. RESULTS: We did not find any differences in controls compared with children with enuresis who did not and did have nocturnal...

  15. Chronic effects of methylmercury on the urinary excretion of catecholamines and their responses to hypoglycemic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabuto, M. (Japan National Inst. of Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Health)

    1991-02-01

    Five male Wistar rats were treated with methylmecury chloride (MMC) and compared with five agematched control rats. A dose of 10 mg/kg was given three times. The chronic effects of the MMC administration on the urinary output of catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA)) were measured for 50 days. On the 69th day after MMC administration, the rats were examined for insulin-induced hypoglycemic stress. On the 90th day, the animals were decapitated and various organs were weighted and serum thyroid hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and total and free thyroxine (T4)) were measured. Decreases in DA excretion and DA response to stress were observed in the MMC-treated group. Inflammation of the kidney was also found, suggesting MMC-induced damage to the renal tubular region, the apparent site of renal DA synthesis. The MMC group and the control group showed differential NE and E response patterns. The lowered baseline excretion of NE appeared to continue even 70 days after MMC administration, while the difference in E excretion between the two groups disappeared 1 month after MMC administration. Both NE and E showed normal responsiveness to hypoglycemic stress induced by insulin. All serum TSH and total and free T4 baseline levels showed slight increases, and the thyroid gland weights in the MMC group were slightly heavier. These findings suggest a rather hyperthyroid state after the initial acute phase suppression, as suggested by the previous examinations. Thus, these findings suggest long-lasting effects of methylmercury administration, especially on renal DA synthesis. Baseline urinary excretion of NE and thyroid function could also be affected for a long time. (orig.).

  16. Effect of urinary excretion on the bladder tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shigeru; Yamaoka, Makiko; Deguchi, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which of blood or urine has the greater effect on bladder tissue concentrations of fluoroquinolones important for the treatment of urinary tract infections by measuring concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the vesical tissue (chemically and immunohistochemically) and intravesical space (chemically). Thirty-minute incubation of isolated rat bladders with fluoroquinolones showed only a 1.9-fold difference in transferability among norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin. Intravesical instillation of norfloxacin and sparfloxacin in rats yielded similar vesical tissue distributions. Thus, there were no large differences in vesical tissue transfer among the four fluoroquinolones. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin (high urinary excretion-type) and sparfloxacin (low urinary excretion-type) at 1 h after a single oral dose (10 mg/kg) to rats were 15.4 and 1.3, respectively. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin after an intravenous injection (10 mg/kg) to ureter-catheterized and sham-operated rats were 1.36 and 57.8. Thus the bladder tissue distribution was significantly higher in the urine-exposed bladder. Immunohistochemical examination of the vesical tissue localization of norfloxacin in rats given a single intravenous dose revealed the presence of the drug-positive image in the cytoplasm of surface layer cells (both in umbrella and cover cells) of the bladder transitional epithelium. In conclusion, the results suggest that norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are excreted into urine and then transferred to the surface layer of the bladder transitional epithelium. Therefore, the urine levels have a greater effect on the vesicle tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones than the plasma levels in rats. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion in school-aged children in the province of Tokat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ali; Özer, Samet; Yılmaz, Resul; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Kasap, Tuba; Takçı, Şahin; Karaaslan, Erhan; Önder, Yalçın; Çıtıl, Rıza; Bütün, İlknur; Demir, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hypercalciuria is an important cause of urinary tract symptoms, and also frequently results in urolithiasis. Urinary calcium excretion varies for geographic areas. We aimed to assess percentiles of urinary calcium excretion and prevalence of hypercalciuria for school-aged children in Tokat (city located in inner northern region of Turkey). Material and Methods One thousand three hundred seventy-five children aged 6 to 18 years were enrolled in the study. Urine samples were obtained randomly. The children’s variables as sex, age, length, and weight were recorded. Urinary calcium and creatinine determined from the urine samples and urinary calcium/creatinine ratios (mg/mg) were calculated. Percentiles of urinary calcium/creatinine ratios were also assessed for each age of the children. Results Six hundred eighty-three of the 1 375 children were girls and 692 were boys. The mean age of the children was 11.68±3.43 years. Some 23.9% of the children were living in rural regions and 76.1% were were living in urban regions. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.080±0.24 and the 95th percentile value of the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.278. The hypercalciuria prevalence for school-aged children was 4.7% when the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio value for hypercalciuria was accepted as ≥0.21. The prevalence of hypercalciuria in rural and urban regions was 7.60% and 3.82%, respectively (p0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion vary for different geographic areas, not only for countries. The percentiles of urinary calcium excretion should be assesed for every geographic region and the prevalance of hypercalciuria should be determined with these values. There is controversy as to whether obesity is a risk factor for hypercalciuria. PMID:28123331

  18. [A case of adrenal pheochromocytoma with normotention and normal levels of urinary excretion of catecholamines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, K; Okano, J; Sasaki, I; Ogihara, T; Ishii, H; Tanaka, A; Ibayashi, H; Abe, Y; Kuramoto, H; Yanase, T

    1994-09-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for further examination of right adrenal mass accidentally pointed out by ultrasonogram. He had no symptoms and no physiological abnormalities. Endcrinological examinations revealed normal adrenocortical function, excluding the possibility of functioning adrenocortical adenoma. Pheochromocytoma seemed to be also unlikely since 24-hr urinary excretion of catecholamines were within normal limits. The tumor was surgically removed and histopathologically diagnosed as pheochromocytoma. This case of adrenal incidentaloma is unique in that little sign of pheochromocytoma was presented before operation. The reasons were discussed especially in respect of tissue contents of catecholamines and opioid peptide in comparison with other cases with pheochromocytoma we had experienced.

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanism is unknown, but moderate office blood pressure elevation has been demonstrated as part of a clustering of known atherosclerotic risk factors in subjects with elevated...... with an elevated UAER (>6.6 microg/min, overnight urine collection) and 46 normoalbuminuric control subjects. Mean+/-SD systolic and diastolic ambulatory blood pressures (24-hour) were significantly higher in subjects with elevated UAER than in normoalbuminuric controls (134+/-12 versus 128+/-11 mm Hg and 78...

  20. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is associated with impaired arterial dilatory capacity in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensen, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is hypothesized that elevated UAE is associated with a generalized vascular dysfunction. This study tested this hypothesis for conduit arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinically healthy subjects...... were selected: 19 with UAE >90th percentile in the background population (6.6 microgram/minExternal ultrasound was used to measure the dilatory response of the brachial artery to postischemic increased blood flow......-induced dilations were significantly impaired in subjects with elevated UAE as compared with normoalbuminuric control subjects: 102.0+/-1.0% (mean+/-SEM) versus 104.3+/-0.6% (P

  1. LC-MS/MS determination and urinary excretion study of seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Minlu; Liu, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-25

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine in human urine. The sample preparation procedure involved the four-fold dilution of the urine samples with acetonitrile/water (1:3, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2 column under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min with acetonitrile and water containing 0.5% formic acid as the mobile phase. The mass detection was performed in the positive mode. Calibration curves of the seven alkaloids showed good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9973) over their concentration ranges. To meet the requirements of urinary excretion study for each alkaloid in human, the lower limit of quantification was set at different values from 0.05063 ng/mL to 2.034 ng/mL for the seven alkaloids, respectively. The intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy were all within ± 15%. No matrix effect was observed for the analytes. The validated method was applied to the excretion study for the seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets. The average 72 h cumulative urinary excretion of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine accounted for 1.81%, 0.27%, 0.29%, 0.046%, 0.027%, 0.010% and 0.021% of the respective administered dose.

  2. Impaired renal function and increased urinary isoprostane excretion in Ghanaian women with pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetteh PW

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul Winston Tetteh,1,4 Charles Antwi-Boasiako,1 Ben Gyan,3 Daniel Antwi,1 Festus Adzaku,1 Kwame Adu-Bonsaffoh,1,2 Samuel Obed21Department of Physiology, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 3Department of Immunology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; 4Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht, The NetherlandsBackground: The cause of pre-eclampsia remains largely unknown, but oxidative stress (an imbalance favoring oxidant over antioxidant forces has been implicated in contributing to the clinical symptoms of hypertension and proteinuria. Assessment of oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia using urinary isoprostane has produced conflicting results, and it is likely that renal function may affect isoprostane excretion. The aim of this study was to determine the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia and to assess the effect of renal function on isoprostane excretion in pre-eclampsia in the Ghanaian population.Methods: This was a case-controlled study, comprising 103 pre-eclamptic women and 107 normal pregnant controls and conducted at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital between December 2006 and May 2007. The study participants were enrolled in the study after meeting the inclusion criteria and signing their written informed consent. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring urinary excretion of isoprostane and total antioxidant capacity using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Renal function was assessed by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula.Results: The pre-eclampsia group had significantly (P = 0.0006 higher urinary isoprostane excretion (2.81 ± 0.14 ng/mg creatinine than the control group (2.01 ± 0.18 ng/mg creatinine and a significantly (P = 0.0008 lower total antioxidant power (1

  3. Urinary fluoride excretion after application of fluoride varnish and use of fluoride toothpaste in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockner, Frida; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2017-01-20

    The efficacy and safety of combined use of topical fluoride products are essential issues that must be monitored. To assess urinary excretion of fluoride after application of two different dental varnishes containing 2.26% fluoride in 3- to 4-year-old children and to compare the levels with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste. Fifteen healthy children were enrolled to a randomized crossover trial that was performed in two parts: Part I with twice-daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and Part II with twice-daily brushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste. After a 1-week run-in period, 0.1 mL of the two fluoride varnishes (Duraphat and Profluorid Varnish) was topically applied in a randomized order. Baseline and experimental urine was collected during 6-h periods. The fluoride content was determined with an ion-sensitive electrode. There was a statistically significant increase in the 6-h fluoride excretion after application of both experimental varnishes, with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste (P fluoridated toothpaste was used, the mean fluoride excretion was 0.20 mg/6 h after application of Duraphat and 0.29 mg/6 h after application of Profluorid Varnish (P = 0.18). Topical applications of 0.1 mL of fluoride varnish significantly increased the 6-h fluoride excretion. As some individuals displayed excretion levels exceeding the optimal fluoride exposure, a restricted use of fluoride toothpaste in connection with the varnish applications would decrease fluoride exposure. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Urinary oxalate excretion by very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, T; Braden, G

    1989-11-01

    Renal calcifications have been described in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and diuretic drug-associated hypercalciuria is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of this lesion. Hyperoxaluria is an important cause of renal stone formation in children and adults. Because parenteral nutrition solutions contain the oxalate precursors ascorbate and glycine, the relationship between total parenteral nutrition administration and oxalate excretion in VLBW infants was examined. Administration of approximately 0.5 g of total parenteral nutrition protein per kilogram per day to VLBW infants was associated with an increased urinary oxalate concentration and an increased urinary oxalate to creatinine ratio, when compared with VLBW infants receiving a glucose and electrolyte solution. A further increase in urinary oxalate concentration and oxalate to creatinine ratio was noted when total parenteral nutrition protein was increased to approximately 1.5 g of protein per kilogram per day. In VLBW infants who receive total parenteral nutrition, elevated urinary oxalate concentrations may develop and may be a factor in the pathogenesis of nephrocalcinosis in these infants.

  5. Urinary Excretion of Phenolic Acids by Infants and Children: A Randomised Double-Blind Clinical Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uberos, J.; Fernández-Puentes, V.; Molina-Oya, M.; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R.; Ruíz-López, A.; Tortosa-Pinto, P.; Molina-Carballo, A.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study, which is part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay, is aimed at determining the effects of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim treatment for UTI. Methods: This Phase III randomised clinical trial was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain) with a study population of 192 patients, aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI, associated or otherwise with vesico-ureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with urinary infection. Each child was randomly given 0.2 mL/Kg/day of either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim (8 mg/mL). The primary and secondary objectives, respectively, were to determine the risk of UTI and the levels of phenolic acids in urine associated with each intervention. Results: With respect to UTI, the cranberry treatment was non-inferior to trimethoprim. Increased urinary excretion of ferulic acid was associated with a greater risk of UTI developing in infants aged under 1 year (RR 1.06; CI 95% 1.024–1.1; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results obtained show the excretion of ferulic acid is higher in infants aged under 1 year, giving rise to an increased risk of UTI, for both treatment options. PMID:23641168

  6. Observation of changes in urinary excretion of thorium in humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoellriegl, V. [Institute of Radiation Protection, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: vera.hoellriegl@gsf.de; Greiter, M. [Institute of Radiation Protection, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Giussani, A. [Institute of Radiation Protection, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Gerstmann, U. [Institute of Radiation Protection, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Michalke, B. [Institute of Ecological Chemistry, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Roth, P. [Institute of Radiation Protection, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Oeh, U. [Institute of Radiation Protection, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    The study investigated the changes in urinary thorium excretion by humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil, which contains about 10 ppm of thorium. This well-known healing earth in Germany has been considered as an alternative medicine for diarrhoea and gastric hyper-acidity. Six adult volunteers ingested this therapeutic soil in varying quantities for 1-15 days at levels approximating those described in the package insert of the medicine (10-60 g of soil per day). The subjects ingested about 0.1-0.6 mg of thorium daily, which is 100-600 times higher than the normal daily intake of about 1 {mu}g thorium in Germany. All 24-h urine samples collected from the subjects during pre-ingestion, ingestion and post-ingestion periods of the soil were analyzed for {sup 232}Th using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured excretion values varied in a wide range. Apparently, the high thorium amounts administered did not increase the {sup 232}Th excretion in urine as expected, suggesting that this soil ingestion will not result in a considerably higher and harmful uptake of thorium into the human body.

  7. Observation of changes in urinary excretion of thorium in humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllriegl, V; Greiter, M; Giussani, A; Gerstmann, U; Michalke, B; Roth, P; Oeh, U

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the changes in urinary thorium excretion by humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil, which contains about 10 ppm of thorium. This well-known healing earth in Germany has been considered as an alternative medicine for diarrhoea and gastric hyper-acidity. Six adult volunteers ingested this therapeutic soil in varying quantities for 1-15 days at levels approximating those described in the package insert of the medicine (10-60 g of soil per day). The subjects ingested about 0.1-0.6 mg of thorium daily, which is 100-600 times higher than the normal daily intake of about 1 microg thorium in Germany. All 24-h urine samples collected from the subjects during pre-ingestion, ingestion and post-ingestion periods of the soil were analyzed for (232)Th using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured excretion values varied in a wide range. Apparently, the high thorium amounts administered did not increase the (232)Th excretion in urine as expected, suggesting that this soil ingestion will not result in a considerably higher and harmful uptake of thorium into the human body.

  8. Creatinine clearance, urinary excretion of glomerular basement membrane antigens and renal histology in congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, N P

    1977-04-01

    The endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary excretion rate of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antigens were followed from 2 to 19 months in fifteen patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNF). The quantitative examination of renal morphology was made on fourteen of these patients. Creatinine clearance increased during the first few months of life and thereafter gradually decreased. The urinary excretion rate of GBM antigens rose during the course of the disease. The creatinine clearance did not correlate significantly with glomerular fibrosis but it did correlate with tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The urinary excretion of GBM antigens correlated significantly with glomerular and interstitial fibrosis and with tubular atrophy. It is concluded that there is a clear progress in the disease and the renal histological changes probably are caused by accumulation of GBM material in glomeruli.

  9. The factors influencing urinary arsenic excretion and metabolism of workers in steel and iron smelting foundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhua, Xi; Qingshan, Sun; Fei, Wang; Shengnan, Liu; Ling, Yan; Lin, Zhang; Yingli, Song; Nan, Yan; Guifan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the degree of arsenic (As) exposure and the factors influencing urinary As excretion and metabolism, 192 workers from a steel and iron smelting plant, with different type of work in production such as roller, steel smelting, iron smelting and metallic charge preparation, were recruited. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic As (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The results showed that steel smelters had significantly higher concentrations of DMA and total As (TAs) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers, and iron and steel smelters had a higher value of primary methylation index and lower proportion of the iAs (iAs%) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers. In steel smelters, urinary As level exceeded the biological exposure index (BEI) limit for urinary As of 35 μg/l by 65.52%, and higher than metallic charge preparation workers (35.14%). The individuals consumed seafood in recent 3 days had a higher TAs than the individuals without seafood consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that different jobs, taken Chinese medicine of bezoar and seafood consumption in recent 3 days were significantly associated with urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value 35 μg/l. Our results suggest that workers in steel and iron smelting plant had a lower level of As exposure, and seafood consumption and taking Chinese medicine of bezoar also could increase the risk of urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value.

  10. Chronic metabolic acidosis reduces urinary oxalate excretion and promotes intestinal oxalate secretion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Urinary oxalate excretion is reduced in rats during a chronic metabolic acidosis, but how this is achieved is not clear. In this report, we re-examine our prior work on the effects of a metabolic acidosis on urinary oxalate handling [Green et al., Am J Physiol Ren Physiol 289(3):F536-F543, 2005], offering a more detailed analysis and interpretation of the data, together with new, previously unpublished observations revealing a marked impact on intestinal oxalate transport. Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with 0.28 M ammonium chloride in their drinking water for either 4 or 14 days followed by 24 h urine collections, blood-gas and serum ion analysis, and measurements of (14)C-oxalate fluxes across isolated segments of the distal colon. Urinary oxalate excretion was significantly reduced by 75% after just 4 days compared to control rats, and this was similarly sustained at 14 days. Oxalate:creatinine clearance ratios indicated enhanced net re-absorption of oxalate by the kidney during a metabolic acidosis, but this was not associated with any substantive changes to serum oxalate levels. In the distal colon, oxalate transport was dramatically altered from net absorption in controls (6.20 ± 0.63 pmol cm(-2) h(-1)), to net secretion in rats with a metabolic acidosis (-5.19 ± 1.18 and -2.07 ± 1.05 pmol cm(-2) h(-1) at 4 and 14 days, respectively). Although we cannot rule out modifications to bi-directional oxalate movements along the proximal tubule, these findings support a gut-kidney axis in the management of oxalate homeostasis, where this shift in renal handling during a metabolic acidosis is associated with compensatory adaptations by the intestine.

  11. Effect of intracerebroventricularly injected insulin on urinary sodium excretion by cerebroventricular streptozotocin-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Macedo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that insulin may influence many brain functions. It is known that intracerebroventricular (icv injection of nondiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin (STZ can damage insulin receptor signal transduction. In the present study, we examined the functional damage to the brain insulin receptors on central mechanisms regulating glomerular filtration rate and urinary sodium excretion, over four periods of 30 min, in response to 3 µl insulin or 0.15 NaCl (vehicle injected icv in STZ-treated freely moving Wistar-Hannover rats (250-300 g. The icv cannula site was visually confirmed by 2% Evans blue infusion. Centrally administered insulin (42.0 ng/µl increased the urinary output of sodium (from 855.6 ± 85.1 to 2055 ± 310.6 delta%/min; N = 11 and potassium (from 460.4 ± 100 to 669 ± 60.8 delta%/min; N = 11. The urinary sodium excretion response to icv insulin microinjection was markedly attenuated by previous central STZ (100 µg/3 µl administration (from 628 ± 45.8 to 617 ± 87.6 delta%/min; N = 5 or by icv injection of a dopamine antagonist, haloperidol (4 µg/3 µl (from 498 ± 39.4 to 517 ± 73.2 delta%/min; N = 5. Additionally, insulin-induced natriuresis occurred by increased post-proximal tubule sodium rejection, despite an unchanged glomerular filtration rate. Excluding the possibility of a direct action of STZ on central insulin receptor-carrying neurons, the current data suggest that the insulin-sensitive response may be processed through dopaminergic D1 receptors containing neuronal pathways.

  12. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  13. Human urinary excretion profile after smoking and oral administration of ( sup 14 C)delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E.; Gillespie, H.K.; Halldin, M.M. (BMC, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1990-05-01

    The urinary excretion profiles of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) metabolites have been evaluated in two chronic and two naive marijuana users after smoking and oral administration of ({sup 14}C)delta 1-THC. Urine was collected for five days after each administration route and analyzed for total delta 1-THC metabolites by radioactivity determination, for delta 1-THC-7-oic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for cross-reacting cannabinoids by the EMIT d.a.u. cannabinoid assay. The average urinary excretion half-life of {sup 14}C-labeled delta 1-THC metabolites was calculated to be 18.2 +/- 4.9 h (+/- SD). The excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings were similar to the excretion profile of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the naive users. However, in the chronic users the excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings did not resemble the radioactive excretion due to the heavy influence from previous Cannabis use. Between 8-14% of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine in both user groups after oral administration. Lower urinary recovery was obtained both in the chronic and naive users after smoking--5 and 2%, respectively.

  14. Megalin is a receptor for apolipoprotein M, and kidney-specific megalin-deficiency confers urinary excretion of apolipoprotein M

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Kirsten; Hvidberg, Vibeke; Moestrup, Søren K

    2006-01-01

    . To examine the importance of apoM binding by megalin in vivo, we analyzed mice with a tissue-specific deficiency of megalin in the kidney. Megalin deficiency was associated with pronounced urinary excretion of apoM, whereas apoM was not detected in normal mouse, human, or rat urine. Gel filtration analysis...... showed that the urinary apoM-containing particles were small and devoid of apoA-I. The results suggest that apoM binds to megalin and that megalin-mediated endocytosis in kidney proximal tubules prevents apoM excretion in the urine....

  15. Urinary CYP eicosanoid excretion correlates with glomerular filtration in African-Americans with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Albert W; Smith, Stanley V; Kyle, Patrick B; Ramaiah, Manjunath; Amenuke, Margaret; Garrett, Michael R; Lirette, Seth T; Griswold, Michael E; Roman, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), i.e., 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), play an important role in the regulation of renal tubular and vascular function. The present study for the first time profiled HETEs and epoxygenase derived dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid diHETEs levels in spot urines and plasma in 262 African American patients from the University of Mississippi Chronic Kidney Disease Clinic and 31 African American controls. Significant correlations in eGFR and urinary 20-HETE/creatinine and 19-HETE/creatinine levels were observed. The eGFR increased by 17.47 [p=0.001] and 60.68 [(p=0.005]ml/min/for each ng/mg increase in 20-HETE and 19-HETE levels, respectively. Similar significant positive associations were found between the other urinary eicosanoids and eGFR and also with 19-HETE/urine creatinine concentration and proteinuria. We found that approximately 80% of plasma HETEs and 30% diHETEs were glucuronidated and the fractional excretion of 20-HETE was less than 1%. These results suggest that there is a significant hepatic source of urinary 20-HETE glucuronide and EETs with extensive renal biotransformation to metabolites which may play a role in the pathogenesis of CKD.

  16. Urinary CYP Eicosanoid Excretion Correlates with Glomerular Filtration in African-Americans with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Albert W; Smith, Stanley V; Kyle, Patrick B; Ramaiah, Manjunath; Amenuke, Margaret; Garrett, Michael R; Lirette, Seth T; Griswold, Michael E; Roman, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), i.e., 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), play an important role in the regulation of renal tubular and vascular function. The present study for the first time profiled HETEs and epoxygenase derived dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid diHETEs levels in spot urines and plasma in 262 African American patients from the University of Mississippi Chronic Kidney Disease Clinic and 31 African American controls. Significant correlations in eGFR and urinary 20-HETE/creatinine and 19-HETE/ creatinine levels were observed. The eGFR increased by 17.47 [p=0.001] and 60.68 [(p=0.005] ml/min/ for each ng/mg increase in 20-HETE and 19-HETE levels, respectively. Similar significant positive associations were found between the other urinary eicosanoids and eGFR and also with 19-HETE/urine creatinine concentration and proteinuria. We found that approximately 80% of plasma HETEs and 30% diHETEs were glucuronidated and the fractional excretion of 20-HETE was less than 1%. These results suggest that there is a significant hepatic source of urinary 20-HETE glucuronide and EETs with extensive renal biotransformation to metabolites which may play a role in the pathogenesis of CKD. PMID:25151892

  17. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  18. Urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine and creatinine by healthy Dutch children during day and night. The influence of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speek, A.J.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Schrijver, J.

    1986-01-01

    The urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine and creatinine and the urinary 3-methylhistidine to creatinine excretion ratio during day and night were investigated in a group of 103 healthy, normally fed Dutch children (52 boys and 51 girls) aged 2-17 years. The 3-methylhistidine to creatinine ratio of

  19. Urinary AQP2 excretion is increased during nephrotic syndrome and is associated with reduced urine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, René Frydensbjerg; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Frøkjær, Jørgen

    of the study was to investigate the urinary presence of the renal water channel AQP2 and it´s correlation to urine production in children with NS. METHODS: A total of 20 (7 girls) children with NS were included with a mean age of 9.1±3.2 yrs. Urine samples were collected from the second morning void at debut......OBJECTIVES: Edema is a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome (NS) and has largely been attributed to sodium retention. Yet low plasma sodium is frequently observed in children with acute NS suggesting that a disturbance in renal water handling may coexist together with sodium retention. The aim......, patients exhibit an increased excretion of AQP2 in urine compared with remission and increased uAQP2 concentration correlated with reduced urine production. Further studies are needed to investigate if uAQP2 contributes to a positive free water balance in NS independently of sodium retention....

  20. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    1988-01-01

    ), but was significantly lower in group 2 (27.7 (13.9-44.3) ml/kg/min) and group 3 (22.6-36.7) ml/kg/min). The difference in maximal oxygen uptake between groups 1 and 2 was 10.8 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval 3.6 to 23.4 ml/kg/min) and between groups 1 and 3, 11.7 ml/kg/min (4.9 to 22.5 ml/kg/min). These differences...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...... or the duration of diabetes. Whether the reduced capacity is due to widespread microangiopathy or another pathological process affecting the myocardium remains to be established....

  1. Association between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure in type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. METHODS: We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR tertiles and an IOP of ≥ 18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. RESULTS: Subjects with a high IOP ≥ 18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038, heavy drinkers (P = 0.006, and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016, triglycerides (P = 0.008, and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022.In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022. The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively. In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Pathology of spontaneous tubular proteinuria evaluated by renal scintigraphy {sup 99m}-Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Second report. Evaluation of urinary excretion and urinary bladder uptake images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Takeshi; Hosaki, Tomoko; Shimizu, Mariko [Fussa Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    The significance of DMSA uptake in the urinary bladder and %uptake in renal scintigrams with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in spontaneous tubular proteinuria was reassessed. The subjects were 10 patients in whom DMSA uptake in the urinary bladder could be clearly evaluated among 15 cases that were tentatively diagnosed as having spontaneous tubular proteinuria and in which renal scintigraphy was performed with DMSA. All of the patients were male children and their mean age was 9 years 11 months. No morphological abnormalities in the kidneys could be detected in any of the cases, and %uptake of DMSA was very low. Urinary excretion and uptake of the nuclide in the urinary bladder was significantly increased. In view of the pharmacokinetics of DMSA, the patients' disease appeared to be complicated by failure of the proximal tubule epithelial cells to resorb low-molecular-weight proteins, and the failure of active transport on the vascular lumen side of the cells. As a result, urinary excretion was increased and marked uptake in the urinary bladder was induced. Accordingly, when %uptake of DMSA cannot be measured, it is necessary to determine the extent of uptake in the urinary bladder. When images showing abnormal uptake are obtained, the possibility of diseases associated with functional failure at the proximal tubular level, such as spontaneous tubular proteinuria, is quite high. (K.H.)

  3. Effect of pyridoxine treatment of a homocystinuric patient on the urinary excretion of some sulfur-containing amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodama,H.

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pyridoxine treatment of a homocystinuric patient on the urinary excretion of some sulfur-containing amino acids was studied and the following results were obtained. As a result of pyridoxine treatment, urinary homocystine decreased to a fairly great extent, and its unusual metabolites S.(3-hydroxy-3-carboxyn- propylthio homocysteine (HCPTHC and S-C8-carboxyethylthio homocysteine (j3-CETHC increased to some extent. But its oxidation product (homocysteic acid showed a tendency to decrease slightly. Urinary methionine and cystine increased to some extent, but cysteinehomocysteine mixed disulfide showed no remarkable change.

  4. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion is not related to impaired renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at 5-years of follow-up. To further explore UOER in relation to local renal physiological phenomena, we studied renal glomerular and tubular functions in patients...... with type 2 diabetes and normal or increased UOER....

  5. Nitrate contamination of drinking water: relationship with HPRT variant frequency in lymphocyte DNA and urinary excretion of N-nitrosamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, J.M.S.; Welle, I.J.; Hageman, G.J.; Dallinga, J.W.; Mertens, P.L.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of drinking water: relationship with HPRT variant frequency in lymphocyte DNA and urinary excretion of N-nitrosamines. van Maanen JM, Welle IJ, Hageman G, Dallinga JW, Mertens PL, Kleinjans JC. Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, University of Limburg,

  6. Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of hypertension. The prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Mukamal, K.J.; Kootstra-Ros, J.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies on dietary or circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations, but have lacked measures of actual dietary uptake. Urinary magnesium excretion, an indicator of intestinal magnesium absorption, may provide a better insight in this

  7. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of the antioxidant flavonols quercetin and kaempferol as biomarkers for dietary intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.H.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Meyboom, S.; Buysman, M.N.C.P.; Zock, P.L.; Staveren, van W.A.; Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Flavonols are antioxidants that may reduce the risk of heart disease. Two major flavonols in the diet are quercetin and kaempferol, and their main sources in The Netherlands are tea and onions. We investigated whether plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of quercetin and kaempferol in humans

  8. Progression risk, urinary protein excretion, and treatment effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in nondiabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, David M; Jafar, Tazeen H; Hayward, Rodney A;

    2007-01-01

    It is unclear whether patients with nondiabetic kidney disease benefit from angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy when they are at low risk for disease progression or when they have low urinary protein excretion. With the use of a combined database from 11 randomized, clinical tr...

  9. Urinary Magnesium Excretion and Risk of Hypertension The Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Kootstra-Ros, J.E.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies on dietary or circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations, but have lacked measures of actual dietary uptake. Urinary magnesium excretion, an indicator of intestinal magnesium absorption, may provide a better insight in this

  10. Urinary GSTP1-1 excretion is markedly increased in normotensive pregnancy as well as in preeclampsia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roes, E.M.; Raijmakers, M.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Peters, W.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are present in large amounts in the human kidney, where they demonstrate a specific distribution. The assessment of urinary excretion of GST alpha (proximal tubules) and pi (distal and collecting tubules) could be helpful in determining if, and to what

  11. Urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine excretion rates are heritable, but not associated with office and ambulatory blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Fokko J.; Wu, Ting; Gladkevich, Anatoliy; Ge, Dongliang; Treiber, Frank A.; Snieder, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Genetic and environmental contributions to urinary excretion rates of norepinephrine (UNEV) and epinephrine (UEV) and their association with blood pressure (BP) were investigated in 91 African American (mean age, 17.3 +/- 2.6 years) and 101 European American (mean age, 18.7 +/- 3.4 years) mono- and

  12. Tranexamic acid, an inhibitor of plasminogen activation, reduces urinary collagen cross-link excretion in both experimental and rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Moak, S.A.; Roos, J.A.D.M. de; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Breedveld, F.C.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The plasminogen activation system is one of the enzyme systems held responsible for bone and cartilage degradation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the effect of tranexamic acid (TEA), an inhibitor of plasminogen activation, on urinary collagen cross-link excretion and radio

  13. A controlled study on serum insulin-like growth factor-I and urinary excretion of growth hormone in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Main, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM. METHODS. The 24-h urinary growth hormone excretion and serum levels of insulin...

  14. A review of factors influencing milk urea concentration and its relationship with urinary urea excretion in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Duinkerken, van G.; Bannink, A.

    2013-01-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration in dairy cows may serve as an on-farm indicator to guide nutritional strategies and to help reduce emissions of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Excretion of urinary urea nitrogen (UUN) is positively related to MUN, but the relationship is highly variable. The

  15. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in children with Alport syndrome: effect on urinary albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashtan Clifford E

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are routinely prescribed to patients with chronic kidney disease because of their known renoprotective effects. We evaluated the effect of short-term therapy with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, in early Alport syndrome, defined as disease duration less than 10 years and a normal glomerular filtration rate. Methods 11 children with early Alport syndrome were investigated. Two consecutive early morning urine specimens were collected at the start of the study for measurement of urinary creatinine, total protein, albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion. Patients were treated with enalapril, ≅ 0.2 mg/kg/day, once a day for 14 days. Two early morning urine specimens were collected on days 13 and 14 of enalapril treatment and two weeks later for measurement of urinary creatinine, total protein, albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion. Results Prior to treatment, urinary excretion of transforming growth factor-β and nitrite, the major metabolite of nitric oxide, was within normal limits in all patients. Administration of enalapril for 2 weeks did not alter urinary albumin, transforming growth factor-β, or nitrite excretion. Conclusion These findings suggest that early Alport syndrome represents a disease involving exclusively intrinsic glomerular barrier dysfunction. At this stage of the illness, there is no evidence of angiotensin II-mediated proteinuria or increased production of transforming growth factor-β and, therefore, routine treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor may not be warranted.

  16. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J. C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E. A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I. P.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  17. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  18. Tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of Cr in chromium picolinate (CrPic)-supplemented lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Lima, Bárbara Alcântara Ferreira; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Mustafa, Vanessa da Silva; McManus, Concepta; Paim, Tiago do Prado; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Louvandini, Helder

    2016-05-01

    Chromium (Cr) concentrations in liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lymph node, skeletal muscle, bone, testis and urine of lambs were measured to trace the biodistribution and bioaccumulation of Cr after oral supplementation with chromium picolinate (CrPic). Twenty-four Santa Inês lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic: placebo, 0.250, 0.375 and 0.500 mg of CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Cr concentrations were measured by ICP-MS measuring (52)Cr as collected mass. There was a positive linear relationship between dose administered and the accumulation of Cr in the heart, lungs and testis. Urinary excretion of Cr occurred in a time and dose-dependent manner, so the longer or more dietary Cr provided, the greater excretion of the element. As some non-carcass components (such as lungs or heart) are added to bone and visceral meal to feed animals, there is a risk of bioaccumulation and biomagnification due to Cr offered as CrPic in the diet.

  19. Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients during urinary diluting and concentrating tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, B; Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Kornerup, H J; Knudsen, F; Mogensen, C E; Nielsen, A H

    1986-11-01

    Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin was measured in nine hypertensive and nine normotensive renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy control subjects before and after an oral water load of 20 ml (kg body weight)-1 (study 1) and in eight hypertensive and 11 normotensive renal transplant recipients and 11 healthy control subjects during 24-h water deprivation (study 2). In both studies 1 and 2 urinary albumin excretion was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients that in the normotensive patients and the control subjects (levels before loading; hypertensives: 23.9 micrograms/min (median), range 7.5-58.7; normotensives: 3.4 micrograms/min, range 1.0-49.3; controls: 2.9 micrograms/min, range 1.3-10.3). Urinary albumin excretion was significantly positive correlated to both systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (for mean blood pressure: rho = 0.625, n = 18, p less than 0.01) in transplanted patients. Albumin excretion tended to increase after water loading and to decrease during water deprivation in all groups. Beta-2-microglobulin excretion was approximately the same in all groups in both studies 1 and 2 and was not correlated to blood pressure. During a follow-up period of at least 18 months, none of the renal transplant recipients developed signs of chronic graft failure. Increased urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients thus appears to be caused by increased glomerular permeability that may be due to glomerular damage induced by arterial hypertension corresponding to the findings in essential hypertension.

  20. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dietary 5-hydroxytryptophan and tyrosine are found on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Trachte

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available George J Trachte1, Thomas Uncini2, Marty Hinz31Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of MN Medical School Duluth, Duluth, MN, USA; 2Chief Medical Examiner, St. Louis County, Hibbing, MN, USA; 3Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Amino acid precursors of dopamine and serotonin have been administered for decades to treat a variety of clinical conditions including depression, anxiety, insomnia, obesity, and a host of other illnesses. Dietary administration of these amino acids is designed to increase dopamine and serotonin levels within the body, particularly the brain. Convincing evidence exists that these precursors normally elevate dopamine and serotonin levels within critical brain tissues and other organs. However, their effects on urinary excretion of neurotransmitters are described in few studies and the results appear equivocal. The purpose of this study was to define, as precisely as possible, the influence of both 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP and tyrosine on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population consuming both 5-HTP and tyrosine. Curiously, only 5-HTP exhibited a marginal stimulatory influence on urinary serotonin excretion when 5-HTP doses were compared to urinary serotonin excretion; however, a robust relationship was observed when alterations in 5-HTP dose were compared to alterations in urinary serotonin excretion in individual patients. The data indicate three statistically discernible components to 5-HTP responses, including inverse, direct, and no relationships between urinary serotonin excretion and 5-HTP doses. The response to tyrosine was more consistent but primarily yielded an unexpected reduction in urinary dopamine excretion. These data indicate that the urinary excretion pattern of neurotransmitters after consumption of their precursors is far more complex than previously appreciated. These data on urinary neurotransmitter excretion might

  1. Urinary albumin excretion rate is correlated with severity of coronary artery disease in elderly type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li-xin; MA Jing; CHENG Yang; ZHANG Li-na; LI Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease is the main complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus; its incidence is closely related to microalbuminuria.The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the urinary albumin excretion rate and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.Methods A total of 612 hospitalized type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged 60 years or older,who were given coronary angiography for diagnosis of possible coronary heart disease,participated.Their urinary albumin excretion rate was measured,and the severity of coronary artery stenosis was quantified with the Gensini scoring system to analyze the incidence of coronary heart disease and the severity of coronary artery stenosis.The optimal urinary albumin excretion rate predictive value for coronary heart disease incidence in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was determined.Results The incidence of coronary heart disease,the number of patients with coronary vascular disease and the Gensini scores were significantly different between the microalbuminuria group and the normal albuminuria group (P <0.05).The urinary albumin excretion rate was independently correlated with the occurrence of coronary heart disease in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (odds ratio (OR) =1.058,P <0.0001,95% confidence interval (CI): 1.036-1.080).Urinary albumin excretion rate and the Gensini score were independently correlated in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (β=0.476,P <0.0001).The best predictive value of urinary albumin excretion rate was 10.45 μg/min for elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.The area under the curve was 0.764,with a sensitivity and specificity of 70.0% and 72.2%,respectively.Conclusions The occurrence of coronary heart disease in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with microalbuminuria was higher than that in patients with normal albuminuria,and the severity of the disease also

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics reveals that dairy protein fractions affect urinary urea excretion differently in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Hong; Yde, Christian Clement; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup

    2015-01-01

    was investigated by using NMR-based urine metabolomics. Overweight adolescents (n = 192; age = 12–15 years; BMI = 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to 1 L/day of casein (citrate content: 3.27 mol/L), whey (citrate content: 0.04 mol/L), skim milk, or water for 12 weeks. A significant increase in the urinary...... excretion of urea was found after the 12-week casein and skim milk interventions, while the 12-week whey intervention had no significant effect on the urea excretion. In addition, NMR-based metabolomics revealed a decreased urinary citrate excretion in the whey group and thereby demonstrated its potential...

  3. Bilary and urinary excretion of five cardiac glycosides and its correlation with their physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, A; Ghirardi, P

    1977-05-01

    Biliary and urinary excretion of five tritium-labelled cardiac glycosides, i.e. Ouabain, K-strophanthoside, Digoxin, Digitoxin and Deslanatoside C, were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs 5 h after i.v. or enteral administration. Urinary excretion is the main route of elimination in the case of Ouabain and Deslanatoside C. Conversely, biliary excretion is predominant in the case of Digoxin and Digitoxin. K-strophanthoside is excreted both via bile and urine. In conscious guinea-pigs treated i.v. with the same cardiac glycosides the highest levels were observed in urine, bile, kidneys and liver. The relative values of those levels were in agreement with the excretion pattern observed in anaesthetized animals. An inverse linear relation (P less than 0.05) was encountered between biliary excretion rate and polarity of glycoside molecula. This correlation has been previously observed by other authors in other species, but not in the rabbit. This suggests that the correlation may not be considered generally applicable at present.

  4. Variability in metabolism of imipramine and desipramine using urinary excretion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Kelley; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S; Morello, Candis M

    2014-01-01

    Variability in imipramine and desipramine metabolism was evaluated using urinary excretion data from patients with pain. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantitate concentrations in urine specimens. Interpatient population contained 600 unique imipramine specimens, whereas intrapatient population had 137 patients with two or more specimens. Normal concentration ranges of imipramine, desipramine and the desipramine/imipramine metabolic ratio (MR) were established, and various factors were tested for MR impact. Geometric mean of imipramine urine concentration was 0.46 mg/g of creatinine, and desipramine was 0.67 mg/g of creatinine. Gender, concomitant known CYP2C19 inhibitor use and urine pH did not affect MR. However, proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) users had a significantly lower mean MR than those without a listed PPI. Early age group (18-36 years) had a significantly higher mean MR than middle (37-66 years) and late (67-90 years) age groups. Approximately one-third were positive for one or more of hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone or oxymorphone. Patients with no opioids reported in the medication list had a significantly lower geometric mean MR than those with prescribed opioids (1.03 vs. 1.54, P = 0.004). Patients with only one prescribed opioid had a lower MR than those with two or more prescribed opioids. Patients with younger age, prescribed opioids and no listed PPI were more likely to have a higher geometric mean urinary desipramine/imipramine MR.

  5. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Tomiho; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yukio; Shibata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes. PMID:27812289

  6. Urinary excretion of fatty acid-binding protein 4 is associated with albuminuria and renal dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Okazaki

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is expressed in not only adipocytes and macrophages but also peritubular capillaries in the normal kidney. We recently demonstrated that ectopic expression of FABP4, but not FABP1 known as liver FABP (L-FABP, in the glomerulus is associated with progression of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. However, urinary excretion of FABP4 has not been investigated.Subjects who participated in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a study with a population-based cohort design, in 2011 (n = 392, male/female: 166/226 were enrolled. Urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR were measured. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was followed up one year later.In 93 (23.7% of the 392 subjects, U-FABP4 level was below the sensitivity of the assay. Subjects with undetectable U-FABP4 were younger and had lower UACR and higher eGFR levels than subjects with measurable U-FABP4. U-FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure and levels of serum FABP4 (S-FABP4, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, urinary FABP1 (U-FABP1 and UACR (r = 0.360, p<0.001. Age, S-FABP4, U-FABP1 and UACR were independent predictors of U-FABP4. On the other hand, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and U-FABP4 were independently correlated with UACR. Reduction in eGFR after one year was significantly larger in a group with the highest tertile of baseline U-FABP4 than a group with the lowest tertile.Urinary FABP4 level is independently correlated with level of albuminuria and possibly predicts yearly decline of eGFR. U-FABP4 would be a novel biomarker of glomerular damage.

  7. Altered urinary excretion of aquaporin 2 in IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Maria Teresa; Tamma, Grazia; Lasorsa, Domenica; Suriano, Ida Valentina; D'Apollo, Annamaria; Papale, Massimo; Mastrofrancesco, Lisa; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna; Gesualdo, Loreto; Di Paolo, Salvatore

    2011-10-01

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation plays a pivotal role in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) pathogenesis, which is still largely undefined. Recently, vasopressin (AVP) has been advocated to contribute to the genesis and progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) directly, and indirectly, via RAS activation. Our aim is to explore the intrarenal activity of AVP, its relationship with RAS activity, as well as its modulation by therapies in IgAN. In this observational study, we measured plasma copeptin, a surrogate marker of AVP, the urine excretion of aquaporin 2 (AQP2), a protein reflecting renal AVP action, and angiotensinogen (AGT), a parameter of renal RAS activation, and their relationship with renal function in 44 IgAN patients at the time of renal biopsy, without any drug therapy, and after 6-month treatment with ACEi or steroid+ACEi. Twenty-one patients with other CKD and 40 healthy subjects were recruited as controls. ELISAs were used to measure all variables of interest. At baseline, IgAN patients showed higher urinary levels of AQP2, compared with controls and patients with other CKD. Urinary AQP2 and AGT levels strongly correlated with the presence of arterial hypertension. Steroids+ACEi caused the decrease of all the variables examined. The fall of urinary AQP2 and AGT following drug treatments was associated with the decrease of daily proteinuria. Our findings would support the involvement of AVP-AQP2 axis, interacting with the RAS, in the progression of IgAN and candidate AQP2 as a possible novel marker of the disease.

  8. Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, A V; Brooks, B A; Fisher, E J; Molyneaux, L M; Yue, D K

    1998-11-01

    The important role of ascorbic acid (AA) as an anti-oxidant is particularly relevant in diabetes mellitus where plasma concentrations of AA are reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with AA or an aldose reductase inhibitor, tolrestat, on AA metabolism and urinary albumin excretion in diabetes. Blood and urine samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from 20 diabetic subjects who were randomized into two groups to receive either oral AA 500 mg twice daily or placebo. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, HbA1c, plasma lipids, urinary albumin, and total glycosaminoglycan excretion were measured at all time points, and heparan sulphate (glycosaminoglycan) was measured at 0 and 12 months. The same parameters, as well as urinary AA excretion, were determined at 0 and 3 months for 16 diabetes subjects receiving 200 mg tolrestat/day. AA treatment increased plasma AA (ANOVA, F ratio = 12.1, p = 0.004) and reduced albumin excretion rate (AER) after 9 months (ANOVA, F ratio = 3.2, p = 0.03), but did not change the other parameters measured. Tolrestat lowered plasma AA (Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, p benefits in attenuating the progression of diabetic complications.

  9. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients: a 3-day observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomo, L; Kamper, A-L; Poulsen, G M; Poulsen, S K; Astrup, A; Rix, M

    2016-12-14

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion. Twenty CKD patients stage 3-4 from the outpatient clinic, collected 24-h urine and kept dietary records for 3 consecutive days. The mean daily phosphorus intake was 1367±499, 1642±815 and 1426±706 mg/day, respectively (P=0.57). The mean urinary phosphorus excretion was 914±465, 954±414 and 994±479 mg/day, respectively (P=0.21). In this population of CKD patients stage 3-4 the daily phosphorus intake was above the recommended. Twenty-four-hour urinary phosphorus excretion was reproducible and the data indicate that a single 24-h urine collection is sufficient to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247.

  10. Hypertension increases urinary excretion of immunoglobulin G, ceruloplasmin and transferrin in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Hanyu, Osamu; Hirayama, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Osamu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Ito, Seiki; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-02-01

    Increased urinary excretion of certain plasma proteins, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), ceruloplasmin and transferrin, with different molecular radii of 55 Å or less and different isoelectric points have been reported to precede development of microalbuminuria in patients who have diabetes mellitus with hypertension. We examined how hypertension affects these urinary proteins in a diabetic state. Excretion of IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α2-macroglobulin with a large molecular radius of 88 Å and N-acetylglucosaminidase in first-morning urine samples were measured in normoalbuminuric patients (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio hypertension and nondiabetes mellitus (group hypertension, n = 32), type 2 diabetes mellitus and normotension (group diabetes mellitus, n = 52) and type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension (group Both, n =45), and in age-matched controls (n = 72). Urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin and N-acetylglucosaminidase and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were significantly elevated in groups diabetes mellitus and Both compared with controls. Furthermore, urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin and transferrin in group Both were significantly higher than those in group diabetes mellitus. These exhibited a positive and relatively strong association with eGFR compared with controls. No significant difference in urinary albumin or N-acetylglucosaminidase was found between the two diabetic groups. In contrast, group hypertension had elevated urinary transferrin without any changes in the other compounds. Urinary α2-macroglobulin did not differ among the four groups. These findings suggest that normoalbuminuric diabetic patients without hypertension have both glomerular hemodynamic changes such as increased intraglomerular hydraulic pressure and altered proximal tubules, and that hypertension increases intraglomerular hydraulic pressure. Increased urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin and transferrin may reflect an increase in

  11. Hypertension and hyperglycemia synergize to cause incipient renal tubular alterations resulting in increased NGAL urinary excretion in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Blázquez-Medela

    Full Text Available Hypertension and diabetes are the two leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD eventually leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD and the need of renal replacement therapy. Mortality among CKD and ESRD patients is high, mostly due to cardiovascular events. New early markers of risk are necessary to better anticipate the course of the disease, to detect the renal affection of additive risk factors, and to appropriately handle patients in a pre-emptive and personalized manner.Renal function and NGAL urinary excretion was monitored in rats with spontaneous (SHR or L-NAME induced hypertension rendered hyperglycemic (or not as controls.Combination of hypertension and hyperglycemia (but not each of these factors independently causes an increased urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL in the rat, in the absence of signs of renal damage. Increased NGAL excretion is observed in diabetic animals with two independent models of hypertension. Elevated urinary NGAL results from a specific alteration in its tubular handling, rather than from an increase in its renal expression. In fact, when kidneys of hyperglycaemic-hypertensive rats are perfused in situ with Krebs-dextran solution containing exogenous NGAL, they excrete more NGAL in the urine than hypertensive rats. We also show that albuminuria is not capable of detecting the additive effect posed by the coexistence of these two risk factors.Our results suggest that accumulation of hypertension and hyperglycemia induces an incipient and quite specific alteration in the tubular handling of NGAL resulting in its increased urinary excretion.

  12. Effect of Discontinuation of Fluoride Intake from Water and Toothpaste on Urinary Excretion in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Cury

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As there is no homeostatic mechanism for maintaining circulating fluoride (F in the human body, the concentration may decrease and increase again when intake is interrupted and re-started. The present study prospectively evaluated this process in children exposed to F intake from water and toothpaste, using F in urine as a biomarker. Eleven children from Ibiá, Brazil (with sub-optimally fluoridated water supply aged two to four years who regularly used fluoridated toothpaste (1,100 ppm F took part in the study. Twenty-four-hour urine was collected at baseline (Day 0, F exposure from water and toothpaste as well as after the interruption of fluoride intake from water and dentifrice (Days 1 to 28 (F interruption and after fluoride intake from these sources had been re-established (Days 29 to 34 (F re-exposure. Urinary volume was measured, fluoride concentration was determined and the amount of fluoride excreted was calculated and expressed in mg F/day. Urinary fluoride excretion (UFE during the periods of fluoride exposure, interruption and re-exposure was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Mean UFE was 0.25 mg F/day (SD: 0.15 at baseline, dropped to a mean of 0.14 mg F/day during F interruption (SD: 0.07; range: 0.11 to 0.17 mg F/day and rose to 0.21 (SD: 0.09 and 0.19 (SD: 0.08 following F re-exposure. The difference between baseline UFE and the period of F interruption was statistically significant (p < 0.05, while the difference between baseline and the period of F re-exposure was non-significant (p > 0.05. The findings suggest that circulating F in the body of young children rapidly decreases in the first 24 hours and again increases very fast after discontinuation and re-exposure of F from water and toothpaste.

  13. Temporal variability in urinary phthalate metabolite excretion based on spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples: Considerations for epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Kranich, Selma K.; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Urinary phthalate excretion is used as marker of phthalate exposure in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the reliability of urinary phthalate levels in exposure classification by comparing the inter- and intrasubject variation of urinary phthalate metabolite levels. Thirty-three young...... healthy men each collected two spot, three first-morning, and three 24-h urine samples during a 3-month period. Samples were analyzed for the content of 12 urinary metabolites of 7 different phthalates. Variability was assessed as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). For the metabolites of diethyl...... of exposures for these two phthalates in population studies and hence an attenuation of the power to detect possible exposure-outcome associations. The only slightly higher ICCs for 24-h pools compared to first-morning and spot urine samples does not seem to justify the extra effort needed to collect 24-h...

  14. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study....... Subjects with any positive dipstick analysis had significantly higher UAER than subjects with a negative analysis: 4.9 (4.4-5.3) (geometric mean (95% confidence interval)) vs 3.0 (2.9-3.1) mg 24 h(-1) (p

  15. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  16. Pharmacogenomic Variants May Influence the Urinary Excretion of Novel Kidney Injury Biomarkers in Patients Receiving Cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cara; Hu, Yichun; Hogan, Susan L; Mercke, Nickie; Gomez, Madeleine; O'Bryant, Cindy; Bowles, Daniel W; George, Blessy; Wen, Xia; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Joy, Melanie S

    2017-06-22

    Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect associated with the use of cisplatin in the treatment of solid tumors. The degree of nephrotoxicity is dictated by the selective accumulation of cisplatin in renal tubule cells due to: (1) uptake by organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and copper transporter 1 (CTR1); (2) metabolism by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and γ-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1); and (3) efflux by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1). The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms that regulate the expression and function of transporters and metabolism genes implicated in development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cisplatin treated patients. Changes in the kidney function were assessed using novel urinary protein biomarkers and traditional markers. Genotyping was conducted by the QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System using a custom open array chip with metabolism, transport, and transcription factor polymorphisms of interest to cisplatin disposition and toxicity. Traditional and novel biomarker assays for kidney toxicity were assessed for differences according to genotype by ANOVA. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined based on Caucasian population frequencies. The polymorphisms rs596881 (SLC22A2/OCT2), and rs12686377 and rs7851395 (SLC31A1/CTR1) were associated with renoprotection and maintenance of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Polymorphisms in SLC22A2/OCT2, SLC31A1/CTRI, SLC47A1/MATE1, ABCC2/MRP2, and GSTP1 were significantly associated with increases in the urinary excretion of novel AKI biomarkers: KIM-1, TFF3, MCP1, NGAL, clusterin, cystatin C, and calbindin. Knowledge concerning which genotypes in drug transporters are associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity may help to identify at-risk patients and initiate strategies, such as using lower or fractionated cisplatin doses or avoiding

  17. Urinary excretion rates of natural estrogens and androgens from humans, and their occurrence and fate in the environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Kanjo, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2009-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are pollutants with estrogenic or androgenic activities at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. For sewage of municipal wastewater treatment plants in cities, one of the most important sources of EDCs are natural estrogens and natural androgens (NEAs) excreted from humans. Therefore, estrogenic/androgenic potencies or relative binding affinity of the NEAs were first outlined from different sources, and data of urinary excretion rates of NEAs were summarized. To evaluate their estrogenic activities, their excretion rates of estrogen equivalent (EEQ) or testosterone (T) equivalent (TEQ) were also calculated. Based on our summary, the total excretion rates of EEQ by estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) only accounted for 66-82% of the total excretion rate of EEQ among four different groups, and the other corresponding natural estrogens contributed 18-34%, which meant that some of the other natural estrogens may also exist in wastewater with high estrogenic activities. Based on the contribution ratio of individual androgens to the total excretion rate of TEQ, five out of 12 natural androgens, T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AD), 5beta-androstanediol (beta-ADL), and androstenediol (ANL) were evaluated as the priority natural androgens, which may exist in wastewater with high androgenic activities. Published data on occurrence and fate of the NEAs including natural estrogen conjugates in the environment were also summarized here.

  18. Urinary albumin excretion in healthy adults: a cross sectional study of 24-hour versus timed overnight samples and impact of GFR and other personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Peter; Sallsten, Gerd; Akerstrom, Magnus; Haraldsson, Borje; Barregard, Lars

    2015-01-24

    Urinary albumin can be measured in 24 h or spot samples. The 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate is considered the gold standard, but is cumbersome to collect. Instead, often an overnight sample is collected, and adjusted for dilution. Proxies for 24 h excretion rate have been studied in diabetics, but seldom in healthy individuals. Our aims were to compare 24 h and overnight albumin excretion, to assess the impact of personal characteristics, and to examine correlations between the 24 h excretion rate and proxies such as the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Separate 24 h and overnight urine samples were collected from 152 healthy kidney donors. Urinary creatinine, specific gravity, collection time, and sample volume determined. Differences between 24 h and overnight samples were examined, and the effects of age, sex, smoking, body mass, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary flow rate were assessed. The 24 h albumin excretion rate and ACR were both significantly higher than their overnight counterparts. Unadjusted albumin was unsurprisingly higher in the more concentrated overnight samples, while concentrations adjusted for specific gravity were similar. In multivariate analysis, the 24 h excretion rate and proxies were positively associated with glomerular filtration rate, as was ACR in overnight samples. There were positive associations between urinary albumin and body mass. Proxies for the 24 h albumin excretion rate showed relatively high correlations with this gold standard, but differences due to sampling period, adjustment method, and personal characteristics were large enough to be worth considering in studies of albumin excretion in healthy individuals.

  19. Pattern of urinary albumin excretion in normotensive young and adolescent Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ashraf Ganie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a clinically heterogeneous endocrine disorder affecting up to 4-8% of women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of microalbuminuria in women with PCOS and study its correlation with the various metabolic, clinical, and hormonal parameters. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 69 PCOS women was carried out in a tertiary care center hospital. The diagnosis of PCOS was made according to the Rotterdam criteria. Blood samples were collected in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and analyzed for fasting luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP, total testosterone (T, glucose, insulin, and lipid profile. Urinary albumin was measured in the first void spot urine sample. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 22.0 ± 4.1 years and 21.8 ± 4.7 years in normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric groups, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion (UAE varied from 5 mg/l to 100 mg/ml, with a median of 5 mg/l. Microalbuminuria was observed in 17/69 (24.6% of subjects. The mean UAE was 3.65 ± 4.44 mg/l in the normoalbuminuria group versus 45.29 ± 22.74 mg/l in the microalbuminuria group. Upon univariate analysis, hip circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose showed significant correlations with urinary albumin concentration (r = 0.264, 0.264, and 0.551, respectively; P = 0.028, 0.029, and 0.000, respectively. No association between UAE and the usual cardiovascular risk factors could be found upon regression analysis. Conclusion: About 24.6% of women with PCOS showed presence of microalbuminuria in the first void spot urine sample. Screening for the presence of microalbuminuria can help in early identification of a subset of PCOS women with a high risk for future CVD, who can be subjected to preventive strategies at the earliest. However, further studies are

  20. Absorption and Urinary Excretion of Peptides after Collagen Tripeptide Ingestion in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shoko; Deguchi, Kisaburo; Onuma, Masamichi; Numata, Noriaki; Sakai, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Collagen tripeptide (CTP) is a collagen hydrolysate containing a high concentration of tripeptides with a Gly-X-Y sequence, such as Gly-Pro-Hyp. To test the effects of this preparation, we compared the absorption of peptides in humans after ingestion of a tripeptide fraction of CTP (CTP-100), a CTP preparation containing ca. 50% Gly-X-Y tripeptides (CTP-50), and a collagen peptide that did not contain tripeptides (CP). The postprandial levels of Gly-Pro-Hyp and Pro-Hyp in the plasma increased in those subjects who ingested CTP-100 and CTP-50, and were higher with greater Gly-Pro-Hyp ingestion. This demonstrated that collagen hydrolysates were efficiently absorbed when the collagen was ingested in the tripeptide form. Gly-Pro-Hyp and Pro-Hyp were also found in the urine after ingestion of CTP-100 or CTP-50. Similar to the results for the plasma concentration, the urinary excretion of Gly-Pro-Hyp and Pro-Hyp was also dependent on the amount of Gly-Pro-Hyp ingested. This indicates that ingested Gly-Pro-Hyp and generated Pro-Hyp were relatively stable in the body and were transported to the urine in the peptide form. The concentration of Hyp-Gly in the plasma was low after the ingestion of CP and CTP-100 but higher after the ingestion of CTP-50. Overall, our results suggest that tripeptides derived from collagen are absorbed efficiently by the body.

  1. Relationship between serum irisin levels and urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-hua; Zhang, Xiu-wei; Chen, Wei-kun; Huang, Qiu-xia; Chen, Qiao-qiong

    2015-04-01

    Irisin is first discovered as a potential mediator of obesity related energy homeostasis. Recent studies indicate that irisin is associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to examine the relationship between irisin and urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. 100 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes and 100 healthy subjects were selected. Serum irisin levels were measured by ELISA, and urine albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. High resolution ultrasound was used to measure brachial artery diameter at rest, after reactive hyperemia (flow-mediated arterial dilation, FMD) and after sublingual glyceryltrinitrate. Patients with type 2 diabetes presented decreased irisin levels when compared to controls (14.12±3.93 versus 28.98±2.56ng/ml, P=0.015).Serum irisin levels in the microalbuminuric and macroalbuminuria subgroup were 9.89±1.56ng/ml and 5.67±1.89ng/ml, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the normoalbuminuria (15.97±3.12ng/ml). In comparison to microalbuminuric subgroup, macroalbuminuria subgroup had lower levels of irisin. By dividing the distribution of serum irisin levels into quartiles, FMD was increased gradually with the increase of serum irisin levels (Pdiabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in urinary excretion of water and sodium transporters during amiloride and bendroflumethiazide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni M; Mose, Frank H; Kulik, Anna-Ewa O;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To quantify changes in urinary excretion of aquaporin2 water channels (u-AQP2), the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (u-NKCC2) and the epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC) during treatment with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), amiloride and placebo. METHODS: In a randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study we examined 23 healthy subjects on a standardized diet and fluid intake. The subjects were treated with amiloride 5 mg, BFTZ 1.25 mg or placebo twice a day for 4.5 d before each examination day. On the examination day, glomerular filtration rate was measured...... by the constant infusion clearance technique with (51)Cr-EDTA as reference substance. To estimate the changes in water transport via AQP2 and sodium transport via NKCC2 and ENaC, u-NKCC2, the gamma fraction of ENaC (u-ENaCγ), and u-AQP2 were measured at baseline and after infusion with 3% hypertonic saline. U...

  3. A Case of Hypophosphatemiawith Increased Urinary Excretion of Phosphorus Associated with Ibrutinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa M. Wysokinska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ibrutinib, an irreversible oral inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, has been used in the treatment of patients with multiple hematologic malignancies. A 59-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was treated with 420 mg/day of ibrutinib. No evidence of bruising or diarrhea was noted. The treatment was complicated by a transient increase in creatinine (from a baseline of 1.2 to 1.5 mg/dl and potassium (reaching a peak of 6.5 mEq/l. Uric acid and calcium levels were normal. The patient developed hypophosphatemia (prior to initiation of therapy the serum phosphorus was 2.9 mg/dl. No metabolic acidosis was noted. Urinalysis showed no glucosuria or proteinuria. Urinary fraction of excretion of phosphate was found to be 345% (normal <5%. Because of these changes, ibrutinib was held, and the patient was given kayexalate. Serum potassium normalized. Serum phosphorus was checked a couple of weeks later and also normalized. A lower dose of ibrutinib (140 mg/day was restarted. Upon follow-up, the phosphorus level has been between 2.9 and 3.2 mg/dl. No further evidence of hyperkalemia has been noted. Renal function has remained at baseline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the mechanism of hypophosphatemia in a patient treated with ibrutinib.

  4. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    was independent of age; sex; blood pressure; smoking; serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor; level of haemoglobin A(lc); insulin dose, duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow...... up. SETTING: Diabetes centre in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetic nephropathy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline variables: urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure...

  5. Urinary excretion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement is a marker of immune disease activity in autologous immune complex nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, C J; Burns, M M; Schulze, M; Johnson, R J; Baker, P J; Alpers, C E; Couser, W G

    1991-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement correlates with glomerular deposition of antibody in the passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) model of membranous nephropathy (MN). To determine if this parameter can be correlated with antibody deposition in a model of MN induced by an autologous mechanism and thus more analogous to human MN, the relationship of urinary C5b-9 to ongoing glomerular immune complex formation late in autologous immune complex nephritis (AICN) was studied. Based on urinary C5b-9, the animals were divided into two groups at 12 weeks after induction of AICN, those with persistently high urinary C5b-9 excretion and those in whom urinary excretion of C5b-9 returned to undetectable levels. While all rats developed glomerular deposition of rat IgG and significant proteinuria, high C5b-9 excretors had greater proteinuria and prolonged positive staining for glomerular C3. When normal syngeneic kidneys were transplanted into rats (n = 3) from each group, only those with persistent C5b-9 excretion developed subepithelial immune deposits of rat IgG in the transplanted kidney. As in the PHN model of MN, proteinuria was dissociated widely from urinary C5b-9 excretion, glomerular C3 staining, and evidence of circulating antibody. Thus these findings demonstrate that urinary excretion of C5b-9 serves as an index of on-going immunologic disease activity in the AICN model of MN, while proteinuria does not.

  6. Skin surface lipid composition, acne, pubertal development, and urinary excretion of testosterone and 17-ketosteroids in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochi, P E; Strauss, J S; Downing, D T

    1977-11-01

    Fifty-two children, age 5-10, from acne-prone families, were studied for a period of 1 year to examine the interrelationship between sebum, acne, pubertal development, and urinary steroid excretion. In each of the subjects, 30 boys and 22 girls, the composition of forehead skin lipid was determined 4 times yearly by thin-layer chromatography, with measurement of triglycerides, diglycerides, free fatty acids, wax esters, squalene, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters. Twice yearly, examination was made of the presence or absence of acne, pubertal maturation and the 24-hour urinary excretion of testosterone as determined by radioimmunnoassay, and of total 17-ketosteroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone, and etiocholanolone, as determined by paper chromatography. The relative amount of sebaceous lipids was positively correlated with age of the subjects (wax esters p less than .001, squalene p less than .05), as was the triglyceride-diglyceride component (p less than .05). No significant correlation was seen with the fatty acids. Acne, primarily comedonal, occurred in 27/52 subjects (15 girls, 12 boys) and was associated with higher sebum values. One-half of the children with acne had no signs of pubertal development. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the relative amount of sebaceous lipid and the urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, androsterone, and etiocholanolone in both sexes, and of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in boys. The development of acne in children is an early pubertal event, often evident before other signs of pubertal maturation, and it is associated with an increase in sebum and in the urinary excretion of androgenic steroids.

  7. Measurement of uptake rates of internal organs including thyroid gland and daily urinary excretion rates for adult Korean males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Whang, Joo Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Geun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    In this study, uptake rates of internal organs and daily urinary excretion rates were measured to get more reliable estimation results for Korean. Radioactive iodine({sup 131}I) of 100{mu}Ci was administered by ingestion to 28 adult males for the experiment and then the radioactivity in thyroid gland, liver, stomach, small intestine, kidneys, and urine was measured after time intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours. Uptake rates of each organ and daily urinary excretion rates were calculated on the basis of these experimental results. As a result, uptake rates of 19.70% for thyroid and daily urinary excretion rates of 71.12%, on the average, were indicated. The maximum of uptake rates and daily urinary excretion rates were recorded after 2 hours of administration of {sup 131}I, but those rates were decreased gradually later. It was also found that uptake rates were the highest in stomach, followed by the left kidney, liver, small intestine and right kidney except for thyroid gland. In this experiment, the calculated uptake change rate in thyroid gland after 24 hours of administration of {sup 131}I was different from that of ICRP-54/67(30%) and ICRP-78(25%). Thus, it is necessary to apply more reliable approach, reflecting the characteristic of Korean physiology and to obtain the basic data of results using this approach for calculation of the internal adsorbed dose. In the future, this approach can be helpful for the internal dose assessment of radiation workers in a nuclear power plant or in a hospital.

  8. Diagnostic Value of Urinary Mevalonic Acid Excretion in Patients with a Clinical Suspicion of Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaratnam, Jerold; Ter Haar, Nienke M; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M; Waterham, Hans R; van Gijn, Mariëlle E; Frenkel, Joost

    2016-01-01

    In patients suffering from mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), the reduced enzyme activity leads to an accumulation of mevalonic acid which is excreted in the urine. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of urinary mevalonic acid measurement in patients with a clinical suspicion of mevalonate kinase deficiency. In this single-center, retrospective analysis, all patients in whom both measurement of mevalonic acid and genetic testing had been performed in the preceding 17 years have been included. The presence of two pathogenic MVK mutations or demonstration of decreased enzyme activity was considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of MKD. Sixty-one patients were included in this study. Thirteen of them harbored two MVK mutations; twelve of them showed elevated levels of mevalonic acid. Forty-eight patients did not harbor any MVK mutations, yet five of them excreted increased amounts of mevalonic acid. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 90%, a positive predictive value of 71%, and a negative predictive value of 98%. The positive likelihood ratio is 10 and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.09. MKD seems very unlikely in patients with a normal mevalonic acid excretion, but it cannot be excluded completely. Further, a positive urinary mevalonic acid excretion still requires MVK analysis to confirm the diagnosis of MKD. Therefore, detection of urinary mevalonic acid should not be mandatory before genetic testing. However, as long as genetic testing is not widely available and affordable, measurement of urinary mevalonic acid is a fair way to select patients for MVK gene analysis or enzyme assay.

  9. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic a...

  10. Kidney volume in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with normal or increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hegedüs, L; Mathiesen, E R

    1991-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and 14 normal subjects had renal volume determined by an ultrasonic technique. Renal volume of 299 +/- 49 ml/1.73 m2 (mean +/- SD) in type 1 diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion exceeded that in the normal...... subjects (245 +/- 53 ml/1.73 m2, p less than 0.05). Compared with diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion, renal volume was significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria (372 +/- 24 ml/1.73 m2, p less than 0.05) and patients with clinical nephropathy (352 +/- 48 ml/1.73 m2, p less...... than 0.05). In a multiple linear regression with HbA1c, urinary albumin excretion, age, diabetes duration and mean blood pressure as independent variables, variations in HbA1c could account for 33% of the variations in kidney volume (n = 47, r = 0.57, p less than 0.01). The other variables played...

  11. Influence of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E; von Unruh, G E; Hesse, A

    2008-09-01

    To compare quantitatively the effect of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion. Eight healthy volunteers (three men and five women, mean age 28.6+/-6.3) were studied. Each volunteer performed the [(13)C(2)]oxalate absorption test thrice on a low-oxalate mixed diet, thrice on a low-oxalate vegetarian diet and thrice on a high-oxalate vegetarian diet. For each test, the volunteers had to adhere to an identical diet and collect their 24-h urines. In the morning of the second day, a capsule containing [(13)C(2)]oxalate was ingested. On the low-oxalate vegetarian diet, mean intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly to 15.8+/-2.9% (P=0.012) and 0.414+/-0.126 mmol/day (P=0.012), compared to the mixed diet. On the high-oxalate vegetarian diet, oxalate absorption (12.5+/-4.6%, P=0.161) and urinary excretion (0.340+/-0.077 mmol/day, P=0.093) did not change significantly, compared to the mixed diet. A vegetarian diet can only be recommended for calcium oxalate stone patients, if the diet (1) contains the recommended amounts of divalent cations such as calcium and its timing of ingestion to a meal rich in oxalate is considered and (2) excludes foodstuffs with a high content of nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, which are able to chelate calcium.

  12. Urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after intake of fluoridated milk and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, M; Twetman, S; Hultgren Talvilahti, A

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after drinking fluoridated milk with 0.185 mg F and 0.375 mg F and to study the impact of use of fluoride toothpaste. Basic research design: Double-blind cross-over study. Participants: Nine healthy children, 2.5-4.5 years...... of age. Intervention: In a randomized order, participants drank 1.5 dl milk once daily for 7 days with no fluoride added (control), 0.185 mg fluoride added and 0.375 mg fluoride added. The experiment was performed twice with (Part I) and without (Part II) parental tooth brushing with 1,000 ppm fluoride...... toothpaste. The fluoride content in the piped drinking water was 0.5 mg F/L. Main outcome measure: Urinary fluoride excretion. Results: The 24-hour urinary fl uoride excretion/kg body weight varied from 0.014 mg F for the placebo intervention and non-fluoride toothpaste to 0.027 mg F for the 0.375 mg...

  13. Supplementation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with condensed tannin-containing pellets of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata): Effects on ruminant urinary urea excretion and digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some feedstuffs that contain condensed tannins can reduce urinary urea excretion without compromising nutrition for ruminant livestock. This results in reducing environmental impact, improving productivity and enhancing sustainability of ruminant farming operations. In some situations there are adva...

  14. Abnormal increase in urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in response to hypertonic saline in essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graffe Carolina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of the expression/shuttling of the aquaporin-2 water channel (AQP2 and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC in renal collecting duct principal cells has been found in animal models of hypertension. We tested whether a similar dysregulation exists in essential hypertension. Methods We measured urinary excretion of AQP2 and ENaC β-subunit corrected for creatinine (u-AQP2CR, u-ENaCβ-CR, prostaglandin E2 (u-PGE2 and cyclic AMP (u-cAMP, fractional sodium excretion (FENa, free water clearance (CH2O, as well as plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP, renin (PRC, angiotensin II (Ang II, aldosterone (Aldo, and atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP in 21 patients with essential hypertension and 20 normotensive controls during 24-h urine collection (baseline, and after hypertonic saline infusion on a 4-day high sodium (HS diet (300 mmol sodium/day and a 4-day low sodium (LS diet (30 mmol sodium/day. Results At baseline, no differences in u-AQP2CR or u-ENaCβ-CR were measured between patients and controls. U-AQP2CR increased significantly more after saline in patients than controls, whereas u-ENaCβ-CR increased similarly. The saline caused exaggerated natriuretic increases in patients during HS intake. Neither baseline levels of u-PGE2, u-cAMP, AVP, PRC, Ang II, Aldo, ANP, and BNP nor changes after saline could explain the abnormal u-AQP2CR response. Conclusions No differences were found in u-AQP2CR and u-ENaCβ-CR between patients and controls at baseline. However, in response to saline, u-AQP2CR was abnormally increased in patients, whereas the u-ENaCβ-CR response was normal. The mechanism behind the abnormal AQP2 regulation is not clarified, but it does not seem to be AVP-dependent. Clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT00345124.

  15. Interpretation of Urinary Excretion Data From Plutonium Wound Cases Treated With DTPA: Application of Different Models and Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Deepesh; Bertelli, Luiz; Klumpp, John A; Waters, Tom L

    2017-07-01

    After a chelation treatment, assessment of intake and doses is the primary concern of an internal dosimetrist. Using the urinary excretion data from two actual wound cases encountered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), this paper discusses several methods that can be used to interpret intakes from the urinary data collected after one or multiple chelation treatments. One of the methods uses only the data assumed to be unaffected by chelation (data collected beyond 100 d after the last treatment). This method, used by many facilities for official dose records, was implemented by employing maximum likelihood analysis and Bayesian analysis methods. The impacts of an improper assumption about the physicochemical behavior of a radioactive material and the importance of the use of a facility-specific biokinetic model when available have also been demonstrated. Another method analyzed both the affected and unaffected urinary data using an empirical urinary excretion model. This method, although case-specific, was useful in determining the actual intakes and the doses averted or the reduction in body burdens due to chelation treatments. This approach was important in determining the enhancement factors, the behavior of the chelate, and other observations that may be pertinent to several DTPA compartmental modeling approaches being conducted by the health physics community.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid on nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Guangyong; Lin, Shixin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the trial was to study the effects of dietary supplementation of gallic acid (GA) on nitrogen (N) balance, N excretion pattern and urinary N constituents in beef cattle. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four male 30-month-old Simmental cattle (443 ± 22 kg live weight) received four levels of GA (purity ≥ 98.5%), i.e. 0, 5.3, 10.5, 21.1 g/kg DM, added to a basal ration. Each experimental period lasted 17 d, consisting of 12 d adaptation and 5 d sampling. The results showed that supplementation of GA at 5.3, 10.5 or 21.1 g/kg DM did not affect the N balance but regulated the N excretion pattern by increasing the ratio of faecal N/urinary N and decreasing the ratio of urinary urea N/total urinary N in beef cattle fed at maintenance level.

  17. Increase of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion but not serum chromogranin A following over-the-counter 5-hydroxytryptophan intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Tisha; Walsh, Grace; Tokmakejian, Sonya; Van Uum, Stan Hm

    2008-01-01

    5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion is commonly measured for biochemical detection of carcinoid tumours. A 77-year-old woman was referred for elevated 24 h urine 5-HIAA excretion (510 micromol/day; normal is less than 45 micromol/day) and serum chromogranin A (CgA) (72.1 U/L; normal is less than 18 U/L), both subsequently normalized after discontinuation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 5-HTP, a precursor of serotonin, is not commonly listed as a substance that increases 5-HIAA levels in urine. The effect of 5-HTP on CgA has not been previously described. To determine whether, and to what extent, oral 5-HTP increases urine 5-HIAA excretion and serum CgA levels in healthy volunteers. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, with a four-day washout period, was performed in a general community setting. Eight healthy subjects aged 22 to 58 years were recruited by advertising. Bedtime ingestion of 5-HTP 100 mg/day was compared with placebo ingestion for 10 days. Twenty-four hour urine excretion of 5-HIAA and serum CgA were the main outcome measures. Median (range) urinary 5-HIAA excretion was 204 micromol/day (22 micromol/day to 459 micromol/day) during 5-HTP intake, compared with 18 micromol/day (12 micromol/day to 36 micromol/day) during placebo intake (P=0.017). 5-HTP did not affect clinical symptoms or serum CgA levels. Oral 5-HTP increases urinary 5-HIAA excretion with considerable interindividual variation. In a small number of subjects, oral 5-HTP did not affect serum CgA levels. Therefore, increased 5-HIAA levels with normal CgA levels may suggest 5-HTP ingestion. The use of over-the-counter 5-HTP should be excluded as the cause of increased urinary 5-HIAA levels before initiating diagnostic tests to search for a carcinoid tumour. 5-HTP should be added to popular references as a substance that may cause increased 5-HIAA excretion.

  18. Pharmacogenomic Variants May Influence the Urinary Excretion of Novel Kidney Injury Biomarkers in Patients Receiving Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Chang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect associated with the use of cisplatin in the treatment of solid tumors. The degree of nephrotoxicity is dictated by the selective accumulation of cisplatin in renal tubule cells due to: (1 uptake by organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2 and copper transporter 1 (CTR1; (2 metabolism by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs and γ-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1; and (3 efflux by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1. The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms that regulate the expression and function of transporters and metabolism genes implicated in development of acute kidney injury (AKI in cisplatin treated patients. Changes in the kidney function were assessed using novel urinary protein biomarkers and traditional markers. Genotyping was conducted by the QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System using a custom open array chip with metabolism, transport, and transcription factor polymorphisms of interest to cisplatin disposition and toxicity. Traditional and novel biomarker assays for kidney toxicity were assessed for differences according to genotype by ANOVA. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined based on Caucasian population frequencies. The polymorphisms rs596881 (SLC22A2/OCT2, and rs12686377 and rs7851395 (SLC31A1/CTR1 were associated with renoprotection and maintenance of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Polymorphisms in SLC22A2/OCT2, SLC31A1/CTRI, SLC47A1/MATE1, ABCC2/MRP2, and GSTP1 were significantly associated with increases in the urinary excretion of novel AKI biomarkers: KIM-1, TFF3, MCP1, NGAL, clusterin, cystatin C, and calbindin. Knowledge concerning which genotypes in drug transporters are associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity may help to identify at-risk patients and initiate strategies, such as using lower or fractionated cisplatin doses or avoiding

  19. Magnesium, zinc, arsenic, selenium and platinum urinary excretion from cancer patients of Antofagasta region, Chile: multi-metal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, I; Rivera, L; Ávila, J; Cortés, P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the short-term 24 h urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic, selenium, magnesium and zinc in patients with lung cancer and with cancer other than lungs treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin from Antofagasta, Chile. Design Urine measurements of Pt and Se were made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, As by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry and Mg and Zn by means of flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Setting All samples were provided by the Oncological Centre of Antofagasta Regional Hospital (Region of Antofagasta, Chile). Participants Ninety 24-h urine samples from cancer patients after the infusion of Pt-base drugs and 10 24-h urine samples from cancer patients not treated with metal-base drugs. Main outcome measures Concentrations of Pt, Se, As, Zn and Mg coming from 24-h urine samples. Results Pt excreted was not significantly different between patients with lung and other cancers treated with cisplatin. The excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was greater than As. Then, Pt favours the excretion of essential elements. For lung and other types of cancers treated with drugs without Pt, excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was also greater than that of As, suggesting antagonism Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationship. Conclusions The amounts of Mg, Zn and Se excreted were greater than for As either with or without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting antagonist Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationships. The excretion of As, Mg, Zn and Se is induced by Pt. Knowledge obtained can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer mechanism and the As-Mg-Zn-Se-Pt inter-element association for lung cancer and other types of cancer. PMID:27757244

  20. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of developing hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; de Boer, Rudolf A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Joosten, Michel M

    2014-10-01

    Previous prospective cohort studies on the association between potassium intake and risk of hypertension have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data, whereas repeated 24-hour urine excretions, as estimate of dietary uptake, may provide a more objective and quantitative estimate of this association. Risk of hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or initiation of blood pressure-lowering drugs) was prospectively studied in 5511 normotensive subjects aged 28 to 75 years not using blood pressure-lowering drugs at baseline of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-hour urine specimens at baseline (1997-1998) and midway during follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (interquartile range, 57-85 mmol/24 h), which corresponds to a dietary potassium intake of ≈91 mmol/24 h. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 subjects developed hypertension. The lowest sex-specific tertile of potassium excretion (men: hypertension after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.37), compared with the upper 2 tertiles (Pnonlinearity=0.008). The proportion of hypertension attributable to low potassium excretion was 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.7%-10.9%). No association was found between the sodium to potassium excretion ratio and risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment. Low urinary potassium excretion was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Dietary strategies to increase potassium intake to the recommended level of 90 mmol/d may have the potential to reduce the incidence of hypertension.

  1. Progression of urinary protein excretion after kidney transplantation: A marker for poor long-term prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego Hinojosa, Josefa; Gentil Govantes, Miguel Angel; Cabello Díaz, Mercedes; Rodriguez Benot, Alberto; Mazuecos Blanca, Auxiliadora; Osuna Ortega, Antonio; Bedoya Pérez, Rafael; Castro De La Nuez, Pablo; Alonso Gil, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Post-transplantation proteinuria is a risk factor for graft failure. A progressive decline in renal graft function is a predictor for mortality in kidney transplant patients. To assess the development and the progression of urinary protein excretion (UPE) in the first year post-transplant in recipients of kidney transplants and its effect on patient and graft outcomes. We analysed 1815 patients with 24-h UPE measurements available at 3 and 12 months post-transplant. Patients were divided based on their UPE level: below 300 mg, 300-1000 mg and over 1000 mg (at 3 and 12 months), and changes over time were analysed. At 3 months, 65.7% had UPE below 300 mg/24 h, 29.6% 300-1000 mg/24 h and 4.7% over 1000 mg/24h. At one year, 71.6% had UPE below 300 mg/24 h, 24.1% 300-1000 mg/24 h and 4.4% over 1000 mg/24 h. In 208 patients (12%), the UPE progressed, in 1233 (70.5%) it remained stable and in 306 (17.5%) an improvement was observed. We found that the level of UPE influenced graft survival, particularly if a progression occurred. Recipient's age and renal function at one year were found to be predictive factors for mortality, while proteinuria and renal function were predictive factors for graft survival. Proteinuria after transplantation, essentially when it progresses, is a marker of a poor prognosis and a predictor for graft survival. Progression of proteinuria is associated with poorer renal function and lower graft survival rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. Milk decreases urinary excretion but not plasma pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, William; Borges, Gina; Donovan, Jennifer L; Edwards, Christine A; Serafini, Mauro; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2009-06-01

    Cocoa drinks containing flavan-3-ols are associated with many health benefits, and conflicting evidence exists as to whether milk adversely affects the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols. The objective was to determine the effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites. Nine human volunteers followed a low-flavonoid diet for 2 d before drinking 250 mL of a cocoa beverage, made with water or milk, that contained 45 micromol (-)-epicatechin and (-)-catechin. Plasma and urine samples were collected for 24 h, and flavan-3-ol metabolites were analyzed by HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection. Milk affected neither gastric emptying nor the transit time through the small intestine. Two flavan-3-ol metabolites were detected in plasma and 4 in urine. Milk had only minor effects on the plasma pharmacokinetics of an (epi)catechin-O-sulfate and had no effect on an O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate. However, milk significantly lowered the excretion of 4 urinary flavan-3-ol metabolites from 18.3% to 10.5% of the ingested dose (P = 0.016). Studies that showed protective effects of cocoa and those that showed no effect of milk on bioavailability used products that have a much higher flavan-3-ol content than does the commercial cocoa used in the present study. Most studies of the protective effects of cocoa have used drinks with a very high flavan-3-ol content. Whether similar protective effects are associated with the consumption of many commercial chocolate and cocoa products containing substantially lower amounts of flavan-3-ols, especially when absorption at lower doses is obstructed by milk, remains to be determined.

  3. Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in intellectually disabled subjects with sleep disorders and multiple medications: validation of measurements in urine extracted from diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M-L; Lindblom, N; Kaipainen, P; Kaski, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (MT6s) measurements in the evaluation of melatonin secretion in intellectually disabled patients with sleep disorders. All 17 patients received drugs with potential interactions with melatonin metabolism. Serum melatonin 24-h profiles were determined at hourly intervals. The area under the curve (AUC) value, peak amplitude, half-rise time, and half-decline time were calculated individually. Urinary MT6s excretion was determined from samples collected from disposable diapers during three consecutive days at varying intervals. The average excretion rate for each hour of the day was calculated. The excretion profiles were characterized by total amount of MT6s excretion/24 h/kg body mass, amount of excreted MT6s during 6 h of maximum excretion (MAX 6h), and start time of the maximum excretion (start MAX 6h). There were significant positive correlations between serum melatonin AUC value and total excretion of MT6s/body mass, between serum melatonin amplitude and urinary MAX 6h, and between melatonin half-rise time and start MAX 6h; one patient on phenobarbital medication was out of line. The serum melatonin profiles of the patients were classified by comparing them with those of matched healthy volunteers (low-, normal-, or high secretors, normal or delayed rhythm). Similarly, the parameters of MT6s profiles were compared with those obtained from healthy controls, and the patients were reclassified as normal or aberrant. The classifications based on serum melatonin and urinary MT6s measurements were mostly concordant. The daily pattern of urinary MT6s excretion reliably reflected the phase of the serum melatonin rhythm irrespective of the medications, but in some cases, the total amount of excreted MT6s was lower than expected based on serum melatonin measurements.

  4. Urinary excretion of arginine-vasopressin and prostaglandin E in essential fatty acid-deficient rats after oral supplementation with unsaturated fatty acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1986-01-01

    supplementation period, were analyzed for volume, and by radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and prostaglandin E (PGE). Linoleate and arachidonate supplements both decreased the initial high urinary AVP excretion, whereas it was further increased by the oleate supplement. There was no effect...... excretion and the percentage of arachidonate or the ratio of 20:3 (n=9)/20:4(n-6) in total kidney lipids. It is suggested that increased urinary AVP excretion in EFA-deficient rats is mainly caused by a change in the renal excretatory mechanism of AVP rather than reflecting an increased plasma AVP...

  5. [Increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictor of cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered to correlate with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) induced by cerebral vasospasm; however, its exact mechanism is still not well-known. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between hyponatremia caused by CSWS and the increase of the urinary sodium excretion in early phase following SAH. Fifty-four patients with SAH were divided into 2 groups, normonatremia group and hyponatremia group which suffered hyponatremia after SAH. The hyponatremia group comprise 14 patients (26%) in whom the hyponatremia developed of the SAH. In this group, the serum level of sodium significantly decreased 7 days after SAH and then gradually normalised. Further, excretion of sodium in the urine tended to increase 3 days after SAH and significantly increased 7 days after SAH. In conclusion, the increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of SAH would serve as a predictive factor for CSWS after SAH. We consider that it is important to start sodium and fluid supplementation and inhibit natriuresis by fludrocortisone acetate administration before hyponatremia occurs in order to prevention delayed ischemic neurological deficits in SAH patients.

  6. Simplified structure of a new model to describe urinary excretion of plutonium after systemic, liver or pulmonary contamination of rats associated with Ca-DTPA treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Abram, M C; Renault, D; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2009-06-01

    This study validates, by targeted experiments, several modeling hypotheses for interpretation of urinary excretion of plutonium after Ca-DTPA treatments. Different formulations and doses of Ca-DTPA were administered to rats before or after systemic, liver or lung contamination with various chemical forms of plutonium. The biokinetics of plutonium was also characterized after i.v. injection of Pu-DTPA. Once formed, Pu-DTPA complexes are stable in most biological environments. Pu-DTPA present in circulating fluids is rapidly excreted in the urine, but 2-3% is retained, mainly in soft tissues, and is then excreted slowly in the urine after transfer to blood. Potentially, all intracellular monoatomic forms of plutonium could be decorporated after DTPA internalization involving slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA with half-lives varying from 2.5 to 6 days as a function of tissue retention. The ratio of fast to slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA depends on both plutonium contamination and Ca-DTPA treatment. Fast urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA corresponds to extracellular decorporation that occurs beyond a threshold of the free DTPA concentration in circulating fluids. Slow excretion corresponds mostly to intracellular decorporation and depends on the amount of intracellular DTPA. From these results, the structure of a simplified model is proposed for interpretation of data obtained with Ca-DTPA treatments after systemic, wound or pulmonary contamination by plutonium.

  7. Urinary Excretion of Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol in Early Pregnancy Is Enhanced in Gravidas With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aisling; Shamshirsaz, Amir; Markovic, Daniela; Ostlund, Richard; Koos, Brian

    2016-03-01

    The effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were determined on urinary excretion of putative components of insulin signaling. Random urine samples were collected from 375 gravidas at 6 to 14 weeks' gestation, 22 to 32 weeks' gestation, and ∼6 weeks' postpartum. Gestational diabetes mellitus developed in 35 women who were matched with 59 normal gravidas. Urinary concentrations of myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI) were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and normalized to creatinine levels. Compared to postpartum values, urinary excretion of MI and DCI was increased 2.9-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in early pregnancy, and 5.5-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, in later gestation. Gravidas with GDM had significantly greater MI and DCI excretion than controls in the first trimester but not subsequently. The results suggest that gravidas destined to develop GDM have altered synthesis, metabolism, and/or renal excretion of MI and DCI in early pregnancy.

  8. Urinary iodine excretion during normal pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France: correlation with maternal thyroid parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, P; Hoff, M; Bazzi, S; Dufor, A; Faure, G; Ghandour, I; Lauzu, P; Lucas, Y; Maraval, D; Mignot, F; Réssigeac, P; Vertongen, F; Grangé, V

    1997-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate urinary iodine excretion and changes of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France. The cohort included a total of 347 pregnant women (mean age 28.0+/-0.5 years). Iodine concentration in a random urine sample and thyroid tests (free thyroxine [FT4], free triiodothyronine [FT3], thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine-binding globulin [TBG], and thyroglobulin [Tg]) were measured at initial presentation (before 12 weeks of gestation), and during the ninth month of pregnancy. A thyroid ultrasound was performed 1 to 5 days after delivery in 246 mothers. Mean urinary iodine levels were low during the first trimester (6.9+/-0.4 microg/dL), as well as during the ninth month of pregnancy (8.6+/-0.6 microg/dL). During pregnancy, FT4 and T3 concentrations decreased (p < .001), and TSH and Tg concentrations increased (p < .001). Thyroid hypertrophy (thyroid volume greater than 18 mL) was present in 15.4% of women whose first trimester urinary iodine concentration was less than 5 microg/dL, but was present in only 3.5% of women whose urinary iodine concentration was greater than 10 microg/dL. A goiter (thyroid volume greater than 22 mL) was present in 11% of the mothers. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that urinary iodine excretion is low in pregnant women living in the southwest of France. This low iodine intake is associated with reduced circulating thyroid hormone levels and growth of the thyroid gland. These data point to the need of an increased iodine supply in these pregnant women to reduce the potential consequences of low iodine intake on maternal thyroid economy.

  9. Effect of a Karate Competition on Urinary Excretion of Proteins with High Molecular Weight (Glomerular proteinuria in Young Male Karatekas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Kohanpour

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a karate competition on the urinary excretion of proteins with high molecular weight and urinary creatinine to protein ratio in young male karate as. Ten young male karate as with the age range of 25±2.63 years, height of 175.7±5.15 cm and weight of 71.5±8.61 kg voluntarily took part in this study and participated in a karate competition. Before and 20 min after the competition, the urinary sample was collected and the levels of albumin, total protein, creatinine and urinary creatinine to protein ratio were measured and calculated. To investigate the changes of urinary proteins caused by competition, the student’s t-test for dependent groups was used. Glomerular proteinuria increased after the competition; however, it was only significant for albumin and creatinine (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively. Although total protein increased after the competition, it was not statistically significant (p = 0.184 and the creatinine to protein ratio did not make any significant changes (p = 0.532. Creatinine to protein ratio was less than 0.1 for the samples before and after the competition; therefore, proteinuria had a physiological range which was very far from nephritic and pathological proteinuria ranges; thus, it was not harmful.

  10. Renal proximal tubular dysfunction is a major determinant of urinary connective tissue growth factor excretion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, K.G.; Peters, H.P.E.; Nguyen, T.Q.; Koeners, M.P.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Joles, J.A.; Christensen, E.I.; Verroust, P.J.; Li, D.; Oliver, N.; Xu, L.; Kok, R.J.; Goldschmeding, R.

    2010-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays a key role in renal fibrosis. Urinary CTGF is elevated in various renal diseases and may have biomarker potential. However, it is unknown which processes contribute to elevated urinary CTGF levels. Thus far, urinary CTGF was considered to reflect renal ex

  11. Urinary growth hormone (U-GH) excretion and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Grønbaek, M; Main, K;

    1993-01-01

    Basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels are elevated and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations in serum are suppressed in patients with chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to measure the urinary GH (U-GH) excretion and IGF-1 concentrations in patients with cirrhosis...... and to correlate these both to clinical and biochemical characteristics and survival rate. Urinary GH excretion, IGF-1, and other biochemical parameters were measured in 36 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, while in the control group of 34 healthy individuals only U-GH excretion was measured. U-GH excretion...... was significantly higher in patients than in the healthy controls (p U-GH excretions were found in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (p

  12. A detailed urinary excretion time course study of captan and folpet biomarkers in workers for the estimation of dose, main route-of-entry and most appropriate sampling and analysis strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Aurélie; Heredia-Ortiz, Roberto; Vernez, David; Danuser, Brigitta; Bouchard, Michèle

    2012-08-01

    Captan and folpet are two fungicides largely used in agriculture, but biomonitoring data are mostly limited to measurements of captan metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples of workers, which complicate interpretation of results in terms of internal dose estimation, daily variations according to tasks performed, and most plausible routes of exposure. This study aimed at performing repeated biological measurements of exposure to captan and folpet in field workers (i) to better assess internal dose along with main routes-of-entry according to tasks and (ii) to establish most appropriate sampling and analysis strategies. The detailed urinary excretion time courses of specific and non-specific biomarkers of exposure to captan and folpet were established in tree farmers (n = 2) and grape growers (n = 3) over a typical workweek (seven consecutive days), including spraying and harvest activities. The impact of the expression of urinary measurements [excretion rate values adjusted or not for creatinine or cumulative amounts over given time periods (8, 12, and 24 h)] was evaluated. Absorbed doses and main routes-of-entry were then estimated from the 24-h cumulative urinary amounts through the use of a kinetic model. The time courses showed that exposure levels were higher during spraying than harvest activities. Model simulations also suggest a limited absorption in the studied workers and an exposure mostly through the dermal route. It further pointed out the advantage of expressing biomarker values in terms of body weight-adjusted amounts in repeated 24-h urine collections as compared to concentrations or excretion rates in spot samples, without the necessity for creatinine corrections.

  13. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, Mette

    1980-01-01

    Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean c...

  14. Polymorphisms in the WNK1 gene are associated with blood pressure variation and urinary potassium excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Newhouse

    Full Text Available WNK1--a serine/threonine kinase involved in electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure (BP control--is an excellent candidate gene for essential hypertension (EH. We and others have previously reported association between WNK1 and BP variation. Using tag SNPs (tSNPs that capture 100% of common WNK1 variation in HapMap, we aimed to replicate our findings with BP and to test for association with phenotypes relating to WNK1 function in the British Genetics of Hypertension (BRIGHT study case-control resource (1700 hypertensive cases and 1700 normotensive controls. We found multiple variants to be associated with systolic blood pressure, SBP (7/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.0005, diastolic blood pressure, DBP (7/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.002 and 24 hour urinary potassium excretion (10/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.0004. Associations with SBP and urine potassium remained significant after correction for multiple testing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01 respectively. The major allele (A of rs765250, located in intron 1, demonstrated the strongest evidence for association with SBP, effect size 3.14 mmHg (95%CI:1.23-4.9, DBP 1.9 mmHg (95%CI:0.7-3.2 and hypertension, odds ratio (OR: 1.3 [95%CI: 1.0-1.7].We genotyped this variant in six independent populations (n = 14,451 and replicated the association between rs765250 and SBP in a meta-analysis (p = 7 x 10(-3, combined with BRIGHT data-set p = 2 x 10(-4, n = 17,851. The associations of WNK1 with DBP and EH were not confirmed. Haplotype analysis revealed striking associations with hypertension and BP variation (global permutation p10 mmHg reduction and risk for hypertension (OR<0.60. Our data indicates that multiple rare and common WNK1 variants contribute to BP variation and hypertension, and provide compelling evidence to initiate further genetic and functional studies to explore the role of WNK1 in BP regulation and EH.

  15. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on the bone mass and urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Perovano Pardini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The menopause accelerates bone loss and is associated with an increased bone turnover. Bone formation may be evaluated by several biochemical markers. However, the establishment of an accurate marker for bone resorption has been more difficult to achieve. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT on bone mass and on the markers of bone resorption: urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. DESIGN: Cohort correlational study. SETTING: Academic referral center. SAMPLE: 53 post-menopausal women, aged 48-58 years. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Urinary pyr and d-pyr were measured in fasting urine samples by spectrofluorometry after high performance liquid chromatography and corrected for creatinine excretion measured before treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA before treatment and after 12 months of HRT. RESULTS: The BMD after HRT was about 4.7% (P < 0.0004; 2% (P < 0.002; and 3% (P < 0.01 higher than the basal values in lumbar spine, neck and trochanter respectively. There were no significant correlations between pyridinium cross-links and age, weight, menopause duration and BMD. The decrease in pyr and d-pyr was progressive after HRT, reaching 28.9% (P < 0.0002, and 42% (P < 0.0002 respectively after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion decreases early in hormone replacement therapy, reflecting a decrease in the bone resorption rate, and no correlation was observed with the bone mass evaluated by densitometry.

  16. Influence of urinary sodium excretion on the clinical assessment of renal tubular calcium reabsorption in hypercalcaemic man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S H; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Cowan, R A; Boyle, I T

    1986-06-01

    The relation between urinary sodium excretion (NaE) and renal tubular calcium reabsorption (TmCa/GFR) was assessed in patients with hypercalcaemia associated with malignancy and primary hyperparathyroidism. On acute saline loading of seven normally hydrated patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and five patients with malignancy, raised values of TmCa/GFR were reduced to normal in most cases, in association with increases in NaE. The reduction in TmCa/GFR, which occurred, may have been due to a reduction in proximal tubular calcium reabsorption associated with sodium: this would have obscured the effect of humorally mediated increases in distal tubular calcium reabsorption, which are stimulated either by parathyroid hormone or by a putative humoral mediator in hypercalcaemia of malignancy. In patients who were normally hydrated NaE and TmCa/GFR were not significantly correlated. When data were included from patients who were dehydrated and from those undergoing acute saline loading, significant inverse correlations between NaE and TmCa/GFR were observed both in primary hyperparathyroidism (r = -0.49; p less than 0.02) and malignancy (r = -0.60; p less than 0.001). In clinical practice changes in TmCa/GFR associated with sodium seem to be of minor importance under normal circumstances, but they become evident at the upper and lower extremes of urinary sodium excretion. In clinical studies of renal calcium handling urinary sodium excretion must also be assessed, as interpreting TmCa/GFR data is difficult in states of excessive sodium loading or depletion.

  17. LP-925219 maximizes urinary glucose excretion in mice by inhibiting both renal SGLT1 and SGLT2

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, David R.; Smith, Melinda G; Doree, Deon D; Harris, Angela L; Xiong, Wendy W; Mseeh, Faika; Wilson, Alan; Gopinathan, Suma; Diaz, Damaris; Goodwin, Nicole C.; Harrison, Bryce; Strobel, Eric; Rawlins, David B.; Carson, Ken; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral anti-diabetic agents that improve glycemic control by inhibiting SGLT2-mediated renal glucose reabsorption. Currently available agents increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE) to 50% of filtered glucose when SGLT2 is completely inhibited. This led us to test whether LP-925219, a small molecule dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor, increases UGE to maximal values in wild-type (WT) mice. We first tested LP-925219 inhibition of gluc...

  18. Reference interval and subject variation in excretion of urinary metabolites of nicotine from non-smoking healthy subjects in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A M; Garde, A H; Christensen, J M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Passive smoking has been found to be a respiratory health hazard in humans. The present study describes the calculation of a reference interval for urinary nicotine metabolites calculated as cotinine equivalents on the basis of 72 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke less than 25....... Parametric reference interval for excretion of nicotine metabolites in urine from non-smokers was established according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) for use of risk assessment of exposure to tobacco smoke....... The reference interval for urinary cotinine was estimated to be 1.1-90.0 micromol/mol creatinine in morning samples from non-smokers. An intercomparison between the radioimmunoassay (RIA) method used for determination of nicotine metabolites and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method...

  19. Renal pathology and urinary protein excretion in a 14-month-old Bernese mountain dog with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, J; Aupperle, H; Raila, G; Schoon, H-A; Schweigert, F J

    2007-04-01

    The renal pathology and urinary protein pattern of a 14-month-old female Bernese mountain dog with chronic renal failure was investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis and subsequent Western blot analysis of urine showed the presence of heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin, transferrin, albumin, vitamin D-binding protein, transthyretin and retinol-binding protein (RBP), but no excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP). Histopathological examinations of the kidneys revealed severe membranous glomerulonephritis accompanied by tubular dilatation, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The renal expression of megalin, the main endocytic receptor for the re-uptake of proteins in proximal tubules, RBP and THP was reduced or completely absent, indicating severe tubular dysfunction. The identified urinary proteins may be of interest as additional markers for the diagnosis of juvenile nephropathy in Bernese mountain dogs.

  20. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is not linked to the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2000-01-01

    aged 40-65 years with elevated UAE in a dipstick negative urinary sample (n = 27) from The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Neither the ACE genotype distribution (p = 0.12) nor the D and I allele frequencies (p = 0.69) differed significantly between subjects with elevated UAE and a matched normoalbuminuric......An elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in non-diabetic subjects without renal or cardiovascular disease has been shown to be predictive of ischaemic heart disease. An insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified and the D allele...... control group (n = 46). Elevated UAE in clinically healthy subjects is not linked to the ACE gene polymorphism....

  1. Concentration compared with total urinary excretion of 11,17-DOA in cynomolgus monkey urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Jann; Royo, F

    2008-01-01

    should be expressed as amounts excreted per time unit per kg body-weight, rather than being expressed as concentrations in samples. Urine and feces excretion varies significantly within and between animals over time, which may render simple concentration measures of molecules of little biological......Strees sensitive molecules exhibit great variation in concentration in the circulation and it may often be advantageous to quantify these in urine or feces rather than in serum or plasma. We advocate that all urine-or feces-should be collected, and that excretion of stress sensitive molecules...

  2. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. PMID:9347899

  3. Urinary fluoride excretion after application of fluoride varnish and use of fluoride toothpaste in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockner, Frida; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2017-01-01

    the levels with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste. DESIGN: Fifteen healthy children were enrolled to a randomized crossover trial that was performed in two parts: Part I with twice-daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and Part II with twice-daily brushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste......: There was a statistically significant increase in the 6-h fluoride excretion after application of both experimental varnishes, with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste (P toothpaste was used, the mean fluoride excretion was 0.20 mg/6 h after application of Duraphat and 0.29 mg/6 h...... after application of Profluorid Varnish (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Topical applications of 0.1 mL of fluoride varnish significantly increased the 6-h fluoride excretion. As some individuals displayed excretion levels exceeding the optimal fluoride exposure, a restricted use of fluoride toothpaste...

  4. Influence of glycemic excursion on urinary albumin excretion and inflammatory factor in early diabetes kidney disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Cao; Ding-Ping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To research the influence of glycemic excursion on the level of urinary albumin excretion and inflammatory factor in early diabetes kidney disease patients.Methods:From January to December in 2015, 96 confirmed cases of early diabetes kidney disease were collected. Continuous Glucose Monito Ring System CGMS, produced by American MiniMed Inc) was used to monitor 72 h blood glucose. The influence of MAGE on the level of urinary albumin excretion, IGF-1, FKN, IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP and inflammatory indexes was compared.Results:Compared cases of stable blood sugar (MAGE<5.0 mmol/L) with unstable ones (MAGE≥5.0 mmol/L), the difference of UAER and 1,5-AG had statistical significance, while HbA1c and FA had no significant difference. Pearson correlation analysis between MAGE and UAER resulted in strong correlation. And also the front inflammatory factor including IGF-1, FKN, IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP all showed lower level than the cases of MAGE≥5.0 mmol/L.Conclusion:Glycemic excursion may accelerate development of kidney injury through inflammatory factors.

  5. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile.

  6. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile. PMID:21108560

  7. Fluoride intake from fluids and urinary fluoride excretion by young children in Kuwait: a non-fluoridated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpata, Enosakhare S; Behbehani, Jawad; Akbar, Jaber; Thalib, Lukman; Mojiminiyi, Olusegun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the pattern of fluid consumption, fluoride intake from the fluids and urinary fluoride excretion by children aged 1-9 years in Kuwait, a nonfluoridated community. Using the cluster sampling technique, children aged 1-9 years were chosen from 2000 randomly selected households in Kuwait. Questionnaires were then administered to their mothers to determine the children's daily fluid intake. Fluoride concentrations in tap water as well as all brands of bottled water and beverages consumed by the children were measured, using the fluoride ion-specific electrode. Fluoride excretion was determined in 400 randomly selected children, based on fluoride/creatinine ratio. The mean daily fluid consumption by the children was high, being 1115-1545 ml. About 40% of the fluid intake was plain (tap and bottled) water and approximately 10% of the children drank bottled water exclusively. Fluoride concentration in tap water was low (0.04±SD 0.02 ppm), but was higher in bottled water (0.28±SD 0.40 ppm). Mean daily fluoride ingestion from fluids was 0.013-0.018 mg/kg body weight (bw). Even after allowing for fluoride ingestion from other sources, mean daily fluoride ingestion was still below 0.1 mg/kg bw set by the United States of America Institute of Medicine as the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level for moderate enamel fluorosis in children aged up to 8 years. Furthermore, the mean daily urinary fluoride excretion of 128-220 μg was below the provisional standard of 360-480 μg for optimal fluoride usage by children aged 3-5 years. Fluoride ingestion from fluids and urinary fluoride excretion by the children were below the recommendations for optimal fluoride usage. Thus, there is room for an upward adjustment of fluoride level in public drinking water supplies in Kuwait, as a caries preventive measure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal liquefaction workers: impact of a workwear policy on excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, R; Kowalczyk, G; Gardiner, K; Calvert, I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--This study was undertaken to assess whether contaminated personal clothing worn beneath a coverall (normal workwear) is a source of potentially significant dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coal liquefaction workers. METHODS--An intervention study was conducted over a two week period involving 10 workers that reflected the range of activities performed at the factory. A cross over design was used to examine the influence of normal workwear (personal clothing worn beneath a coverall) and intervention workwear (new coverall, shirt, trousers, underwear, socks, and boots) upon excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and skin pad deposition of pyrene. RESULTS--The impact of intervention was noted in three ways: (1) A notable reduction (55%) in the mass of 1-OHP excreted on the first day of the intervention phase was found. The median reduction in mass excreted (22.7 nmol) was significant from zero at the 5% level; (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 9.5-40.8 nmol). (2) A notable reduction (82%) in skin pad deposition of pyrene on the first day of the intervention phase was found. The median reduction of 13.20 ng.cm-2 was significant from zero at the 5% level; (95% CI 7.3-26.4 ng.cm-2). (3) About a 50% reduction in 1-OHP concentration over the working week occurred during the intervention phase; an increase of 2.07 mumol/mol creatinine was found from the start to the end of the work period during the intervention phase compared with an increase of 4.06 mumol/mol creatinine during the normal phase. This reduction was not significant at the 5% level. CONCLUSION--The results indicate that on the first day of the working week investigated, significant reductions in absorbtion (as measured by excretion of urinary 1-OHP) and deposition of PAHs (as measured by skin pad deposition of pyrene) can be effected by improvements in workwear policy. The impact of the improved workwear regimen was also detected by reduction in spot urinary 1-OHP

  9. Glutamine transaminase K intranephron localization in rats determined by urinary excretion after treatment with segment-specific nephrotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, A.; Fanelli, G.; Bicciato, F.; Stocco, E. [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Univ. of Padova (Italy); Cristofori, P. [Medicine Safety Evaluation, Pathology Department, GlaxoWellcome S.p.A., Verona (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Glutamine transaminase K(GTK) excretion assessed in urine and by kidney histology was evaluated in rats after single treatment with 1.0 mg/kg i.p. of mercuric chloride, 100 mg/kg i.p. of hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (both S{sub 3}, pars recta, segment-specific nephrotoxicants) and 25 mg/kg s.c. of potassium dichromate (S{sub 1}-S{sub 2}, pars convoluta, segment-specific nephrotoxicant). The aim was to correlate segment-specific injury and enzyme excretion in order to assess, using non-vasive methods, localization of GTK along the proximal tubule. Mercuric chloride and hexachloro-1:3-butadiene produced early focal damage in the pars recta (focal necrosis was shown 10 h after treatment, and diffuse necrosis appeared later at 34 and 24 h after treatment). Changes of the pars convoluta were occasional and delayed (72 h after treatment for both substances). On the contrary, potassium dichromate induced damage of the pars convoluta (vacuolar degeneration and focal necrosis were evident 24 h and 48 h after treatment, respectively), whereas the pars recta was affected later (focal vacuolar degeneration was observed 72 h after treatment). Increase urinary GTK excretion was early after treatment with mercuric chloride and hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (significant increase was observed within 10 h), with a peak for both substances 24 h after treatment, in agreement with the necrosis of the pars recta. Potassium dichromate induced a significant increase of enzyme excretion in urine also 24 h after injection, according to histological features showing vacuolar degeneration of the pars convoluta; the peak of excretion was reached 48 h after treatment (delay was due, probably, to s.c. administration). The results show that GTK increased in urine after treatment with S{sub 3}and S {sub 1}-S {sub 2} specific nephrotoxicants; the combination of histological examination and urinary enzyme supports the evidence that the enzyme is distributed along the whole of the proximal tubule. (orig

  10. Increased urinary excretion of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and decreased serum thyreotropic hormone (TSH) induced by motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, J; Eversmann, T; Erhardt, F; Gottsmann, M; Ulbrecht, G; Scriba, P C

    1978-01-01

    We exposed 35 male subjects to a rotary chair and motion sickness was provoked by Coriolis effect. This stress caused an increased excretion of urinary T3 and T4 and a decrease of TSH levels in serum. The increment in urinary excretion of thyroid hormones may serve as a very useful measure for the quantitation of physical stress. Although no statistically significant change of T3, T4, and TBG levels in serum could be observed by the employed techniques, the hypothesis is favoured that motion sickness probably causes an immeasurably small increase of the free thyroid hormone fraction in serum, thereby increasing urinary excretion of T3 and T4 and, in turn, decreasing TSH secretion. Physical or psychological stress situations involve most of the endocrine systems. Contadictory results have been reported in the literature concerning the relationship between thyroid function and stress.

  11. Major and minor arsenic compounds accounting for the total urinary excretion of arsenic following intake of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis): A controlled human study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, M.; Ydersbond, T.A.; Ulven, S.M.;

    2012-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) accumulate and biotransform arsenic (As) to a larger variety of arsenicals than most seafood. Eight volunteers ingested a test meal consisting of 150g blue mussel (680μg As), followed by 72h with an identical, low As controlled diet and full urine sampling. We provide...... a complete speciation, with individual patterns, of urinary As excretion. Total As (tAs) urinary excretion was 328±47μg, whereof arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) accounted for 66% and 21%, respectively. Fifteen minor urinary arsenicals were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass...... spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled to reverse-phase, anion and cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thio-arsenicals and non-thio minor arsenicals (including inorganic As (iAs) and methylarsonate (MA)) contributed 10% and 7% of the total sum of species excretion, respectively, but there were...

  12. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  13. Competitive inhibition of SGLT2 by tofogliflozin or phlorizin induces urinary glucose excretion through extending splay in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takumi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Fukazawa, Masanori; Honda, Kiyofumi; Yamane, Mizuki; Yoshida, Ayae; Azabu, Hiroko; Kitamura, Hidekazu; Toyota, Naoto; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors showed a glucose lowering effect in type 2 diabetes patients through inducing renal glucose excretion. Detailed analysis of the mechanism of the glucosuric effect of SGLT2 inhibition, however, has been hampered by limitations of clinical study. Here, we investigated the mechanism of urinary glucose excretion using nonhuman primates with SGLT inhibitors tofogliflozin and phlorizin, both in vitro and in vivo. In cells overexpressing cynomolgus monkey SGLT2 (cSGLT2), both tofogliflozin and phlorizin competitively inhibited uptake of the substrate (α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside; AMG). Tofogliflozin was found to be a selective cSGLT2 inhibitor, inhibiting cSGLT2 more strongly than did phlorizin, with selectivity toward cSGLT2 1,000 times that toward cSGLT1; phlorizin was found to be a nonselective cSGLT1/2 inhibitor. In a glucose titration study in cynomolgus monkeys under conditions of controlled plasma drug concentration, both tofogliflozin and phlorizin increased fractional excretion of glucose (FEG) by up to 50% under hyperglycemic conditions. By fitting the titration curve using a newly introduced method that avoids variability in estimating the threshold of renal glucose excretion, we found that tofogliflozin and phlorizin lowered the threshold and extended the splay in a dose-dependent manner without significantly affecting the tubular transport maximum for glucose (TmG). Our results demonstrate the contribution of SGLT2 to renal glucose reabsorption (RGR) in cynomolgus monkeys and demonstrate that competitive inhibition of cSGLT2 exerts a glucosuric effect by mainly extending splay and lowering threshold without affecting TmG.

  14. Relation of 24-hour urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions with self-reported consumption of coffee and other caffeinated beverages in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Dusan; Estoppey Younes, Sandrine; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Mohaupt, Markus; Paccaud, Fred; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle; Guessous, Idris

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine intake is generally estimated by self-reported consumption, but it remains unclear how well self-report associates with metabolite urinary excretion. We investigated the associations of self-reported consumption of caffeinated drinks with urinary excretion of caffeine and its major metabolites in an adult population. We used data from the population-based Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension (SKIPOGH) study. Consumption of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee and other caffeinated beverages was assessed by self-administered questionnaire. Quantification of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 24-h urine. Association of reported consumption of caffeinated drinks with urinary caffeine derived metabolites was determined by quantile regression. We then explored the association between urinary metabolite excretion and dichotomized weekly consumption frequency of caffeinated coffee, with Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the present analysis, we included 598 individuals (52% women, mean age =46 ± 17 years). Self-reported caffeinated coffee intake was positively associated with 24-h urinary excretions of paraxanthine, theophylline and caffeine (p caffeinated beverages showed no association. In ROC analysis, optimal discrimination between individuals consuming less than one caffeinated coffee/week, vs. at least one coffee, was obtained for 24-h urinary paraxanthine (Area Under Curve (AUC) = 0.868, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.830;0.906]), with slightly lower performance for theophylline and caffeine, whereas theobromine did not allow any discrimination. Our results suggest that reported consumption of caffeinated coffee is positively associated with 24-h urinary excretion of caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline, and may be used as a marker of caffeine intake for epidemiological studies.

  15. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20–50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  16. EVALUATION OF THE URINARY SODIUM EXCRETION IN PATIENTS WITH LOW SODIUM DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Emanuela

    2012-06-01

    We conclude that sodium intake in this population at risk is excessive. There was good correlation between the intake of sodium and excretion. Future studies should examine the impact of nutritional interventions aimed at reducing sodium intake in this group of patients.

  17. Urinary felinine excretion in intact male cats is increased by dietary cystine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Weidgraaf, K.; Morton, R.H.; Rogers, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    Felinine is a branched-chain sulfur amino acid present in the urine of certain Felidae, including domestic cats. The objective of the present study was to determine if additional cystine and/or dietary N would increase felinine and N-acetylfelinine excretion by intact male cats fed a low-protein (LP

  18. Urinary felinine excretion in intact male cats is increased by dietary cystine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Weidgraaf, K.; Morton, R.H.; Rogers, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    Felinine is a branched-chain sulfur amino acid present in the urine of certain Felidae, including domestic cats. The objective of the present study was to determine if additional cystine and/or dietary N would increase felinine and N-acetylfelinine excretion by intact male cats fed a low-protein

  19. ESTIMATES OF AGE-SPECIFIC URINARY EXCRETION RATES FOR CREATININE AMONG CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study suggest that naïve adjustment by creatinine concentration, without consideration of the age-dependence of the physiological mechanisms controlling its excretion, may introduce sizeable error and is inappropriate when comparing metabolite concentrations a...

  20. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  1. Urinary uromodulin excretion predicts progression of chronic kidney disease resulting from IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uromodulin, or Tamm-Horsfall protein, is the most abundant urinary protein in healthy individuals. Recent studies have suggested that uromodulin may play a role in chronic kidney diseases. We examined an IgA nephropathy cohort to determine whether uromodulin plays a role in the progression of IgA nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 344 IgA nephropathy patients were involved in this study. Morphological changes were evaluated with the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA measured the urinary uromodulin level on the renal biopsy day. Follow up was done regularly on 185 patients. Time-average blood pressure, time-average proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and eGFR decline rate were caculated. Association between the urinary uromodulin level and the eGFR decline rate was analyzed with SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: We found that lower baseline urinary uromodulin levels (P = 0.03 and higher time-average proteinuria (P = 0.04 were risk factors for rapid eGFR decline in a follow-up subgroup of the IgA nephropathy cohort. Urinary uromodulin level was correlated with tubulointerstitial lesions (P = 0.016. Patients that had more tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis on the surface had lower urinary uromodulin levels (P = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary uromodulin level is associated with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and contributes to eGFR decline in IgA nephropathy.

  2. General (medium-chain) acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (non-ketotic dicarboxylic aciduria): quantitative urinary excretion pattern of 23 biologically significant organic acids in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, N; Kølvraa, S; Rasmussen, K; Mortensen, P B; Divry, P; David, M; Hobolth, N

    1983-08-15

    Urinary analysis of the pattern of 23 organic acid metabolites derived from fatty acids in three patients with general (medium-chain) acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency was performed. Although there exist quantitative differences in the excreted amounts of the different metabolites in the three patients the qualitative picture was the same. The excretion of adipic, suberic and sebacic acids was substantial, whereas that of dodecanedioic acid was within or just above control limit. The monounsaturated C6-C10-dicarboxylic acid excretion was only marginally or not increased. 5-OH-hexanoic acid and hexanoylglycine were excreted in excessive amounts, whereas 7-OH-octanoic acid, 9-OH-decanoic acid, octanoylglycine and decanoylglycine were excreted in limited amounts. The excreted amounts of 6-OH-hexanoic, 8-OH-octanoic and 10-OH-decanoic acids were not or only marginally elevated compared to controls. In one of the patients the excretion of ethylmalonic and methylsuccinic acids was enhanced, whereas the excretion of these two acids in the two other patients was comparable to that in controls. The urinary excretion of hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic and dodecanoic acids was just a little above the control limit, whereas the esterified hexanoic and octanoic acids were excreted in appreciable amounts. It is argued that the microsomal omega- and omega-1-oxidation systems are involved in the dicarboxylic and omega-1-OH-monocarboxylic acids formation at C10 and C12 level and that the C8-C6-dicarboxylic and omega-1-OH-monocarboxylic acids are formed from higher chained acids by beta-oxidation in both mitochondria and peroxisomes.

  3. Urinary excretion of alpha-GST and albumin in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with methotrexate or other DMARDs alone or in combination with NSAIDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, K B; Ellingsen, T; Bech, J N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of methotrexate (MTX) and other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) alone or in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the urinary excretion of alpha-glutathione S-transferase (alpha-GST) and albumin in rheumatoid arthritis......, and none had proteinuria using urine dipstick methods. CONCLUSION: DMARD-treated RA patients with normal serum creatinine had no detectable renal injuries assessed by the urinary excretions of alpha-GST and albumin.......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of methotrexate (MTX) and other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) alone or in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the urinary excretion of alpha-glutathione S-transferase (alpha-GST) and albumin in rheumatoid arthritis...... (RA) patients. METHODS: Nineteen RA patients starting treatment with MTX were followed for 1 year with measurements of urinary alpha-GST, urinary albumin, and urinary and plasma creatinine at the start of treatment, and after 16, 28, and 52 weeks. A larger group of RA patients (n = 72) undergoing long...

  4. [Cystine as a risk factor of the stone formation in kidney: the reference value range of urinary excretion, the stage diagnosis of cystine metabolism disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gres, A A; Nitkin, D M; Juraha, T M; Sivakow, A A

    2016-08-01

    to define the reference value ranges of cystine, lysine and arginine urinary excretion relative to creatinine in the morning urine samples for the metabolic disorders diagnosis leading to the formation of urinary stones. the study involved 695 healthy individuals aged 1-17 and 1564 patients with urolithiasis aged 7-45. The content of cystine in the urine samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The chemical composition of urinary stones was investigated by methods of the qualitative chemical reaction and the crystals microscopy. the reference value ranges of cystine, lysine and arginine urinary excretion relative to creatinine in the morning urine samples were developed in the age aspect. Excess in cystine level in the urine samples of the relatively healthy individuals detected in 1.4% of cases. From 1564 urinary stones submitted for analysis, the frequency of cystine stones was 0.8%. for the objective assessment of the cystine metabolism status the evaluation of the degree of cystinuria is necessary in order to form the risk group for cystine nephrolithiasis. The reference value ranges of cystine urinary excretion developed in the age aspect and "cystine / creatinine index" in morning urine samples will provide the opportunity to identify the state of the cystine exchange from early childhood and develop differentiated program for the prevention of stone formation in the kidneys.

  5. Accelerated urinary excretion of methylmercury following administration of its antidote N-acetylcysteine requires Mrp2/Abcc2, the apical multidrug resistance-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejczyk, Michael S; Aremu, David A; Simmons-Willis, Tracey A; Clarkson, Thomas W; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2007-07-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a sulfhydryl-containing compound that produces a dramatic acceleration of urinary methylmercury (MeHg) excretion in poisoned mice, but the molecular mechanism for this effect is poorly defined. MeHg readily binds to NAC to form the MeHg-NAC complex, and recent studies indicate that this complex is an excellent substrate for the basolateral organic anion transporter (Oat)-1, Oat1/Slc22a6, thus potentially explaining the uptake from blood into the renal tubular cells. The present study tested the hypothesis that intracellular MeHg is subsequently transported across the apical membrane of the cells into the tubular fluid as a MeHg-NAC complex using the multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2/Abcc2). NAC markedly stimulated urinary [(14)C]MeHg excretion in wild-type Wistar rats, and a second dose of NAC was as effective as the first dose in stimulating MeHg excretion. In contrast with the normal Wistar rats, NAC was much less effective at stimulating urinary MeHg excretion in the Mrp2-deficient (TR-) Wistar rats. The TR- rats excreted only approximately 30% of the MeHg excreted by the wild-type animals. To directly test whether MeHg-NAC is a substrate for Mrp2, studies were carried out in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from livers of TR- and control Wistar rats. Transport of MeHg-NAC was lower in vesicles prepared from TR- rats, whereas transport of MeHg-cysteine was similar in control and TR- rats. These results indicate that Mrp2 is involved in urinary MeHg excretion after NAC administration and suggest that the transported molecule is most likely the MeHg-NAC complex.

  6. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LINOLEIC-ACID-ENRICHED DIET ON ALBUMINURIA AND LIPID-LEVELS IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETIC-PATIENTS WITH ELEVATED URINARY ALBUMIN EXCRETION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; BEUSEKAMP, BJ; MEIJER, S; HOOGENBERG, K; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; SLUITER, WJ

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a 2-year prospective randomised study to investigate the effects of a linoleic-acid-enriched diet on albuminuria and lipid levels in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion (overnight urinary albumin excretion rate between 10 and 200-mu-g/min

  7. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LINOLEIC-ACID-ENRICHED DIET ON ALBUMINURIA AND LIPID-LEVELS IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETIC-PATIENTS WITH ELEVATED URINARY ALBUMIN EXCRETION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; BEUSEKAMP, BJ; MEIJER, S; HOOGENBERG, K; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; SLUITER, WJ

    We conducted a 2-year prospective randomised study to investigate the effects of a linoleic-acid-enriched diet on albuminuria and lipid levels in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion (overnight urinary albumin excretion rate between 10 and

  8. Assessment of Sodium and Potassium Intake by 24 h Urinary Excretion in a Healthy Mexican Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Maite; Colín-Ramírez, Eloisa; Rivera Mancía, Susana; Cartas Rosado, Raúl; Madero, Magdalena; Infante Vázquez, Oscar; Vargas-Barrón, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    A high dietary sodium intake and a low potassium intake are associated with adverse cardiovascular health. Data on these nutrients consumption in Mexico is limited. The aim of this study was to assess sodium and potassium intake by 24 h urinary excretion in a clinically healthy Mexican population. We additionally explored their association with blood pressure. 711 clinically healthy participants aged 20-50 years old recruited in the Tlalpan 2020 cohort from September 2014-December 2015, were included in this cross-sectional analysis. All participants provided a 24 h urine sample and underwent anthropometric, biochemical, and blood pressure evaluations. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of urinary sodium, potassium, and Na/K ratio with blood pressure. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) urinary sodium and potassium in the overall population was 3150.1 (3054.2-3246.0) mg/d and 1909.5 (1859.3-1959.6) mg/d, respectively. Overall, only 121 (17%) met the WHO recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/d) and 16 (2.3%) met the goal for potassium intake (≥3510 mg/d). Urinary sodium (β coefficient 1.3, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.8, p <0.001) and potassium (β coefficient 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2, p <0.001) were found to be associated with systolic blood pressure in the univariate analysis but not in the multivariate analysis. Sodium intake was higher and potassium intake was lower than the WHO recommendations in this healthy Mexican population. Sodium and potassium intakes were not associated with blood pressure at the mean levels of intake observed in this population, after adjusting for key variables. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites excretion in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Yayoi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya

    2017-03-08

    Inorganic arsenic (InAs) is a ubiquitous metalloid that has been shown to exert multiple adverse health outcomes. Urinary InAs and its metabolite concentration has been used as a biomarker of arsenic (As) exposure in some epidemiological studies, however, quantitative relationship between daily InAs exposure and urinary InAs metabolites concentration has not been well characterized. We collected a set of 24-h duplicated diet and spot urine sample of the next morning of diet sampling from 20 male and 19 female subjects in Japan from August 2011 to October 2012. Concentrations of As species in duplicated diet and urine samples were determined by using liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometry with a hydride generation system. Sum of the concentrations of urinary InAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA) was used as a measure of InAs exposure. Daily dietary InAs exposure was estimated to be 0.087 µg kg(-1) day(-1) (Geometric mean, GM), and GM of urinary InAs+MMA concentrations was 3.5 ng mL(-1). Analysis of covariance did not find gender-difference in regression coefficients as significant (P > 0.05). Regression equation Log 10 [urinary InAs+MMA concentration] = 0.570× Log 10 [dietary InAs exposure level per body weight] + 1.15 was obtained for whole data set. This equation would be valuable in converting urinary InAs concentration to daily InAs exposure, which will be important information in risk assessment.

  10. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  11. Epicardial, pericardial and total cardiac fat and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Regitse Hoejgaard; Hansen, Christian S; Heywood, Sarah E

    2017-01-01

    of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Methods Cardiac adipose tissue was measured from baseline echocardiography. The composite endpoint comprised incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media...... thickness and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline. Cardiac adipose tissue was investigated as continuous and binary variable. Analyses were performed unadjusted (model 1), and adjusted for age, sex (model 2), body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, glycated haemoglobin.......1; 3.7, p = 0.017) models. Cardiac adipose tissue ( p =  0.033) was associated with baseline coronary artery calcium (model 1) and interleukin-8 (models 1-3, all p diabetes patients without coronary artery disease, high cardiac adipose tissue levels were associated...

  12. Increased urinary excretion of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, in urban bus drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, S; Poulsen, H E; Vistisen, K

    1999-01-01

    '-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a repair product of the highly mutagenic oxidation of guanine in DNA or the cellular pool of GTP. CYP1A2 activity was estimated from the urinary excretion of metabolites of dietary caffeine. The DNA repair was estimated by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mononuclear cells isolated......Oxidative damage to DNA could be involved in the increased risk of cancer associated with exposure to polluted urban air, which contains a number of oxidants. CYP1A2 is induced by and metabolizes polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aromatic amines and could modify effects of exposure to ambient air...... pollution. Similarly, DNA repair may be influenced by occupational and other exposures as well as modify the effect of DNA damaging agents. As part of a large investigation of the genotoxic burden to diesel exposed workers in transport sectors we studied oxidative DNA damage in 57 non-smoking bus drivers...

  13. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Møller, Grith

    2017-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 2...... to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247....

  14. The impact of gender and puberty on reference values for urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jarden, M; Angelo, L

    1994-01-01

    , which allows direct measurement of U-GH in untreated urine specimens. We established a reference range for the geometric mean of 3 morning urine samples in 446 healthy children and 71 adults. U-GH could be determined in all but 9 of 1526 samples (99.4%). U-GH excretion was significantly dependent...... purposes. Our reference values may be useful for further studies of patients with GH disorders....

  15. Urinary albumin excretion rate and its determinants after 6 years in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirta, O R; Pasternack, A I; Mustonen, J T; Koivula, T A; Harmoinen, A

    1996-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the progression of urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDD) patients 6 years after diagnosis, and to elucidate the risk factors of nephropathy. This is a population-based controlled (baseline) cohort study. The prospective evaluation utilized the diabetic patients as internal controls. The setting was an urban primary health care centre. Main outcome measures were the UAER-24 h and fractional urinary albumin excretion rate (FAC) and their relation to mean blood pressure, haemoglobin Alc, fasting serum insulin and cholesterol and renal size. UAER (mg/24 h) was increased (geometric mean, quartile 1 and 3) in the diabetic patients at baseline, compared to the non-diabetic control subjects; 21 (10 and 33) versus 12 (8 and 15), P = 0.0001 (Wilcoxon's rank test). The UAER-24 h was not increased in diabetic subjects at follow-up; 24 (7 and 49) P = 0.3791 versus diabetic subjects at baseline. Eighteen per cent of normoalbuminuric (UAER 300 mg/24 h). Of the microalbuminuric subjects 19% progressed to clinical nephropathy, 46% remained microalbuminuric and 35% remitted to normoalbuminuria. Serum insulin concentration, after assessment of confounding factors, measured at the baseline predicted the UAER for all diabetic subjects at follow-up in multiple linear regression analysis in an independent and significant way (P = 0.01). Serum insulin concentration (P = 0.034) and diuretic therapy (P = 0.050) at baseline independently predicted the outcome of the categorical variable progressor/nonprogressor (n = 22/86) based on the UAER-24 h at baseline and at follow-up. Progression of the UAER during the first 6 years is found among approximately every fifth NIDD subject who develops either microalbuminuria (from normoalbuminuria) or clinical nephropathy (from microalbuminuria). The role of serum insulin (insulin resistance) or some factor associated with it, is suggestive in the genesis of kidney

  16. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  17. Urinary 5-HIAA excretion is not increased in patients with head and neck paragangliomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsteijn, L.T. van; Duinen, N. van; Romijn, J.A.; Smit, J.W.A.; Corssmit, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Case reports have documented carcinoid-like features in head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), which, in addition to catecholamine storing granules, may also contain granules with serotonin. Serotonin is metabolized to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Aim: To assess the urinary

  18. [Urinary iodine excretion levels in schoolchildren from Quindío, 2006-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Martha L; Loango, Nelsy; Londoño, Angela L; Landazuri, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Iodine nutritional status is measured by urinary iodine concentration thereby allowing risks involved in such deficiency or increase to be assessed. Studying the frequency of the risk of iodine deficiency disorders, or more than suitable iodine intake in schoolchildren from Quindío. Urinary iodine concentration was measured in a casual urine sample taken from each subject; this study lasted from 2006 to 2007. Median urinary iodine was 272.4 microg/L in the 444 samples analysed. 11.9% of schoolchildren had normal urinary iodine, 28.8% had iodine deficiency and 11.5% of them had a severe deficit, 12.6% moderate deficit and 4.7% slight deficit. 59.3% presented a risk of excessive iodine intake. The range of iodine deficiency in boys was 31% and 26.6% in girls (no significant difference). No significant difference was found with age; however, there was a significant difference between economic levels 1 and 2 (p iodine deficiency (median um iodine intake. The population being studied had severe iodine deficiencies (rural) and excessive intake (urban population), suggesting the absence or poor control of an iodization programme and additional exposure to factors causing iodine disorders. A programme is required for monitoring iodine disorders in the school population being studied.

  19. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, H.; Hugen, S.; Ingh, van den T.S.G.A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Bode, P.; Watson, A.L.; Leegwater, P.A.J.; Rothuizen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson’s disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson’s disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to

  20. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, H.; Hugen, S.; van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vernooij, Hans; Bode, P.; Watson, A.L.; Leegwater, P.A.J.; Rothuizen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson’s disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson’s disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study

  1. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, H.; Hugen, S.; van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vernooij, Hans; Bode, P.; Watson, A.L.; Leegwater, P.A.J.; Rothuizen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson’s disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson’s disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study

  2. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik;

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...

  3. Urinary albumin excretion and its relation with C-reactive protein and the metabolic syndrome in the prediction Of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsma, AH; Bakker, SJL; Hillege, HL; De Zeeuw, D; De Jong, PE; Gansevoort, RT

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To investigate urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and its relation with C-reactive protein (CRP) and the metabolic syndrome in the prediction of the development of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We used data from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End Stage Disease (PREVEN

  4. Free fruit at workplace intervention increases total fruit intake: a validation study using 24 h dietary recall and urinary flavonoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bredsdorff, Lea; Alinia, Sevil;

    2010-01-01

    , isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, daidzein, genistein, and phloretin, were measured using HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Results: The 24 h urinary excretion of total flavonoids and the estimated intake of fruits were significantly correlated (r(s) = 0.31, P...

  5. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized

  6. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, H.; Hugen, S.; Ingh, van den T.S.G.A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Bode, P.; Watson, A.L.; Leegwater, P.A.J.; Rothuizen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson’s disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson’s disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to

  7. Treatment-related changes in urinary excretion of high and low molecular weight proteins in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and renal insufficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buf-Vereijken, P.W.G. du; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, an increased urinary excretion of high (IgG) and low [beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)M), alpha(1)-microglobulin (alpha(1)M)] molecular weight proteins predicts prognosis and precedes renal insufficiency. We have studied the changes in th

  8. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension : results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized stu

  9. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized stu

  10. Impact of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Hansen, Henrik Post; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Low-dose treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely recommended to type 2 diabetic patients as primary prevention against cardiovascular disease. High-dose treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduces urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in type 1 diabetic patients with micro...

  11. Plasma levels of free metanephrines and 3-methoxytyramine indicate a higher number of biochemically active HNPGL than 24-h urinary excretion rates of catecholamines and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corssmit, E. P. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Brookman, D.; Kema, I. P.; Romijn, J. A.; van Duinen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Context: A substantial number of patients with head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) have biochemically active tumors, evidenced by increased urinary excretion of catecholamines and metabolites, including 3-methoxytyramine (3MT). It is unclear whether plasma levels of these parameters are more sensi

  12. Preeclampsia -- a state of prostaglandin deficiency? Urinary prostaglandin excretion, the renin-aldosterone system, and circulating catecholamines in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, N J; Christensen, P; Johannesen, P; Kornerup, H J; Kristensen, S; Lauritsen, J G; Leyssac, P P; Rasmussen, A; Wohlert, M

    1983-01-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) were determined during pregnancy, 5 days, 3, and 6 months after delivery in preeclampsia, normotensive pregnant, and nonpregnant control subjects. The PGE2 was higher in normotensive pregnant control subjects than in nonpregnant subjects. In preeclampsia, PGE2 was reduced to nonpregnant level. PGF2 alpha was the same in preeclampsia and in normotensive pregnancy, but elevated when compared to the normotensive nonpregnant control group. Plasma concentrations of renin and aldosterone were increased during pregnancy, but considerably less in preeclampsia than during normotensive pregnancy. NE and E were the same as in nonpregnant subjects during both hypertensive and normotensive pregnancy. All parameters were normal 3 months after delivery. There were no correlations between PGE2, PGF2 alpha, plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone, NE, or E and blood pressure level in third trimester either in preeclampsia or in normotensive pregnancy. PGE2 was positively correlated to plasma concentrations of renin. It is suggested that the lack of renal PGE2 in preeclampsia might be responsible for the decrease in renal blood flow and sodium excretion. It is hypothesized that preeclampsia is a state of prostaglandin deficiency. The changes in the renin-aldosterone system may be secondary to changes in prostaglandin concentration both in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancy.

  13. The fractional urinary fluoride excretion of adults consuming naturally and artificially fluoridated water and the influence of water hardness: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A; Cabezas, L; Anabalón, M; Rugg-Gunn, A

    2009-09-01

    To assess whether there was any significant difference in the average fractional urinary fluoride excretion (FUFE) values among adults consuming (NaF) fluoridated Ca-free water (reference water), naturally fluoridated hard water and an artificially (H2SiF6) fluoridated soft water. Sixty adult females (N=20 for each treatment) participated in this randomized, double-blind trial. The experimental design of this study provided an indirect estimation of the fluoride absorption in different types of water through the assessment of the fractional urinary fluoride excretion of volunteers. Average daily FUFE values (daily amount of fluoride excreted in urine/daily total fluoride intake) were not significantly different between the three treatments (Kruskal-Wallis; p = 0.62). The average 24-hour FUFE value (n=60) was 0.69; 95% C.I. 0.65-0.73. The results of this study suggest that the absorption of fluoride is not affected by water hardness.

  14. Estimation of salt intake assessed by urinary excretion of sodium over 24 h in Spanish subjects aged 7-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Cuadrado-Soto, E; Navia, B; López-Sobaler, A M; Ortega, R M

    2017-02-01

    High intake of salt is associated with early development of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity). In "developed" countries, individuals frequently exceed dietary recommendations for salt intake. Taking into account the limited data on sodium intake by 24-h excretion in urine in schoolchildren, we wished to determine baseline salt intake in Spanish subjects aged 7-11 years. The present study was an observational study involving 205 schoolchildren (109 boys and 96 girls) selected from various Spanish provinces. Sodium intake was ascertained by measuring sodium excretion in urine over 24 h. Creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The correlation between fat-free mass determined by anthropometry and that determined via urinary excretion of creatinine was calculated (r = 0.651; p salt equivalent: 7.8 ± 3.1 g/day). Hence, 84.5 % of subjects aged ≤10 years had intakes of >4 g salt/day, and 66.7 % of those aged >10 years had intakes of >5 g salt/day. Urinary excretion of sodium was correlated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.1574 and r = 0.1400, respectively). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted by sex, showed that a high body mass index (odds ratio = 1.159; 95 % CI 1.041-1.290; p < 0.05) was associated with an increased likelihood of high urinary excretion of sodium. Sodium intake, as estimated by 24-h urinary excretion, was (on average) higher than recommended. Reducing the sodium content children's diet is a sound policy to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  15. Effects of the dietary supplements, activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin, on urinary excretion of trimethylamine in Japanese trimethylaminuria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Masaki; Togashi, Masahiro; Saito, Tetsuya; Preti, George; Cashman, John R; Kamataki, Tetsuya

    2004-04-16

    Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability to oxidize and convert dietary-derived trimethylamine (TMA) to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). This disorder has been relatively well-documented in European and North American populations, but no reports have appeared regarding patients in Japan. We identified seven Japanese individuals that showed a low metabolic capacity to convert TMA to its odorless metabolite, TMAO. The metabolic capacity, as defined by the concentration of TMAO excreted in the urine divided by TMA concentration plus TMAO concentration, in these seven individuals ranged from 70 to 90%. In contrast, there were no healthy controls examined with less than 95% of the metabolic capacity to convert TMA to TMAO. The intake of dietary charcoal (total 1.5 g charcoal per day for 10 days) reduced the urinary free TMA concentration and increased the concentration of TMAO to normal values during charcoal administration. Copper chlorophyllin (total 180 mg per day for 3 weeks) was also effective at reducing free urinary TMA concentration and increasing TMAO to those of concentrations present in normal individuals. In the TMAU subjects examined, the effects of copper chlorophyllin appeared to last longer (i.e., several weeks) than those observed for activated charcoal. The results suggest that the daily intake of charcoal and/or copper chlorophyllin may be of significant use in improving the quality of life of individuals suffering from TMAU.

  16. Usefulness of the renal resistive index to predict an increase in urinary albumin excretion in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K; Okura, T; Tanino, A; Kukida, M; Nagao, T; Higaki, J

    2017-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive patients. Patients who are expected to increase albuminuria need strict blood pressure control. In the present study, we assessed the association between the renal resistive index (RI) and future increases in albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension. Sixty-six patients with essential hypertension were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors, including renal RI, that were significant independent determinants of increased in urinary albumin excretion (UAE), defined as an increase of >50% in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio over 2 years. Receiver operator characteristics curve analysis was used to select the optimal cut-off point that predicted an increase in UAE. RI was the only significant variable that predicted the increase in UAE, with the optimal cut-off value of renal RI that predicted this increase being 0.71 (sensitivity 52.4% and specificity 84.4%). Renal RI is associated with the future increase in albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension.

  17. Monitoring and managing urinary albumin excretion: practical advice for primary care clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, George L; Kuritzky, Louis

    2009-07-01

    Albuminuria has a strong, continuous, direct, linear relationship with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. Even at levels below the accepted upper limit of what is considered "normal" daily albumin excretion (albumin excretion level and adverse CV events is evident. Primary care clinicians (eg, physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) are usually the first point of contact for patients at risk for CV and kidney disease. Hence, identifying and treating problematic albuminuria levels are important in primary care. Both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) endorse routine annual screening for microalbuminuria (small amounts of albumin in the urine). Once excess albumin excretion is detected, clinicians must employ aggressive CV risk reduction. To optimize outcomes, treatment of microalbuminuria often requires the combined skills of experts in primary care, cardiology, metabolic disease, and nephrology. Although blood pressure reduction usually improves microalbuminuria, agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are most efficacious. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors) may confer CV and kidney advantages in high-risk patients. Their effects on microalbuminuria reduction are greater than those associated with attaining guideline-recommended blood pressure goals. Effective RAAS blockade sometimes induces transient changes in creatinine and potassium, which merit consistent monitoring for the first 2 to 3 months of their use, but rarely necessitate discontinuation. This article also presents an approach to managing increases in creatinine and potassium that should fit comfortably in the hands of primary care clinicians.

  18. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  19. Impact of kidney function and urinary protein excretion on pulmonary function in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Yusuke; Toyama, Tadashi; Furuichi, Kengo; Kitajima, Shinji; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Sagara, Akihiro; Shinozaki, Yasuyuki; Hara, Akinori; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Shimizu, Miho; Iwata, Yasunori; Oe, Hiroyasu; Nagahara, Mikio; Horita, Hiroshi; Sakai, Yoshio; Kaneko, Shuichi; Wada, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Although the cardiorenal relationship in chronic kidney disease has been investigated, information about the lung-kidney relationship is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of kidney function and urinary protein excretion on pulmonary dysfunction. The data from pulmonary function tests and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and urinary protein) between 1 April 2005 and 30 June 2010 were selected from our laboratory database. Data were classified into 4 categories according to eGFR and proteinuria. Category 1, eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and urinary protein protein protein ≥0.3 g/gCr; and category 4, eGFR protein ≥0.3 g/gCr. Pulmonary function data were evaluated according to these 4 categories. A total of 133 participants without major respiratory disease, abnormal computed tomography and smoking history were enrolled. Hemoglobin (Hb)-adjusted percentage carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (%DLCO) in category 4 (46.2 ± 7.5) and category 2 (63.6 ± 17.8) were significantly lower than in category 1 (75.8 ± 18.9) (P protein protein ≥0.3 g/gCr (R = 0.81, P function test markers (percentage (%) vital capacity, % forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity, % total lung capacity, and % residual volume) were not significantly different between categories. This study suggests that decreased eGFR is associated with decreased %DLCO in proteinuric patients.

  20. Urinary phthalate excretion in 555 healthy Danish boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Frederiksen, Hanne; Sørensen, Kaspar;

    2012-01-01

    Pubertal gynaecomastia is a clinical sign of an oestrogen-androgen imbalance, which occurs in 40-60% of adolescent Caucasian boys. In most cases no underlying endocrinopathy can be identified. A recent study reports higher plasma phthalate levels in Turkish boys with pubertal gynaecomastia....... Therefore, we asked whether there was an association between concurrent measures of urinary phthalate metabolites and pubertal timing as well as the presence of gynaecomastia in otherwise healthy boys. We studied a total of 555 healthy boys (age 6.07-19.83 years) as part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study...

  1. Urinary growth hormone excretion as a screening test for growth hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.M.; Wood, P. J.; Williamson, S.; Betts, P. R.; Evans, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Overnight urinary growth hormone secretion was measured by an immunoradiometric assay incorporating commercially available reagents, in 41 normal prepubertal school-children from three age groups: 3-5 years, 6-7 years, and 9-10 years. There was no significant difference between the groups expressing the results as total microU/specimen and so they have been combined to provide a prepubertal reference range of 2.25-10.50 microU/night. Prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency who had...

  2. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation by dietary capsaicin promotes urinary sodium excretion by inhibiting epithelial sodium channel α subunit-mediated sodium reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Fei; Wei, Xing; Liang, Yi; Cui, Yuanting; Gao, Feng; Zhong, Jian; Pu, Yunfei; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Arendshorst, William J; Nilius, Bernd; Chen, Jing; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2014-08-01

    High salt (HS) intake contributes to the development of hypertension. Epithelial sodium channels play crucial roles in regulating renal sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. The renal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel can be activated by its agonist capsaicin. However, it is unknown whether dietary factors can act on urinary sodium excretion and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function. Here, we report that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increased urinary sodium excretion through reducing sodium reabsorption in wild-type (WT) mice on a HS diet but not in TRPV1(-/-) mice. The effect of capsaicin on urinary sodium excretion was involved in inhibiting αENaC and its related with-no-lysine kinase 1/serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 pathway in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Dietary capsaicin further reduced the increased αENaC activity in WT mice attributed to the HS diet. In contrast, this capsaicin effect was absent in TRPV1(-/-) mice. Immunoprecipitation study indicated αENaC specifically coexpressed and functionally interact with TRPV1 in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Additionally, ENaC activity and expression were suppressed by capsaicin-mediated TRPV1 activation in cultured M1-cortical collecting duct cells. Long-term dietary capsaicin prevented the development of high blood pressure in WT mice on a HS diet. It concludes that TRPV1 activation in the cortical collecting ducts by capsaicin increases urinary sodium excretion and avoids HS diet-induced hypertension through antagonizing αENaC-mediated urinary sodium reabsorption. Dietary capsaicin may represent a promising lifestyle intervention in populations exposed to a high dietary salt intake.

  3. Relationship of serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content with urinary protein excretion and glomerular filtration function damage in patients with early diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yang; Ji Zhang; Li-Ping Tang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the relationship of serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content with urinary protein excretion and glomerular filtration function damage in patients with early diabetic nephropathy.Methods: A total of 76 patients with early diabetic nephropathy were included in observation group and 80 healthy subjects were included in control group. Differences in retinol-binding protein (RBP), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and chemokine Fractalkine (FKN) content in serum as well as urinary protein excretion indexes and glomerular filtration function indexes were compared between the two groups immediately after admission, and the correlation of RBP, NEFA and FKN content with the disease was further analyzed.Results:Serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content of observation group were higher than those of control group; 24 h total urine volume, 24 h urinary albumin and urinary albumin excretion rate as well as urine-specific proteins Kim-1, NGAL, L-FABP and CysC content of observation group were higher than those of control group and positively correlated with serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content; GFR level of observation group was lower than that of control group and negatively correlated with serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content while serum Cr, BUN, VF, LP-a,β2-MG and HA content were higher than those of control group and positively correlated with serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content.Conclusions:Serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content significantly increase in patients with early diabetic nephropathy and are correlated with urinary protein excretion and glomerular filtration function damage.

  4. Urinary albumin excretion rate: a risk factor for retinal hard exudates in macular region in type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shaocheng; Lin Siyong; Cao Xi; Zheng Yuezhong; Wang Jinyang; Lu Na; Yang Jinkui

    2014-01-01

    Background The various risk factors for retinal hard exudates are still poorly understood in type 2 diabetic patients.The aim of this study was to determine the association between urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and hard exudates in macular region in north Chinese patients.Methods A total of 272 patients (272 eyes) were enrolled for this study,including 154 subjects from group 1 (mild hard exudates),91 subjects from group 2 (moderate hard exudates) and 27 subjects from group 3 (severe hard exudates) confirmed using colour fundus photography,optical coherence tomography (OCT) as well as slit-lamp biomicroscopy with 78 diopter (D) lens.Each participant underwent a comprehensive assessment that included biochemical,clinical characteristics test and detailed ophthalmic evaluation.One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and chi-square test were performed to analyze the fasting blood glucose (FBG),glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c),total cholesterol (TC),low density lipoprotein (LDL),high density lipoprotein (HDL),triglycerides (TG),full blood counts,urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER),blood creatinine (CREA),duration of diabetes,body mass index (BMI),systolic blood pressures (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) between groups.Ordinal logistic regression analysis was further performed in order to eliminating the possible confounding factors.Results Three groups were matched in terms of age and gender.Risk factors which showed significant difference between groups include FBG (P <0.001),HbA1c (P <0.001),LDL (P <0.001),UAER (P <0.001),duration of diabetes (P=0.001),TC (P=0.005),SBP (P=0.026),CREA (P=0.004) and haemoglobin (Hb) (P=0.012).There was no significant difference between groups for the TG,HDL,DBP,platelet,total white blood cells and BMI.Using ordinal Logistic regression analyses,of all the variables,HbA1c,LDL and UAER which were independent risk factor for hard exudates showed a significantly odds ratio of 1.25,3.07,and 1.39,respectively

  5. Is it time to change the definition of normal urinary albumin excretion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Olsen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    This Practice Point commentary discusses a recent study by Forman et al. that examined the association between baseline urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and the risk of developing hypertension among 2,179 women in the first and second Nurses' Health Studies who did not have hypertension or diabetes...... at baseline and had normoalbuminuria by conventional definitions. The study showed that quartiles of albuminuria beyond the lowest quartile were increasingly predictive of subsequent hypertensive disease, even at levels well below what is conventionally considered to be the normal range. This commentary...... highlights the importance of evaluating albuminuria as an indicator of target organ damage and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients without hypertension, diabetes or other cardiovascular diseases who have albuminuria should be considered at risk of cardiovascular disease and should undergo...

  6. Gender and age differences in mixed metal exposure and urinary excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Marika, E-mail: Marika.Berglund@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindberg, Anna-Lena [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (Bangladesh); Grander, Margaretha [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Loennerdal, Bo [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Little is known about the variation in exposure to toxic metals by age and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated age and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three age groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of age, living in an area with no point sources of metal exposure but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, age, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all age groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal exposure significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic

  7. Is cortisol excretion independent of menstrual cycle day? A longitudinal evaluation of first morning urinary specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Nepomnaschy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cortisol is frequently used as a marker of physiologic stress levels. Using cortisol for that purpose, however, requires a thorough understanding of its normal longitudinal variability. The current understanding of longitudinal variability of basal cortisol secretion in women is very limited. It is often assumed, for example, that basal cortisol profiles do not vary across the menstrual cycle. This is a critical assumption: if cortisol were to follow a time dependent pattern during the menstrual cycle, then ignoring this cyclic variation could lead to erroneous imputation of physiologic stress. Yet, the assumption that basal cortisol levels are stable across the menstrual cycle rests on partial and contradictory evidence. Here we conduct a thorough test of that assumption using data collected for up to a year from 25 women living in rural Guatemala. METHODOLOGY: We apply a linear mixed model to describe longitudinal first morning urinary cortisol profiles, accounting for differences in both mean and standard deviation of cortisol among women. To that aim we evaluate the fit of two alternative models. The first model assumes that cortisol does not vary with menstrual cycle day. The second assumes that cortisol mean varies across the menstrual cycle. Menstrual cycles are aligned on ovulation day (day 0. Follicular days are assigned negative numbers and luteal days positive numbers. When we compared Models 1 and 2 restricting our analysis to days between -14 (follicular and day 14 (luteal then day of the menstrual cycle did not emerge as a predictor of urinary cortisol levels (p-value>0.05. Yet, when we extended our analyses beyond that central 28-day-period then day of the menstrual cycle become a statistically significant predictor of cortisol levels. SIGNIFICANCE: The observed trend suggests that studies including cycling women should account for day dependent variation in cortisol in cycles with long follicular and luteal phases.

  8. Importance of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency in small intestine for urinary orotic acid excretion: analysis of OTC-deficient spf-ash mice with OTC transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, T; Mori, K; Kobayashi, K; Horiuchi, M; Shige, T; Obara, T; Suzuki, S; Mori, M; Yamamura, K

    1995-01-25

    We report the effect of the ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) transgene composed of 1.3 kb of the 5' flanking region of the rat OTC gene fused to rat OTC cDNA on urinary orotic acid excretion in OTC-deficient spf-ash (sparse-fur with abnormal skin and hair) mice during overnight-starvation and nitrogen loading. During starvation, spf-ash mice with about 6% and 2% of control levels of OTC activity in the liver and small intestine excreted a large amount of orotic acid in the urine. Transgenic spf-ash mice with about 10% and 30% of the control OTC activities in the liver and small intestine did not excrete more than the normal level of orotic acid. Accidental parasitization of transgenic spf-ash mice with ticks (Myocoptes musculinus) resulted in decrease of the OTC activities in the liver and small intestine to the levels in spf-ash mice, and increased excretion of orotic acid. During extermination of the ticks, the mice showed varied levels of OTC activity and orotic acid excretion. On nitrogen loading, transgenic spf-ash mice as well as spf-ash mice excreted larger amounts of orotic acid, while control mice showed no increase in its excretion. The levels of urinary orotic acid were inversely correlated to the logarithms of the OTC activities in the liver and small intestine, the correlation being significantly higher with intestinal OTC than with hepatic OTC activity. These results suggest that the level of OTC activity in the small intestine is important for production of orotic acid.

  9. Urinary Excretion of Kidney Aquaporins as Possible Diagnostic Biomarker of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luigi; Nicoletti, Maria Celeste; Carmosino, Monica; Mastrofrancesco, Lisa; Di Franco, Antonella; Indrio, Francesca; Lella, Rossella; Laviola, Luigi; Giorgino, Francesco; Svelto, Maria; Gesualdo, Loreto; Procino, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microangiopathic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) affecting one-third of diabetic patients. The large variability in the clinical presentation of renal involvement in patients with DM makes kidney biopsy a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis. However, renal biopsy is an invasive procedure associated with risk of major complications. Numerous studies aimed to identify a noninvasive biomarker of DN but, so far, none of these is considered to be sufficiently specific and sensitive. Water channel aquaporins (AQPs), expressed at the plasma membrane of epithelial tubular cells, are often dysregulated during DN. In this work, we analyzed the urine excretion of AQP5 and AQP2 (uAQP5 and uAQP2), via exosomes, in 35 diabetic patients: 12 normoalbuminuric with normal renal function (DM), 11 with proteinuric nondiabetic nephropathy (NDN), and 12 with histological diagnosis and classification of DN. ELISA and WB analysis independently showed that uAQP5 was significantly increased in DN patients. Interestingly, linear regression analysis showed a positive correlation between uAQP5 and the histological class of DN. The same analysis, focusing on uAQP2, showed comparable results. Taken together, these data suggest a possible use of AQP5 and AQP2 as novel noninvasive biomarkers to help in classifying the clinical stage of DN.

  10. Urinary Excretion of Kidney Aquaporins as Possible Diagnostic Biomarker of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Rossi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a microangiopathic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM affecting one-third of diabetic patients. The large variability in the clinical presentation of renal involvement in patients with DM makes kidney biopsy a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis. However, renal biopsy is an invasive procedure associated with risk of major complications. Numerous studies aimed to identify a noninvasive biomarker of DN but, so far, none of these is considered to be sufficiently specific and sensitive. Water channel aquaporins (AQPs, expressed at the plasma membrane of epithelial tubular cells, are often dysregulated during DN. In this work, we analyzed the urine excretion of AQP5 and AQP2 (uAQP5 and uAQP2, via exosomes, in 35 diabetic patients: 12 normoalbuminuric with normal renal function (DM, 11 with proteinuric nondiabetic nephropathy (NDN, and 12 with histological diagnosis and classification of DN. ELISA and WB analysis independently showed that uAQP5 was significantly increased in DN patients. Interestingly, linear regression analysis showed a positive correlation between uAQP5 and the histological class of DN. The same analysis, focusing on uAQP2, showed comparable results. Taken together, these data suggest a possible use of AQP5 and AQP2 as novel noninvasive biomarkers to help in classifying the clinical stage of DN.

  11. Urinary Excretion of Kidney Aquaporins as Possible Diagnostic Biomarker of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luigi; Nicoletti, Maria Celeste; Mastrofrancesco, Lisa; Di Franco, Antonella; Indrio, Francesca; Lella, Rossella; Laviola, Luigi; Giorgino, Francesco; Svelto, Maria; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microangiopathic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) affecting one-third of diabetic patients. The large variability in the clinical presentation of renal involvement in patients with DM makes kidney biopsy a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis. However, renal biopsy is an invasive procedure associated with risk of major complications. Numerous studies aimed to identify a noninvasive biomarker of DN but, so far, none of these is considered to be sufficiently specific and sensitive. Water channel aquaporins (AQPs), expressed at the plasma membrane of epithelial tubular cells, are often dysregulated during DN. In this work, we analyzed the urine excretion of AQP5 and AQP2 (uAQP5 and uAQP2), via exosomes, in 35 diabetic patients: 12 normoalbuminuric with normal renal function (DM), 11 with proteinuric nondiabetic nephropathy (NDN), and 12 with histological diagnosis and classification of DN. ELISA and WB analysis independently showed that uAQP5 was significantly increased in DN patients. Interestingly, linear regression analysis showed a positive correlation between uAQP5 and the histological class of DN. The same analysis, focusing on uAQP2, showed comparable results. Taken together, these data suggest a possible use of AQP5 and AQP2 as novel noninvasive biomarkers to help in classifying the clinical stage of DN. PMID:28246612

  12. Urinary albumin excretion and history of acute myocardial infarction in a cross-sectional population study of 2,613 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B;

    1997-01-01

    infarction, in a major population sample. METHODS: The study was performed as a part of the 3rd Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, 1992-1994, and included 2,613 participants aged 30-70 years, and without diabetes mellitus, renal or urinary tract disease or haematuria. The study programme included...... measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate, acquisition of information regarding previous acute myocardial infarction (verified by the Danish Hospital Register) and tobacco and alcohol consumption, 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, and measurement of blood pressure, body mass index, waist:hip ratio...

  13. [An approach to a sanitary and social problem: urinary iodine excretion in pregnant women from a iodine deficient region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Jorge L; Ortiz, Valeria A; Mayer, Marcos; Demaria, Cecilia I; Nancucheo, Ester; Cresto, Juan C

    2009-12-01

    The urinary iodine excretion (UIE) assay is an effective method to detect reduced iodine intake. UIE was measured in two different samples (morning and evening) from 121 pregnant women, with a turbid-metric method modified by Pino (normal value =150 ugl/1). Furthermore, thyroid function was evaluated in pregnant women with UIE pregnant women, the UIE was normal in 75 with similar morning and evening samples (morning: 305.2 +/- 7.0; evening: 319.2 +/- 8.8; p: NS). The UIE did no showed differences in different trimesters and in morning and evening samples. The UIE was low in 46 women (36.9%), without significant differences between morning and evening (morning: 88.12 +/- 5.07 microg/l; evening: 88.7 +/- 6.2 microg/l; p: NS). Normal or low UIE were not influenced by the age of pregnant women and 45% of pregnant women with UIE pregnant women with low iodine intake. This study let us to find thyroid function abnormalities likes a screening method, because in our state there is not a public screening program for gestational hypothyroidism.

  14. Reduced blood clearance and increased urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine in patas monkeys exposed to ethanol or isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L M; Koseniauskas, R; Burak, E S; Moskal, T J; Gombar, C T; Phillips, J M; Sansone, E B; Keimig, S; Magee, P N; Rice, J M

    1992-03-15

    Low concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine are metabolized in rodent and human liver by cytochrome P450IIE1, an activity competitively inhibitable by ethanol. In rodents coadministration of ethanol with N-nitrosodimethylamine results in increased tumorigenicity in extrahepatic organs, probably as a result of reduced hepatic clearance. To test this concept in a primate, the effects of ethanol cotreatment on the pharmacokinetics of N-nitrosodimethylamine were measured in male patas monkeys. Ethanol, 1.2 g/kg given p.o. before i.v. N-nitrosodimethylamine (1 mg/kg) or concurrently with an intragastric dose resulted in a 10-50-fold increase in the area under the blood concentration versus time curves and a 4-13-fold increase in mean residence times for N-nitrosodimethylamine. Isopropyl alcohol, 3.2 g/kg 24 h before N-nitrosodimethylamine, also increased these parameters 7-10-fold; this effect was associated with persistence of isopropyl alcohol and its metabolic product acetone, both IIE1 inhibitors, in the blood. While no N-nitrosodimethylamine was detected in expired air, trace amounts were found in urine. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pretreatment increased the maximum urinary N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration 15-50-fold and the percentage of the dose excreted in the urine by 100-800-fold. Thus ethanol and isopropyl alcohol greatly increase systemic exposure of extrahepatic organs to N-nitrosodimethylamine in a primate.

  15. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 and ACE-inhibitor-induced improvement of urinary albumin excretion in non-diabetic, microalbuminuric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wal, Ruud M A; van der Harst, Pim; Gerritsen, Wim B M; van der Horst, Fal; Plokker, Thijs H W; Gansevoort, Ron T; van Gilst, Wiek H; Voors, Adriaan A

    2007-12-01

    Elevated plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels have been suggested to precede the development of microalbuminuria. As angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors effectively reduce urinary albumin excretion (UAE), in the present study we have investigated the potential association of plasma MMP-9 levels with UAE and treatment effects of ACE-inhibition. In a placebo-controlled randomised trial we determined plasma MMP-9 levels at baseline and after three months of randomisation to either placebo (n=202) or fosinopril (20 mg/day, n=204) treatment. Baseline plasma MMP-9 levels were not related to baseline UAE (r=-0.008, p=0.871). Three months of fosinopril treatment effectively reduced UAE compared to placebo treatment (-10.4+/-2.4 vs. 1.8+/-1.3 mg/24 hours, p<0.001, respectively). However, fosinopril treatment failed to significantly change plasma MMP-9 levels compared to placebo (-0.47+/-7.68 vs. 0.06+/-9.20, p=0.646, respectively). In addition, the change in UAE was not related with change in MMP-9 levels. The effective reduction of UAE with fosinopril was not related to plasma MMP-9 levels.

  16. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) intake on urinary apigenin excretion, blood antioxidant enzymes and biomarkers for oxidative stress in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Young, J.F.; Daneshvar, B.

    1999-01-01

    . In this short-term investigation, an overall decreasing trend in the activity of antioxidant enzymes was observed during the 2-week study. The decreased activity of SOD was strongly correlated at the individual level with an increased oxidative damage to plasma proteins. However, the intervention with parsley......Seven men and seven women participated in a randomized crossover trial to study the effect of intake of parsley (Petroselinum crispum), containing high levels of the flavone apigenin, on the urinary excretion of flavones and on biomarkers for oxidative stress. The subjects received a strictly...... controlled diet low in flavones and other naturally occurring antioxidants during the 2 weeks of intervention. This basic diet was supplemented with parsley providing 3.73-4.49 mg apigenin/MJ in one of the intervention weeks. Urinary excretion of apigenin was 1.59-409.09 mu g/MJ per 24 h during intervention...

  17. Urinary excretion of tetrahydrophtalimide in fruit growers with dermal exposure to captan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cock, J; Heederik, D; Hoek, F; Boleij, J; Kromhout, H

    1995-08-01

    The relation between dermal and respiratory exposure and uptake into the body of captan, measured as 24 hr cumulative tetrahydrophtalimide (THPI) dose, was studied among 14 male fruit growers applying pesticides in orchards in the Netherlands. No contribution of respiratory exposure was observed on THPI in the urine. Dermal exposure, measured with skin pads, showed a clear relation with THPI in urine when exposure was estimated from exposure on skin pads of ankles and neck. No relation was found for total dermal exposure, calculated from measured exposure on skin pads of representative skin areas according to models described in the literature. Determinants of exposure such as use of a cabin on the tractor, use of gloves during mixing and loading, and use of rubber boots also explained THPI in urine very well. This finding corroborated the findings on measured dermal exposure. Results indicate that more attention should be paid to skin areas which are suspected to be most permeable for a chemical under study. It was concluded that dermal exposure data can be linked better to biological monitoring based on empirical findings as gathered in a pilot study on exposure of specific body areas than on estimations of total skin dose.

  18. Influence factors of salt-sensitive hypertension and responses of blood pressure and urinary sodium and potassium excretion to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叶舟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of saltsensitive hypertension and to observe changes of blood pressures and urinary sodium and potassium excretion in response to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients in China.Methods Essential hypertensive patients from Beijing Jinzhan second community were included in this study.Salt-sensitivity was determined via the improved Sullivan’s acute oral saline loading

  19. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    , Redmond, WA), and UAER was determined through three overnight urine samples. The subjects with parental type 2 diabetes had significantly lower heart rate variation in all three bedside tests (P ...The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects...

  20. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU. A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF. Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p=0.002. Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p=0.012 and magnesium by 30% (p=0.029. Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.

  1. Urinary total flavonoid excretion but not 4-pyridoxic acid or potassium can be used as a biomarker for the intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Haraldsdottir, J.; Knuthsen, Pia;

    2004-01-01

    in fruit and vegetable consumption. Furthermore, the urinary excretions of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) and potassium were investigated as other potential biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake. The study was designed as a 5-d randomized, controlled crossover study. On d 1-3, the men (n = 12) consumed a self......To gain better insight into the potential health effects of fruits and vegetables, reliable biomarkers of intake are needed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of flavonoid excretion in both 24-h and morning urine samples to reflect a low intake and moderate changes......-restricted flavonoid-free diet. On d 4, they were provided a strictly controlled diet containing no fruits or vegetables (basic diet). On d 5, they consumed the basic diet supplemented with 300 or 600 g of fruits and vegetables. The total excretion of flavonoids in 24-h urine samples increased linearly with increasing...

  2. Relationship between urinary prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha excretion and plasma arginine vasopressin during renal concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, P; Danielsen, H; Eiskjaer, H; Jespersen, B; Knudsen, F; Kornerup, H J; Leyssac, P P; Nielsen, A H; Sørensen, S S

    1987-10-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were determined during urinary concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients and control subjects. During the concentrating test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha remained unchanged in the renal transplant recipients, whereas both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were significantly reduced in the control subjects. During the diluting test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha increased in both groups but, contrary to PGF2 alpha, PGE2 was significantly higher in all periods in the transplant recipients compared to the controls. However, the prostaglandin excretion rates per kidney were significantly higher in the renal transplant recipients than control subjects, for all periods during both the concentrating and the diluting test. Arginine vasopressin was significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than control subjects during basal conditions, increased to a significantly higher level in the transplant recipients after thirst, but was reduced to the same levels in the two groups during the diluting test. It is concluded that the increased excretion of prostaglandins in renal transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon representing an adaptation to a reduced renal mass in order to maintain adequate renal water excretion. Although a direct relationship between the prostaglandin excretions of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and AVP does not seem to exist, it is possible that the higher prostaglandin excretion in the renal transplant recipients may be a counterbalancing mechanism to the higher AVP level, which most likely is secondary to a decreased responsiveness to vasopressin of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidney.

  3. Influence of Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Low Concentrations of Polychlorobiphenyls and a Smoking Habit on the Urinary Excretion of Corticosteroid Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Maria Nicolà; Lovreglio, Piero; Drago, Ignazio; Apostoli, Pietro; Soleo, Leonardo

    2016-03-25

    The effects of occupational exposure to low concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) on the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones were evaluated, taking into account the influence of cigarette smoking. The study included 26 males working as electrical maintenance staff in a steel factory, previously exposed to a mixture of PCBs (exposed workers), and 30 male workers with no occupational exposure to PCBs (controls). Serum PCBs (33 congeners), urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids (KS) and pregnanes, and their respective glucuronidated and sulfonated compounds, were determined for each subject. PCBs were significantly higher in the exposed workers than controls, and were correlated with age. Both the urinary concentrations of the total 17-KS and pregnanes, and those of some single steroids and their glucuronidated compounds, were significantly lower in the exposed workers than controls, but higher in smokers than the non-smokers + ex-smokers. Two-way analysis of variance showed a negative association between serum PCBs and both total glucuronidated 17-KS and total and glucuronidated pregnanes, and a positive association between cigarette smoking and both total and glucuronidated 17-KS. PCBs seem to act as endocrine disruptors by reducing the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones, particularly of the glucuronidated fraction. Cigarette smoking could boost these effects of PCBs in smokers.

  4. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P intake ≥50 percentile (P sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables as covariates yielded identical results. Our data suggest that age, sex, education level, occupation, total energy intake, obesity, and hypertension management status are associated with excessive sodium intake in Korean adults using nationally representative data. Factors associated with high sodium intake should be considered in policy

  5. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  6. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  7. Inhibitory effect of atenolol on urinary excretion of metformin via down-regulating multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (rMate1) expression in the kidney of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-rong; Huang, Jing; Shao, Yun-yun; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Guo-qiang; Zhou, Yan; Zhi, Rao; Qin, Hong-yan; Wu, Xin-an

    2015-02-20

    Renal tubular secretion is an important pathway for the elimination of many clinically used drugs. Metformin, a commonly prescribed first-line antidiabetic drug, is secreted primarily by the renal tubule. Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving metformin may together be given selective β1 blockers (e.g., atenolol). Therefore, it is of great use to evaluate the effect of atenolol on metformin urinary excretion for exploring drug interactions and predicting the adverse effect of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of atenolol on the pharmacokinetic of metformin and plasma lactate (LCA) level in rats, for high LCA is a serious adverse reaction of metformin after long-term metformin treatment. In this study, rats were treated with metformin alone or in combination with atenolol. Plasma, urine and tissue concentration of metformin was determined by HPLC method, while Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis were used to evaluate the renal expression of rat organic cation transporter 2 (rOct2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (rMate1). The results showed that, after 7 days drug treatment, the AUC0 → t of metformin in atenolol and metformin co-administration group was significantly increased by 19.5% compared to that in metformin group, while the 24h cumulative urinary excretion of metformin was significantly decreased by 57.3%. In addition, atenolol treatment significantly decreased the renal expression of rMate1, but had no effect on rOct2 expression, renal blood perfusion and glomerular filtration. Moreover, plasma LCA level in atenolol and metformin co-administration group was significantly increased by 83.3% compared to that in metformin group after 60 days drug treatment. These results indicated that atenolol can inhibit urinary excretion of metformin via decreasing renal rMate1 expression, and long-term atenolol and metformin co-administration may induce potential lactic acidosis. Our results, for

  8. Independent associations of exposure to evening light and nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion with diabetes in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Junko; Ikada, Yoshito; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-04-01

    Circadian misalignment between internal and environmental rhythms dysregulates glucose homeostasis because of disruption of the biological clock, and increases risk of diabetes. Although exposure to evening light and decreased melatonin secretion are both associated with the circadian misalignment, it remains unclear whether they are associated with diabetes. In this cross-sectional study on 513 elderly individuals (mean age, 72.7 years), we measured ambulatory light intensity during the 4 h prior to bedtime at 1-min intervals during two consecutive days and overnight urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion (UME) along with glucose metabolism. The median average intensity of evening light exposure and UME were 25.4 lux (interquartile range 17.5-37.6) and 6.6 μg (interquartile range 3.9-9.7), respectively. Both log-transformed average intensity of evening light exposure and log-transformed UME were significantly associated with diabetes in a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for covariates, including gender, body mass index, duration in bed, and night-time light exposure [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.64; p = 0.01; and adjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.97; p = 0.04; respectively]. An increase in evening light exposure from 17.5 to 37.6 lux (25-75th percentiles) was associated with a 51.2% (95% CI, 8.2-111.4%) increase in prevalent diabetes, and an increase in UME from 3.9 to 9.7 μg (25-75th percentiles) was associated with a 32.0% (95% CI, 1.9-52.8%) decrease in prevalent diabetes. In conclusion, this study in elderly individuals demonstrated that evening light exposure in home settings and UME were significantly and independently associated with diabetes.

  9. Interspecies scaling of excretory amounts using allometry - retrospective analysis with rifapentine, aztreonam, carumonam, pefloxacin, miloxacin, trovafloxacin, doripenem, imipenem, cefozopran, ceftazidime, linezolid for urinary excretion and rifapentine, cabotegravir, and dolutegravir for fecal excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-09-01

    1. Interspecies allometry scaling for prediction of human excretory amounts in urine or feces was performed for numerous antibacterials. Antibacterials used for urinary scaling were: rifapentine, pefloxacin, trovafloxacin (Gr1/low; 50%). Rifapentine, cabotegravir, and dolutegravir was used for fecal scaling (high; >50%). 2. The employment of allometry equation: Y = aW(b) enabled scaling of urine/fecal amounts from animal species. Corresponding predicted amounts were converted into % recovery by considering the respective human dose. Comparison of predicted/observed values enabled fold difference and error calculations (mean absolute error [MAE] and root mean square error [RMSE]). Comparisons were made for urinary/fecal data; and qualitative assessment was made amongst Gr1/Gr2/Gr3 for urine. 3. Average correlation coefficient for the allometry scaling was >0.995. Excretory amount predictions were largely within 0.75- to 1.5-fold differences. Average MAE and RMSE were within ±22% and 23%, respectively. Although robust predictions were achieved for higher urinary/fecal excretion (>50%), interspecies scaling was applicable for low/medium excretory drugs. 4. Based on the data, interspecies scaling of urine or fecal excretory amounts may be potentially used as a tool to understand the significance of either urinary or fecal routes of elimination in humans in early development.

  10. The Relationship Between Daytime, Nighttime and 24-Hour Heart Rate with Urinary Albumin and Protein Excretion in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış AFŞAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system dysfunction (ASD has been widely observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP and heart rate measurements have been found to associate with ASD in patient with Type 2 diabetes. Since albumin excretion is also related with ASD in type 2 diabetes; in the current study, the relationships between daytime, nighttime and 24- hour heart rates with 24 hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE and 24-hour urinary protein excretion (UPE were analyzed in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL and METHODS: All patients underwent following procedures: history taking, physical examination, BP measurement, 12 lead electrocardiographic evaluations, routine urine analysis, biochemical analysis, 24-hour urine collection to measure UAE, UPE and creatinine clearance. 24-hour ABP and heart rate monitoring were performed for all patients. RESULTS: In total 80 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were included. Stepwise linear regression revealed that logarithmically converted 24-hour UAE were independently related with 24- hour ambulatory SBP, (P:0.001 and heart rate (night (P<0.0001. Stepwise linear regression revealed that logarithmically converted 24-hour UPE were independently related with age (P:0.032, with averaged fasting blood glucose (P:0.023, with 24-hour ambulatory SBP, (P:0.002 and with heart rate (night (P:0.001. CONCLUSION: Nighttime heart rate, but not daytime and 24-hour heart rate was related with both 24-hour UAE and UPE in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  11. A human strain of Oxalobacter (HC-1) promotes enteric oxalate secretion in the small intestine of mice and reduces urinary oxalate excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Marguerite; Freel, Robert W

    2013-10-01

    Enteric oxalate secretion that correlated with reductions in urinary oxalate excretion was previously reported in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria, and in wild type (WT) mice colonized with a wild rat strain (OXWR) of Oxalobacter (Am J Physiol 300:G461–G469, 2010). Since a human strain of the bacterium is more likely to be clinically used as a probiotic therapeutic, we tested the effects of HC-1 in WT. Following artificial colonization of WT mice with HC-1, the bacteria were confirmed to be present in the large intestine and, unexpectedly, detected in the small intestine for varying periods of time. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether the presence of HC-1 promoted intestinal secretion in the more proximal segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, we determined whether HC-1 colonization led to reductions in urinary oxalate excretion in these mice. The results show that the human Oxalobacter strain promotes a robust net secretion of oxalate in the distal ileum as well as in the caecum and distal colon and these changes in transport correlate with the beneficial effect of reducing renal excretion of oxalate. We conclude that OXWR effects on intestinal oxalate transport and oxalate homeostasis are not unique to the wild rat strain and that, mechanistically, HC-1 has significant potential for use as a probiotic treatment for hyperoxaluria especially if it is also targeted to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats without decreases in liver or blood vitamin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Eri; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that the contents of water-soluble vitamins in the body are generally low in diabetic patients because large amounts of vitamins are excreted into urine. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. To investigate this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (6 wk old) by streptozotocin treatment, and they were then given diets containing low, medium or sufficient vitamins for 70 d. The contents of 6 kinds of B-group vitamins, namely vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, vitamin B₁₂, folate and biotin, were determined in the urine, blood and liver. No basic differences among the dietary vitamin contents were observed. The urinary excretion of vitamins was higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. The blood concentrations of vitamin B₁₂ and folate were lowered by diabetes, while, those of vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, and biotin were not. All liver concentrations of vitamins were increased in diabetic rats above those in control rats. These results showed that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increased urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, though their blood and liver concentrations were essentially maintained in the rats.

  13. Study of dexamethasone urinary excretion profile in cattle by LC-MS/MS: comparison between therapeutic and growth-promoting administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, Marco; Girolami, Flavia; Capra, Pierluigi; Pazzi, Marco; Carletti, Monica; Gardini, Giulia; Nebbia, Carlo

    2009-02-25

    Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic corticosteroid widely employed as a therapeutic agent in cattle. Besides this legal use, corticosteroids are also administered at low dosages as growth-promoters either alone or in combination with other steroids or with beta-agonists. For this reason, appropriate control plans are established to survey corticosteroid misuse, using liver or urine as biological matrices. Since few data are available about the kinetics of dexamethasone excretion in meat cattle, an experimental study was designed to assess the drug residue levels in urines following either a therapeutic (60 microg of dexamethasone sodium phosphate/kg b.w., for three consecutive days) or a growth-promoting schedule (0.7 or 1.4 mg of dexamethasone sodium phosphate per capita/day for 60 days). The urinary elimination of dexamethasone, which was predominantly excreted in the unmodified form, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry at different time intervals, i.e. during the treatments and after appropriate withdrawal times. Our findings confirm the high and rapid rate of dexamethasone urinary excretion irrespective of the nature of the treatment, and provide useful reference values that can be conveniently employed for forensic purposes.

  14. Field study of the urinary excretion of ethoxyacetic acid during repeated daily exposure to the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol and the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veulemans, H; Groeseneken, D; Masschelein, R; Van Vlem, E

    1987-06-01

    The urinary excretion of ethoxyacetic acid (EAA) was studied in a group of five women daily exposed to the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol (EGEE) and the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol acetate (EGEE-Ac) during 5 d of normal production and 7 d after a 12-d production stop. The mean combined exposure concentration of EGEE and EGEE-Ac (expressed in equivalent weight of EGEE) was 14.0 mg/m3 with occasional slight excursions above the current Belgian occupational exposure limit. The daily combined exposure profiles for EGEE and EGEE-Ac were rather constant during the first observation period, but they tended to decrease during the last week. The urinary EAA excretion clearly increased during the work week. Over the weekends the elimination was far from complete, and even after a prolonged nonexposure period of 12 d traces of the metabolite were still detectable. Based on the observations from the first period, a good linear correlation (r = 0.92) was found between the average exposure over 5 d (14.4 mg/m3) and the EAA excretion at the end of the week (105.7 mg/g creatinine). An EAA estimate of 150 +/- 35 mg/g was found to correspond with repeated 5-d full-shift exposures to the respective occupational exposure limit of EGEE (19 mg/m3) or EGEE-Ac (27 mg/m3).

  15. [An LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of amygdalin and paeoniflorin in human urine and application to urinary excretion study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-bing; Shi, Fu-guo; Jian, Ling-yan; Ding, Li

    2015-10-01

    The study aims to develop an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of amygdalin and paeoniflorin in urine samples, and to investigate their urinary excretion characteristics in healthy volunteers after intravenous infusion administration of Huoxue-Tongluo lyophilized powder for injection (HTLPI). The urine samples were extracted by methanol, and then separated on a Hedera ODS-2 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 5 mmol · L(-1) ammonium acetate buffer solution containing 0.05% formic acid (20:80). Electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode using MRM. The method exhibited good linearity over the concentration range of 0.03 -40 µg · mL(-1). The values on both the occasions (intra- and inter-day) were all within 15% at three concentration levels. No matrix effect and carry-over effect were observed. Amygdalin and paeoniflorin were stable in human urine under different storage conditions. Approximately 79.6% of the administered amount of amygdalin was excreted unchanged in urine within 24 h and which was 48.4% for paeoniflorin. The developed LC-MS/MS method can be applied to evaluate the urinary excretion of amygdalin and paeoniflorin.

  16. Influence of urinary iodine excretion on thyroid technetium-99m pertechnetate uptake with and without TSH suppression: what happens when iodine supply increases?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, M.J.; Hoegerle, S.; Trupkovic, T.; Krause, T.M.; Moser, E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital of the Albert-Ludwigs-Univ., Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    This study examines how thyroid pertechnetate uptake with and without thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression changes as a function of increasing iodine supply. This is of special interest in countries at the threshold of sufficient iodine supply, where thyroid scintigraphy plays a key role in thyroid examination, especially for the diagnosis of Plummer`s disease. From 1995 to 1997, a total of 1069 patients with euthyroid goitre, Plummer`s disease or Graves` disease were included in the study. All patients underwent thyroid examination including sonography, scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate, and determination of free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, TSH and urinary iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in the range from 0 to 500 {mu}g iodine/g creatinine showed an inverse correlation with thyroid pertechnetate uptake, but no correlation with TSH was observed. There was no correlation between thyroid pertechnetate uptake and iodine excretion when TSH stimulation was eliminated, with two exceptions: thyroid pertechnetate uptake was significantly increased for iodine excretion values below 50 and 100 {mu}g iodine/g creatinine in patients with Graves` and Plummer`s disease, respectively. When iodine excretion exceeded 500 {mu}g iodine/g creatinine, pertechnetate uptake was reduced to a basal level independent of the TSH. In conclusion, the influence of TSH on the thyroid pertechnetate uptake seems to be secondary compared with the influence of the iodine supply. It can be concluded further that the reference range of thyroid pertechnetate uptake under TSH suppression will not change significantly when the iodine supply increases from conditions of mild iodine deficiency to iodine sufficiency. Thyroid pertechnetate uptake with and without TSH suppression cannot be reliably interpreted beyond an iodine excretion of 500 {mu}g iodine/g creatinine. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 36 refs.

  17. Excretion of the principal urinary metabolites of phenytoin and absolute oral bioavailability determined by use of a stable isotope in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Theresa; Cloyd, James C; Goel, Varun; Brundage, Richard C; Marino, Susan E; Leppik, Ilo E; Remmel, Rory P

    2011-02-01

    The anticonvulsant properties of phenytoin (PHT) were discovered in 1938. Since then, it has been one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs. It is slowly absorbed, extensively plasma protein-bound, exhibits a nonlinear, concentration-dependent pharmacokinetic profile, and has a narrow therapeutic range. We determined PHT bioavailability during steady-state therapy by 1) measurement of the two principal deconjugated PHT urinary metabolites, 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH) and 5-(3,4-dihydroxy-1,5-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-5-phenylhydantoin (DHD); and 2) direct determination of absolute bioavailability after simultaneous administration of an oral formulation and parenteral stable-labeled PHT (SL-PHT). Urinary metabolites were quantified by an isocratic HPLC-NI-APCI-MS method. The urinary dose recovery was calculated by dividing the molar recovery of the major PHT urinary metabolites by the molar dose received. Urinary metabolite recovery was surprisingly low, 35.4% ± 15.7% in younger patients (age 21-49 years old) and 32.9% ± 15.0% in patients aged 65 to 93 years. Absolute bioavailability was 86.4% ± 19.4% and 92.5% ± 25.2%, respectively. A weak, but significant, Spearman rank correlation was observed between urinary metabolite recovery and oral bioavailability (P = 0.00924, R = 0.166). This weak correlation may be the result of variability in urinary versus biliary-fecal excretion of p-HPPH glucuronide. This study demonstrates that daily PHT oral absorption exhibits wide interpatient variability, which may account for fluctuations in PHT concentration over time.

  18. Different effect of testosterone and oestrogen on urinary excretion of metformin via regulating OCTs and MATEs expression in the kidney of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rui; Ai, Ligen; Zhang, Dandan; Wan, Lili; Zheng, Taishan; Yin, Jun; Lu, Huijuan; Lu, Junxi; Lu, Fengdi; Liu, Fang; Jia, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone and oestrogen on regulating organic cation transporters (Octs) and multidrug and toxin extrusions (Mates) expression in the kidney of mice and urinary excretion of metformin. 8 week-old male db/db mice were treated with estradiol (5 mg/kg), testosterone (50 mg/kg) or olive oil with same volume. Metformin (150 mg/kg) was injected in daily for successive 7 days. Plasma, urine and tissue concentrations of metformin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay. Western blotting and Real-time PCR analysis were successively used to evaluate the renal protein and mRNA expression of Octs and MATEs. After treatment, the protein expression of Mate1 and Oct2 in testosterone group was significantly increased than those in control group (both P < 0.05). The protein expression of Mate1 and Oct2 in estradiol group was significantly reduced by 29.4% and 43.3%, respectively, compared to those in control group (all P < 0.05). These data showed a good agreement with the change in mRNA level (all P < 0.05). The plasma metformin concentration (ng/ml) in mice treated with estradiol was significantly higher than control and testosterone group (677.56 ± 72.49 versus 293.92 ± 83.27 and 261.46 ± 79.45; P < 0.01). Moreover, testosterone increased the metformin urine excretion of mice while estradiol decreasing (both P < 0.01). Spearman correlation analysis showed that gonadal hormone was closely associated with Mate1 and Oct2 expression and metformin urine excretion in db/db mice (all P < 0.05). Testosterone and oestrogen exerted reverse effect on metformin urinary excretion via regulating Octs and Mates expression in the kidney of mice.

  19. Clinical evidence supporting the use of an activated clinoptilolite suspension as an agent to increase urinary excretion of toxic heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Flowers

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available James L Flowers1, Stewart A Lonky2, Erik J Deitsch31Eno Research and Development, Inc., Hillsborough, NC, USA; 2University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Wellness Industries, LLC, Parkland, FL USAAbstract: Effective treatment of chronic illness resulting from the long-term buildup of heavy metals in the body, such as chelation therapy, presents numerous clinical challenges, including undesirable side effects and unpredictable efficacy. Use of a naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, to remove these toxic substances may offer an efficacious and safe alternative to the traditional approaches. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of activated clinoptilolite suspended in water (ACS to remove heavy metals from the body through urinary excretion without the undesirable removal of physiologically important electrolytes. The protocol utilized two treatment groups, each consisting of eleven healthy men aged 36 to 70 years. Volunteers were given a commercially available version of the study substance for seven days (Group 1 and 30 days (Group 2 and urine samples were collected at specified time points in the study. Changes in urinary concentration of the heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and compared to the baseline. Also, serum samples were obtained from five individuals in each group and serum electrolytes were measured prior to and after taking the product. Participants in both groups had increased concentrations of heavy metals in the urine with the peak excretion at around day 4. No clinically significant alterations in serum electrolyte levels were seen at either seven or 30 days on ACS. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the daily use of an activated clinoptilolite suspension represents a potentially safe and effective way to remove toxic heavy metals from the body through increased urinary excretion without removing clinically detrimental amounts of vital

  20. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects......, Redmond, WA), and UAER was determined through three overnight urine samples. The subjects with parental type 2 diabetes had significantly lower heart rate variation in all three bedside tests (P ... offspring with parental type 2 diabetes (6.7%) was significantly (P blood pressure...

  1. Effects of low rumen-degradable protein or abomasal fructan infusion on diet digestibility and urinary nitrogen excretion in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressley, T F; Armentano, L E

    2007-03-01

    Post-ileal carbohydrate fermentation in dairy cows converts blood urea nitrogen (BUN) into fecal microbial protein. This should reduce urinary N, increase fecal N, and reduce manure NH3 volatilization. However, if intestinal BUN recycling competes with ruminal BUN recycling, hindgut fermentation may reduce NH3 for rumen microbial protein synthesis. Eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Diets contained either adequate rumen-degradable protein (RDP; high RDP) or were 28% below predicted RDP requirements (low RDP). Cows received abomasal infusions of either 10 L/d of saline or 10 L/d of saline containing 1 kg/d of inulin. We hypothesized that reducing ruminal NH3, either by restricting RDP intake or by diverting BUN to feces with inulin, would reduce rumen microbial protein synthesis, as would be evidenced by significant main effects of treatments on rumen NH3, milk production, and urinary purine derivative excretion. Furthermore, we thought it likely that effects of inulin might be greater when rumen NH3 was already low, as would be indicated by significant interactions between inulin infusion and dietary RDP level on rumen NH3, milk production, and urinary purine derivative excretion. Rumen NH3 was reduced by the low-RDP diet, but urinary purine derivative excretion and milk production were unaffected. However, the low-RDP diet reduced apparent total tract digestibility of OM and starch and reduced in situ rumen NDF digestibility. Abomasal inulin reduced the BUN concentration but did not affect milk yield or rumen NH3, suggesting that RDP requirements are not affected by hindgut fermentation. Inulin shifted 23 g/d of N from urine to feces. However, based on fecal purine excretion, we estimated that only 8 g/d of the increased fecal N was due to increased fecal microbial output. Inulin reduced true digestibility of dietary protein or increased nonmicrobial as

  2. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, F. V.; Lapsley, M.; Sansom, P. A.; Cohen, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. METHODS: Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. RESULTS: All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive

  3. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik;

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...... levels are associated with low frequency of coronary artery disease (CAD) and good prognosis. The underlying causes of poor prognosis in patients with elevated NT-proBNP are not known; thus, we investigated the role of putative asymptomatic CAD in type 2 diabetic patients with UAER >30 mg/24 h...... and elevated P-NT-proBNP and/or CCS....

  4. Urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic and selenium of cancer patients from the Antofagasta region in Chile treated with platinum-based drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Domingo A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic exposure increases the risk of non-cancerous and cancerous diseases. In the Antofagasta region in Chile, an established relationship exists between arsenic exposure and the risk of cancer of the bladder, lung and skin. Platinum-based drugs are first-line treatments, and many works recognise selenium as a cancer-fighting nutrient. We characterised the short-term urinary excretion amounts of arsenic, selenium and platinum in 24-h urine samples from patients with lung cancer and those with cancer other than lung treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin. As - Se - Pt inter-element relationships were also investigated. Results The amounts of platinum excreted in urine were not significantly different between patients with lung cancer and those with other cancers treated with cisplatin, despite the significant variation in platinum amounts supplied from platinum-based drugs. In general, the analytical amounts of excreted selenium were greater than those for arsenic, which could imply that platinum favours the excretion of selenium. For other types of cancers treated with drugs without platinum, excretion of selenium was also greater than that of arsenic, suggesting an antagonist selenium-anti-cancer drug relationship. Conclusions Regards the baseline status of patients, the analytical amounts of excreted Se is greater than those for As, particularly, for cisplatin chemotherapy. This finding could imply that for over the As displacement Pt favours the excretion of Se. The analytical amounts of excreted Se were greater than those for As, either with and without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting an antagonist Se-anti-cancer drug relationship. However, it seemed that differences existed between As - Se - Pt inter-element associations in patients treated for lung cancer in comparison with those treated for cancer other than lung. Therefore, knowledge obtained in this work, can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer

  5. Urinary albumin excretion in a population based sample of 1011 middle aged non-diabetic subjects. The Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1993-01-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) especially in the range of 20-200 micrograms min-1, termed microalbuminuria, has been proposed as a risk marker and predictor for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subjects. Thus it would be of importance to describe the distribution of UAER...... in the non-diabetic population. Among 1011 30-70-year-old subjects without diabetes mellitus or urinary tract infection, who were invited to participate in a population based epidemiological study, the albumin concentration was measured in an overnight urine sample. The measurement was performed by an ELISA...... constant with age, but males had higher UAER than females, 2.6 (0-13.5) micrograms min-1 vs 2.2 (0-8.3) micrograms min-1; p overnight urine sample, was 3% (95% C.I. interval: 1...

  6. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen use, and ruminal fermentation in sheep and goats fed diets of different quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, M D; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Ranilla, M J; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare N balance, microbial N flow (MNF) estimated from purine derivatives (PD) urinary excretion, and its variation when estimated using purine bases:N ratios in liquid associated bacteria (LAB) from models reported in the literature (MNF - response models) or measured ratios in liquid and solid-associated bacterial (SAB) pellets (MNF-LAB+SAB), diet digestibility, and rumen fermentation variables in sheep and goats fed 3 different practical, quality diets to study interspecies differences concerning N use as accurately as possible. Four mature female Merino sheep and 4 mature female Granadina goats, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used in 3 × 3 Latin square design with an extra animal. Two experimental diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70:30 (DM basis) with alfalfa hay (ALC) or grass hay (GRC) as forage, and the third diet contained 70% concentrate and 30% alfalfa hay (CAL). All animals were fed the diets at a daily rate of 56 g/kg BW(0.75) to minimize feed selection. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P = 0.16 to 0.88) in the 2 species, but some animal species × diet interactions (P = 0.01 to 0.04) were detected. There were small differences between the fermentation patterns of both animal species. Goats showed decreased VFA concentrations (P = 0.005) and butyrate proportions (P = 0.04), and greater acetate proportions (P = 0.02) compared with sheep, whereas N intake and percentage of N intake excreted in feces were similar in both species (P = 0.58 and 0.15, respectively), the percentage excreted via the urine was greater in goats compared with sheep (P goats (averaged across diets, 32.6% and 16.1% of N intake, respectively). There were no differences (P = 0.95) between animal species in total PD excretion, but goats showed a greater excretion of allantoin (P = 0.01) and decreased excretion of xanthine (P = 0.008) and hypoxanthine (P = 0.007) compared with sheep. In general, differences between sheep

  7. The Tissue Distribution and Urinary Excretion Study of Gallic Acid and Protocatechuic Acid after Oral Administration of Polygonum Capitatum Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng-Wei; Deng, Qing-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-24

    In the present study, we investigated the tissue distribution and urinary excretion of gallic acid (GA) and protocatechuic acid (PCA) after rat oral administration of aqueous extract of Polygonum capitatum (P. capitatum, named Herba Polygoni Capitati in China). An UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method was developed and adopted for quantification of GA and PCA in different tissue homogenate and urine samples. Interestingly, we found that GA and PCA showed a relatively targeted distribution in kidney tissue after dosing 60 mg/kg P. capitatum extract (equivalent to 12 mg/kg of GA and 0.9 mg/kg of PCA). The concentrations of GA and PCA in the kidney tissue reached 1218.62 ng/g and 43.98 ng/g, respectively, at one hour after oral administration. The results helped explain the empirical use of P. capitatum for kidney diseases in folk medicine. Further studies on urinary excretion of P. capitatum extract indicated that GA and PCA followed a concentrated elimination over a 4-h period. The predominant metabolites were putatively identified to be 4-methylgallic acid (4-OMeGA) and 4-methylprotocatechuic acid (4-OMePCA) by analyzing their precursor ions and characteristic fragment ions using tandem mass spectrometry. However, the amount of unchanged GA and PCA that survived the metabolism were about 14.60% and 15.72% of the total intake, respectively, which is reported for the first time in this study.

  8. Tissue contents and urinary excretion of taurine after administration of L-cysteine and L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate to rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubuka,Toshihiko

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue contents and urinary excretion of taurine were studied in rats after the administration of L-cysteine and its derivatives. Average taurine content in the liver of rats fed a 25% casein diet for 7 days increased 2-fold 2h after the intraperitoneal administration of 5 mmol of L-cysteine per kg of body weight, whereas that in rats fed a 5% casein diet for 2 days increased only slightly. The difference in the liver taurine contents between these two groups was discussed in relation to cysteine dioxygenase. Taurine contents in the heart, brain and blood did not differ significantly between these two groups or between the control and the group of rats which received L-cysteine. The increase in liver taurine concentrations after L-cysteine administration was much higher than that after L-cystine administration, suggesting a difference in their absorption. The intraperitoneal administration of 5 mmol/kg of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTCA resulted in a 3-fold increase in liver taurine content. The average increase in taurine excretion in the 24-h urine after OTCA administration corresponded to about 6.0% and that in the next 24-h urine to about 2.6% of OTCA administered, suggesting that nearly 10% of OTCA was metabolized to taurine and excreted in the urine.

  9. Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate in the diet on urinary pH and mineral excretion of adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passlack, Nadine; Brenten, Thomas; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-03-14

    Low dietary K levels have been associated with increasing renal Ca excretion in humans, indicating a higher risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether dietary K also affects the urine composition of cats. A total of eight adult cats were fed diets containing 0·31 % native K and 0·50, 0·75 and 1·00 % K from KCl or KHCO₃ and were evaluated for the effects of dietary K. High dietary K levels were found to elevate urinary K concentrations (P<0·001). Renal Ca excretion was higher in cats fed the KCl diets than in those fed the KHCO₃ diets (P=0·026), while urinary oxalate concentrations were generally lower in cats fed the KCl diets and only dependent on dietary K levels in cats fed the KHCO₃ diets (P<0·05). Fasting urine pH increased with higher dietary K levels (P=0·022), reaching values of 6·38 (1·00 % KCl) and 7·65 (1·00 % KHCO₃). K retention was markedly negative after feeding the cats with the basal diet (-197 mg/d) and the 0·50 % KCl diet (-131 mg/d), while the cats tended to maintain their balance on being fed the highest-KCl diet (-23·3 mg/d). In contrast, K from KHCO₃ was more efficiently retained (P=0·018), with K retention being between -82·5 and 52·5 mg/d. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of KHCO₃ instead of KCl as K source could be beneficial for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation in cats, since there is an association between a lower renal Ca excretion and a generally higher urine pH. The utilisation of K is distinctly influenced by the K salt, which may be especially practically relevant when using diets with low K levels.

  10. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) intake on urinary apigenin excretion, blood antioxidant enzymes and biomarkers for oxidative stress in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S E; Young, J F; Daneshvar, B; Lauridsen, S T; Knuthsen, P; Sandström, B; Dragsted, L O

    1999-06-01

    Seven men and seven women participated in a randomized crossover trial to study the effect of intake of parsley (Petroselinum crispum), containing high levels of the flavone apigenin, on the urinary excretion of flavones and on biomarkers for oxidative stress. The subjects received a strictly controlled diet low in flavones and other naturally occurring antioxidants during the 2 weeks of intervention. This basic diet was supplemented with parsley providing 3.73-4.49 mg apigenin/MJ in one of the intervention weeks. Urinary excretion of apigenin was 1.59-409.09 micrograms/MJ per 24 h during intervention with parsley and 0-112.27 micrograms/MJ per 24 h on the basic diet (P < 0.05). The fraction of apigenin intake excreted in the urine was 0.58 (SE 0.16)% during parsley intervention. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.1; GR) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD) activities increased during intervention with parsley (P < 0.005) as compared with the levels on the basic diet, whereas erythrocyte catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) activities did not change. No significant changes were observed in plasma protein 2-adipic semialdehyde residues, a biomarker of plasma protein oxidation. In this short-term investigation, an overall decreasing trend in the activity of antioxidant enzymes was observed during the 2-week study. The decreased activity of SOD was strongly correlated at the individual level with an increased oxidative damage to plasma proteins. However, the intervention with parsley seemed, partly, to overcome this decrease and resulted in increased levels of GR and SOD.

  11. Stereoselective urinary excretion of S-(-)- and R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide following oral administration of RS-propranolol in Chinese Han subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Lian-Jun; Shao, Qing; Ma, Jian-Yin; Zeng, Su

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the stereoselectivity of phase II glucuronidation metabolism of side-chain propranolol in Chinese Han population. METHODS: Sixteen adult Chinese Han volunteers with an average age of 20 years were given a single oral dose of 20 mg racemic propranolol. Human urine at indicated time after administration was collected and S-(-)-propranolol glucuronide and R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide were determined simultaneously by using RP-HPLC. RESULTS: The mean values of k were 0.19±0.04 h-1 and 0.28±0.06 h-1, of t1/2 3.56±0.73 h and 2.45±0.50 h, of Tmax 2.21±0.45 and 1.75±0.33 h, and of Xu0-24 5.65±0.98 and 2.95±0.62 μmoL for S-(-)- and R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide, respectively. The cumulative excretion percentages in urine of doses were 14.7±2.46% and 7.68±1.60% for S-(-)- and R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide, respectively. The results showed the elimination rate constant k of S-(-)-propranolol glucuronide was less than that of R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide; and the elimination half-life (t1/2), Tmax and the cumulative excretion amount(Xu0-24) of R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide were significantly less than that of S-(-)-propranolol glucuronide. CONCLUSION: The propranolol glucuronidation of the side-chain undergoes stereoselective excretion in Chinese Han population after an oral administration of racemic propranolol. PMID:15793873

  12. Stereoselective urinary excretion of S-(-)- and R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide following oral administration of RS-propranolol in Chinese Han subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Jun Luan; Qing Shao; Jian-Yin Ma; Su Zeng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the stereoselectivity of phase Ⅱglucuronidation metabolism of side-chain propranolol in Chinese Hah population.METHODS: Sixteen adult Chinese Hah volunteers with an average age of 20 years were given a single oral dose of 20 mg racemic propranolol. Human urine at indicated time after administration was collected and S-(-)-propranolol glucuronide and R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide were determined simultaneously by using RP-HPLC.RESULTS: The mean values of kwere 0.19±0.04 h-1 and 0.28±0.06 h-1, of t1/2 3.56±0.73 h and 2.45±0.50 h, of Tmax 2.21±0.45 and 1.75±0.33 h, and of Xu0-24 5.65±0.98 and 2.95±0.62 μmoL for S-(-)- and R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide, respectively. The cumulative excretion percentages in urine of doses were 14.7±2.46% and 7.68±1.60% for S-(-)- and R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide,respectively. The results showed the elimination rate constant kof S-(-)-propranolol glucuronide was less than that of R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide; and the elimination half-life (t1/2), Tmax and the cumulative excretion amount (Xu0-24) of R-(+)-propranolol glucuronide were significantly less than that of S-(-)-propranolol glucuronide.CONCLUSION: The propranolol glucuronidation of the side-chain undergoes stereoselective excretion in Chinese Han population after an oral administration of racemic propranolol.

  13. Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Hee Jung Ahn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS in postmenopausal women without diabetes.MethodsThis study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis.ResultsThe mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR, 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively after adjusting for potential confounding covariates.ConclusionUrinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD.

  14. Urinary excretion of type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptides, bone mass and related lifestyle in middle-aged women.

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    Masatomi C

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between past and present lifestyle and urinary excretion of type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx was studied in 61 Japanese females aged 34-59, with a view toward using NTx excretion rates as a predictor of future osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine, the speed of sound (SOS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA of the os calcis, urinary NTx, serum osteocalcin (BGP and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP were measured. Stiffness index (stiffness was calculated from SOS and BUA. The subjects were asked whether they took regular exercise in their childhood and teen years (in elementary, junior-high, senior-high school and college, the past (20-40 years of age and present adulthood. Regular calcium intake, smoking habits, alcohol and other beverage consumption and milk consumption were also covered in the questionnaire. The mean NTx values of premenopausal and postmenopausal group were 22.2 and 56.0 nM bone collagen equivalents (BCE/mM urinary creatinine (Cr, respectively. The group which did not exercise regularly between the ages of 20 and 40 had a higher mean NTx value (40.9 nMBCE/mMCr than the group which did exercise regularly (22.7 nMBCE/mMCr. In multiple regression analyses, age, stiffness and exercise in past adulthood could explain 43.5% of the NTx variance. For prevention of bone metabolic increases around menopause, habitual exercise in early adulthood seems to be effective.

  15. Urinary excretion of deuterated metabolites in patients with tyrosinemia type I after oral loading with deuterated L-tyrosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadman, S.K.; Duran, M.; Ketting, D.; Bruinvis, L.; Sprang, F.J. van (University Children' s Hospital ' Het Wilhelmina Kinderziekenhuis' , Utrecht (Netherlands)); Berger, R.; Smit, G.P.A. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Afdeling Pediatrie); Steinmann, B. (Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. of Pediatrics); Leonard, J.V. (Institute of Child Health, London (UK)); Divry, P. (Hopital Debrousse, Lyon (France))

    1983-05-30

    The metabolic fate of orally given deuterated L-tyrosine, 50 mg/kg body weight, was investigated in seven patients with tyrosinemia type I in order to obtain evidence that the primary defect is at the level of fumarylacetoacetase. The absence of fumarylacetoacetase could be proved in liver biopsy specimens obtained from four patients. All patients excreted deuterated succinylacetoacetate and deuterated succinylacetone was detected in six out of seven. The total amount of these compounds was rather low; maximal 8.3% of the dose. The peak of the excretion occurred 3-6 h after loading, indicating an endogenous formation of the metabolites. All patients excreted deuterated 4-hydroxyphenyl acids, probably reflecting secondary 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase deficiency connected with liver damage. 5. No evidence for other secondary routes of tyrosine metabolism was found.

  16. Increased angiotensinogen expression, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, and tissue injury in nonclipped kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weijian; Miyata, Kayoko; Katsurada, Akemi; Satou, Ryousuke; Seth, Dale M; Rosales, Carla B; Prieto, Minolfa C; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    In angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, there is an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent amplification mechanism enhancing intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) formation and secretion in the tubular fluid. To evaluate the role of increased arterial pressure, AGT mRNA, protein expression, and urinary AGT (uAGT) excretion and tissue injury were assessed in both kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Sprague-Dawley hypertensive rats subjected to left renal arterial clipping (0.25-mm gap). By 18-21 days, systolic arterial pressure increased to 180 ± 3 mmHg, and uAGT increased. Water intake, body weights, 24-h urine volumes, and sodium excretion were similar. In separate measurements of renal function in anesthetized rats, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were similar in clipped and nonclipped kidneys and not different from those in sham rats, indicating that the perfusion pressure to the clipped kidneys remained within the autoregulatory range. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited increased urine flow and sodium excretion. The uAGT excretion was significantly greater in nonclipped kidneys compared with clipped and sham kidneys. AGT mRNA was 2.15-fold greater in the nonclipped kidneys compared with sham (1.0 ± 0.1) or clipped (0.98 ± 0.15) kidneys. AGT protein levels were also greater in the nonclipped kidneys. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited greater glomerular expansion and immune cell infiltration, medullary fibrosis, and cellular proliferation than the clipped kidneys. Because both kidneys have elevated ANG II levels, the greater tissue injury in the nonclipped kidneys indicates that an increased arterial pressure synergizes with increased intrarenal ANG II to stimulate AGT production and exert greater renal injury.

  17. Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in a Danish population: effect of geography, supplements and food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    I deficiency diseases remain a health problem even in some developed countries. Therefore, measurement of I intake and knowledge about food choice related to I intake is important. We examined I intake in 4649 randomy selected participants from two cities in Denmark (Copenhagen and Aalborg......) with an expected difference in I intake. I intake was assessed both by a food frequency questionnaire and by measuring I in casual urine samples. I excretion was expressed as a concentration and as estimated 24-h I excretion. Further, subgroups with low I intake were recognized. I intake was lower in Aalborg than...

  18. Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: uwe.oeh@gsf.de; Priest, N.D. [Middlesex University, School of Health and Social Sciences, Queensway, Enfield, EN3 4SA (United Kingdom); Roth, P. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ragnarsdottir, K.V. [University of Bristol, Department of Earth Sciences, Bristol, BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Li, W.B. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Hoellriegl, V. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Thirlwall, M.F. [Royal Holloway University of London, Department of Geology, Egham, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Michalke, B. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Giussani, A. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Schramel, P. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Paretzke, H.G. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2007-08-01

    Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD = 2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios were within {+-} 0.3% of the natural value, and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U was less than 2 x 10{sup -7}, indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or

  19. Investigation of different levels of RDP in the rations of lactating cows and their effects on MUN, BUN and urinary N excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moharrery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one multiparous Holstein cows in the late stages of their lactation period were used in complete randomizeddesign to investigate the effect of rumen degradable protein on milk urea nitrogen (MUN and some blood metabolites.Experimental periods were 6 weeks in length, with days 1 to 14 used for adjustment and weeks 3 to week 6 used forsampling (urine, blood, and milk. Three concentrations of a rumen-degradable protein (RDP supplement according toNational Research Council recommendations (9.3, 11.4, and 14% of dry matter intake were treatments. Dietary RDPcontent altered both total urinary N and urinary N concentration, leading to increased urinary output. Estimations formicrobial protein yield were compared with the measured excretion of purine derivative as yeast RNA equivalent, in urine.No significant effect of concentration of RDP supplement was detected on microbial N production. Plasma cholesterol concentrationdecreased linearity by increasing RDP concentration in diets (Pwell as triglyceride concentration in plasma, was not associated with dietary RDP concentration. To ensure a correct balancebetween energy and protein available in the rumen and consequently higher N efficiency for late lactation cows, aMUN content of 15.1mg/dl milk is the upper margin. Milk urea N is a simple and noninvasive measurement that can beused to monitor N efficiency in dairy cows.

  20. Effect of dietary Quebracho tannin extract on feed intake, digestibility, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Anika; Dickhoefer, Uta; Westreicher-Kristen, Edwin; Knappstein, Karin; Molkentin, Joachim; Hasler, Mario; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Quebracho tannin extract (QTE) on feed intake, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), excretion of urinary purine derivatives (PD) and milk composition and yield in dairy cows. Fifty Holstein cows were divided into two groups. To reach a similar performance of both groups, cows were divided according to their milk yield, body weight, days in milk and number of lactations at the start of the experiment averaging 33.2 ± 8.2 kg/d, 637 ± 58 kg, 114 ± 73 d and 2.3 ± 1.6 lactations, respectively. The cows were fed a basal diet as total mixed ration containing on dry matter (DM) basis 34% grass silage, 32% maize silage and 34% concentrate feeds. Three dietary treatments were tested, the control (CON, basal diet without QTE), QTE15 (basal diet with QTE at 15 g/kg DM) and QTE30 (basal diet with QTE at 30 g/kg DM). Two treatments were arranged along six periods each 21 d (13 d adaptation phase and 8 d sampling phase). The ATTD of DM and organic matter were reduced only in Diet QTE30, whereas both QTE treatments reduced ATTD of fibre and nitrogen (N), indicating that QTE impaired rumen fermentation. Nevertheless, feed intake was unaffected by QTE. In Diet CON, urinary N excretion accounted for 29.8% of N intake and decreased in treatments QTE15 and QTE30 to 27.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Daily faecal N excretion increased in treatments CON, QTE15 and QTE30 from 211 to 237 and 273 g/d, respectively, which amounted to 39.0%, 42.4% and 51.7% of the N intake, respectively. Hence, QTE shifted N excretion from urine to faeces, whereas the proportion of ingested N appearing in milk was not affected by QTE (average 30.7% of N intake). Daily PD excretion as indicator for microbial crude protein (CP) flow at the duodenum decreased in treatment QTE30 compared with Diet CON from 413 to 280 mmol/d. The ratios of total PD to creatinine suggest that urinary PD excretion was already lower when feeding Diet

  1. Urinary Potassium Excretion and Risk of Developing Hypertension The Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieneker, Lyanne M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Joosten, Michel M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous prospective cohort studies on the association between potassium intake and risk of hypertension have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data, whereas repeated 24-hour urine excretions, as estimate of dietary uptake, may provide a more objective and quantitative estimate of t

  2. [Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Pustograev, N N

    2015-01-01

    With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38-40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) andriboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavin-binding protein) was determined on the 3-10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42.9%--both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17.1% did not use vitamin complexes either duringpregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28.6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins By and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35.7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (perg creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins

  3. In IgA Nephropathy, Glomerulosclerosis Is Associated with Increased Urinary CD80 Excretion and Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor-Positive Podocyturia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Trimarchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Podocyturia may determine the evolution to podocytopenia, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. According to the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN, the S1 lesion describes glomerulosclerosis. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR participates in podocyte attachment, while CD80 increases in glomerulosclerosis. We measured uPAR-positive urinary podocytes and urinary CD80 (uCD80 in controls and in IgAN subjects with M1E0S0T0 and M1E0S1T0 Oxford scores to assess a potential association between podocyturia, inflammation, and glomerulosclerosis. Methods: The groups were as follows: controls (G1, n = 20 and IgAN group (G2, n = 39, subdivided into M1E0S0T0 (G2A, n = 21 and M1E0S1T0 (G2B, n = 18. Among the included variables, we determined uPAR-positive podocytes/gram of urinary creatinine (gUrCr and uCD80 ng/gUrCr. Biopsies with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy <10% were included. Results: Groups were not different in age and gender; urinary protein-creatinine (uP/C ratio, Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation, uPAR-positive podocytes/gUrCr, and uCD80 were significantly increased in G2 versus G1. G2A and G2B were not different in age, gender, hypertension, and follow-up. G2B displayed significantly higher uP/C, uPAR-positive podocytes, uCD80, and lower CKD-EPI versus G2A. Strong significant correlations were encountered between uCD80 and podocyturia in G2A and G2B. However, when G1 was compared to G2A and G2B separately, the differences with respect to uP/C, uPAR-positive podocytes, and podocyturia were significantly stronger versus G2B than versus G2A. Conclusions: IgAN presents elevated uCD80 excretion and uPAR-positive podocyturia, while CD80 correlates with podocyturia. Glomerulosclerosis (S1 at the time of biopsy is associated with higher uP/C, lower renal function, increased uPAR-positive podocyturia, and CD80 excretion, and is independent of M1. In IgAN, uPAR may

  4. Urinary flavonoid excretion and risk of acute coronary syndrome in a nested case-control study123

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Obel, Tina; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that a higher intake of flavonoids may be associated with lower risk of ischemic heart disease. However, the traditional estimation of flavonoid intake by using dietary assessment methods is affected by subjective measures. Objective: We examined...... whether the objective measurement of dietary flavonoids excreted in urine is associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Design: A case-control study was nested in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Cases were identified in participants who had received a first-time ACS...... diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry after the time of enrollment into the Diet, Cancer and Health study. The excretion of 10 flavonoids, which represent 5 subclasses, was measured in spot urine samples by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 393 eligible cases...

  5. Increase of Urinary 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Excretion but Not Serum Chromogranin a Following Over-The-Counter 5-Hydroxytryptophan Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisha Joy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA excretion is commonly measured for biochemical detection of carcinoid tumours. A 77-year-old woman was referred for elevated 24 h urine 5-HIAA excretion (510 μmol/day; normal is less than 45 μmol/day and serum chromogranin A (CgA (72.1 U/L; normal is less than 18 U/L, both subsequently normalized after discontinuation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP. 5-HTP, a precursor of serotonin, is not commonly listed as a substance that increases 5-HIAA levels in urine. The effect of 5-HTP on CgA has not been previously described.

  6. The effect of smoking on the urinary excretion of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne-Sofie; Kjær, Laura Kofoed; Petersen, Kasper Meidahl

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, attention has been paid to understanding the impact of oxidative stress and related modifications of DNA and RNA on various human health risks. A recent meta-analysis comprising 1915 smokers and 3462 non-smokers found a significantly higher level of DNA oxidation measured...... to examine the relationship between daily smokers (n = 462) versus former (n = 1341) and never smokers (n = 918) regarding the RNA and DNA oxidation, respectively. We did not find any significant effect of smoking on urinary excretion of 8-oxodG or 8-oxoGuo in our study. Due to a sparse study area......, it is still too early to draw any conclusions on smoking and RNA-oxidation. Regarding DNA oxidation, our study suggests that the effect of smoking seen in healthy populations might be attenuated in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  7. Relations of nuclear factor-kappa B activity in the kidney of children with primary nephrotic syndrome to clinical manifestations, pathological types, and urinary protein excretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yang; SUN Ruo-peng; DONG Jun-hua; ZHEN Jun-hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ The pathogenesis of childhood primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) is unclear. However, an immune mechanism has generally been accepted as a cause. Imbalance of T lymphocyte and a variety of inflammatory cytokines, chemotactic and transcription factors are involved in the pathophysiology and manifestations of PNS,1,2 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptionally regulates the expression of these factors.3 Research has been focused on NF-κB and inflammatory regulated mediators of renal diseases, but seldom on different clinical manifestations and histopathological changes. In order to explore a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of PNS in children and a basis for preventing its advance, we determined NF-κB activity in the kidney of children with PNS in vitro using immunohistochemical staining and the multimedia coloured pathological image analysis system and its relations to clinical manifestations, histopathological changes and 24-hour urinary protein excretion.

  8. A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist, NIP-222, reduces urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic mice independent of PPARgamma activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsumoto, Takashi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Matsuda, Maho; Tsuruzoe, Nobutomo

    2003-12-01

    NIP-222 is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist. This study provides evidence that NIP-222 decreases urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetic mice independent of its PPARgamma activation. We compared the effect of NIP-222 and another PPARgamma agonist, troglitazone, on UAE, plasma glucose level, blood pressure, and creatinine clearance (C(cr)) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Treatment for 3 weeks with NIP-222 (30 mg/kg) was associated with a significant decrease in UAE without any change in blood pressure, creatinine clearance, or plasma glucose level. In contrast, UAE did not decrease in mice treated with troglitazone (300 mg/kg). These results indicate that NIP-222 has PPARgamma independent effects on UAE in diabetic mice and suggest that this agent may have potential to minimize the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  9. Consumption of wholemeal rye bread increases serum concentrations and urinary excretion of enterolactone compared with consumption of white wheat bread in healthy Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, K S; Mazur, W M; Liukkonen, K H; Uehara, M; Poutanen, K S; Adlercreutz, H C; Mykkänen, H M

    2000-12-01

    Rye is an important source of plant lignans in Finland. In the present crossover trial we wanted to study the effect of rye bread as part of the usual diet on serum and urine enterolactone (ENL) concentrations in healthy volunteers. Eighteen men aged 43 (sem 2.0) years and twenty-one women aged 43 (sem 1.6) years consumed wholemeal rye bread and white wheat bread in random order for 4 weeks. The bread periods were separated by a 4 week wash-out period. The breads provided at least 20% of the daily energy intake. The mean intakes of rye bread were 219 (sem 14.6) and 162 (sem 5.3) g/d and those of wheat bread were 200 (sem 9.6) and 153 (sem 5.8) g/d for men and women respectively. Blood samples were collected from all subjects and three 24 h urine samples were collected from ten men and twelve women at the end of both bread periods for the determination of serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL. The mean serum ENL concentrations in both men and women at the beginning of baseline period and at the end of the rye-bread period remained constant and were significantly higher than those at the end of the wheat-bread period. Correspondingly, daily urinary ENL excretion increased significantly during the rye-bread period compared with the wheat-bread period and was 5- and 10-fold higher in men and women respectively in comparison with the amount of plant lignan precursors measured in the rye bread. These data indicate the presence of other precursors for ENL in rye which are not detected by the current method of measuring plant lignans in food. The possible role of fibre in enhancement of the formation of mammalian lignans from their plant precursors in the gut also remains to be determined.

  10. The urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor in the rat is reduced by aprotinin, a proteinase inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1990-01-01

    The present study on the rat shows that i.v. administration of the proteinase inhibitor aprotinin reduces the urinary output of immunoreactive epidermal growth factor (EGF) while the amount of immunoreactive EGF in the kidneys is increased. This indicates that the EGF-precursor in the rat kidney ...

  11. The effects and mechanism of tripterygium wilfordii Hook Fcombination with irbesartan on urinary podocyte excretion in diabetic nephropathy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the combination of tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) and irbesartan on urinary podocytes in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) patients,and to discuss the mechanism of protective effect of TwHF on DKD.Methods A total of 45

  12. Urinary creatine and methylamine excretion following 4 x 5 g x day(-1) or 20 x 1 g x day(-1) of creatine monohydrate for 5 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Florance, James; Kumps, Alain; Sanvura, Robertine; Poortmans, Jacques R

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of two creatine monohydrate supplementation regimes on 24-h urinary creatine and methylamine excretion. Nine male participants completed two trials, separated by 6 weeks. Participants ingested 4 x 5 g x day(-1) creatine monohydrate for 5 days in one trial and 20 x 1 g x day(-1) for 5 days in the other. We collected 24-h urine samples on 2 baseline days (days 1-2), during 5 days of supplementation (days 3-7), and for 2 days post-supplementation (days 8-9). Urine was assayed for creatine using high-performance liquid chromatography and methylamine using gas chromatography. Less creatine was excreted following the 20 x 1 g x day(-1) regime (49.25 +/- 10.53 g) than the 4 x 5 g x day(-1) regime (62.32 +/- 9.36 g) (mean +/- s; P x 1 g x day(-1) and 4 x 5 g x day(-1) regimes, respectively (P x 1 g x day(-1) doses suggests a greater retention in the body and most probably in the muscle. Lower and more frequent doses of creatine monohydrate appear to further attenuate formation of methylamine.

  13. Activation of the Endogenous Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System or Aldosterone Administration Increases Urinary Exosomal Sodium Channel Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ying; Wang, Xiaojing; Rose, Kristie L; MacDonald, W Hayes; Zhang, Bing; Schey, Kevin L; Luther, James M

    2016-02-01

    Urinary exosomes secreted by multiple cell types in the kidney may participate in intercellular signaling and provide an enriched source of kidney-specific proteins for biomarker discovery. Factors that alter the exosomal protein content remain unknown. To determine whether endogenous and exogenous hormones modify urinary exosomal protein content, we analyzed samples from 14 mildly hypertensive patients in a crossover study during a high-sodium (HS, 160 mmol/d) diet and low-sodium (LS, 20 mmol/d) diet to activate the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We further analyzed selected exosomal protein content in a separate cohort of healthy persons receiving intravenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg per hour for 10 hours) versus vehicle infusion. The LS diet increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, whereas aldosterone infusion increased only aldosterone concentration. Protein analysis of paired urine exosome samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based multidimensional protein identification technology detected 2775 unique proteins, of which 316 exhibited significantly altered abundance during LS diet. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and α- and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits from the discovery set were verified using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry quantified with isotope-labeled peptide standards. Dietary sodium restriction or acute aldosterone infusion similarly increased urine exosomal γENaC[112-122] peptide concentrations nearly 20-fold, which correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na/K ratio. Urine exosomal NCC and αENaC concentrations were relatively unchanged during these interventions. We conclude that urinary exosome content is altered by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Urinary measurement of exosomal γENaC[112-122] concentration may provide a useful biomarker of ENaC activation in future clinical studies.

  14. Identification of a mechanism by which the methylmercury antidotes N-acetylcysteine and dimercaptopropanesulfonate enhance urinary metal excretion: transport by the renal organic anion transporter-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Albert S; Simmons-Willis, Tracey A; Pritchard, John B; Grassl, Steven M; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2002-10-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) are sulfhydryl-containing compounds that produce a dramatic acceleration of urinary methylmercury (MeHg) excretion in poisoned animals, but the molecular mechanism for this effect is unknown. NAC and DMPS are themselves excreted in urine in high concentrations. The present study tested the hypothesis that the complexes formed between MeHg and these anionic chelating agents are transported from blood into proximal tubule cells by the basolateral membrane organic anion transporters (Oat) 1 and Oat3. Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing rat Oat1 showed increased uptake of [(14)C]MeHg when complexed with either NAC or DMPS but not when complexed with L-cysteine, glutathione, dimercaptosuccinate, penicillamine, or gamma-glutamylcysteine. In contrast, none of these MeHg complexes were transported by Oat3-expressing oocytes. The apparent K(m) values for Oat1-mediated transport were 31 +/- 2 microM for MeHg-NAC and 9 +/- 2 microM for MeHg-DMPS, indicating that these are relatively high-affinity substrates. Oat1-mediated uptake of [(14)C]MeHg-NAC and [(14)C]MeHg-DMPS was inhibited by prototypical substrates for Oat1, including p-aminohippurate (PAH), and was trans-stimulated when oocytes were preloaded with 2 mM glutarate but not glutamate. Conversely, efflux of [(3)H]PAH from Oat1-expressing oocytes was trans-stimulated by glutarate, PAH, NAC, DMPS, MeHg-NAC, MeHg-DMPS, and a mercapturic acid, indicating that these are transported solutes. [(3)H]PAH uptake was competitively inhibited by NAC (K(i) of 2.0 +/- 0.3 mM) and DMPS (K(i) of 0.10 +/- 0.02 mM), providing further evidence that these chelating agents are substrates for Oat1. These results indicate that the MeHg antidotes NAC and DMPS and their mercaptide complexes are transported by Oat1 but are comparatively poor substrates for Oat3. This is the first molecular identification of a transport mechanism by which these antidotes may enhance urinary excretion of

  15. Muscularity and adiposity in addition to net acid excretion as predictors of 24-h urinary pH in young adults and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, T; Berkemeyer, S; Rylander, R; Vormann, J

    2007-05-01

    In patients with nephrolithiasis, an inverse relationship between 24-h urinary pH (24h-UpH) and body weight has been reported. Whether body composition indices and 24h-UpH are similarly associated in healthy subjects needs investigation. Cross-sectional, retrospective analysis. Dortmund, Germany and Gothenburg, Sweden. Healthy young adults (18-23 years; n=117) and elderly (55-75 years; n=85) having a mean body mass index (BMI) of 22.80+/-3.4 and 25.3+/-3.9 kg/m2, respectively. Anthropometric data, 24h-UpH, and 24-h urinary excretion rates of net acid (NAE), creatinine, and urea were determined. After adjusting for urea (reflecting protein intake), renal creatinine output was used as a biochemical marker for muscularity. The BMI served as a marker of adiposity. NAE, body weight, and BMI were significantly (PUpH (with R2 values of 0.64 and 0.68 in young adults and elderly, respectively, PUpH. Future research should focus on more obese subjects in whom insulin resistance and particular kidney functions should also be examined to further substantiate the role of obesity in low-urine pH-associated conditions, for example, nephrolithiasis.

  16. Strawberry processing does not affect the production and urinary excretion of urolithins, ellagic acid metabolites, in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchado, Pilar; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Cerdá, Begoña; Vidal-Guevara, María Luisa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2012-06-13

    The study of fruit and vegetable processing and its effects on the levels of health-promoting constituents and their bioavailability and metabolism is very relevant to understanding the role of these constituents in human health. Strawberry polyphenols, and particularly ellagitannins and ellagic acid, have been associated with the health benefits of this berry for humans. These compounds are transformed into urolithins by the gut microbiota, and these metabolites exert several biological activities that could be responsible for the health effects of strawberries. Processing potentially increases the extraction of ellagitannins from the strawberry achenes and the release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins. It is of interest to evaluate the effect of processing on strawberry ellagitannin microbial metabolism compared with fresh strawberries. This study shows that no significant differences in the production and excretion of urolithins were found between the intake of fresh strawberries and that of a thermally processed strawberry puree containing the same amount of strawberries. Processing increases the amount of free ellagic acid 2.5-fold, but this had no effect on the transformation in urolithins by the gut microbiota or in the excretion of urolithin metabolites (urolithin glucuronides) in urine, showing that the release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins is not a relevant factor affecting the microbial metabolism. All of the volunteers produced urolithin A, but only 3 of 20 volunteers produced and excreted urolithin B. It is confirmed that some volunteers were efficient producers of urolithins, whereas other produced much lower amounts. These results show that processing does not modify the potential health effects of strawberry polyphenols.

  17. High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Urinary Trans, Trans-Muconic Acid Excreted by Workers Occupationally Exposed to Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA-MIN HU; SHI-ZHEN SONG; FANG-LI YE; LI-WEN LIU

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA) as benzene metabolite of occupational workers and benzene concentration in air. Methods A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography was developed to determine the level of urinary ttMA. ttMA was extrated from urinary samples in liquid-liquid phase a ODS (2) (5u) column (Φ4.6 mm× 150 mm) and detected at wavelength 264 nm in a UV detector using vanillic acid as an internal standard. The mobile phase was acetaticacid/tetrahydrofuran/methanol/water (v/v, 1:2:10:87). The method was validated with 56 urine samples collected from occupationally benzene-exposed individuals. Results A correlation coefficient (r = 0.9963 ) was found for ttMA ranging 0.10-10.00 μg/mL. The limit of detection was 0.10 μg/mL. The recovery and reproducibility were generally over 90%. There was a positive correlation between ttMA and benzene level in air. The equation was Y=0.859+0.108C (before work, r=-0.6200) or Y=1.980+0.179C (after work, r=0.7930). Conclusion This method can be used to determine and control the level of urinary ttMA in those who are occupationally exposed to benzene.

  18. Increased urinary excretion of analogs of Krebs cycle metabolites and arabinose in two brothers with autistic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W; Kassen, E; Chaves, E

    1995-08-01

    A marked increase in analogs of Krebs cycle metabolites was found in the urine of two brothers with autistic features. These metabolites included citramalic, tartaric (3-OH-malic), and 3-oxoglutaric acids and compounds tentatively identified as a citric acid analog and partially identified as a phenylcarboxylic acid by the fragmentation pattern of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of the compounds and mass shifts of the same compounds derivatized with perdeuterated N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The molecular mass of the TMS derivative of the tentatively identified citric acid analog was 596 Da, based on a finding of a significant M - 15 ion at m/z 581. The citric acid analog was excreted in quantities as high as 137 mmol/mol creatinine, based on the response factor of citric acid as a surrogate calibrator. A carbohydrate with a retention time and mass spectrum identical to arabinose was also found in high concentrations in the urine of these brothers.

  19. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion: a proposed marker for inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M.S.; Iversen, K.; Larsen, Carsten Toftager

    2008-01-01

    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Material and methods. We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...... controls. Urinary orosomucoid was measured using a particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM) were measured using ELISA. Endothelial function measured as vasodilatory capacity...... of the brachial artery and echocardiography were done in all participants. Results. Patients with diabetes and increased UOER had subclinically increased serum orosomucoid (pprotein (CRP) (p

  20. Dietary supplementation with phytohemagglutinin in combination with a-ketoglutarate limits the excretion of nitrogen via urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Rafal; Wdowiak, Leszek; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of both phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) alone, and in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on nitrogen elimination via the urinary tract as opposed to the gastrointestinal tract of rats. In experiment 1, rats were assigned to one of two...... experimental groups, (1) Control and (2) PHA, whilst in experiment 2, rats were assigned to one of three experimental groups, (1) Control, (2) AKG, and (3) AKG+PHA. AKG was administered via drinking water, while PHA was administered via a stomach tube. The stock solution of crude PHA in 0.9% NaCl, was (20% w....../v) in water: 50 mg PHA/ml, 20 ml/kg body wt. Rats were 7 weeks old at the start of the experiments. Significantly lower daily weight gains in the AKG+PHA and PHA groups (pPHA...

  1. Effect of ginseng polysaccharide on the urinary excretion of type 2 diabetic rats studied by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jun; Pi, Zifeng; Yue, Hao; Wang, Yang; Yu, Qing; Liu, Shuying

    2012-10-15

    Ginseng polysaccharide is known to have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in vivo and its precise mechanism of action is not clear. A urinary metabolomics method based on rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (RRLC/MS) was developed to investigate the effect of water-soluble ginseng polysaccharide (WGP) on type 2 diabetes in rats. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for pattern recognition and a clear separation between type 2 diabetic rats and those treated with WGP was achieved. Eight potential biomarkers were found and identified. Significantly increased inosine, serotonin, phenylpropionylglycine and dodecanedioic acid showed the effect of WGP on purine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and energy metabolism. 1-Methyladenine, 4-deoxyerythronic acid, 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid and tetrahydrocortisol were significantly decreased which indicated that WGP can regulate DNA metabolism, organic acids metabolism and steroid hormone metabolism. This work is helpful in the effect mechanism study of ginseng polysaccharide.

  2. Associations between Urinary Excretion of Cadmium and Renal Biomarkers in Nonsmoking Females: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Areas of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-rui Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the relationship between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd and biomarkers of renal dysfunction. Methods: One hundred eighty five non-smoking female farmers (aged from 44 to 71 years were recruited from two rural areas with different cadmium levels of exposure in southern China. Morning spot urine samples were collected for detecting U-Cd, urinary creatinine (U-cre, β2-microglobulin (β2-MG, α1-microglobulin (α1-MG, metallothionein (MT, retinol binding protein (RBP, albumin (AB, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1. Spearman’s rank correlation was carried out to assess pairwise bivariate associations between continuous variables. Three different models of multiple linear regression (the cre-corrected, un-corrected and cre-adjusted model were used to model the dose-response relationships between U-Cd and nine urine markers. Results: Spearman’s rank correlation showed that NAG, ALP, RBP, β2-MG and MT were significantly associated with U-Cd for both cre-corrected and observed data. Generally, NAG correlated best with U-Cd among the nine biomarkers studied, followed by ALP and MT. In the un-corrected model and cre-adjusted model, the regression coefficients and R2 of nine biomarkers were larger than the corresponding values in the cre-corrected model, indicating that the use of observed data was better for investigating the relationship between biomarkers and U-Cd than cre-corrected data. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAG, MT and ALP in urine were better biomarkers for long-term environmental cadmium exposure assessment among the nine biomarkers studied. Further, data without normalization with creatinine show better relationships between cadmium exposure and renal dysfunction.

  3. Changes in urinary amino acids excretion in relationship with muscle activity markers over a professional cycling stage race: in search of fatigue markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, Roberto; Barassi, Alessandra; Perego, Silvia; Sansoni, Veronica; Rossi, Alessandra; Damele, Clara Anna Linda; Melzi D'Eril, Gianlodovico; Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between metabolic effort, muscular damage/activity indices, and urinary amino acids profile over the course of a strenuous prolonged endurance activity, as a cycling stage race is, in order to identify possible fatigue markers. Nine professional cyclists belonging to a single team, competing in the Giro d'Italia cycling stage race, were anthropometrically characterized and sampled for blood and urine the day before the race started, and on days 12 and 23 of the race. Diet was kept the same over the race, and power output and energy expenditure were recorded. Sera were assayed for muscle markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities, and blood urea nitrogen), and creatinine, all corrected for plasma volume changes. Urines were profiled for amino acid concentrations, normalized on creatinine excretion. Renal function, in terms of glomerular filtration rate, was monitored by MDRD equation corrected on body surface area. Creatine kinase activity and blood urea were increased during the race as did serum creatinine while kidney function remained stable. Among the amino acids, taurine, glycine, cysteine, leucine, carnosine, 1-methyl histidine, and 3-methyl histidine showed a net decreased, while homocysteine was increased. Taurine and the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) were significantly correlated with the muscle activity markers and the indices of effort. In conclusion, the metabolic profile is modified strikingly due to the effort. Urinary taurine and carnosine seem useful tools to evaluate the muscle damage and possibly the fatigue status on a long-term basis.

  4. A whole-grain-rich diet reduces urinary excretion of markers of protein catabolism and gut microbiota metabolism in healthy men after one week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Pere-Trépat, Emma; Montoliu, Ivan; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Collino, Sebastiano; Moco, Sofia; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Cléroux, Marilyn; Guy, Philippe A; Breton, Isabelle; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Thorimbert, Anita; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Tornier, Lionel; Bebuis, Aude; Bruce, Stephen J; Beaumont, Maurice; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcher-blinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet based on RGs. Seventeen healthy adult participants (11 female, 6 male) consumed a controlled diet based on either WG-rich or RG-rich foods for 2 wk, followed by the other diet after a 5-wk washout period. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. The metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and fecal water were measured using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (plasma only). After 1 wk of intervention, the WG diet led to decreases in urinary excretion of metabolites related to protein catabolism (urea, methylguanadine), lipid (carnitine and acylcarnitines) and gut microbial (4-hydroxyphenylacetate, trimethylacetate, dimethylacetate) metabolism in men compared with the same time point during the RG intervention. There were no differences between the interventions after 2 wk. Urinary urea, carnitine, and acylcarnitine were lower at wk 1 of the WG intervention relative to the RG intervention in all participants. Fecal water short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate were relatively greater after the WG diet compared to the RG diet. Although based on a small population and for a short time period, these observations suggest that a WG diet may affect protein metabolism.

  5. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  6. Effect of sodium loading on the urinary excretion of prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha in rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro rats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathaus, M; Kariv, N; Shapira, J; Bernheim, J

    1985-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and changes in sodium balance influence renal prostaglandins (PGs). To separate these two mechanisms, the effect of sodium loading on the urinary excretion of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha was studied in female Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus (DIHO) and compared with that in female, age matched, heterozygous Long Evans controls (LEHE). Ten DIHO and ten LEHE rats had a normal sodium intake. In ten DIHO rats a 0.16% NaCl solution was supplied instead of drinking water for either 8 days (n = 5) or 14 days (n = 5). In two groups of LEHE rats, sodium loading was obtained with a 0.80% NaCl solution for the same study periods. Urine PGs were measured by radioimmunoassay in three 24 h urine collections for each rat. Urine PGs were significantly increased in the 8 day loaded but not in the 14 day loaded LEHE rats. In DIHO rats, a non-significant increase in both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha was present after 8 days of sodium loading, while PGE2 and the E/F ratio were decreased after 14 days of salt loading. The findings suggest that the natriuresis induced by sodium loading in the rat may be mediated in part by increased production of PGs. In addition, it seems that ADH plays a role in this response.

  7. Loss of Renal Tubular PGC-1α Exacerbates Diet-Induced Renal Steatosis and Age-Related Urinary Sodium Excretion in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Svensson

    Full Text Available The kidney has a high energy demand and is dependent on oxidative metabolism for ATP production. Accordingly, the kidney is rich in mitochondria, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a common denominator for several renal diseases. While the mitochondrial master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α is highly expressed in kidney, its role in renal physiology is so far unclear. Here we show that PGC-1α is a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial metabolic pathways in the kidney. Moreover, we demonstrate that mice with an inducible nephron-specific inactivation of PGC-1α in the kidney display elevated urinary sodium excretion, exacerbated renal steatosis during metabolic stress but normal blood pressure regulation. Overall, PGC-1α seems largely dispensable for basal renal physiology. However, the role of PGC-1α in renal mitochondrial biogenesis indicates that activation of PGC-1α in the context of renal disorders could be a valid therapeutic strategy to ameliorate renal mitochondrial dysfunction.

  8. The Association of Knowledge and Behaviours Related to Salt with 24-h Urinary Salt Excretion in a Population from North and South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J.; MacGregor, Graham A.; Webster, Jacqui; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants’ physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87–9.69) g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake—less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt. PMID:28212309

  9. In vivo and in vitro percutaneous absorption of [{sup 14}C]pyrene in sprague dawley male rats: skin reservoir effect and consequence on urinary 1-OH pyrene excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payan, Jean-Paul; Lafontaine, Michel; Simon, Patrice; Marquet, Fabrice; Champmartin-Gendre, Catherine; Beydon, Dominique; Ferrari, Elisabeth [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, Vandoeuvre (France)

    2008-10-15

    The skin reservoir effect of [{sup 14}C]pyrene (in vivo and in vitro) on percutaneous absorption was determined in male Sprague Dawley rats. The urinary 1-OHpyrene (1-OHPy) excretion was compared between dermal exposure and intravenous administration. In vivo, the percutaneous absorption flux of [{sup 14}C]pyrene (200 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}; 50 {mu}L/cm{sup 2} of ethanol) determined by sacrificing batches of rats after different exposure times over 4.5 h was 1.0{+-}0.1 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} h{sup -1}. During exposure, penetration flux was twofold higher than absorption flux, indicating a gradual accumulation of pyrene in the skin. [{sup 14}C] skin content at the end of exposure was 16{mu}g/cm{sup 2}, which decreased gradually over time to 2 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} 68 h after the end of exposure. The total absorbed dose during exposure was threefold lower than that after exposure, indicating a high contribution of pyrene skin content to the systemic availability of the compound. Similar results were obtained in vitro. The apparent elimination rate of [{sup 14}C]pyrene (23 h) contained in the skin after an exposure of 4.5 h was similar to the apparent urinary excretion half life of 1-OHPy (21 h). These values are threefold higher than the urinary excretion half life of 1-OHPy after an intravenous administration of pyrene (0.5 mg/kg). In conclusion, absorbed dose and percutaneous absorption flux were well estimated from the 1-OHPy urinary excretion rate. For risk assessment purposes, the penetration flux rather than the absorption flux should be taken into account for topical pyrene exposure. (orig.)

  10. The effect of saponins from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke on the renal Na+ pumps’ activities and urinary excretion of natriuretic peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Lúcio Ricardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we showed that a saponin mixture isolated from the roots of Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke (SAPAaD reduces urine excretion in rats that were given an oral loading of 0.9 % NaCl (4 ml/100 g body weight. In the present study, we investigated whether atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP and renal ATPases play a role in the SAPAaD- induced antidiuresis in rats. Methods To evaluate the effect of SAPAaD on furosemide-induced diuresis, Wistar rats (250-300 g were given an oral loading of physiological solution (0.9 % NaCl, 4 ml/100 g body weight to impose a uniform water and salt state. The solution containing furosemide (Furo, 13 mg/kg was given 30 min after rats were orally treated with 50 mg/kg SAPAaD (SAPAaD + Furo or 0.5 ml of 0.9 % NaCl (NaCl + Furo. In the SAPAaD + NaCl group, rats were pretreated with SAPAaD and 30 min later they received the oral loading of physiological solution. Animals were individually housed in metabolic cages, and urine volume was measured every 30 min throughout the experiment (3 h. To investigate the role of ANP and renal Na+ pumps on antidiuretic effects promoted by SAPAaD, rats were given the physiological solution (as above containing SAPAaD (50 mg/kg. After 90 min, samples of urine and blood from the last 30 min were collected. Kidneys and atria were also removed after previous anesthesia. ANP was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA and renal cortical activities of Na+- and (Na+,K+-ATPases were calculated from the difference between the [32P] Pi released in the absence and presence of 1 mM furosemide/2 mM ouabain and in the absence and presence of 1 mM ouabain, respectively. Results It was observed that SAPAaD inhibited furosemide-induced diuresis (at 90 min: from 10.0 ± 1.0 mL, NaCl + Furo group, n = 5, to 5.9 ± 1.0 mL, SAPAaD + Furo group n = 5, p +-ATPase (from 25.0 ± 5.9 nmol Pi

  11. Evaluation of random urine sodium and potassium compensated by creatinine as possible alternative markers for 24 hours urinary sodium and potassium excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyunmin; Lee, Sang-Guk; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Sodium and potassium intake was assessed on the basis of its respective excretion levels in 24 hr urine samples. However, owing to the inconvenience of collection, we evaluated random spot urine for alternative sodium and potassium excretion markers. We included 250 patients who submitted 24 hr- and spot urine for clinical tests. However, 22 patients who showed 24 hr urine creatinine excretion levels creatinine (r=0.34, Pcreatinine (r=0.47, Pcreatinine and potassium/creatinine ratios showed a significant correlation with 24 hr urine sodium and potassium excretion, respectively, further studies are required to develop a spot urine test for individualized monitoring of sodium and potassium excretion.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected folic acid on rumen fermentation, degradability and excretion of urinary purine derivatives in growing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Liu, Qiang; Guo, Gang; Huo, WenJie; Ma, Le; Zhang, YanLi; Pei, CaiXia; Zhang, ShuanLin; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary addition of rumen-protected folic acid (RPFA) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, enzyme activity and the relative quantity of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in growing beef steers. Eight rumen-cannulated Jinnan beef steers averaging 2.5 years of age and 419 ± 1.9 kg body weight were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four treatments comprised supplementation levels of 0 (Control), 70, 140 and 210 mg RPFA/kg dietary dry matter (DM). On DM basis, the ration consisted of 50% corn silage, 47% concentrate and 3% soybean oil. The DM intake (averaged 8.5 kg/d) was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP) and net energy for growth was not affected by treatments. In contrast, increasing RPFA supplementation increased average daily gain and the concentration of total volatile fatty acid and reduced ruminal pH linearly. Furthermore, increasing RPFA supplementation enhanced the acetate to propionate ratio and reduced the ruminal ammonia N content linearly. The ruminal effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre from corn silage and CP from concentrate improved linearly and was highest for the highest supplementation levels. The activities of cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase and α-amylase linearly increased, but carboxymethyl-cellulase and protease were not affected by the addition of RPFA. The relative quantities of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes increased linearly. With increasing RPFA supplementation levels, the excretion of urinary purine derivatives was also increased linearly. The present results indicated that the supplementation of RPFA improved ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, activities of microbial enzymes and the relative quantity of the ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. According to the conditions of this

  13. Relationship between urinary albumin excretion rate and renal histology in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: with reference to the clinical significance of microalbuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, S; Nakamoto, Y; Inoue, M; Itoh, M; Ohsawa, Y; Masamune, O

    1989-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the relationship between urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) and renal structural changes in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) without clinical proteinuria. Resting AER in 30 control subjects and 67 NIDDM patients were 10.4 +/- 4.8 (mean +/- SD) micrograms/min (range 4.3-21.1 micrograms/min) and 26.4 +/- 32.3 micrograms/min (range 0.4-155 micrograms/min), respectively. Persistent normoalbuminuria (less than 20 micrograms/min) and microalbuminuria (20-200 micrograms/min) were found in 43 (Group A) and 24 (Group B) diabetics. There were significant differences in age, diabetes duration, and frequency of retinopathy (background and proliferative) as well as that of proliferative retinopathy between Groups A and B, but not in the other clinical parameters such as body mass index, HbA1, Ccr, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP). When compared with 11 normoalbuminuric patients of similar age and equal diabetes duration to those in Group B, the sole difference in clinical parameters was the existence of proliferative retinopathy in Group B. Renal structural changes were investigated by light microscopy in 14 people in Group A and 13 people in Group B, and additionally in 5 NIDDM patients with both macroalbuminuria (greater than or equal to 200 micrograms/min) and normal or nearly normal renal function (Group C). The diffuse glomerular lesion (Gellman's classification) was grade I or II in A, II or III in B, and III in C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.

  15. Effect of losartan on urinary albumin excretion in experimental diabetic rats%氯沙坦对实验性糖尿病大鼠尿白蛋白排泄的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬梅; 钟惠菊; 周敏

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of losartan on urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin diabetic rats.Methods The following groups of rats were studied:normal control rats(NC),diabetic control rats (DC),diabetic rats treated with losartan 〔20mg/(kg*d)〕(DL) and diabetic rats treated with perindopril (2mg/(kg*d)〕(DP).Urinary albumin was observed at the 4th、8th、12th and 16th week.Results Urinary albumin excretion of diabetic rats treated with losartan or perindopril were significantly lower than that of diabetic untreated group (P<0.01).The effect was not different between losartan treated and perindopril treated rats.Conclusion The results suggested that losartan can reduce urinary albumin excretion in diabetic rats.%目的观察血管紧张素受体拮抗剂氯沙坦(losartan)对糖尿病大鼠尿白蛋白排泄的影响。方法雄性SD大鼠分为正常对照组(NC)、糖尿病对照组(DC)、糖尿病氯沙坦治疗组(DL)和糖尿病培哚普利治疗组(DP)。检测各组第4、8、12、16周尿白蛋白排泄的变化。结果 DL组较DC组尿白蛋白排泄显著下降(P<0.01),和DP组比较无显著性差异。结论血管紧张素受体拮抗剂氯沙坦能有效降低糖尿病大鼠尿白蛋白的排泄。

  16. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women. In this

  17. Reduction in urinary albumin excretion with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 12-month intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimoto H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hajime Haimoto,1 Tae Sasakabe,2 Hiroyuki Umegaki,3 Kenji Wakai41Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, 2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, 3Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, JapanIntroduction: Urinary albumin excretion (UAE is a marker of the early phase of diabetic nephropathy. Although a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD has been shown to effectively improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM, its effects on UAE remain unknown.Patients and methods: A total of 124 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 61.6 ± 9.2 years with T2DM were instructed to consume a moderate LCD (1734 ± 416 kcal/d; % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 38:37:19 for 12 months. We measured the levels of UAE, hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin (IRI, and the serum lipid profiles in the patients and recorded their dosages of antidiabetic drugs during this 12-month period.Results: Of the 124 patients, 68 were normoalbuminuric, 50 were microalbuminuric, and six were macroalbuminuric at baseline. The patients had relatively good compliance with the moderate LCD diet. After 12 months, the mean levels of hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, IRI, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, and the body mass index of all participants significantly decreased (P = 0.003 for IRI and P < 0.001 for the other parameters. Among the microalbuminuric patients (n = 50, remission to normoalbuminuria was frequently achieved (52% and the geometric mean UAE significantly decreased by 53% (95% confidence interval: 43, 62 over 12 months (P < 0.001. After patients taking an angiotensin 2 receptor blocker were excluded, the UAE significantly decreased by 41% (n = 26, 95% confidence interval: 25, 54; P < 0.001. Moreover, the reduction in UAE was significantly and

  18. 补充叶酸对妊娠期尿微量白蛋白排泄率的影响%Effect of folate supplementation on urinary albumin excretion rate in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of folate supplementation on urinary albumin excretion rate of pregnant women in pregnancy. Methods 100 pregnant women with persral folate and 100 pregnant women without persral folate were randomly selected in our hospital. To select 3h morning urine with special sampling tube, to test the urinary albumin excretion rate with radioimmunoassay. Results The positive rate of urinary albumin excretion of pregnant women without persral folate was obviously higher than which of pregnant women with persral folate. Conclusion Folate supplementation in pregnancy could reduce the positive rate of urinary albumin excretion, could keep enough folate in blood, could reduce the accumulation of homocysteine which is metabolic intermediate of low methionine, could avoid the injury of vascular endothelial cells, could reduce the occurrence of complication in obstetrics department.%目的:观察孕期口服叶酸对孕妇尿微量白蛋白排泄率的影响。方法在来我院孕检的孕妇中随机抽取孕期有口服叶酸的孕妇100例与孕期从未口服叶酸的孕妇100例。分别收集3h晨尿并用专门的试管取样,用放射免疫分析法检测孕妇尿微量白蛋白的排泄率。结果孕期未口服叶酸的孕妇其尿微量白蛋白排泄率的阳性率较孕期有口服叶酸的孕妇其尿微量白蛋白排泄率明显增高。结论孕期补充叶酸可降低尿微量白蛋白排泄率的阳性率,提示孕期口服叶酸可保持血液中有足够的叶酸,可以降低蛋氨酸代谢的中间产物同型半胱氨酸在体内的堆积,避免血管内皮细胞的损伤,减少产科一些并发症的发生。

  19. Sodium Excretion and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katherine T.; Chen, Jing; Yang, Wei; Appel, Lawrence J.; Kusek, John W.; Alper, Arnold; Delafontaine, Patrice; Keane, Martin G.; Mohler, Emile; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Ricardo, Ana C.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond; He, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. Prior studies have produced contradictory results on the association of dietary sodium intake with risk of CVD, and this relationship has not been investigated in patients with CKD. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between urinary sodium excretion and clinical CVD events among patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study of patients with CKD from 7 locations in the United States enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study and followed up from May 2003 to March 2013. EXPOSURES The cumulative mean of urinary sodium excretion from three 24-hour urinary measurements and calibrated to sex-specific mean 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A composite of CVD events defined as congestive heart failure, stroke, ormyocardial infarction. Events were reported every 6 months and confirmed by medical record adjudication. RESULTS Among 3757 participants (mean age, 58 years; 45% women), 804 composite CVD events (575 heart failure, 305 myocardial infarction, and 148 stroke) occurred during a median 6.8 years of follow-up. From lowest (infarction, and 6.4% vs 2.7% for stroke at median follow-up. Hazard ratios of the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.09–1.70; P = .007) for composite CVD events, 1.34 (95% CI, 1.03–1.74; P = .03) for heart failure, and 1.81 (95% CI, 1.08–3.02; P = .02) for stroke after multivariable adjustment. Restricted cubic spline analyses of the association between sodium excretion and composite CVD provided no evidence of a nonlinear association (P = .11) and indicated a significant linear association (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with CKD, higher urinary sodium excretion was associated with increased risk of CVD. PMID:27218629

  20. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  1. Laparoscopic versus open nephroureterectomy for the treatment of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: a systematic review and cumulative analysis of comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shaobin; Tao, Weiyang; Chen, Qiyin; Liu, Lianxin; Jiang, Hongchi; Hu, Hailong; Han, Ruifa; Wang, Chunyang

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) has increasingly been used as a minimally invasive alternative to open nephroureterectomy (ONU), but studies comparing the efficacy and safety of the two surgical procedures are still limited. Evaluate the oncologic and perioperative outcomes of LNU versus ONU in the treatment of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. A systematic review and cumulative analysis of comparative studies reporting both oncologic and perioperative outcomes of LNU and ONU was performed through a comprehensive search of the Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library electronic databases. All analyses were performed using the Review Manager (RevMan) v.5 (Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark) and Meta-analysis In eXcel (MIX) 2.0 Pro (BiostatXL) software packages. Twenty-one eligible studies (1235 cases and 3093 controls) were identified. A significantly higher proportion of pTa/Tis was observed in LNU compared to ONU (27.52% vs 22.59%; p = 0.047), but there were no significant differences in other stages and pathologic grades (all p>0.05). For patients who underwent LNU, the 5-yr cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was significantly higher, at 9% (p = 0.03), compared to those who underwent ONU, while the overall recurrence rate and bladder recurrence rate were notably lower, at 15% (p = 0.01) and 17% (p = 0.02), respectively. However, there were no statistically significant differences in 2-yr CSS, 5-yr recurrence-free survival (RFS), 5-yr overall survival (OS), 2-yr OS, and metastasis rates between LNU and ONU (all p>0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences between LNU and ONU in terms of intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, and perioperative mortality (all p>0.05). The results of our study were mainly limited by the retrospective design of most of the individual studies included as well as selection biases based on different management of regional lymph nodes and pathologic characteristics. Our data suggest

  2. A longitudinal study of urinary phthalate excretion in 58 full-term and 67 preterm infants from birth through 14 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja; Main, Katharina M;

    2014-01-01

    infants, and after M2, in 30% of all infants. The excretion pattern of DEHP and DiNP metabolites changed with age. CONCLUSION: Most PT infants and approximately one-third of healthy FT newborns were exposed to phthalates during early life at a potentially harmful level according to the European Food...

  3. Chronic restraint stress in rats causes sustained increase in urinary corticosterone excretion without affecting cerebral or systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Anders; Maigaard, Katrine; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2013-01-01

    and Tnf). The metabolism cage housing in itself did not significantly influence a range of biological stress markers. In the restraint stress group, there was a sustained 2.5 fold increase in 24h corticosterone excretion from day 2 after stress initiation. However, neither whole-body nor cerebral measures...

  4. Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibition, Dietary Sodium Restriction, and/or Diuretics on Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 Excretion in Nondiabetic Proteinuric Kidney Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waanders, Femke; Vaidya, Vishal S.; van Goor, Harry; Leuvenink, Henri; Damman, Kevin; Hamming, Inge; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    Background Tubulointerstitial damage plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) reflects tubular KIM-1 and is considered a sensitive biomarker for early tubular damage. We hypothesized that a decrease in proteinuria by using therapeutic interventions is associated with decreased urinary KIM-1 levels. Study Design Post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Setting & Participants 34 proteinuric patients without diabetes from our outpatient renal clinic. Intervention Stepwise 6-week interventions of losartan, sodium restriction (low-sodium [LS] diet), their combination, losartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), and the latter plus an LS diet. Outcomes & Measurements Urinary excretion of KIM-1, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a positive control for tubular injury. Results Mean baseline urine protein level was 3.8 ± 0.4 (SE) g/d, and KIM-1 level was 1,706 ± 498 ng/d (increased compared with healthy controls; 74 ng/d). KIM-1 level was decreased by using placebo/LS (1,201 ± 388 ng/d; P = 0.04), losartan/high sodium (1,184 ± 296 ng/d; P = 0.09), losartan/LS (921 ± 176 ng/d; P = 0.008), losartan/high sodium plus HCT (862 ± 151 ng/d; P = 0.008) and losartan/LS plus HCT (743 ± 170 ng/d; P = 0.001). The decrease in urinary KIM-1 levels paralleled the decrease in proteinuria (R = 0.523; P < 0.001), but not blood pressure or creatinine clearance. 16 patients reached target proteinuria with protein less than 1 g/d, whereas KIM-1 levels normalized in only 2 patients. Urinary NAG level was increased at baseline and significantly decreased during the treatment periods of combined losartan plus HCT only. The decrease in urinary NAG levels was not closely related to proteinuria. Limitations Post hoc analysis. Conclusions Urinary KIM-1 level was increased in patients with nondiabetic CKD with proteinuria and decreased in parallel with

  5. Variações diárias nas excreções de creatinina e derivados de purinas em novilhas Daily variation in the urinary excretion of creatinine and purine derivatives in heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Lázaro Leal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as variações nas excreções diárias de creatinina e de uréia na urina utilizando coletas durante seis dias consecutivos em novilhas de origem leiteira; avaliou-se também o efeito da duração do período de coleta sobre a estimativa da produção microbiana obtida a partir dos derivados de purinas na urina. Utilizaram-se onze novilhas de grau de sangue predominantemente Holandês, com 287 ± 49 kg, considerando o grupo de animais como amostra aleatória simples da população. Para comparação entre dias de coletas, empregou-se análise de variância como ferramenta para isolamento do erro puro, adotando-se modelo constituído pelo efeito aleatório de animal e pelo efeito fixo de dia de avaliação. O volumoso foi constituído de silagem de milho fornecida à vontade. Diariamente, foram fornecidos 2,0 kg de concentrado por animal. O período experimental teve duração de seis dias, pois os animais já estavam adaptados à dieta. As coletas de urina foram realizadas utilizando-se sondas de Folley nº 22 ou 26, sendo determinado o volume urinário diário. As excreções urinárias de creatinina, uréia, alantoína, ácido úrico e derivados de purinas totais não foram afetadas pelos dias de coleta de urina. Do mesmo modo, a quantidade estimada de proteína microbiana não diferiu entre os dias de coleta de urina. O valor médio para a excreção de creatinina foi de 30,5 mg/kgPV, 124,84 mg/kg0,75 ou 1,1 mmol/kg0,75. A ausência de efeito de número de dias sobre a excreção de creatinina tem grande aplicação prática, pois, além de reduzir o trabalho com tempos longos de coleta, permite a redução dos custos da pesquisa, podendo ser recomendadas coletas de urina com duração de 24 horas.The objective of this trial was to investigate the daily variation in the urinary excretions of creatinine and nitrogen compounds in dairy heifers. It was also of particular interest to determine whether or not estimation of

  6. Relationship of nutrition knowledge and self-reported dietary behaviors with urinary excretion of sodium and potassium: comparison between dietitians and nondietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Minami; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of better nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior on healthier dietary intake is still controversial. We hypothesized that nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior are associated with sodium and potassium intake in adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at welfare facilities located in 20 areas of Japan. Ninety-nine female dietitians and 117 nondietitians aged 20 to 69 years participated. Sodium and potassium intake were assessed with two 24-hour urine collections and 4-day semiweighed diet records. Nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior were accessed with 3 questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare sodium and potassium excretion and selected nutrition and food intake between dietitians and nondietitians. After adjustment for age and smoking habit, sodium and potassium excretion did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (3857 vs 3959 mg/d, P = .57, and 2016 vs 1886 mg/d, P = .10, respectively). Sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower in the dietitians (P = .044). The dietitians used food labels for sodium contents more often than the nondietitians and consumed more fruits and vegetables (P = .048 and P sodium or potassium excretion but were moderately associated with sodium/potassium ratio.

  7. LORRY DRIVERS WORK STRESS EVALUATED BY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETED IN URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBEEK, AJ; MEIJMAN, TF; FRINGSDRESEN, MHW; KUIPER, JI

    1995-01-01

    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline o

  8. Excretion of polyamines by children with Beckwith's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the polyamines--putrescine, spermidine, and spermine--was measured in 7 children with Beckwith's syndrome. Putrescine excretion was raised and spermidine excretion reduced. The raised putrescine and the low spermidine ratios were highly significant. These results are consistent with a disturbance in a metabolic pathway under growth hormone-like regulation.

  9. LORRY DRIVERS WORK STRESS EVALUATED BY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETED IN URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBEEK, AJ; MEIJMAN, TF; FRINGSDRESEN, MHW; KUIPER, JI

    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline

  10. [The urinary excretion of pregnanediol during pregnancy determined by gas-liquid chromatography. II. Its relation with other parameters controling pregnancy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, M; Acien, P; Gómez-Capilla, J A; Campos-Bañales, M E; Comino, R

    1976-01-01

    The relation between the urinary pregnanediol determined by gas-liquid chromatography during pregnancy, with ultrasonic findings (biparietal diameter, thickness and echorrefringency of the placenta and the appreciated quantity of amniotic fluid), with biochemical parameters of control of pregnancy (beta-glucoronidase, total and thermostable alkaline phosphatase), with amnioscopic findings, and with several studied parameters of the amniotic fluid by amniocentesis, were studied. A good relation exists with the parameters which denote placentary insufficiency and fetal risk (irregularity in the homogeneity of the placenta, elevation of the total and thermostable alkaline phosphatase, positive amnioscopy) and also with those that are related with fetal maturity (biparietal diameter, shake test, organge cells, creatinine in amniotic fluid, etc.). These results indicate that the determination of urinary pregnanediol can be one of the tests controlling the normal and pathological pregnancies, being useful in the detection of fetal risk and the diagnosis of the intrauterine fetal maturity.

  11. [THE SPECTRUM AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF AGENTS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION OF OPERATION WOUNDS AND ORGANS OF URINARY EXCRETION SYSTEM IN SURGERY PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, S M; Mollaeva, A M; Alieva, A I; Saidova, P C; Alieva, S F; Kasumova, A M

    2015-05-01

    In risk group of development of nosocomial infections related to medical care provision, prevailed weakened patients after various surgical interferences and cauterization. The nosocomial infections related to medical care provision develop up to 20% of patients of surgical profile (infections of soft tissues - 9.5%, intra-abdominal infections - 22% and infections of urinary tracts - 4.8%). The Gram-negative bacilli Enerobacteriaceae and Gram-negative nonfermenters.

  12. Synthesis and excretion profile of 1,4-[14C]phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bayoumy, K; Upadhyaya, P; Sohn, O S; Rosa, J G; Fiala, E S

    1998-09-01

    1,4-Phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) inhibits chemically induced tumors in several laboratory animal models. To understand its mode of action, we synthesized p-[14C]XSC, examined its excretion pattern in female CD rats and also the nature of its metabolites. p-[14C]XSC was synthesized from alpha,alpha-dibromo-p-[ring-14C]xylene in 80% yield. The excretion profile of p-[14C]XSC (15.8 mg/kg body wt, 200 microCi/rat, oral administration, in 1 ml corn oil) in vivo was monitored by measuring radioactivity and selenium content. On the basis of radioactivity, approximately 20% of the dose was excreted in the urine and 68% in the feces over 3 days. The cumulative percentages of the dose excreted over 7 days were 24% in urine and 75% in feces, similar to excretion rates of selenium. According to selenium measurement, acid (19.5% of urinary metabolites) conjugates were observed but their structural identification is still underway. Co-chromatography with a synthetic standard led to the detection of terephthalic acid (1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) as a minor metabolite. The major urinary conjugates contained selenium. Despite the low levels of selenium in the exhaled air, the reductive metabolism of p-XSC to H2Se cannot be ruled out. Identification of TSC in vivo indicates that a selenol may be a key intermediate responsible for the chemopreventive action of p-XSC.

  13. Effect of urine pH changed by dietary intervention on uric acid clearance mechanism of pH-dependent excretion of urinary uric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanbara Aya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The finding reported in a previous paper - alkalization of urine facilitates uric acid excretion - is contradictory to what one might expect to occur: because food materials for the alkalization of urine contain fewer purine bodies than those for acidification, less uric acid in alkaline urine should have been excreted than in acid urine. To make clear what component of uric acid excretion mechanisms is responsible for this unexpected finding, we simultaneously collected data for the concentration of both creatinine and uric acid in serum as well as in urine, in order to calculate both uric acid and creatinine clearances. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government’s health promotion program, we made recipes which consisted of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H + -load (acidic diet and others composed of less protein and more vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkaline diet. This is a crossover study within some limitations. Healthy female students, who had no medical problems at the regular physical examination provided by the university, were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid, titratable acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl−,SO42−,PO4− necessary for the estimation of acid–base balance were measured. In the early morning before breakfast of the 1st, 3rd and 5th experimental day, we sampled 5 mL of blood to estimate the creatinine and uric acid concentration in serum. Results and discussion Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42−] + organic acid − gut alkaliwas linearly related with the excretion of acid (titratable acid + [NH4+] − [HCO3−], indicating that H + in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of

  14. Urinary Calcium and Oxalate Excretion in Healthy Adult Cats Are Not Affected by Increasing Dietary Levels of Bone Meal in a Canned Diet

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and fa...

  15. Influence of training habits on exercise-induced changes in plasma atrial and brain natriuretic peptide and urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 in healthy man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, H; Pedersen, R S; Nyvad, O; Pedersen, E B

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of training habits on the changes in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and urine aquaporin-2 (u-AQP2) during exercise by studying trained and untrained healthy subjects. Eleven trained subjects (7 males, 4 females) and 10 untrained subjects (8 males, 2 females) performed a maximal aerobic exercise test. ANP and BNP were determined every 3 min and at maximum exercise by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and u-AQP2 was determined before and after the exercise test by RIA. The absolute increase in ANP during exercise was higher in the trained subjects (trained subjects: 5.6 pmol/L; untrained subjects: 2.4 pmol/L, p exercise was the same in the two groups (trained subjects: 0.5 pmol/L; untrained subjects: 0.6 pmol/L, NS) and tended to correlate positively with resting BNP in the trained subjects (p = 0.07). Exercise did not change u-AQP2 excretion in either trained subjects (rest: 372 ng/mmol creatinine; exercise: 314 ng/mmol creatinine, NS) or untrained subjects (rest: 263 ng/mmol creatinine; exercise: 338 ng/mmol creatinine, NS). The absolute increase in ANP during exercise was higher in trained subjects than in untrained subjects and was positively correlated to ANP at rest. This might reflect the normal cardiovascular adaptation to exercise. The increase in BNP during exercise was unrelated to training habits. Training habits did not affect the u-AQP2 excretion during exercise.

  16. Excretion of Four Catechins in Tea Polyphenols in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate excretion profiles of the four major anti-oxidant active catechins, (-) epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-) epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin (EC) in tea polyphenols (TP) in rats in order to provide experimental data for clinical uses and development of TP as a novel drug. Methods The above four catechins in urine, bile, and feces were simultaneously determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet absorption detector (HPLC-UV) assay with a binary gradient elution. The samples were extracted by ethyl acetate prior to HPLC. The quantification was carried out by peak area internal standard method. Following iv dosing TP 100 mg/kg to rats, the samples were collected at different time intervals up to 8 h (urine and bile) and 24 h (feces). Results The urinary Ae, 0-8 h (cumulative excretion amount over 8 h) of EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC were, on the average, 150.83, 30.75, 116.69, and 254.56 μg, corresponding to fe, 0-8 h (cumulative excretion fraction of dose over 8 h) of 1.45%, 0.84%, 7.88%, and 10.73%, respectively; the biliary Ae, 0-8 h were 12.61, 42.64, 6.61, and 1.24 μg, corresponding to the fe, 0-8 h of 0.12%, 1.16%, 0.45%, and 0.053%,respectively. For fecal excretion, only EGCG and EGC were detected with Ae, 0-24 h of 7.38 μg (fe, 0-24 h of 0.07%) and 157 μg (fe, 0-24 h of 9.99 %), respectively. The fe, total (the total fe of 3 excretory routes) were 18.32%, 10.78%, 2.00%, and 1.64% for EGC, EC, ECG, and EGCG, respectively. Conclusion EGCG and EC are mainly excreted in urine, ECG in bile, and EGC in feces by reference to their Ae and fe. The excretion of the four catechins based on fe, total is ranked in order of EGC > EC > ECG > EGCG. Only small amount of four catechins are recovered in urine, bile, and feces, indicating an extensive metabolic conversion of catechins in the rat body.

  17. Consumo, digestibilidade e excreção de uréia e derivados de purinas em novilhas de diferentes pesos Intake, digestibility and urinary excretion of urea and purine derivatives in heifers with different body weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz Chizzotti

    2006-08-01

    , and urinary excretion of nitrogenous compounds. The spot urine sampling and the total collection of urine techniques were used to estimate microbial N flow. Twenty-two heifers with different body weights (523, 453, 315, 235 and 118 kg were used in a completely randomized design and assigned to the following treatments: BW523, BW453, BW315, BW235 or BW118. Animals were fed corn silage ad libitum plus 1.5 kg/day of concentrate on treatments BW523, BW453, BW315 and BW235 and 2 kg/day on BW118 treatment. Intake of nutrients increased linearly from treatment BW118 to BW523. However, the opposite was observed when DMI was expressed as percentage of BW. Digestibilities of DM and OM and dietary TDN did not differ among treatments but digestibilities of CP and NDF corrected for ash and protein (NDFap were greatest and lowest on BW118 treatment, respectively. The urinary excretion of urea (mg/kgBW was higher on BW118 heifers and varied with BW and dietary contents of CP and RDP. Microbial protein synthesis was not affected by sampling methodology and was lowest on treatment BW118. Therefore, spot urine sampling can be used to estimate urinary excretion of nitrogenous compounds and microbial protein synthesis.

  18. Simvastatin increases AQP2 urinary excretion in hypercholesterolemic patients: A pleiotropic effect of interest for patients with impaired AQP2 trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procino, G; Portincasa, P; Mastrofrancesco, L; Castorani, L; Bonfrate, L; Addabbo, F; Carmosino, M; Di Ciaula, A; Svelto, M

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that statins improve the symptoms of X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (X-NDI) in animal models. The aim of this study was to verify whether the pleiotropic effect of statins on AQP2 trafficking and kidney-concentrating ability, observed in rodents, was attainable in humans at therapeutic doses. We enrolled 24 naïve hypercholesterolemic patients and measured urine excretion of AQP2 (uAQP2) at baseline and during 12 weeks of treatment with simvastatin 20 mg/day. Simvastatin induced a rapid and significant increase of uAQP2, reduced the 24-hour diuresis, and increased urine osmolality. These effects were also maintained in patients chronically treated with statins for at least 1 year. This study strongly suggests that statins may effectively enhance the efficacy of current pharmacological treatment of patients with urine-concentrating defects caused by defective AQP2 plasma membrane trafficking, like X-NDI. © 2015, The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  19. The threshold level of urinary cadmium associated with increased urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein and β2-microglobulin: a re-assessment in a large cohort of nickel-cadmium battery workers

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the threshold value of urinary cadmium (CdU) for renal dysfunction on the basis of relationships unconfounded by protein degradation, diuresis and the renal effects associated with chronic smoking. Methods We studied 599 workers (451 men, mean age 45.4 years) who were employed in four nickel-cadmium battery plants for 18.8 years on average. After adjustment for covariates by multiple regression, the CdU threshold values for increased concentrations of retinol-binding pr...

  20. Which anthropometric parameter is best related with urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance in type 2 diabetes: body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, or conicity index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin; Güner, Ertugrul; Kirkpantur, Alper

    2011-11-01

    We analyzed the relationships between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio, and conicity index and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and creatinine clearance. Cross-sectional study. Patients presenting to a state hospital. Study involved patients with type 2 diabetes. Study participants underwent medical history examination, measurement of office blood pressure (BP), measurement of anthropometric factors and calculations (including BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio, and conicity index), physical examination, biochemical analysis, and 24-hour urine specimen collection to determine creatinine clearance and UAER. In all, 202 patients with type 2 diabetes (male/female: 91/111, aged: 58.4 ± 10.1 years) were included. It was found that 24-hour UAER correlated with WC (rho: +0.176, P = .012), serum albumin (rho: -0.324, P BMI (rho: +0.191, P = .007), albumin level (rho: +0.365, P BMI (P = .008), presence of peripheral arterial disease (P = .021), fasting serum glucose level (P = .003), and uric acid level (P BMI was no longer associated with creatinine clearance. Among the anthropometric parameters, only an increase in WC was found to be independently related to 24-hour UAER. Although BMI was associated with creatinine clearance, this association was lost after creatinine clearance was corrected for body surface area. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A polymorphism in metallothionein 1A (MT1A) is associated with cadmium-related excretion of urinary beta 2‐microglobulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Lijian [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi (China); Chang, Xiuli [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Rentschler, Gerda [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, SE-22185, Lund (Sweden); Tian, Liting [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Guoying; Chen, Xiao [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Jin, Taiyi, E-mail: tyjinster@gmail.com [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: karin.broberg_palmgren@med.lu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, SE-22185, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) toxicity of the kidney varies between individuals despite similar exposure levels. In humans Cd is mainly bound to metallothioneins (MT), which scavenge its toxic effects. Here we analyzed whether polymorphisms in MT genes MT1A and MT2A influence Cd-related kidney damage. Methods: In a cross-sectional study N = 512 volunteers were selected from three areas in South-Eastern China, which to varying degree were Cd-polluted from a smelter (control area [median Cd in urine U-Cd = 2.67 μg/L], moderately [U-Cd = 4.23 μg/L] and highly [U-Cd = 9.13 μg/L] polluted areas). U-Cd and blood Cd (B-Cd) concentrations were measured by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. MT1A rs11076161 (G/A), MT2A rs10636 (G/C) and MT2A rs28366003 (A/G) were determined by Taqman assays; urinary N-Acetyl-beta-(D)-Glucosaminidase (UNAG) by spectrometry, and urinary β2-microglobulin (UB2M) by ELISA. Results: Higher B-Cd (natural log-transformed) with increasing number of MT1A rs11076161 A-alleles was found in the highly polluted group (p-value trend = 0.033; all p-values adjusted for age, sex, and smoking). In a linear model a significant interaction between rs11076161 genotype and B-Cd was found for UNAG (p = 0.001) and UB2M concentrations (p = 0.001). Carriers of the rs11076161 AA genotype showed steeper slopes for the associations between Cd in blood and natural log-transformed UB2M (β = 1.2, 95% CI 0.72–1.6) compared to GG carriers (β = 0.30, 95% CI 0.15–0.45). Also for UNAG (natural log-transformed) carriers of the AA genotype had steeper slopes (β = 0.55, 95% CI 0.27–0.84) compared to GG carriers (β = 0.018, 95% CI − 0.79–0.11). Conclusions: MT1A rs11076161 was associated with B-Cd concentrations and Cd-induced kidney toxicity at high exposure levels. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium is toxic to the kidney but the susceptibility differs between individuals. ► The toxic effect of cadmium is scavenged by metallothioneins. ► A common variant of

  2. Cumulative clinical experience from over a decade of use of levofloxacin in urinary tract infections: critical appraisal and role in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bush LM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Larry M Bush1,2, Fredy Chaparro-Rojas3, Victor Okeh3, Joseph Etienne3 1Charles E Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL; 2University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL; 3Internal Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Affiliated Program at JFK Medical Center, Atlantis, FL, USA Abstract: The treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs continues to evolve as common uropathogens increasingly become resistant to previously active antimicrobial agents. In addition, bacterial isolates, which were once considered to be either colonizers or contaminants, have emerged as true pathogens, likely related to the more complex array of settings where health care is now delivered. Even though the reliability of many antimicrobial agents has become less predictable, the fluoroquinolone group of agents has remained a frequent, if not the most often prescribed, antimicrobial therapy for almost all types of UTIs. Levofloxacin has taken its position at the top of the list as one of the most regularly administered fluoroquinolone agents given to patients with a suspected or proven UTI. The authors review the clinical experience of the use of levofloxacin over the past decade and suggest that the use of levofloxacin for the treatment of UTIs, although still fairly dependable, is perhaps not the best use of this important antimicrobial agent. Keywords: fluoroquinolone, antimicrobial agent, UTI, resistance

  3. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  4. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  5. Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of isoflavones after ingestion of soy products with different aglycone/glucoside ratios in South Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Youngeun; Choue, Ryowon

    2013-10-01

    Asian populations are thought to receive significant health benefits from traditional diets rich in soybeans due to high isoflavone contents. However, available epidemiologic data only weakly support this hypothesis. The present study was carried out to assess the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in South Korean women after ingestion of soy-based foods. Twenty-six healthy female volunteers (20-30 y old) consumed three different soy products (i.e., isogen, soymilk, and fermented soybeans) with different aglycone/glucoside ratios. Plasma and urine isoflavone concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after ingestion of one of the soy products. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using the WinNonlin program. The area under the curve (AUC) for plasma daidzein levels of the soymilk group (2,101 ± 352 ng · h/mL) was significantly smaller than those of the isogen (2,628 ± 573 ng · h/mL) and fermented soybean (2,593 ± 465 ng · h/mL) groups. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of daidzein for the soymilk group (231 ± 44 ng/mL) was significantly higher than those of the isogen (160 ± 32 ng/mL) and fermented soybean (195 ± 35 ng/mL) groups. The half-lives of daidzein and genistein in the soymilk group (5.9 and 5.6 h, respectively) were significantly shorter than those in the individuals given isogen (9.6 and 8.5 h, respectively) or fermented soybean (9.5 and 8.2 h, respectively). The urinary recovery rates of daidzein and genistein were 42% and 17% for the isogen group, 46% and 23% for the fermented soybean group, and 33% and 22% for the soymilk group. In conclusion, our data indicated that soy products containing high levels of isoflavone aglycone are more effective for maintaining plasma isoflavone concentrations. Additional dose-response, durational, and interventional studies are required to evaluate the ability of soy-based foods to increase the bioavailability of isoflavones that positively affect human health.

  6. Mercury excretion and intravenous ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, M J; Davis, D R; Cheraskin, E; Jackson, J A

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intravenous ascorbic acid increases urinary excretion of mercury in subjects with low mercury levels from dental amalgam, food, and other sources. From 89 adult volunteers we selected 28 subjects with the highest mercury excretions (2 to 14 micrograms/24 h). We administered intravenous infusions of 500 ml lactated Ringer's solution with and without addition of 750 mg of ascorbic acid/kg body weight, up to 60 g ascorbic acid. Average mercury excretion during the 24 h after infusion of ascorbic acid was 4.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms (mean +/- SEM), which was not significantly more than after infusion of Ringer's solution alone (3.7 +/- 0.5 micrograms). Lead excretion was similarly unaffected. If ascorbic acid administered intravenously benefits some persons with suspected adverse reactions to mercury, the benefit in subjects similar to ours appears unrelated to short-term enhanced excretion of mercury or lead.

  7. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  8. 吡格列酮对糖尿病肾病尿白蛋白排泄和CRP的影响%The Influence of Pioglitazone on Urinary Albumin Excretion and C-reactive Protein in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌; 刘辉文; 谭万寿; 封芬

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and mechanism of pioglitazone for the treatment of early diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods 92 patients with DN were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was given repaglinide for treatment, the treatment group was given repaglinide and pioglitazone (30mg/d)for treatment, for 16 weeks. The fasting insulin(FINS), insulin sen-sitivity index (ISI), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours blood glucose (2hBG), C-reactive protein (CRP), TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, fibrinogen (Fib), 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), liver and kidney function of two groups were compared before and after treatment. Results After the treatment, compared with the control group, the level of FBG, HbA1c, FINS, CRP, TG, LDL-C, Fib of the treatment group was obviously lower (P<0.05), the level of 2hBG and UAER was also significantly lower (P<0.01), while the level of HDL-C and ISI higher (P<0.05). Conclusion Pioglitazone can reduce the level of blood sugar, regu-late lipid, improve the sensitivity of insulin, decrease CRP, ameliorate inflammatory reaction and urinary albumin excretion.%吡格列酮治疗糖尿病早期肾病的疗效观察,分析其可能的作用机制。方法92例糖尿病早期肾病患者随机分成两组,对照组给予瑞格列奈治疗,治疗组给予瑞格列奈和吡格列酮(30 mg/d)治疗,共16周。比较两组处理前后空腹胰岛素(FINS)、胰岛素敏感指数(ISI)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、空腹血糖(FBG)、餐后2 h 血糖(2hBG)、C 反应蛋白(CRP)、甘油三脂(TG)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、24 h尿白蛋白排泄率(UAER)、肝功能、肾功能的变化。结果治疗组较对照组治疗后FBG、HbA1c、FINS、CRP、TG、LDL-C、Fib水平明显降低差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),并显著降低2hBG和UAER(P<0.01),同时提高HDL-C水平和ISI差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。

  9. Correlation between urinary sodium excretion and carotid atherosclerosis and serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 in adults with essential hypertension%原发性高血压成人尿钠排泄量与颈动脉硬化及血基质金属蛋白酶9的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨薪; 钟向红; 李斌; 黄兆琦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between urinary sodium excretion and carotid atherosclerosis and serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP) in adults with essential hypertension.Methods A total of 117 adults with essential hypertension were enrolled in the study,and based on their 24-hour urinary sodium excretion,divided into low (n=30),moderate (n=30),moderate-to-high (n=30) and high sodium intake group (n=30),respectively.Intimal medium thickness (IMT) was examined by color Doppler ultrasonography,and serum MMP-9 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Stepwise regression analysis was employed to evaluate the effects of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion,age,sex,blood pressure,pulse rate,body mass index,cholesterol,triglyceride and blood glucose on the level of IMT.The correlation between MMP-9 and urinary sodium excretion was also analyzed.Results Increased level of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was associated with augmented systolic and diastolic blood pressure and IMT (all P<0.05).The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was,as suggested by stepwise regression analysis,the independent risk factor of increased IMT (regression coefficient 0.021,P<0.05).MMP-9 was positively correlated with urinary sodium excretion (r=0.33,P<0.05).Conclusion High sodium intake,may lead to increased incidence of carotid atherosclerosis independently of the blood pressure,and MMP-9 may play a role in the development.%目的 探讨原发性高血压成人尿钠排泄量与颈动脉粥样硬化及血基质金属蛋白酶9的关系.方法 选择成人原发性高血压117例,通过24 h尿钠排泄量测定钠盐摄入量,将入选人群分为低盐组(n=30),低中盐组(n=28),中高盐组(n=27),高盐组(n=32).测量颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT)值,采用酶联免疫吸附法检测血基质金属蛋白酶9(MMP-9)水平.用多元逐步线性回归分析法分析24h尿钠排泄量、年龄、性别、血压、脉率、BMI、胆固醇、三酰甘油

  10. 家兔静脉注射功能性碳纳米管的组织分布与排泄%The distribution of intravenously administered functionalized carbon nanotubes in rabbit tissue and their urinary excretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于世平; 原伟; 高宇端; 魏丽乔; 许并社

    2012-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-DTPA) were labeled by "mTc and intravenously administered to rabbits, the radioactivity in different organs was scanned by single photon emission computed tomography and a well-type 7 counter. Results showed that the administered MWCNT-DTPA-99m Tc was mainly distributed in heart, liver, spleen and kidney. Centrifugate from urine was subjected to transmission electron microscopy analysis which showed that MWCNTs could be excreted through the urinary system.%为了研究功能性碳纳米管在动物活体内的代谢和组织器官分布特征,采用放射性同位素99mTc标记二乙烯三胺五乙酸(DTPA)接枝的多壁碳纳米管(MWCNTs),经静脉途径注入家兔体内,以单光子发射计算机体层成像系统(SPECT)和井型γ计数器收集一定时间段其体内心脏、肺、肝脏、肾等各器官的放射性强度,同时对家兔尿液离心沉淀物进行电镜分析.结果显示,经静脉注射MWCNT-DTPA-99mTc后主要分布在心脏、肝脏、脾脏和肾脏,随着时间的延长可缓慢被机体清除,在尿液电镜分析中发现了以原型排出的MWCNTs,表明MWCNTs可通过家兔泌尿系统排出体外.

  11. Questões atuais relativas à dosagem e à descrição da excreção urinária de albumina Current issues in measurement and report of urinary albumin excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Greg Miller

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: A excreção urinária de albumina indica lesão nos rins e é reconhecida como fator de risco para a progressão das doenças renal e cardiovascular. A dosagem da albumina urinária chama a atenção sobre a necessidade clínica de relatos de resultados precisos e claramente descritos. O National Kidney Disease Education Program e a Federação Internacional de Química Clínica e Medicina Laboratorial (IFCC reuniram-se para avaliar o estado atual das questões pré-analíticas, analíticas e pós-analíticas que afetam as dosagens da albumina na urina e para identificar as áreas que necessitam de melhorias. CONTEÚDO: A química da albumina na urina não é completamente compreendida. Diretrizes atuais recomendam a utilização da relação albumina/creatinina (RAC como substituta para a coleta de amostras cronometradas de urina, frequentemente inadequadas. Os resultados da RAC são afetados pela preparação do paciente, pela hora do dia da coleta das amostras e não é padronizada. Foram relatadas consideráveis diferenças intermétodos para a dosagem tanto de albumina quanto de creatinina, mas a verdade é desconhecida, porque não existem procedimentos de referência para a dosagem de albumina e não há materiais de referência para qualquer um desses analitos na urina. Os intervalos de referência recomendados para a RAC não consideram as grandes diferenças intergrupos na excreção da creatinina (por exemplo, relacionadas com diferenças em idade, sexo e etnia, nem o aumento contínuo no risco relacionado com a excreção de albumina. DISCUSSÃO: Necessidades clínicas foram identificadas para a padronização de (a métodos de coleta da urina, (b dosagens de albumina e de creatinina na urina com base em um sistema de referência completo, (c relatórios dos resultados dos testes e (d intervalos de referência para a RAC.BACKGROUND: Urinary excretion of albumin indicates kidney damage and is recognized as a risk factor

  12. Metabolism and excretion of the novel bioreductive prodrug PR-104 in mice, rats, dogs, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongchuan; Atwell, Graham J; Wilson, William R

    2010-03-01

    PR-104 is the phosphate ester of a 3,5-dinitrobenzamide nitrogen mustard (PR-104A) that is reduced to active hydroxylamine and amine metabolites by reductases in tumors. In this study, we evaluate the excretion of [(3)H]PR-104 in mice and determine its metabolite profile in mice, rats, dogs, and humans after a single intravenous dose. Total radioactivity was rapidly and quantitatively excreted in mice, with cumulative excretion of 46% in urine and 50% in feces. The major urinary metabolites in mice were products from oxidative N-dealkylation and/or glutathione conjugation of the nitrogen mustard moiety, including subsequent mercapturic acid pathway metabolites. A similar metabolite profile was seen in mouse bile, mouse plasma, and rat urine and plasma. Dogs and humans also showed extensive thiol conjugation but little evidence of N-dealkylation. Humans, like rodents, showed appreciable reduced metabolites in plasma, but concentrations of the cytotoxic amine metabolite (PR-104M) were higher in mice than humans. The most conspicuous difference in metabolite profile was the much more extensive O-beta-glucuronidation of PR-104A in dogs and humans than in rodents. The structure of the O-beta-glucuronide (PR-104G) was confirmed by independent synthesis. Its urinary excretion was responsible for 13 +/- 2% of total dose in humans but only 0.8 +/- 0.1% in mice. Based on these metabolite profiles, biotransformation of PR-104 in rodents is markedly different from that in humans, suggesting that rodents may not be appropriate for modeling human biotransformation and toxicology of PR-104.

  13. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laxative abuse Lower than normal levels may indicate Addison disease . Risks There are no risks with this test. ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Addison Disease Read more Adrenal Gland Disorders Read more Latest ...

  14. The estimated GFR, but not the stage of diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion, is associated with the carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Hidenori

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the relationship between the intima-media thickness (IMT of the carotid artery and the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion (UAE in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 338 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The carotid IMT was measured using an ultrasonographic examination. Results The mean carotid IMT was 1.06 ± 0.27 mm, and 42% of the subjects showed IMT thickening (≥ 1.1 mm. Cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease were frequent in the patients with IMT thickening. The carotid IMT elevated significantly with the stage progression of CKD (0.87 ± 0.19 mm in stage 1, 1.02 ± 0.26 mm in stage 2, 1.11 ± 0.26 mm in stage 3, and 1.11 ± 0.27 mm in stage 4+5. However, the IMT was not significantly different among the various stages of diabetic nephropathy. The IMT was significantly greater in the diabetic patients with hypertension compared to those without hypertension. The IMT positively correlated with the age, the duration of diabetes mellitus, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities (baPWV, and negatively correlated with the eGFR. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, the eGFR and the baPWV were independently associated with the carotid IMT. Conclusions Our study is the first report showing a relationship between the carotid IMT and the renal parameters including eGFR and the stages of diabetic nephropathy with a confirmed association between the IMT and diabetic macroangiopathy. Our study further confirms the importance of intensive examinations for the early detection of atherosclerosis and positive treatments for hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, as well as hyperglycaemia are necessary when a reduced eGFR is found in diabetic patients.

  15. [Studies on the metabolic fate of gomisin A (TJN-101). II. Absorption and excretion in CCl4 treated rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Y; Matsuzaki, T; Ono, H; Koguchi, S; Takeda, S; Takeda, S; Funo, S; Aburada, M; Hosoya, E; Oyama, T

    1991-09-01

    The absorption and excretion of gomisin A (TJN-101) in rats whose livers were injured by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were investigated. After intravenous administration of TJN-101 at a dose of 5 mg/kg, the terminal elimination half-life was 1.5 h in the CCl4-treated rats, which was two times that in normal rats. The mean area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) value of TJN-101 in the CCl4-treated rats was twice that in normal rats, and this difference was significant (p less than 0.05). Therefore, the total body clearance of TJN-101 in the CCl4-treated rats decreased less than half of that in normal rats. Similar results were observed when it was administered orally. In the CCl4-treated rats, the serum concentration of Met. B, which was identified as a demethylenated substance and one of major metabolites, tended to decrease more than that in normal rats. On the other hand, the cumulative biliary excretion ratio of TJN-101 in 24 h after dosing in the CCl4-treated rats was 2.5 times that in normal rats. The excretion rate of Met. B in the bile in the CCl4-treated rats tended to be delayed. However, the quantitative variance of biliary excretion of Met. B was not found in both groups. The urinary excretion of TJN-101 or Met. B in 72 h after dosing in the CCl4-treated rats was lower than that in normal rats. Similar results were also observed in excretion in the feces.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...... of 5.6 mg nickel (as the sulfate), increased nickel excretion was found over the following 2-3 days. We conclude that consecutive urinary nickel determinations are able to disclose variations in oral intake of nickel....

  17. Contribution to biorhythm of mercury-excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, H.; Damrau, J.; Franzen, E.; Henkel, W.

    1988-07-01

    The timed urinary mercury-excretion was investigated in 27 formerly exposed. The interval since their last exposure, their age, state of health and duration of exposure differed considerably. Nevertheless a clear circadian rhythm was found by adjustment of mercury to the timed substance-quantity, less to specific gravity, but really not to creatinin. These relations should be considered in biomonitoring. The differences of biorhythm in healthy and mercury-injured persons are discussed.

  18. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Leader, John P; Bedford, Jennifer J; Verlander, Jill W; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid-base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long-term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium-treated individuals excreted significantly more urinary ammonia than did control subjects. Following an acute acid load, urinary ammonia excretion increased approximately twofold above basal rates in both lithium-treated and control humans. There were no significant differences between lithium-treated and control subjects in urinary pH or urinary citrate excretion. To elucidate possible mechanisms, rats were randomized to diets containing lithium or regular diet for 6 months. Similar to humans, basal ammonia excretion was significantly higher in lithium-treated rats; in addition, urinary citrate excretion was also significantly greater. There were no differences in urinary pH. Expression of the critical ammonia transporter, Rhesus C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), was substantially greater in lithium-treated rats than in control rats. We conclude that chronic lithium exposure increases renal ammonia excretion through mechanisms independent of urinary pH and likely to involve increased collecting duct ammonia secretion via the ammonia transporter, Rhcg.

  19. Urinary and biliary metabolites of daidzin and daidzein in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, T; Kano, Y; Saito, K; Ohsawa, K

    1994-10-01

    Examination was made of the urinary and biliary excretion of metabolites of daidzin and daidzein, the major components of roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi (Leguminosae) in rats. The urine of rats administered daidzin orally contained four major metabolites, daidzein 7,4'-di-O-sulfate (M-1), daidzein 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (M-2), daidzein 4'-O-sulfate (M-3), daidzein (M-4), as determined from spectroscopic and chemical data. The urine of rats treated with daidzein contained M-2--M-4 in the above metabolites. Total cumulative amounts of the four metabolites excreted in the urine at 48 h following the oral administration of daidzin and daidzein were approximately 4.8% and 4.6% of the doses administered, respectively. The bile of rats administered daidzin orally contained M-1--M-4. Daidzein 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide 4'-O-sulfate (M-5), a major biliary metabolite, was identified by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. At least daidzin appeared to be hydrolyzed to aglycone after absorption in the body, and as a part of metabolites, M-1--M-4 having free hydroxyl, glucuronided or sulfated hydroxyls at the C-7 position, may then be excreted in the urine and bile.

  20. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF feed

  1. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition...... was maintained by ingestion of nickel in food....

  2. Velocidad de la onda de pulso y la excreción urinaria de albumina en pacientes hipertensos tratados con Perindopril Pulse wave velocity and urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive patients treated with perindopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Tobilli

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La presión arterial sistólica, la presión arterial diastólica y la excreción urinaria de albúmina (EUA han sido reconocidas como predictores de riesgo cardiovascular. Además, los trastornos de la compliance arterial (CA evaluados mediante la velocidad de la onda de pulso elevada (VOP están estrechamente relacionados con los cambios de la presión arterial y correlacionados con la mortalidad cardiovascular y la presencia de ateroesclerosis. El objetivo primario de este estudio ha sido determinar la relación entre la VOP y la EUA en un grupo de pacientes no fumadores con hipertensión esencial y secundariamente evaluar los cambios producidos por un inhibidor de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (perindopril sobre estas dos variables. En el estudio participaron setenta pacientes (33 hombres y 37 mujeres hipertensos no fumadores, sin tratamiento previo, de 50 ± 7 años (entre 35-69. La VOP de todos los pacientes fue estudiada por medio de un dispositivo computarizado (Complior en el período basal y a los seis meses de tratamiento con perindopril. También se determinó la EUA por el método de inmunodifusión radial al inicio del tratamiento y luego de seis meses de tratamiento con perindopril (4.6 ± 1.4 mg/día. Al finalizar el estudio se observó una reducción significativa de la presión arterial sistólica (PAS (160.2 ± 10.6 vs. 131.9 ± 7.1 mmHg, pSystolic and diastolic blood pressures and urinary albumin excretion (UAE have been recognized as predictors for cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, arterial compliance (AC disorders assessed by increased aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV are closely related to changes in blood pressure and strongly correlated with cardiovascular mortality and presence or extent of atherosclerosis. Our purpose in the present study was to determine a relationship between AC using PWV and UAE in a group of non-smoking patients with essential hypertension, and the level of interaction of ACE inhibition on

  3. Relationship of 24-hour urinary sodium-to-potassium excretion with blood pressure and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients%高血压人群中24h尿钠钾水平与血压和动脉僵硬度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟中; 孙宁玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索高血压人群中尿钠、尿钾和尿钠钾比值水平与血压和动脉僵硬度的关系.方法 入选未服用降压药的高血压患者224例,按照标准留取24 h尿标本,检测尿钾、尿钠含量和尿钠钾比值.根据24 h尿钠水平分为3组,尿钠≤100 mmol/24 h(A组)、>100~200(B组)和>200 mmol/24 h组(C组).对上述患者进行24 h动态血压监测和臂踝动脉脉搏波传导速度(baPWV)检查.结果 人群平均24 h尿钠值为(160.0±69.4)mmol/24 h,所对应食盐摄入量为9.6 g/d,平均尿钠钾比值为4.8.A、B、C3组人群的平均尿钠值分别为(84.9±12.7)、(147.0±26.7)和(256.1±42.6)mmol/24 h,所对应平均摄盐量为5.1、8.8和15.3 g/d.C组24 h、白昼、夜间收缩压、舒张压明显高于A组(P<0.01).全人群多元线性回归分析显示,尿钠和钠钾比值与24 h收缩压、舒张压以及脉压呈正相关(β值分别为0.221、0.188,0146、0.211,0.136、0.142,均P<0.05).A、B、C3组人群的baPWV分别为(1621.6±288.3)、(1645.7±301.0)和(1741.9±307.0)cm/s,C组明显高于A组和B组(P=0.032,P=0.046),多元线性回归分析显示,尿钠和钠钾比值是baPWV的独立影响因素(β值分别为0.126,0.158,均P<0.05).结论 尿钠和钠钾比值不仅与血压水平密切相关,而且与baPWV密切相关,这种关系是独立于血压作用之外的.%Objective To explore the relationship of 24-hour urinary sodium, urinary potassium and urinary sodium/ potassium excretion with blood pressure and arterial stiffness in hypertension patients. Methods A total of 224 patients with untreated hypertension were recruited. 24-hour urine specimens were collected for detecting urinary sodium, urinary potassium and urinary sodium/potassium ratio. According to the level of 24-hour urinary sodium,the patients were divided into three groups:group A(urinary sodium≤100 mmol/24 h) , group B(urinary sodium 100-200 mmol/24 h) and group C(urinary sodium>200 mmol/24 h). All the subjects

  4. Episodic hypoglycemia with psi-hydroxy fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, E; Mamer, O A; Montgomery, J A; Miller, J D

    1983-02-01

    We present case histories of two young children with episodes of hypoglycemia, elevation of SGOT, low insulin levels, increased urinary excretion of psi-hydroxy fatty acids (5-hydroxyhexanoic, 7-hydroxyoctanoic and 9-hydroxydecanoic), traces of the corresponding psi-ketoacids and elevations of urinary adipic, suberic, and sebacic acids. The ratio of psi-hydroxy fatty acids to 3-hydroxybutyric in the urine of these patients is higher than in patients of similar ages with similar illnesses. These acids persisted while the patients were well. Increased urinary psi-hydroxy fatty acids could be reproduced by a load of medium chain triglycerides without precipitating other clinical symptoms. Three children with hypoglycemia were found not to excrete measurable amounts of these unusual acids while ill. A medium chain triglyceride load in one of these children after recovery failed to elicit psi-hydroxy acid excretion. Small amounts of urinary 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid only were found in two patients with acute Reye's syndrome and in three of five severely ill children with starvation ketonuria. In this last group, no urinary psi-hydroxyacids could be detected after recovery. Normal children do not excrete measurable amounts (less than 1 mg/g creatinine) of these psi-hydroxyacids.

  5. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  6. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  7. Relação entre excreção de creatinina e dieta, atividade física e volume urinário, em crianças de 5 -| 12 anos de idade Relationship between creatinine excretion, diet, physical activity and urinary volume in children 5 to 12 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignez Salas Martins

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo da excreção da creatinina e sua relação com a dieta, atividade física e volume urinário em indivíduos entre 5 -| 12 anos de idade, mantendo suas condições habituais de vida. A análise qualitativa da dieta mostrou que a possibilidade de ingestão de creatina e creatinina ocorreu na hora do almoço. No que se refere à atividade física, o período da manhã e o noturno foram de relativo repouso, concentrando-se as atividades físicas no período da tarde. Não houve diferença, estatisticamente, significante entre a excreção média de creatinina dos períodos da manhã e da tarde e também entre a excreção média dos períodos diurno e noturno, sugerindo, conseqüentemente, uma não relação entre dieta, atividade física e excreção de creatinina. Houve uma diferença estatisticamente significante entre o volume médio urinário do período diurno e o do período noturno, sugerindo com isso uma independência entre ele e a creatinina excretada. Encontrou-se, entretanto, uma correlação significante entre ambos que, possivelmente esteja ligada ao fato das amostras terem sido colhidas em épocas de frio intenso, em que os indivíduos ingerem pouco líquido, e conseqüentemente a urina estivesse com uma concentração elevada de seus diferentes constituintes.A study on the relationship between creatinine excretion and diet, physical activity and urinary volume was carried out on children from 5 to 12 years of age, observing usual life conditions. Qualitative analysis of diet revealed that possibly ingestion of creatine and creatinine ocurred with the noon meal. Regarding physical activity the data showed that the peak of activity occurred in the afternoon. The differences between average excretion of creatine corresponding to morning and afternoon periods were not statistically significant, the same being observed when diurnal and nocturnal averages of excretion were considered. On the other hand, the average

  8. Screening for illicit drugs in pooled human urine and urinated soil samples and studies on the stability of urinary excretion products of cocaine, MDMA, and MDEA in wastewater by hyphenated mass spectrometry techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Kinyua, Juliet; Ramin, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    chromatography – mass spectrometry / mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method of quantifying urinary targets of identified drugs in wastewater; and (3) to conduct a 24 h stability study, using PU and US to better reflect the chemical environment for targets in wastewater. Cocaine (COC) and ecstasy-like compounds...

  9. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  10. 以尿钙排泄量为效应指标评价枸橼酸氢钾钠颗粒人体生物等效性%Evaluation of the bioequivalence of domestic and imported Potassium Sodium Hydrogen Citrate Granules with accumulative urinary excretion of calcium as index in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 刘沙; 李荣; 王本杰; 郭瑞臣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the bioequivalence of imported and domestic Potassium Sodium Hydrogen Citrate Granules with accumulative urinary excretion of calcium as index in Chinese healthy volunteers. Methods Thirty - six healthy male volunteers were randomLy administered with a oral single dose of 5. 0 g domestic(test)and imported(refer-ence)Potassium Sodium Hydrogen Citrate Granules in a crossover study with a washout period of 7 days. Urine was collect-ed before or after oral doses at the scheduled time(0 ~ 2,2 ~ 4,4 ~ 6,6 ~ 8,8 ~ 10,10 ~ 12,12 ~ 24 h). Urine volumes were recorded,urinary calcium concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometric and twenty - four hours of accumulative urinary excretion of calcium were calculated. Results Twenty - four hours of accumulative urinary excretion of calcium were(128. 47 ± 76. 45)mg and(163. 53 ± 81. 28)mg before and after taking test preparation;(128. 34 ± 59. 55)mg and(179. 65 ± 103. 96)mg before and after taking reference preparation,respectively. Increase in 24 h urinary excretion of calcium after taking test and reference preparation were(35. 06 ± 61. 26)mg and(51. 31 ± 73. 18)mg,respec-tively. There was no significant difference(P ﹥ 0. 05)in increase of 24 h accumulative urinary excretion of calcium between the two preparations. Conclusion The domestic and imported Potassium Sodium Hydrogen Citrate Granules were bioequiv-alent.%目的:以24 h 尿液钙离子累计排泄量为指标,比较国产和进口枸橼酸氢钾钠颗粒剂的生物等效性。方法36名男性健康志愿者按自身交叉设计,随机口服枸橼酸氢钾钠颗粒剂的受试制剂(国产)或参比制剂(进口)5.0 g,(洗脱期7 d)。分别收集给药前(空白)和给药后0~2、2~4、4~6、6~8、8~10,10~12、12~24 h 的尿液,记录尿量,采用原子吸收分光光度法测定尿液钙离子浓度,计算给药前、后24 h 尿液钙累积排泄量。结

  11. Renal excretion in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after acute exposure to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, J.B.; Allen, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    COHO SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH) EXPOSED TO AN ACUTE, SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF 3-TRIFLUOROMETHLY 1-4 NITROPHENOL (TFM) EXHIBITED AN INCREASED OUTPUT OF URINE WHEN COMPARED WITH CONTROLS, BUT THE URINARY EXCRETION OF NA, K, CA, MG AND C1 WAS NOT AFFECTED. ABOUT 35 TIMES MORE CONJUGATED TFM THAN FREE TFM WAS EXCRETED DURING THE 24-HOUR STUDY PERIOD.

  12. Dietary strategies to reducing N excretion from cattle: implications for methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Oenema, O.; Bannink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminants turn human inedible into human edible products, but at a cost of excretion of various pollutants. Implications of dietary measures for cattle to reduce faecal and urinary nitrogen losses on methane emissions are reviewed. Reducing the dietary protein content decreases nitrogen excretion in

  13. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  14. Quantitative analysis of urinary glycine conjugates by high performance liquid chromatography: excretion of hippuric acid and methylhippuric acids in the urine of subjects exposed to vapours of toluene and xylenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, M; Taguchi, T

    1986-01-01

    A new method for the direct determination of hippuric acid (HA) and o-, m- and p-methylhippuric acids (MHAs) in the urine, metabolites of toluene and o-, m- and p-xylenes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. A stainless-steel column packed with silica gel having dinitrophenyl residue and a mixed solution of methanol/water/acetic acid (80/20/0.2) containing tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (0.2% w/v) as mobile phase was used. Concentrations of HA and MHAs were estimated from their peak height at a wave length of 225 nm. Urine can be analyzed directly without solvent extraction or pretreatment to obtain complete separation of HA and o-, m- and p-MHAs. Urine samples from male workers exposed to toluene or xylenes were analyzed for HA or MHAs. The urinary levels of HA and MHAs increased by exposure to toluene and xylenes in proportion to the environmental concentrations of the solvents, although there is a considerable variation in metabolite concentrations. The slope of regression line between toluene and HA and that between m-xylene and m-MHA were similar. The urinary concentrations of HA and MHAs corresponding to 100 ppm (TLV) of toluene was 2.35 g/g creatinine and that of m-MHA corresponding to 100 ppm (TLV) of m-xylene was 2.05 g/g creatinine. The warning levels of the urinary metabolite concentrations of a group of workers and that of an individual worker corresponding to TLV of organic solvent concentration is discussed.

  15. 雷公藤多甙联合厄贝沙坦对糖尿病肾病患者尿足细胞排泄影响及机制探讨%The effects and mechanism of tripterygium wilfordii Hook F combination with irbesartan on urinary podocyte excretion in diabetic nephropathy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞霞; 赵娜; 张伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the combination of tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) and irbesartan on urinary podocyte in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) patients,and to discuss the mechanism of protective effect of TwHF on DKD.Methods A total of 45 type 2 diabetic kidney disease patients were enrolled into this prospective study,and were randomly divided into 3 groups:TwHF treatment group (DT,n =15),irbesartan treatment group (DI,n =15),and TwHF combined with irbesartan treatment group (DTI,n =15).After 6 weeks washout,the 3 groups were given TwHF (1-2 mg · kg-1 ·d-1),irbesartan (150-300 mg/d),and TwHF (1-2 mg · kg-1 · d-1) combined with irbesartan (150-300 mg/d) for 12 weeks respectively.Fifteen healthy volunteers served as controls.Urinary podocytes were identified and quantitated by immunofluorescence staining of urinary sediments labeled by monoclonal antibody podocalyxin.In addition,we studied urinary connective tissue growth factor (CTGF),osteopontin (OPN) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) concentrations in DKD patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results Urinary detached podocytes were obviously higher in the urine of DKD patients than in healthy controls (P <0.01).Podocyte detection rate was 86.6% in the urine of DKD patients.The protein expressions of CTGF,OPN and TGFβ1 in patients with urinary podocyte were significantly increased than those without urinary podocyte (P < 0.05 or 0.01).Correlation analysis showed that there was positive correlation between urinary protein excretion and urinary podocytes (r =0.79,P < 0.01) and there were positive correlations between the number of urinary podocytes and urinary protein expressions of CTGF,OPN and TGFβ1 (r =0.56,0.41,0.44,respectively,all P values < 0.01).Urinary albumin excretion and urinary podocytes were significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P < 0.01),simultaneously,urinary concentrations of CTGF,OPN and TGFβ1 were reduced in all groups at week 12

  16. Urinary excretion of L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, propionyl-L-carnitine and their antioxidant activities after single dose administration of L-carnitine in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The urine excretion of L-carnitine (LC, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC and propionyl-Lcarnitine (PLC and their relations with the antioxidant activities are presently unknown. Liquid L-carnitine (2.0 g was administered orally as a single dose in 12 healthy subjects. Urine concentrations of LC, ALC and PLC were detected by HPLC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC, malondialdehyde (MDA and nitrogen monoxidum (NO activities were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The 0~2 h, 2~4 h, 4~8 h, 8~12 h, 12~24 h excretion of LC was 53.13±31.36 µmol, 166.93±76.87 µmol, 219.92±76.30 µmol, 100.48±23.89 µmol, 72.07±25.77 µmol, respectively. The excretion of ALC was 29.70±14.43 µmol, 80.59±32.70 µmol, 109.85±49.21 µmol, 58.65±18.55 µmol, and 80.43±35.44 µmol, respectively. The urine concentration of PLC was 6.63±4.50 µmol, 15.33±12.59 µmol, 15.46±6.26 µmol, 13.41±11.66 µmol and 9.67±7.92 µmol, respectively. The accumulated excretion rate of LC was 6.1% within 24h after its administration. There was also an increase in urine concentrations of SOD and T-AOC, and a decrease in NO and MDA. A positive correlation was found between urine concentrations of LC and SOD (r = 0.8277 or T-AOC (r = 0.9547, and a negative correlation was found between urine LC excretions and NO (r = -0.8575 or MDA (r = 0.7085. In conclusion, a single oral LC administration let to a gradual increase in urine L-carnitine excretion which was associated with an increase in urine antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacities. These data may be useful in designing therapeutic regimens of LC or its analogues in the future.A excreção urinária de L-carnitina (LC, acetil-L-carnitina (ALC e propionil-L-carnitine (PLC e as suas relações com as atividades antioxidantes são presentemente desconhecidos. Líquido de L-carnitina (2,0 g foi administrada por via oral como uma dose única em 12 indivíduos saudáveis. As concentra

  17. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1997-01-01

    not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin....../creatinine concentration ratio, instead of the usual measurement of the albumin excretion rate in a timed urine collection. METHODS: All 2579 subjects analysed were screened in a population based epidemiological study. Participants with diabetes mellitus, renal disease, haematuria, or urinary tract infection were...

  18. A prospective follow-up study on the impact of urinary excretions of nickel and chromium after dental restoration by nickel-chromium based alloys%佩戴镍铬合金烤瓷冠对尿镍铬水平影响的前瞻性随访研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹新明; 王珏; 夏刚; 徐碧瑶; 沈庆平; 钟群; 姜庆五; 陈波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore whether the dental restoration of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) based alloys will lead to extra excretions of urinary Ni and Cr. Methods Urinary Ni and Cr were repeatedly measured in 33 patients before and 2 months after the dental restoration of Ni-Cr alloys. The associations between alloy restoration and urinary Ni or Cr were analyzed by paired t test and general linear model of repeated measures. Results A slightly higher urinary Ni was found in patients after 2 month of the alloy restoration, but the difference was not statistically significant (before: 46.4 ug·mol-1 crea; after: 67.6 ug·mol-1 crea; P=0.063). This difference was only in female subjects (before: 44.8 ug·mol-1 crea; after: 73.7 ug·mol-1 crea; P=0.068). A significant higher urinary Cr was found in patients after 2 month of the alloy restoration (before: 57.0 ug·mor-1 crea; after: 99.4 ug·mol-1 crea; P=0.024). This significant difference was only in female subjects (before: 59.8 ug·mol-1 crea; after: 124.4 ug·mol-1 crea; P=0.023). General linear models of repeated measurements showed that urinary excretions of Ni and Cr were associated with the number of restoration and the area of metal basis uncovered with porcelain. Conclusion Dental restoration of Ni-Cr alloy might lead to the enhanced excretions of urinary Ni and Cr.%目的 探讨镍铬合金烤瓷冠的佩戴是否会导致机体尿镍铬水平升高.方法 对33例镍铬合金烤瓷冠佩戴者进行佩戴前和佩戴2月后的尿镍和尿铬重复测量,并采用配对t检验和重复测量数据线性回归分析探讨尿镍铬水平的变化与镍铬合金烤瓷冠佩戴的关系.结果 镍铬合金烤瓷冠佩戴2月后,机体尿镍水平(67.6 μg·mol-1肌酐)略高于佩戴前(46.4 μg·mol-1肌酐),但差异无统计学意义(P=0.063);女性患者佩戴前为44.8 μg·mol-1肌酐,佩戴后为73.7μg·mol-1肌酐(P=0.068).佩戴2月后,机体尿铬水平(99.4 μg·Tol-1肌酐)明显高于佩戴前(57.0

  19. Changes in serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 3 and urinary growth hormone excretion during the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Pedersen, A T

    1997-01-01

    Few studies exist on the physiological changes in the concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) within the menstrual cycle, and some controversy remains. We therefore decided to study the impact of endogenous sex steroids on the GH......-IGF-IGFBP axis during the ovulatory menstrual cycle in 10 healthy women (aged 18-40 years). Blood sampling and urinary collection was performed every morning at 0800 h for 32 consecutive days. Every second day the subjects were fasted overnight before blood sampling. Follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing...... hormone (LH), oestradiol, progesterone, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, sex hormone-binding globulin, dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate and GH were determined in all samples, whereas insulin and IGFBP-1 were determined in fasted samples only. Serum IGF-I concentrations showed some fluctuation during the menstrual cycle...

  20. Association between urinary sodium, creatinine, albumin, and long-term survival in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Traynor, Jamie P; Taylor, Alison H; Freel, E Marie; Fox, Jonathan G; Jardine, Alan G; Mark, Patrick B

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk in the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease, sodium intake has been associated with progressive renal disease, but not independently of proteinuria. We studied the relationship between urinary sodium (UNa) excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio and mortality or requirement for renal replacement therapy in chronic kidney disease. Adult patients attending a renal clinic who had ≥1 24-hour UNa measurement were identified. Twenty-four-hour UNa measures were collected and UNa to creatinine ratio calculated. Time to renal replacement therapy or death was recorded. Four hundred twenty-three patients were identified with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 48 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Ninety patients required renal replacement therapy and 102 patients died. Mean slope decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was -2.8 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. Patients who died or required renal replacement therapy had significantly higher UNa excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio, but the association with these parameters and poor outcome was not independent of renal function, age, and albuminuria. When stratified by albuminuria, UNa to creatinine ratio was a significant cumulative additional risk for mortality, even in patients with low-level albuminuria. There was no association between low UNa and risk, as observed in some studies. This study demonstrates an association between UNa excretion and mortality in chronic kidney disease, with a cumulative relationship between sodium excretion, albuminuria, and reduced survival. These data support reducing dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but additional study is required to determine the target sodium intake.

  1. Casca de algodão em substituição parcial à silagem de capim-elefante para novilhos. 2. Parâmetros ruminais e séricos, produção microbiana e excreção urinária de compostos nitrogenados Partial replacement of elephantgrass silage with cottonseed hulls. 2. Ruminal and serum metabolites, microbial protein synthesis, and urinary excretion of nitrogenous compounds in steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz Chizzotti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novilhos holandeses fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 259 kg, foram distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4 para se avaliar o efeito dos níveis de casca de algodão na dieta de novilhos sobre a concentração de nitrogênio uréico no soro (NUS e de amônia no rúmen, o pH ruminal, a excreção urinária de uréia e derivados de purinas e a produção de proteína microbiana estimada pelo método das bases purinas omasais e da excreção de derivados de purinas na urina. As dietas experimentais continham na base da matéria seca: 0, 10, 20 e 30% de casca de algodão peletizada, em substituição à silagem de capim-elefante, sendo a dieta total constituída de 60% de volumoso. Não houve efeito dos diferentes tratamentos sobre o pH e as concentrações de amônia no rúmen. A concentração de NUS e a excreção de uréia (em mg/kgPV diminuíram, enquanto a excreção de derivados de purinas na urina e a síntese de proteína microbiana no rúmen aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão da casca de algodão nas dietas. A estimativa da síntese de proteína microbiana não diferiu entre as metodologias das bases purínicas omasais e dos derivados de purina na urina. A casca de algodão mostrou-se um bom volumoso alternativo, podendo ser fornecida até o nível de 30% na MS total na dieta de novilhos de origem leiteira.Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers averaging 259 kg of body weight were assigned to a 4x4 Latin square to study the effects of replacing elephantgrass silage with cottonseed hulls on serum urea nitrogen (SUN, ruminal metabolism, urinary excretion of nitrogenous compounds, and microbial protein synthesis measured by omasal purine bases or by urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Treatments (60% of forage contained on DM basis: 0, 10, 20 or 30% of cottonseed hulls that partially replaced elephantgrass silage in the diet. No significant differences in ruminal pH and concentration of ruminal ammonia were

  2. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  3. [Effect of the protein-free calf-blood-extract (Solcoseryl) on the excretion of estrogens in chronic placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herre, H D; Kyank, H; Adomssent, S; Wilken, H P

    1976-01-01

    In a double blind study the action of Solcoseryl was tested in 31 patients during late pregnancy with chronic placental insufficiency. Under treatment with Solcoseryl a significant increase in urinary estrogen excretion occurred in relation to the placebo-group.

  4. On the origin of urinary renin: A translational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.W. Roksnoer (Lodi); Heijnen, B.F.J. (Bart F.J.); Nakano, D. (Daisuke); Peti-Peterdi, J. (Janos); S.B. Walsh (Stephen); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); J.M. van Gool (Jeanette); R. Zietse (Bob); H.A.J. Struijker Boudier (Harry A.); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractUrinary angiotensinogen excretion parallels albumin excretion, which is not the case for renin, while renin's precursor, prorenin, is undetectable in urine. We hypothesized that renin and prorenin, given their smaller size, are filtered through the glomerulus in larger amounts than album

  5. Effect of salt reduction on iodine status assessed by 24 hour urinary iodine excretion in children and their families in northern China: a substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Ma, Yuan; Feng, Xiangxian; Zhang, Wanqi; Lin, Laixiang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of salt reduction on iodine status and to determine whether iodine consumption was still adequate after salt reduction in a population where universal salt iodisation is mandatory. Design A substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with schools randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. Setting 28 primary schools in Changzhi, northern China. Participants 279 children in grade 5 of primary school (mean age: 10.1); 553 adults (age: 43.8). Intervention Children were educated about the harmful effects of salt and how to reduce salt intake using the schools' usual health education lessons. Children then delivered the message to their families. The duration was 1 school term (≈3.5 months). Main outcome measure Difference between the intervention and control groups in the change of iodine intake as measured by repeat 24 hour urinary iodine from baseline to the end of the trial. Results At baseline, the mean salt intake was 7.0±2.5 g/day in children and 11.7±4.4 g/day in adults and the median iodine intake was 165.1 μg/day (IQR: 122.6–216.7) and 280.7 μg/day (IQR: 205.1–380.9) in children and adults, respectively. At the end of the study, salt and iodine decreased in the intervention compared with control group. The mean effect on salt for intervention versus control was −1.9 g/day (95% CI −2.6 to −1.3) in children and −2.9 g/day (95% CI −3.7 to −2.2) in adults. The mean effect on iodine was −19.3% (95% CI −29.4% to −7.7%) in children and −11.4% (95% CI −20.3% to −1.5%) in adults. Conclusions With ≈25% reduction in salt intake, there was a significant reduction in iodine consumption in northern China where salt is iodised. Despite this, iodine intake was still adequate, and well above the estimated average requirement. Our findings indicate that reducing salt to the WHO's target—30% reduction by 2025—will not compromise iodine status. Trial registration

  6. Effect of salt reduction on iodine status assessed by 24 hour urinary iodine excretion in children and their families in northern China: a substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Ma, Yuan; Feng, Xiangxian; Zhang, Wanqi; Lin, Laixiang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-09-26

    To study the effect of salt reduction on iodine status and to determine whether iodine consumption was still adequate after salt reduction in a population where universal salt iodisation is mandatory. A substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with schools randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. 28 primary schools in Changzhi, northern China. 279 children in grade 5 of primary school (mean age: 10.1); 553 adults (age: 43.8). Children were educated about the harmful effects of salt and how to reduce salt intake using the schools' usual health education lessons. Children then delivered the message to their families. The duration was 1 school term (≈3.5 months). Difference between the intervention and control groups in the change of iodine intake as measured by repeat 24 hour urinary iodine from baseline to the end of the trial. At baseline, the mean salt intake was 7.0±2.5 g/day in children and 11.7±4.4 g/day in adults and the median iodine intake was 165.1 μg/day (IQR: 122.6-216.7) and 280.7 μg/day (IQR: 205.1-380.9) in children and adults, respectively. At the end of the study, salt and iodine decreased in the intervention compared with control group. The mean effect on salt for intervention versus control was -1.9 g/day (95% CI -2.6 to -1.3) in children and -2.9 g/day (95% CI -3.7 to -2.2) in adults. The mean effect on iodine was -19.3% (95% CI -29.4% to -7.7%) in children and -11.4% (95% CI -20.3% to -1.5%) in adults. With ≈25% reduction in salt intake, there was a significant reduction in iodine consumption in northern China where salt is iodised. Despite this, iodine intake was still adequate, and well above the estimated average requirement. Our findings indicate that reducing salt to the WHO's target-30% reduction by 2025-will not compromise iodine status. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01821144. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  7. Benzene exposure assessed by metabolite excretion in Estonian oil shale mineworkers: influence of glutathione s-transferase polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Poole, Jason; Autrup, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of urinary excretion of the benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) has been proposed for assessing benzene exposure, in workplaces with relatively high benzene concentrations. Excretion of S-PMA and t,t-MA in underground workers at a...

  8. Altered amino acid excretion in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Craig; Dunstan, R Hugh; Rothkirch, Tony; Roberts, Tim K; Reichelt, Karl L; Cosford, Robyn; Deed, Gary; Ellis, Libby B; Sparkes, Diane L

    2008-02-01

    Autism is a complex and life-long behavioural disorder of unknown aetiology. Recent reports have indicated the involvement of digestive tract dysfunction and possible complications from inadequate nutrition. In this study, 34 autistic children (12 untreated and 22 receiving therapeutic treatments related to digestive function and nutritional uptake) and 29 control subjects (all 5-15 years of age) were investigated to determine whether there were any anomalies in the urinary excretion of amino acids, glucose, sucrose, arabinose and tartaric acid using GC/FID and GC/MS analysis techniques. Significantly lower relative urinary levels of essential amino acids were revealed for both the untreated (mean +/- SEM, 32.53 +/- 3.09%) and treated (31.98 +/- 2.87%) autistic children compared with the controls (37.87 +/- 1.50%). There were no significant differences in measured excretions of sugars or tartaric acid. It was concluded that the untreated autistic children had evidence of altered metabolic homeostasis.

  9. Urine 24-Hour Sodium Excretion Decreased between 1953 and 2014 in Japan, but Estimated Intake Still Exceeds the WHO Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Sugimoto, Minami; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Background: Accurate monitoring of sodium intake is necessary for evaluating strategies used to reduce sodium intake. However, no repeat survey has been conducted in representative populations in Japan to examine trends in sodium intake with the use of 24-h urinary sodium excretion, a standard evaluation method for sodium intake monitoring.Objective: The objective of this study was to examine potential trends in sodium intake by examining previous reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations.Methods: We systematically searched for reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (mean age range: 18-69 y). We searched PubMed and Web of Science for English-language articles and hand-searched 7 Japanese scientific journals for Japanese-language articles. Trends in urinary sodium excretion were examined with the use of weighted linear regression and random-effects meta-regression analyses, with adjustment or stratification to address study characteristics (population mean age, percentage of men, and sample size) and study assessment for completeness of urine collection.Results: We identified 68 reports of urinary sodium excretion from 53 articles published from 1953 through 2014 that showed high rates of urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (weighted mean: 4900 mg/d). The rate of urinary sodium excretion significantly decreased between 1953 and 2014, by 4350 mg/d (P < 0.001); however, the rate of reduction in urinary sodium excretion was variable and decreased with time (P-linear trend <0.001 and P-quadratic trend <0.001). In the random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that assessed completeness of urine collection with creatinine excretion, no significant relation between urinary sodium excretion and year was observed from 1978 to 2014 (β = -16, P = 0.40).Conclusion: Despite a decrease in urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations between 1953 and

  10. Differences in urinary monochlorobenzene metabolites between rats and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata,Masana

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of monochlorobenzene between rats and humans were studied. Monochlorobenzene was administered to rats and humans intraperitoneally, orally or by inhalation. Urinary p-chlorophenylmercapturic acid and 4-chlorocatechol, after hydrolysis of its conjugate, were measured. The excretion of p-chlorophenylmercapturic acid was somewhat more than that of 4-chlorocatechol in rats which were administered monochlorobenzene orally or intraperitoneally. The excretion of p-chlorophenylmercapturic acid was markedly less than that of 4-chlorocatechol in humans who received monochlorobenzene orally or by inhalation. The results indicate that the 4-chlorocatechol conjugate is a suitable index of metabolites in the urine of workers exposed to monochlorobenzene.

  11. Effects of magnesium infusion on renal calcium excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafik, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of acute I.V. infusion of Mg on Ca excretion was investigated. Mg infusion resulted in a significantly increased urinary Ca excretion compared to the control group. The hypercalciuric effect of Mg was not accompanied by diuresis or natriuresis but was associated with significantly increased urinary Ca concentration suggesting a specific effect of Mg on urinary Ca excretion. The effect of 4mM MgCl/sub 2/ infusion on plasma Ca concentrations was also investigated. A comparable calciuric effect was again observed in the Mg infused group and was found to be associated with a significantly reduced whole kidney filtered load and absolute and fractional reabsorption of Ca. Intratubular microinjection experiments were performed to investigate the direct effects of raising Mg concentration on the unidirectional reabsorptive flux of (/sup 45/Ca). The unidirectional reabsorption of Ca injected into PCT was measured during four experimental conditions; with an d without Mg in the injectate solution during either saline or Mg infusion. Raising the intraluminal Mg significantly decreased unidirectional reabsorption of (/sup 45/Ca).

  12. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  13. Impaired renal function is associated with greater urinary strong ion differences in critically ill patients with metabolic acidosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Terpstra, A.M.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Urinary excretion of chloride corrects metabolic acidosis, but this may be hampered in patients with impaired renal function. We explored the effects of renal function on acid-base characteristics and urinary strong ion excretion using the Stewart approach in critically ill patients with me

  14. Creatinine excretion rate, a marker of muscle mass, is related to clinical outcome in patients with chronic systolic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Damman, Kevin; Hillege, Hans L.; Bakker, Stephan J.; Anker, Stefan D.; Navis, Gerjan; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims In chronic heart failure (CHF), low body mass as a reflection of low muscle mass has been associated with poor outcome. Urinary creatinine excretion rate (CER) is an established marker of muscle mass, but has not been investigated in CHF. This study aims to evaluate urinary CER as a marker of m

  15. Selective renal vasoconstriction, exaggerated natriuresis and excretion rates of exosomic proteins in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M.; Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Schwämmle, Veit

    2014-01-01

    AimIn essential hypertension (EH), the regulation of renal sodium excretion is aberrant. We hypothesized that in mild EH, (i) abnormal dynamics of plasma renin concentration (PRC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are responsible for the exaggerated natriuresis, and (ii) exosomic protein......). Excretion rates of exosome-related urinary proteins including apical membrane transporters were determined by proteomics-based methods. ResultsIn patients, baseline renal vascular conductance was reduced (-44%, P...

  16. Role of water balance in the enhanced potassium excretion and hypokalaemia of rats with diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Repollet, E; Martínez-Maldonado, M; Opava-Stitzer, S

    1980-08-01

    1. The role of water balance in the hypokalaemia of rats with diabetes insipidus (DI rats) was studied. 2. After a 3-day balance study DI rats had a lower muscle potassium content, and plasma [K+], and the urinary excretion of potassium in response to oral KCl loading was reduced when compared to normal rats. The hypokalaemia was found to be associated with elevated concentrations of potassium in renal medulla and papilla when compared to values in normal Long-Evans rats. 3. During a 9-day balance study urinary potassium excretion was higher than that of normal rats on days 1-3, but not different on days 4-9; this transient elevation was observed in DI rats on normal, high and low potassium diets. On a low potassium diet the urinary potassium excretion of DI rats fell to minimal levels, making unlikely the existence of a renal defect in potassium handling. 4. Muscle potassium content and plasma [K+] were normal after 9 days in metabolism cages. This spontaneous reversal of the hypokalaemia of DI rats was associated with increased water content of renal medulla and papilla, and decreased potassium concentration in these zones. 5. The effect of acute mild dehydration on potassium handling of DI rats was evaluated. Water deprivation for 1-8 hr was sufficient to raise the urinary potassium excretion of DI rats above that of DI rats drinking ad lib. Renal tissue [K+] was significantly increased after 8 hr of dehydration. Water deprivation also enhanced the response of DI rats to an oral KCl load. Two days of chronic dehydration in the form of water rationing also significantly enhanced the urinary potassium excretion of DI rats. 6. These data suggest that chronic mild dehydration may be responsible for the modest potassium deficiency observed in DI rats via alterations in renal tissue [K+] and consequently in urinary potassium excretion. Correction of dehydration during prolonged periods in metabolism cages may account for the spontaneous reversal of the hypokelaemic

  17. Intercalated cell-specific Rh B glycoprotein deletion diminishes renal ammonia excretion response to hypokalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jesse M; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Handlogten, Mary E; Han, Ki-Hwan; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2013-02-15

    The ammonia transporter family member, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg), is an ammonia-specific transporter heavily expressed in the kidney and is necessary for the normal increase in ammonia excretion in response to metabolic acidosis. Hypokalemia is a common clinical condition in which there is increased renal ammonia excretion despite the absence of metabolic acidosis. The purpose of this study was to examine Rhbg's role in this response through the use of mice with intercalated cell-specific Rhbg deletion (IC-Rhbg-KO). Hypokalemia induced by feeding a K(+)-free diet increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. In mice with intact Rhbg expression, hypokalemia increased Rhbg protein expression in intercalated cells in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) and in the outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD). Deletion of Rhbg from intercalated cells inhibited hypokalemia-induced changes in urinary total ammonia excretion significantly and completely prevented hypokalemia-induced increases in urinary ammonia concentration, but did not alter urinary pH. We conclude that hypokalemia increases Rhbg expression in intercalated cells in the cortex and outer medulla and that intercalated cell Rhbg expression is necessary for the normal increase in renal ammonia excretion in response to hypokalemia.

  18. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  19. Serum Level and 24hr. Excretion Pattern of Potassium Following the Intake of Combined Oral Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kamyab

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum level and 24hr urinary excretion pattern of potassium have been studied in 104 healthy women, aged 18-44 years, using combined • oral contraceptives for a period of 3-48 months, and results h av e been compared with those obtained from 21 healthy controls of the same clinic. aged 19-40 years, using IUD. There was no sign ificant change observed in s erum potassium level, but 24hr urinary excretion pattern of potassium decreased significantly in 90% of the individuals equivalent to 2. &- 78 . 3% of the mean control, possibly due to a retention of potas sium in the cells.

  20. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  1. Effect of tolvaptan on renal water and sodium excretion and blood pressure during nitric oxide inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therwani, Safa Al; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Mose, Frank Holden

    2017-01-01

    during 60 min. We measured urine output (UO), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), urinary aquaporin-2 channels (u-AQP2) and epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaCγ), plasma vasopressin (p-AVP) and central blood pressure (cBP). RESULTS: During baseline, FENa was unchanged...... in renal water and sodium excretion during NO-inhibition. Most likely, the lack of decrease in AQP2 excretion by tolvaptan could be attributed to a counteracting effect of the high level of p-AVP....

  2. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  3. Differences in urinary trichloroethylene metabolites of animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata,Masana

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of trichloroethylene were studied in rabbits, rats and mice. Trichloretylene (1 m mole/kg was injected intra-peritoneally, then urinary trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol glucuronide were measured. The results were: 1. The ratio of total excretion of trichloroethylene metabolites to the administered trichloroethylene decreased in the order of mice, rats and rabbits. 2. The ratio of total trichloroethanol to trichloroacetic acid in urine decreased in the order of rabbits (69.2, mice (12.8 and rats (2.3. The high ratio in rabbits was due to the extremely small amount of trichloroacetic acid in the urine. 3. Differences in these two urinary metabolites in the three kinds of animals and in human subjects were discussed.

  4. Human urinary excretion of non-persistent environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Several non-persistent industrial chemicals have shown endocrine disrupting effects in animal studies and are suspected to be involved in human reproductive disorders. Among the non-persistent chemicals that have been discussed intensively during the past years are phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA...

  5. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...

  6. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  7. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  8. A decrease in aquaporin 2 excretion is associated with bed rest induced high calciuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Grazia; Di Mise, Annarita; Ranieri, Marianna; Svelto, Maria; Pisot, Rado; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; De Santo, Natale G; Cirillo, Massimo; Valenti, Giovanna

    2014-05-19

    Exposure to microgravity or immobilization results in alterations of renal function, fluid redistribution and bone loss, which couples to a rise of urinary calcium excretion. We recently demonstrated that high calcium delivery to the collecting duct reduces local Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) mediated water reabsorption under vasopressin action, thus limiting the maximal urinary concentration and reducing calcium saturation. To investigate renal water balance adaptation during bed rest, a model to mimic the effects of microgravity on earth, the effect of changes in urinary calcium on urinary AQP2 excretion were assessed. Ten healthy men (aged 21-28 years) participated in the experiment. Study design included 7 days of adaptation and 35 days of continuous bed rest (days -6 to 0 and 1 to 35, respectively) under controlled diet. Food records and 24-hour urine samples were collected daily from day -3 to 35. Changes in blood hematocrit were used as an indirect index of plasma volume changes. AQP2 excretion was measured by ELISA. Bed rest induced bone demineralization and a transient increase in urinary calcium followed by transient decrease in AQP2 excretion, which can reduce the urine concentrating ability causing plasma volume reduction. The return of calciuria to baseline was followed by a recovery of AQP2 excretion, which allows for a partial restoration of plasma volume. These results further support the view that urinary calcium can modulate the vasopressin-dependent urine concentration through a down-regulation of AQP2 expression/trafficking. This mechanism could have a key role in the prevention of urine super-saturation due to hypercalciuria.

  9. Tissue distribution and excretion of 125I-lidamycin in mice and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ping Liu; Quan-Sheng Li; Yu-Rong Huang; Chang-Xiao Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the tissue distribution, urinary and fecal excretions of 125I-lidamycin (125I-C-1027) in mice and its biliary excretion in rats.METHODS: The total radioactivity assay (RA method) and the radioactivity assay after precipitation with 200 mL/L trichloroacetic acid (TCA-RA method) were used to dete-rmine the tissue distribution, and the urinary and fecal excretions of 125I-C-1027 in mice and its biliary excretion in rats.RESULTS: Tissue concentrations reached the peak at the fifth minute after administration of 125I-C-1027 to mice. The highest concentration was in kidney, and the lowest in brain at all test-time points. The organs of the concentrations of 125I-C-1027 from high to low were kidney, lung, liver, stomach, spleen, uterus, ovary, intestine, muscle, heart, testis, fat, and brain in mice. The accumulative excretionamounts of 0-24 h, and 0-96 h after administration of125I-C-1027 were 68.36 and 71.64% in urine, and 2.60 and 3.21% in feces of mice, respectively, and the accumulative excretion amount of 0-24 h was 3.57% in bile in rats.CONCLUSION: Our results reflect the characteristics of the tissue distribution, urinary and fecal excretions of 125IC-1027 in mice and the biliary excretion of 125I-C-1027and its metabolites in rats, and indicate that 125I-C-1027and its metabolites are mainly distributed in kidney, and excreted in urine.

  10. A comparative study of pharmacokinetics, urinary excretion and tissue distribution of platinum in rats following a single-dose oral administration of two platinum(IV) complexes LA-12 (OC-6-43)-bis(acetato)(1-adamantylamine)amminedichloroplatinum(IV) and satraplatin (OC-6-43)-bis(acetato)amminedichloro(cyclohexylamine)platinum(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Petr; Mistr, Adolf; Kroutil, Ales; Semerád, Martin; Chlubnová, Hana; Hrusková, Veronika; Chládková, Jirina; Chládek, Jaroslav

    2011-06-01

    This study compared the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and urinary excretion of platinum in rats after single oral doses of LA-12 and satraplatin. Both platinum derivatives were administered to male Wistar rats as suspensions in methylcellulose at four equimolar doses within the range of 37.5-300 mg LA-12/kg body weight. Blood sampling was performed until 72 h, and plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate were separated. Moreover, urine was collected until 72 h, and kidney and liver tissue samples were obtained at several times after administration. Platinum was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics of platinum was analyzed by population modelling and post hoc Bayesian estimation as well as using non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of the mean concentration-time curves. Platinum was detected in all plasma and ultrafiltrate samples 15 min after oral administration of both compounds and peaked between 3-4 h and 1-3 h, respectively. Similar for LA-12 and satraplatin, the C (max) and AUC values of plasma and ultrafiltrate platinum increased less than in proportion to dose. The mean C (max) and AUC values of plasma platinum observed after administration of LA-12 were from 0.84 to 2.5 mg/l and from 20.2 to 75.9 mg h/l. For ultrafiltrate platinum, the corresponding ranges were 0.16-0.78 mg/l and 0.63-1.8 mg h/l, respectively. The AUC of plasma platinum was higher after satraplatin (P platinum after the doses of 150 mg and 300 mg/kg (P platinum dose was below 5% for both compounds, and it decreased with the dose of satraplatin (P platinum was similar regardless of the dose and compound administered. Platinum concentrations in the liver homogenate exceeded those in the kidney. Distribution of platinum to tissues was higher after LA-12 compared to satraplatin. The difference in kidney platinum increased with dose and was twofold after 350 mg/kg LA-12. Liver platinum was twofold higher after LA-12 across all four doses. In conclusion, this

  11. Biochemical indicators of condition, nutrition and nitrogen excretion in caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Case

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary urea nitrogen to creatinine ratios, urinary Nt-methylhistidine to creatinine ratios, serum urea nitrogen concentrations (SUN mg/dl, and serum Nt-methylhistidine concentrations were compared with physical measures of body composition in adult female barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus from the Bathurst and Southampton Island herds during late winter. Body weight and UUC were used to estimate urinary urea nitrogen (urea-N excretion in free ranging caribou. Only mean UUC reflected differences in fat reserves between populations. None of the biochemical indicators were directly related to body composition. However, elevated UUC were only observed in caribou with depleted fat reserves as demonstrated by low kidney fat index (KFK40 and/or reduced femur marrow fat (FMF<80. UUC greater than 0.25 were indicative of undernourished animals with depleted fat reserves. SUN and UN -MHC showed no clear relationship with fat reserves. The mean estimated daily urea-N excretion for adult female caribou in late winter was extremely low (0.11+0.01SE g urea-N/day, n=76, range=0.011-0.510. The results of my study suggest that UUC can be used to detect nutritionally stressed caribou with depleted fat reserves on lichen winter ranges.

  12. Renal ammonia excretion in response to hypokalemia: effect of collecting duct-specific Rh C glycoprotein deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Verlander, Jill W; Bishop, Jesse M; Handlogten, Mary E; Han, Ki-Hwan; Weiner, I David

    2013-02-15

    The Rhesus factor protein, Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg), is an ammonia transporter whose expression in the collecting duct is necessary for normal ammonia excretion both in basal conditions and in response to metabolic acidosis. Hypokalemia is a common clinical condition associated with increased renal ammonia excretion. In contrast to basal conditions and metabolic acidosis, increased ammonia excretion during hypokalemia can lead to an acid-base disorder, metabolic alkalosis, rather than maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. The purpose of the current studies was to determine Rhcg's role in hypokalemia-stimulated renal ammonia excretion through the use of mice with collecting duct-specific Rhcg deletion (CD-Rhcg-KO). In mice with intact Rhcg expression, a K(+)-free diet increased urinary ammonia excretion and urine alkalinization and concurrently increased Rhcg expression in the collecting duct in the outer medulla. Immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy showed hypokalemia increased both apical and basolateral Rhcg expression. In CD-Rhcg-KO, a K(+)-free diet increased urinary ammonia excretion and caused urine alkalinization, and the magnitude of these changes did not differ from mice with intact Rhcg expression. In mice on a K(+)-free diet, CD-Rhcg-KO increased phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) expression in the outer medulla. We conclude that hypokalemia increases collecting duct Rhcg expression, that this likely contributes to the hypokalemia-stimulated increase in urinary ammonia excretion, and that adaptive increases in PDG expression can compensate for the absence of collecting duct Rhcg.

  13. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to restrict your activities and limit your social interactions Increase the risk of falls in older adults ... increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence inc