WorldWideScience

Sample records for cumulative installed capacity

  1. Installation Capacity Assessment of Damaged Deepwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide exploration and development of subsea and deepwater reservoirs has laid down some new and old engineering challenges to the offshore pipeline industry. This requires large D/t pipelines to be installed at water depths in the vicinity of up to 2700m. The deepwater collapse and buckle propagation event is almost unavoidable as the pipe wall thickness cannot be always determined from the codes and standards due to the limit state criteria. These codes also do not consider any fabrication imperfections and sustained damages emanating from transportation and handling. The objective of this paper is to present the Finite Element Analysis (FEA of dented pipes with D/t ratio more than 45, which is outside the applicability of current design codes, and to investigate the effects on installation capacity of these various damage sizes in terms of collapse and buckle propagation.

  2. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotouh-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the ‘‘reservoir” type of hydro-power plants (HPP) is to determine the installation capacity of the HPPs and estimate its annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented. A computer program has been developed to analyze energy calculation...... the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the installation capacity of an HPP. By applying the above-mentioned algorithm to an existing HPP named ‘‘Bookan” (located in the westnorth of Iran); the capacity of 30 MW is obtained....

  3. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotouh-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the ‘‘reservoir” type of hydro-power plants (HPP) is to determine the installation capacity of the HPPs and estimate its annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented. A computer program has been developed to analyze energy calculation...

  4. Teachers' and Students' Perception of Instructional Supervision on Capacity Building in Electrical Installation Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ogwa Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to ascertain teachers' and students perception of instructional supervision in relation to capacity building in electrical installation trade in technical colleges. Three research questions and a null hypothesis were employed to guide the study. Descriptive survey was adopted. A 23-item questionnaire was used to elicit…

  5. Optimal Installation Capacity of Medium Hydro-Power Plants Considering Technical, Economic and Reliability Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S. M. H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the reservoir type of Medium Hydro-Power Plants (MHPP) is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the MHPP and estimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented to calculate the annual energy. A computer program has...

  6. Reconsidering the capacity credit of wind power : Application of cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilton, Edgar; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William; van Sark, Wilfried|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2014-01-01

    The capacity credit is often erroneously considered to be a time-invariant quantity. A multi-year analysis of the incident wind profile of various potential wind sites uncovered that there exist large differences between annual capacity credit figures. The uniformity of these capacity credit figures

  7. Reconsidering the capacity credit of wind power : Application of cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilton, Edgar; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William; van Sark, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The capacity credit is often erroneously considered to be a time-invariant quantity. A multi-year analysis of the incident wind profile of various potential wind sites uncovered that there exist large differences between annual capacity credit figures. The uniformity of these capacity credit figures

  8. Application of plasma focus installations for a study of the influence of deuterium cumulative flows on materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L I Ivanov; A I Dedyurin; I V Borovitskaya; O N Krokhin; V Ya Nikulin; S N Polukhin; A A Tikhomirov; A S Fedotov

    2003-12-01

    In this work, as an example of an application of the plasma focus (PF) device, we study the influence on alloys of vanadium of a cumulative flow producing in the PF device. The experiment was done in a 4-kJ PF device with various gas fillings and various anode shapes. It was found that the velocity of the axial cumulative flow depends on the type of gas and is about $5\\cdot 10^{7}$ cm/s for deuterium and $2\\cdot 10^{7}$ cm/s for argon fillings of plasma focus chamber; the shape of the flow is changed from a broad conical fly for deuterium to a quasi-one-directional stream for argon. The dynamics and structure of such flows are investigated by means of laser diagnostics and an image converter camera. The experiments show that cumulative flows produce various defects in tested samples. The appearance of a large number of cracks on the surface of vanadium under the impulse influence of deuterium plasma shows that pure vanadium cannot be used for the construction of thermonuclear fusion reactors. Such PF installations could also be used effectively for the study of other material and construction elements proposed for the use in thermonuclear machines.

  9. Development and economic assessment of a grid connected 20 MW installed capacity wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Ahmad, Aftab; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M. [Center for Engineering Research, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-15

    The study presents the design and economic assessment of a wind farm of 20 MW installed capacity, located in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The wind farm is designed using 2 MW size wind machines from Vestas at a hub-height of 60 m using specialized WindFarm software. The land area is considered as flat and away from airports, habitats, hospitals, and communication towers. The energy yield and the wake losses were obtained from the energy yield module of the software for the wind farm. On-site data was collected for a period of 1 year and historical meteorological data was obtained from nearby station were utilized in the design of the proposed wind farm. The proposed wind farm could generate 59,037.7 MW h of electricity annually with plant capacity factor of 33.7%, excluding the wake losses of 3.48%. With prevalent wind turbine and other equipment costs, installation, civil works, balance of plants and operation and maintenance costs, the proposed wind farm could produced the energy at US cents 2.94 per kW h. This study clearly indicates that grid connected wind farms could be developed in and around the measurement site. (author)

  10. Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative approach to building peer tutoring capacity in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherran Clarence

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer tutors in higher education are frequently given vital teaching and learning work to do, but the training or professional development and support opportunities they are offered vary, and more often than not peer tutors are under-supported. In order to create and sustain teaching and learning environments that are better able to facilitate students’ engagement with knowledge and learning, the role of peer tutors needs to be recognised differently, as that of learning and teaching partners to both lecturers and students. Tutors then need to be offered opportunities for more in-depth professional academic development in order to fully realise this role. This paper explores a tutor development programme within a South African writing centre that aimed at offering tutors such ongoing and cumulative opportunities for learning and growth using a balanced approach, which included scholarly research and practice-based training. Using narrative data tutors provided in reflective written reports, the paper explores the kinds of development in tutors’ thinking and action that are possible when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice. 

  11. Determination of the optimal installation capacity of small hydro-power plants through the use of technical, economic and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Rahimpoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning Small Hydro-Power Plants (SHPPs) of the ‘‘run-off river’’ type is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the SHPP andestimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a methodto calculate the annual energy is presented, as is the prog......One of the most important issues in planning Small Hydro-Power Plants (SHPPs) of the ‘‘run-off river’’ type is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the SHPP andestimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a methodto calculate the annual energy is presented...

  12. Dynamic Spacer Installation for Multirole Metal-Organic Frameworks: A New Direction toward Multifunctional MOFs Achieving Ultrahigh Methane Storage Working Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Xia; Wei, Zhang-Wen; Jiang, Ji-Jun; Zheng, Shao-Ping; Wang, Hai-Ping; Qiu, Qian-Feng; Cao, Chen-Chen; Fenske, Dieter; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2017-05-03

    A robust Zr-MOF (LIFM-28) containing replaceable coordination sites for additional spacer installation has been employed to demonstrate a swing- or multirole strategy for multifunctional MOFs. Through reversible installation/uninstallation of two types of spacers with different lengths and variable functional groups, different tasks can be accomplished using the same parent MOF. An orthogonal optimizing method is applied with seven shorter (L(1-7)) and six longer (L(8-13)) spacers to tune the functionalities, achieving multipurpose switches among gas separation, catalysis, click reaction, luminescence, and particularly, ultrahigh methane storage working capacity at 5-80 bar and 298 K.

  13. Influence of Installation Effects on Pile Bearing Capacity in Cohesive Soils – Large Deformation Analysis Via Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkol Jakub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the whole process of pile construction and performance during loading is modelled via large deformation finite element methods such as Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL and Updated Lagrangian (UL. Numerical study consists of installation process, consolidation phase and following pile static load test (SLT. The Poznań site is chosen as the reference location for the numerical analysis, where series of pile SLTs have been performed in highly overconsolidated clay (OCR ≈ 12. The results of numerical analysis are compared with corresponding field tests and with so-called “wish-in-place” numerical model of pile, where no installation effects are taken into account. The advantages of using large deformation numerical analysis are presented and its application to the pile designing is shown.

  14. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 20. Installation of Demonstration Units at the Indonesian Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Each of the five Indonesian partner universities has managed to choose, purchase and install demonstration equipment within the timeline of the Casindo project. This equipment will be presented to students, visitors, lecturers, government personnel and staff of other organizations. Next to this, researchers made research proposals in which use of the demonstration equipment is presented according to the research agenda of the university. The procedure of purchasing and installing equipment has been delayed in several ways, but all universities have managed to finalise the procedure and install the equipment. First research results have been presented and more results will follow in the next months.

  15. Model Development for Power System Analysis with a Substantial Wind Energy Capacity Installed in the Nordic grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Ola; Perdana, Abram; Chen, Peiyuan

    2011-01-01

    in the model. By cooperation within the Nordic countries the existing knowledge has been spread, new knowledge has been created and the results have been transferred to utilities. Over 35 journal or conference publications and five PhD-theses have been presented. Two more PhD theses are on the way next during......The worldwide development of wind power installations now includes planning and construction of large-scale wind farms ranging in magnitudes of 1000 MW and more. As part of the planning and design of such systems, it is well established that the transient and dynamic stability of the electrical...... power system needs to be studied. Modelling work of the electrical behaviour of wind turbines and wind farms as well as model validation by measurements have been important parts of this project work. The models have been used to study dynamic phenomena during normal operation and fault occasions...

  16. 电磁场课程"部分电容"实验装置研发%Development of experimental installation for "Part of Capacity" in Electromagnetic Field course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽; 董甲瑞; 邹军

    2011-01-01

    The experiment of measuring the "Part of capacity" of a multiple conductor system is of importance in Electromagnetic Field course for undergraduate students to understand the capacity concept. In the past a wooden cable was used for modeling a three-conductor system, whose merit is that students can observe the geometry structure of the conductor system clearly. Apparently, the wooden cable is the simplified physical model and it is hard to establish a bridge between the engineering and the field model. Meanwhile, because the conductor shape is anomalous, the difficulties exist for students to compute the capacity analytically. In order to overcome the disadvantage mentioned before, a cable system, which is widely utilized in practical engineering, is chosen to construct a platform for modeling the capacity of the multi-conductor system. This article presents the principle of selecting cable selection and the key technique for this new installation.%针对目前"部分电容"实验存在的问题,采用电力工程中真实的电缆,研制开发了多导体系统的"部分电容"实验装置,该装置为平行多导体结构.介绍了电缆的选取原则和实验装置设计的关键.对已开发的装置,进行了实验测量.与传统的实验装置相比,该装置是一种基于实际工程的、结构紧凑,同时适合学生进行开发性实验的装置.

  17. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  18. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  19. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  20. Installing Omeka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Reeve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Omeka.net is a useful service for Omeka beginners, but there are a few reasons why you might want to install your own copy of Omeka. Reasons include: * Upgrades. By installing Omeka yourself, you can use the latest versions of Omeka as soon as they’re released, without having to wait for Omeka.net to upgrade their system. * Plugins and themes. You can install any plugin or theme you want, without being restricted to those provided by Omeka.net. * Customizations. You can buy a custom domain name, and customize your code to achieve your desired functionality. * Control. You have control over your own backups, and you can update the server yourself so that its security is always up-to-date. * Price. There are many low-cost Virtual Private Servers (VPSs now, some of which cost only $5 per month. * Storage. Many shared hosting providers now offer unlimited storage. This is useful if you have a large media library. In this tutorial, we’ll be entering a few commands on the command line. This tutorial assumes no prior knowledge of the command line, but if you want a concise primer, consult the Programming Historian introduction to BASH. There are other ways of installing Omeka, of course, some using exclusively GUI tools. Some hosting providers even offer “one-click installs” via their control panels. Many of those methods, however, will install older versions of Omeka which are then harder to upgrade and maintain. The method outlined below may not be the easiest way to install Omeka, but it will give you some good practice with using the command line, which is a skill that will be useful if you want to manually upgrade your install, or manually install other web frameworks. (For example, this installation method is very similar to WordPress’s “Five-Minute Install”. There are four steps to this process, and it should take about an hour.

  1. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...

  2. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...

  3. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  4. 城市轨道交通供电无功补偿设备安装及容量确定%Installation Mode and Capacity Determination of Reactive Power Compensation Equipment at City Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿亮; 虞苍璧; 刘宝诚

    2012-01-01

    City rail transit power supply system exists serious reactive power problem.According to the different characteristic of system reactive power during different period,adopt the centralized compensation way to installing a SVG device to solute this problem.A capacity determination method of SVG equipment and a practical example are provided in this paper,at the same time,analysis the direct and indirect economic benefit.Through install SVG equipment can better solve the problem of reactive power compensation and improve the reliability of power supply.%城市轨道交通供电系统存在较严重的无功功率问题,针对不同时段系统产生的无功性质不同,提出采用集中补偿方式安装SVG设备解决方法,给出了SVG设备容量确定方法和一个具体算例,分析了产生的直接和间接经济效益。安装SVG设备可较好的解决城市轨道交通供电无功功率补偿问题,提高供电可靠性。

  5. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  6. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  7. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  8. Temperature rise of installed FCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Report discusses temperature profiles of installed FCC for wood and tile surfaces. Three-conductor FCC was tested at twice nominal current-carrying capacity over bare floor and under carpet, with result indicating that temperature rise is not a linear function of current with FCC at this level.

  9. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM CUMULATIVE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of concerted attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the known or even potential hazards associated with exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized. This has prompted the more recent investigations on waste treatment processes for one of the major sources of environmental disposition, namely sewage. Despite the paucity of health effects data for long-term, simultaneous exposure to multiple xenobiotics (particularly PPCPS) at low doses (a major toxicological issue that can be described by the

  10. 考虑损伤累积及杆件失稳效应的网壳结构极限承载力分析%ANALYSIS ON ULTIMATE BEARING CAPACITY OF RETICULATED SHELL CONSIDERING CUMULATIVE DAMAGE AND INSTABILITY OF MEMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁阳; 葛金刚; 李忠献

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic constitutive model of circular steel tube,which is the stressed members of reticulated shell,is derived from mixed hardening considering cumulative damage.The discrimination criteria of instability and mechanical model after instability are introduced.VUMAT-DMB,the user material subroutine of ABAQUS suitable for 3D beam-column element,is compiled to apply cumulative damage model and instability of member in ABAQUS.The performance characteristics of the circular steel tube cantilever are compared with the results measured in the field to verify the theoretical analysis.The comparison indicates that VUMAT-DMB is accurate in evaluating the mechanical behavior of structure or members.The analysis results about a reticulated shell indicate that the cumulative damage has little effect on ultimate bearing capacity of structure,which decreased significantly when considering instability of member.%为准确分析地震作用下网壳结构的极限承载力,推导了适用于网壳结构常用杆件圆钢管的考虑损伤累积的混合强化本构模型;引入了杆件失稳判别条件和杆件失稳后的力学模型;编写了考虑损伤累积和杆件失稳效应的基于有限元软件ABAQUS空间梁单元的材料子程序VUMAT-DMB。通过与理论计算结果和已有试验结果进行比较,验证了所编程序的正确性和准确性。算例分析表明:考虑损伤累积对网壳结构极限承载力影响不大,杆件失稳效应将明显降低网壳结构极限承载力。

  11. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  12. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  13. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  14. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  15. Cumulative Paired φ-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Klein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of entropy will be introduced which generalizes both the differential entropy and the cumulative (residual entropy. The generalization is twofold. First, we simultaneously define the entropy for cumulative distribution functions (cdfs and survivor functions (sfs, instead of defining it separately for densities, cdfs, or sfs. Secondly, we consider a general “entropy generating function” φ, the same way Burbea et al. (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 1982, 28, 489–495 and Liese et al. (Convex Statistical Distances; Teubner-Verlag, 1987 did in the context of φ-divergences. Combining the ideas of φ-entropy and cumulative entropy leads to the new “cumulative paired φ-entropy” ( C P E φ . This new entropy has already been discussed in at least four scientific disciplines, be it with certain modifications or simplifications. In the fuzzy set theory, for example, cumulative paired φ-entropies were defined for membership functions, whereas in uncertainty and reliability theories some variations of C P E φ were recently considered as measures of information. With a single exception, the discussions in the scientific disciplines appear to be held independently of each other. We consider C P E φ for continuous cdfs and show that C P E φ is rather a measure of dispersion than a measure of information. In the first place, this will be demonstrated by deriving an upper bound which is determined by the standard deviation and by solving the maximum entropy problem under the restriction of a fixed variance. Next, this paper specifically shows that C P E φ satisfies the axioms of a dispersion measure. The corresponding dispersion functional can easily be estimated by an L-estimator, containing all its known asymptotic properties. C P E φ is the basis for several related concepts like mutual φ-information, φ-correlation, and φ-regression, which generalize Gini correlation and Gini regression. In addition, linear rank tests for scale that

  16. LHC installation planning

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, S

    2005-01-01

    installation of the general services, the installation of the cryogenic line (QRL), the installation of the machine elements and the hardware commissioning. While the installation of the general services is now almost finished (see presentation by Katy Foraz and Serge Grillot), several problems and delays with the QRL made it unavoidable to revise the installation strategy and to schedule a number tasks in parallel. A new compressed installation planning has been issued, that fulfils the strategic objectives and allows starting new activities with minimal delays in sectors 7-8 and 8-1. However, the shortcuts that are introduced increase the level of risk that we will have to face and the coordination of such a large and complex variety of simultaneous activities makes the project even more challenging. The document will describe how the input from the different equipment groups is taken into account by the master schedule planning team with respect to equipment availability and production as well as logistics...

  17. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  18. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  19. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  20. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  1. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  2. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  3. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biggest semiconductor installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Scientists and technicians at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, commonly known by its French acronym CERN (Centre Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire), have completed the installation of the largest semiconductor silicon detector.

  5. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  6. BEAM PIPE IS INSTALLED

    CERN Multimedia

    The installation of the central section of the beam pipe into the heart of the  CMS was completed by 23 April. All the beam pipe elements have been successfully vacuum-tested and the bakeout started.  

  7. ECAL BARREL INSTALLED

    CERN Multimedia

    An important milestone was reached with the installation and test of the 36th ECAL Barrel Supermodule, completed July 27th.  The quality is exceptional: all but 28 of the 61200 channels are functional.    

  8. Installation af opvaskemaskine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J.; Skibstrup Eriksen, S.; Nielsen, F.

    Denne SBI-anvisning er et led i en serie om modernisering af installationerne i den ældre boligmasse. Den henvender sig til både beboere, husejere, VVS-installatører og andre interesserede. Anvisningen indeholder almene afsnit om valg og placering af opvaskemaskine, sagsforløb ved installation......, forhold til myndigheder, priser, finansieringsmuligheder m.m. Anvisningen indeholder endvidere tekniske afsnit om vandinstallation, afløb og elinstallation i forbindelse med installation af opvaskemaskine....

  9. Installing the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE art of installation is an art about concept," explains Qing Qing Chen. The artist wants her audience to look at the development of aesthetics from a pluralistic angle on life. Unlike the expressive format of "art in the frame," the art of installation belongs to the category of "non-framed art." The choice of materials used is as important to expression as the creator’s ideas. Whereas only certain materials can be

  10. Complex biopower installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the technological scheme of complex biopower installation for manufacture of the electric power, hot water and gas at use as raw material of manure, birds dung and firm organic waste products. The suggested technical solution provides practically 100 % use of energy of burnt gas due to the introduced feedback between power station and a bioreactor. Recommendations for the best use of installation in Republics Moldova are developed as well.

  11. Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission, population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs.

  12. A global review of wind power installations and their development in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, Mehmet [Cukurova University, Adana Vocational School, Adana (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    The development of wind power installations globally and in Turkey is reviewed here. Firstly, the growth of global installed wind power capacity between 1996 and 2007 is reviewed, and the top countries in terms of total installed wind power capacity by region are identified. Then, wind power installation and its development in Europe are discussed. In addition, the current status and development of Turkey's wind power plants are investigated in detail. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Capping off installation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Installation of the cathode strip chambers for the muon system on the CMS positive endcap has been completed. Technicians install one of the last muon system cathode strip chambers on the CMS positive endcap. Like successfully putting together the pieces of a giant puzzle, installation of the muon system cathode strip chambers on one of the CMS endcaps has been completed. Total installation of the cathode strip chambers (CSC) is now 91 percent complete; only one ring of chambers needs to be mounted on the remaining endcap to finish installation of the entire system. To guarantee a good fit for the 468 total endcap muon system CSCs, physicists and engineers from the collaboration spent about 10 years carefully planning the design. The endcap muon system's cables, boxes, pipes and other parts were designed and integrated using a 3D computerized model. 'It took a long time to do all the computer modelling, but in the long run it saved us an enormous amount of time because it meant that everything fit together,...

  14. Python Introduction and Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This first lesson in our section on dealing with Online Sources is designed to get you and your computer set up to start programming. We will focus on installing the relevant software – all free and reputable – and finally we will help you to get your toes wet with some simple programming that provides immediate results. In this opening module you will install the Python programming language, the Beautiful Soup HTML/XML parser, and a text editor. Screencaps provided here come from Komodo Edit, but you can use any text editor capable of working with Python. Here’s a list of other options: Python Editors. Once everything is installed, you will write your first programs, “Hello World” in Python and HTML.

  15. Electrical installation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Electrical Installation Technology, Third Edition covers the wide range of subjects that come under the headings of electrical science, installations, and regulations. The book discusses electromagnetism; inductance; static electricity; d.c. circuits; voltage drop and current rating; distribution; and wiring techniques. The text also describes o.c. motors and generators; a.c. motors, transformers; power-factor improvement; earthing and earth-leakage protection; testing; illumination; and the general principles of temperature and heat. Communication systems and equipment; electronics; and site

  16. Electrical installations technology

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1968-01-01

    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  17. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  18. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  19. Assessing environmental impacts on stream water quality: the use of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference approaches to deforestation of the Hafren Forest, mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for examining the impacts of disturbance on stream water quality based on paired catchment “controlâ€? and “responseâ€? water quality time series is described in relation to diagrams of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference. The paper describes the equations used and illustrates the patterns expected for idealised flux changes followed by an application to stream water quality data for a spruce forested catchment, the Hore, subjected to clear fell. The water quality determinands examined are sodium, chloride, nitrate, calcium and acid neutralisation capacity. The anticipated effects of felling are shown in relation to reduction in mist capture and nitrate release with felling as well as to the influence of weathering and cation exchange mechanisms, but in a much clearer way than observed previously using other approaches. Keywords: Plynlimon, stream, Hore, acid neutralisation capacity, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sodium, cumulative flux, flux

  20. Origin of path independence between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2017-02-01

    Observations and GCMs exhibit approximate proportionality between cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and global warming. Here we identify sufficient conditions for the relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming to be independent of the path of CO2 emissions; referred to as "path independence". Our starting point is a closed form expression for global warming in a two-box energy balance model (EBM), which depends explicitly on cumulative emissions, airborne fraction and time. Path independence requires that this function can be approximated as depending on cumulative emissions alone. We show that path independence arises from weak constraints, occurring if the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions (equal to ratio between cumulative emissions and emissions rate) is small compared to the timescale for changes in airborne fraction (which depends on CO2 uptake), and also small relative to a derived climate model parameter called the damping-timescale, which is related to the rate at which deep-ocean warming affects global warming. Effects of uncertainties in the climate model and carbon cycle are examined. Large deep-ocean heat capacity in the Earth system is not necessary for path independence, which appears resilient to climate modeling uncertainties. However long time-constants in the Earth system carbon cycle are essential, ensuring that airborne fraction changes slowly with timescale much longer than the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions. Therefore path independence between cumulative emissions and warming cannot arise for short-lived greenhouse gases.

  1. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities in Switzerland. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1993, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  4. Entropy and Digital Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ballard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines entropy as a process which introduces ideas of distributed materiality to digital installation. Beginning from an analysis of entropy as both force and probability measure within information theory and it’s extension in Ruldof Arnheim’s text ‘Entropy and Art” it develops an argument for the positive rather thannegative forces of entropy. The paper centres on a discussion of two recent works by New Zealand artists Ronnie van Hout (“On the Run”, Wellington City Gallery, NZ, 2004 and Alex Monteith (“Invisible Cities”, Physics Room Contemporary Art Space, Christchurch, NZ, 2004. Ballard suggests that entropy, rather than being a hindrance to understanding or a random chaotic force, discloses a necessary and material politics of noise present in digital installation.

  5. Leadership for Sustainable Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    way into the lexicon of the Army and installation management ( Warnock , 2009). Accordingly, the Undersecretary of the Army is the Senior...business approach, the Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated...needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection

  6. Installing the ALICE detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The huge iron yoke in the cavern at Point 2 in the LHC tunnel is prepared for the installation of the ALICE experiment. The yoke is being reused from the previous L3 experiment that was located at the same point during the LEP project from 1989 to 2000. ALICE will be inserted piece by piece into the cradle where it will be used to study collisions between two beams of lead ions.

  7. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  8. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  9. Installed in good engineering practice; Installez dans les regles de l'art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This guidelines, presented by the ADEME (Agency for the energy and the environment mastership), proposed recommendations to install a wood burning appliance in the houses. It concerns the choice of an appropriate appliance and its capacity, the installation of an independent appliance, the installation of a wood boiler, the works on existing duct, the regulation and the wood fuel. (A.L.B.)

  10. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  11. Cumulative cultural evolution: the role of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2014-04-21

    In humans, cultural transmission occurs usually by cumulative inheritance, generating complex adaptive behavioral features. Cumulative culture requires key psychological processes (fundamentally imitation and teaching) that are absent or impoverished in non-human primates. In this paper we analyze the role that teaching has played in human cumulative cultural evolution. We assume that a system of cumulative culture generates increasingly adaptive behaviors, that are also more complex and difficult to imitate. Our thesis is that, as cultural traits become more complex, cumulative cultural transmission requires teaching to ensure accurate transmission from one generation to the next. In an increasingly complex cultural environment, we consider that individuals commit errors in imitation. We develop a model of cumulative cultural evolution in a changing environment and show that these errors hamper the process of cultural accumulation. We also show that a system of teaching between parents and offspring that increases the fidelity of imitation unblocks the accumulation and becomes adaptive whenever the gain in fitness compensates the cost of teaching.

  12. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields.

  13. Samus Toroid Installation Fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1990-06-27

    The SAMUS (Small Angle Muon System) toroids have been designed and fabricated in the USSR and delivered to D0 ready for installation into the D0 detector. These toroids will be installed into the aperture of the EF's (End Toroids). The aperture in the EF's is 72-inch vertically and 66-inch horizontally. The Samus toroid is 70-inch vertically by 64-inch horizontally by 66-inch long and weighs approximately 38 tons. The Samus toroid has a 20-inch by 20-inch aperture in the center and it is through this aperture that the lift fixture must fit. The toroid must be 'threaded' through the EF aperture. Further, the Samus toroid coils are wound about the vertical portion of the aperture and thus limit the area where a lift fixture can make contact and not damage the coils. The fixture is designed to lift along a surface adjacent to the coils, but with clearance to the coil and with contact to the upper steel block of the toroid. The lift and installation will be done with the 50 ton crane at DO. The fixture was tested by lifting the Samus Toroid 2-inch off the floor and holding the weight for 10 minutes. Deflection was as predicted by the design calculations. Enclosed are sketches of the fixture and it relation to both Toroids (Samus and EF), along with hand calculations and an Finite Element Analysis. The PEA work was done by Kay Weber of the Accelerator Engineering Department.

  14. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  15. METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE THE INSTALLED CAPACITY OF AN ACADEMIC PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO CÉSAR MANYOMA VELÁSQUEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La medición de la capacidad es unproblema de gran importancia, especialmente en las organizaciones de servicios dada su complejidad y lapoca investigación realizada al respecto. En este sentido, el presente artículo tiene como objetivo desarrollar una metodología para la medición de la capacidad de una universidad desde la particularidad de una unidad académica. Para ello se determina cuál es el consumo de recursos de un estudiante típico, cuál es la capacidad instalada de los recursos y cuál es la relación existente entre estos dos elementos. La propuesta es validada en un programa de pregrado, generando una aproximación muy buena al número de estudiantes que pueden ser atendidos en un momento dado.

  16. CNGS Reflector installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A major component that will help target the CNGS neutrino beam for its 732km journey through the earth's crust, from CERN to the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, has been installed in its final position. The transport of the huge magnetic horn reflector through the CNGS access gallery. A team from CNGS and TS/IC, and the contractors DBS, transported the magnetic horn reflector on 5th December, in a carefully conducted operation that took just under two hours. The reflector is 7m long, 1.6m in diameter and 1.6 tonnes in weight. With only a matter of centimetres to spare on either side, the reflector was transported through the CNGS access gallery, before being installed in the experiment's target chamber. The larger of two magnetic horns, the reflector will help refocus sprays of high energy pions and kaons emitted after a 0.5MW stream of protons from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) strikes nucleons in a graphite target. The horns are toroidal magnetic lenses and work with high pulsed currents: 150 kA f...

  17. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  18. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  19. Method of Measurement Isobaric Heat Capacity of the Organic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Neruchev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A technique for measuring the heat capacity of liquids on modernized authors the installation of IT-Cp-400 is considered. The results of measurements the isobaric heat capacity of some bromosubstituted n-alkanes is presented.

  20. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  1. Outage capacity of multicarrier systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-01-01

    The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox\\'s H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.

  2. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    , cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence...

  3. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  4. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  5. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Tversky, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for axiomatizing a variety of models for decision making under uncertainty, including Expected Utility and Cumulative Prospect Theory. This method identifies, for each model, the situations that permit consistent inferences about the ordering of value differences. Exampl

  6. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  7. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1981-12-29

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (Either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a spring-loaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  8. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.

    1984-01-24

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a springloaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  9. ROS Installation and Commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    Gorini, B

    The ATLAS Readout group (a sub-group of TDAQ) has now completed the installation and commissioning of all of the Readout System (ROS) units. Event data from ATLAS is initially handled by detector specific hardware and software, but following a Level 1 Accept the data passes from the detector specific Readout Drivers (RODs) to the ROS, the first stage of the central ATLAS DAQ. Within the final ATLAS TDAQ system the ROS stores the data and on request makes it available to the Level 2 Trigger (L2) processors and to the Event Builder (EB) as required. The ROS is implemented as a large number of PCs housing custom built cards (ROBINs) and running custom multi-threaded software. Each ROBIN card (shown below) contains buffer memories to store the data, plus a field programmable gate array ( FPGA ) and an embedded PowerPC processor for management of the memories and data requests, and is implemented as a 64-bit 66 MHz PCI card. Both the software and the ROBIN cards have been designed and developed by the Readout g...

  10. Global terrestrial water storage capacity and flood potential using GRACE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reager, J. T; Famiglietti, J. S

    2009-01-01

    .... Over the GRACE record length, instances of repeated maxima in water storage anomaly that fall short of variable maxima in cumulative precipitation suggest an effective storage capacity for a given...

  11. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...

  12. Analytical Expression for the MIMO Channel Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yifei; ZHAO Ming; XIAO Limin; WANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents analytical expressions for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel capacity in frequency-flat Rayleigh fading environments. An exact analytical expression is given for the ergodic capacity for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) channels. The analysis shows that the SIMO channel capacity can be approximated by a Gaussian random variable and that the MIMO channel capacity can be approximated as the sum of multiple SIMO capacities. The SIMO channel results are used to derive approximate closed-form expressions for the MIMO channel ergodic capacity and the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the MIMO channel capacity (outage capacity). Simulations show that these theoretical results are good approximations for MIMO systems with an arbitrary number of transmit or receive antennas. Moreover, these analytical expressions are relatively simple which makes them very useful for practical computations.

  13. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  14. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated.

  15. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  16. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  17. Development and Prospect of Installation Technology of Electrical and Mechanical Equipment in Hydropower Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yuanchu

    2005-01-01

    The hydropower installed capacity in China exceeded 100 GW by the end of 2004. With the develop-ment of hydropower construction cause, the contingents of electrical and mechanical installation also grew steadily.The installation and debugging techniques made great strides in aspects of different conventional hydrogeneratorsets, reversible pumped-storage units and their rotor spiders, runners, bearings, penstocks as well as controlequipment, such as computerized governors, intelligent monitoring devices. Major technical innovations werebrought about in the electrical and mechanical installation. For an arduous task to construct hydropower projectsof over 50 GW confronts hydropower installation enterprises at the beginning of 21 st century, the installationtechnologies will certainly develop around the projects.

  18. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  19. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  20. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  1. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  2. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  3. Tracking the Sun: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Peterman, Carla

    2009-02-11

    As installations of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have grown, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of these systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. This report helps to fill this need by summarizing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States from 1998 through 2007. The report is based on an analysis of installed cost data from nearly 37,000 residential and non-residential PV systems, totaling 363 MW of capacity, and representing 76percent of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the U.S. through 2007.

  4. Installation of the Gbar LINAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Installation of the GBAR linac in its shielding bunker. The electrons accelerated to 10 MeV toward a target will produce the positrons that are necessary to form anti hydrogen with the antiprotons coming from the ELENA decelerator.

  5. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  6. DAQ INSTALLATION IN USC COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Racz

    After one year of work at P5 in the underground control rooms (USC55-S1&S2), the DAQ installation in USC55 is completed. The first half of 2006 was dedicated to the DAQ infrastructures installation (private cable trays, rack equipment for a very dense cabling, connection to services i.e. water, power, network). The second half has been spent to install the custom made electronics (FRLs and FMMs) and place all the inter-rack cables/fibers connecting all sub-systems to central DAQ (more details are given in the internal pages). The installation has been carried out by DAQ group members, coming from the hardware and software side as well. The pictures show the very nice team spirit !

  7. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  8. Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.

  9. Countering Terrorism on Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-29

    enforcement purposes. Installation Provost Marshal should review the installation Tables of Distribucion and Allowances to determine commercial items of law...terrorist acts occurring within the 50 U.S. states, territor- ies, and possessions (including the Panama Canal Zone) rests with the Federal Bureadu...nence of the threat is difficult to predict. Today I estimate the threat as relatively low. S- In the Panama Canal Zone there could be three threats. One

  10. Suitcase to Audit Solar Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J.M.; Blas de, J.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.J.; Yuste, C.

    2001-07-01

    The audit suitcase was proposed by BESEL to introduce in the solar energy market a new tool which can make an evaluation of solar installation efficiency. Non-invasive sensors and low power components permit both easy installation of the devices and data storage for a period as long as ten days. This project was funded by the contract JOR3-CT98-7030 of the European Union JOULE III program. (Author)

  11. The Status of LIGO Installation and Commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Frederick J.

    2002-12-01

    LIGO is engaged in installation and commissioning in Hanford and Livingston. We are commissioning the first instance of any subsystem installed, applying lessons learned to later installations. We have installed all seismic stacks, installed lasers and input optics at both observatories and we have operated both of the 2-km Fabry-Perot cavities at Hanford, with lock times up to 10 hrs.

  12. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  13. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Kutta, Timothy J.; Coyle, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem complet...

  14. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  15. Cumulant matching for independent source extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlypo, Ronald; Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how one can make use of priors on signal statistics under the form of cumulant guesses to extract an independent source from an observed mixture. The advantage of using statistical priors on the signal lies in the fact that no specific knowledge is needed about its temporal behavior, neither about its spatial distribution. We show that these statistics can be obtained either by reasoning on the theoretical values of a supposed waveform, either by using a subset of the observations from which we know that their statistics are merely hindered by interferences. Results on an electro-cardiographic recording confirm the above assumptions.

  16. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  17. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  18. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs.

  19. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  20. Higher Order Cumulants in Colorless Partonic Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, S; Ladrem, M

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume $T_{0}(V)$, a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $\\mathscr{L}_{m,n}$-Method is used.We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase...

  1. Innovativeness, population size and cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Aoki, Kenichi

    2012-08-01

    Henrich [Henrich, J., 2004. Demography and cultural evolution: how adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses-the Tasmanian case. Am. Antiquity 69, 197-214] proposed a model designed to show that larger population size facilitates cumulative cultural evolution toward higher skill levels. In this model, each newborn attempts to imitate the most highly skilled individual of the parental generation by directly-biased social learning, but the skill level he/she acquires deviates probabilistically from that of the exemplar (cultural parent). The probability that the skill level of the imitator exceeds that of the exemplar can be regarded as the innovation rate. After reformulating Henrich's model rigorously, we introduce an overlapping-generations analog based on the Moran model and derive an approximate formula for the expected change per generation of the highest skill level in the population. For large population size, our overlapping-generations model predicts a much larger effect of population size than Henrich's discrete-generations model. We then investigate by way of Monte Carlo simulations the case where each newborn chooses as his/her exemplar the most highly skilled individual from among a limited number of acquaintances. When the number of acquaintances is small relative to the population size, we find that a change in the innovation rate contributes more than a proportional change in population size to the cumulative cultural evolution of skill level.

  2. The ATALANTE installation; L'installation atalante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    In the Atalante installation of the CEA/Marcoule, researches on the reprocessing of irradiated fuel from nuclear reactors, are performed. In the framework of the law (30 december 1991) on the public policy concerning the radioactive wastes management, the ATALANTE project has to proposed solutions for the long-dated management of these wastes and to help the reprocessing industry. The specifications of the installation and the research programs are detailed with a special interest for the glass durability and the plutonium purifying cycle. The public policy stakes are also recalled. (A.L.B.)

  3. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each... pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves: (a) The maximum capacity of an installed cargo...

  4. Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.

    2014-12-01

    Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).

  5. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  6. [Cumulative trauma disorders: work or professional disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcus Vitor Diniz; Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo Dantas; Soriano, Evelyne Pessoa; de Miranda, Hênio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at reviewing the Brazilian legislation applied to occupational health. It refers to the diseases embodied in the Repetition Strain Injury (RSI) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) regarded as work or professional diseases. This analysis allowed to perform the historical evolution of legislation concerning the issue, noting that the state of the art of regulation on RSI-CTD is anchored in specific regulation present in the Normative Instruction 98/2003, that establishes the diagnostic criteria and classification of RSI-CTD. It was concluded that according to the existing legislation in Brazil, the pathologies related to RSI-CTD are considered as work diseases and their legal effects are similar to the work-related accidents.

  7. YB0 SERVICES INSTALLATION COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

    The beauty of the completed YB0 was briefly visible at P5 as preparations continue for Tracker installation. A tremendous effort, lasting 7 months and involving more than 100 workers on the busiest days, resulted in 5700 electrical cables, 780 optical cables with 65k fibre channels, and 550 pipes laid on YB0 for HB, EB and Tracker.

  8. Horn installed in CNGS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The horn is installed for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. Protons collide with a graphite target producing charged particles that are focussed by the magnetic field in the horn. These particles will then pass into a decay tube where they decay into neutrinos, which travel towards a detector at Gran Sasso 732 km away in Italy.

  9. Nonsymbolic number and cumulative area representations contribute shared and unique variance to symbolic math competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Stella F; Bonny, Justin W; Fernandez, Edmund P; Rao, Sonia

    2012-11-13

    Humans and nonhuman animals share the capacity to estimate, without counting, the number of objects in a set by relying on an approximate number system (ANS). Only humans, however, learn the concepts and operations of symbolic mathematics. Despite vast differences between these two systems of quantification, neural and behavioral findings suggest functional connections. Another line of research suggests that the ANS is part of a larger, more general system of magnitude representation. Reports of cognitive interactions and common neural coding for number and other magnitudes such as spatial extent led us to ask whether, and how, nonnumerical magnitude interfaces with mathematical competence. On two magnitude comparison tasks, college students estimated (without counting or explicit calculation) which of two arrays was greater in number or cumulative area. They also completed a battery of standardized math tests. Individual differences in both number and cumulative area precision (measured by accuracy on the magnitude comparison tasks) correlated with interindividual variability in math competence, particularly advanced arithmetic and geometry, even after accounting for general aspects of intelligence. Moreover, analyses revealed that whereas number precision contributed unique variance to advanced arithmetic, cumulative area precision contributed unique variance to geometry. Taken together, these results provide evidence for shared and unique contributions of nonsymbolic number and cumulative area representations to formally taught mathematics. More broadly, they suggest that uniquely human branches of mathematics interface with an evolutionarily primitive general magnitude system, which includes partially overlapping representations of numerical and nonnumerical magnitude.

  10. A NEW RUSSIAN WASTE MANAGEMENT INSTALLATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Andrew; Engxy, Thor; Endregard, Monica; Schwab, Patrick; Nazarian, Ashot; Krumrine, Paul; Backe, Steinar; Gorin, Stephen; Evans, Brent

    2003-02-27

    The Polyarninsky Shipyard (sometimes called Navy Yard No. 10 or the Shkval Shipyard) has been designated as the recipient for Solid Radioactive Waste (SRW) management facilities under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. The existing SRW storage site at this shipyard is filled to capacity, which is forcing the shipyard to reduce its submarine dismantlement activities. The Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation is planned as a combination of several AMEC projects. It will have several elements, including a set of hydraulic metal cutting tools, containers for transport and storage, the Mobile Pretreatment Facility (MPF) for Solid Radioactive Waste, the PICASSO system for radiation monitoring, and a Waste Storage Facility. Hydraulically operated cutting tools can cut many metal items via shearing so that dusts or particulates are not generated. The AMEC Program procured a cutting tool system, consisting of a motor and hydraulic pumping unit, a 38-mm conduit-cutting tool, a 100- mm pipe-cutting tool, and a spreading tool all mounted on a wheeled cart. The vendor modified the tool system for extremely cold conditions and Russian electrical standards, then delivered the tool system to the Polyarninsky shipyard. A new container for transportation and storage of SRW and been designed and fabricated. The first 400 of these containers have been delivered to the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy for use at the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation. These containers are cylindrical in shape and can hold seven standard 200-liter drums. They are the first containers ever certified in Russia for the offsite transport of military SRW. These containers can be transported by truck, rail, barge, or ship. The MPF will be the focal point of the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation and a key element in meeting the nuclear submarine dismantlement and waste processing needs of the Russian Federation. It will receive raw

  11. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P; Kutta, Timothy J; Coyle, Jacqueline M

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem completion to picture description, and from picture description to written stem completion), but only when both tasks are presented in the same experimental session. When cumulative priming effects are established in one task, and the second (changed) task is not presented until a week later, the cumulative priming effects are not observed.

  12. Why Veterinary Medical Educators Should Embrace Cumulative Final Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2017-01-03

    The topic of cumulative final examinations often elicits polarizing opinions from veterinary medical educators. While some faculty prefer cumulative finals, there are many who perceive these types of examinations as problematic. Specifically, faculty often cite cumulative examinations are more likely to cause students' greater stress, which may in turn result in negative student evaluations of teaching. Cumulative finals also restrict the number of items one may present to students on most recent material. While these cited disadvantages may have some merit, the advantages of cumulative examinations far exceed the disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages of cumulative examinations with respect to learning evidence, grade/score validity, fairness issues, and implications for academic policy.

  13. Climate Change Impacts on Water and Energy for Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    for drinking ? If your installation recycles water , what was the highest average daily wa- ter use in MGD including: (a) the recycled water and (b...2009. Rainfall and outbreaks of drinking water related disease and in England and Wales. Journal of Water and Health 7(1):1–8. doi:10.2166/wh.2009.143...Impacts to Soldier safety; reduced access to military water crossings and river operations; reduced off- road maneuver capacity; increased maintenance

  14. Analysis of experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, A.V.; Doroshkevich, E.A.; Leksin, G.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles are analyzed. A space-time and energy-transfer pattern of hadron-nucleus interaction based on both correlation data and data on the inclusive spectra of cumulative particles is considered. A new variable that is convenient for describing the production of cumulative particles is proposed using the concept of symmetry between the one-particle and multiparticle distributions. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...

  16. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  17. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies.

  18. PROCESS DIAGRAMS FOR INSTALLATION OF DRIVEN PILES IN PENETRATED WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main options of improved and newly devised designs and process diagrams for installation of foundations made of driven, or jack, piles in the penetrated wells with expanded shoe, mainly in weak wet (waterlogged and water-saturated soils. The article presents six options of process diagrams for installation of driven piles in penetrated wells, listing the main procedures: for well-compacted weak soils, for the case when the water ingress is excluded, for the case when it is necessary to increase the load-bearing capacity of pile's bearing face in the waterlogged soils, for the case when the load-bearing capacity of the pile shall be increased both for the end and for the sides, for the case when peat or other biogenous water-saturated soils are present at the bottom of the well, and for the case when there is no contracted zone nor practical possibility to ensure the stability of the walls. The proposed six options of process diagrams for installation of the driven piles in penetrated wells provide expansion of their area of application regarding the soil conditions, increase of load-bearing capacity, and possibility of using jack systems for driving the piles under conditions of dense urban development.

  19. Reliability of Arctic offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercha, F.G. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gudmestad, O.T. [Stavanger Univ., Stavanger (Norway)]|[Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)]|[Norwegian Univ. of Technology, Stavanger (Norway); Foschi, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Sliggers, F. [Shell International Exploration and Production, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Nikitina, N. [VNIIG, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nevel, D.

    2006-11-15

    Life threatening and fatal failures of offshore structures can be attributed to a broad range of causes such as fires and explosions, buoyancy losses, and structural overloads. This paper addressed the different severities of failure types, categorized as catastrophic failure, local failure or serviceability failure. Offshore tragedies were also highlighted, namely the failures of P-36, the Ocean Ranger, the Piper Alpha, and the Alexander Kieland which all resulted in losses of human life. P-36 and the Ocean Ranger both failed ultimately due to a loss of buoyancy. The Piper Alpha was destroyed by a natural gas fire, while the Alexander Kieland failed due to fatigue induced structural failure. The mode of failure was described as being the specific way in which a failure occurs from a given cause. Current reliability measures in the context of offshore installations only consider the limited number of causes such as environmental loads. However, it was emphasized that a realistic value of the catastrophic failure probability should consider all credible causes of failure. This paper presented a general method for evaluating all credible causes of failure of an installation. The approach to calculating integrated reliability involves the use of network methods such as fault trees to combine the probabilities of all factors that can cause a catastrophic failure, as well as those which can cause a local failure with the potential to escalate to a catastrophic failure. This paper also proposed a protocol for setting credible reliability targets such as the consideration of life safety targets and escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) success probabilities. A set of realistic reliability targets for both catastrophic and local failures for representative safety and consequence categories associated with offshore installations was also presented. The reliability targets were expressed as maximum average annual failure probabilities. The method for converting these annual

  20. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  1. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J; Silver, Ellen J; Stein, Ruth E K

    2006-04-01

    Disparities in child health are a major public health concern. However, it is unclear whether these are predominantly the result of low income, race, or other social risk factors that may contribute to their health disadvantage. Although others have examined the effects of the accumulation of risk factors, this methodology has not been applied to child health. We tested 4 social risk factors (poverty, minority race/ethnicity, low parental education, and not living with both biological parents) to assess whether they have cumulative effects on child health and examined whether access to health care reduced health disparities. We analyzed data on 57,553 children low parental education, and single-parent household) were consistently associated with child health. These were summed, generating the Social Disadvantage Index (range: 0-3). A total of 43.6% of children had no social disadvantages, 30.8% had 1, 15.6% had 2, and 10.0% had all 3. Compared with those with no social disadvantages, the odds ratios (ORs) of being in "good, fair, or poor health" (versus "excellent or very good") were 1.95 for 1 risk, 3.22 for 2 risks, and 4.06 for 3 risks. ORs of having a chronic condition increased from 1.25 (1 risk) to 1.60 (2 risks) to 2.11 (3 risks). ORs for activity limitation were 1.51 (1 risk) to 2.14 (2 risks) and 2.88 (3 risks). Controlling for health insurance did not affect these findings. The accumulation of social disadvantage among children was strongly associated with poorer child health and having insurance did not reduce the observed health disparities.

  2. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  3. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  4. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  5. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  6. Lattice QCD results on cumulant ratios at freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on sixth order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (mu_B) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the $\\mu_B$-dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a O(mu_B^2) QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios.

  7. A new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance which can be applied to many metrics, including h index and its variants (here we apply it to the h index, h(2 index and Google Scholar's i10 index. These indexes follow the general principle of repeating the index calculation for the same publication set. Using bibliometric data and reviewer scores for accepted and rejected fellowship applicants we examine how valid the cumulative variant is compared to the original variant. These analyses showed that the cumulative indexes result in higher correlations with the reviewer scores than their original variants. Thus, the cumulative indexes better reflect the assessments by peers than the original variants and are useful extensions of the original indexes. In contrast to many other measures of scientific performance proposed up to now, the cumulative indexes seem not only to be effective, but they are also easy to understand and calculate.

  8. Installation package for a solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

  9. Multifunctional Heat Pump Installation for Dairy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the installation based on the approach using the integration of the carbon dioxide heat pump in pasteurization and cooling installation for milk and in installations for preparing of hot and "icy" water. The scheme differs from the prototype by the use of additional heat exchangers and of their connection to the main elements of the installation. A proposed technique of elements connection in the heat pump installation permits to compensate the effect of temperature of cold water supply source, which is low-grade heat source for the heat pump, on the quality the work of the installation. The design of the installation enables to compensate the impact of seasonal variation of water temperature. The installation ensures the COP = 5.3.

  10. Capacity choices in liberalised electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Rodriguez, Fidel [Departamento de Fundamentos de Analisis Economico and RGEA, Facultad de Economicas, Universidad de Vigo (Spain); Marin, Pedro L. [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain); CEPR (Spain); Siotis, Georges [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain, European Commission (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    This paper addresses the issue of investment in electricity generation in the context of a liberalised market. We use the main results derived from a theoretical model where firms invest strategically to simulate the Spanish electricity system with real-world data. Our results indicate that, under reasonable parameter constellations regarding the number of agents, the level of capacity resulting from private decisions falls well short of the social optimum. Last, we show that two regulatory mechanisms that have been used to generate additional incentives for private agents to install capacity (capacity payment and price-adder) are ineffective and/or prohibitively costly. (author)

  11. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2007-01-01

    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  12. Automated solar collector installation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  13. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  14. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fe in plagioclase at an early age, T-rollers (or not) on the Di-Trid boundary in Fo-Di-Sil, the mantle solidus, origins of anorthosites, esoteric uses of Schreinemakers rules and many more topics are all fresh and pleasant memories of John Longhi's prolific and creative work. The Fram-Longhi experimental effect of pressure on plagioclase partitioning with liquid in mafic rocks became essential to an understanding of multiphase Rayleigh fractionation of plagioclase in big layered intrusions. Only by using the pressure effect could I find a good equation through the data for the Kiglapait intrusion, and that result among others required the existence with probability 1.0 of an internal reservoir (Morse, JPet 2008). Knowledge of cumulate porosity is a crucial key to the understanding of layered igneous rocks. We seek both the initial (inverse packing fraction) and residual porosity to find the time and process path from sedimentation to solidification. In the Kiglapait Lower Zone we have a robust estimate of mean residual porosity from the modes of the excluded phases augite, oxides, sulfide, and apatite. To this we apply the maximum variance of plagioclase composition (the An range) to find an algorithm that extends through the Upper Zone and to other intrusions. Of great importance is that all these measurements were made in grain mounts concentrated from typically about 200 g of core or hand specimen, hence the represented sample volume is thousands of times greater than for a thin section. The resulting distribution and scatter of the An range is novel and remarkable. It is V-shaped in the logarithmic representation of stratigraphic height, running from about 20 mole % at both ends (base to top of the Layered Series) to near-zero at 99 PCS. The intercept of the porosity-An range relation gives An range = 3.5 % at zero residual porosity. Petrographic analysis reveals that for PCS less than 95 and greater than 99.9, the An range is intrinsic, i.e. pre-cumulus, for

  15. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a small-scal

  16. Dynamics of flatter wind pump installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Крижановський

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind pump installation is considered, in which as quality wind engine is used flatter wind engine with vertically located wing blade. For research of dynamics of installation its mathematical model is constructed. Determined is the law of movement of wing blade at a connected load and main characteristics of wind pump installation

  17. Optimizing Capacities of Distributed Generation and Energy Storage in a Small Autonomous Power System Considering Uncertainty in Renewables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores real power generation planning, considering distributed generation resources and energy storage in a small standalone power system. On account of the Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Accord, wind and photovoltaic (PV powers are considered as clean and renewable energies. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA was used to determine the optimal capacities of wind-turbine-generators, PV, diesel generators and energy storage in a small standalone power system. The investment costs (installation, unit and maintenance costs of the distributed generation resources and energy storage and the cost of fuel for the diesel generators were minimized while the reliability requirement and CO2 emission limit were fulfilled. The renewable sources and loads were modeled by random variables because of their uncertainties. The equality and inequality constraints in the genetic algorithms were treated by cumulant effects and cumulative probability of random variables, respectively. The IEEE reliability data for an 8760 h load profile with a 150 kW peak load were used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  18. VIRUS early installation and commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Hill, Gary J.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Lee, Hanshin; Drory, Niv; Kelz, Andreas; Ramsey, Jason; Peterson, Trent; Noyola, Eva; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin; Fabricius, Maximilian; Farrow, Daniel; Good, John M.; Haynes, Dionne M.; Indahl, Briana; Jahn, Thomas; Kriel, Hermanus; Nicklas, Harald; Montesano, Francesco; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Landriau, Martin; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Roth, Martin M.; Savage, Richard; Snigula, Jan M.

    2016-08-01

    VIRUS is a massively replicated spectrograph built for HETDEX, the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. It consists of 156 channels within 78 units fed by 34944 fibers over the 22 arcminute field of the upgraded HET. VIRUS covers a relatively narrow bandpass (350-550nm) at low resolution (R 700) to target the emission of Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) for HETDEX. VIRUS is a first demonstration of industrial style assembly line replication in optical astronomy. Installation and testing of VIRUS units began in November of 2015. This winter we celebrated the first on sky instrument activity of the upgraded HET, using a VIRUS unit and LRS2-R (the upgraded facility Low Resolution Spectrograph for the HET). Here we describe progress in VIRUS installation and commissioning through June 2016. We include early sky data obtained to characterize spectrograph performance and on sky performance of the newly upgraded HET. As part of the instrumentation for first science light at the HET, the IFU fed spectrographs were used to test a full range of telescope system functionality including the field calibration unit (FCU).We also use placement of strategic IFUs to map the new HET field to the fiber placement, and demonstrate actuation of the dithering mechanism key to HETDEX observations.

  19. Increased installation in existing hydro power plants. Potentials and costs; Oekt installasjon i eksisterende kraftverk. Potensial og kostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, Kjell Erik (ed.)

    2011-06-15

    This report seeks to highlight the costs associated with increased installed capacity of existing hydropower plants. Five selected power plant is further studied. Furthermore, given an overview of the technical possibilities of power expansions in Norway. (AG)

  20. Installation of compressors to make use of the gas production from the Gulf of Campeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The first platform compressor installed in the Campeche Gulf to process associated natural gas has started operation with a capacity to process 400 mmcfd of gas which will be transported through a submarine gas pipeline to onshore terminals. Four compression modules are installed on the platform, each with a capacity of 100 mmcfd. This is the first of 7 compression platforms to be installed in Campeche Bay. With these platforms, Mexico will make possible the total use of its gas production from that area, expecting to utilize 98% of the associated gas, a similar proportion to the utiliziation of gas in onshore fields. The installation program and the characteristics of the compression platforms are presented along with a program to utilize the total gas production from the rich Campeche Gulf.

  1. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  2. AUTONOMOUS WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS AND SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvitko A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the main advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy sources. It is shown, that in general, the use of renewable energy in the world has acquired real momentum and stable growth trend. An interesting fact is that the greatest application was currently the most mutable and unstable form of energy - wind. The total global installed capacity of large wind turbines, according to various estimates, is approximately 20 GW. This is because the specific investment in wind power is lower than with most other forms of renewable energy. The article presents features of the design and operation of modern wind power stations. It is shown that when choosing wind power plants and stations we must take into account the following main parameters and factors: the average value of amount of electricity consumed by power consumers on a monthly basis; power generator; uptime in the absence wind or when weak wind. The study shows block-circuit solutions of different options of energy systems made using wind power plants. We have also disclosed prospects of development wind energy and considered the advantages and the features of the choice of the main functional units of wind power stations which will increase the effectiveness of predesign work on the creation of high-performance systems of electrosupply with combined power supply systems based on renewable energy sources

  3. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  4. Strategic Capacity Investment under Uncertainty with Volume Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Xingang

    2017-01-01

    This article considers investment decisions in an uncertain and competitive framework, with a first investor, the leader, always producing up to full capacity and a second investor, the follower, capable of adjusting output levels within the constraint of installed capacity. Both firms need to

  5. Entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants of disordered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2017-08-01

    We study the entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants for a system of disordered noninteracting fermions in d dimensions. We show, both analytically and numerically, that for a weak disorder the entanglement entropy and the second cumulant (particle number variance) are proportional to each other with a universal coefficient. The corresponding expressions are analogous to those in the clean case but with a logarithmic factor regularized by the mean free path rather than by the system size. We also determine the scaling of higher cumulants by analytical (weak disorder) and numerical means. Finally, we predict that the particle number variance and the entanglement entropy are nonanalytic functions of disorder at the Anderson transition.

  6. Dredging: An Annotated Bibliography on Operations, Equipment, and Processes. Installment 3. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Installment 2 Bucket Wheels, Dredges, Draglines Strip and Mine at Billiton Suriname 0506 Newlyn Quay Gambles on ’No Spares’ Dredger 0552 564 P -o...0498 A Cutter Dredge A0002 Al Wassl Bay A0007 Amphibian Suction Dredger A0010 Aquarius, Latest Addition to the Fleet of Zanen Verstoep N.V. Built by...ticated Dredging Materials A0171 New Vessels A0231 . - o & K Dredging A0235 Odd Looking Amphibian A0237 Installment 3 Dual Capacity Advantage: Bucket

  7. Risk Assessment for Natural-Hazard Impact on Hazardous Chemical Installations: Workshop Outcome Report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The impact of natural hazards on hazardous installations can cause major chemical accidents. This so-called “Natech” risk is increasing due to industrialisation and climate change. Capacity building in EU Member States, Candidate Countries and EU Neighbourhood Countries on Natech risk required for Natech risk reduction. This report summarises the findings of a training workshop on risk assessment for natural-hazard impact on hazardous chemical installations which the JRC organised in the ...

  8. Method of proportioning stone to stowing installations underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szafarczyk, J.; Kubek, F.

    1992-07-01

    Reviews types of stowing intallations and the technology of supplying after-washing stone used. It is recommended to take advantage of downward inclined stowing pipeline sections for underground feeding of the stowing stone. Calculation of the mass of stone fed to a stowing pipeline is explained. First experience of using the method in the Jankowice black coal mine in 1991 is reported on. About 8,000 t of stone were stowed using the method during 7 months. The stowing installation consists of a tippler, a belt conveyor and a batcher of about 10 m[sup 3]. The capacity of the installation is 30 m[sup 3]/h. Suitable proportions of slag-crushed stone mixtures are recommended.

  9. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  10. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...

  11. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  12. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  13. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  14. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  15. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  16. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  17. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  18. Cumulative Radiative Forcing Implications of Deployment Strategies for Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, R. C.; Masanet, E.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly discussed as a potential means of mitigating the climate disruption associated with fossil fuel use. Some technologies for capturing, transporting, and sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) are already mature, while others technologies under development may lead to more cost- and energy-efficient CCS systems. Various elements of CCS systems are currently in operation at relatively small scale, but will need to be scaled up very substantially in order to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation. Because the rate of fossil fuel CO2 emission is continuing to increase and the emitted CO2 will remain in the atmosphere for long time periods, the speed at which CCS is deployed will strongly affect the cumulative CO2 emission and the climate impacts. To better understand these issues, in this analysis we integrate scenario forecasting of energy supply systems, life cycle emission modeling, and time-dependent calculations of cumulative radiative forcing. We develop a series of CCS deployment scenarios that describe plausible future trajectories for CCS implementation in the US electric power plant fleet. The scenarios incorporate dimensions such as speed of deployment build-out, year of initiating deployment, efficiency of capture technology, and installation in new power plants vs. retrofitting existing plants. We conduct life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analyses of each scenario to estimate annual emission profiles of CO2, CH4, and N2O over a 90-year time horizon, from 2010 to 2100. We then model the atmospheric dynamics of the emitted GHGs including atmospheric decay and instantaneous radiative forcing patterns over time. Finally, we determine the cumulative radiative forcing of each scenario, which we use as a proxy for surface temperature change and resulting disruption to physical, ecological and social systems. The results show strong climate mitigation benefits of early, aggressive

  19. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  20. Comparative environmental assessment of unconventional power installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnina, E. N.; Masleeva, O. V.; Kryukov, E. V.

    2015-08-01

    Procedure of the strategic environmental assessment of the power installations operating on the basis of renewable energy sources (RES) was developed and described. This procedure takes into account not only the operational process of the power installation but also the whole life cycles: from the production and distribution of power resources for manufacturing of the power installations to the process of their recovery. Such an approach gives an opportunity to make a more comprehensive assessment of the influence of the power installations on environments and may be used during adaptation of the current regulations and development of new regulations for application of different types of unconventional power installations with due account of the ecological factor. Application of the procedure of the integrated environmental assessment in the context of mini-HPP (Hydro Power Plant); wind, solar, and biogas power installations; and traditional power installation operating natural gas was considered. Comparison of environmental influence revealed advantages of new energy technologies compared to traditional ones. It is shown that solar energy installations hardly pollute the environment during operation, but the negative influence of the mining operations and manufacturing and utilization of the materials used for solar modules is maximum. Biogas power installations are on the second place as concerns the impact on the environment due to the considerable mass of the biogas installation and gas reciprocating engine. The minimum impact on the environment is exerted by the mini-HPP. Consumption of material and energy resources for the production of the traditional power installation is less compared to power installations on RES; however, this factor incomparably increases when taking into account the fuel extraction and transfer. The greatest impact on the environment is exerted by the operational process of the traditional power installations.

  1. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CULTIVATING PATTERNS ON PROPERTIES OF ALBIC SOIL IN SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhao-hua; LU Xian-guo; ZHOU Jia

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the cumulative effects of different cultivating patterns on the properties of albic soils in the Sanjiang Plain using correlation analysis. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of the albic soil changed greatly when it was cultivated as farmland. As for physical properties of the soil, bulk density and specific gravity increased gradually, the porosity and field capacity decreased gradually year by year, but they increased after being abandoned. As for chemical properties, pH increased, organic matter and other nutrients decreased with increasing of the cultivating years. For the albic soil cultivated with forage, the cumulative effects were apparently strengthened with the increase of cultivating years, especially for the bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity and capillary moisture capacity. Moreover, fertilization also had great effects on the albic soil. Applying magnetism fertilizer improved the physical properties such as bulk density, soil moisture and porosity, raised the utilization rate of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer. Compared with nutrient fertilizer, utilization of the magnetism fertilizer made production increase by 5.9%-13.9%. At the same time, using organic material and loosing the albic layer could improve not only the physical, chemical and biological properties of the cultivating layer, but also the ill properties of the albic layer, thus making organic carbon and heavy fraction carbon contents increase, and biological activity increase obviously.

  2. Buckling of Bucket Foundations During Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren

    in order to reduce the cost of energy. This limits the on land application due to transportation limitations and unwillingness from prospect neighbours. Thus, offshore wind energy started developing over the last couple of years. Although installing the wind turbines offshore resolves the before men tioned...... issues, it brings up the cost of energy mainly due to increased installation and maintenance costs. A very large part—up to 30–50% using current technology—of the installation cost origins from the expenses related to the installation of foundations. A new foundation concept—the bucket foundation...... the suction assisted installation process. In this thesis, the phenomenon of buckling of the bucket foundation during installation is investigated by means of Finite Element Analysis. The influence of boundary conditions on the bucket foundation is adressed as well as the effect of including the surrounding...

  3. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The solar system was installed into a new buildng and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This final report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  5. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The solar system was installed into a new buildng and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This final report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  6. Installation of Shimming Bars for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV; Yin-long; WANG; Zhen-hui; ZHONG; Jun-qing; LIU; Geng-shou

    2012-01-01

    <正>The 100 MeV high intensity proton cyclotron, CYCIAE-100, is the most critical equipment of the BRIF project at CIAE. The shimming bars are used to get the isochronous magnetic field. In the process of magnetic mapping and shimming, the bars should be repeated the installed and disassembly for about 10 times. Each time the installation precision must be ensured. The bars installation schedule and quality are directly related to the BRIF project progress.

  7. Modern electrical installation for craft students

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electrical Installation for Craft Students, Volume 2, Third Edition discusses several topics concerning electrical installations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that deal with craft theory, associated subjects, and electrical industries. Chapter 1 covers inductors and inductance, while Chapter 2 tackles capacitors and capacitance. Chapter 3 deals with inductance and capacitance in installation work. The book also discusses cells, batteries, and transformers. The electrical industries, control and earthing, and testing are also dealt with. The last chapter discusses the basic el

  8. ID Barrel installed in cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R.; Romaniouk, A.

    Wednesday 23rd August was a memorable day for the Inner Detector community as they witnessed the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the outer two detectors (TRT and SCT) of the ID barrel were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Accelerometers were fitted to the barrel to provide real-time monitoring and no values greater than 0.1 g were recorded, fully satisfying the transport specification for this extremely precise and fragile detector. Muriel, despite her fear of heights, bravely volunteered to keep a close eye on the detector. Swapping cranes to cross the entire parking lot, while Mur...

  9. Assessment of Cumulative Sound Exposure Levels for Marine Piling Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepper, P.A.; Robinson, S.P.; Ainslie, M.A.; Theobald, P.D.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2012-01-01

    The installation of offshore wind farms in European waters and the scale of the planned activity have led to concern over the generation of noise and its potential impact on marine life. Much of this concern is centered around the noise generated by pile driving, which is used for the installation o

  10. Assessment of Cumulative Sound Exposure Levels for Marine Piling Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepper, P.A.; Robinson, S.P.; Ainslie, M.A.; Theobald, P.D.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2012-01-01

    The installation of offshore wind farms in European waters and the scale of the planned activity have led to concern over the generation of noise and its potential impact on marine life. Much of this concern is centered around the noise generated by pile driving, which is used for the installation

  11. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  12. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  13. USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (Δz > 1). We use abundance matching in the ΛCDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit Δz) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1σ range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

  14. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  15. FGD Capacity Prediction of Thermal Power Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fahua; Wang Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Through analyzing the proportion of SO2 emission from thermal power plants in the nationwide SO2 emission in USA, Japan etc. developed countries, and the developmental course of thermal power installed capacity and the FGD capacity in USA, the FGD capacity of thermal power plants in China is forecasted from two angles. One is to predict FGD capacity in accordance with the policy in force in China. The other is to predict FGD capacity based upon the emission right trading policy. As compared, it is held that FGD equipment should be mainly installed on the large size units burning high sulfur coal according to the emission right trading policy. Such a method of work not only can economize large amount of investments and operation costs, but also can realize the same environmental effect.

  16. Installation Service - Changes in opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    For organizational matters, please note that, as from 15 March 2010, the Installation Service will have wen opening hours. The new schedule will be from 14:00 to 17:00 (Monday to Friday). Contact persons are: Martine Briant, Karine Robert and Claudia Bruggmann. The office address remains 73-3-014. Installation Service

  17. 46 CFR 111.33-5 - Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation. 111.33-5 Section 111.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-5 Installation. Each semiconductor rectifier...

  18. ATLAS semiconductor tracker installed into its barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker is installed in the silicon tracker barrel. Absolute precision was required in this operation to ensure that the tracker was inserted without damage through minimal clearance. The installation was performed in a clean room on the CERN site so that no impurities in the air would contaminate the tracker's systems.

  19. 49 CFR 393.30 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.30 Battery installation... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installation. 393.30 Section 393.30 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  20. A Hadron Radiation Installation and Verification Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Bom, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    A hadron radiation installation adapted to subject a target to irradiation by a hadron radiation beam, said installation comprising: - a target support configured to support, preferably immobilize, a target: - a hadron radiation apparatus adapted to emit a hadron radiation beam along a beam axis to

  1. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2016-01-04

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  2. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow...... for regression methods similar to linear models while respecting the categorical nature of the observations. We describe how cumulative link models are related to the omnibus chi2 tests and how they can lead to more powerful tests in the non-replicated setting. For replicated categorical ratings data we present...... a quasi-likelihood approach and a mixed effects approach both being extensions of cumulative link models. We contrast population-average and subject-specific interpretations based on these models and discuss how different approaches lead to different tests. In replicated settings, naive tests that ignore...

  3. Cumulative pion production via successive collisions in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Motornenko, A

    2016-01-01

    Production of pions in proton-nucleus (p+A) reactions outside of a kinematical boundary of proton-nucleon collisions, the so-called cumulative effect, is studied. The kinematical restrictions on pions emitted in backward direction in the target rest frame are analyzed. It is shown that cumulative pion production requires a presence of massive baryonic resonances that are produced during successive collisions of projectile with nuclear nucleons. After each successive collision the mass of created resonance may increase and, simultaneously, its longitudinal velocity decreases. Simulations within Ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model reveals that successive collisions of baryonic resonances with nuclear nucleons plays the dominant role in cumulative pion production in p+A reactions.

  4. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2001-01-01

    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  5. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative work time. By fitting the model, one can predict that, in the beginning of working life at the tannery, on average each 1-year period is associated with an increase of about 1.5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The fit obtained highlights one component directly associated with work as part of the rate of pressure increase in the study group. This component is twice as high as that directly associated with age.

  6. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  7. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  8. Cumulant dynamics in a finite population linkage equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rattray, M; Rattray, Magnus; Shapiro, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a finite population at linkage equilibrium is described in terms of the dynamics of phenotype distribution cumulants. This provides a powerful method for describing evolutionary transients and we elucidate the relationship between the cumulant dynamics and the diffusion approximation. A separation of time-scales between the first and higher cumulants for low mutation rates is demonstrated in the diffusion limit and provides a significant simplification of the dynamical system. However, the diffusion limit may not be appropriate for strong selection as the standard Fisher-Wright model of genetic drift can break down in this case. Two novel examples of this effect are considered: we shown that the dynamics may depend on the number of loci under strong directional selection and that environmental variance results in a reduced effective population size. We also consider a simple model of a changing environment which cannot be described by a diffusion equation and we derive the optimal mutation ra...

  9. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  10. Designing Software-Based Interactive Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Juul, Niels Christian; Rosendahl, Mads

    2014-01-01

    What. This chapter focuses on software engineering principles with specific emphasis on interactive installations providing embodied, tangible, and immersive experiences for the user. Such installations may deliver light, image, sound, and movement through actuators and may provide interaction...... installations and support the description of the approach with a single case- a bumper car competition. Why. To some extent, standard techniques for software development can be adapted for interactive installations. However, there is a need to emphasize the unique aspects of installations, bringing tangible...... architecture as well as esthetic experience, artistic expression, and leisure aspects into focus. The approach presented here has this intended purpose. Where. Building on experience from conventional software development and with inspiration from interaction design and creative programming, this chapter...

  11. Arduino Tool: For Interactive Artwork Installations

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Murtaza Hussain

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the digital media and computational tools has widened the doors for creativity. The cutting edge in the digital arts and role of new technologies can be explored for the possible creativity. This gives an opportunity to involve arts with technologies to make creative works. The interactive artworks are often installed in the places where multiple people can interact with the installation, which allows the art to achieve its purpose by allowing the people to observe and involve with the installation. The level of engagement of the audience depends on the various factors such as aesthetic satisfaction, how the audience constructs meaning, pleasure and enjoyment. The method to evaluate these experiences is challenging as it depends on integration between the artificial life and real life by means of human computer interaction. This research investigates "How Adriano fits for creative and interactive artwork installations?" using an artwork installation in the campus of NTNU (Norwegian University...

  12. Photovoltaic installation connected to the electric network; Installation photovoltaique raccordee au reseau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-15

    This technical sheet on the connection of a photovoltaic installation to the electric network, provides information on the operating of such an installation, the possibilities of installation on a building, the possible subsidies, types of connection, environmental impacts, the electric power production, the cost estimation, the maintenance and life time and the administrative procedures. (A.L.B.)

  13. System Dynamics and Modified Cumulant Neglect Closure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Dealing with multipeaked problems, the goal of the paper is to improve the quality of the approximations for the expectations appearing in the differential equations written for the statistical moments of the state vector, guided by insight in the system dynamics. For systems with polynomial non......-linearities, modifications in the cumulant neglect closure scheme are suggested. The methodology is illustrated using the two wells oscillator. An error analysis is performed to compare the modified and ordinary cumulant neglect closure schemes applied at the second and fourth order levels with the exact results available....

  14. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  15. Aspect of cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrik, S. Y.; Tang, P. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of order of loading and its effect on cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cyclings was investigated. The effect is illustrated through nonlinear relationships between biaxial fatigue damage and cycle-ratio diagrams. Uniaxial theories such as Miner's method, the convergence method, and the double linear damage rule in its special and generalized form, were examined and extended to the biaxial case through the octahedral shear strain theory. The generalized double linear damage rule was found more applicable to biaxial cumulative fatigue damage.

  16. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  17. A study of cumulative fatigue damage in AISI 4130 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S.; Musial, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained using AISI 4130 steel under stress ratios of -1 and 0. A study of cumulative fatigue damage using Miner's and Kramer's equations for stress ratios of -1 and 0 for low-high, low-high-mixed, high-low, and high-low-mixed stress sequences has revealed that there is a close agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of fatigue damage and fatigue life. Kramer's equation predicts less conservative and more realistic cumulative fatigue damage than the popularly used Miner's rule does.

  18. Remote monitoring of solar and wind power installation via GSN and Internet; Sistema de telegestion de instalaciones solares y eolicas a traves de GSN e Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, P. M. L.; Valmaseda, J. C. T.; Uruena, H. J. C.; Bujedo, L. A. N.

    2004-07-01

    Remote monitoring of solar and wind power installations is important for installers since some local rules oblige them to keep a maintenance plan, and the installations are normally sparse. It is also important for end users because they demand more information about the system and management capacity each time. In this paper we present CARTIF's development for the company ENERPAL to fulfil these needs. It is formed by two subsystems: one for data acquisition and control of the installations via GSM, and the other, a server software that allows the user to access her installation remotely through the Internet in order to manage it. (Author)

  19. Installation of the Ferranti Mercury computer in building 2 on 30 June 1958

    CERN Multimedia

    1958-01-01

    The Ferranti Mercury was CERN's first "central" computer. It was installed in building 2 on 30 June 1958. The Mercury's performance did not compare to the simplest of today's pocket calculators. Its clock speed was a modest 1 MHz and its RAM capacity was 2000 20-bit words.

  20. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...

  1. Offshore Cable Installation - Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unosson, Oscar (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    This report describes the installation method and the experiences gained during the installation of the submarine cables for the offshore wind farm at Lillgrund. The wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and is expected to produce 0.33 TWh annually. Different aspects of the installation, such as techniques, co-operation between the installation teams, weather conditions and regulatory and environmental issues are described in this report. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are provided, which hopefully can be utilised in future offshore wind projects. The trenches, in which the submarine cables were laid, were excavated weeks before the cable laying. This installation technique proved to be successful for the laying of the inter array cables. The export cable, however, was laid into position with difficulty. The main reason why the laying of the export cable proved more challenging was due to practical difficulties connected with the barge entrusted with the cable laying, Nautilus Maxi. The barge ran aground a number of times and it had difficulties with the thrusters, which made it impossible to manoeuvre. When laying the inter array cables, the method specification was closely followed, and the laying of the cables was executed successfully. The knowledge and experience gained from the offshore cable installation in Lillgrund is essential when writing technical specifications for new wind plant projects. It is recommended to avoid offshore cable installation work in winter seasons. That will lower the chances of dealing with bad weather and, in turn, will reduce the risks

  2. A novel method for coiled tubing installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Peter J. [2H Offshore, Houston, TX (United States); Tibbetts, David [Aquactic Engineering and Construction Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-19

    Installation of flexible pipe for offshore developments is costly due to the physical cost of the flexible pipe, expensive day rates and the availability of suitable installation vessels. Considering the scarcity of flexible pipe in today's increasingly demanding and busy market, operators are seeking a cost effective solution for installing piping in a range of water depths using vessels which are readily on hand. This paper describes a novel approach to installing reeled coiled tubing, from 1 inch to 5 inch diameter, from the back of a small vessel in water depths from 40 m up to around 1000 m. The uniqueness of the system is the fact that the equipment design is modular and compact. This means that when disassembled, it fits into standard 40 ft shipping containers, and the size allows it to be installed on even relatively small vessels of opportunity, such as anchor handling or installation vessels, from smaller, and cheaper quay side locations. Such an approach is the ideal solution to the problem faced by operators, in that it allows the installation of cheaper, readily available coiled tubing, from cost-effective vessels, which do not need to transit to a pick up the system. (author)

  3. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  4. Structural considerations for solar installers : an approach for small, simplified solar installations or retrofits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Schindel, Kay (City of Madison, WI); Bosiljevac, Tom; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Lindau, William (Lindau Companies, Inc., Hudson, WI); Harper, Alan (City of Madison, WI)

    2011-12-01

    Structural Considerations for Solar Installers provides a comprehensive outline of structural considerations associated with simplified solar installations and recommends a set of best practices installers can follow when assessing such considerations. Information in the manual comes from engineering and solar experts as well as case studies. The objectives of the manual are to ensure safety and structural durability for rooftop solar installations and to potentially accelerate the permitting process by identifying and remedying structural issues prior to installation. The purpose of this document is to provide tools and guidelines for installers to help ensure that residential photovoltaic (PV) power systems are properly specified and installed with respect to the continuing structural integrity of the building.

  5. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  6. RECURSIVE CLASSIFICATION OF MQAM SIGNALS BASED ON HIGHER ORDER CUMULANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weidong; Yang Shaoquan

    2002-01-01

    A new feature based on higher order cumulants is proposed for classification of MQAM signals. Theoretical analysis justify that the new feature is invariant with respect to translation (shift), scale and rotation transform of signal constellations, and can suppress color or white additive Gaussian noise. Computer simulation shows that the proposed recursive orderreduction based classification algorithm can classify MQAM signals with any order.

  7. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  8. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  9. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  10. Is learning in problem-based learning cumulative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); E. Chng (Esther); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractProblem-based learning (PBL) is generally organized in three phases, involving collaborative and self-directed learning processes. The hypothesis tested here is whether learning in the different phases of PBL is cumulative, with learning in each phase depending on that of the previous ph

  11. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  12. Repeated mild injury causes cumulative damage to hippocampal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Matser (Amy); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); J.T. Weber (John)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn interesting hypothesis in the study of neurotrauma is that repeated traumatic brain injury may result in cumulative damage to cells of the brain. However, post-injury sequelae are difficult to address at the cellular level in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to compl

  13. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  14. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  15. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  16. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  17. Instability of Bucket Foundations during Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The bucket foundation is an upcoming technology for offshore wind turbines. The bucket foundation is a large cylindrical monopod foundation constructed as a thin steel shell structure. A bucket foundation does not require heavy installation equipment since it is installed by suction forces....... The combination of a thin shell structure and suction forces leads to the fact that instability, in form of buckling, becomes a crucial issue during installation. The hydrostatic buckling pressure of the bucket foundation is addressed using three-dimensional, non-linear finite element analysis. The results...

  18. Towards a Framework for Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Falck, Hans William

    2013-01-01

    Projection installations are part of Spatially Augmented Reality, where the projection medium is used to enrich a fixed, bounded physical space with digital content. Projection technology enables us to turn many kinds of physical objects into displays. In this paper we develop and present...... a conceptual framework that addresses three aspects of a projection installation: the contentassociated with the object, the digital content, and the relation between the two. We conclude the paper with a set of strategies commonly used in projection installations: Enhancing or emphasizing physical aspects...

  19. Brains striving for coherence: Long-term cumulative plot formation in the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylén, K; Christensen, P; Roepstorff, A; Lund, T; Østergaard, S; Donald, M

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities, such as engaging in conversation or listening to a story, require us to sustain attention over a prolonged period of time while integrating and synthesizing complex episodic content into a coherent mental model. Humans are remarkably capable of navigating and keeping track of all the parallel social activities of everyday life even when confronted with interruptions or changes in the environment. However, the underlying cognitive and neurocognitive mechanisms of such long-term integration and profiling of information remain a challenge to neuroscience. While brain activity is generally traceable within the short time frame of working memory (milliseconds to seconds), these integrative processes last for minutes, hours or even days. Here we report two experiments on story comprehension. Experiment I establishes a cognitive dissociation between our comprehension of plot and incidental facts in narratives: when episodic material allows for long-term integration in a coherent plot, we recall fewer factual details. However, when plot formation is challenged, we pay more attention to incidental facts. Experiment II investigates the neural underpinnings of plot formation. Results suggest a central role for the brain's default mode network related to comprehension of coherent narratives while incoherent episodes rather activate the frontoparietal control network. Moreover, an analysis of cortical activity as a function of the cumulative integration of narrative material into a coherent story reveals to linear modulations of right hemisphere posterior temporal and parietal regions. Together these findings point to key neural mechanisms involved in the fundamental human capacity for cumulative plot formation.

  20. Installation of deep water sub-sea equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, Jack; Demian, Nabil [SBM-IMODCO Inc., Houston, TX (UNited States)

    2004-07-01

    Offshore oil developments are being planned in water depths exceeding 2000 m. Lowering and positioning large, heavy sub sea hardware, using conventional methods, presents new technical challenges in these ultra deep waters. In 3000 m a safe lift using conventional steel cables will require more capacity to support the cable self weight than the static payload. Adding dynamic loads caused by the motions of the surface vessel can quickly cause the safe capacity of the wire to be exceeded. Synthetic ropes now exist to greatly reduce the lowering line weight. The lower stiffness of these synthetic ropes aggravate the dynamic line tensions due to vessel motions and relatively little is known about the interaction of these ropes on the winches and sheaves required for pay-out and haul-in of these lines under dynamic load. Usage of conventional winches would damage the synthetic rope and risk the hardware being deployed. Reliable and economic installation systems that can operate from existing installation vessels are considered vital for ultra deep-water oil development. The paper describes a Deep Water Sub-Sea Hardware Deployment system consisting of a buoy with variable, pressure-balanced buoyancy, which is used to offset most of the payload weight as it is lowered. The buoyant capacity is controlled by air pumped into the tank from the surface vessel through a reinforced hose. The buoy and payload motion are isolated from the deployment line surface dynamics using a simple passive heave compensator mounted between the buoy and the bottom of the deployment rope. The system components, functionality and dynamic behavior are presented in the paper. (author)

  1. CUMULANTS OF STOCHASTIC RESPONSE FOR A CLASS OF SPECIAL NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG MEI; ZHANG YI

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the response cumulants for a kind of special nonholonomic systems under non-Gaussian, delta- correlated excitations. We present a new methodology for formulating the equations governing the evolution of the response cumulants of the stochastic dynamic systems. The response cumulant differential equations (CDEs) derived can be used to calculate the response cumulants for both linear and nonlinear systems. One example is given to illustrate how to use the CDEs for calculating response cumulants.

  2. Structural Code Considerations for Solar Rooftop Installations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Sanchez, Alfred

    2014-12-01

    Residential rooftop solar panel installations are limited in part by the high cost of structural related code requirements for field installation. Permitting solar installations is difficult because there is a belief among residential permitting authorities that typical residential rooftops may be structurally inadequate to support the additional load associated with a photovoltaic (PV) solar installation. Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure to a basic determinate beam. This method of analysis neglects the composite action of the entire roof structure, yielding a conservative analysis based on a rafter or top chord of a truss. Consequently, the analysis can result in an overly conservative structural analysis. A literature review was conducted to gain a better understanding of the conservative nature of the regulations and codes governing residential construction and the associated structural system calculations.

  3. Prototype solar-heating system - installation manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Manual for prototype solar-heating system gives detailed installation procedures for each of seven subsystems. Procedures for operation and maintenance are also included. It discusses architectural considerations, building construction considerations, and checkout-test procedures.

  4. Notes on LED Installations in Street Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study made on choosing LED street lighting installations, such that the quality requirements for exterior artificial lighting are fulfilled. We analyze two types of LED street lighting installations from a technical point of view, together with lighting level and brightness values obtained during the measurements. Following on the field measurements, the lighting quality parameters are calculated, and, for the lighting installation with the best performance, optimal mounting suggestions are made. The optimal quality parameters are calculated by simulations using the Dialux software. The same software and the same light sources we also compute an optimal street lighting by determining the size of the installation that provides the best lighting parameter values.

  5. Subsea flexible flowline installation issues and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Huang

    2013-01-01

    Flexible flowlines and risers have been increasingly used for deepwater and ultra-deepwater field applications,partially because of its low submerged weight and better dynamic characteristics comparing to rigid pipelines.The offshore installation of flowline may have advantages as well.However,it has special needs for the installation aids,and it is challenging to install tie-in structures due to its low bending stiffness.This paper is to present some of the challenges during a recent flexible installation project with a total of more than 100 km flexible flowlines,and 24 in-line sleds/pipeline end termination(PLET) in water depth up to 1 300 m.

  6. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system. Here we see the transport vehicle alongside the magnet supports. Visible in the background is the first magnet in place.

  7. Towards a Framework for Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Falck, Hans William

    2013-01-01

    Projection installations are part of Spatially Augmented Reality, where the projection medium is used to enrich a fixed, bounded physical space with digital content. Projection technology enables us to turn many kinds of physical objects into displays. In this paper we develop and present a conce...... concerning urban computing, including media architecture.......Projection installations are part of Spatially Augmented Reality, where the projection medium is used to enrich a fixed, bounded physical space with digital content. Projection technology enables us to turn many kinds of physical objects into displays. In this paper we develop and present...... a conceptual framework that addresses three aspects of a projection installation: the contentassociated with the object, the digital content, and the relation between the two. We conclude the paper with a set of strategies commonly used in projection installations: Enhancing or emphasizing physical aspects...

  8. RF accelerating unit installed in the PSB

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    RF accelerating unit installed in the PSB ring between two bending magnets. Cool air from a heat exchanger is injected into the four cavities from the central feeder and the hot air recirculated via the lateral ducts.

  9. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Chi, D. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. C.; Park, C.; Lee, C. T.; Cho, S. W.; Kwak, K. K.; Suk, H. C. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The principle contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop and non-instrumented capsule in HANARO for nuclear technology development. This project will be completed in 1999, the basic and detail design, safety analysis, and procurement of main equipment for fuel test loop have been performed and also the piping in gallery and the support for IPS piping in reactor pool have been installed in 1994. In the area of non-instrumented capsule for material irradiation test, the fabrication of capsule has been completed. Procurement, fabrication and installation of the fuel test loop will be implemented continuously till 1999. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and safety analysis report has been submitted to KINS to get a license and review of HANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author). 39 refs., 28 tabs., 21 figs.

  10. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  11. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, David

    Like civilian infrastructure, Air Force installations are dependent on electrical energy for daily operations. Energy shortages translate to decreased productivity, higher costs, and increased health risks. But for the United States military, energy shortages have the potential to become national security risks. Over ninety-five percent of the electrical energy used by the Air Force is supplied by the domestic grid, which is susceptible to shortages and disruptions. Many Air Force operations require a continuous source of energy, and while the Air Force has historically established redundant supplies of electrical energy, these back-ups are designed for short-term outages and may not provide sufficient supply for a longer, sustained power outage. Furthermore, it is the goal of the Department of Defense to produce or procure 25 percent of its facility energy from renewable sources by fiscal year 2025. In a government budget environment where decision makers are required to provide more capability with less money, it is becoming increasingly important for informed decisions regarding which energy supply options bear the most benefit for an installation. The analysis begins by exploring the field of energy supply options available to an Air Force installation. The supply options are assessed according to their ability to provide continuous and reliable energy, their applicability to unique requirements of Air Force installations, and their costs. Various methods of calculating energy usage by an installation are also addressed. The next step of this research develops a methodology and tool which assesses how an installation responds to various power outage scenarios. Lastly, various energy supply options are applied to the tool, and the results are reported in terms of cost and loss of installation capability. This approach will allow installation commanders and energy managers the ability to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of various energy investment options.

  12. Software Management Environment (SME) installation guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, David; Jeletic, Kellyann

    1992-01-01

    This document contains installation information for the Software Management Environment (SME), developed for the Systems Development Branch (Code 552) of the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SME provides an integrated set of management tools that can be used by software development managers in their day-to-day management and planning activities. This document provides a list of hardware and software requirements as well as detailed installation instructions and trouble-shooting information.

  13. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel. Th...

  14. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel.Pho...

  15. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel. We...

  16. Seal of quality for planners of geothermal energy installations, prize for geothermal installations; Guetesiegel fuer Planer von Geothermieanlagen, Geothermiepreis Phase I (2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugster, W. J. [Polydynamics Engineering Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Eberhard, M. [Eberhard and Partner AG, Aarau (Switzerland); Koschenz, M. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Morath, M. [Lippuner and Partner AG, Grabs (Switzerland); Rohner, E. [Engeo AG, Arnegg (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy describes a project that aimed to improve the awareness of planners and installers involved in geothermal energy projects for the problems encountered when dimensioning both large and small geothermal installations, and to provide the basic knowledge necessary for a correct sizing of such plants. The report's main emphasis is placed on three types of geothermal plant, bore-hole heat exchangers, groundwater use and energy pile installations. The concept of the training programme involved is described, which is to issue certificates and labels for the attainment of three levels of ability. These three levels (Labels A, B and C) cover simple, small plants for heating operation, medium sized plants within a heating capacity range of 30 to approximately 100 kW and large plants for heating and cooling operation with heat capacities greater than 100 kW, respectively. The report also includes details of the time-line aimed for and costs. Also, the idea of an annual prize for geothermal installations is briefly discussed.

  17. Seal of quality for planners of geothermal energy installations, prize for geothermal installations; Guetesiegel fuer Planer von Geothermieanlagen, Geothermiepreis Phase I (2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugster, W. J. [Polydynamics Engineering Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Eberhard, M. [Eberhard and Partner AG, Aarau (Switzerland); Koschenz, M. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Morath, M. [Lippuner and Partner AG, Grabs (Switzerland); Rohner, E. [Engeo AG, Arnegg (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy describes a project that aimed to improve the awareness of planners and installers involved in geothermal energy projects for the problems encountered when dimensioning both large and small geothermal installations, and to provide the basic knowledge necessary for a correct sizing of such plants. The report's main emphasis is placed on three types of geothermal plant, bore-hole heat exchangers, groundwater use and energy pile installations. The concept of the training programme involved is described, which is to issue certificates and labels for the attainment of three levels of ability. These three levels (Labels A, B and C) cover simple, small plants for heating operation, medium sized plants within a heating capacity range of 30 to approximately 100 kW and large plants for heating and cooling operation with heat capacities greater than 100 kW, respectively. The report also includes details of the time-line aimed for and costs. Also, the idea of an annual prize for geothermal installations is briefly discussed.

  18. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.

  19. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  20. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  1. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  2. A cumulative entropy method for distribution recognition of model error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a cumulative entropy method (CEM) to recognize the most suitable distribution for model error. In terms of the CEM, the Lévy stable distribution is employed to capture the statistical properties of model error. The strategies are tested on 250 experiments of axially loaded CFT steel stub columns in conjunction with the four national building codes of Japan (AIJ, 1997), China (DL/T, 1999), the Eurocode 4 (EU4, 2004), and United States (AISC, 2005). The cumulative entropy method is validated as more computationally efficient than the Shannon entropy method. Compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square deviation, the CEM provides alternative and powerful model selection criterion to recognize the most suitable distribution for the model error.

  3. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  4. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites - Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla, which was previously called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely reequilibrated. Since mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, it is inferred that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. It is argued that the nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  5. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...... exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  6. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  7. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern alaskan landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D A; Webber, P J; Binnian, E F; Everett, K R; Lederer, N D; Nordstrand, E A; Walker, M D

    1987-11-06

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  8. Effective Carrier Sensing in CSMA Networks under Cumulative Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Liqun; Huang, Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates the concept of a safe carrier-sensing range that can guarantee interference safe (also termed hidden-node-free) transmissions in CSMA networks under the cumulative interference model. Compared with the safe carrier-sensing range under the commonly assumed but less realistic pairwise interference model, we show that the safe carrier-sensing range required under the cumulative interference model is larger by a constant multiplicative factor. The concept of a safe carrier-sensing range, although amenable to elegant analytical results, is inherently not compatible with the conventional power threshold carrier-sensing mechanism (e.g., that used in IEEE 802.11). Specifically, the absolute power sensed by a node in the conventional mechanism does not contain enough information for it to derive its distances from other concurrent transmitter nodes. We show that, fortunately, a carrier-sensing mechanism called Incremental-Power Carrier-Sensing (IPCS) can realize the carrier-sensing...

  9. Cumulants and Correlation Functions vs the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Bzdak, Adam; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this note we discuss the relation of particle number cumulants and correlation functions related to them. It is argued that measuring couplings of the genuine correlation functions could provide cleaner information on possible non-trivial dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. We extract integrated multi-particle correlation functions from the presently available experimental data on proton cumulants. We find that the STAR data contain significant four-particle correlations, at least at the lower energies, with indication of changing dynamics in central collisions. We also find that these correlations are rather long-ranged in rapidity. Finally based on the signs of genuine correlation functions we provide exclusion plots for the QCD phase diagram.

  10. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  11. Planning and installing micro-hydro systems a guide for designers, installers and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Chris

    2014-01-01

    An essential addition to the Earthscan Planning & Installing series, Planning and Installing Micro-Hydro Systems provides vital diagrams, pictures and tables detailing the planning and installing of a micro-hydro system, including information on the maintenance and economics once an installation is running. The book covers subjects such as measuring head and flow, ecological impacts, scheme layouts, practical advice, calculations and turbine choice. Archimedes screws are also covered in detail, as well as the main conventional choices relevant to small sites.Micro-hydro refers to hydropower sy

  12. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  13. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  14. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  15. The cumulation of methylmercury in fish (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stary, J.; Kratzer, K.; Havlik, B.; Prasilova, J.; Hanusova, J.

    1980-01-01

    Methylmercury labelled with mercury-203 was used for the investigation of the uptake and the release of methylmercury in fish. It has been found that methylmercury compounds adsorbed on fish food remain completely in fish and that they are released with the biological half-time of 110 days. The cumulation of methylmercury from water is very rapid. Equations for the calculation of the concentration of methylmercury in fish were derived and compared with the uptake of phenylmercury and inorganic mercury.

  16. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  17. [Cumulative effect of Coriolis acceleration on coronary hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, E V; Bednenko, V S

    1985-01-01

    Time-course variations in coronary circulation and cardiac output were measured in 29 healthy test subjects who performed tests with a continuous cumulation of Coriolis accelerations and in 12 healthy test subjects who were exposed to Coriolis accelerations combined with acute hypoxia. Adaptive changes in coronary circulation were seen. It is recommended to monitor coronary circulation during vestibulometric tests as part of medical expertise of the flying personnel.

  18. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  19. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  20. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  1. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize sources using sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  2. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize N−3 sources using N sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  3. Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Boekelheide, Kim; Catlin, Natasha; Gordon, Christopher J; Morata, Thais; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sexton, Kenneth; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and "doses" of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled "Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors" held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.

  4. Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-11-01

    A massive literature documents the inverse association between poverty or low socioeconomic status and health, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this robust relation. We examined longitudinal relations between duration of poverty exposure since birth, cumulative risk exposure, and physiological stress in two hundred seven 13-year-olds. Chronic stress was assessed by basal blood pressure and overnight cortisol levels; stress regulation was assessed by cardiovascular reactivity to a standard acute stressor and recovery after exposure to this stressor. Cumulative risk exposure was measured by multiple physical (e.g., substandard housing) and social (e.g., family turmoil) risk factors. The greater the number of years spent living in poverty, the more elevated was overnight cortisol and the more dysregulated was the cardiovascular response (i.e., muted reactivity). Cardiovascular recovery was not affected by duration of poverty exposure. Unlike the duration of poverty exposure, concurrent poverty (i.e., during adolescence) did not affect these physiological stress outcomes. The effects of childhood poverty on stress dysregulation are largely explained by cumulative risk exposure accompanying childhood poverty.

  5. Multiway Filtering Based on Fourth-Order Cumulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Bourennane

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiway filtering based on fourth-order cumulants for the denoising of noisy data tensor with correlated Gaussian noise. The classical multiway filtering is based on the TUCKALS3 algorithm that computes a lower-rank tensor approximation. The presented method relies on the statistics of the analyzed multicomponent signal. We first recall how the well-known lower rank-(K1,…,KN tensor approximation processed by TUCKALS3 alternating least square algorithm exploits second-order statistics. Then, we propose to introduce the fourth-order statistics in the TUCKALS3-based method. Indeed, the use of fourth-order cumulants enables to remove the Gaussian components of an additive noise. In the presented method the estimation of the n-mode projector on the n-mode signal subspace are built from the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of a fourth-order cumulant slice matrix instead of a covariance matrix. Each projector is applied by means of the n-mode product operator on the n-mode of the data tensor. The qualitative results of the improved multiway TUCKALS3-based filterings are shown for the case of noise reduction in a color image and multicomponent seismic data.

  6. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  7. Fiber glass and rock/slag wool exposure of professional and do-it-yourself installers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; Eastes, Walter; Hadley, John G; Carter, Charles M; Reynolds, Janis W; Niebo, Ron

    2003-02-01

    The fiber glass (FG) and rock/slag wool (RSW) manufacturers have developed a Health and Safety Partnership Program (HSPP) with the participation and oversight of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Among its many provisions the HSPP includes the continuing study of FG and RSW workplace concentrations in manufacturing facilities operated by FG/RSW producers and among their customers and end users. This analysis estimates the probable cumulative lifetime exposure (fiber-months/cubic centimeter [f-months/cc]) to those who install FG and RSW insulation in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings in Canada and the United States. Both professional and do-it-yourself (DIY) cohorts are studied and the estimated working lifetime exposures are compared with benchmark values derived from an analysis of the epidemiological studies of FG and RSW manufacturing cohorts. The key finding of this analysis is that both of these end-user cohorts are likely to have substantially lower cumulative lifetime exposures than the manufacturing cohorts. As the most recent updates of the epidemiological studies concluded that there was no significant increase in respiratory system cancer among the manufacturing cohorts, there is likely to be even less risk for the installer cohorts. This analysis also underscores the wisdom of stewardship activities in the HSPP, particularly those directed at measuring and controlling exposure.

  8. Linker Installation: Engineering Pore Environment with Precisely Placed Functionalities in Zirconium MOFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Ying-Pin; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Lu, Weigang; Zou, Lanfang; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Xing; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2016-07-20

    Precise placement of multiple functional groups in a highly ordered metal-organic framework (MOF) platform allows the tailoring of the pore environment, which is required for advanced applications. To realize this, we present a comprehensive study on the linker installation method, in which a stable MOF with coordinatively unsaturated Zr6 clusters was employed and linkers bearing different functional groups were postsynthetically installed. A Zr-MOF with inherent missing linker sites, namely, PCN-700, was initially constructed under kinetic control. Twelve linkers with different substituents were then designed to study their effect on MOF formation kinetics and therefore resulting MOF structures. Guided by the geometrical analysis, linkers with different lengths were installed into a parent PCN-700, giving rise to 11 new MOFs and each bearing up to three different functional groups in predefined positions. Systematic variation of the pore volume and decoration of pore environment were realized by linker installation, which resulted in synergistic effects including an enhancement of H2 adsorption capacities of up to 57%. In addition, a size-selective catalytic system for aerobic alcohol oxidation reaction is built in PCN-700 through linker installation, which shows high activity and tunable size selectivity. Altogether, these results exemplify the capability of the linker installation method in the pore environment engineering of stable MOFs with multiple functional groups, giving an unparalleled level of control.

  9. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system.Photo 01: Pictured with the newly installed magnet and transport system in the transfer line tunnel are (left to right) Volker Mertens, responsible for the LHC injection and transfer lines; personnel involved in tr...

  10. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system.Photos 01, 02: Pictured with the newly installed magnet and transport system in the transfer line tunnel are LHC project leader Lyn Evans (second left, white helmet); Volker Mertens, responsible for the LHC injecti...

  11. Installing and Testing a Server Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the experience of the author with the FreeBSD server operating system administration on three servers in use under academicdirect.ro domain.The paper describes a set of installation, preparation, and administration aspects of a FreeBSD server.First issue of the paper is the installation procedure of FreeBSD operating system on i386 computer architecture. Discussed problems are boot disks preparation and using, hard disk partitioning and operating system installation using a existent network topology and a internet connection.Second issue is the optimization procedure of operating system, server services installation, and configuration. Discussed problems are kernel and services configuration, system and services optimization.The third issue is about client-server applications. Using operating system utilities calls we present an original application, which allows displaying the system information in a friendly web interface. An original program designed for molecular structure analysis was adapted for systems performance comparisons and it serves for a discussion of Pentium, Pentium II and Pentium III processors computation speed.The last issue of the paper discusses the installation and configuration aspects of dial-in service on a UNIX-based operating system. The discussion includes serial ports, ppp and pppd services configuration, ppp and tun devices using.

  12. Global solar PV installations grew in 2015 and will continue this trend over the coming years; La fotovoltaica crece en 2015 a nivel mundial y lo seguir@ haciendo en los pr@ximos a@os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    According to preliminary numbers from GTM Research, 59 GW of solar PV were installed globally in 2015, representing a 34% increase over 2014 total. The fourth quarter of 2015 showed that global PV demand is very much at the mercy of government support, which can often be unpredictable and idiosyncratic, frequently leading to negative, although occasionally positive, outcomes. By the end of 2016, cumulative installations will reach 321 GW. (Author)

  13. El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin duda alguna al A. Dugandii StandI. Por otra parte, Santiago Cortés (FI. Colomb. 206. 1898; ed, 2: 239. 1912 cita el Cumulá "de Anapoima y otros lugares del (rio Magdalena" diciendo que pertenece a las Leguminosas, pero la brevísima descripción que este autor hace de la madera "naranjada y notable por densidad, dureza y resistencia a la humedad", me induce a creer que se trata del mismo Cumula coleccionado recientemente en Tocaima, ya que esta población esta situada a pocos kilómetros de Anapoima. Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin

  14. Evaluation of Double Perforated Baffles Installed in Rectangular Secondary Clarifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byonghi Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Double perforated baffles in rectangular secondary clarifiers were studied to determine whether they contribute to producing high-quality effluents. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations indicated that bio-flocculation occurred at the front of the baffle and the longitudinal movement of the settled sludge was hampered whenever the clarifier had high inflow. Simulation results showed that the rectangular clarifier with the double perforated baffle produced an effluent with lower suspended solid (SS concentrations than the effluent from the clarifier without the baffle. To verify the simulation results, a double perforated baffle was installed in two of the 48 rectangular clarifiers in a 300,000 m3/d-capacity wastewater treatment plant. To study the effect of the baffle on solid removal, the effluent turbidity of the clarifier with and without the double perforated baffle was measured simultaneously. Experimental data showed that the double perforated baffle played a significant role in reducing effluent turbidity. The effluent turbidity reduction ratio with the baffle decreased when the Sludge Volume Index (SVI of the Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS was below 100 mL/g. The overall average reduction ratio was 24.3% for SVI < 100 mL/g and 45.1% for SVI > 100 mL/g. The results of this study suggest that double perforated baffles must be installed in secondary rectangular clarifiers to produce high-quality effluent regardless of the operational conditions.

  15. VERA 3.5 Installation Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Roscoe A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baird, Mark L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Berrill, Mark A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kulesza, Joel A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mervin, Brenden T. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-08-16

    This guide describes the structure and setup of the standard VERA development environment (VERA Dev Env) and standard VERA Third Party Libraries (TPLs) that need to be in place before installing many of the VERA simulation components. It describes everything from the initial setup on a new machine to the final build, testing, and installation of VERA components. The goal of this document is to describe how to create the directories and contents outlined in Standard VERA Dev Env Directory Structure and then obtain the remaining VERA source and build, test, and install any of the necessary VERA components on a given system. This document describes the process both for a development version of VERA and for a released tarball of the VERA sources.

  16. An installation for steam conversion of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-01-28

    An installation is proposed for steam conversion of a hydrocarbon gas in order to produce an inorganic gas which chiefly consists of H2 and CO in which the line for feeding the hydrocarbon gas has a steam generator which has a microcapillary structure made of sponge metal, inorganic heat resistant fibers of glass, Si02, Al203 or carbon, inorganic heat resistant fibers twisted into a fiber or a cord of multipore ceramic material; the installation is equipped with a heater which regulates the water temperature, in which the steam generator is submerged. The installation is designed for converting natural gas, C3H8, other hydrocarbon gases and vapors of liquid hydrocarbons (Uv) into H2 and CO. The design and disposition of the steam generator simplify the design of the device, eliminating the pump for feeding the steam and the device for premixing of the steam and hydrocarbon gas.

  17. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cove, Columbia, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Information is presented concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water. Included are such items as principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system. Also included are trouble-shooting charts and maintenance schedules.

  18. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Kim, Y. S.; Lee, C. Y. and others

    1999-03-01

    The principal contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop in HANARO for nuclear technology development. Procurement and fabrication of main equipment, licensing and technical review for fuel test loop have been performed during 2 years(1997, 1998) for this project. Following contents are described in the report. - Procurement and fabrication of the equipment, piping for OPS - IPS manufacture - License - Technical review and evaluation of the FTL facility. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and review ofHANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author)

  19. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The completed system was composed of three basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3,264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which included a 5,000 gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which included piping, pumping and heat transfer components as well as the solemoid activated valves and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and was, therefore, a retrofit system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  20. Tolley's industrial and commercial gas installation practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hazlehurst, John

    2010-01-01

    This is the third of three essential reference volumes for those concerned with the installation and servicing of domestic and industrial gas equipment. This volume explains the basic principles underlying the practical and theoretical aspects of installing and servicing gas appliances and associated equipment, from the basics of combustion, to burners, pressure and flow, transfer of heat, controls, as well as materials and processes, electrical aspects, and metering and measuring devices. Covering both Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas, the many illustrations and worked examples include

  1. High voltage electricity installations a planning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jay, Stephen Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The presence of high voltage power lines has provoked widespread concern for many years. High Voltage Electricity Installations presents an in-depth study of policy surrounding the planning of high voltage installations, discussing the manner in which they are percieved by the public, and the associated environmental issues. An analysis of these concerns, along with the geographical, environmental and political influences that shape their expression, is presented. Investigates local planning policy in an area of the energy sector that is of highly topical environmental and public concern Cover

  2. OPIUM : optimal package install/ uninstall manager

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Christopher James

    2008-01-01

    Linux distributions often include package management tools such as apt-get in Debian or yum in RedHat. Using information about package dependencies and conflicts, such tools can determine how to install a new package (and its dependencies on a system of already installed packages. Using off-the-shelf SAT solvers, pseudo-boolean solvers, and Integer Linear Programming solvers, we have developed a new package-management tool, called Opium, that improves on current tools in two ways: (1) Opium i...

  3. Emotional intelligence: an admission criterion alternative to cumulative grade point averages for prelicensure students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan; Harper, Mary G

    2014-03-01

    Predicting potential student success is of great interest to nursing educators and academic administrators alike. Cumulative grade point average (CGPA) has traditionally been used to screen nursing program candidates, but CGPA itself has shown to have no statistically significant predictive value and may in fact screen out individuals who possess social intelligence attributes that are essential for success in nursing practice. The purpose of this study is to determine if students whose emotional intelligence characteristics meet or exceed those of successful staff nurses are more likely to be successful in a baccalaureate nursing program. A descriptive, correlational design was used to compare the emotional intelligence attributes of 116 potential nursing students and 42 successful staff nurses using the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). Nursing students who remained in the nursing program were found to have significantly higher levels of total emotional intelligence, interpersonal capacity, and stress tolerance. Students who dropped from the nursing program were not significantly different from successful staff nurses in terms of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence presents a compelling adjunct to current selection criteria for nursing students. However, the lack of research prevents widespread adoption of this criterion. This study suggests that students with higher levels of emotional intelligence, particularly intrapersonal capacity and stress tolerance, are more likely to be successful in a baccalaureate nursing program than students with lower levels. Further research is needed to determine the usefulness of EI as a predictor of student success in nursing programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of installers for thermo-technical installations when buying gas boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the research of role installers for thermo-technical installations when buying gas boilers in the Serbian market. Considering the fact that installers are significantly different, they are grouped by specific, relevant characteristics. The research is focused on the evaluation of marketing mix instruments by nine identified segments of installers. Moreover, research has been explored deeper through conclusion installers about the most important and most credible sources of information on gas boilers. During the research were used secondary and primary data sources. Besides the research at the table, field research has been also done by unstructured personal communication. All collected data were analyzed in details and both hypothesis were tested, where one of them is partially confirmed, and another one fully confirm. Given results can be useful for marketers and their anticipation of demand. Also these results can be used for creating optimal marketing strategy in the Serbian market of gas boilers.

  5. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  6. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...... capacity to run more trains is examined. The paper presents a method to examine the expected capacity utilization of future timetables. The method is based on the plan of operation instead of the exact (known) timetable. At the end of the paper it is described how it is possible to make capacity statements...

  7. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  8. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  9. Installation of a Low Flow Unit at the Abiquiu Hydroelectric Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Q. Richardson

    2012-06-28

    Final Technical Report for the Recovery Act Project for the Installation of a Low Flow Unit at the Abiquiu Hydroelectric Facility. The Abiquiu hydroelectric facility existed with two each 6.9 MW vertical flow Francis turbine-generators. This project installed a new 3.1 MW horizontal flow low flow turbine-generator. The total plant flow range to capture energy and generate power increased from between 250 and 1,300 cfs to between 75 and 1,550 cfs. Fifty full time equivalent (FTE) construction jobs were created for this project - 50% (or 25 FTE) were credited to ARRA funding due to the ARRA 50% project cost match. The Abiquiu facility has increased capacity, increased efficiency and provides for an improved aquatic environment owing to installed dissolved oxygen capabilities during traditional low flow periods in the Rio Chama. A new powerhouse addition was constructed to house the new turbine-generator equipment.

  10. Mapping cumulative noise from shipping to inform marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; MacGillivray, Alexander; Williams, Rob

    2012-11-01

    Including ocean noise in marine spatial planning requires predictions of noise levels on large spatiotemporal scales. Based on a simple sound transmission model and ship track data (Automatic Identification System, AIS), cumulative underwater acoustic energy from shipping was mapped throughout 2008 in the west Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, showing high noise levels in critical habitats for endangered resident killer whales, exceeding limits of "good conservation status" under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Error analysis proved that rough calculations of noise occurrence and propagation can form a basis for management processes, because spending resources on unnecessary detail is wasteful and delays remedial action.

  11. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Eric J; Bristow, Michael R

    2001-01-01

    Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II) have demonstrated a mortality benefit of beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of beta-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  12. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources

  13. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bristow Michael R

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II have demonstrated a mortality benefit of β-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of β-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  14. Generalized Cumulative Residual Entropy for Distributions with Unrestricted Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noomane Drissi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the cumulative residual entropy (CRE a recently introduced measure of entropy. While in previous works distributions with positive support are considered, we generalize the definition of CRE to the case of distributions with general support. We show that several interesting properties of the earlier CRE remain valid and supply further properties and insight to problems such as maximum CRE power moment problems. In addition, we show that this generalized CRE can be used as an alternative to differential entropy to derive information-based optimization criteria for system identification purpose.

  15. On the Modelling of Pile Installation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis introduces two different types of physical model tests to investigate the stress and density change in the soil during installation of a jacked pile as well as two numerical modelling approaches to model the same process in a finite element code capable of large deformations.

  16. Standard hydrogen monitoring system equipment installation instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the technical specifications for the equipment fabrication, installation, and sitework construction for the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System is designed to remove gases from waste tank vapor space and exhaust headers for continual monitoring and remote sample analysis.

  17. Safety and Inspection Planning of Older Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Ersdal, G.

    2007-01-01

    time intervals for ageing structures. Different approaches for updating inspection plans for older installations are proposed.The most promising method consists in increasing the rate of crack initiations at the end of the expected lifetime - corresponding to a bath-tube hazard rate effect.The approach...

  18. First detector installed inside the ALICE solenoid...

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's emblematic red magnet welcomed its first detector on 23 September, when the array of seven Cherenkov detectors, named HMPID, was successfully installed. ALICE team members standing in front of the completed HMPID detector.The red magnet, viewed from its front opening. The HMPID unit, seen from the back (top right corner of photo) is placed on a frame and lifted onto a platform during the installation. After the installation of the ACORDE scintillator array and the muon trigger and tracking chambers, the ALICE collaboration fitted the first detector inside the solenoid. The HMPID, for High Momentum Particle Identification, was installed at the 2 o'clock position in the central and most external region of the space frame, just below the solenoid yoke. It will be used to extend the hadron identification capability of the ALICE experiment up to 5 GeV/c, thus complementing the reach of the other particle identification systems (ITS, TPC and TOF). The HMPID is a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in a...

  19. Installations solaires photovoltaïques

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Cet ouvrage présente les règles de conception et de mise en œuvre des installations photovoltaïques raccordées au réseau public de distribution à basse tension. Il s’applique aux bâtiments neufs et existants et concerne non seulement les petites installations résidentielles, d’une puissance de l’ordre de quelques kWc, mais aussi celles des bâtiments collectifs, tertiaires ou agricoles. Il traite successivement : - des fondamentaux de l'énergie solaire photovoltaïque (gisement solaire, principe de la conversion, composants d'une installation...) ; - du dimensionnement de l'installation (choix des matériels, règles de conception, estimation de l'énergie récupérable...) ; - de sa mise en oeuvre (travail en hauteur, habilitation électrique, mise en service, maintenance...) ; - des démarches administratives nécessaires (aides financières, accès au réseau de distribution, vente de l'électricité produite...).

  20. A tangible digital installation in the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    : facilitating the emergence of imagination and conceptual thinking, and managing the interplay between cooperation and competition. This cooperation originates from one of the teachers’ interest in MicroCulture, a digital and tangible installation earlier created by the authors and aimed at bridging history...

  1. Installation of the ALICE dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The large dipole magnet is installed on the ALICE detector at CERN. This magnet, which is cooled by demineralised water, will bend the path of muons that leave the huge rectangular solenoid (in the background). These muons are heavy electrons that interact less with matter, allowing them to traverse the main section of the detector.

  2. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  3. Participatory ergonomics applied in installation work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.M. de; Vink, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates a step-by-step participatory approach to better work, applied in reducing the musculoskeletal workload in installation work. To arrive at a reduction in workload, a steering group led the project through the following steps: Introduction: defining the goal and informing all 7000

  4. 14 CFR 23.1061 - Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Liquid Cooling § 23.1061 Installation. (a) General. Each liquid-cooled engine must have an independent cooling system (including coolant... must be treated to prevent absorption of flammable fluids; and (4) No air or vapor can be trapped...

  5. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 19 February, the very first magnet was installed in one of the two tunnels that will house the transfer lines leading to the LHC. This magnet, recycled from a previous facility, was transported and positioned using a novel system designed for conveying large objects through narrow tunnels.

  6. Tow techniques for marine pipeline installation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Tow techniques for marine pipelines frequently offer competitive and commercially attactive solutions over other installation methods and, on occasion, may represent the only alternative to traditional techniques. An assessment is also made of where each tow method is applicable and technically feas

  7. 30 CFR 817.180 - Utility installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.180 Utility installations. All underground mining activities shall be conducted in a manner...; oil, gas, and coal-slurry pipelines, railroads; electric and telephone lines; and water and sewage...

  8. Installed capacity of coal seam gas power generation exceeds 480 MW under SGCC s coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The journalist learned from the "National Gas Security Working Conference" held recently that the coal seam gas power generation has been rapidly developed in recent years.As of July 2009,within the SGCC's business area,the power generation units

  9. Determining source cumulants in femtoscopy with Gram-Charlier and Edgeworth series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, H. C.; De Kock, M. B.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Lowest-order cumulants provide important information on the shape of the emission source in femtoscopy. For the simple case of noninteracting identical particles, we show how the fourth-order source cumulant can be determined from measured cumulants in momentum space. The textbook Gram–Charlier s...

  10. High-resolution harmonic retrieval using the full fourth-order cumulant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Naus, H.W.L.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The harmonic retrieval (HR) problem concerns the estimation of the frequencies in a sum of real or complex harmonics. Both correlation and cumulant-based approaches are used for this purpose. Cumulant-based HR algorithms use a single 1-D slice of the fourth-order cumulant that is estimated directly

  11. 75 FR 69662 - Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information on...: Notice of Peer Consultation Workshop on the Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates; Request... phthalates as set forth in the National Academies of Science (NAS) report ``Phthalates and Cumulative...

  12. Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-09-07

    The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this year’s report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

  13. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  14. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  15. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  16. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  17. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  18. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  19. Extraction of Facial Feature Points Using Cumulative Histogram

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Sushil Kumar; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive algorithm to extract facial feature points automatically such as eyebrows corners, eyes corners, nostrils, nose tip, and mouth corners in frontal view faces, which is based on cumulative histogram approach by varying different threshold values. At first, the method adopts the Viola-Jones face detector to detect the location of face and also crops the face region in an image. From the concept of the human face structure, the six relevant regions such as right eyebrow, left eyebrow, right eye, left eye, nose, and mouth areas are cropped in a face image. Then the histogram of each cropped relevant region is computed and its cumulative histogram value is employed by varying different threshold values to create a new filtering image in an adaptive way. The connected component of interested area for each relevant filtering image is indicated our respective feature region. A simple linear search algorithm for eyebrows, eyes and mouth filtering images and contour algorithm for nos...

  20. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Johnson; Simon Wing

    2004-01-28

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach.

  1. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  2. Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cantone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable definitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been verified with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily finite sets, we illustrate a particularly significant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramifies into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.

  3. Prefiltering and Cumulant Based Harmonic Retrieval in Mixed ARMA Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShenghong; LIJianhua; XUEZhi; CHENLiya

    2005-01-01

    Harmonic retrieval is an important issue in the the field of statistical signal processing. However, in the case of harmonic retrieval in mixed colored Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Autoregressive movingaverage (ARMA) noises, the corresponding existing approaches can not retrieve a harmonic signal either with quadratic phase coupling components, or with cubic phase coupling components, or when the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise is symmetrically distributed. In this paper, a new general approach is proposed to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed ARMA noises. A suitable filter is first used to remove all the sharp power spectrum peaks of the noisy observed process, then some kind of fourth-order cumulant is employed to identify the Autoregressive (AR) parameter values of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise model. After the real noisy observed data are filtered with the identified AR parameter values again, cumulant based methods can be made use of to retrieve the harmonics. The proposed new approach can be applied to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed colored Gaussian and non-Gaussian ARMA noises with no restrictions on the phase coupling of the harmonics and the distribution of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  4. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites: Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R.P.; McSween, H.Y. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

    1992-04-01

    A simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla has previously been called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Instead, diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely re-equilibrated. Only the cores of augite grains in Nakhla and Governador Valadares appear to have preserved their original compositions. Mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, suggesting that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. The presence of pigeonite and orthopyroxene overgrowths in Nakhla and Governador Valadares, and of poikilitic orthopyroxene enclosing olivine relicts in Lafayette, indicate substantial late-magmatic reactions. Two-pyroxene geothermometry for Lafayette indicates temperatures around 95C, suggesting subsolidus equilibration as well. The nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  5. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  6. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  7. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  8. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...

  9. 49 CFR 192.201 - Required capacity of pressure relieving and limiting stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Design of Pipeline Components § 192.201 Required capacity of pressure relieving and limiting stations. (a) Each pressure relief station or pressure limiting station or group of those stations installed to... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required capacity of pressure relieving...

  10. Installed Base Registration of Decentralised Solar Panels with Applications in Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsen, R.; Janssen, M.; Ramkisoen, M.; Biljecki, F.; Quak, W.; Verbree, E.

    2015-08-01

    In case of a calamity in the Netherlands - e.g. a dike breach - parts of the nationwide electric network can fall out. In these occasions it would be useful if decentralised energy sources of the Smart Grid would contribute to balance out the fluctuations of the energy network. Decentralised energy sources include: solar energy, wind energy, combined heat and power, and biogas. In this manner, parts of the built environment - e.g. hospitals - that are in need of a continuous power flow, could be secured of this power. When a calamity happens, information about the Smart Grid is necessary to control the crisis and to ensure a shared view on the energy networks for both the crisis managers and network operators. The current situation of publishing, storing and sharing data of solar energy has been shown a lack of reliability about the current number, physical location, and capacity of installed decentralised photovoltaic (PV) panels in the Netherlands. This study focuses on decentralised solar energy in the form of electricity via PV panels in the Netherlands and addresses this challenge by proposing a new, reliable and up-to-date database. The study reveals the requirements for a registration of the installed base of PV panels in the Netherlands. This new database should serve as a replenishment for the current national voluntary registration, called Production Installation Register of Energy Data Services Netherland (EDSN-PIR), of installed decentralised PV panel installations in the Smart Grid, and provide important information in case of a calamity.

  11. The Effects of Time on Soil Behaviour and Pile Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    this into account. This implies that the design methods used today do not in general make use of the full capacity of piles. This thesis is based on a number of scientific papers and reports that deal with elements of pile design and time effects in soils in general. With regard to pile design, focus is placed...... foundations. Further, design methods that take no account of time will be subject to considerable error unless they consider a tightly specified age range. Time functions (relation between time after installation and capacity), which have been offered for quantifying set-up for piles in clay, are investigated....... Therefore, the design of piles has remained a constant source of attention, especially with regard to the methodology for predicting the capacity. Three very different design methods for piles in both clay and sand are assessed by comparing predicted capacities with measured capacities from established...

  12. Financial guarantees for the wastes storage installations; Garanties financieres pour les installations de stockage de dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The law of the 19 july 1976 specifies that the implementing of wastes storage installations, which present a risk for the public health or for the soils contamination, is submitted to financial guarantees settlement. These guarantees are devoted to provide the survey of the site and the safety control of the installation (accidents and rehabilitation). This paper presents the new rules of the financial guarantees calculation and specifies the application field. Example of cost and calculation are included. (A.L.B.)

  13. Use of a Cumulative Risk Scale to Predict Poor Intellectual and Academic Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Scarborough, Vanessa Ramos; Salorio, Cynthia F

    2016-06-01

    Discrete risk factors for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy have been identified, but it is unclear whether the combined effect of several risk factors better predicts outcome. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed to quantify cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy. Participants included 156 clinic-referred children with epilepsy. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed using variables previously associated with functional outcomes. Scale utility was examined through its association with intellectual and academic functioning. All Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale variables were significantly associated with functioning. The Total Score (ie, cumulative effect) was most strongly correlated with cognition and academic skills. A Total Score ≥ 5 had the best sensitivity and specificity for differentiating those at high risk for poor outcomes. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale shows promise as a practical, data-driven tool for quantification of cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy and may be helpful in detecting those needing referral for additional services.

  14. CosmoMC Installation and Running Guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    CosmoMC is a Fortran 95 Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) engine to explore the cosmological parameter space, plus a Python suite for plotting and presenting results (see http://cosmologist.info/cosmomc/). This document describes the installation of the CosmoMC on a Linux system (Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS 64-bit version). It is written for those who want to use it in their scientific research but without much training on Linux and the program. Besides a step-by-step installation guide, we also give a brief introduction of how to run the program on both a desktop and a cluster. We share our way to generate the plots that are commonly used in the references of cosmology. For more information, one can refer to the CosmoCoffee forum (http://cosmocoffee.info/viewforum.php?f=11) or contact the authors of this document. Questions and comments would be much appreciated.

  15. Software safety analysis practice in installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shyu, S. S., E-mail: hwhwang@iner.gov.t [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000 Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Longtan Township, 32546 Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    This work performed a software safety analysis in the installation phase of the Lung men nuclear power plant in Taiwan, under the cooperation of Institute of Nuclear Energy Research and Tpc. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission requests licensee to perform software safety analysis and software verification and validation in each phase of software development life cycle with Branch Technical Position 7-14. In this work, 37 safety grade digital instrumentation and control systems were analyzed by failure mode and effects analysis, which is suggested by IEEE standard 7-4.3.2-2003. During the installation phase, skew tests for safety grade network and point to point tests were performed. The failure mode and effects analysis showed all the single failure modes can be resolved by the redundant means. Most of the common mode failures can be resolved by operator manual actions. (Author)

  16. Integrated installation for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, J.; Bowerman, H.

    2003-07-01

    A project to investigate the feasibility of integrating the offshore installation of foundation, turbine and tower for offshore wind turbines into one operation is described. Three separate objectives are listed. They are: (1) Telescopic tower study - reversible process incorporating lift and lock mechanisms; (2) Transportation study - technical and economic feasibility of transporting and installing a wind turbine unit via a standard barge with minimal conversion and (3) Self-burial system study - to demonstrate the feasibility of self burial of a slab foundation via controlled jetting beneath the slab. The background to the study and the proposed concepts are discussed. The work carried out to date and the costs are reported together with the findings. Recommendations for future work are listed. The work was carried out by Corus UK Ltd and is managed by Future Energy Solutions for the DTI.

  17. The installation of the Gerda muon veto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai; Dietrich, Dennis; Grabmayr, Peter; Hegai, Alexander; Jochum, Josef; Knapp, Markus; Meierhofer, Georg; Ritter, Florian [Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Gerda collaboration aims to determine the half-life of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. Due to the long half life of this decay (T{sub 1/2}>10{sup 25}y), the experimental background must be reduced at least to a level of 10{sup -3} counts/(kg.y.keV) in the region around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}. Cosmic muons induce a part of this dangerous background and must be detected in order to generate a veto signal. Part of this veto system is a water Cherenkov detector surrounding the cryostat which contains the germanium crystals. The Cherenkov veto was simulated, designed and installed by the astroparticle group in Tuebingen. The veto consists of 66 photomultiplier (8 inch), a calibration and monitoring system, reflective VM2000 foil and the control electronics. In this talk the veto, its design and accomplished installation is presented.

  18. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center complete installation of the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand. The new TMS is a state-of-the-art upgrade from the previous system, which was installed when the testing structure was built in the 1960s. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds. It also will allow engineers to measure thrust as they gimbal (or tilt) engines during tests. The new TMS is part of upgrades for the A-1 Test Stand in preparation for testing the next generation of American space program rocket engines.

  19. Installation for producing sealed radioactive sources; Installation de fabrication de sources radioactives scellees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J.; Hayoun, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This installation has been designed and built for producing sealed sources of fission elements: caesium 137, strontium 90, promethium 147, ruthenium 106 and cerium 144 in particular. The installation consists of sealed and protected cells, each being assigned to a particular production. The safety and the operational reliability of the equipment are the principal considerations which have governed this work. The report describes the installation and, in particular, the apparatus used as well as the various control devices. In conclusion, a review as presented of six years operation. (authors) [French] Cette installation a ete concue et realisee pour effectuer des fabrications de sources scellees d'elements de fission: caesium 137 - strontium 90 - promethium 147 - ruthenium 106 - cerium 144 en particulier. L'installation est composee de cellules etanches et protegees, chacune d'elles etant affectee a une fabrication particuliere. La securite et la surete de fonctionnement de l'ensemble sont parmi les elements principaux qui ont guide l'etude. Le rapport decrit l'installation et plus particulierement l'appareillage utilise ainsi que les divers controles et commandes. Le bilan de fonctionnement apres 6 ans d'exploitation sert de conclusion. (auteurs)

  20. Ethnography's Capacity to Contribute to the Cumulation of Theory: A Case Study of Differentiation-Polarisation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyard, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The paper sets out to examine the role that ethnographic work can and should play in the development of sociological theory, focusing on the case study of differentiation-polarisation theory. It provides a detailed discussion of the work of Hargreaves (1967), Lacey (1970) and Ball (1981) and assesses the degree to which their work was ethnographic…

  1. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

  2. CASTOR Calorimeter Installation Review at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2011-01-01

    This test is a part of CASTOR EDR process. The CASTOR phys-tech review held on 14 Jan 2011 and the subsequent EDR held on 17 Jun 2011, the CMS Management Board has endorsed a strategy in which CASTOR is removed during the 2011 Year-End Technical Stop, but is then refurbished, replacing a substantial fraction of the phototubes, so that it is ready for re-installation in the Technical Stop just before 2012 heavy-ion operation.

  3. MICROCOSM - INSTALLATION OF THE LHC MODEL

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This week, installation of a 6m long section of the LHC starts in Microcosm. This full-scale model is the first part of a new exhibition highlighting the technological challenges and the exciting physics of the LHC era. Many people at CERN have helped with the preparations for the model and the Microcosm team would like to thank all those involved. An inauguration for the press will take place at the start of the next school term.

  4. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  5. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...

  6. Numerical simulation of installation of skirt foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelsten, Bjoern Vidar

    1997-12-31

    Skirt foundation has been increasingly used for permanent offshore oil installations and anchors for drilling ships. Suction is commonly used in skirt foundation installing. If a large amount of suction is applied, the soil around the foundation may fail and the foundation become useless. This thesis studies failure due to high seepage gradients, aiming to provide a basis for reducing the risk of such failures. Skirt penetration model testing has shown that to solve the problem one must understand what is going on at the skirt tip during suction installation. A numerical model based on micro mechanics was developed as continuum hypothesis was seen to be unsuitable to describe the processes in the critical phases of the failure. The numerical model combines two-dimensional elliptical particles with the finite difference method for flow to model water flow in a granular material. The key idea is to formulate the permeability as a function of the porosity of the grain assembly and so obtain an interaction between the finite difference method on flow and the particle movement. A computer program, DYNELL, was developed and used to simulate: (1) weight penetration of a skirt wall, (2) combined suction and weight penetration of a skirt wall, and (3) critical gradient tests around a skirt wall to study failure mechanisms. The model calculations agree well with laboratory experiments. 16 refs., 124 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. AWAKE starts the equipment installation phase

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    AWAKE is the proof-of-principle experiment whose aim is to use protons to generate powerful wakefields to accelerate an electron beam. With accelerator gradients hundreds of times higher than those used in current systems, this technique could revolutionise the field of particle acceleration. Installed in the tunnel previously used by the CNGS facility, AWAKE is completing the service installation phase and will receive the plasma cell in the coming months.   The AWAKE proton line with all the magnets installed. (Image: AWAKE collaboration.) AWAKE is the world’s first proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. In AWAKE, a beam of protons from the SPS will be travelling through a plasma cell and this will generate a wakefield that, in turn, will accelerate an electron beam. A laser will ionise the gas in the plasma cell and seed the self-modulation instability that will trigger the wakefield in the plasma. The project aims to prove that the plasma wakefield can be driv...

  8. 76 FR 41142 - Special Conditions; Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... explosion. The severity of thermal runaway due to overcharging increases with increased battery capacity due... extremely remote. The Lithium-battery installation must preclude explosion in the event of those failures... effect on structure or essential systems caused by the maximum amount of heat the battery can...

  9. Solar, Install, Mount, Production, Labor, Equipment Balance of Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Russell [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Al-Haddad, Tristan [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Valdes, Francisco [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caravati, Kevin [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goodman, Joseph [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    Georgia solar industry employs 2,890 solar workers, representing a 12.8% growth in employment over 2013 (Solar Jobs Census, 2014). • Growth of the solar industry: The DOE SIMPLE BoS SunShot Award to GTARC accelerated the growth of the solar industry in Georgia, due to the national publicity of the award and the engagement of numerous solar PV manufacturers, designers, and installers on the SIMPLE BoS project. In 2011 less than 50 megawatts of solar PV capacity existed in Georgia; by 2016 Georgia may reach nearly 800 MW of total approved solar capacity with the 2012 Georgia Power Advanced Solar Initiative. • Technical outreach and publications: Georgia Tech has participated in numerous technical symposiums, technology demonstrations, campus solar PV tours, and produced 18 publications for the solar industry and general public. • Cost reductions for consumers: The SIMPLE BoS pre-commercial systems and discoveries enable cost reductions of 50% or more in labor and materials for residential, commercial and utility scale PV installations.

  10. Mathematical modeling of detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, I.; Utkin, P.; Akhmedyanov, I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper concerns two problems connected with the idea of gaseous detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects and convergence of relatively weak shock waves (SW). The first one is the three-dimensional (3D) numerical investigation of shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) in methane-air mixture in a tube with parabolic contraction followed by the tube section of narrow diameter and conical expansion. The second problem is the numerical study of the start-up of the model small-scale hydrogen electrochemical pulse detonation engine with the use of electrical discharge generating the toroidal SW. The investigation is performed by means of numerical simulation with the use of modern high-performance computing systems.

  11. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Wright, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences...... for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine...... species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap...

  12. Effects of Surface Emitting and Cumulative Collisions on Elliptic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Li; WU Feng-Juan; ZHANG Jing-Bo; TANG Gui-Xin; HUO Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The integral and differential elliptic flow of partons is calculated using the multiphase transport model for Au+Au collisions at centre-of-mass energy √SNN=200 GeV.It is shown that elliptic flow of partons freezing out at early time,which is affected mainly by surface emittance,decreases with time and elliptic flow of partons freezing out at late time,which is dominated by cumulative collisions,increases with time.The elliptic flow of partons freezing out early has a large contribution to the flatting of curve of final differential elliptic flow at large transverse momentum.It is argued that the effect of surface emittance is not neglectable.

  13. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups). PMID:21199845

  14. Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-08-27

    Some researchers have claimed that chimpanzee and human culture rest on homologous cognitive and learning mechanisms. While clearly there are some homologous mechanisms, we argue here that there are some different mechanisms at work as well. Chimpanzee cultural traditions represent behavioural biases of different populations, all within the species' existing cognitive repertoire (what we call the 'zone of latent solutions') that are generated by founder effects, individual learning and mostly product-oriented (rather than process-oriented) copying. Human culture, in contrast, has the distinctive characteristic that it accumulates modifications over time (what we call the 'ratchet effect'). This difference results from the facts that (i) human social learning is more oriented towards process than product and (ii) unique forms of human cooperation lead to active teaching, social motivations for conformity and normative sanctions against non-conformity. Together, these unique processes of social learning and cooperation lead to humans' unique form of cumulative cultural evolution.

  15. Cumulative Laws,Team Assembling Mechanisms Determining Network Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; LIU Qi; YE Qi

    2008-01-01

    A number of researching works have shed light on the field of complex networks recently.We investigate a wide range of real-world networks and find several interesting phenomena.Firstly,almost all of these networks evolve by overlapping new small graphs on former networks.Secondly,not only the degree sequence of the mature network follows a power-law distribution,but also the distribution of the cumulative occurrence times during the growing process are revealed to have a heavy tail.Existing network evolving models do not provide interpretation to these phenomena.We suggest a model based on the team assembling mechanism,which is extracted from the growing processes of real-world networks and requires simple parameters,and produces networks exhibiting these properties observed in the present study and in previous works.

  16. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-02-12

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups).

  17. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  18. The cumulative effect of risk compensation on infection preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxin, Daniel; Sega, Laurentiu; Eaton, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    We study several epidemic models (with and without gender structure) that incorporate risk compensation behavior in response to a lower chance of acquiring the infection as a result of preventive measures that are only partially effective. We show that the cumulative risk compensation that occurs between a high risk susceptible and infectious individual may play an important role in whether the implementation of these measures is successful in lowering the epidemic reproductive number. In addition, we show that certain levels of risk compensation may cancel the benefit of the low infection risk practiced by diagnosed infectious individuals when the goal is a reduction of the epidemic reproductive number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cumulative semantic interference for associative relations in language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Associations between conceptual representations and thematic relations play an important role in the organization of semantic memory. However, language production research on semantic context effects shows that associative (e.g., dog and bone) and categorical relations (dog and horse) seem to diverge. While categorical contexts typically induce semantic interference that has traditionally been taken to reflect competitive lexical selection, evidence for comparable associative modulations is rare. In three experiments we tested whether thematic associations between objects induce cumulative interference in the continuous naming paradigm, assuming that this paradigm hampers lexical selection via the activation of highly active lexical cohorts steadily increasing in size. Indeed, naming times increased linearly with each newly named member of thematic contexts irrespective of the pre-activation of associations before the naming task (Experiment 1), and irrespective of whether categorical links were partially included (Experiments 1 and 2) or entirely absent (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that different types of semantic relations induce interference.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF CUMULATIVE SURFACE LOCATION ERROR FOR TURNING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K. Kiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to create a mechanical model which is suitable to investigate the surface quality in turning processes, based on the Cumulative Surface Location Error (CSLE, which describes the series of the consecutive Surface Location Errors (SLE in roughing operations. In the established model, the investigated CSLE depends on the currently and the previously resulted SLE by means of the variation of the width of cut. The phenomenon of the system can be described as an implicit discrete map. The stationary Surface Location Error and its bifurcations were analysed and flip-type bifurcation was observed for CSLE. Experimental verification of the theoretical results was carried out.

  1. Cumulative protons in 12C fragmentation at intermediate energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov B.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5° have been measured in fragmentation of carbon ions at T0 = 0.3, 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable x in the range 0.9 < x < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quarkgluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8–12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2–0.6% for ninequark clusters.

  2. The modified cumulant expansion for two-dimensional isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, T.; Yanase, S.

    1981-09-01

    The two-dimensional isotropic turbulence in an incompressible fluid is investigated using the modified zero fourth-order cumulant approximation. The dynamical equation for the energy spectrum obtained under this approximation is solved numerically and the similarity laws governing the solution in the energy-containing and enstrophy-dissipation ranges are derived analytically. At large Reynolds numbers the numerical solutions yield the k to the -3rd power inertial subrange spectrum which was predicted by Kraichnan (1967), Leith (1968) and Batchelor (1969), assuming a finite enstrophy dissipation in the inviscid limit. The energy-containing range is found to satisfy an inviscid similarity while the enstrophy-dissipation range is governed by the quasi-equilibrium similarity with respect to the enstrophy dissipation as proposed by Batchelor (1969). There exists a critical time which separates the initial period and the similarity period in which the enstrophy dissipation vanishes and remains non-zero respectively in the inviscid limit.

  3. Cumulative Incidence Association Models for Bivariate Competing Risks Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Fine, Jason P

    2012-03-01

    Association models, like frailty and copula models, are frequently used to analyze clustered survival data and evaluate within-cluster associations. The assumption of noninformative censoring is commonly applied to these models, though it may not be true in many situations. In this paper, we consider bivariate competing risk data and focus on association models specified for the bivariate cumulative incidence function (CIF), a nonparametrically identifiable quantity. Copula models are proposed which relate the bivariate CIF to its corresponding univariate CIFs, similarly to independently right censored data, and accommodate frailty models for the bivariate CIF. Two estimating equations are developed to estimate the association parameter, permitting the univariate CIFs to be estimated either parametrically or nonparametrically. Goodness-of-fit tests are presented for formally evaluating the parametric models. Both estimators perform well with moderate sample sizes in simulation studies. The practical use of the methodology is illustrated in an analysis of dementia associations.

  4. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  5. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg JL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey L Goldberg,1 Amy G Lau,2 Bo Fan,2 Lisa Ford,3 Howard E Greenberg3 1Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Horsham, PA, 3Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA Abstract: Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23 and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17. The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. Keywords: topiramate, uveitis, acute angle-closure glaucoma, drug safety, Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, postmarketing 

  6. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  7. CO diffusion capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, U.

    1979-01-01

    We measured in 287 persons the pulmonary CO diffusion capacity with the steady-state and the single breath methods, applying apnoeic periods of 4 and 10 seconds duration. The aspects methodical significance, polyclinical applicability and pathognostic relevance with respect to other approved pulmonary functional tests are discussed. Differing pulmonary diffusion capacity values found in normal persons or in patients suffering from silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, Boeck's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated and critically evaluated.

  8. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  9. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  10. Problems of effective use of new constructions of electric power installations, based on renewable energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balzannikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays hydraulic and power installations can be defined as power installations that are well-designed in terms of construction and technology and working on renewable energy resources (RER. However wide use of such power stations is interfered by their low performance in comparison with thermal stations, using organic fuel. The purpose of the conducted research in this article is – search of ways to increase the competitiveness of power stations, using RER, in comparison with traditional power stations. In order to achieve the specified purpose the authors solved the following tasks: they analyzed and developed new constructive solutions of the power stations using RER; they developed the power-economic viability method for the choice of key parameters of the power stations working on RER. The researchers also gained the set objectives, using theoretical and experimental methods of calculation connected with physical modeling, the theoretical analysis and use of an economic case of the made decisions. Thus, carried-out analysis of designs of the power stations, based on RER allowed to develop a method of efficiency enhancement of these installations and to solve a problem of wider use of power stations as a part of the installations working on RER. The provided technical solutions of power stations that give the chance to develop new suggestions for improvement of designs of power stations, based on RER and to promote development of recommendations about their competitive recovery. As a result it will allow to create conditions for production of the effective national power stations, based on RER, and cumulative scientific and technical potential, that can be used for further development of nonconventional wind power and hydropower both in Russia, and abroad.

  11. Cumulative Interarrival Time Distributions of Freeway Entrance Ramp Traffic for Traffic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç Öner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative interarrival time (IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized freeway entrance ramps were developed to be used in digital computer traffic simulation models. The data from four different non-signalized entrance ramps (three ramps with a single lane, one ramp with two lanes and two different signalized entrance ramps (both with a single lane were used for developing the cumulative IAT distributions. The cumulative IAT distributions for the signalized and non-signalized entrance ramps were compared with each other and with the cumulative IAT distributions of the lanes for freeways. The comparative results showed that the cumulative IAT distributions for non-signalized entrance ramps are very close to the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway where the maximum absolute difference between the cumulative IAT distribution of the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway and the entrance ramps cumulative IAT distribution was 3%. The cumulative IAT distribution for the signalized entrance ramps was found to be different from the non-signalized entrance ramp cumulative IAT distribution. The approximated cumulative IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized entrance ramp traffic for any hourly traffic volume from a few vehicles/hour up to 2,500 vehicles/hour can be obtained at http://www.ohio.edu/orite/research/uitds.cfm.

  12. Collaboration, Participation and Technology: The San Joaquin Valley Cumulative Health Impacts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. London

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-university partnerships have been shown to produce significant value for both sets of partners by providing reciprocal learning opportunities, (rebuilding bonds of trust, and creating unique venues to formulate and apply research that responds to community interests and informs collaborative solutions to community problems. For such partnerships to be mutually empowering, certain design characteristics are necessary. These include mutual respect for different modes and expressions of knowledge, capacity-building for all parties, and an environment that promotes honest and constructive dialogue about the inevitable tensions associated with the interplay of power/knowledge. This article explores an innovative case of community-university partnerships through participatory action research involving a coalition of environmental justice and health advocates, the San Joaquin Valley Cumulative Health Impacts Project, and researchers affiliated with the University of California, Davis. In particular, we examine how participatory GIS and community mapping can promote co-learning and interdependent science. Keywords Community-based participatory research, environmental justice, Public Participation Geographic Information System

  13. Cumulative impacts study of The Geysers KGRA: public-service impacts of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1982-05-01

    Geothermal development in The Geysers KGRA has affected local public services and fiscal resources in Sonoma, Lake, Mendocino, and Napa counties. Each of these counties underwent rapid population growth between 1970 and 1980, some of which can be attributed to geothermal development. The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in The Geysers is identified. Using three different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in The Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdictions are examined and compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed, and a framework is presented for calculating mitigation costs per unit of public service.

  14. LHC: installation du plus grand trajectographe au silicium du monde

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The installation of the largest silicon trajectograph of the world was concluded at CERN. Thursday December 13 at dawn, the silicon trajectograph with ribbons of CMS (*) began its trip from the principal site of CERN to its installation of experimentation.

  15. Installation of some Cathode Strip Chambers on March 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon

    2004-01-01

    Installation on the Disk of some Cathode Strip Chambers, type ME3/1, produced in the US. The installation has been performed on March 2004 at the CMS experimental site SX5 (P5) in Cessy, neighbouring France.

  16. Basic electrical installation work level 2

    CERN Document Server

    Linsley, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Everything needed to pass the first part of the City & Guilds 2365 Diploma in Electrical InstallationsUpdated in line with the 3rd Amendment of the 17th Edition IET Wiring Regulations, this new edition covers the City & Guilds 2365-02 course. Written in an accessible style with a chapter dedicated to each unit of the syllabus, this book helps you to master each topic before moving on to the next. End of chapter revision questions enable learners to check their understanding and consolidate key concepts learnt in each chapter. With a companion website containing videos, animations, worksheets a

  17. RF installation for the grain disinfestation

    CERN Document Server

    Zajtzev, B V; Kobetz, A F; Rudiak, B I

    2001-01-01

    The ecologically pure method of grain product disinfestations through the grain treatment with the RF electric field is described. The experimental data obtained showed that with strengths of the electrical RF field of E=5 kV/cm and frequency of 80 MHz the relative death rate is 100%.The time of the grain treatment it this case is 1 sec. The pulses with a duration of 600 mu s and repetition rate of 2 Hz were used, the duration of the front was 10 mu s. The schematic layout of installation with a productivity of 50 tones/h and power of 10 kW is given.

  18. Small wind planning and building successful installations

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Nolan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a cohesive guide to achieving successful small wind installations. It is a comprehensive information resource from one of the world's most experienced small wind professionals, covering all the key issues for small wind system development, from site and machine selection to international standards compliance. Engineers who are tasked with planning and developing these small wind systems, from choosing the best site and accurately estimating likely power output to obtaining proper permitting and troubleshooting operational inefficiencies, will find this book an ess

  19. Introduction to Linux installation and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Venkateswarlu, N B

    2008-01-01

    Since early 1970, Unix Operating System has gone through many metamorphosis. As of now many variants of Unix systems are available and some of them are commercial whereas the others are freely available. As a result, many people are becoming Unix/Linux enthusiasts especially in India. Hundreds of Books have been written in the past, which explores various facets of Unix. This book attempts to expose the reader to Linux installations and programming, and it is assumed that the reader has had some prior exposure to an operating system such as Windows, as well as C Programming.

  20. CAST with its micromegas detector installed.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) uses a prototype LHC dipole magnet to search for very weakly interacting neutral particles called axions, which should originate in the core of the Sun. The magnet converts the solar axions to photons which are then detected by an X-ray detector based on Micromegas technology. CAST's Micromegas detector has now been installed. Photos 01 02: General view of the CAST experiment with the Micromegas detector in place. Photo 03: Close-up of the micromegas set-up.

  1. Centaur Rocket Installation in PSL #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Centaur Rocket Installation in PSL - Propulsion Systems Laboratory #1. The RL-10 Rocket was developed by Pratt and Whitney in the late 1950's and tested at the Lewis Research Center (now known as the John H. Glenn Research Lewis Field). This power plant was the propulsion system for NASA's upper stage Centaur rocket and was significant for being the first to use liquid hydrogen and oxygen as fuel. The Centaur suffered a number of early failures, but later proved to be a very successful upper stage for numerous commercial, NASA and military payloads.

  2. Switchgear installations for extremely high voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, M.; Stepinski, B.

    1964-01-01

    The methods by which 750-kV installations can be economically constructed are described. Besides the choice of phase distances and conductors, the possible layouts and circuitry are dealt with and illustrated by results obtained from the basic studies of 750-kV equipment. In conclusion, a comparison of costs is made, both for the individual components and for the overall financial outlay for the arrangements considered; the total and itemized costs of compounds for voltages of 245 to 750 kV according to the present state of the art are also discussed.

  3. Planning and installing photovoltaic systems a guide for installers, architects and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sonnenenergie (DGS)

    2013-01-01

    New third edition of the bestselling manual from the German Solar Energy Society (DGS), showing you the essential steps to plan and install a solar photovoltaic system. With a global focus, it has been updated to include sections on new technology and concepts, new legislation and the current PV market.Updates cover:new developments in inverter and module technologymarket situation worldwide and outlookintegration to the grid (voltage stabilization, frequency, remote control)new legal requirements for installation and planningoperational costs for dismantling and recyclingfeed-in managementnew requirements for fire protectionnew requirements in Europe for electric waste (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment, WEEE) and the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances (RoHS).Also providing information on current developments in system design, economic analysis, operation and maintenance of PV systems, as well as new software tools, hybrid and tracking systems.An essential manual for installers, e...

  4. Installed Cost Benchmarks and Deployment Barriers for Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, Kristen; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Fu, Ran; McClurg, Chris; Huneycutt, Joshua; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-01

    In this report, we fill a gap in the existing knowledge about PV-plus-storage system costs and value by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for residential systems. We also examine other barriers to increased deployment of PV-plus-storage systems in the residential sector. The results are meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede solar plus storage deployment. In addition, our periodic cost benchmarks will document progress in cost reductions over time. To analyze costs for PV-plus-storage systems deployed in the first quarter of 2016, we adapt the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's component- and system-level cost-modeling methods for standalone PV. In general, we attempt to model best-in-class installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. In addition to our original analysis, model development, and review of published literature, we derive inputs for our model and validate our draft results via interviews with industry and subject-matter experts. One challenge to analyzing the costs of PV-plus-storage systems is choosing an appropriate cost metric. Unlike standalone PV, energy storage lacks universally accepted cost metrics, such as dollars per watt of installed capacity and lifetime levelized cost of energy. We explain the difficulty of arriving at a standard approach for reporting storage costs and then provide the rationale for using the total installed costs of a standard PV-plus-storage system as our primary metric, rather than using a system-size-normalized metric.

  5. Sensitivity Tests for Cumulative Damage Function (CDF) for the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chiwoong; Ha, Kwiseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A safety analysis including the design basis and beyond design basis events has been conducted using MARS-LMR. Previous safety limits were based on temperature and the duration time. However, the cumulative damage function (CDF) will be used as the safety limit to evaluate the fuel cladding integrity. Recently, a 4S reactor developed by Toshiba used the same approach for a safety analysis. Therefore, the development a CDF is necessary to evaluate the safety limit for the PGSFR safety analyses. The major keys in the CDF model are behavior of fuel and cladding. It is not easy to obtain a metallic fuel database for a CDF model including the cladding materials. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States is the only major leading group for metallic fuel experiments. They conducted various experiments with various facilities and experimental reactors, for example, EBR-II, FFTF, and TREAT. In addition, they have recently been trying to extend their oxide fuel based a severe accident code, SAS4A/SASSYS, to a metallic fuel version using their metallic fuel database. In this study, the preliminary CDF model was supplemented in the MARS-LMR code. The major source was the SAS4A/SASSYS modules related to fuel and cladding transient behaviors.. In addition, a sensitivity test for some parameters in the CDF model was conducted to evaluate the capability of these models and to find the major parameter of fuel failure. The Cumulative Damage Function is a good indicator for a fuel failure. The major parameters for the CDF model are selected including cladding and fuel temperatures, initial pressure and volume in the gas plenum, clad thickness, and fission power in the fuel pin. The most sensitive parameter is the cladding temperature. Also, cladding thickness and gas pressure in the fuel pin are effective parameters on the CDF. During an actual transient, various parameter including sensitivity test parameters in this study will be changed simultaneously. This study can

  6. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  7. Notes: Installation vs. Echelon Stock Policies for Multilevel Inventory Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Axsäter; Kaj Rosling

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares installation and echelon stock policies for multilevel inventory control. The major results are for serial and assembly systems. For (Q, r)-rules, echelon stock policies are, in general, superior to installation stock policies. A Kanban-policy is identified as a restricted type of installation stock (Q, r)-policy.

  8. 30 CFR 77.511 - Danger signs at electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 Danger signs at electrical installations. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  9. Installing fonts in LaTeX a user's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, Ferdy

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a user's experience with installing fonts for use in LaTeX. It will be shown that it is not hard to make a standard Type 1 font work, if you use modern font installation software for LaTeX. All the steps necessary to install the example fonts will be shown. The example fonts used

  10. 32 CFR 634.25 - Installation traffic codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Installation traffic codes. 634.25 Section 634.25... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.25 Installation traffic codes. (a) Installation or activity commanders will establish a traffic code for operation of motor...

  11. 32 CFR 636.11 - Installation traffic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Installation traffic codes 636.11 Section 636.11... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.11 Installation traffic codes In addition to the requirements in § 634.25(d) of this subchapter...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.907 - Manufacturer additions to installation instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturer additions to... Optional Information for Manufacturer's Installation Instructions § 3285.907 Manufacturer additions to installation instructions. A manufacturer may include in its installation instructions items that are...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.2 - Manufacturer installation instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturer installation... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS General § 3285.2 Manufacturer installation instructions. (a) Instructions required. A manufacturer must provide with each new...

  14. 49 CFR 192.193 - Valve installation in plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve installation in plastic pipe. 192.193... Components § 192.193 Valve installation in plastic pipe. Each valve installed in plastic pipe must be designed so as to protect the plastic material against excessive torsional or shearing loads when the...

  15. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that...

  16. 10 CFR 35.605 - Installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair. 35.605... Installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair. (a) Only a person specifically licensed by the Commission or an Agreement State shall install, maintain, adjust, or repair a remote afterloader unit,...

  17. Installing fonts in LaTeX a user's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a user's experience with installing fonts for use in LaTeX. It will be shown that it is not hard to make a standard Type 1 font work, if you use modern font installation software for LaTeX. All the steps necessary to install the example fonts will be shown. The example fonts used

  18. Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-18

    75 Figure 5-41: Clouds forming in the southwestern sky ...sizing Renewable Energy (RE) generation in order to demonstrate progress towards reaching Net Zero operation; e.g. a Military installation that produces...will come from renewable sources. Power from Renewable Sources •By 2020, 50% of installations will be net -zero consumers.Net-zero installations

  19. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of refrigerating machinery. 58.20-15... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this section. (b) Safe cell...

  1. 30 CFR 56.12067 - Installation of transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of transformers. 56.12067 Section... § 56.12067 Installation of transformers. Transformers shall be totally enclosed, or shall be placed at least 8 feet above the ground, or installed in a transformer house, or surrounded by a substantial...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12067 - Installation of transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of transformers. 57.12067 Section... Electricity Surface Only § 57.12067 Installation of transformers. Transformers shall be totally enclosed, or shall be placed at least 8 feet above the ground, or installed in a transformer house, or surrounded...

  3. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  4. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  5. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  6. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  7. Existence of Solutions of a Riccati Differential System from a General Cumulant Control Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley R. Liberty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a system of infinitely many Riccati equations that arise from a cumulant control problem, which is a generalization of regulator problems, risk-sensitive controls, minimal cost variance controls, and k-cumulant controls. We obtain estimates for the existence intervals of solutions of the system. In particular, new existence conditions are derived for solutions on the horizon of the cumulant control problem.

  8. District heating substations - design and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-12-15

    These technical regulations for district heating substations are sector-wide regulations for the Swedish district heating sector, describing the design, installation, use and maintenance of substations. If a district heating substation is to operate in the best possible way, the building's space heating and domestic hot water systems must comply with the requirements in these regulations and with those issued by public authorities. These regulations also describe aspects that must be considered when substations need to be replaced. The use then of correct values for the building energy requirements ensures that the new substation will be properly matched to its duties. These regulations are intended for use by: - those responsible for contacts between the district heating supplier and the customer. - those who own, operate and/or administer a building or facility that is heated by district heating. - those who design, manufacture, purchase, test or install substations. It is recommended that enquiries should refer to the Swedish District Heating Association's technical regulations when specifying requirements. The procurement criteria described in these regulations should be applied when evaluating tenders

  9. Assembling and Installing LRUs for NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, R E

    2003-12-31

    Within the 192 National Ignition Facility (NIF) beamlines, there are over 7000 large (40 x 40 cm) optical components, including laser glass, mirrors, lenses, and polarizers. These optics are held in large opto-mechanical assemblies called line-replaceable units (LRUs). Each LRU has strict specifications with respect to cleanliness, alignment, and wavefront so that once activated, each NIF beamline will meet its performance requirements. NIF LRUs are assembled, tested, and refurbished in on-site cleanroom facilities. The assembled LRUs weigh up to 1800 kilograms, and are about the size of a phone booth. They are transported in portable clean canisters and inserted into the NIF beampath using robotic transporters. This plug and play design allows LRUs to be easily removed from the beampath for maintenance or upgrades. Commissioning of the first NIF quad, an activity known as NIF Early Light (NEL), has validated LRU designs and architecture, as well as demonstrated that LRUs can be assembled and installed as designed. Furthermore, it has served to develop key processes and tools forming the foundation for NIF s long-term LRU production and maintenance strategy. As we look forward to building out the rest of NIF, the challenge lies in scaling up the production rate while maintaining quality, implementing process improvements, and fully leveraging the learning and experience gained from NEL. This paper provides an overview of the facilities, equipment and processes used to assemble and install LRUs in NIF.

  10. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  11. An installation for vapor conversion of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, I.; Tabata, K.

    1983-01-28

    An installation is proposed for converting a mixture of hydrocarbon gases with steam in the presence of nickel, platinum, lead and cobalt catalysts (Kt) on a carrier of Si0/sub 2/, A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/, Ti0/sub 2/ and so on. The reaction tower (RK1) for conversion is made of an inorganic, heat resistant ceramic material (for instance, A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/ ceramic), heaters are located inside the walls of the reaction tower, while on the outside the reaction conversion tower is equipped with an external tubular housing made of heat resistant materials or of inorganic heat resistant ceramic material. Here, there is a space between the external walls of the reaction conversion tower and the walls of the housing along the entire circumference of the reaction conversion tower which serves for preheating of the hydrocarbon gas and the steam before their input into the reaction conversion tower. The installation is designed for conversion of natural gas, C/sub 3/H/sub 8/ and other hydrocarbon gases and of liquid hydrocarbons (Uv) into synthesis gas. The design provides for even heating of the catalyst during reforming. The use of ceramic materials for the reaction conversion tower prevents sedimentation of coke on the walls of the reaction tower.

  12. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Grue, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  13. Scenario dependency of the transient climate response to cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katherine; Williams, Ric; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The transient climate response to emissions (TCRE), in relating surface temperature changes to cumulative carbon emissions, provides a means of estimating carbon budgets from global warming benchmarks. Current Earth System Model results indicate that the TCRE is linear and scenario-independent. We explore the sensitivity of the TCRE to scenario and model parameter uncertainties using 8 configurations of the UVic Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, forced by 2 twenty-first-century emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). We find that the TCRE is higher under RCP 4.5 than 8.5 by 0.3-0.8 K/1000 Pg C and shows opposing nonlinear tendencies in these scenarios: an increase of 0.15-0.5 K/1000 Pg C over RCP 4.5 and a decrease of 0-0.7 K/1000 Pg C over RCP 8.5. These differences are robust across model configurations with perturbed land and ocean parametrizations and are the result of the decreased efficiency of heat transport into the deep ocean under decelerating emissions.

  14. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  15. INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION OF PROBABILITY AND CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Potter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.

  16. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided.

  17. Microcanonical thermostatistics analysis without histograms: cumulative distribution and Bayesian approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Nelson A; Rizzi, Leandro G

    2015-01-01

    Microcanonical thermostatistics analysis has become an important tool to reveal essential aspects of phase transitions in complex systems. An efficient way to estimate the microcanonical inverse temperature $\\beta(E)$ and the microcanonical entropy $S(E)$ is achieved with the statistical temperature weighted histogram analysis method (ST-WHAM). The strength of this method lies on its flexibility, as it can be used to analyse data produced by algorithms with generalised sampling weights. However, for any sampling weight, ST-WHAM requires the calculation of derivatives of energy histograms $H(E)$, which leads to non-trivial and tedious binning tasks for models with continuous energy spectrum such as those for biomolecular and colloidal systems. Here, we discuss two alternative methods that avoid the need for such energy binning to obtain continuous estimates for $H(E)$ in order to evaluate $\\beta(E)$ by using ST-WHAM: (i) a series expansion to estimate probability densities from the empirical cumulative distrib...

  18. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  19. Enhanced cumulative sum charts for monitoring process dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujiya, Mu'azu Ramat; Riaz, Muhammad; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is widely used in industry for the detection of small and moderate shifts in process location and dispersion. For efficient monitoring of process variability, we present several CUSUM control charts for monitoring changes in standard deviation of a normal process. The newly developed control charts based on well-structured sampling techniques - extreme ranked set sampling, extreme double ranked set sampling and double extreme ranked set sampling, have significantly enhanced CUSUM chart ability to detect a wide range of shifts in process variability. The relative performances of the proposed CUSUM scale charts are evaluated in terms of the average run length (ARL) and standard deviation of run length, for point shift in variability. Moreover, for overall performance, we implore the use of the average ratio ARL and average extra quadratic loss. A comparison of the proposed CUSUM control charts with the classical CUSUM R chart, the classical CUSUM S chart, the fast initial response (FIR) CUSUM R chart, the FIR CUSUM S chart, the ranked set sampling (RSS) based CUSUM R chart and the RSS based CUSUM S chart, among others, are presented. An illustrative example using real dataset is given to demonstrate the practicability of the application of the proposed schemes.

  20. Detection of abrupt baseline length changes using cumulative sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Volker

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic processes are usually monitored by collecting a time series of observations, which is then analysed in order to detect any motion or non-standard behaviour. Geodetic examples include the monitoring of dams, bridges, high-rise buildings, landslides, volcanoes and tectonic motion. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) test is recognised as a popular means to detect changes in the mean and/or the standard deviation of a time series and has been applied to various monitoring tasks. This paper briefly describes the CUSUM technique and how it can be utilised for the detection of small baseline length changes by differencing two perpendicular baselines sharing a common site. A simulation is carried out in order to investigate the expected behaviour of the resulting CUSUM charts for a variety of typical deformation monitoring scenarios. This simulation shows that using first differences (between successive epochs) as input, rather than the original baseline lengths, produces clear peaks or jumps in the differenced CUSUM time series when a sudden change in baseline length occurs. These findings are validated by analysing several GPS baseline pairs of a network deployed to monitor the propagation of an active ice shelf rift on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica.

  1. Estimation of cumulative cadmium intake causing Itai-itai disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Takeya; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-11-15

    This study was undertaken to estimate the amount of cadmium (Cd) exposure needed for the development of Itai-itai disease. The investigated subjects comprised 82 Itai-itai disease patients and 11 persons requiring observation who were admitted in 1977 and 1978 for medical testing. With the period when the Itai-itai disease patients started to perceive leg/back pain defined as the 'mild disease onset', and the period when they experienced the most severe manifestations such as ambulatory disturbance and bone fractures defined as 'severe disease onset'. Relative cumulative person number distribution according to life time cadmium intake (LCD) at mild disease onset, severe disease onset, and time of death was depicted as an sigmoid curve and the establishment of probit regression lines was demonstrated between them. LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in half of the Itai-itai disease patients was 3.1 and 3.8 g, respectively. Furthermore, LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in 5% of the Itai-itai disease patients was calculated to be 2.6 and 3.3 g, respectively. The present results clarify that Itai-itai disease, the most severe stage of chronic Cd poisoning, occurs at levels of Cd consumption amounting to approximately three-fold of those currently seen in Japan.

  2. LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM, CUMULATIVE EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhoverkhov A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to examine how language and its historically inherited content and structure allows accumulating knowledge and determines the development of the individuals, culture and science. The article shows the theoretical drawbacks of modern "pragmatic turn" in which language is depicted only as a derivate of natural, cultural and cognitive systems. Instead, it is stated that language, in addition to all of the above, have to be considered also as a relatively independent basis and one of the causes that determine individual and social development. For that reason, the study examines the system nature of language, thought and culture, their environmental and social "embeddiness", a close relationship with other sign systems and with various forms of social activities. From that point, theoretical reduction of multiple relations and varying causes in complex ecological and social systems only to bilateral relations of language-thought, language-culture are revised. Particular attention is paid to the role of language in the accumulation and systematization of scientific knowledge and the transmission of cultural traditions. In that context, language is seen as part of the non-genetic inheritance systems, "social a priori" that determines the content and creates conditions for cumulative social evolution. Therefore, it is maintained that the comprehensive studies of language and its significance for culture and science have to embrace within a systems approach both the linguistic and pragmatic "turns"

  3. Simulation of the cumulative hydrological response to green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda, P. M.; Jefferson, A. J.; Grieser, J. M.; Bush, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the cumulative hydrologic performance of green infrastructure in a residential area of the city of Parma, Ohio, draining to a tributary of the Cuyahoga River. Green infrastructure included the following spatially distributed devices: 16 street-side bioretention cells, 7 rain gardens, and 37 rain barrels. Data consisted of rainfall and outfall flow records for a wide range of storm events, including pretreatment and treatment periods. The Stormwater Management Model was calibrated and validated to predict the hydrologic response of green infrastructure. The calibrated model was used to quantify annual water budget alterations and discharge frequency over a 6 year simulation period. For the study catchment, we observed a treatment effect with increases of 1.4% in evaporation, 7.6% in infiltration, and a 9.0% reduction in surface runoff. The hydrologic performance of green infrastructure was evaluated by comparing the flow duration curve for pretreatment and treatment outfall flow scenarios. The flow duration curve shifted downward for the green infrastructure scenario. Discharges with a 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 year return period were reduced by an average of 29%. Parameter and predictive uncertainties were inspected by implementing a Bayesian statistical approach.

  4. A New Tool for Seismology--the Cumulative Spectral Power

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Randall D

    2007-01-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) function is commonly used to specify seismometer performance. It is derived from the FFT of acceleration and correction is made for the transfer function of the instrument that generated the data. As with any such spectrum of density (`per Hz') type, the noise inherent to a PSD is large. This article illustrates the value of a function that is derived from the PSD and for which the influence of noise is significantly reduced. Called the cumulative spectral power (CSP), it is obtained from the PSD through the noise-reducing process of integration. The maximum of the CSP (corresponding to the longest graphed value of the period) provides a means for estimating the total vibrational power of the earth. The present author has significantly simplified the process of PSD generation. Thus routine graphing is straightforwared-of first the FFT, followed by the generation of both a PSD and its associated CSP. The unique properties of the CSP make it valuable for the study of a variety o...

  5. A shock process with a non-cumulative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, M.S.; Zarudnij, V.I

    2001-01-01

    Two types of non-cumulative damage shock models are considered. Based on the distribution of damage, caused by a shock effecting a system, the intervals with small, intermediate and large damage are introduced. The initial homogeneous Poisson shock process is split into three homogeneous Poisson processes and studied independently. Several criteria of failure are considered, based on the assumption that shocks with a small level of damage are harmless for a system, shocks with a large level of damage results in the system's failure and shocks with an intermediate level of damage can result in the system's failure only with some probability. The second model is based on an assumption that shocks with a small level of damage are harmless to a system, if they are not too close to each other. The probability of the system's failure-free performance in [0,t) is derived explicitly. Simple asymptotic exponential approximations are obtained The accuracy of this method is analyzed. Possible generalizations are discussed.

  6. Cumulative signal transmission in nonlinear reaction-diffusion networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A Oyarzún

    Full Text Available Quantifying signal transmission in biochemical systems is key to uncover the mechanisms that cells use to control their responses to environmental stimuli. In this work we use the time-integral of chemical species as a measure of a network's ability to cumulatively transmit signals encoded in spatiotemporal concentrations. We identify a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion networks in which the time-integrals of some species can be computed analytically. The derived time-integrals do not require knowledge of the solution of the reaction-diffusion equation, and we provide a simple graphical test to check if a given network belongs to the proposed class. The formulae for the time-integrals reveal how the kinetic parameters shape signal transmission in a network under spatiotemporal stimuli. We use these to show that a canonical complex-formation mechanism behaves as a spatial low-pass filter, the bandwidth of which is inversely proportional to the diffusion length of the ligand.

  7. New tests of cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous tests of cumulative prospect theory (CPT and of the priority heuristic (PH found evidence contradicting these two models of risky decision making. However, those tests were criticized because they had characteristics that might ``trigger'' use of other heuristics. This paper presents new tests that avoid those characteristics. Expected values of the gambles are nearly equal in each choice. In addition, if a person followed expected value (EV, expected utility (EU, CPT, or PH in these tests, she would shift her preferences in the same direction as shifts in EV or EU. In contrast, the transfer of attention exchange model (TAX and a similarity model predict that people will reverse preferences in the opposite direction. Results contradict the PH, even when PH is modified to include a preliminary similarity evaluation using the PH parameters. New tests of probability-consequence interaction were also conducted. Strong interactions were observed, contrary to PH. These results add to the growing bodies of evidence showing that neither CPT nor PH is an accurate description of risky decision making.

  8. Cumulative creep fatigue damage in 316 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    The cumulative creep-fatigue damage behavior of 316 stainless steel at 1500 F was experimentally established for the two-level loading cases of fatigue followed by fatigue, creep fatigue followed by fatigue, and fatigue followed by creep fatigue. The two-level loadings were conducted such that the lower life (high strain) cycling was applied first for a controlled number of cycles and the higher life (low strain) cycling was conducted as the second level to failure. The target life levels in this study were 100 cycles to failure for both the fatigue and creep-fatigue lowlife loading, 5000 cycles to failure for the higher life fatigue loading and 10,000 cycles to failure for the higher life creep-fatigue loading. The failed specimens are being examined both fractographically and metallographically to ascertain the nature of the damaging mechanisms that produced failure. Models of creep-fatigue damage accumulation are being evaluated and knowledge of the various damaging mechanisms is necessary to ensure that predictive capability is instilled in the final failure model.

  9. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  10. Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian province to the United States. We take advantage of the ethnosurvey approach as used in the Mexican Migration Project. Surveys were done in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities of New York City. We derive hypotheses from two strands of recent studies-the international migration literature and the market transition debate. Our results are in general consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration. However, because of the geographical location of China as compared to Mexico, there are some differences between the two countries in terms of particular migration patterns to the United States. As expected, at the community level, migration prevalence ratio (measuring migration networks) increases the propensity of migration for other members in the community. In contrast, having a household member migrated previously does not increase the propensity of migration of other household members until debt for previous migration is paid off. Our research clearly demonstrates the value of bringing the case of China into the comparative study of international migration. With respect to market transition theory, we find that political power continues to be an important factor in the order of social stratification in the coastal Fujian province. PMID:19569396

  11. The cumulative energy effect for improved ignition timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markhotok, A., E-mail: amarhotk@phys.washington.edu [Physics Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A technique capable of improving timing in ignition applications is proposed. It is based on the use of shock waves propagating in a specific medium that allows achieving extremely high speeds and energies. The model uses the energy cumulation effect in the presence of the shock wave refraction on an interface with plasma. The problem was solved analytically and the effects were demonstrated for a cylindrically symmetrical geometry. Numerical results show very quick and uneven acceleration of different portions of the shock front. Its strong distortions lead to formation of a sharply focused jet near the axis of symmetry. The ability of the shock to achieve extremely high speeds and energies can be useful in design of efficient combustors for hypersonic systems, and possibly offers an alternative way of construction of a nuclear fusion reactor. Recommendations are given in terms of adjustment parameters and can be applied at any problem scale and for various combinations of the strengths of the effects involved in the problem.

  12. Cumulative life course impairment in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaserico, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Patients with skin cancer remain at risk for disease progression or relapse for many years. Therefore, skin cancer may be considered a chronic, life-threatening disease. It could impact on patients lifestyles and social and professional activities. Although no direct study of cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) in skin cancer patients has been carried out, a few studies suggest that skin cancer may strongly impair quality of life and eventually determine a significant CLCI (melanoma more than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Obviously, the life course of patients with melanoma at an advanced stage of the disease may change considerably. A number of cancer-associated problems may determine a CLCI, including familial or professional changes and a reduction of life expectancy may eventually lead to social withdrawal and depressive disorders. Even patients with a low stage disease may experience an important impairment of quality of life and in some cases a CLCI. Some skin cancer patients may have physical and psychological after effects from their cancer surgery. Several patients complain about lymphedema, discomfort experienced from wearing surgical stockings, and diminished range of physical motion postsurgery. A few are concerned about their body image due to surgical scars, and they may consider changing their job position because of the supposed negative impact of scars in visible sites on their ability to perform their job. Some female melanoma survivors may have a reduced desire of having children in the future.

  13. The Impact of Organizational Routines in Cumulative Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santiago, Leonardo; Couto, Julia

    The capacity to continuously innovate is crucial for organizations to achieve or maintain their competitive advantage. A sequence of innovations can provide to a company not just a new product or technique but also a platform of knowledge that will support their future innovations. This work...... investigates the way knowledge is accumulated by a company over time, associating managerial decisions to the dynamics of innovation....

  14. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, CT. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut. The information consists of description of system and components, operation and maintenance manual, as-built drawings and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The solar facility has 2,561 sq. ft. of liquid flat plate collectors and a 6000 gallon, stone lined, well-insulated storage tank. Freeze protection is provided by a 50 percent glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. From the storage tank, solar heated water is fed into the building's distributed heat pump loop via a modulating three-way valve. If the storage tank temperature drops below 80/sup 0/F, the building loop may be supplied from the existing electrical hot water boilers. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size, 25,000 sq. ft. of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system makes available for other users up to 150 KVA of existing electrical generating capacity.

  15. NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Ocean Observatory: Installed and Online!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Best, M.; Bornhold, B.; Johnson, F.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.

    2009-12-01

    motions. Circulation obviation retrofit kits (CORKs) at mid-plate ODP 1026-7 wells will monitor real-time changes in crustal temperature and pressure, in response to earthquakes, hydrothermal convection or plate strain. At Endeavour Ridge (instruments installed 2010), complex interactions among volcanic, tectonic, hydrothermal and biological processes will be quantified at western edge of Juan de Fuca plate. Across the network, high resolution seismic information will elucidate tectonic processes and earthquakes, and a tsunami system will determine open ocean tsunami amplitude, propagation direction, and speed. The infrastructure has capacity to expand and we invite participation in experiments, data analysis and technology development; for information and opportunities: http://www.neptunecanada.ca. NEPTUNE Canada will transform our understanding of biological, chemical, physical, and geological processes across an entire tectonic plate from the shelf to the deep sea (17-2700m). Real-time continuous monitoring, archiving, and long time series allow scientists to capture the temporal nature, characteristics, and linkages of these natural processes in ways never before possible.

  16. Testamentary capacity and delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Peisah, Carmelle; Shulman, Kenneth; Finkel, Sanford

    2010-09-01

    With the aging of the population there will be a substantial transfer of wealth in the next 25 years. The presence of delirium can complicate the evaluation of an older person's testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence but has not been well examined in the existing literature. A subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to review how to assess prospectively and retrospectively testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence in patients with delirium. The subcommittee identified questions that should be asked in cases where someone changes their will or estate plan towards the end of their life in the presence of delirium. These questions include: was there consistency in the patient's wishes over time? Were these wishes expressed during a "lucid interval" when the person was less confused? Were the patient's wishes clearly expressed in response to open-ended questions? Is there clear documentation of the patient's mental status at the time of the discussion? This review with some case examples provides guidance on how to consider the question of testamentary capacity or susceptibility to undue influence in someone undergoing an episode of delirium.

  17. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  18. Installation for analytic chemistry under irradiation; Installation de chimie analytique sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J.; Azoeuf, P.; Guillon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    An installation has been set up for carrying out manipulations and chemical analyses on radioactive products. It is completely remote-controlled and is of linear shape, 15 metres long; it is made up of three zones: - an active zone containing the apparatus, - a rear zone giving access to the active zone, - a forward zone independent of the two others and completely protected from which the remote-control of the apparatus is effected. The whole assembly has been designed so that each apparatus corresponding to an analytical technique is set up in a sealed enclosure. The sealed enclosures are interconnected by a conveyor. After three years operation, a critical review is now made of the installation. (authors) [French] L'installation a ete realisee pour effectuer des manipulations et des analyses chimiques sur des produits radioactifs. Elle est totalement telecommandee et se presente sous une forme lineaire de 15 metres de longueur et comporte trois zones: - une zone active d'appareillage, - une zone arriere d'intervention, - une zone avant independante des deux premieres et totalement protegee, ou s'operent les telecommandes de l'appareillage. L'ensemble a ete concu de facon a ce que chaque appareillage correspondant a une technique d'analyse soit implante dans une enceinte etanche. Les enceintes etanches sont reliees entre elles par un convoyeur. Apres trois annees de fonctionnement nous faisons le bilan et les critiques de l'installation. (auteurs)

  19. Buffer protection in the installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimelius, Hans (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Pusch, Roland (Geodevelopment International AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The research and development of the design and construction of the SKB's repository for final disposal of spent reactor fuel is conducted along several paths ('lines'). Issues concerning the bedrock are dealt with in the 'rock line' and those related to buffer and backfill in deposition holes and tunnels are considered in the 'buffer line' and 'backfill line', respectively. These lines also deal with sub-activities that are coupled to several other lines. One of them includes development of techniques for protecting buffer blocks from moisture and water in the installation phase. Techniques and methods for placement and removal of the 'buffer protection sheet' are dealt with in the 'buffer line'. The removal is, however, considered as being part of the backfilling sequence. Since the performance of the sheet is of fundamental importance to the placement and function of the buffer it deserves particular attention. Thus, the removal of the rubber sheet that serves to protect the buffer blocks in the installation phase may be difficult and can cause significant problems that may require retrieval of already placed canister, buffer and backfill. These matters are in focus in the present report. Arrangements for protecting already placed buffer blocks from moist air and water have been tested in earlier large-scale experiments, i.e. the Prototype Repository project at Aespoe but the experience from them has called for more effective protection of the clay blocks as described in the present report. Focus is on the construction of foundation components at the bottom of the deposition holes required for establishing a tight seal between rock and buffer blocks, and on the protection sheet and arrangements for limiting water pressure on it. Special attention is paid to the drainage of the space between rock and protection sheet that is necessary for avoiding failure of the sheet and to systems for achieving

  20. Numerical Study of Piping Limits for Suction Installation of Offshore Skirted Foundations an Anchors in Layered Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Thilsted, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    to obtain the required capacity. In order to overcome the high penetration resistance in sand suction assisted penetration is needed. Suction installation may cause the formation of piping channels, which break down the hydraulic seal and prevent further installation. This paper presents a numerical study...... of suction thresholds against piping. These closed form solutions are compared with large scale tests, performed in a natural seabed at a test site in Frederikshavn, Denmark. These solutions are also valid for penetration studies of other offshore skirted foundations and anchors using suction assisted...

  1. Dark energy camera installation at CTIO: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Timothy M.; Muñoz, Freddy; Walker, Alistair R.; Smith, Chris; Montane, Andrés.; Gregory, Brooke; Tighe, Roberto; Schurter, Patricio; van der Bliek, Nicole S.; Schumacher, German

    2012-09-01

    The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) has been installed on the V. M. Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. This major upgrade to the facility has required numerous modifications to the telescope and improvements in observatory infrastructure. The telescope prime focus assembly has been entirely replaced, and the f/8 secondary change procedure radically changed. The heavier instrument means that telescope balance has been significantly modified. The telescope control system has been upgraded. NOAO has established a data transport system to efficiently move DECam's output to the NCSA for processing. The observatory has integrated the DECam highpressure, two-phase cryogenic cooling system into its operations and converted the Coudé room into an environmentally-controlled instrument handling facility incorporating a high quality cleanroom. New procedures to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment have been introduced.

  2. Safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, G.F.

    1972-10-25

    A safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines, particularly those used for transporting liquid hydrocarbons, is described. It is applicable to any pipeline, but particularly to underground or submarine pipelines, whether made of steel, plastics, or any other material. The 4 essential objects of the invention are to insure reliable prevention of pollution of the environment due to leakage of a hydrocarbon through cracks in the pipe; to evacuate the leakage flow without delay to a vessel; to signal almost instantaneously the existence of a leak; and to effect remote control of operations by which the dynamic pressure in the pipe is cancelled. Each equipped section consists of a fluid-type jacket of plastic material which surrounds the pipe, which at its ends is sealed off. It is these seals which delimit the sections. (7 claims)

  3. Safety Assessment in Installation of Precast Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashrri S.N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify the safety aspects and the level of safety during the installation process in construction sites. A questionnaire survey and interviews were done to provide data on safety requirements in precast concrete construction. All of the interviews and the research questionnaire survey were conducted among contractors that are registered as class 1 to class 7 with the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB and class A to class G with Pusat Khidmat Kontraktor (PKK in Penang. Returned questionnaires were analysed with the use of simple percentages and the Likert Scale analysis method to identify safety aspects of precast construction. The results indicate that the safety aspect implemented by companies involved in the precast construction process is at a good level in the safety aspect during bracing, propping, welding and grouting processes and at a very good level of safety in general aspects and safety aspects during lifting processes.

  4. Skin: an interactive hyperstereoscopic electro installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Kooima, Robert; Kannenberg, John

    2007-02-01

    It is the uniqueness of Virtual Reality as a medium that calls for the creation of hybrid realities which blur the finite boundaries between physical and digital existence. Virtual Reality's distinguishing features as an artistic medium embody a distinct form of aesthetics: it is a stereoscopic, immersive, interactive, performative, dynamic, and experiential medium. A Virtual Reality art piece manifests in multiple ways. It can present itself as an interactive virtual archetype, exploring concepts rendered from different perspectives, and as an impetus to challenge the platform's capabilities, not only theoretically as an artistic practice, but also by calling for the instantiation of authoring tools for the development of virtual reality experiences. The paradigm presented in this paper is a Virtual Reality art piece, called skin, 2006, developed on Electro, which is an open-source cross-platform development environment. skin, 2006, is an interactive hypersteroscopic high-definition audiovisual installation that explores a dialogue between physical and digital senses of "touch".

  5. Designing performativity for mixed reality installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Morrison

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article takes up the concept of performativity prevalent in the humanities and applies it to the design of installation arts in mixed reality mode. Based on the design, development and public access to two specific works, the concept is related to a form of research by design. We argue that the concept of performativity may be further usefully employed in investigations (design and research, artistic and public into digital arts where complex intersections between concepts, technologies, dramaturgy, media and participant actions are in flux and together constitute the emergence and experience of a work. Theories of performativity are related to these two works in an argument that further suggests there is room in research by design to also include ‘performative design’. The article is the result of a wide-ranging interdisciplinary collaboration and aims to convey some sense of that in its reporting style, content and analysis.

  6. Installing met towers in marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanberg, Jackie [DNV Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Onshore measurements are taken to supplement offshore wind resource measurement campaigns. To maximize the quality of the measured data, the conditions presented by marine environments must be well understood and mitigated. This paper discusses the several factors that need attention prior to installation of the met towers. The towers experience high corrosion from their exposure to moist, salt-laden, marine air. Careful instrumentation and material selection can prevent or decrease corrosion. Stainless or galvanized hardware and coating sensor terminals with petroleum jelly are both helpful. Soil in the marine environment has variable moisture levels and is extremely wet, which makes grounding systems and backfill enhancers necessary. Weather conditions in these environments also tend to be unpredictable; hence, towers should be strong enough to handle typical marine weather. In conclusion, successful marine wind resource assessment campaigns require environmental research, careful planning, and awareness of the specific issues.

  7. Photovoltaic energy systems: Design and installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresch, M.

    The characteristics of solar radiation, the design of solar cells, and the installation of Si solar cell arrays for various applications are described. The discussion is limited to medium-scale photovoltaic systems, from 0.1-100 kW peak output, mounted in fixed flat plate modules, the simplest, most maintenance-free concept. Solar cell functioning principles are outlined, including the parasitic mechanisms which reduce cell efficiency. The magnitude, variations, and distribution of the global solar energy input are quantified. Consideration is given to series and parallel connected solar arrays, and to performance under a variable load. Array protection and failure detection are explored, as are integrated array power conditioning equipment comprising energy storage, voltage regulation, and ac to dc converters. Attention is also devoted to array mounting and matching solar cell systems to load.

  8. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Ribeiro, Bruno; Towsley, Don

    2015-11-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions.

  9. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi, Libertario, E-mail: l.demi@tue.nl; Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Wijkstra, Hessel [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Urology Dept., University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  10. CUMULATIVE IMPACT OF YOGA PRACTICE ON QUALITY OF LI FE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted with two main objec tives. First it aims to experiment whether the ancient system of yoga can bring about change in the quality of life of its practitioners. The second objective was to study the cumulative im pact of yoga practice on Quality of Life. The study was conducted on four independent groups of y oga practitioners that varied in their length of experience in yoga practice. The first group compri sed of 76 subjects (49 male and 27 female with a mean age of 39 years (SD=9.8. All the participan ts in this group are novice practitioners. They have participated in the study immediately after th eir admission into yoga class. The second group comprised of 23 subjects (14 male and 9 female wit h a mean age of 34.2 years (SD= 11.07. Their length of experience in yoga practice is 3 months. The third group comprised of 18 subjects (11male and 7 female with a mean age of 33.83 year s (SD=9.33. Their length of experience in yoga practice is six months. The fourth group comprised of 17 subjects (11 male and 6 female with a mean age of 32.8 years (SD=9.5. Their length exper ience is 12 months. All the four independent groups were administered a questionnaire on Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF. The results on QOL gave scores on to tal quality of life and separate scores on Domain 1 (dealing with physical health Domain 2 (d ealing with psychological aspects, Domain 3 (dealing with social relationships and Domain 4 (d ealing with environmental aspects.

  11. Measuring a fair and ambitious climate agreement using cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Solomon, Susan; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Policy makers have called for a ‘fair and ambitious’ global climate agreement. Scientific constraints, such as the allowable carbon emissions to avoid exceeding a 2 °C global warming limit with 66% probability, can help define ambitious approaches to climate targets. However, fairly sharing the mitigation challenge to meet a global target involves human values rather than just scientific facts. We develop a framework based on cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide to compare the consistency of countries’ current emission pledges to the ambition of keeping global temperatures below 2 °C, and, further, compare two alternative methods of sharing the remaining emission allowance. We focus on the recent pledges and other official statements of the EU, USA, and China. The EU and US pledges are close to a 2 °C level of ambition only if the remaining emission allowance is distributed based on current emission shares, which is unlikely to be viewed as ‘fair and ambitious’ by others who presently emit less. China’s stated emissions target also differs from measures of global fairness, owing to emissions that continue to grow into the 2020s. We find that, combined, the EU, US, and Chinese pledges leave little room for other countries to emit CO2 if a 2 °C limit is the objective, essentially requiring all other countries to move towards per capita emissions 7 to 14 times lower than the EU, USA, or China by 2030. We argue that a fair and ambitious agreement for a 2 °C limit that would be globally inclusive and effective in the long term will require stronger mitigation than the goals currently proposed. Given such necessary and unprecedented mitigation and the current lack of availability of some key technologies, we suggest a new diplomatic effort directed at ensuring that the necessary technologies become available in the near future.

  12. Cumulative Effects of Barriers on the Movements of Forest Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration from habitat loss (composition, and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these limitations by standardizing differences in forest cover in a clearly anisotropic configuration of habitat fragmentation by conducting a homing experiment with three species of forest birds in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park, Canada. Birds were translocated (1.2-3.5  km either parallel or perpendicular to four/five parallel barriers that are assumed to impede the cross-valley travel of forest-dependent animals. Taken together, individuals exhibited longer return times when they were translocated across these barriers, but differences among species suggest a more complex interpretation. A long-distance migrant (Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata behaved as predicted, but a short-distance migrant (Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa was indifferent to barrier configuration. A resident (Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis exhibited longer return times when it was translocated parallel to the barriers. Our results suggest that an anisotropic arrangement of small, open areas in fragmented landscapes can have a cumulative barrier effect on the movement of forest animals, but that both modelers and managers will have to acknowledge potentially counterintuitive differences among species to predict the effect that these may have on individual movement and, ultimately, dispersal.

  13. Design tool for hydronic building installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soethout, L. [TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands); Aerts, J. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Plokker, W. [VABI Association for Automation in Building and Installation Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Design flaws and faulty commissioning can create imbalances in heat transfer and distribution in buildings. The design of the hydronic side of HVAC installations in buildings is in practice often limited to only the full load situation. However, installations most frequently operate in part load situations. This paper discussed a method of designing hydronic circuits for heating which considered full load and part load scenarios. The model was then validated by a simulation tool. Both the tool and the method were based on a modular approach, starting with the heat demands required by the various functions and locations in the building. Common design problems were reviewed, and an overview of the process in designing, commissioning and using a hydronic system was presented. A modular design method for a hydronic system was presented, which enabled users to design the system so that all user modules can be controlled in a decoupled manner, guaranteeing the required full load. The software tool consisted of several parts: a main application for the user interface; and a central project database and information retrieval system. An analysis module monitored design behavior. A library of modules was available within the program, as well as a graphical interface. Based on the outcome of calculation results, users can make changes in design and then restart the evaluation. It was anticipated that the tool will be coupled to a building simulation tool which will allow for the calculation of the dynamic demands of a building and provide realistic part-load information. The algorithm for solving the non linear equations of pressure versus flow was discussed. Equations were solved on 2 levels, and the solving process consisted of several repeated steps. The analysis module consisted of an expert system containing several rules describing the desired behavior of hydronic systems. It was noted that the rules were derived from, and compliant with compliance standards. 11 refs

  14. Report on nuclear installations safety and security control. Rapport sur le controle de la surete et de la securite des installations nucleaires. Surete des installations. Securite et information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C.; Serusclat, F.

    1990-01-01

    This report of the parliamentary office for evaluation of scientific and technological choices bearing on the safety and security of nuclear installations is divided into 2 volumes bearing on: - Volume I: nuclear installations safety. - nuclear safety and international organizations. - works separation: Finland, Belgium and Federal Republic of Germany. - French organization. - Volume II: security and information. - French nuclear security. - Public information.

  15. Use of Cumulative Examinations at U.S. Schools of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gina J.; Nykamp, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed department of pharmacy chairs at 77 schools of pharmacy about current use of cumulative exams. Found that more than 80 percent do not administer cumulative exams and that the primary rationale for such exams is to encourage students to review material prior to advancement; they are rarely used to determine advancement. (EV)

  16. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  17. Radiologic imaging in cystic fibrosis: cumulative effective dose and changing trends over 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing life expectancy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a known predisposition to certain cancers, cumulative radiation exposure from radiologic imaging is of increasing significance. This study explores the estimated cumulative effective radiation dose over a 17-year period from radiologic procedures and changing trends of imaging modalities over this period.

  18. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Cumulative Finals on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Maya M.; Brack, Amy S. Badura; Finken, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the benefits of cumulative and noncumulative finals on students' short- and long-term course material retention. In Experiment 1, we examined results from course content exams administered immediately after course finals. Course sections including cumulative finals had higher content exam scores than sections…

  19. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different scenarios: climate change and planned developments. At the coast-wide scale, climate change drove the largest change in cumulative effects with both widespread impacts and high vulnerability scores. Where the impacts of planned developments occur, planned industrial and pipeline activities had high cumulative effects, but the footprint of these effects was comparatively localized. Nearshore habitats were at greatest risk from planned industrial and pipeline activities; in particular, the impacts of planned pipelines on rocky intertidal habitats were predicted to cause the highest change in cumulative effects. This method of incorporating planned industrial development in cumulative effects mapping allows explicit comparison of different scenarios with the potential to be used in environmental impact assessments at various scales. Its use allows resource managers to consider cumulative effect hotspots when making decisions regarding industrial developments and avoid unacceptable cumulative effects. Management needs to consider both global and local stressors in managing marine ecosystems for the protection of biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  20. Aging and Cumulative Inequality: How Does Inequality Get Under the Skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article draws from cumulative disadvantage and life course theories to develop a new theory for the social scientific study of aging. Design and Methods: Five axioms of "cumulative inequality (CI) theory" are articulated to identify how life course trajectories are influenced by early and accumulated inequalities but can be modified…

  1. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  2. Cumulative Advantage and Success-Breeds-Success: The Value of Time Pattern Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C.

    1998-01-01

    For the case of the distribution of papers across authors, the Success-Breeds-Success or Cumulative Advantage model is a popular candidate for informetrics. The method of time pattern of publication for individual authors can be used to discriminate between Cumulative Advantage and non-uniform giftedness models. The non-uniform giftedness model is…

  3. 43 CFR 46.115 - Consideration of past actions in the analysis of cumulative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Environmental Quality § 46.115 Consideration of past actions in the analysis of cumulative effects. When... Memorandum on Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis” dated June 24, 2005, or any... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of past actions in...

  4. UNIDIMENSIONALITY AND CUMULATIVENESS OF THE LONELINESS SCALE USING MOKKEN-SCALE-ANALYSIS FOR POLYCHOTOMOUS ITEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOORER, P; SUURMEIJER, TPBM

    1993-01-01

    The unidimensionality and cumulativeness of the Loneliness Scale of De Jong-Gierveld was investigated using the Mokken Scale Analysis for polychotomous items. 10 of the 11 items of the original Loneliness Scale constituted a unidimensional, cumulative scale, with a homogeneity coefficient H of 0.37

  5. The effects of antipoverty programs on children's cumulative level of poverty-related risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2006-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of antipoverty programs on children's cumulative poverty-related risk and the relationship between cumulative poverty-related risk and child outcomes among low-income families. Samples included 419 children ages 3-10 years in the New Hope program and 759 children ages 2-9 years in the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), which tested 2 program approaches. Nine poverty-related risks made up the measure of cumulative risk. Both MFIP program approaches reduced cumulative poverty-related risk. New Hope reduced cumulative poverty-related risk among long-term welfare recipients. In both New Hope and MFIP, significant linear relationships between cumulative poverty-related risk and parent-reported behavior problems and school achievement were found. Cumulative poverty-related risk partially mediated the impacts of the MFIP programs on children's behavior problems. Among long-term welfare recipients, cumulative poverty-related risk partially mediated New Hope's impact on parent-reported school achievement.

  6. 14 CFR Section 18 - Objective Classification-Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Changes in Accounting Principles Section 18 Section 18 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Objective Classification—Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles 98Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles. Record here the difference between the amount of retained earnings...

  7. Asymptotic growth of cumulative and regenerative beam break-up instabilities in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    1988-06-01

    It is found that the asymptotic growth of the cumulative beam break up instability is independent of the focusing magnetic field, according to the model of Panofsky and Bander. The analysis is extended to include the transition from the cumulative to the regenerative type, both in the presence and absence of a focusing magnetic field.

  8. A Cumulative Damage Reliability Model on the Basis of Contact Fatigue of the Rolling Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li

    2006-01-01

    A cumulative damage reliability model of contact fatigue of the rolling bearing is more identical with the actual conditions. It is put forward on the basis of contact fatigue life probability distribution of the rolling bearing that obey Weibull distribution and rest on the Miner cumulative damage theory. Finally a case is given to predict the reliability of bearing roller by using these models.

  9. Estimating multi-factor cumulative watershed effects on fish populations with an individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Steven F. Railsback

    2007-01-01

    While the concept of cumulative effects is prominent in legislation governing environmental management, the ability to estimate cumulative effects remains limited. One reason for this limitation is that important natural resources such as fish populations may exhibit complex responses to changes in environmental conditions, particularly to alteration of multiple...

  10. Building Partner Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In a similar manner, globalization has also created new realities, such as in the case of food production where choice now affects demand as much as...quantity did in the past. “Two major factors drive food requirements [and market prices]: a growing global population and prosperity that expands...argued earlier, to expend effort in other nations without consideration of building capacity and resiliency risks strategic failure and wastage of

  11. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further, the e......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  12. Cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yan-Xun; Deng Ming-Xi

    2008-01-01

    The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear reflection of acoustic waves at an interface.In general,the cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave propagation does not occur.However,the present paper shows that the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied.Through boundary condition and initial condition of excitation,the analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves propagation is determined.Numerical results show the cumulative effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns.

  13. Distribution System Augmented by DC Links for Increasing the Hosting Capacity of PV Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Demirok, Erhan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a concept of enhancing the photovoltaic (PV) power generation hosting capacity of distribution networks. Distribution network serving electrical energy to farm settlements was selected as an example for their large roof area available for PV installation. Further, they are cha......This paper presents a concept of enhancing the photovoltaic (PV) power generation hosting capacity of distribution networks. Distribution network serving electrical energy to farm settlements was selected as an example for their large roof area available for PV installation. Further...

  14. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  15. INSTALLED BASE REGISTRATION OF DECENTRALISED SOLAR PANELS WITH APPLICATIONS IN CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aarsen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In case of a calamity in the Netherlands - e.g. a dike breach - parts of the nationwide electric network can fall out. In these occasions it would be useful if decentralised energy sources of the Smart Grid would contribute to balance out the fluctuations of the energy network. Decentralised energy sources include: solar energy, wind energy, combined heat and power, and biogas. In this manner, parts of the built environment - e.g. hospitals - that are in need of a continuous power flow, could be secured of this power. When a calamity happens, information about the Smart Grid is necessary to control the crisis and to ensure a shared view on the energy networks for both the crisis managers and network operators. The current situation of publishing, storing and sharing data of solar energy has been shown a lack of reliability about the current number, physical location, and capacity of installed decentralised photovoltaic (PV panels in the Netherlands. This study focuses on decentralised solar energy in the form of electricity via PV panels in the Netherlands and addresses this challenge by proposing a new, reliable and up-to-date database. The study reveals the requirements for a registration of the installed base of PV panels in the Netherlands. This new database should serve as a replenishment for the current national voluntary registration, called Production Installation Register of Energy Data Services Netherland (EDSN-PIR, of installed decentralised PV panel installations in the Smart Grid, and provide important information in case of a calamity.

  16. Subsea equipment pendulous installation method; Metodo pendular de instalacao de equipamentos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Maxwell Brandao de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Engenharia Submarina], e-mail: maxwellbc@petrobras.com.br; Roveri, Francisco Edward [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia Submarina], e-mail: roveri@petrobras.com.br; Ferreira, Jose Americo Ney; Stock, Pedro Felipe Katrein [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E and P Servicos. Gerencia de Equipamentos Submarinos], e-mail: janf@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: pstock@petrobras.com.br; Labanca, Edson Luiz; Kuppens, Mariele Lima [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio de Janeiro. Gerencia de Elevacao e Escoamento], e-mail: labanca@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: mariele@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    PETROBRAS has been installing underwater equipment using semi-submersible platform and drilling risers. This was the case in the installation of a 240 tonne manifold, at a water depth of 940 m in the Marlim field. Also, in April 2002, a 175 tonne manifold was installed at a depth of 1 900 m in the Roncador field, using a more complex pulley procedure. In 1995, PETROBRAS installed a manifold of 420 tonnes, at a depth of 620 m, in the Albacora field using a BLG-1 crane barge and a novel method. For shallower water and lighter equipment other conventional methods have been employed, such as, use of the crane of a semi-submersible platform, crane barge or by lowering the equipment from the stern of an anchor handling vessel. Today, the challenge of the petroleum industry is to install underwater equipment in increasing water depths. The traditional use of steel cables has the disadvantage of substantial loss of tension load capacity, that is consumed by its own weight and the problems associated with axial resonance. An alternative is the use of special vessels capable of handling very heavy loads, but due to the scarcity and high daily rates of such vessels, the costs can be prohibitive. The industry has been considering the use of synthetic fiber cables, however some existing problems need to be resolved, such as cyclic bending and heating during descent, which can cause cable fatigue. As with the steel cable, resonance can also occur if systems are not used to compensate for vessel movement. The Pendulous Method was proposed and developed by a multi-disciplinary team to resolve the above mentioned problems. (author)

  17. Using GIS data and satellite derived irradiance to optimize siting of PV installations in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Annelen; Nguyen, Viet-Anh; Bartlett, Stuart; Sossan, Fabrizio; Lehning, Michael

    2016-04-01

    For a successful distribution strategy of PV installations, it does not suffice to choose the locations with highest annual total irradiance. Attention needs to be given to spatial correlation patterns of insolation to avoid large system-wide variations, which can cause extended deficits in supply or might even damage the electrical network. One alternative goal instead is to seek configurations that provide the smoothest energy production, with the most reliable and predictable supply. Our work investigates several scenarios, each pursuing a different strategy for a future renewable Switzerland without nuclear power. Based on an estimate for necessary installed capacity for solar power [Bartlett, 2015] we first use heuristics to pre-select realistic placements for PV installations. Then we apply optimization methods to find a subset of locations that provides the best possible combined electricity production. For the first part of the selection process, we use a DEM to exclude high elevation zones which would be difficult to access and which are prone to natural hazards. Then we use land surface cover information to find all zones with potential roof area, deemed suitable for installation of solar panels. The optimization employs Principal Component Analysis of satellite derived irradiance data (Surface Incoming Shortwave Radiation (SIS), based on Meteosat Second Generation sensors) to incorporate a spatial aspect into the selection process that does not simply maximize annual total production but rather provides the most robust supply, by combining regions with anti-correlated cloud cover patterns. Depending on the initial assumptions and constraints, the resulting distribution schemes for PV installations vary with respect to required surface area, annual total and lowest short-term production, and illustrate how important it is to clearly define priorities and policies for a future renewable Switzerland.

  18. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  19. Predicting Cumulative Watershed Effects using Spatially Explicit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Litschert, S.

    2004-12-01

    Cumulative watershed effects /(CWEs/) result from the combined effects of land disturbances distributed over both space and time. They are of concern because changes in flow and sediment yields can adversely affect aquatic habitat, channel morphology, water yields, and water quality. The assessment procedures currently used by agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service generally rely on a lumped approach to quantify disturbance, despite the widespread recognition that site conditions and location do matter! The overall goal of our work is to develop spatially-explicit models to quantify changes in flow and sediment yields. Key objectives include: use of readily available GIS data; ease of use for resource managers with minimal GIS experience; modularity so that models can be added or updated; and allowing users to select the models and values for key parameters. The DeltaQ model calculates changes in peak, median, and low flows due to forest management activities and fires. Inputs include GIS data with disturbance polygons, an initial change in flow rate, and the time to recovery. Data from paired watershed studies are provided to help guide the user. The initial version of FORest Erosion Simulation Tools /(FOREST/) calculates sediment production from forest harvest, fires, and unpaved roads. Additional modules are being developed to deliver this sediment to the stream channel and route it to downstream locations. In accordance with our objectives, the user can predict sediment production rates using different empirical equations, assign an initial sediment production rate and a specified linear recovery period, or develop a look-up table based on local knowledge, published values, or data from other models such as WEPP. The required GIS layers vary according to the model/(s/) selected, but generally include past disturbances /(e.g., fires and timber harvest/), roads, and elevation. Outputs include GIS layers and text files that can be subjected to additional

  20. Topo-Iberia GPS network: installation complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaradze, G.

    2009-04-01

    As part of the project, titled "Geociencias en Iberia: Estudios integrados de topografía y evolución 4D: Topo-Iberia", we have established a network of 26 continuous GPS stations, covering the Spanish part of the Iberian Peninsula (22 stations) and Morocco (4 stations). A major objective behind the establishment of this array is to monitor millimeter level deformation of the crust due to the collision of African and Eurasian (including Iberian) tectonic plates. More specific goals of the project include the identification of the areas and/or specific seismic faults which exhibit higher deformation rates, which could imply an increased seismic hazard in these specific areas. The network has been designed as two X-shaped transects crossing the peninsula from NE to SW and NW to SE, with relatively coarse distribution of the stations, superimposed with denser coverage in the seismically active areas of the Betics, Pyrenees and Cantabrian chains. The majority of the built monuments consist of 1.5-1.8 m tall concrete pillars of 40 cm in diameter anchored to the bedrock using iron rebars. One station in Huesca was built according the UNAVCO's short drilled braced monument (SDBM) specifications. All the monuments were equipped with the SCIGN leveling mounts to ensure the precise antenna alignment and re-alignment in case of the antenna replacement, as well as, tamper resistance of the monument mark. In places were the snow accumulation was possible the antennas were covered with plastic radomes. The instrumentation used is Trimble NetRS dual-frequency receivers with choke-ring antennas. The communication is mainly via cellular telephone system. As of December 2008, the network installation has been competed and all the stations are fully operational. Here we report the milestones of the installation of the network and, as well as, present the first preliminary results of the analysis of the data. Besides the newly established Topo-Iberia CGPS stations, we have included