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Sample records for culture electrophysiological properties

  1. Dynamics of intrinsic electrophysiological properties in spinal cord neurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1999-01-01

    The spinal cord is engaged in a wide variety of functions including generation of motor acts, coding of sensory information and autonomic control. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of spinal neurones represent a fundamental building block of the spinal circuits executing these tasks. ....... Specialised, cell specific electrophysiological phenotypes gradually differentiate during development and are continuously adjusted in the adult animal by metabotropic synaptic interactions and activity-dependent plasticity to meet a broad range of functional demands....

  2. Effect of extracellular generation of the reactive oxygen species, singlet oxygen (1O2), on the electrophysiological properties of cultured cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas; Sinks, Louise, E.; Vionogradov, Sergej A.

    (ABM) were made from cultured rat cortical neurons to provide insight into the events following extracellular generation of 1O2. Membrane resistance (Rm), capacitance (Cm), holding current (Ihold), and firing properties were monitored throughout. The V/I relationship was investigated with 1 s duration...... current steps of 0.1 nA (-0.4 - 1 nA). The PS, dissolved in ABM (10 µM), was administered by local application directly to the neuron monitored. The intensity of the applied light at 455 nm was adjusted by neutral density filters. Phosphorescence at 700 nm proved the presence of the PS, which was absent...

  3. The effect of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked exogenous SOD1-G93A on electrophysiological properties and intracellular calcium in cultured rat astrocytes.

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    Milošević, Milena; Bataveljić, Danijela; Nikolić, Ljiljana; Bijelić, Dunja; Andjus, Pavle

    2016-01-01

    Over 150 mutations in the SOD1 gene that encodes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause 20-25% of familial ALS, albeit without a known gain-of-function mechanism. ALS is also non-cell-autonomous, the interactions between motor neurons and their glial neighbours being implicated in disease progression. The aim here was to investigate the biophysical effects of the exogenous human mutant SOD1-G93A on rat astrocytes in culture. Primary cortical astrocyte cultures were treated with recombinant human apo- mSOD1-G93A vs. wild-type control (wtSOD1) and recorded by patch-clamp and calcium imaging. Results showed that exogenous mSOD1 as well as wtSOD1 induced a decrease of membrane resistance, the effect being persistent (up to 13 min) only for the mutant form. Similarly, whole-cell inward currents in astrocytes were augmented by both wt and mSOD1, but the effect was twice larger and only progressed continuously for the latter. Both forms of SOD1 also induced a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) activity, the effect being dependent on external Ca(2+) and again only persisted with mSOD1, becoming significantly different from wtSOD1 only at longer times (14 min). In conclusion, this study points to membrane permeability and Ca(2+) signalling as processes affected by SOD1-G93A that presents the humoral factor triggering the role of astrocytes in ALS pathophysiology.

  4. A time course analysis of the electrophysiological properties of neurons differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs.

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    Deborah Prè

    Full Text Available Many protocols have been designed to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs into neurons. Despite the relevance of electrophysiological properties for proper neuronal function, little is known about the evolution over time of important neuronal electrophysiological parameters in iPSC-derived neurons. Yet, understanding the development of basic electrophysiological characteristics of iPSC-derived neurons is critical for evaluating their usefulness in basic and translational research. Therefore, we analyzed the basic electrophysiological parameters of forebrain neurons differentiated from human iPSCs, from day 31 to day 55 after the initiation of neuronal differentiation. We assayed the developmental progression of various properties, including resting membrane potential, action potential, sodium and potassium channel currents, somatic calcium transients and synaptic activity. During the maturation of iPSC-derived neurons, the resting membrane potential became more negative, the expression of voltage-gated sodium channels increased, the membrane became capable of generating action potentials following adequate depolarization and, at day 48-55, 50% of the cells were capable of firing action potentials in response to a prolonged depolarizing current step, of which 30% produced multiple action potentials. The percentage of cells exhibiting miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents increased over time with a significant increase in their frequency and amplitude. These changes were associated with an increase of Ca2+ transient frequency. Co-culturing iPSC-derived neurons with mouse glial cells enhanced the development of electrophysiological parameters as compared to pure iPSC-derived neuronal cultures. This study demonstrates the importance of properly evaluating the electrophysiological status of the newly generated neurons when using stem cell technology, as electrophysiological properties of

  5. Selective comparison of gelling agents as neural cell culture matrices for long-term microelectrode array electrophysiology

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    Wilk Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In classic monolayer cell culture, the world is flat. In contrast, tissue-embedded cells experience a three-dimensional context to interact with. We assessed a selection of natural gelling agents of non-animal origin (ι- and κ-carrageenan, gellan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum, sodium alginate, tragacanth and xanthan gum in serum-free medium at 1–4% (w/v concentration for their suitability as a more natural 3D culture environment for brain-derived cells. Their biophysical properties (viscosity, texture, transparency, gelling propensity resemble those of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Gels provide the neurons with a 3D scaffold to interact with and allow for an increase of the overall cell density compared to classical monolayer 2D culture. They not only protect neurons in cell culture from shear forces and medium evaporation, but stabilize the microenvironment around them for efficient glial proliferation, tissue-analog neural differentiation and neural communication. We report on their properties (viscosity, transparency, their ease of handling in a cell culture context and their possible use modalities (cell embedment, as a cell cover or as a cell culture substrate. Among the selected gels, guar gum and locust bean gum with intercalated laminin allowed for cortical cell embedment. Neurons plated on and migrating into gellan gum survived and differentiated even without the addition of laminin. Sodium alginate with laminin was a suitable cell cover. Finally, we exemplarily demonstrate how guar gum supported the functional survival of a cortical culture over a period of 79 days in a proof-of-concept long-term microelectrode array (MEA electrophysiology study.

  6. Deconstructing the emotion regulatory properties of mindfulness: An electrophysiological investigation

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    Yanli Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to uncover the emotion regulatory properties of mindfulness by examining its effects—differentiated as a meditative practice, state of mind, and dispositional trait—on the late positive potential (LPP, an event-related potential indexing emotional processing. Results revealed that mindfulness as a meditative practice produced a reduction in the difference between the LPP response to negative high arousing and neutral stimuli across time. In contrast, a state mindfulness induction (i.e., instructions to attend to the stimuli mindfully failed to modulate the LPP. Dispositional mindfulness, however, was related to modulation of the LPP as a function of meditation practice. Dispositional mindfulness was associated with a reduction of the LPP response to negative high arousal stimuli and the difference between negative high arousal and neutral stimuli in participants who listened to a control audio recording but not for those who engaged in the guided meditation practice. Together, these findings provide experimental evidence demonstrating that brief mindfulness meditation, but not deliberate engagement in state mindfulness, produces demonstrable changes in emotional processing indicative of reduced emotional reactivity. Importantly, these effects are akin to those observed in individuals with naturally high dispositional mindfulness, suggesting that the benefits of mindfulness can be cultivated through practice.

  7. Electrophysiology of Hypothalamic Magnocellular Neurons In vitro: A Rhythmic Drive in Organotypic Cultures and Acute Slices.

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    Israel, Jean-Marc; Oliet, Stéphane H; Ciofi, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic neurohormones are released in a pulsatile manner. The mechanisms of this pulsatility remain poorly understood and several hypotheses are available, depending upon the neuroendocrine system considered. Among these systems, hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal magnocellular neurons have been early-considered models, as they typically display an electrical activity consisting of bursts of action potentials that is optimal for the release of boluses of the neurohormones oxytocin and vasopressin. The cellular mechanisms underlying this bursting behavior have been studied in vitro, using either acute slices of the adult hypothalamus, or organotypic cultures of neonatal hypothalamic tissue. We have recently proposed, from experiments in organotypic cultures, that specific central pattern generator networks, upstream of magnocellular neurons, determine their bursting activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar hypothesis can be derived from in vitro experiments in acute slices of the adult hypothalamus. To this aim we have screened our electrophysiological recordings of the magnocellular neurons, previously obtained from acute slices, with an analysis of autocorrelation of action potentials to detect a rhythmic drive as we recently did for organotypic cultures. This confirmed that the bursting behavior of magnocellular neurons is governed by central pattern generator networks whose rhythmic drive, and thus probably integrity, is however less satisfactorily preserved in the acute slices from adult brains.

  8. Electrophysiology of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons in vitro: a rhythmic drive in organotypic cultures and acute slices

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    Jean-Marc eIsrael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurohormones are released in a pulsatile manner. The mechanisms of this pulsatility remain poorly understood and several hypotheses are available, depending upon the neuroendocrine system considered. Among these systems, hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal magnocellular neurons have been early-considered models, as they typically display an electrical activity consisting of bursts of action potentials that is optimal for the release of boluses of the neurohormones oxytocin and vasopressin. The cellular mechanisms underlying this bursting behavior have been studied in vitro, using either acute slices of the adult hypothalamus, or organotypic cultures of neonatal hypothalamic tissue. We have recently proposed, from experiments in organotypic cultures, that specific central pattern generator networks, upstream of magnocellular neurons, determine their bursting activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar hypothesis can be derived from in vitro experiments in acute slices of the adult hypothalamus. To this aim we have screened our electrophysiological recordings of the magnocellular neurons, previously obtained from acute slices, with an analysis of autocorrelation of action potentials to detect a rhythmic drive as we recently did for organotypic cultures. This confirmed that the bursting behavior of magnocellular neurons is governed by central pattern generator networks whose rhythmic drive, and thus probably integrity, is however less satisfactorily preserved in the acute slices from adult brains.

  9. A comparison of neuronal growth cone and cell body membrane: electrophysiological and ultrastructural properties.

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    Guthrie, P B; Lee, R E; Kater, S B

    1989-10-01

    This study investigated a broad set of general electrophysiological and ultrastructural features of growth cone and cell body membrane of individual neurons where membrane from different regions of the same neuron can be directly compared. Growth cones were surgically isolated from identified adult Helisoma neurons in culture and compared with the cell body using whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques. All isolated growth cones generated overshooting regenerative action potentials. Five neurons (buccal neurons B4, B5, and B19; pedal neurons P1 and P5) were selected that displayed distinctive action potential waveforms. In all cases, the growth cone action potential was indistinguishable from the cell body action potential and different from growth cones from other identified neurons. Two of these neurons (B5 and B19) were studied further using voltage-clamp procedures; growth cones and cell bodies again revealed major similarities within one neuron type and differences between neuron types. The only suggested difference between the growth cone and cell body was an apparent reduction in the magnitude of the A-current in the growth cone. Peak inward and outward current densities, as with other electrophysiological features, were different between neuron types, but were, again, similar between the growth cone and the cell body of the same neuron. Freeze-fracture analysis of intramembraneous particles (IMPs) was also performed on identified regions of the same neuron in culture. Both the density and the size distribution of IMPs were the same in growth cone, cell body, and neurite membranes. In these general electrophysiological and ultrastructural characteristics, therefore, growth cone membranes appear to retain the identity of the parent neuron cell body membrane.

  10. Electrophysiological Properties of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone and Orexin Neurons in Adolescent Rats

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    Victoria Linehan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH neurons have complementary roles in various physiological functions including energy balance and the sleep/wake cycle. in vitro electrophysiological studies investigating these cells typically use post-weaning rodents, corresponding to adolescence. However, it is unclear whether these neurons are functionally mature at this period and whether these studies can be generalized to adult cells. Therefore, we examined the electrophysiological properties of orexin and MCH neurons in brain slices from post-weaning rats and found that MCH neurons undergo an age-dependent reduction in excitability, but not orexin neurons. Specifically, MCH neurons displayed an age-dependent hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential (RMP, depolarizing shift of the threshold, and decrease in excitatory transmission, which reach the adult level by 7 weeks of age. In contrast, basic properties of orexin neurons were stable from 4 weeks to 14 weeks of age. Furthermore, a robust short-term facilitation of excitatory synapses was found in MCH neurons, which showed age-dependent changes during the post-weaning period. On the other hand, a strong short-term depression was observed in orexin neurons, which was similar throughout the same period. These differences in synaptic responses and age dependence likely differentially affect the network activity within the lateral hypothalamus where these cells co-exist. In summary, our study suggests that orexin neurons are electrophysiologically mature before adolescence whereas MCH neurons continue to develop until late adolescence. These changes in MCH neurons may contribute to growth spurts or consolidation of adult sleep patterns associated with adolescence. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of considering the age of animals in studies involving MCH neurons.

  11. [Patterns of action potential firing in cortical neurons of neonatal mice and their electrophysiological property].

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    Furong, Liu; Shengtian, L I

    2016-05-25

    To investigate patterns of action potential firing in cortical heurons of neonatal mice and their electrophysiological properties. The passive and active membrane properties of cortical neurons from 3-d neonatal mice were observed by whole-cell patch clamp with different voltage and current mode. Three patterns of action potential firing were identified in response to depolarized current injection. The effects of action potential firing patterns on voltage-dependent inward and outward current were found. Neurons with three different firing patterns had different thresholds of depolarized current. In the morphology analysis of action potential, the three type neurons were different in rise time, duration, amplitude and threshold of the first action potential evoked by 80 pA current injection. The passive properties were similar in three patterns of action potential firing. These results indicate that newborn cortical neurons exhibit different patterns of action potential firing with different action potential parameters such as shape and threshold.

  12. Subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation restores altered electrophysiological properties of cortical neurons in parkinsonian rat.

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    Bertrand Degos

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological recordings performed in parkinsonian patients and animal models have confirmed the occurrence of alterations in firing rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons, but the outcome of these changes in thalamo-cortical networks remains unclear. Using rats rendered parkinsonian, we investigated, at a cellular level in vivo, the electrophysiological changes induced in the pyramidal cells of the motor cortex by the dopaminergic transmission interruption and further characterized the impact of high-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a procedure alleviating parkinsonian symptoms. We provided evidence that a lesion restricted to the substantia nigra pars compacta resulted in a marked increase in the mean firing rate and bursting pattern of pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex. These alterations were underlain by changes of the electrical membranes properties of pyramidal cells including depolarized resting membrane potential and increased input resistance. The modifications induced by the dopaminergic loss were more pronounced in cortico-striatal than in cortico-subthalamic neurons. Furthermore, subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation applied at parameters alleviating parkinsonian signs regularized the firing pattern of pyramidal cells and restored their electrical membrane properties.

  13. Confocal microscopy and electrophysiological study of single patient corneal endothelium cell cultures

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    Tatini, Francesca; Rossi, Francesca; Coppi, Elisabetta; Magni, Giada; Fusco, Irene; Menabuoni, Luca; Pedata, Felicita; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Pini, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of the ion channels in corneal endothelial cells and the elucidation of their involvement in corneal pathologies would lead to the identification of new molecular target for pharmacological treatments and to the clarification of corneal physiology. The corneal endothelium is an amitotic cell monolayer with a major role in preserving corneal transparency and in regulating the water and solute flux across the posterior surface of the cornea. Although endothelial cells are non-excitable, they express a range of ion channels, such as voltage-dependent Na+ channels and K+ channels, L-type Ca2 channels and many others. Interestingly, purinergic receptors have been linked to a variety of conditions within the eye but their presence in the endothelium and their role in its pathophysiology is still uncertain. In this study, we were able to extract endothelial cells from single human corneas, thus obtaining primary cultures that represent the peculiarity of each donor. Corneas were from tissues not suitable for transplant in patients. We characterized the endothelial cells by confocal microscopy, both within the intact cornea and in the primary endothelial cells cultures. We also studied the functional role of the purinergic system (adenosine, ATP and their receptors) by means of electrophysiological recordings. The experiments were performed by patch clamp recordings and confocal time-lapse microscopy and our results indicate that the application of purinergic compounds modulates the amplitude of outward currents in the isolated endothelial cells. These findings may lead to the proposal of new therapies for endothelium-related corneal diseases.

  14. A protocol for preparation and transfection of rat entorhinal cortex organotypic cultures for electrophysiological whole-cell recordings

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    Nicholas I. Cilz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how neuromodulators influence synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability within the entorhinal cortex (EC is critical to furthering our understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of this region. Organotypic cultures can provide a cost-effective means to employ selective molecular biological strategies in elucidating cellular mechanisms of neuromodulation in the EC. We therefore adapted our acute slice model for organotypic culture applications and optimized a protocol for the preparation and biolistic transfection of cultured horizontal EC slices. Here, we present our detailed protocol for culturing EC slices. Using an n-methyl-d-glucamine (NMDG-containing cutting solution, we obtain healthy EC slice cultures for electrophysiological recordings. We also present our protocol for the preparation of “bullets” carrying one or more constructs and demonstrate successful transfection of EC slices. We build upon previous methods and highlight specific aspects in our method that greatly improved the quality of our results. We validate our methods using immunohistochemical, imaging, and electrophysiological techniques. The novelty of this method is that it provides a description of culturing and transfection of EC neurons for specifically addressing their functionality. This method will enable researchers interested in entorhinal function to quickly adopt a similar slice culture transfection system for their own investigations.

  15. Inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica L. root on electrophysiological properties of isolated rabbit atrioventricular node

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    A. Enayati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The ideal drug for treatment of a wide range of supraventricular arrhythmia hasn't yet been developed. Previous studies have shown antihypertensive and negative inotropic effects of the Urtica dioica L. (nettle. Therefore, the aim of present study is to determine the rate dependent inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of nettle root and investigate the role of adrenoceptors in the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nettle on the isolated rabbit atrio-ventricular node. Methods: Urtica dioica roots were collected from Gorgan (Golestan, Iran. Male New Zealand rabbits (n=7 were used in all of the experiments. Experimental stimulation protocols (WBCL; Recovery, Facilitation, Fatigue were applied to assess electrophysiological properties of Node. All protocols were repeated in the presence and absence (control of different concentration (0.25-0.5 w/v % of nettle and 1 μM nadolol. Data were shown as Mean±SE, difference between groups statistically were assessed by SPSS software. Results: Nettle (0.5 w/v significantly decreased basic and functional properties of node as WBCL, ERP, FRP, AVCT and magnitude of fatigue (∆AH significantly increased but ∆FRP significantly decreased. In the presence of nadolol (1μM as a nonselective β-blocker, nettle (0.3 mg/L could not repeat its effects on electrophysiological properties of AV-node. Conclusion: The results showed the modifying properties of Urtica dioica root extract. It may be considered as a candidate for the treatment of supraventicular arrhythmias.

  16. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

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    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  17. Nucleus accumbens core medium spiny neuron electrophysiological properties and partner preference behavior in the adult male prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster.

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    Willett, Jaime A; Johnson, Ashlyn G; Vogel, Andrea R; Patisaul, Heather B; McGraw, Lisa A; Meitzen, John

    2018-04-01

    Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens have long been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie numerous social and motivated behaviors as studied in rodents such as rats. Recently, the prairie vole has emerged as an important model animal for studying social behaviors, particularly regarding monogamy because of its ability to form pair bonds. However, to our knowledge, no study has assessed intrinsic vole MSN electrophysiological properties or tested how these properties vary with the strength of the pair bond between partnered voles. Here we performed whole cell patch-clamp recordings of MSNs in acute brain slices of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) of adult male voles exhibiting strong and weak preferences for their respective partnered females. We first document vole MSN electrophysiological properties and provide comparison to rat MSNs. Vole MSNs demonstrated many canonical electrophysiological attributes shared across species but exhibited notable differences in excitability compared with rat MSNs. Second, we assessed male vole partner preference behavior and tested whether MSN electrophysiological properties varied with partner preference strength. Male vole partner preference showed extensive variability. We found that decreases in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude and the slope of the evoked action potential firing rate to depolarizing current injection weakly associated with increased preference for the partnered female. This suggests that excitatory synaptic strength and neuronal excitability may be decreased in MSNs in males exhibiting stronger preference for a partnered female. Overall, these data provide extensive documentation of MSN electrophysiological characteristics and their relationship to social behavior in the prairie vole. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This research represents the first assessment of prairie vole nucleus accumbens core medium spiny neuron intrinsic electrophysiological properties and

  18. Electrophysiological and Morphological Properties of α and γ Motoneurons in the Rat Trigeminal Motor Nucleus

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    Kayo Nishimura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The muscle contraction during voluntary movement is regulated by activities of α- and γ-motoneurons (αMNs and γMNs, respectively. The tension of jaw-closing muscles can be finely tuned over a wide range. This excellent function is likely to be achieved by the specific populations of αMNs innervating jaw-closing muscles. Indeed, we have recently demonstrated that in the rat dorsolateral trigeminal motor nucleus (dl-TMN, the size distribution of αMNs was bimodal and the population of smaller αMNs showed a size distribution similar to that of γMNs, by immunohistochemically identifying αMNs and γMNs based on the expressions of estrogen-related receptor gamma (Err3 and neuronal DNA binding protein NeuN together with ChAT. This finding suggests the presence of αMNs as small as γMNs. However, differences in the electrophysiological membrane properties between αMNs and γMNs remain unknown also in the dl-TMN. Therefore, in the present study, we studied the electrophysiological membrane properties of MNs in the dl-TMN of infant rats at postnatal days 7–12 together with their morphological properties using whole-cell current-clamp recordings followed by immunohistochemical staining with an anti-NeuN and anti-ChAT antibodies. We found that the ChAT-positive and NeuN-positive αMNs were divided into two subclasses: the first one had a larger cell body and displayed a 4-aminopyridine (4-AP-sensitive current while the second one had a smaller cell body and displayed a less prominent 4-AP-sensitive current and a low-threshold spike, suitable for their orderly recruitment. We finally found that γMNs showing ChAT-positive and NeuN-negative immunoreactivities had smaller cell bodies and displayed an afterdepolarization mediated by flufenamate-sensitive cation current. It is suggested that these electrophysiological and morphological features of MNs in the dl-TMN are well correlated with the precise control of occlusion.

  19. Electrophysiological study of transport systems in isolated perfused pancreatic ducts: properties of the basolateral membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Greger, R

    1988-01-01

    - concentration from 0 to 25 mmol/l produced fast and sustained depolarization of PDbl by 8.5 +/- 1.0 mV (n = 149). It was investigated whether the effect of HCO3- was due to a Na+-dependent transport mechanism on the basolateral membrane, where the ion complex transferred into the cell would be positively...... was monitored by electrophysiological techniques. In this report some properties of the basolateral membrane of pancreatic duct cells are described. The transepithelial potential difference (PDte) in ducts bathed in HCO3(-)-free and HCO3(-)-containing solution was -0.8 and -2.6 mV, respectively. The equivalent...... short circuit current (Isc) under similar conditions was 26 and 50 microA . cm-2. The specific transepithelial resistance (Rte) was 88 omega cm2. In control solutions the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl) was -63 +/- 1 mV (n = 314). Ouabain (3 mmol/l) depolarized PDbl by 4.8 +/- 1.1 mV (n = 6...

  20. Electrophysiological properties and calcium handling of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

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    Jae Boum Youm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs hold great interest in many fields of research including clinical applications such as stem cell and gene therapy for cardiac repair or regeneration. ESC-CMs are also used as a platform tool for pharmacological tests or for investigations of cardiac remodeling. ESC-CMs have many different aspects of morphology, electrophysiology, calcium handling, and bioenergetics compared with adult cardiomyocytes. They are immature in morphology, similar to sinus nodal-like in the electrophysiology, higher contribution of trans-sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx to Ca2+ handling, and higher dependence on anaerobic glycolysis. Here, I review a detailed electrophysiology and Ca2+ handling features of ESC-CMs during differentiation into adult cardiomyocytes to gain insights into how all the developmental changes are related to each other to display cardinal features of developing cardiomyocytes.

  1. Autoclave Sterilization of PEDOT:PSS Electrophysiology Devices.

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    Uguz, Ilke; Ganji, Mehran; Hama, Adel; Tanaka, Atsunori; Inal, Sahika; Youssef, Ahmed; Owens, Roisin M; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ghestem, Antoine; Bernard, Christophe; Dayeh, Shadi A; Malliaras, George G

    2016-12-01

    Autoclaving, the most widely available sterilization method, is applied to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrophysiology devices. The process does not harm morphology or electrical properties, while it effectively kills E. coli intentionally cultured on the devices. This finding paves the way to widespread introduction of PEDOT:PSS electrophysiology devices to the clinic. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Electrophysiological properties of neurosensory progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells

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    Karina Needham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In severe cases of sensorineural hearing loss where the numbers of auditory neurons are significantly depleted, stem cell-derived neurons may provide a potential source of replacement cells. The success of such a therapy relies upon producing a population of functional neurons from stem cells, to enable precise encoding of sound information to the brainstem. Using our established differentiation assay to produce sensory neurons from human stem cells, patch-clamp recordings indicated that all neurons examined generated action potentials and displayed both transient sodium and sustained potassium currents. Stem cell-derived neurons reliably entrained to stimuli up to 20 pulses per second (pps, with 50% entrainment at 50 pps. A comparison with cultured primary auditory neurons indicated similar firing precision during low-frequency stimuli, but significant differences after 50 pps due to differences in action potential latency and width. The firing properties of stem cell-derived neurons were also considered relative to time in culture (31–56 days and revealed no change in resting membrane potential, threshold or firing latency over time. Thus, while stem cell-derived neurons did not entrain to high frequency stimulation as effectively as mammalian auditory neurons, their electrical phenotype was stable in culture and consistent with that reported for embryonic auditory neurons.

  3. The effects of temperature upon the electrophysiological properties of Tetrahymena pyriformis-NT1.

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    Connolly, J G; Brown, I D; Lee, A G; Kerkut, G A

    1985-01-01

    Cells of Tetrahymena pyriformis--NT1 were cultured at 38 degrees C (Tg 38 degrees C) and 20 degrees C (Tg 20 degrees C) and their properties investigated over the range 0-40 degrees C. Tg 20 degrees C cells were viable in the range 3-33 degrees C and changes in their properties were readily reversible between 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Tg 38 degrees cells were viable in the range 40-10 degrees C and their property changes were immediately reversible in the range 40-23 degrees C. The I-V relations of Tg 38 degrees C cells showed increased excitability as the cells were cooled from 40 degrees C. At 10 degrees C there was a considerable loss of excitability and slope resistance. Cooling Tg 20 degrees C cells from 20 degrees C gave a similar pattern, although over a narrower temperature range. Warming Tg 20 degrees C Tetrahymena above 20 degrees C led to a progressive loss of excitability and the cells were markedly less viable above 35 degrees C. Within physiological limits the regenerative spike magnitude, repolarization time, time to peak and input resistance increased as temperature was lowered, whereas resting potential was diminished. When compared at their growth temperatures and most intermediate temperatures, the value of the various parameters monitored were generally different for the two cultures. The Q10 value for resting potential changes of Tg 20 degrees C cells about 20 degrees C was 1.20. As in T. vorax this was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that predicted for a diffusion potential and suggested that T. pyriformis--NT1 may have an electrogenic pump component in its membrane potential.

  4. Culture modulates the brain response to human expressions of emotion: electrophysiological evidence.

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    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    To understand how culture modulates on-line neural responses to social information, this study compared how individuals from two distinct cultural groups, English-speaking North Americans and Chinese, process emotional meanings of multi-sensory stimuli as indexed by both behaviour (accuracy) and event-related potential (N400) measures. In an emotional Stroop-like task, participants were presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent or incongruent emotions in conditions where they judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other (face or voice focus task). Results indicated that while both groups were sensitive to emotional differences between channels (with lower accuracy and higher N400 amplitudes for incongruent face-voice pairs), there were marked group differences in how intruding facial or vocal cues affected accuracy and N400 amplitudes, with English participants showing greater interference from irrelevant faces than Chinese. Our data illuminate distinct biases in how adults from East Asian versus Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, supplying new evidence that cultural learning modulates not only behaviour, but the neurocognitive response to different features of multi-channel emotion expressions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A SUBSTRATE AND A METHOD FOR DETERMINING AND/OR MONITORING ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ION CHANNELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a substrate and a method for obtaining an electrophysiological measuring configuration in which a cell forms a high resistive seal (giga-seal) around a measuring electrode making it suitable for determining and monitoring a current flow through the cell membrane...... and reference electrodes formed by wafer processing technology. The electrodes are adapted to conduct a current between them by delivery of ions by one electrode and receipt of ions by the other electrode and are typically silver/silver halide electrodes. This allows for effective and fast measuring of cells...

  6. Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavinasab, Moazamehosadat; Moazzami, Kasra; Shabani, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Some studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) may result in structural damage to neurons. In this study, we have elucidated the alteration in the hippocampal function of offspring Wistar rats (n = 8 rats in each group) that were chronically exposed to mobile phones during their gestational period by applying behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological tests. Rats in the EMF group were exposed to 900 MHz pulsed-EMF irradiation for 6 h/day. Whole cell recordings in hippocampal pyramidal cells in the mobile phone groups did show a decrease in neuronal excitability. Mobile phone exposure was mostly associated with a decrease in the number of action potentials fired in spontaneous activity and in response to current injection in both male and female groups. There was an increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in mobile phone rats compared with the control. The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats. Light microscopy study of brain sections of the control and mobile phone-exposed rats showed normal morphology.Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Electrophysiological properties of computational human ventricular cell action potential models under acute ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sara; Mincholé, Ana; Quinn, T Alexander; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2017-10-01

    Acute myocardial ischemia is one of the main causes of sudden cardiac death. The mechanisms have been investigated primarily in experimental and computational studies using different animal species, but human studies remain scarce. In this study, we assess the ability of four human ventricular action potential models (ten Tusscher and Panfilov, 2006; Grandi et al., 2010; Carro et al., 2011; O'Hara et al., 2011) to simulate key electrophysiological consequences of acute myocardial ischemia in single cell and tissue simulations. We specifically focus on evaluating the effect of extracellular potassium concentration and activation of the ATP-sensitive inward-rectifying potassium current on action potential duration, post-repolarization refractoriness, and conduction velocity, as the most critical factors in determining reentry vulnerability during ischemia. Our results show that the Grandi and O'Hara models required modifications to reproduce expected ischemic changes, specifically modifying the intracellular potassium concentration in the Grandi model and the sodium current in the O'Hara model. With these modifications, the four human ventricular cell AP models analyzed in this study reproduce the electrophysiological alterations in repolarization, refractoriness, and conduction velocity caused by acute myocardial ischemia. However, quantitative differences are observed between the models and overall, the ten Tusscher and modified O'Hara models show closest agreement to experimental data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DOPAMINERGIC AND NONDOPAMINERGIC NEURONS IN ORGANOTYPIC SLICE CULTURES OF THE RAT VENTRAL MESENCEPHALON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEENSEN, BH; NEDERGAARD, S; OSTERGAARD, K

    1995-01-01

    -old organotypic slice cultures of the ventral mesencephalon prepared from newborn rats. Dopaminergic neurones were distinguished from non-dopaminergic neurones by staining with the autofluorescent serotonin analogue 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine and briefly viewing the preparation with short exposures to ultraviolet...... 81 M Omega), were silent or fired spontaneously at a low frequency (0-9 Hz), and no spontaneous GABA(A)-ergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials or inward rectification were present. In contrast, non-dopaminergic neurones had fast action potentials (0.6-3.2 ms), low input resistance (mean 32 M Omega...

  9. FGF-23 dysregulates calcium homeostasis and electrophysiological properties in HL-1 atrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yao-Chang; Lin, Yung-Kuo; Shiu, Rong-Jie; Chao, Tze-Fan; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2014-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 is a key regulator of phosphate homeostasis. Higher FGF-23 levels are correlated with poor outcomes in cardiovascular diseases. FGF-23 can produce cardiac hypertrophy and increase intracellular calcium, which can change cardiac electrical activity. However, it is not clear whether FGF-23 possesses arrhythmogenic potential through calcium dysregulation. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate the electrophysiological effects of FGF-23 and identify the underlying mechanisms. Patch clamp, confocal microscope with Fluo-4 fluorescence, and Western blot analyses were used to evaluate the electrophysiological characteristics, calcium homeostasis and calcium regulatory proteins in HL-1 atrial myocytes with and without FGF-23 (10 and 25 ng/mL) incubation for 24 h. FGF-23 (25 ng/mL) increased L-type calcium currents, calcium transient and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in HL-1 cells. FGF-23 (25 ng/mL)-treated cells (n = 14) had greater incidences (57%, 17% and 15%, P calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ and phospholamban (PLB) at threonine 17 but had similar phosphorylation extents of PLB at serine 16, total PLB and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase protein. Moreover, the FGF receptor inhibitor (PD173074, 10 nM), calmodulin inhibitor (W7, 5 μM) and phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 1 μM) attenuated the effects of FGF-23 on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation. FGF-23 increases HL-1 cells arrhythmogenesis with calcium dysregulation through modulating calcium-handling proteins. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea on the electrophysiological property and visual signal transmission of rat's retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Chen, Tao; Liu, Bei; Yang, Guo Qing; Peng, Guanghua; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yi Fei

    2015-07-01

    The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) on the inner retinal neurons and related visual signal circuits have not been described in any animal models or human, despite ample morphological evidences about the MNU induced photoreceptor (PR) degeneration. With the helping of MEA (multielectrode array) recording system, we gained the opportunity to systemically explore the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated rats. Our MEA research identified remarkable alterations in the electrophysiological properties and firstly provided instructive information about the neurotoxicity of MNU that affects the signal transmission in the inner retina. Moreover, the spatial electrophysiological functions of retina were monitored and found that the focal PRs had different vulnerabilities to the MNU. The MNU-induced PR dysfunction exhibited a distinct spatial- and time-dependent progression. In contrast, the spiking activities of both central and peripheral RGCs altered synchronously in response to the MNU administration. Pharmacological tests suggested that gap junctions played a pivotal role in this homogeneous response of RGCs. SNR analysis of MNU treated retina suggested that the signaling efficiency and fidelity of inner retinal circuits have been ruined by this toxicant, although the microstructure of the inner retina seemed relatively consolidated. The present study provided an appropriate example of MEA investigations on the toxicant induced pathological models and the effects of the pharmacological compounds on neuron activities. The positional MEA information would enrich our knowledge about the pathology of MNU induced RP models, and eventually be instrumental for elucidating the underlying mechanism of human RP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intermittent versus Persistent Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome in Children: Electrophysiologic Properties and Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Michelle E; McCanta, Anthony C; Tong, Suhong; Schaffer, Michael; Runciman, Martin; Collins, Kathryn K

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is considered to have a lower risk of sudden death. Fewer data exist regarding electrophysiologic (EP) characteristics and the natural history of intermittent WPW in children. All patients with WPW age 1-18 years at a single institution (1996-2013) were reviewed. Patients with intermittent preexcitation were compared to those with loss of preexcitation on Holter/exercise testing and those with persistent preexcitation. High-risk accessory pathway (AP) was defined as AP effective refractory period (APERP), block cycle length, or shortest preexcited RR interval during atrial fibrillation ≤250 ms. A total of 295 patients were included: 226 (76.6%) persistent, 39 (13.2%) intermittent, and 30 (10.2%) loss of preexcitation Holter/exercise. There were no differences in symptoms between groups. Median interquartile range APERP was significantly longer in intermittent WPW (380 [320, 488] ms vs 320 [300, 350] ms persistent, 310 [290, 330] ms loss of preexcitation Holter/exercise; P = 0.0008). At baseline, there was no difference between groups in frequency of high-risk pathways. However, when isoproterenol values were included, high-risk pathways were more frequent among patients with loss of preexcitation on Holter/exercise (54% vs 16% persistent, 11% intermittent; P = 0.005). There was one death in a patient with loss of preexcitation on exercise testing, no EP study, and prior drug use. A second patient with persistent WPW and APERP 270 ms required resuscitation following a methadone overdose. Intermittent preexcitation in children does not connote a lower risk AP by EP criteria or reduced symptoms. The low number of pediatric WPW patients who develop preexcited atrial fibrillation or sudden death warrants larger studies to investigate these outcomes. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Intrinsic Electrophysiological Properties of Mammalian Neurons: Insights into Central Nervous System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Rodolfo R.

    1988-12-01

    This article reviews the electroresponsive properties of single neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). In some of these cells the ionic conductances responsible for their excitability also endow them with autorhythmic electrical oscillatory properties. Chemical or electrical synaptic contacts between these neurons often result in network oscillations. In such networks, autorhytmic neurons may act as true oscillators (as pacemakers) or as resonators (responding preferentially to certain firing frequencies). Oscillations and resonance in the CNS are proposed to have diverse functional roles, such as (i) determining global functional states (for example, sleep-wakefulness or attention), (ii) timing in motor coordination, and (iii) specifying connectivity during development. Also, oscillation, especially in the thalamo-cortical circuits, may be related to certain neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review proposes that the autorhythmic electrical properties of central neurons and their connectivity form the basis for an intrinsic functional coordinate system that provides internal context to sensory input.

  13. Characterization and Evaluation of Neuronal Trans-Differentiation with Electrophysiological Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Porcine Endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Baregundi Subbarao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal cells (EMSCs obtained from porcine uterus (n = 6 were positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD29, CD44 and CD90, and negative for epithelial marker CD9 and hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45 analyzed by flow cytometry. Further the cells were positive for expression of mesenchymal markers, CD105, CD140b, and CD144 by PCR. Pluripotent markers OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG were positively expressed in EMSCs analyzed by Western blotting and PCR. Further, differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes was confirmed by cytochemical staining and lineage specific gene expression by quantitative realtime-PCR. Adipocyte (FABP, LPL, AP2 and osteocyte specific genes (ON, BG, RUNX2 in differentiated EMSCs showed significant (p < 0.05 increase in expression compared to undifferentiated control cells. Neurogenic transdifferentiation of EMSCs exhibited distinctive dendritic morphology with axon projections and neuronal specific genes, NFM, NGF, MBP, NES, B3T and MAP2 and proteins, B3T, NFM, NGF, and TRKA were positively expressed in neuronal differentiated cells. Functional analysis of neuronal differentiated EMSCs displayed voltage-dependence and kinetics for transient outward K+ currents (Ito, at holding potential of −80 mV, Na+ currents and during current clamp, neuronal differentiated EMSCs was more negative than that of control EMSCs. Porcine EMSCs is a suitable model for studying molecular mechanism of transdifferentiation, assessment of electrophysiological properties and their efficiency during in vivo transplantation.

  14. Electrophysiological properties of neurons derived from human stem cells and iNeurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Robert F

    2017-06-01

    Functional studies of neurons have traditionally used nervous system tissues from a variety of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate species, even when the focus of much of this research has been directed at understanding human brain function. Over the last decade, the identification and isolation of human stem cells from embryonic, tissue (or adult) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the availability of human neurons for experimental studies in vitro. In addition, the direct conversion of terminally differentiated fibroblasts into Induced neurons (iN) has generated great excitement because of the likely value of such human stem cell derived neurons (hSCNs) and iN cells in drug discovery, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology and regenerative medicine. This review addresses the current state of our knowledge of functional receptors and ion channels expressed in neurons derived from human stem cells and iNeurons and identifies gaps and questions that might be investigated in future studies; it focusses almost exclusively on what is known about the electrophysiological properties of neurons derived from human stem cells and iN cells in vitro with an emphasis on voltage and ligand gated ion channels, since these mediate synaptic signalling in the nervous system and they are at the heart of neuropharmacology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Management Challenges of Cultural Property in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JT Gbadegesin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust of this article is to fill the lacuna in extant literature on the need to appraise the management of traditional/cultural properties in Ile-Ife (historical source of Yoruba race in Nigeria and the need to ensure sustainability in order to register the values of the cultural identity for global appreciation. To accomplish the aim, questionnaires were administered on the stakeholders: traditional royal stools, museum staff and families of ancient priests (owners of sacred sites to elicit information. The data obtained were analyzed using simple descriptive and inferential statistics. The study confirmed that the special properties' (sacred heritages owners and royal stool (traditional rulers are the most participating stakeholders in the management of cultural properties in Yorubaland. Also, there are three most influencing factors; lack of effective management plans/strategies, lack of continuity in the cultural heritage sustainability and lack of full participation of all the stakeholders in the sustainability of cultural heritages. It implies that the posterity, sustainability of cultural heritages is anchored on effective management strategy and the gradual neglect of special properties such as cultural heritages is tantamount to the loss of value and economic returns which could really create wider opportunities in the emerging economies.

  16. Neuropathic pain in experimental autoimmune neuritis is associated with altered electrophysiological properties of nociceptive DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Omneya; Opitz, Thoralf; Mueller, Marcus; Pitsch, Julika; Becker, Albert; Evert, Bernd Oliver; Beck, Heinz; Jeub, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy characterized by rapidly progressive paresis and sensory disturbances. Moderate to severe and often intractable neuropathic pain is a common symptom of GBS, but its underlying mechanisms are unknown. Pathology of GBS is classically attributed to demyelination of large, myelinated peripheral fibers. However, there is increasing evidence that neuropathic pain in GBS is associated with impaired function of small, unmyelinated, nociceptive fibers. We therefore examined the functional properties of small DRG neurons, the somata of nociceptive fibers, in a rat model of GBS (experimental autoimmune neuritis=EAN). EAN rats developed behavioral signs of neuropathic pain. This was accompanied by a significant shortening of action potentials due to a more rapid repolarization and an increase in repetitive firing in a subgroup of capsaicin-responsive DRG neurons. Na + current measurements revealed a significant increase of the fast TTX-sensitive current and a reduction of the persistent TTX-sensitive current component. These changes of Na + currents may account for the significant decrease in AP duration leading to an overall increase in excitability and are therefore possibly directly linked to pathological pain behavior. Thus, like in other animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain, Na + channels seem to be crucially involved in the pathology of GBS and may constitute promising targets for pain modulating pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early postnatal development of electrophysiological and histological properties of sensory sural nerves in male rats that were maternally deprived and artificially reared: Role of tactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempoalteca, Rene; Porras, Mercedes G; Moreno-Pérez, Suelem; Ramirez-Funez, Gabriela; Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; González Del Pliego, Margarita; Mariscal-Tovar, Silvia; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria E; Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Melo, Angel I

    2018-04-01

    Early adverse experiences disrupt brain development and behavior, but little is known about how such experiences impact on the development of the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we found alterations in the electrophysiological and histological characteristics of the sensory sural (SU) nerve in maternally deprived, artificially reared (AR) adult male rats, as compared with maternally reared (MR) control rats. In the present study, our aim was to characterize the ontogeny of these alterations. Thus, male pups of four postnatal days (PND) were (1) AR group, (2) AR and received daily tactile stimulation to the body and anogenital region (AR-Tactile group); or (3) reared by their mother (MR group). At PND 7, 14, or 21, electrophysiological properties and histological characteristics of the SU nerves were assessed. At PND 7, the electrophysiological properties and most histological parameters of the SU nerve did not differ among MR, AR, and AR-Tactile groups. By contrast, at PND 14 and/or 21, the SU nerve of AR rats showed a lower CAP amplitude and area, and a significant reduction in myelin area and myelin thickness, which were accompanied by a reduction in axon area (day 21 only) compared to the nerves of MR rats. Tactile stimulation (AR-Tactile group) partially prevented most of these alterations. These results suggest that sensory cues from the mother and/or littermates during the first 7-14 PND are relevant for the proper development and function of the adult SU nerve. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 351-362, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Developmental changes in electrophysiological properties and a transition from electrical to chemical coupling between excitatory layer 4 neurons in the rat barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliza eValiullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During development, sensory systems switch from an immature to an adult mode of function along with the emergence of the active cortical states. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings from neocortical slices in vitro to characterize the developmental changes in the basic electrophysiological properties of excitatory L4 neurons and their connectivity before and after the developmental switch, which occurs in the rat barrel cortex in vivo at postnatal day P8. Prior to the switch, L4 neurons had lower resting membrane potentials, higher input resistance, lower membrane capacity, as well as action potentials (APs with smaller amplitudes, longer durations and higher AP thresholds compared to the neurons after the switch. A sustained firing pattern also emerged around the switch. Dual patch-clamp recordings from L4 neurons revealed that recurrent connections between L4 excitatory cells do not exist before and develop rapidly across the switch. In contrast, electrical coupling between these neurons waned around the switch. We suggest that maturation of electrophysiological features, particularly acquisition of a sustained firing pattern, and a transition from the immature electrical to mature chemical synaptic coupling between excitatory L4 neurons, contributes to the developmental switch in the cortical mode of function.

  19. Homozygous mutation of focal adhesion kinase in embryonic stem cell derived neurons: normal electrophysiological and morphological properties in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama NH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically manipulated embryonic stem (ES cell derived neurons (ESNs provide a powerful system with which to study the consequences of gene manipulation in mature, synaptically connected neurons in vitro. Here we report a study of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, which has been implicated in synapse formation and regulation of ion channels, using the ESN system to circumvent the embryonic lethality of homozygous FAK mutant mice. Results Mouse ES cells carrying homozygous null mutations (FAK-/- were generated and differentiated in vitro into neurons. FAK-/- ESNs extended axons and dendrites and formed morphologically and electrophysiologically intact synapses. A detailed study of NMDA receptor gated currents and voltage sensitive calcium currents revealed no difference in their magnitude, or modulation by tyrosine kinases. Conclusion FAK does not have an obligatory role in neuronal differentiation, synapse formation or the expression of NMDA receptor or voltage-gated calcium currents under the conditions used in this study. The use of genetically modified ESNs has great potential for rapidly and effectively examining the consequences of neuronal gene manipulation and is complementary to mouse studies.

  20. The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea on the electrophysiological property and visual signal transmission of rat's retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Ye [Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100853 (China); Chen, Tao [Department of Clinical Aerospace Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liu, Bei [Department of Neurosurgery and Institute for Functional Brain Disorders, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Yang, Guo Qing [Department of Clinical Aerospace Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Peng, Guanghua [Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhang, Hua [Department of Neurosurgery and Institute for Functional Brain Disorders, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Huang, Yi Fei [Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) on the inner retinal neurons and related visual signal circuits have not been described in any animal models or human, despite ample morphological evidences about the MNU induced photoreceptor (PR) degeneration. With the helping of MEA (multielectrode array) recording system, we gained the opportunity to systemically explore the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated rats. Our MEA research identified remarkable alterations in the electrophysiological properties and firstly provided instructive information about the neurotoxicity of MNU that affects the signal transmission in the inner retina. Moreover, the spatial electrophysiological functions of retina were monitored and found that the focal PRs had different vulnerabilities to the MNU. The MNU-induced PR dysfunction exhibited a distinct spatial- and time-dependent progression. In contrast, the spiking activities of both central and peripheral RGCs altered synchronously in response to the MNU administration. Pharmacological tests suggested that gap junctions played a pivotal role in this homogeneous response of RGCs. SNR analysis of MNU treated retina suggested that the signaling efficiency and fidelity of inner retinal circuits have been ruined by this toxicant, although the microstructure of the inner retina seemed relatively consolidated. The present study provided an appropriate example of MEA investigations on the toxicant induced pathological models and the effects of the pharmacological compounds on neuron activities. The positional MEA information would enrich our knowledge about the pathology of MNU induced RP models, and eventually be instrumental for elucidating the underlying mechanism of human RP. - Highlights: • We systemically explored the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated retinas. • The focal photoreceptors had different vulnerabilities to the MNU administration.

  1. The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea on the electrophysiological property and visual signal transmission of rat's retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Ye; Chen, Tao; Liu, Bei; Yang, Guo Qing; Peng, Guanghua; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yi Fei

    2015-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) on the inner retinal neurons and related visual signal circuits have not been described in any animal models or human, despite ample morphological evidences about the MNU induced photoreceptor (PR) degeneration. With the helping of MEA (multielectrode array) recording system, we gained the opportunity to systemically explore the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated rats. Our MEA research identified remarkable alterations in the electrophysiological properties and firstly provided instructive information about the neurotoxicity of MNU that affects the signal transmission in the inner retina. Moreover, the spatial electrophysiological functions of retina were monitored and found that the focal PRs had different vulnerabilities to the MNU. The MNU-induced PR dysfunction exhibited a distinct spatial- and time-dependent progression. In contrast, the spiking activities of both central and peripheral RGCs altered synchronously in response to the MNU administration. Pharmacological tests suggested that gap junctions played a pivotal role in this homogeneous response of RGCs. SNR analysis of MNU treated retina suggested that the signaling efficiency and fidelity of inner retinal circuits have been ruined by this toxicant, although the microstructure of the inner retina seemed relatively consolidated. The present study provided an appropriate example of MEA investigations on the toxicant induced pathological models and the effects of the pharmacological compounds on neuron activities. The positional MEA information would enrich our knowledge about the pathology of MNU induced RP models, and eventually be instrumental for elucidating the underlying mechanism of human RP. - Highlights: • We systemically explored the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated retinas. • The focal photoreceptors had different vulnerabilities to the MNU administration.

  2. Safeguarding cultural properties security for museums, libraries, parks, and zoos

    CERN Document Server

    Layne, Stevan P

    2014-01-01

    Safeguarding Cultural Properties is a step-by-step guide for creating and maintaining a comprehensive security program in any cultural facility or public institution. Author Stevan P. Layne, the leading expert in the field of cultural property protection, draws from his many years of experience providing protection training and planning to more than 350 cultural and public institutions around the world. Designed especially for those with limited security budgets, the book provides a proven and effective program for hiring the right security personnel, selecting the appropriate electronic s

  3. Characterization of the in vitro propagation of epileptiform electrophysiological activity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures coupled to 3D microelectrode arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisciotta, Marzia; Morgavi, Giovanna; Jahnsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic aspects of the propagation of epileptiform activity have so far received little attention. With the aim of providing new insights about the spatial features of the propagation of epileptic seizures in the nervous system, we studied in vitro the initiation and propagation of traveling...... activity are completely coherent with respect to the activity originating in the CA3, while components at higher frequencies lose the coherence, possibly suggesting that the cellular mechanism mediating propagation of electrophysiological activity becomes ineffective for those firing rates exceeding...... epileptiform waves of electrophysiological activity in the hippocampus by means of substrate three-dimensional microelectrode arrays (MEAs) for extracellular measurements. Pharmacologically disinhibited hippocampal slices spontaneously generate epileptiform bursts mostly originating in CA3 and propagating...

  4. Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus that express both ChAT and VGAT in a double-transgenic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasuhiko; Zhang, Yue; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    2015-04-01

    Although it has been proposed that neurons that contain both acetylcholine (ACh) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are present in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), these neurons have not been characterized because of the difficulty in identifying them. In the present study, PHN neurons that express both choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were identified using double-transgenic rats, in which the cholinergic and inhibitory neurons express the fluorescent proteins tdTomato and Venus, respectively. To characterize the neurons that express both tdTomato and Venus (D+ neurons), the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) profiles and firing patterns of these neurons were investigated via whole-cell recordings of brainstem slice preparations. Regarding the three AHP profiles and four firing patterns that the D+ neurons exhibited, an AHP with an afterdepolarization and a firing pattern that exhibited a delay in the generation of the first spike were the preferential properties of these neurons. In the three morphological types classified, the multipolar type that exhibited radiating dendrites was predominant among the D+ neurons. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the VGAT-immunopositive axonal boutons that expressed tdTomato were primarily located in the dorsal cap of inferior olive (IO) and the PHN. Although the PHN receives cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, D+ neurons were absent from these brain areas. Together, these results suggest that PHN neurons that co-express ACh and GABA exhibit specific electrophysiological and morphological properties, and innervate the dorsal cap of the IO and the PHN. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Characterization of the in vitro propagation of epileptiform electrophysiological activity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures coupled to 3D microelectrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Marzia; Morgavi, Giovanna; Jahnsen, Henrik

    2010-10-28

    Dynamic aspects of the propagation of epileptiform activity have so far received little attention. With the aim of providing new insights about the spatial features of the propagation of epileptic seizures in the nervous system, we studied in vitro the initiation and propagation of traveling epileptiform waves of electrophysiological activity in the hippocampus by means of substrate three-dimensional microelectrode arrays (MEAs) for extracellular measurements. Pharmacologically disinhibited hippocampal slices spontaneously generate epileptiform bursts mostly originating in CA3 and propagating to CA1. Our study specifically addressed the activity-dependent changes of the propagation of traveling electrophysiological waves in organotypic hippocampal slices during epileptiform discharge and in particular our question is: what happens to the epileptic signals during their propagation through the slice? Multichannel data analysis enabled us to quantify an activity-dependent increase in the propagation velocity of spontaneous bursts. Moreover, through the evaluation of the coherence of the signals, it was possible to point out that only the lower-frequency components (propagation of electrophysiological activity becomes ineffective for those firing rates exceeding an upper bound or that some noise of neuronal origin was added to the signal during propagation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of calcium (Ca(2+)) extrusion mechanisms on electrophysiological properties in a hypoglossal motoneuron: insight from a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kyle G; Solomon, Irene C

    2014-01-01

    Spike-frequency dynamics and spike shape can provide insight into the types of ion channels present in any given neuron and give a sense for the precise response any neuron may have to a given input stimulus. Motoneuron firing frequency over time is especially important due to its direct effect on motor output. Of particular interest is intracellular Ca(2+), which exerts a powerful influence on both firing properties over time and spike shape. In order to better understand the cellular mechanisms for the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and their effect on spiking behavior, we have modified a computational model of an HM to include a variety of Ca(2+) handling processes. For the current study, a series of HM models that include Ca(2+) pumps, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, and a generic exponential decay of excess Ca(2+) were generated. Simulations from these models indicate that although each extrusion mechanism exerts a similar effect on voltage, the firing properties change distinctly with the inclusion of additional Ca(2+)-related mechanisms: BK channels, Ca(2+) buffering, and diffusion of [Ca(2+)]i modeled via a linear diffusion partial differential equation. While an exponential decay of Ca(2+) seems to adequately capture short-term changes in firing frequency seen in biological data, internal diffusion of Ca(2+) appears to be necessary for capturing longer term frequency changes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aortic properties and atrial electrophysiology in the young and old football players Propriedades da aorta e electrofisiologia atrial em futebolistas profissionais ativos e aposentados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Hasdemir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between P wave dispersion, aortic elastic properties and transthoracic echocardiographic findings in the young and old football players compared to control groups in order to asses the influence of regular sportive activity on aortic distensibility and its potential effect on atrial electrophysiology. METHODS : We recruited 42 young football players with a training history of many years. The control group was formed by 27 healthy sedentary men. Twenty-three healthy retired football players of a professional football club aged over 50 years were included in the study as old group and 18 subjects over 50 year old who did not perform regular exercise when they were young were included in the control group of old subjects. RESULTS: The heart rate and ejection fraction were decreased in the young football players. There were no significant differences in the aortic elastic parameters and P wave dispersion between young football players and control group. But in old subjects with sustained participation in regular sportive activity, the significant difference of left ventricular dimension, wall thickness and systolic functions detected in the young group disappeared while increase in the left atrial diameter became significant. CONCLUSION: Potential effect of aortic elastic properties which changes with age, on atrial electrophysiology through increasing P wave dispersion was shown.OBJETIVO: Com este estudo pretendeu-se levar a cabo um ensaio clínico que permitisse investigar as diferenças entre a dispersão da onda P (DOP, as propriedades elásticas da aorta e os resultados da ecocardiografia transtorácica em futebolistas profissionais ativos e reformados, face a grupos de controle, de modo a avaliar a influência da atividade desportiva regular na distensibilidade aórtica e o seu potencial efeito na electrofisiologia atrial. MÉTODOS: Para este estudo foram recrutados 42

  8. Novel properties of the wheat aluminum tolerance organic acid transporter (TaALMT1) revealed by electrophysiological characterization in Xenopus Oocytes: functional and structural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Cançado, Geraldo M A; Kochian, Leon V

    2008-08-01

    Many plant species avoid the phytotoxic effects of aluminum (Al) by exuding dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids that chelate and immobilize Al(3+) at the root surface, thus preventing it from entering root cells. Several novel genes that encode membrane transporters from the ALMT and MATE families recently were cloned and implicated in mediating the organic acid transport underlying this Al tolerance response. Given our limited understanding of the functional properties of ALMTs, in this study a detailed characterization of the transport properties of TaALMT1 (formerly named ALMT1) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes was conducted. The electrophysiological findings are as follows. Although the activity of TaALMT1 is highly dependent on the presence of extracellular Al(3+) (K(m1/2) of approximately 5 microm Al(3+) activity), TaALMT1 is functionally active and can mediate ion transport in the absence of extracellular Al(3+). The lack of change in the reversal potential (E(rev)) upon exposure to Al(3+) suggests that the "enhancement" of TaALMT1 malate transport by Al is not due to alteration in the transporter's selectivity properties but is solely due to increases in its anion permeability. The consistent shift in the direction of the E(rev) as the intracellular malate activity increases indicates that TaALMT1 is selective for the transport of malate over other anions. The estimated permeability ratio between malate and chloride varied between 1 and 30. However, the complex behavior of the E(rev) as the extracellular Cl(-) activity was varied indicates that this estimate can only be used as a general guide to understanding the relative affinity of TaALMT1 for malate, representing only an approximation of those expected under physiologically relevant ionic conditions. TaALMT1 can also mediate a large anion influx (i.e. outward currents). TaALMT1 is permeable not only to malate but also to other physiologically relevant anions such as Cl

  9. Novel Properties of the Wheat Aluminum Tolerance Organic Acid Transporter (TaALMT1) Revealed by Electrophysiological Characterization in Xenopus Oocytes: Functional and Structural Implications1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Miguel A.; Cançado, Geraldo M.A.; Kochian, Leon V.

    2008-01-01

    Many plant species avoid the phytotoxic effects of aluminum (Al) by exuding dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids that chelate and immobilize Al3+ at the root surface, thus preventing it from entering root cells. Several novel genes that encode membrane transporters from the ALMT and MATE families recently were cloned and implicated in mediating the organic acid transport underlying this Al tolerance response. Given our limited understanding of the functional properties of ALMTs, in this study a detailed characterization of the transport properties of TaALMT1 (formerly named ALMT1) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes was conducted. The electrophysiological findings are as follows. Although the activity of TaALMT1 is highly dependent on the presence of extracellular Al3+ (Km1/2 of approximately 5 μm Al3+ activity), TaALMT1 is functionally active and can mediate ion transport in the absence of extracellular Al3+. The lack of change in the reversal potential (Erev) upon exposure to Al3+ suggests that the “enhancement” of TaALMT1 malate transport by Al is not due to alteration in the transporter's selectivity properties but is solely due to increases in its anion permeability. The consistent shift in the direction of the Erev as the intracellular malate activity increases indicates that TaALMT1 is selective for the transport of malate over other anions. The estimated permeability ratio between malate and chloride varied between 1 and 30. However, the complex behavior of the Erev as the extracellular Cl− activity was varied indicates that this estimate can only be used as a general guide to understanding the relative affinity of TaALMT1 for malate, representing only an approximation of those expected under physiologically relevant ionic conditions. TaALMT1 can also mediate a large anion influx (i.e. outward currents). TaALMT1 is permeable not only to malate but also to other physiologically relevant anions such as Cl−, NO3−, and

  10. Visual electrophysiology in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Brecelj

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrophysiological assessment of vision in children helps to recognise abnormal development of the visual system when it is still susceptible to medication and eventual correction. Visual electrophysiology provides information about the function of the retina (retinal pigment epithelium, cone and rod receptors, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells, optic nerve, chiasmal and postchiasmal visual pathway, and visual cortex.Methods: Electroretinograms (ERG and visual evoked potentials (VEP are recorded non-invasively; in infants are recorded simultaneously ERG with skin electrodes, while in older children separately ERG with HK loop electrode in accordance with ISCEV (International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision recommendations.Results: Clinical and electrophysiological changes in children with nystagmus, Leber’s congenital amaurosis, achromatopsia, congenital stationary night blindness, progressive retinal dystrophies, optic nerve hypoplasia, albinism, achiasmia, optic neuritis and visual pathway tumours are presented.Conclusions: Electrophysiological tests can help to indicate the nature and the location of dysfunction in unclear ophthalmological and/or neurological cases.

  11. Barrier properties of cultured retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    The principal function of an epithelium is to form a dynamic barrier that regulates movement between body compartments. Each epithelium is specialized with barrier functions that are specific for the tissues it serves. The apical surface commonly faces a lumen, but the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to be unique by a facing solid tissue, the sensory retina. Nonetheless, there exists a thin (subretinal) space that can become fluid filled during pathology. RPE separates the subretinal space from the blood supply of the outer retina, thereby forming the outer blood-retinal barrier. The intricate interaction between the RPE and sensory retina presents challenges for learning how accurately culture models reflect native behavior. The challenge is heightened by findings that detail the variation of RPE barrier proteins both among species and at different stages of the life cycle. Among the striking differences is the expression of claudin family members. Claudins are the tight junction proteins that regulate ion diffusion across the spaces that lie between the cells of a monolayer. Claudin expression by RPE varies with species and life-stage, which implies functional differences among commonly used animal models. Investigators have turned to transcriptomics to supplement functional studies when comparing native and cultured tissue. The most detailed studies of the outer blood-retinal barrier have focused on human RPE with transcriptome and functional studies reported for human fetal, adult, and stem-cell derived RPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid changes electrophysiological properties and expression pattern of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in insect neurosecretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzidane, Yassine; Goven, Delphine; Abd-Ella, Aly Ahmed; Deshayes, Caroline; Lapied, Bruno; Raymond, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging. We used cockroach neurosecretory cells identified as dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive (α-bgt-insensitive) nAChR subtypes, nAChR1 and nAChR2, which differ in their sensitivity to imidacloprid. Although nAChR1 is sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 is insensitive to this insecticide. In this study, we demonstrate that subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid differentially changes physiological and molecular properties of nAChR1 and nAChR2. Our findings reported that this treatment decreased the sensitivity of nAChR1 to imidacloprid, reduced current density flowing through this nAChR subtype but did not affect its subunit composition (α3, α8 and β1). Subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid also affected nAChR2 functions. However, these effects were different from those reported on nAChR1. We observed changes in nAChR2 conformational state, which could be related to modification of the subunit composition (α1, α2 and β1). Finally, the subchronic exposure affecting both nAChR1 and nAChR2 seemed to be linked to the elevation of the steady-state resting intracellular calcium level. In conclusion, under subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid, cockroaches are capable of triggering adaptive mechanisms by reducing the participation of imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and by optimizing functional properties of nAChR2, which is

  13. Good faith in the context of restitution of cultural property

    OpenAIRE

    Midorović Sloboda D.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines international and supranational rules on good faith in the context of restitution of cultural property. Deviations from the general rules on good faith with regard to the good faith acquisition and adverse possession have been indicated. Instead of insuring acquisition of ownership in conjunction with other preconditions, good faith only entitles an acquirer of the stolen or illegally exported cultural object to a fair compensation. The good faith presumption was abandoned ...

  14. Intellectual Property Rights: Governing Cultural and Educational Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitzke, Cushla

    2006-01-01

    This article uses Nikolas Rose's theory of governmentality to examine ways in which intellectual property is imbricated in a broad spectrum of globalised and globalising discourses. Using the 2004 Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement as a case in point, it shows how discourses of culture, trade, foreign policy, and security intersect and…

  15. Radiation dose electrophysiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Armas, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Catalan, A.; Hernandez Armas, O.; Luque Japon, L.; Moral, S.; Barroso, L.; Rfuez-Hdez, R.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper has been to measure and analyse some of the parameters which are directly related with the doses given to patients in two electrophysiology procedures: diagnosis and ablation with radiofrequency. 16 patients were considered in this study. 13 them had an ablation with radiofrequency at the Unit of Electrophysiology at the University Hospital of the Canaries, La Laguna., Tenerife. The results of skin doses, in the ablation cases, were higher than 2 Gy (threshold of some deterministic effects). The average value was 1.1 Gy. The personal doses, measured under the lead apron, for physician and nurses were 4 and 3 micro Sievert. These results emphasised the necessity of radiation protection measures in order to reduce, ad much as possible, the doses to patients. (Author)

  16. Differences in the Electrophysiological Properties of Mouse Somatosensory Layer 2/3 Neurons In Vivo and Slice Stem from Intrinsic Sources Rather than a Network-Generated High Conductance State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Synaptic activity in vivo can potentially alter the integration properties of neurons. Using recordings in awake mice, we targeted somatosensory layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons and compared neuronal properties with those from slices. Pyramidal cells in vivo had lower resistance and gain values, as well as broader spikes and increased spike frequency adaptation compared to the same cells in slices. Increasing conductance in neurons using dynamic clamp to levels observed in vivo, however, did not lessen the differences between in vivo and slice conditions. Further, local application of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in vivo blocked synaptic-mediated membrane voltage fluctuations but had little impact on pyramidal cell membrane input resistance and time constant values. Differences in electrophysiological properties of layer 2/3 neurons in mouse somatosensory cortex, therefore, stem from intrinsic sources separate from synaptic-mediated membrane voltage fluctuations. PMID:29662946

  17. Extracellular Electrophysiological Measurements of Cooperative Signals in Astrocytes Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Ana L. G.; Inácio, Pedro M. C.; Elamine, Youssef; Asgarifar, Sanaz; Lourenço, Ana S.; Cristiano, Maria L. S.; Aguiar, Paulo; Medeiros, Maria C. R.; Araújo, Inês M.; Ventura, João; Gomes, Henrique L.

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes are neuroglial cells that exhibit functional electrical properties sensitive to neuronal activity and capable of modulating neurotransmission. Thus, electrophysiological recordings of astroglial activity are very attractive to study the dynamics of glial signaling. This contribution reports on the use of ultra-sensitive planar electrodes combined with low noise and low frequency amplifiers that enable the detection of extracellular signals produced by primary cultures of astrocytes isolated from mouse cerebral cortex. Recorded activity is characterized by spontaneous bursts comprised of discrete signals with pronounced changes on the signal rate and amplitude. Weak and sporadic signals become synchronized and evolve with time to higher amplitude signals with a quasi-periodic behavior, revealing a cooperative signaling process. The methodology presented herewith enables the study of ionic fluctuations of population of cells, complementing the single cells observation by calcium imaging as well as by patch-clamp techniques. PMID:29109679

  18. Isolation and culture of adult mouse vestibular nucleus neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Him, Aydın; Altuntaş, Serap; Öztürk, Gürkan; Erdoğan, Ender; Cengiz, Nureddin

    2017-12-19

    Background/aim: Isolated cell cultures are widely used to study neuronal properties due to their advantages. Although embryonic animals are preferred for culturing, their morphological or electrophysiological properties may not reflect adult neurons, which may be important in neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to develop a method for preparing isolated cell cultures of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) from adult mice and describe its morphological and electrophysiological properties.Materials and methods: Vestibular nucleus neurons were mechanically and enzymatically isolated and cultured using a defined medium with known growth factors. Cell survival was measured with propidium iodide, and electrophysiological properties were investigated with current-clamp recording.Results: Vestibular neurons grew neurites in cultures, gaining adult-like morphological properties, and stayed viable for 3 days in culture. Adding bovine calf serum, nerve growth factor, or insulin-like growth factor into the culture medium enhanced neuronal viability. Current-clamp recording of the cultured neurons revealed tonic and phasic-type neurons with similar input resistance, resting membrane potential, action potential amplitude, and duration. Conclusion: Vestibular neurons from adult mice can be cultured, and regenerate axons in a medium containing appropriate growth factors. Culturing adult vestibular neurons provides a new method to study age-related pathologies of the vestibular system.

  19. Electrophysiology of Axonal Constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher; Jung, Peter; Brown, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Axons of myelinated neurons are constricted at the nodes of Ranvier, where they are directly exposed to the extracellular space and where the vast majority of the ion channels are located. These constrictions are generated by local regulation of the kinetics of neurofilaments the most important cytoskeletal elements of the axon. In this paper we discuss how this shape affects the electrophysiological function of the neuron. Specifically, although the nodes are short (about 1 μm) in comparison to the distance between nodes (hundreds of μm) they have a substantial influence on the conduction velocity of neurons. We show through computational modeling that nodal constrictions (all other features such as numbers of ion channels left constant) reduce the required fiber diameter for a given target conduction velocity by up to 50% in comparison to an unconstricted axon. We further show that the predicted optimal fiber morphologies closely match reported fiber morphologies. Supported by The National Science Foundation (IOS 1146789)

  20. THE VALURISATION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanga, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The question that needs to be answered is how the the valorisation of cultural patrimony in Africa is being analysed and understood. In order to respond to this question, it is necessary to ask oneself what exactly is meant by 'African Cultural Patrimony'. How are we going to keep parameters from running into many directions when talking about patrimony? What public cultural politics are we to follow in order to valorize more effectively the concept of patrimony? The areas that need economic analysis are therefore very large ones, as are subsequent propositions which would allow us to arrive at a value for financing the conservation of such patrimony. The valorization of cultural patrimony needs to be put at the disposition of as large a public as possible. In order to do this work, it is necessary to distinguish between: - Historical monuments: comprised of private properties, public castles, historical buildings, and archaeological sites - Museums: By this we mean not only museum buildings and collections, and not only the research work performed by curators. We also mean museums as a country's mark of identity, showcasing the country's collections so that tourists will come, and allowing people worldwide to access the collections on their computers. Faced with these facts, it is obvious that not only does the State need to play an important role in these tasks, but in addition, territorial entities need to define and set standards for the conservation of cultural patrimony in such a way that financing is made available for the continuation of patrimony. Since creating ''cultural patrimony'' is above all a social construct, its valorization and its importance asks public and private actors to join together, because the fundamental thought is that patrimony creates outside interests. In other words, cultural patrimony stimulates other economic activities, and therefore it is necessary to recuperate part of these external gains in order to respond to the

  1. Electrophysiology in visually impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, Maria Michielde van

    2006-01-01

    Inherited retinal disorders and posterior visual pathway abnormalities are important causes of visual impairment in children. Visual electrophysiology often is indispensable in diagnosing these conditions. This thesis shows the wide range of use of pediatric electro-ophthalmology, and demonstrates

  2. Electrophysiological properties of myocytes isolated from the mouse atrioventricular node: L-type ICa, IKr, If, and Na-Ca exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choisy, Stéphanie C; Cheng, Hongwei; Orchard, Clive H; James, Andrew F; Hancox, Jules C

    2015-11-01

    The atrioventricular node (AVN) is a key component of the cardiac pacemaker-conduction system. This study investigated the electrophysiology of cells isolated from the AVN region of adult mouse hearts, and compared murine ionic current magnitude with that of cells from the more extensively studied rabbit AVN. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of ionic currents, and perforated-patch recordings of action potentials (APs), were made at 35-37°C. Hyperpolarizing voltage commands from -40 mV elicited a Ba(2+)-sensitive inward rectifier current that was small at diastolic potentials. Some cells (Type 1; 33.4 ± 2.2 pF; n = 19) lacked the pacemaker current, If, whilst others (Type 2; 34.2 ± 1.5 pF; n = 21) exhibited a clear If, which was larger than in rabbit AVN cells. On depolarization from -40 mV L-type Ca(2+) current, IC a,L, was elicited with a half maximal activation voltage (V0.5) of -7.6 ± 1.2 mV (n = 24). IC a,L density was smaller than in rabbit AVN cells. Rapid delayed rectifier (IK r) tail currents sensitive to E-4031 (5 μmol/L) were observed on repolarization to -40 mV, with an activation V0.5 of -10.7 ± 4.7 mV (n = 8). The IK r magnitude was similar in mouse and rabbit AVN. Under Na-Ca exchange selective conditions, mouse AVN cells exhibited 5 mmol/L Ni-sensitive exchange current that was inwardly directed negative to the holding potential (-40 mV). Spontaneous APs (5.2 ± 0.5 sec(-1); n = 6) exhibited an upstroke velocity of 37.7 ± 16.2 V/s and ceased following inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release by 1 μmol/L ryanodine, implicating intracellular Ca(2+) cycling in murine AVN cell electrogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. The Destruction of Cultural Property in Timbuktu: Challenging the ICC War Crime Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Noelle; Badar, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Cultural property has been destroyed, looted and trafficked throughout history, particularly during conflict situations. In many instances, the property that is destroyed belongs to, and / or represents, minority groups and its destruction impacts significantly on minority culture. ISIS, and related jihadist groups, have, in recent times, actively engaged in the deliberate destruction of cultural property in numerous States, including Iraq, Syria, and Mali. This has been described as ‘cultura...

  4. Electrophysiologic studies of neronal activities under ischemia condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shun-Ho; Wang, Ping-Hsien; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason

    2008-01-01

    Substrate with integrated microelectrode arrays (MEAs) provides an alternative electrophysiological method. With MEAS, one can measure the impedance and elicit electrical stimulation from multiple sites of MEAs to determine the electrophysiological conditions of cells. The aims of this research were to construct an impedance and action potential measurement system for neurons cultured on MEAs for observing the electrophysiological signal transmission in neuronal network during glucose and oxygen deprivation (OGD). An extracellular stimulator producing the biphasic micro-current pulse for neuron stimulation was built in this study. From the time-course recording of impedance, OGD condition effectively induced damage in neurons in vitro. It is known that the results of cell stimulation are affected by electrode impedance, so does the result of neuron cells covered on the electrode can measure the sealing resistance. For extracellular stimulation study, cortical neuronal activity was recorded and the suitable stimulation window was determined. However, the stimulation results were affected by electrode impedance as well as sealing impedance resulting from neuron cells covering the electrode. Further development of surface modification for cultured neuron network should provide a better way for in vitro impedance and electrophysiological measurements.

  5. [Automated processing of electrophysiologic signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenevskiĭ, N A; Gubanov, V V

    1995-01-01

    The paper outlines a diagram of a multichannel analyzer of electrophysiological signals while are significantly non-stationary (such as those of electroencephalograms, myograms, etc.), by using a method based on the ranging procedure by the change-over points which may be the points of infection, impaired locality, minima, maxima, discontinuity, etc.

  6. Optimizing Nanoelectrode Arrays for Scalable Intracellular Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jeffrey; Ye, Tianyang; Ham, Donhee; Park, Hongkun

    2018-03-20

    Electrode technology for electrophysiology has a long history of innovation, with some decisive steps including the development of the voltage-clamp measurement technique by Hodgkin and Huxley in the 1940s and the invention of the patch clamp electrode by Neher and Sakmann in the 1970s. The high-precision intracellular recording enabled by the patch clamp electrode has since been a gold standard in studying the fundamental cellular processes underlying the electrical activities of neurons and other excitable cells. One logical next step would then be to parallelize these intracellular electrodes, since simultaneous intracellular recording from a large number of cells will benefit the study of complex neuronal networks and will increase the throughput of electrophysiological screening from basic neurobiology laboratories to the pharmaceutical industry. Patch clamp electrodes, however, are not built for parallelization; as for now, only ∼10 patch measurements in parallel are possible. It has long been envisioned that nanoscale electrodes may help meet this challenge. First, nanoscale electrodes were shown to enable intracellular access. Second, because their size scale is within the normal reach of the standard top-down fabrication, the nanoelectrodes can be scaled into a large array for parallelization. Third, such a nanoelectrode array can be monolithically integrated with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics to facilitate the large array operation and the recording of the signals from a massive number of cells. These are some of the central ideas that have motivated the research activity into nanoelectrode electrophysiology, and these past years have seen fruitful developments. This Account aims to synthesize these findings so as to provide a useful reference. Summing up from the recent studies, we will first elucidate the morphology and associated electrical properties of the interface between a nanoelectrode and a cellular membrane

  7. Transaction Costs, Property Rights, and Organizational Culture: An Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth R.

    1983-01-01

    Applying the language of exchange theory, this paper analyses how organizational culture emerges out of the institutional arrangements developed to regulate the transactions between members. Transaction costs of social exchange, the characteristics and etiology of those institutional arrangements, and three ideal-typical cultural forms are…

  8. Mutation I136V alters electrophysiological properties of the NaV1.7 channel in a family with onset of erythromelalgia in the second decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib-Hajj Sulayman D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary erythromelalgia is an autosomal dominant pain disorder characterized by burning pain and skin redness in the extremities, with onset of symptoms during the first decade in the families whose mutations have been physiologically studied to date. Several mutations of voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.7 have been linked with primary erythromelalgia. Recently, a new substitution NaV1.7/I136V has been reported in a Taiwanese family, in which pain appeared at later ages (9–22 years, with onset at 17 years of age or later in 5 of 7 family members, with relatively slow progression (8–10 years to involvement of the hands. The proband reported onset of symptoms first in his feet at the age of 11, which then progressed to his hands at the age of 19. The new mutation is located in transmembrane segment 1 (S1 of domain I (DI in contrast to all NaV1.7 mutations reported to date, which have been localized in the voltage sensor S4, the linker joining segments S4 and S5 or pore-lining segments S5 and S6 in DI, II and III. Results In this study, we characterized the gating and kinetic properties of I136V mutant channels in HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp. I136V shifts the voltage-dependence of activation by -5.7 mV, a smaller shift in activation than the other erythromelalgia mutations that have been characterized. I136V also decreases the deactivation rate, and generates larger ramp currents. Conclusion The I136V substitution in NaV1.7 alters channel gating and kinetic properties. Each of these changes may contribute to increased excitability of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons, which underlies pain in erythromelalgia. The smaller shift in voltage-dependence of activation of NaV1.7, compared to the other reported cases of inherited erythromelalgia, may contribute to the later age of onset and slower progression of the symptoms reported in association with this mutation.

  9. The Impact of Local Culture on Financial Performance in Property Firms in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Astawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research studies local culture reflected through pray, hard work, honesty, tatwamasi and gotong royong influencing property sales and company assets. Fifty companies are qualified as sample of sixty one property companies actively operated in 2013. Data is collected through questionnaire having tested for its reliability and validity before distributed to those fifty companies. The collected data is analyzed with multiple  regression. Result shows that hard work, honesty, tatwamasi and gotong royong culture that well implemented are able to improve property sale and assets ownership. Result of the study has implication that in order to improve financial performance, local culture should be included as variable in performance measurement. Result of the study gives contribution to Schein’s organizational culture (2004 that colored with local culture; therefore, values believed in an organization are able to improve performance.

  10. Combatting cultural property looting and trafficking: the US experience / Maria P. Kouroupas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kouroupas, Maria P.

    2015-01-01

    Kultuuriväärtuste rüüstamise ja ebaseadusliku ekspordi vastu võitlemisest Ameerika Ühendriikide näite põhjal. UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995); UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970)

  11. National Register of Historic Places multiple property documentation form -- Historic, archaeological, and traditional cultural properties of the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site encompasses an area of 560 square miles on the Columbia River in southeastern Washington. Since 1943, the Hanford Site has existed as a protected area for activities primarily related to the production of radioactive materials for national defense uses. For cultural resources on the Hanford Site, establishment of the nuclear reservation as a high security area, with public access restricted, has resulted in a well-protected status, although no deliberate resource protection measures were in effect to mitigate effects of facilities construction and associated activities. Thus, the Hanford Site contains an extensive record of aboriginal archaeological sites and Native American cultural properties, along with pre-Hanford Euro-American sites (primarily archaeological in nature with the removal of most pre-1943 structures), and a considerable number of Manhattan Project/Cold War era buildings and structures. The recent mission change from production to clean up and disposal of DOE lands created a critical need for development and implementation of new and different cultural resource management strategies. DOE-RL has undertaken a preservation planning effort for the Hanford Site. The intent of this Plan is to enable DOE-RL to organize data and develop goals, objectives, and priorities for the identification, evaluation, registration, protection, preservation, and enhancement of the Site`s historical and cultural properties. Decisions made about the identification, evaluation, registration and treatment of historic properties are most aptly made when relationships between individual properties and other similar properties are considered. The historic context and the multiple property documentation (NTD) process provides DOE-RL the organizational framework for these decisions. Once significant patterns are identified, contexts developed, and expected properties are defined, the NTD process provides the foundation for future

  12. Exploring the influence of culture conditions on kefir's anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmal, Ma'mon M; Nuirat, Abeer; Zihlif, Malek A; Taha, Mutasem O

    2018-05-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Conventional anticancer treatments are painful, expensive, and unsafe. Therefore, demand is increasing for cancer treatments preferentially in the form of functional foods or nutritional supplements. Kefir, a traditional fermented milk dairy product, has significant antimutagenic and antitumor properties. This research addresses the hypothesis that kefir's anticancer properties are affected by fermentation conditions. Initially, kefir extracts prepared under standard conditions were screened against 7 cancer cell lines using the tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Colon cancer and chronic myelogenous leukemia cells were found to be most susceptible to kefir extracts. Subsequently, a factorial design was implemented to assess the effects of 3 fermentation times (24, 48, and 72 h), 3 kefir-to-milk ratios (2, 5, and 10% wt/vol), and 3 fermentation temperatures (4, 25, and 40°C) on kefir's anticancer properties. Remarkably, exploration of the fermentation conditions allowed the anticancer properties of kefir to be enhanced by 5- to 8-fold against susceptible cell lines. Overall, these results demonstrate the possibility of optimizing the anticancer properties of kefir as a functional food in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrophysiological evidence for phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revonsuo, Antti; Koivisto, Mika

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Recent evidence from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) lends support to two central theses in Lamme's theory. The earliest ERP correlate of visual consciousness appears over posterior visual cortex around 100-200 ms after stimulus onset. Its scalp topography and time window are consistent with recurrent processing in the visual cortex. This electrophysiological correlate of visual consciousness is mostly independent of later ERPs reflecting selective attention and working memory functions. Overall, the ERP evidence supports the view that phenomenal consciousness of a visual stimulus emerges earlier than access consciousness, and that attention and awareness are served by distinct neural processes.

  14. The Effect of Starter Culture Producing Exopolysaccharide on Physicochemical Properties of Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Cartasev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of indigenous starter culture capable to synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPSs on physicochemical properties of yoghurt. Two starter cultures, EPS-producing and non-EPS-producing, were developed from the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria strains by pairwise combining Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. In the present study the ropy strain of Streptococcus thermophilus CNMN LB-50 was incorporated in EPS-producing starter culture. The microstructure, viscosity, EPS amount, structural properties and syneresis of yoghurt samples were assessed. It has been established that the EPS-producing starter culture provided a reduction of structural degradation and increased degree of structural recovery after deformation. Besides, it was observed that the use of EPS synthesized starter culture in yoghurt production restrains the syneresis of the gel.

  15. Anatomical and Electrophysiological Clustering of Superficial Medial Entorhinal Cortex Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Local GABAergic interneurons regulate the activity of spatially-modulated principal cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), mediating stellate-to-stellate connectivity and possibly enabling grid formation via recurrent inhibitory circuitry. Despite the important role interneurons seem to play in the MEC cortical circuit, the combination of low cell counts and functional diversity has made systematic electrophysiological studies of these neurons difficult. For these reasons, there remains a paucity of knowledge on the electrophysiological profiles of superficial MEC interneuron populations. Taking advantage of glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (GAD2)-IRES-tdTomato and PV-tdTomato transgenic mice, we targeted GABAergic interneurons for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and characterized their passive membrane features, basic input/output properties and action potential (AP) shape. These electrophysiologically characterized cells were then anatomically reconstructed, with emphasis on axonal projections and pial depth. K-means clustering of interneuron anatomical and electrophysiological data optimally classified a population of 106 interneurons into four distinct clusters. The first cluster is comprised of layer 2- and 3-projecting, slow-firing interneurons. The second cluster is comprised largely of PV+ fast-firing interneurons that project mainly to layers 2 and 3. The third cluster contains layer 1- and 2-projecting interneurons, and the fourth cluster is made up of layer 1-projecting horizontal interneurons. These results, among others, will provide greater understanding of the electrophysiological characteristics of MEC interneurons, help guide future in vivo studies, and may aid in uncovering the mechanism of grid field formation. PMID:29085901

  16. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds.

  17. Properties of Dental Pulp-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Effects of Culture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Noda, Sonoko; Yamamoto, Mioko; Okiji, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPMSCs) highly express mesenchymal stem cell markers and possess the potential to differentiate into neural cells, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Thus, DPMSCs are considered suitable for tissue regeneration. The colony isolation method has commonly been used to collect relatively large amounts of heterogeneous DPMSCs. Homogenous DPMSCs can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using antibodies against mesenchymal stem cell markers, although this method yields a limited number of cells. Both quality and quantity of DPMSCs are critical to regenerative therapy, and cell culture methods need to be improved. We thus investigated the properties of DPMSCs cultured with different methods. DPMSCs in a three-dimensional spheroid culture system, which is similar to the hanging drop culture for differentiation of embryonic stem cells, showed upregulation of odonto-/osteoblastic markers and mineralized nodule formation. This suggests that this three-dimensional spheroid culturing system for DPMSCs may be suitable for inducing hard tissues. We further examined the effect of cell culture density on the properties of DPMSCs because the properties of stem cells can be altered depending on the cell density. DPMSCs cultured under the confluent cell density condition showed slight downregulation of some mesenchymal stem cell markers compared with those under the sparse condition. The ability of DPMSCs to differentiate into hard tissue-forming cells was found to be enhanced in the confluent condition, suggesting that the confluent culture condition may not be suitable for maintaining the stemness of DPMSCs. When DPMSCs are to be used for hard tissue regeneration, dense followed by sparse cell culture conditions may be a better alternative strategy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture for hospital management (HSOPS_M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Yvonne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a management perspective, it is necessary to examine how a hospital's top management assess the patient safety culture in their organisation. This study examines whether the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture for hospital management (HSOPS_M has the same psychometric properties as the HSOPS for hospital employees does. Methods In 2008, a questionnaire survey including the HSOPS_M was conducted with 1,224 medical directors from German hospitals. When assessing the psychometric properties, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Additionally, we proved construct validity and internal consistency. Results A total of 551 medical directors returned the questionnaire. The results of the CFA suggested a satisfactory global data fit. The indices of local fit indicated a good, but not satisfactory convergent validity. Analyses of construct validity indicated that not all safety culture dimensions were readily distinguishable. However, Cronbach's alpha indicated that the dimensions had an acceptable level of reliability. Conclusion The analyses of the psychometric properties of the HSOPS_M resulted in reasonably good levels of property values. Although the set of dimensions within the HSOPS_M needs further scale refinement, the questionnaire covers a broad range of sub-dimensions and supplies important information on safety culture. The HSOPS_M, therefore, is eligible to measure safety culture from the hospital management's points of view and could be used in nationwide hospital surveys to make inter-organisational comparisons.

  19. Antimutagenic properties of lactic acid-cultured milk on chemical and fecal mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, A.; Kashina, T.; Kada, T.

    1986-09-01

    The antimutagenic properties of milk cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were examined using streptomycin-dependent strains of Salmonella in an in vitro assay system. The mutagens utilized for testing included 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, and fecal mutagenic extracts from cats, monkeys, dogs and other mammals. Both types of cultured milk exhibited antimutagenic activity on all mutagens used. Antimutagenic activities of the cultured milks with 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide increased with incubation time but were thermolabile beyond 55/sup 0/C for 10 min.

  20. Property and wealth inequality as cultural niche construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shennan, Stephen

    2011-03-27

    In contrast to other approaches, evolutionary perspectives on understanding the power and wealth inequalities in human societies view wealth and power not as ends in themselves but as proximate goals that contribute to the ultimate Darwinian goal of achieving reproductive success. The most successful means of achieving it in specific times and places depend on local conditions and these have changed in the course of human history, to such an extent that strategies focused on the maintenance and increase of wealth can even be more successful in reproductive terms than strategies directed at maximizing reproductive success in the short term. This paper argues that a major factor leading to such changes is a shift in the nature of inter-generational wealth transfers from relatively intangible to material property resources and the opportunities these provided for massively increased inequality. This shift can be seen as a process of niche construction related to the increasing importance of fixed and defensible resources in many societies after the end of the last Ice Age. It is suggested that, despite problems of inference, the evidence of the archaeological record can be used to throw light on these processes in specific places and times.

  1. Current concepts in nuclear pore electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, José Omar

    2006-01-01

    Over 4 decades ago, microelectrode studies of in situ nuclei showed that, under certain conditions, the nuclear envelope (NE) behaves as a barrier opposing the nucleocytoplasmic flow of physiological ions. As the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) of the NE are the only pathways for direct nucleocytoplasmic flow, those experiments implied that the NPCs are capable of restricting ion flow. These early studies validated electrophysiology as a useful approach to quantify some of the mechanisms by which NPCs mediate gene activity and expression. Since electron microscopy (EM) and other non-electrophysiological investigations, showed that the NPC lumen is a nanochannel, the opinion prevailed that the NPC could not oppose the flow of ions and, therefore, that electrophysiological observations resulted from technical artifacts. Consequently, the initial enthusiasm with nuclear electrophysiology faded out in less than a decade. In 1990, nuclear electrophysiology was revisited with patch-clamp, the most powerful electrophysiological technique to date. Patch-clamp has consistently demonstrated that the NE has intrinsic ion channel activity. Direct demonstrations of the NPC on-off ion channel gating behavior were published for artificial conditions in 1995 and for intact living nuclei in 2002. This on-off switching/gating behavior can be interpreted in terms of a metastable energy barrier. In the hope of advancing nuclear electrophysiology, and to complement the other papers contained in this special issue of the journal, here I review some of the main technical, experimental, and theoretical issues of the field, with special focus on NPCs.

  2. Electrophysiological Characteristics of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes are Cell Line-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modelling of cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology by differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs requires comparability of cardiac differentiation between different ESC lines. To investigate whether the outcome of cardiac differentiation is consistent between different ESC lines, we compared electrophysiological properties of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs of different murine ESC lines. Methods: Two wild-type (D3 and R1 and two transgenic ESC lines (D3/aPIG44 and CGR8/AMPIGX-7 were differentiated under identical culture conditions. The transgenic cell lines expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP and puromycin-N-acetyltransferase under control of the cardiac specific α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC promoter. Action potentials (APs were recorded using sharp electrodes and multielectrode arrays in beating clusters of ESC-CMs. Results: Spontaneous AP frequency and AP duration (APD as well as maximal upstroke velocity differed markedly between unpurified CMs of the four ESC lines. APD heterogeneity was negligible in D3/aPIG44, moderate in D3 and R1 and extensive in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Interspike intervals calculated from long-term recordings showed a high degree of variability within and between recordings in CGR8/AMPIGX-7, but not in D3/aPIG44. Purification of the αMHC+ population by puromycin treatment posed only minor changes to APD in D3/aPIG44, but significantly shortened APD in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Conclusion: Electrophysiological properties of ESC-CMs are strongly cell line-dependent and can be influenced by purification of cardiomyocytes by antibiotic selection. Thus, conclusions on cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology derived from single stem cell lines have to be interpreted carefully.

  3. Reconstruction of Hyaline Cartilage Deep Layer Properties in 3-Dimensional Cultures of Human Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Vibudha; Tattikota, Surendra Mohan; T, Avinash Raj; Sriramagiri, Vijaya Rama Rao; Kantipudi, Suma; Pande, Gopal

    2014-06-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) injuries and malformations are commonly noticed because of trauma or age-related degeneration. Many methods have been adopted for replacing or repairing the damaged tissue. Currently available AC repair methods, in several cases, fail to yield good-quality long-lasting results, perhaps because the reconstructed tissue lacks the cellular and matrix properties seen in hyaline cartilage (HC). To reconstruct HC tissue from 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) cultures of AC-derived human chondrocytes that would specifically exhibit the cellular and biochemical properties of the deep layer of HC. Descriptive laboratory study. Two-dimensional cultures of human AC-derived chondrocytes were established in classical medium (CM) and newly defined medium (NDM) and maintained for a period of 6 weeks. These cells were suspended in 2 mm-thick collagen I gels, placed in 24-well culture inserts, and further cultured up to 30 days. Properties of chondrocytes, grown in 2D cultures and the reconstructed 3D cartilage tissue, were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopic techniques, immunohistochemistry, and cartilage-specific gene expression profiling by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and were compared with those of the deep layer of native human AC. Two-dimensional chondrocyte cultures grown in NDM, in comparison with those grown in CM, showed more chondrocyte-specific gene activity and matrix properties. The NDM-grown chondrocytes in 3D cultures also showed better reproduction of deep layer properties of HC, as confirmed by microscopic and gene expression analysis. The method used in this study can yield cartilage tissue up to approximately 1.6 cm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness that satisfies the very low cell density and matrix composition properties present in the deep layer of normal HC. This study presents a novel and reproducible method for long-term culture of AC-derived chondrocytes and reconstruction of cartilage

  4. Cultural Adaptation and the Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Symptom Management Beliefs Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-E Yeom, PhD, RN

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: This study verified the psychometric properties of the K-SMBQ and provided evidence on the cultural relevance for the concept of ageist beliefs regarding symptom management in older Korean people. The development of nursing interventions to promote self-care of older people should be based on the consideration of negatively stereotyped and erroneous beliefs about health in old age.

  5. Pelvic floor electrophysiology patterns associated with faecal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan

    2012-12-28

    Dec 28, 2012 ... pelvic floor electrophysiological abnormalities associated with. FI were illustrated in ... detection of a localized anal sphincter defect clinically and ..... Woods R, Voyvodic F, Schloithe A, Sage M, Wattchow D. Anal sphincter ...

  6. Role of differential physical properties in emergent behavior of 3D cell co-cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbman, Dan; Das, Moumita

    2015-03-01

    The biophysics of binary cell populations is of great interest in many biological processes, whether the formation of embryos or the initiation of tumors. During these processes, cells are surrounded by other cell types with different physical properties, often with important consequences. For example, recent experiments on a co-culture of breast cancer cells and healthy breast epithelial cells suggest that the mechanical mismatch between the two cell types may contribute to enhanced migration of the cancer cells. Here we explore how the differential physical properties of different cell types may influence cell-cell interaction, aggregation, and migration. To this end, we study a proof of concept model- a three-dimensional binary system of interacting, active, and deformable particles with different physical properties such as elastic stiffness, contractility, and particle-particle adhesion, using Langevin Dynamics simulations. Our results may provide insights into emergent behavior such as segregation and differential migration in cell co-cultures in three dimensions.

  7. Nonlinear Dielectric Properties of Yeast Cells Cultured in Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Gomon; Fukuda, Naoki; Muraji, Masafumi

    The harmonics of the electric current through yeast suspensions, the nonlinear dielectric properties of yeast cells, have particular patterns according to the biological activity of the cells and the measurement of these patterns is a technique for determining the activity of living cells. The concentration of glucose and oxygen in yeast culture medium influences the manifestation of fermentation or respiration of yeast cells. Measurements were made with yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultured aerobically and anaerobically in sufficient glucose concentration, aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation, and aerobically in limited glucose concentration, respiration. The results showed that the harmonics were barely apparent for yeast cells in aerobic fermentation and respiratory; however, cells in the anaerobic fermentation displayed substantial third and fifth harmonics. We can say that environmental condition affects the yeast cells' nonlinear properties, from another viewpoint, the measurements of the nonlinear properties are available to determine the activity of yeast cells adjusted to the conditions of their cultivation.

  8. NeuroElectro: A Window to the World's Neuron Electrophysiology Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreejoy J Tripathy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of neural circuits is determined largely by the electrophysiological properties of the neurons they contain. Understanding the relationships of these properties requires the ability to first identify and catalog each property. However, information about such properties is largely locked away in decades of closed-access journal articles with heterogeneous conventions for reporting results, making it difficult to utilize the underlying data. We solve this problem through the NeuroElectro project: a Python library, RESTful API, and web application (at http://neuroelectro.org for the extraction, visualization, and summarization of published data on neurons' electrophysiological properties. Information is organized both by neuron type (using neuron definitions provided by NeuroLex and by electrophysiological property (using a newly developed ontology. We describe the techniques and challenges associated with the automated extraction of tabular electrophysiological data and methodological metadata from journal articles. We further discuss strategies for how to best combine, normalize and organize data across these heterogeneous sources. NeuroElectro is a valuable resource for experimental physiologists looking to supplement their own data, for computational modelers looking to constrain their model parameters, and for theoreticians searching for undiscovered relationships among neurons and their properties.

  9. Materializing Culture - Culturizing Material. On the Status, Responsibilities and Function of Cultural Property Repositories within the Framework of a "Transformative Scholarship"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hilgert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain theoretical streams in the cultural and social sciences that are occasionally subsumed under the term “New Materialism” 2 (see Witzgall, as well as recent social, political, cultural and media technology developments require a theoretical and research-political repositioning of academic object repositories. For it is obvious that under the influence of these multi-layered, partly interwoven processes, the status, responsibilities, as well as the function and spheres of activity of these object or cultural property repositories with research commitment (on the term see section 2 below are currently undergoing long-lasting change. For the respective institutions, these changes not only result in complex challenges regarding contents and structure, but also present extraordinary opportunities for the fulfillment of their academic, social and political responsibilities. The appropriate handling of these challenges and opportunities can substantially contribute to the sharpening of the academic and social profile of these institutions and increase their visibility on both a national and international level.

  10. Biomechanical properties of jaw periosteum-derived mineralized culture on different titanium topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Att, Wael; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Yamada, Masahiro; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of periosteum-derived mineralized culture on different surface topographies of titanium. Titanium surfaces modified by machining or by acid etching were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rat mandibular periosteum-derived cells were cultured on either of the titanium surfaces. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counts, and gene expression was analyzed using a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) stain assay was employed to evaluate osteoblastic activity. Matrix mineralization was examined via von Kossa stain assay, total calcium deposition, and SEM. The hardness and elastic modulus of mineralized cultures were measured using a nano-indenter. The machined surface demonstrated a flat topographic configuration, while the acid-etched surface revealed a uniform micron-scale roughness. Both cell density and ALP activity were significantly higher on the machined surface than on the acid-etched surface. The expression of bone-related genes was up-regulated or enhanced on the acid-etched surface compared to the machined surface. Von Kossa stain showed significantly greater positive areas for the machined surface compared to the acid-etched surface, while total calcium deposition was statistically similar. Mineralized culture on the acid-etched surface was characterized by denser calcium deposition, more mature collagen deposition on the superficial layer, and larger and denser globular matrices inside the matrix than the culture on the machined surface. The mineralized matrix on the acid-etched surface was two times harder than on the machined surface, whereas the elastic modulus was comparable between the two surfaces. The design of this study can be used as a model to evaluate the effect of implant surface topography on the biomechanical properties of periosteum-derived mineralized culture. The results suggest that mandibular periosteal cells respond to different

  11. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. SNOT-22: psychometric properties and cross-cultural adaptation into the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, Guilherme Pilla; Melo Junior, José Tavares de; Hopkins, Claire; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Rhinosinusitis is a highly prevalent disease and a major cause of high medical costs. It has been proven to have an impact on the quality of life through generic health-related quality of life assessments. However, generic instruments may not be able to factor in the effects of interventions and treatments. SNOT-22 is a major disease-specific instrument to assess quality of life for patients with rhinosinusitis. Nevertheless, there is still no validated SNOT-22 version in our country. Cross-cultural adaptation of the SNOT-22 into Brazilian Portuguese and assessment of its psychometric properties. The Brazilian version of the SNOT-22 was developed according to international guidelines and was broken down into nine stages: 1) Preparation 2) Translation 3) Reconciliation 4) Back-translation 5) Comparison 6) Evaluation by the author of the SNOT-22 7) Revision by committee of experts 8) Cognitive debriefing 9) Final version. Second phase: prospective study consisting of a verification of the psychometric properties, by analyzing internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Cultural adaptation showed adequate understanding, acceptability and psychometric properties. We followed the recommended steps for the cultural adaptation of the SNOT-22 into Portuguese language, producing a tool for the assessment of patients with sinonasal disorders of clinical importance and for scientific studies.

  13. Optimizing structural and mechanical properties of cryogel scaffolds for use in prostate cancer cell culturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecilia, A.; Baecker, A.; Hamann, E.; Rack, A.; Kamp, T. van de; Gruhl, F.J.; Hofmann, R.; Moosmann, J.; Hahn, S.; Kashef, J.; Bauer, S.; Farago, T.; Helfen, L.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently is the second most diagnosed cancer in men and the second most cause of cancer death after lung cancer in Western societies. This sets the necessity of modelling prostatic disorders to optimize a therapy against them. The conventional approach to investigating prostatic diseases is based on two-dimensional (2D) cell culturing. This method, however, does not provide a three-dimensional (3D) environment, therefore impeding a satisfying simulation of the prostate gland in which the PCa cells proliferate. Cryogel scaffolds represent a valid alternative to 2D culturing systems for studying the normal and pathological behavior of the prostate cells thanks to their 3D pore architecture that reflects more closely the physiological environment in which PCa cells develop. In this work the 3D morphology of three potential scaffolds for PCa cell culturing was investigated by means of synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography (SXCμT) fitting the according requirements of high spatial resolution, 3D imaging capability and low dose requirements very well. In combination with mechanical tests, the results allowed identifying an optimal cryogel architecture, meeting the needs for a well-suited scaffold to be used for 3D PCa cell culture applications. The selected cryogel was then used for culturing prostatic lymph node metastasis (LNCaP) cells and subsequently, the presence of multi-cellular tumor spheroids inside the matrix was demonstrated again by using SXCμT. - Highlights: • Synthesis of cryogel scaffolds for prostate cancer cell culturing. • Study of cryogel morphology by synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography. • Analysis of cryogel mechanical properties with laboratory techniques. • Culturing of prostate cancer cell in the optimal cryogel composition for 21 days. • 3D visualization of the cells by synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography.

  14. Optimizing structural and mechanical properties of cryogel scaffolds for use in prostate cancer cell culturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia, A. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Baecker, A. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 Bldg 329, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe D-76344 (Germany); Hamann, E. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rack, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Kamp, T. van de [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 6980, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gruhl, F.J. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 Bldg 329, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe D-76344 (Germany); Hofmann, R. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moosmann, J. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Hahn, S.; Kashef, J.; Bauer, S.; Farago, T. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Helfen, L. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); and others

    2017-02-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently is the second most diagnosed cancer in men and the second most cause of cancer death after lung cancer in Western societies. This sets the necessity of modelling prostatic disorders to optimize a therapy against them. The conventional approach to investigating prostatic diseases is based on two-dimensional (2D) cell culturing. This method, however, does not provide a three-dimensional (3D) environment, therefore impeding a satisfying simulation of the prostate gland in which the PCa cells proliferate. Cryogel scaffolds represent a valid alternative to 2D culturing systems for studying the normal and pathological behavior of the prostate cells thanks to their 3D pore architecture that reflects more closely the physiological environment in which PCa cells develop. In this work the 3D morphology of three potential scaffolds for PCa cell culturing was investigated by means of synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography (SXCμT) fitting the according requirements of high spatial resolution, 3D imaging capability and low dose requirements very well. In combination with mechanical tests, the results allowed identifying an optimal cryogel architecture, meeting the needs for a well-suited scaffold to be used for 3D PCa cell culture applications. The selected cryogel was then used for culturing prostatic lymph node metastasis (LNCaP) cells and subsequently, the presence of multi-cellular tumor spheroids inside the matrix was demonstrated again by using SXCμT. - Highlights: • Synthesis of cryogel scaffolds for prostate cancer cell culturing. • Study of cryogel morphology by synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography. • Analysis of cryogel mechanical properties with laboratory techniques. • Culturing of prostate cancer cell in the optimal cryogel composition for 21 days. • 3D visualization of the cells by synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography.

  15. Development of a portable fluorescent X-ray analyser and its application to the study on cultural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yutaka; Imamura, Mineo; Kanba, Nobuyuki

    1999-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis is well recognized as an effective tool for archaeometric analysis. For examples elemental compositions provide the researchers with basic information on the materials involved in the cultural properties under study and thus provide a clue to its historical background. The same information is also essential when the conservators try to preserve cultural properties. In this paper we studied a portable and inexpensive system for X-ray fluorescence analysis, making use of a small Si-PIN diode spectrometer. The system is convenient for the study of cultural properties in the outdoors. (author)

  16. Protective properties of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against oxidative stress induced in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolska-Downar, Danuta; Zapolski-Downar, Andrzej; Naruszewicz, Marek; Siennicka, Aldona; Krasnodebska, Barbara; Kołdziej, Blanka

    2002-11-01

    It is currently believed that oxidative stress and inflammation play a significant role in atherogenesis. Artichoke extract exhibits hypolipemic properties and contains numerous active substances with antioxidant properties in vitro. We have studied the influence of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from artichoke on intracellular oxidative stress stimulated by inflammatory mediators (TNFalpha and LPS) and ox-LDL in endothelial cells and monocytes. Oxidative stress which reflects the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was followed by measuring the oxidation of 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) to 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Agueous and ethanolic extracts from artichoke were found to inhibit basal and stimulated ROS production in endothelial cells and monocytes in dose dependent manner. In endothelial cells, the ethanolic extract (50 microg/ml) reduced ox-LDL-induced intracellular ROS production by 60% (partichoke extracts have marked protective properties against oxidative stress induced by inflammatory mediators and ox-LDL in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.

  17. Investigation of global and local network properties of music perception with culturally different styles of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Rui, Xue; Li, Shuyu; Pu, Fang

    2014-11-01

    Graph theoretical analysis has recently become a popular research tool in neuroscience, however, there have been very few studies on brain responses to music perception, especially when culturally different styles of music are involved. Electroencephalograms were recorded from ten subjects listening to Chinese traditional music, light music and western classical music. For event-related potentials, phase coherence was calculated in the alpha band and then constructed into correlation matrices. Clustering coefficients and characteristic path lengths were evaluated for global properties, while clustering coefficients and efficiency were assessed for local network properties. Perception of light music and western classical music manifested small-world network properties, especially with a relatively low proportion of weights of correlation matrices. For local analysis, efficiency was more discernible than clustering coefficient. Nevertheless, there was no significant discrimination between Chinese traditional and western classical music perception. Perception of different styles of music introduces different network properties, both globally and locally. Research into both global and local network properties has been carried out in other areas; however, this is a preliminary investigation aimed at suggesting a possible new approach to brain network properties in music perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Somatomotor and oculomotor inferior olivary neurons have distinct electrophysiological phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Francisco J.; Simpson, John I.; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2006-01-01

    The electrophysiological properties of rat inferior olive (IO) neurons in the dorsal cap of Kooy (DCK) and the adjacent ventrolateral outgrowth (VLO) were compared with those of IO neurons in the principal olive (PO). Whereas DCK/VLO neurons are involved in eye movement control via their climbing fiber projection to the cerebellar flocculus, PO neurons control limb and digit movements via their climbing fiber projection to the lateral cerebellar hemisphere. In vitro patch recordings from DCK/VLO neurons revealed that low threshold calcium currents, Ih currents, and subthreshold oscillations are lacking in this subset of IO neurons. The recordings of activity in DCK neurons obtained by using voltage-sensitive dye imaging showed that activity is not limited to a single neuron, but rather that clusters of DCK neurons can be active in unison. These electrophysiological results show that the DCK/VLO neurons have unique properties that set them apart from the neurons in the PO nucleus. This finding indicates that motor control, from the perspective of the olivocerebellar system, is fundamentally different for the oculomotor and the somatomotor systems. PMID:17050678

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Perceived Wellness Culture and Environment Support Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Szalacha, Laura A; Amaya, Megan

    2018-05-01

    This study reports on the psychometric properties of the 11-item Perceived Wellness Culture and Environment Support Scale (PWCESS) and its relationship with employee healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors. Faculty and staff (N = 3959) at a large public university in the United States mid-west completed the PWCESS along with healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors scales. Data were randomly split into 2 halves to explore the PWCESS' validity and reliability and the second half to confirm findings. Principal components analysis indicated a unidimensional construct. The PWCESS was positively related to healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors supporting the scale's validity. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the unidimensional construct (Cronbach's α = .92). Strong evidence supports the validity and reliability of the PWCESS. Future use of this scale could guide workplace intervention strategies to improve organizational wellness culture and employee health outcomes.

  20. Nonlinear impulsive system of fed-batch culture in fermentative production and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Caixia; Li Kezan; Feng Enmin; Xiu Zhilong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the nonlinear dynamical system of fed-batch fermentation is investigated in the process of bio-dissimilation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Considering the abrupt increase of glycerol in fed-batch culture, this paper proposes a nonlinear impulsive system of the culture process, which is fit for formulating the factual fermentation better than the continuous models in being. We study the questions of existence and properties of mild solutions for the system and the continuous dependence of solutions on initial values and the controllable variable. Finally, the numerical simulations show that the errors between experimental and computational values using the impulsive system are less than those using the previous continuous system

  1. Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Kesenkaş

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu/g in Torba yoghurt except B. animalis subsp. lactis B94. The addition of probiotic bacteria resulted in an appreciable proteolytic activity but also textural defects due to the lower total solid content in the final product.

  2. Peripheral Neuropathy – Clinical and Electrophysiological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae; Prasad, Kalpana; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a primer on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy for the radiologist. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has utility in the diagnosis of many focal peripheral nerve lesions. When combined with history, examination, electrophysiology, and laboratory data, future advancements in high-field MRN may play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24210312

  3. Biochemical and cellular properties of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cultures exposed to different modes of rotating magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fijałkowski Karol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a rotating magnetic field (RMF on cellular and biochemical properties of Gluconacetobacter xylinus during the process of cellulose synthesis by these bacteria. The application of the RMF during bacterial cellulose (BC production intensified the biochemical processes in G. xylinus as compared to the RMF-unexposed cultures. Moreover, the RMF had a positive impact on the growth of cellulose-producing bacteria. Furthermore, the application of RMF did not increase the number of mutants unable to produce cellulose. In terms of BC production efficacy, the most favorable properties were found in the setting where RMF generator was switched off for the first 72 h of cultivation and switched on for the further 72 h. The results obtained can be used in subsequent studies concerning the optimization of BC production using different types of magnetic fields including RMF, especially.

  4. The Secret, Cultural Property and the Construction of the Spiritual Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Redden

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A randomised survey in Texas found that 22 per cent of the public identified themselves as consumers of New Age media. Despite widespread recognition of the ‘spiritual supermarket’ there has been little sustained analysis of the production of spiritual commodities and related issues of cultural property. This article presents a case study of the bestselling spiritual self-help book and DVD The Secret, which features various teachers and sacred wisdom traditions seen to hold the key to the meaning of life—but which has also been the subject of copyright disputes. Through this example the article examines ways informational commodities are produced by transforming freely available spiritual traditions into intellectual property for a contemporary market in self-help products. Two related tensions raised by this reconstruction are explored. The first is between cooperation and competition in the liberal New Age milieu where entrepreneurs present marginally differentiated goods and services side-by-side. In contrast with exclusionary organisation of religious doctrine, freedom to adapt the lingua franca of holistic spirituality allows for coefficiency among providers, but also new forms of ownership distinction, as exemplified by The Secret. The second tension is between these private property relations and the corporate cultural property of the custodians of knowledge traditions that are commodified. The Secret, as with much New Age syncretism and multiculturalism, depends upon particular processes of transvaluation that inscribe diversity as positive by rendering selected instantiations of it equivalent—in this case through universalising the therapeutic value of specific traditions have for modern life. Drawing in particular upon debates about New Age use of Indigenous Australian knowledges, the author questions how the reworking of wisdom into a commodity may bear upon the ethnocultural significance of sacred traditions and upon other

  5. Dedifferentiation of intrinsic response properties of motoneurons in organotypic cultures of the spinal cord of the adult turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J.F.; Noraberg, J.; Simon, M.

    2000-01-01

    Explant cultures from the spinal cord of adult turtles were established and used to study the sensitivity of the intrinsic response properties of motoneurons to the changes in connectivity and milieu imposed by isolation in culture. Transverse sections 700 microm thick were explanted on cover slips...... the ability to fire repetitively. By the second week in culture, a fraction of motoneurons displayed fast and slow transient outward rectification and low-threshold calcium spikes, features not seen in turtle motoneurons in acute slices. On the other hand, properties mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels...

  6. Clinical and electrophysiological evaluation of pediatric Wolff-Parkinson-White patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Işıl; Özer, Sema; Karagöz, Tevfik; Şahin, Murat; Özkutlu, Süheyla; Alehan, Dursun; Çeliker, Alpay

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome presents with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and is characterized by electrocardiographic (ECG) findings of a short PR interval and a delta wave. The objective of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological properties of children with WPW syndrome and to develop an algorithm for the management of these patients with limited access to electrophysiological study. Methods: A retrospective review of all pediatric patients who underwent electrophysiological evaluation for WPW syndrome was performed. Results: One hundred nine patients underwent electrophysiological evaluation at a single tertiary center between 1997 and 2011. The median age of the patients was 11 years (0.1-18). Of the 109 patients, 82 presented with tachycardia (median age 11 (0.1-18) years), and 14 presented with syncope (median age 12 (6-16) years); 13 were asymptomatic (median age 10 (2-13) years). Induced AF degenerated to ventricular fibrillation (VF) in 2 patients. Of the 2 patients with VF, 1 was asymptomatic and the other had syncope; the accessory pathway effective refractory period was ≤180 ms in both. An intracardiac electrophysiological study was performed in 92 patients, and ablation was not attempted for risk of atrioventricular block in 8 (8.6%). The success and recurrence rate of ablation were 90.5% and 23.8% respectively. Conclusion: The induction of VF in 2 of 109 patients in our study suggests that the prognosis of WPW in children is not as benign as once thought. All patients with a WPW pattern on the ECG should be assessed electrophysiologically and risk-stratified. Ablation of patients with risk factors can prevent sudden death in this population. PMID:26006136

  7. Transfection of brain capillary endothelial cells in primary culture with defined blood-brain barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Annette; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Lichota, Jacek; Fazakas, Csilla; Krizbai, István; Moos, Torben

    2015-08-07

    Primary brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) are a promising tool to study the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro, as they maintain many important characteristics of the BBB in vivo, especially when co-cultured with pericytes and/or astrocytes. A novel strategy for drug delivery to the brain is to transform BCECs into protein factories by genetic modifications leading to secretion of otherwise BBB impermeable proteins into the central nervous system. However, a huge challenge underlying this strategy is to enable transfection of non-mitotic BCECs, taking a non-viral approach. We therefore aimed to study transfection in primary, non-mitotic BCECs cultured with defined BBB properties without disrupting the cells' integrity. Primary cultures of BCECs, pericytes and astrocytes were generated from rat brains and used in three different in vitro BBB experimental arrangements, which were characterised based on a their expression of tight junction proteins and other BBB specific proteins, high trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), and low passive permeability to radiolabeled mannitol. Recombinant gene expression and protein synthesis were examined in primary BCECs. The BCECs were transfected using a commercially available transfection agent Turbofect™ to express the red fluorescent protein HcRed1-C1. The BCECs were transfected at different time points to monitor transfection in relation to mitotic or non-mitotic cells, as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis after 5-and 6-carboxylfluorescein diacetate succinidyl ester incorporation. The cell cultures exhibited important BBB characteristics judged from their expression of BBB specific proteins, high TEER values, and low passive permeability. Among the three in vitro BBB models, co-culturing with BCECs and astrocytes was well suited for the transfection studies. Transfection was independent of cell division and with equal efficacy between the mitotic and non-mitotic BCECs. Importantly

  8. Re-visiting the electrophysiology of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obleser, Jonas

    2015-09-01

    This editorial accompanies a special issue of Brain and Language re-visiting old themes and new leads in the electrophysiology of language. The event-related potential (ERP) as a series of characteristic deflections ("components") over time and their distribution on the scalp has been exploited by speech and language researchers over decades to find support for diverse psycholinguistic models. Fortunately, methodological and statistical advances have allowed human neuroscience to move beyond some of the limitations imposed when looking at the ERP only. Most importantly, we currently witness a refined and refreshed look at "event-related" (in the literal sense) brain activity that relates itself more closely to the actual neurobiology of speech and language processes. It is this imminent change in handling and interpreting electrophysiological data of speech and language experiments that this special issue intends to capture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrophysiological studies in healthy subjects involving caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Mamede de; Marcelino, Erica; Mendonça, Alexandre de

    2010-01-01

    Copyright ©2012 IOS Press All rights reserved. We review the electrophysiological studies concerning the effects of caffeine on muscle, lower and upper motor neuron excitability and cognition. Several different methods have been used, such as electromyography, recruitment analysis, H-reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography and event-related potentials. The positive effect of caffeine on vigilance, attention, speed of reaction, information processing and arou...

  10. Automatic Parameterization Strategy for Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Caroline Mendonca; Hoetzl, Elena; Rocha, Bernardo Martins; Prassl, Anton J; Plank, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Driven by recent advances in medical imaging, image segmentation and numerical techniques, computer models of ventricular electrophysiology account for increasingly finer levels of anatomical and biophysical detail. However, considering the large number of model parameters involved parameterization poses a major challenge. A minimum requirement in combined experimental and modeling studies is to achieve good agreement in activation and repolarization sequences between model and experiment or ...

  11. The reliability of commonly used electrophysiology measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K E; Lohse, K R; Mayer, I M S; Strigaro, G; Desikan, M; Casula, E P; Meunier, S; Popa, T; Lamy, J-C; Odish, O; Leavitt, B R; Durr, A; Roos, R A C; Tabrizi, S J; Rothwell, J C; Boyd, L A; Orth, M

    Electrophysiological measures can help understand brain function both in healthy individuals and in the context of a disease. Given the amount of information that can be extracted from these measures and their frequent use, it is essential to know more about their inherent reliability. To understand the reliability of electrophysiology measures in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that measures of threshold and latency would be the most reliable and least susceptible to methodological differences between study sites. Somatosensory evoked potentials from 112 control participants; long-latency reflexes, transcranial magnetic stimulation with resting and active motor thresholds, motor evoked potential latencies, input/output curves, and short-latency sensory afferent inhibition and facilitation from 84 controls were collected at 3 visits over 24 months at 4 Track-On HD study sites. Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients for absolute agreement, and the effects of reliability on statistical power are demonstrated for different sample sizes and study designs. Measures quantifying latencies, thresholds, and evoked responses at high stimulator intensities had the highest reliability, and required the smallest sample sizes to adequately power a study. Very few between-site differences were detected. Reliability and susceptibility to between-site differences should be evaluated for electrophysiological measures before including them in study designs. Levels of reliability vary substantially across electrophysiological measures, though there are few between-site differences. To address this, reliability should be used in conjunction with theoretical calculations to inform sample size and ensure studies are adequately powered to detect true change in measures of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Short Sensory Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Su Im; Loh, Siew Yim; Chinna, Karuthan; Marret, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and examine psychometric properties of the Malay version Short Sensory Profile (SSP-M). Pretesting (n = 30) of the original English SSP established its applicability for use with Malaysian children aged 3-10 years. This was followed by the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SSP-M. Two forward and two back translations were compared and reviewed by a committee of 10 experts who validated the content of the SSP-M, before pilot testing (n = 30). The final SSP-M questionnaire was completed by 419 parents of typically developing children aged 3-10 years. Cronbach's alpha of each section of the SSP-M ranged from 0.73 to 0.93 and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) indicated good reliability (0.62-0.93). The seven factor model of the SSP-M had an adequate fit with evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. We conclude that the SSP-M is a valid and reliable screening tool for use in Malaysia with Malay-speaking parents of children aged 3-10 years. The SSP-M enables Malay-speaking parents to answer the questionnaire with better reliability, and provides occupational therapists with a valid tool to screen for sensory processing difficulties.

  13. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  14. Simultaneous Expression of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties and Cancer-Associated Fibroblast-Like Properties in a Primary Culture of Breast Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Mami; Inoue, Takahiro; Shirai, Takuma; Takamatsu, Kazuhiko; Kunihiro, Shiori; Ishii, Hirokazu [Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Nishikata, Takahito, E-mail: nisikata@konan-u.ac.jp [Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Frontier Institute for Biomolecular Engineering Research (FIBER), Konan University, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2014-07-31

    The importance of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in cancer biology has been recently highlighted owing to their critical roles in cancer growth, progression, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. We have previously established a primary culture of breast cancer cells, which showed epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like properties. In this study, we found that the primary culture also showed CAF-like properties. For example, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) and its downstream genes, nuclear factor-kappa B2 (NF-κB2) and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), and many enzymes involved in glycolysis, such as GAPDH, LDH, PGAM1, and PKM2, were highly overexpressed in the primary culture. Moreover, media conditioned with the primary culture cells enhanced the growth of breast cancer cells. Similar to previous CAF studies, this enhancement suggested to be occurred through fibroblast growth factor signaling. This MCKH primary culture cell, which showed simultaneous expression of tumorigenic and CAF properties, offers a unique experimental system for studying the biology of CAFs.

  15. Comparison of Sensory Properties, Shelf-Life and Microbiological Safety of Industrial Sausages Produced with Autochthonous and Commercial Starter Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Frece

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use isolated and characterized autochthonous functional starter cultures from traditional Croatian dry sausages and to evaluate their capacity for industrial production of five sausages (Čajna sausage, Zimska sausage, Bečka sausage, Srijemska sausage and Slavonski kulen. These defined autochthonous functional starter cultures (combination of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains were used to produce five different industrial sausages which were compared by a panel. The viability of introduced autochthonous Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains and their effect on the final product characteristics, namely microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties were monitored. The obtained results indicate that autochthonous starter cultures survived industrial production of sausages and can be used for production of sausages under controlled conditions. Autochthonous starter cultures obtained better results in the organoleptic evaluation, microbial safety and prolonged shelf-life in comparison with commercial starter cultures.

  16. Is looting-to-order “just a myth”? Open-source analysis of theft-to-order of cultural property

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Andrew Hardy

    2015-01-01

    Looting-to-order or theft-to-order of cultural assets has been widely dismissed as a myth. To test that, an open-source analysis of cases and testimony from law enforcement agents, perpetrators of cultural property crime and cultural heritage professionals was conducted. Web searches were conducted for reports that addressed looting, stealing or theft of cultural property on commission or to order; for material that discussed looters, robbers or thieves who had been contracted, employed, hire...

  17. Characterizing Rat PNS Electrophysiological Response to Electrical Stimulation Using in vitro Chip-Based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, Joshua [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Prescod, Lindsay [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Enright, Heather [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Felix, Sarah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osburn, Joanne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wheeler, Elizabeth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kulp, Kris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Ex vivo systems and organ-on-a-chip technology offer an unprecedented approach to modeling the inner workings of the human body. The ultimate goal of LLNL’s in vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP) is to integrate multiple organ tissue cultures using microfluidic channels, multi-electrode arrays (MEA), and other biosensors in order to effectively simulate and study the responses and interactions of the major organs to chemical and physical stimulation. In this study, we focused on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) component of the iCHIP system. Specifically we sought to expound on prior research investigating the electrophysiological response of rat dorsal root ganglion cells (rDRGs) to chemical exposures, such as capsaicin. Our aim was to establish a protocol for electrical stimulation using the iCHIP device that would reliably elicit a characteristic response in rDRGs. By varying the parameters for both the stimulation properties – amplitude, phase width, phase shape, and stimulation/ return configuration – and the culture conditions – day in vitro and neural cell types - we were able to make several key observations and uncover a potential convention with a minimal number of devices tested. Future work will seek to establish a standard protocol for human DRGs in the iCHIP which will afford a portable, rapid method for determining the effects of toxins and novel therapeutics on the PNS.

  18. A Lesson from the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 about Cultural Appropriation and Tribal Sovereignty: What Santa Clara Pueblo Can Do to Protect Tewa Cultural Property

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo, Patrick Victor

    2012-01-01

    This article advocates for the development of American Indian tribal legislation as a focal point, regardless of jurisdiction limitations to protect cultural property, focusing in particular on the problem presented in this project through the active appropriation of sacred Tewa ceremonies. By drawing a contrast to the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, in which the various Pueblo villages coordinated a successful rebellion to expel Spanish missionaries, the article urges Tewa governments and other Ameri...

  19. The Consistency Between Clinical and Electrophysiological Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra E. Okuyucu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide information concerning the impact of electrophysiological tests in the clinical management and diagnosis of patients, and to evaluate the consistency between referring clinical diagnoses and electrophysiological diagnoses. METHODS: The study included 957 patients referred to the electroneuromyography (ENMG laboratory from different clinics with different clinical diagnoses in 2008. Demographic data, referring clinical diagnoses, the clinics where the requests wanted, and diagnoses after ENMG testing were recorded and statistically evaluated. RESULTS: In all, 957 patients [644 (67.3% female and 313 (32.7% male] were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 45.40 ± 14.54 years. ENMG requests were made by different specialists; 578 (60.4% patients were referred by neurologists, 122 (12.8% by orthopedics, 140 (14.6% by neurosurgeons, and 117 (12.2% by physical treatment and rehabilitation departments. According to the results of ENMG testing, 513 (53.6% patients’ referrals were related to their referral diagnosis, whereas 397 (41.5% patients had normal ENMG test results, and 47 (4.9% patients had a diagnosis that differed from the referring diagnosis. Among the relation between the referral diagnosis and electrophysiological diagnosis according to the clinics where the requests were made, there was no statistical difference (p= 0.794, but there were statistically significant differences between the support of different clinical diagnoses, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy-plexopathy, entrapment neuropathy, and myopathy based on ENMG test results (p< 0.001. CONCLUSION: ENMG is a frequently used neurological examination. As such, referrals for ENMG can be made to either support the referring diagnosis or to exclude other diagnoses. This may explain the inconsistency between clinical referring diagnoses and diagnoses following ENMG

  20. Normal Values for Heart Electrophysiology Parameters of Healthy Swine Determined on Electrophysiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Cepiel, Alicja; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Gajek, Jacek; Pasławska, Urszula; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are a well-recognized animal model for human cardiovascular diseases. Despite the widespread use of porcine model in experimental electrophysiology, still no reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) have been developed in this species thus far. The aim of the study was to develop a set of normal values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive EPS of swine. The study included 36 healthy domestic swine (24-40 kg body weight). EPS was performed under a general anesthesia with midazolam, propofol and isoflurane. The reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters were calculated as arithmetic means ± 2 standard deviations. The reference values were determined for AH, HV and PA intervals, interatrial conduction time at its own and imposed rhythm, sinus node recovery time (SNRT), corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT), anterograde and retrograde Wenckebach points, atrial, atrioventricular node and ventricular refractory periods. No significant correlations were found between body weight and heart rate of the examined pigs and their electrophysiological parameters. The hereby presented reference values can be helpful in comparing the results of various studies, as well as in more accurately estimating the values of electrophysiological parameters that can be expected in a given experiment.

  1. Electrophysiologic and cellular characteristics of cardiomyocytes after X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frieß, Johannes L., E-mail: johannes.friess@h-ab.de [University for Applied Sciences Aschaffenburg, biomems lab, Würzburger Straße 45, 63743 Aschaffenburg (Germany); Heselich, Anja [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Developmental Biology and Neurogenetics, Schnittspahnstraße 13, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Ritter, Sylvia [Helmholtz Institute for Heavy Ion Research (GSI), Biophysics Department, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Haber, Angelina; Kaiser, Nicole; Layer, Paul G. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Developmental Biology and Neurogenetics, Schnittspahnstraße 13, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Thielemann, Christiane [University for Applied Sciences Aschaffenburg, biomems lab, Würzburger Straße 45, 63743 Aschaffenburg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Electrophysiologic and cellular effects of X-rays on primary cardiac cell cultures. • X-ray doses between 0.5 and 7 Gy. • Higher beat rate at reduced field action potential durations 7 days after exposure. • More increased cell cycle checkpoint arrest in G2/M than in G1/S phase. • Induced DSBs were mostly repaired within 24 h after irradiation. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of ionizing irradiation on the electrophysiological functionality of cardiac myocytes in vitro. Primary chicken cardiomyocytes with spontaneous beating activity were irradiated with X-rays (dose range of 0.5–7 Gy). Functional alterations of cardiac cell cultures were evaluated up to 7 days after irradiation using microelectrode arrays. As examined endpoints, cell proliferation, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage were evaluated. The beat rate of the cardiac networks increased in a dose-dependent manner over one week. The duration of single action potentials was slightly shortened. Additionally, we observed lower numbers of mitotic and S-phase cells at certain time points after irradiation. Also, the number of cells with γH2AX foci increased as a function of the dose. No significant changes in the level of ROS were detected. Induction of apoptosis was generally negligibly low. This is the first report to directly show alterations in cardiac electrophysiology caused by ionizing radiation, which were detectable up to one week after irradiation.

  2. Electrophysiologic and cellular characteristics of cardiomyocytes after X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieß, Johannes L.; Heselich, Anja; Ritter, Sylvia; Haber, Angelina; Kaiser, Nicole; Layer, Paul G.; Thielemann, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrophysiologic and cellular effects of X-rays on primary cardiac cell cultures. • X-ray doses between 0.5 and 7 Gy. • Higher beat rate at reduced field action potential durations 7 days after exposure. • More increased cell cycle checkpoint arrest in G2/M than in G1/S phase. • Induced DSBs were mostly repaired within 24 h after irradiation. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of ionizing irradiation on the electrophysiological functionality of cardiac myocytes in vitro. Primary chicken cardiomyocytes with spontaneous beating activity were irradiated with X-rays (dose range of 0.5–7 Gy). Functional alterations of cardiac cell cultures were evaluated up to 7 days after irradiation using microelectrode arrays. As examined endpoints, cell proliferation, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage were evaluated. The beat rate of the cardiac networks increased in a dose-dependent manner over one week. The duration of single action potentials was slightly shortened. Additionally, we observed lower numbers of mitotic and S-phase cells at certain time points after irradiation. Also, the number of cells with γH2AX foci increased as a function of the dose. No significant changes in the level of ROS were detected. Induction of apoptosis was generally negligibly low. This is the first report to directly show alterations in cardiac electrophysiology caused by ionizing radiation, which were detectable up to one week after irradiation

  3. Electrical Stimulation of Artificial Heart Muscle: a look into the electrophysiological and genetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Islas, Jose F; Schwartz, Robert J; Birla, Ravi K

    2016-01-01

    Development of tissue-engineered hearts for treatment of myocardial infarction or biological pacemakers has been hindered by the production of mostly arrhythmic or in-synergistic constructs. Electrical stimulation (ES) of these constructs has been shown to produce tissues with greater twitch force and better adrenergic response. In order to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effect of ES, we fabricated a bioreactor capable of delivering continuous or intermittent waveforms of various types to multiple constructs simultaneously. In this study, we examined the effect of an intermittent biphasic square wave on our artificial heart muscle (AHM) composed of neonatal rat cardiac cells and fibrin gel. Twitch forces, spontaneous contraction rates, biopotentials, gene expression profiles, and histological observations were examined for the ES protocol over a 12 day culture period. We demonstrate improved consistency between samples for twitch force and contraction rate, and higher normalized twitch force amplitudes for electrically stimulated AHM. Improvements in electrophysiology within the AHM was noted by higher conduction velocities and lower latency in electrical response for electrically stimulated AHM. Genes expressing key electrophysiological and structural markers peaked at days 6 and 8 of culture, only a few days after the initiation of ES. These results may be used for optimization strategies to establish protocols for producing AHM capable of replacing damaged heart tissue in either a contractile or electrophysiological capacity. Optimized AHM can lead to alternative treatments to heart failure and alleviate the limited donor supply crisis. PMID:28459744

  4. Electrical Stimulation of Artificial Heart Muscle: A Look Into the Electrophysiologic and Genetic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Islas, Jose F; Schwartz, Robert J; Birla, Ravi K

    Development of tissue-engineered hearts for treatment of myocardial infarction or biologic pacemakers has been hindered by the production of mostly arrhythmic or in-synergistic constructs. Electrical stimulation (ES) of these constructs has been shown to produce tissues with greater twitch force and better adrenergic response. To further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effect of ES, we fabricated a bioreactor capable of delivering continuous or intermittent waveforms of various types to multiple constructs simultaneously. In this study, we examined the effect of an intermittent biphasic square wave on our artificial heart muscle (AHM) composed of neonatal rat cardiac cells and fibrin gel. Twitch forces, spontaneous contraction rates, biopotentials, gene expression profiles, and histologic observations were examined for the ES protocol over a 12 day culture period. We demonstrate improved consistency between samples for twitch force and contraction rate, and higher normalized twitch force amplitudes for electrically stimulated AHMs. Improvements in electrophysiology within the AHM were noted by higher conduction velocities and lower latency in electrical response for electrically stimulated AHMs. Genes expressing key electrophysiologic and structural markers peaked at days 6 and 8 of culture, only a few days after the initiation of ES. These results may be used for optimization strategies to establish protocols for producing AHMs capable of replacing damaged heart tissue in either a contractile or electrophysiologic capacity. Optimized AHMs can lead to alternative treatments to heart failure and alleviate the limited donor supply crisis.

  5. Scalable Electrophysiology in Intact Small Animals with Nanoscale Suspended Electrode Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Daniel L.; Badhiwala, Krishna N.; Vercosa, Daniel G.; Avants, Ben W.; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Weiwei; Robinson, Jacob T.

    2017-01-01

    Electrical measurements from large populations of animals would help reveal fundamental properties of the nervous system and neurological diseases. Small invertebrates are ideal for these large-scale studies; however, patch-clamp electrophysiology in microscopic animals typically requires low-throughput and invasive dissections. To overcome these limitations, we present nano-SPEARs: suspended electrodes integrated into a scalable microfluidic device. Using this technology, we have made the fi...

  6. Simple Ion Channels: From Structure to Electrophysiology and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    A reliable way to establish whether our understanding of a channel is satisfactory is to reproduce its measured ionic conductance over a broad range of applied voltages in computer simulations. In molecular dynamics (MD), this can be done by way of applying an external electric field to the system and counting the number of ions that traverse the channel per unit time. Since this approach is computationally very expensive, we have developed a markedly more efficient alternative in which MD is combined with the electrodiffusion (ED) equation. In this approach, the assumptions of the ED equation can be rigorously tested, and the precision and consistency of the calculated conductance can be determined. We have demonstrated that the full current/voltage dependence and the underlying free energy profile for a simple channel can be reliably calculated from equilibrium or non-equilibrium MD simulations at a single voltage. To carry out MD simulations, a structural model of a channel has to be assumed, which is an important constraint, considering that high-resolution structures are available for only very few simple channels. If the comparison of calculated ionic conductance with electrophysiological data is satisfactory, it greatly increases our confidence that the structure and the function are described sufficiently accurately. We examined the validity of the ED for several channels embedded in phospholipid membranes - four naturally occurring channels: trichotoxin, alamethicin, p7 from hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Vpu from the HIV-1 virus, and a synthetic, hexameric channel, formed by a 21-residue peptide that contains only leucine and serine. All these channels mediate transport of potassium and chloride ions. It was found that the ED equation is satisfactory for these systems. In some of them experimental and calculated electrophysiological properties are in good agreement, whereas in others there are strong indications that the structural models are incorrect.

  7. Culture conditions tailored to the cell of origin are critical for maintaining native properties and tumorigenicity of glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledur, Pítia F; Liu, Chong; He, Hua; Harris, Alexandra R; Minussi, Darlan C; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Shaffrey, Mark E; Asthagiri, Ashok; Lopes, Maria Beatriz S; Schiff, David; Lu, Yi-Cheng; Mandell, James W; Lenz, Guido; Zong, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Cell culture plays a pivotal role in cancer research. However, culture-induced changes in biological properties of tumor cells profoundly affect research reproducibility and translational potential. Establishing culture conditions tailored to the cancer cell of origin could resolve this problem. For glioma research, it has been previously shown that replacing serum with defined growth factors for neural stem cells (NSCs) greatly improved the retention of gene expression profile and tumorigenicity. However, among all molecular subtypes of glioma, our laboratory and others have previously shown that the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) rather than the NSC serves as the cell of origin for the proneural subtype, raising questions regarding the suitability of NSC-tailored media for culturing proneural glioma cells. OPC-originated mouse glioma cells were cultured in conditions for normal OPCs or NSCs, respectively, for multiple passages. Gene expression profiles, morphologies, tumorigenicity, and drug responsiveness of cultured cells were examined in comparison with freshly isolated tumor cells. OPC media-cultured glioma cells maintained tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles, and morphologies similar to freshly isolated tumor cells. In contrast, NSC-media cultured glioma cells gradually lost their OPC features and most tumor-initiating ability and acquired heightened sensitivity to temozolomide. To improve experimental reproducibility and translational potential of glioma research, it is important to identify the cell of origin, and subsequently apply this knowledge to establish culture conditions that allow the retention of native properties of tumor cells. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Translation, Cross-cultural Adaptation, and Psychometric Properties of the German Version of the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasimann, A.; Dauphinee, S.W.; Staal, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Objectives To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) from English into German, and to study its psychometric properties in patients after hip surgery. Background There is no specific hip questionnaire in

  9. Role of cyclic GMP in cells with the properties of smooth muscle cultured from the rat myometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krall, J.F.; Morin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cells growing in culture with previously described properties of rat uterine smooth muscle accumulated 45 Ca 2+ from the medium. Ca 2+ uptake by these cells was stimulated by the addition to the medium of 8-bromo-cGMP but not by 8-bromo-cAMP. Ca 2+ uptake was also stimulated by carbachol and by the nitro-vasodilator nitroprusside. Although cholinergic agonists have been shown previously to stimulate contraction but not cGMP synthesis in the rat myometrium, both carbachol and nitroprusside stimulated cGMP production by the cultured cells. These results suggested the cells had cholinergic receptor-medicated functions that reflected some neurotransmitter-sensitive properties of uterine smooth muscle in situ. When determined by a specific radioligand binding assay, subcellular fractions of the cultured cells bound muscarinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists with affinities expected of the muscarinic receptor. The cells were also sensitive to the β-adrenergic catecholamine agonist isoproterenol, which stimulated cAMP production but not Ca 2+ uptake. Carbachol failed to inhibit isoproterenol-dependent cAMP production, which is an important property of the cholinergic receptor in uterine smooth muscle in situ. These results suggest some but not all acetylcholine-sensitive properties of uterine smooth muscle may be retained in cell culture

  10. Ultraconformable Temporary Tattoo Electrodes for Electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Laura M.; Sudha, Sudha; Tarantino, Sergio; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo; Cipriani, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Electrically interfacing the skin for monitoring personal health condition is the basis of skin‐contact electrophysiology. In the clinical practice the use of stiff and bulky pregelled or dry electrodes, in contrast to the soft body tissues, imposes severe restrictions to user comfort and mobility while limiting clinical applications. Here, in this work dry, unperceivable temporary tattoo electrodes are presented. Customized single or multielectrode arrays are readily fabricated by inkjet printing of conducting polymer onto commercial decal transfer paper, which allows for easy transfer on the user's skin. Conformal adhesion to the skin is provided thanks to their ultralow thickness (Tattoo electrode–skin contact impedance is characterized on short‐ (1 h) and long‐term (48 h) and compared with standard pregelled and dry electrodes. The viability in electrophysiology is validated by surface electromyography and electrocardiography recordings on various locations on limbs and face. A novel concept of tattoo as perforable skin‐contact electrode, through which hairs can grow, is demonstrated, thus permitting to envision very long‐term recordings on areas with high hair density. The proposed materials and patterning strategy make this technology amenable for large‐scale production of low‐cost sensing devices. PMID:29593975

  11. Electrophysiological studies in healthy subjects involving caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mamede; Marcelino, Erica; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    We review the electrophysiological studies concerning the effects of caffeine on muscle, lower and upper motor neuron excitability and cognition. Several different methods have been used, such as electromyography, recruitment analysis, H-reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography and event-related potentials. The positive effect of caffeine on vigilance, attention, speed of reaction, information processing and arousal is supported by a number of electrophysiological studies. The evidence in favor of an increased muscle fiber resistance is not definitive, but higher or lower motor neuron excitability can occur as a consequence of a greater excitation of the descending input from the brainstem and upper motor neurons. TMS can address the influence of caffeine on the upper motor neuron. Previous studies showed that cortico-motor threshold and intracortical excitatory and inhibitory pathways are not influenced by caffeine. Nonetheless, our results indicate that cortical silent period (CSP) is reduced in resting muscles after caffeine consumption, when stimulating the motor cortex with intensities slightly above threshold. We present new data demonstrating that this effect is also observed in fatigued muscle. We conclude that CSP can be considered a surrogate marker of the effect of caffeine in the brain, in particular of its central ergogenic effect.

  12. Pelvic floor electrophysiology in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankisi, H; Pugdahl, K; Rasmussen, M M; Clemmensen, D; Rawashdeh, Y F; Christensen, P; Krogh, K; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate sacral peripheral nerve function and continuity of pudendal nerve in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) using pelvic floor electrophysiological tests. Twelve patients with low cervical or thoracic SCI were prospectively included. Quantitative external anal sphincter (EAS) muscle electromyography (EMG), pudendal nerve terminal motor latency (PNTML) testing, bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) testing and pudendal short-latency somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) measurement were performed. In EAS muscle EMG, two patients had abnormal increased spontaneous activity and seven prolonged motor unit potential duration. PNTML was normal in 10 patients. BCR was present with normal latency in 11 patients and with prolonged latency in one. The second component of BCR could be recorded in four patients. SEPs showed absent cortical responses in 11 patients and normal latency in one. Pudendal nerve and sacral lower motor neuron involvement are significantly associated with chronic SCI, most prominently in EAS muscle EMG. The frequent finding of normal PNTML latencies supports earlier concerns on the utility of this test; however, BCR and pudendal SEPs may have clinical relevance. As intact peripheral nerves including pudendal nerve are essential for efficient supportive therapies, pelvic floor electrophysiological testing prior to these interventions is highly recommended. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrices: An Alternative Cell Culture System That Increases Metastatic Cellular Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Scherzer

    Full Text Available Poor survival rates from lung cancer can largely be attributed to metastatic cells that invade and spread throughout the body. The tumor microenvironment (TME is composed of multiple cell types, as well as non-cellular components. The TME plays a critical role in the development of metastatic cancers by providing migratory cues and changing the properties of the tumor cells. The Extracellular Matrix (ECM, a main component of the TME, has been shown to change composition during tumor progression, contributing to cancer cell invasion and survival away from the primary cancer site. Although the ECM is well-known to influence the fate of tumor progression, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that are affected by the cancer cell-ECM interactions. It is imperative that these mechanisms are elucidated in order to properly understand and prevent lung cancer dissemination. However, common in vitro studies do not incorporate these interactions into everyday cell culture assays. We have adopted a model that examines decellularized human fibroblast-derived ECM as a 3-dimensional substrate for growth of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Here, we have characterized the effect of fibroblast-derived matrices on the properties of various lung-derived epithelial cell lines, including cancerous and non-transformed cells. This work highlights the significance of the cell-ECM interaction and its requirement for incorporation into in vitro experiments. Implementation of a fibroblast-derived ECM as an in vitro technique will provide researchers with an important factor to manipulate to better recreate and study the TME.

  14. Cross-cultural Adaptation of Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire Needs to Assess the Measurement Properties: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Min; Zhu, Sen; Tian, Zi-Rui; Song, Yong-Jia; Yang, Long; Wang, Yong-Jun; Cui, Xue-Jun

    2018-03-26

    To assess the cross cultural-adaptations of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). English and Chinese databases were searched through December 2017. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties were evaluated using the Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures and the Quality Criteria for Psychometric Properties of Health Status Questionnaire. Among 34 studies, there were 31 RMDQ adaptations for 26 different languages/cultures. In the cross-cultural adaptation process, few studies reported expert committees completely constituted (3/31), and only ten studies complete the test of the pre-final version (10/31) due to insufficient sample sizes. As for the measurement properties, content validity (31/31) and construct validity (24/31) were assessed in most of the adaptations, whereas internal consistency (0/31), agreement (5/31), responsiveness (3/31), interpretability (6/31), and floor and ceiling effects (6/31) were not. The Hungarian and Moon's Korean adaptations were the highest quality translations. Where there were multiple adaptations for a language/culture, the Moon's Korean and Fan's simplified Chinese-Chinese Mainland adaptations are recommended over the other Korean or simplified Chinese-Chinese Mainland adaptations. Further studies are required to fully assess the measurement properties of the Arabic-Moroccan, Arabic-Tunisian, German- Austrian, Greek, Guajarati, Kim's Korean, Persian-Iranian, Polish, He's simplified Chinese-Chinese Mainland, Spanish, Spanish-Chilean, Thai, traditional Chinese-Taiwan, and Turkish adaptations of the RMDQ. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Negative-ion beam surface modification of tissue-culture polystyrene dishes for changing hydrophilic and cell-attachment properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, H.; Satoh, H.; Ikeda, S.; Ikemura, S.; Gotoh, Y.; Ishikawa, J.

    1999-01-01

    Negative-silver-ion implantation into tissue-culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes was investigated and it was found to modify hydrophilic and cell attachment properties of the dishes. Negative-ion implantation has an advantage of being almost free of surface charging, and is a suitable method for implantation into insulators such as polymers. Negative silver ions are used due to the antibacterial property of silver. Ag-implanted TCPS dishes had a contact angle larger than the normal value of 66 deg. of unimplanted dishes. The contact angle of water had a strong dependence on the ion energy rather than the dose. As a cell-culture experiment, human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) was used in unimplanted and Ag-implanted TCPS dishes, the implantation removed the cell-attachment property of the surface. In implantation with a mask with a striped pattern, most attached cells of HUVEC were in the unimplanted region aligned along a stripe direction

  16. The Digital Dimension of European Cultural Politics: Index, Intellectual Property and Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Thylstrup

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW have become dominant fields for European Union (EU politics. What used to be at the outer fringes of the EU policies has now taken centre stage. The transnational and dialogical structure of the Internet has hardwired it for international cultural politics, yet the very same structure also works to erode the very territorial foundation of traditional cultural politics. Given the delicate and complex terrain cultural politics traverse in international politics, and the trailblazing progression of the Internet, it seems on-line cultural politics is not just the application of existing cultural politics to cyberspace but a new field to be explored, analyzed and taught. The present article maps a constituent European cultural boundary on the WWW as the EU has circumscribed it and places this cultural node within a wider array of Europeanization and globalization processes.

  17. Female preponderance in atrioventricular node reentrant tachycardia, but no sex related electrophysiological differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Williamsson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism behind the female preponderance for atrio-ventricular node reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT is not clear. We compared baseline electrophysiological measurements and clinical data in 141 consecutive patients (96 women who underwent successful AVNRT ablation at their fi rst therapeutic procedure. Women had on average 9% higher resting heart rate than men (p<0.05, but were similar in all measures of AV node function. Isoproterenol infusion was required for AVNRT induction in 69 cases (49%, and the need for isoproterenol was associated with lower resting heart rate and longer anterograde and retrograde AV node refractory periods (p<0.05 for comparisons, but not with sex. We conclude that the spectrum of baseline AV node physiology in AVNRT patients is wide, and is similar in men and women. The female preponderance for AVNRT cannot be explained from comparisons of baseline AV node electrophysiological properties.

  18. Biofeedback in psychomotor training. Electrophysiological basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Mernaya, E M; Shtark, M B

    2009-06-01

    The influences of individual musical practice and the same practice supplemented with biofeedback using electrophysiological markers for optimum music-performing activity were studied in 39 music students. Traditional technical practice produced increases in integral EMG power and decreases in alpha activity in most of the students with initially low maximum alpha activity peak frequencies. Similar practice but combined with individual sessions of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback were accompanied by increases in the frequency, bandwidth, and activation responses of EEG alpha rhythms in all subjects, along with decreases in EEG integral power. The efficacy of training with biofeedback and the ability to experience psychomotor learning depended on the initial individual characteristics of EEG alpha activity.

  19. [Biofeedback in psychomotor training. Electrophysiological bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Mernaia, E M; Shtark, M B

    2008-05-01

    Comparison of influence of usual musical practice and the same trainings but using biofeedback on electrophysiological and psychological markers of optimal psychomotor functioning in 39 students-musicians revealed that the obvious musical practice caused psychomotor pressure in most students (with initially low individual alpha peak frequency), whereas similar practice combined with an individualized session of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback was accompanied by increase of alpha-activity in all examinees and a decrease (reduction) of integrated EMG that indicated reaching of optimal psychomotor functioning. It appears that the psychomotor learning ability depends on the baseline individual alpha-activity. Individual alpha peak frequency was associated with fluency and efficiency of psychomotor performance, individual alpha band width--with plasticity and creativity, individual amount of alpha suppression in response to opening eyes--with the level of selfactualization. These alpha activity EEG indices correlated with efficiency of the biofeedback training.

  20. Automatic Parameterization Strategy for Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Caroline Mendonca; Hoetzl, Elena; Rocha, Bernardo Martins; Prassl, Anton J; Plank, Gernot

    2013-10-01

    Driven by recent advances in medical imaging, image segmentation and numerical techniques, computer models of ventricular electrophysiology account for increasingly finer levels of anatomical and biophysical detail. However, considering the large number of model parameters involved parameterization poses a major challenge. A minimum requirement in combined experimental and modeling studies is to achieve good agreement in activation and repolarization sequences between model and experiment or patient data. In this study, we propose basic techniques which aid in determining bidomain parameters to match activation sequences. An iterative parameterization algorithm is implemented which determines appropriate bulk conductivities which yield prescribed velocities. In addition, a method is proposed for splitting the computed bulk conductivities into individual bidomain conductivities by prescribing anisotropy ratios.

  1. Lyme carditis. Electrophysiologic and histopathologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznick, J.W.; Braunstein, D.B.; Walsh, R.L.; Smith, C.R.; Wolfson, P.M.; Gierke, L.W.; Gorelkin, L.; Chandler, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    To further define the nature of Lyme carditis, electrophysiologic study and endomyocardial biopsy were performed in a patient with Lyme disease, whose principal cardiac manifestation was high-degree atrioventricular block. Intracardiac recording demonstrated supra-Hisian block and complete absence of an escape mechanism. Gallium 67 scanning demonstrated myocardial uptake, and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy revealed active lymphocytic myocarditis. A structure compatible with a spirochetal organism was demonstrated in one biopsy specimen. It is concluded that Lyme disease can produce active myocarditis, as suggested by gallium 67 imaging and confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy. Furthermore, the presence of high-grade atrioventricular block in this disease requires aggressive management with temporary pacemaker and corticosteroid therapy

  2. Generation and customization of biosynthetic excitable tissues for electrophysiological studies and cell-based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung X; Kirkton, Robert D; Bursac, Nenad

    2018-05-01

    We describe a two-stage protocol to generate electrically excitable and actively conducting cell networks with stable and customizable electrophysiological phenotypes. Using this method, we have engineered monoclonally derived excitable tissues as a robust and reproducible platform to investigate how specific ion channels and mutations affect action potential (AP) shape and conduction. In the first stage of the protocol, we combine computational modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and electrophysiological techniques to derive optimal sets of mammalian and/or prokaryotic ion channels that produce specific AP shape and conduction characteristics. In the second stage of the protocol, selected ion channels are stably expressed in unexcitable human cells by means of viral or nonviral delivery, followed by flow cytometry or antibiotic selection to purify the desired phenotype. This protocol can be used with traditional heterologous expression systems or primary excitable cells, and application of this method to primary fibroblasts may enable an alternative approach to cardiac cell therapy. Compared with existing methods, this protocol generates a well-defined, relatively homogeneous electrophysiological phenotype of excitable cells that facilitates experimental and computational studies of AP conduction and can decrease arrhythmogenic risk upon cell transplantation. Although basic cell culture and molecular biology techniques are sufficient to generate excitable tissues using the described protocol, experience with patch-clamp techniques is required to characterize and optimize derived cell populations.

  3. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of D-tagatose in cultured murine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, J C; Boess, F; Stäubli, A; Boelsterli, U A

    1998-01-01

    D-Tagatose is a zero-energy producing ketohexose that is a powerful cytoprotective agent against chemically induced cell injury. To further explore the underlying mechanisms of cytoprotection, we investigated the effects of D-tagatose on both the generation of superoxide anion radicals and the consequences of oxidative stress driven by prooxidant compounds in intact cells. Primary cultures of hepatocytes derived from male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the redox cycling drug nitrofurantoin (NFT). Lethal cell injury induced by 300 microM NFT was completely prevented by high concentrations (20 mM) of D-tagatose, whereas equimolar concentrations of glucose, mannitol, or xylose were ineffective. The extent of NFT-induced intracellular superoxide anion radical formation was not altered by D-tagatose, indicating that the ketohexose did not inhibit the reductive bioactivation of NFT. However, the NFT-induced decline of the intracellular GSH content was largely prevented by D-tagatose. The sugar also afforded complete protection against NFT toxicity in hepatocytes that had been chemically depleted of GSH. Furthermore, the ketohexose fully protected from increases in both membrane lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation. In addition, D-tagatose completely prevented oxidative cell injury inflicted by toxic iron overload with ferric nitrilotriacetate (100 microM). In contrast, D-tagatose did not protect against lethal cell injury induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide, a prooxidant which acts by hydroxyl radical-independent mechanisms and which is partitioned in the lipid bilayer. These results indicate that D-tagatose, which is a weak iron chelator, can antagonize the iron-dependent toxic consequences of intracellular oxidative stress in hepatocytes. The antioxidant properties of D-tagatose may result from sequestering the redox-active iron, thereby protecting more critical targets from the damaging potential of hydroxyl radical.

  4. Human adenosine deaminase: properties and turnover in cultured T and B lymphoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daddona, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, the properties and rate of turnover of adenosine deaminase are compared in cultured human T and B lymphoblast cell lines. 1) Relative to B lymphoblasts, the level of adenosine deaminase activity in extracts of T lymphoblast cell lines (MOLT-4, RPMI-8402, CCRF-CEM, and CCRF-HSB-2) is elevated 7-14-fold and differs by 2-fold between the C cell lines. 2) In both T and B lymphoblast extracts, the enzyme is apparently identical, based on K/sub m/ for adenosine and deoxyadenosine, K/sub i/ for inosine, V/sub max/ for adenosine, /sub S20,w/, isoelectric pH, and heat stability. Furthermore, by radioimmunoassay, the quantity of adenosine deaminase-immunocreative protein is proportional to the level of enzyme activity in all cell lines studies. 3) Using a purification and selective immunoprecipitation technique, the enzyme turnover could be assessed in cell lines labeled with [ 35 S]methionine. The apparent rate of adenosine deaminase synthesis, relative to total protein, is 2-fold faster in both T cell lines (RPMI-8402 and CCRF-CEM) than in the B cell lines (MGL-8 and GM-130). The apparent half-life (tsub1/2) for the enzyme degradation is 19 and 39 h, respectively, in CCFR-CEM and RPMI-8402, while the tsub1/2 in both B cell lines is 7-9 h. From the net rate of synthesis and degradation, the T cell lines, respectively, exhibit approximately a 6- and 12-fold difference in adenosine deaminase turnover relative to B cells, consistent with the observed differences in enzyme activity. This study suggests that while adenosine deaminase is apparently identical in both T and B lymphoblast cell lines, alterations in both the rate of enzyme synthesis and degradation contribute to its high steady state level in T cells

  5. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Albers, Andreas E.

    2011-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  6. Anatomical and electrophysiological changes in striatal TH interneurons after loss of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Bengi; Shah, Fulva; Kothari, Janish; Tepper, James M

    2015-01-01

    Using transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, we have previously shown that there are approximately 3,000 striatal EGFP-TH interneurons per hemisphere in mice. Here, we report that striatal TH-EGFP interneurons exhibit a small, transient but significant increase in number after unilateral destruction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. The increase in cell number is accompanied by electrophysiological and morphological changes. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of EGFP-TH interneurons ipsilateral to 6-OHDA lesion were similar to those originally reported in intact mice except for a significant reduction in the duration of a characteristic depolarization induced plateau potential. There was a significant change in the distribution of the four previously described electrophysiologically distinct subtypes of striatal TH interneurons. There was a concomitant increase in the frequency of both spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic currents, while their amplitudes did not change. Nigrostriatal lesions did not affect somatic size or dendritic length or branching, but resulted in an increase in the density of proximal dendritic spines and spine-like appendages in EGFP-TH interneurons. The changes indicate that electrophysiology properties and morphology of striatal EGFP-TH interneurons depend on endogenous levels of dopamine arising from the nigrostriatal pathway. Furthermore, these changes may serve to help compensate for the changes in activity of spiny projection neurons that occur following loss of the nigrostriatal innervation in experimental or in early idiopathic Parkinson's disease by increasing feedforward GABAergic inhibition exerted by these interneurons.

  7. The Electrophysiological Phenomenon of Alzheimer's Disease: A Psychopathology Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holston, Ezra C

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is based on the Aβ and tau pathology and the resulting neuropathological changes, which are associated with manifested clinical symptoms. However, electrophysiological brain changes may provide a more expansive understanding of AD. Hence, the objective of this systematic review is to propose a theory about the electrophysiological phenomenon of Alzheimer's disease (EPAD). The review of literature resulted from an extensive search of PubMed and MEDLINE databases. One-hundred articles were purposively selected. They provided an understanding of the concepts establishing the theory of EPAD (neuropathological changes, neurochemical changes, metabolic changes, and electrophysiological brain changes). Changes in the electrophysiology of the brain are foundational to the association or interaction of the concepts. Building on Berger's Psychophysical Model, it is evident that electrophysiological brain changes occur and affect cortical areas to generate or manifest symptoms from onset and across the stages of AD, which may be prior to pathological changes. Therefore, the interaction of the concepts demonstrates how the psychopathology results from affected electrophysiology of the brain. The theory of the EPAD provides a theoretical foundation for appropriate measurements of AD without dependence on neuropathological changes. Future research is warranted to further test this theory. Ultimately, this theory contributes to existing knowledge because it shows how electrophysiological changes are useful in understanding the risk and progression of AD across the stages.

  8. Electrophysiologic Findings and Pain in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hava Dönmez Keklikoğlu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is defined as median nerve entrapment within the carpal tunnel at the wrist. Pain and paresthesia are the most common presenting symptoms of the patients. In this study, our aim was to identify the association between intensity of presenting symptoms and electrophysiologic findings in patients referred to the electrophysiology laboratory with prediagnosis of CTS. METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients who were referred to the electrophysiology laboratory with the diagnosis of CTS were enrolled in the study. The intensity of pain was determined by visual analog scale, the findings of Tinel-Phalen tests were assessed, and clinico-demographic findings were recorded. Nerve conduction studies were performed bilaterally in median and ulnar nerves. The severity of CTS was determined with electrophysiologic evaluation, and the association between electrophysiologic findings and symptoms were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Sixty-two (57 female, 5 male patients were examined in the study. CTS was bilateral in 53 patients and unilateral in 9 patients (total 115 hands. Mean pain score was 5.78 ± 3.50. In 28 hands with a clinical diagnosis of CTS, no electrophysiologic CTS findings were found, whereas in 32 hands mild, in 41 hands moderate and in 14 hands severe findings were obtained. CONCLUSION: According to our study, there was no statistically significant association between severity of symptoms and severity of electrophysiologic findings in CTS

  9. Effect of sample thickness on the extracted near-infrared bulk optical properties of Bacillus subtilis in liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhongova, Elitsa; Harwood, Colin R; Thennadil, Suresh N

    2011-11-01

    In order to determine the bulk optical properties of a Bacillus subtilis culture during growth phase we investigated the effect of sample thickness on measurements taken with different measurement configurations, namely total diffuse reflectance and total diffuse transmittance. The bulk optical properties were extracted by inverting the measurements using the radiative transfer theory. While the relationship between reflectance and biomass changes with sample thickness and the intensity (absorbance) levels vary significantly for both reflectance and transmittance measurements, the extracted optical properties show consistent behavior in terms of both the relationship with biomass and magnitude. This observation indicates the potential of bulk optical properties for building models that could be more easily transferable compared to those built using raw measurements.

  10. Evaluation of Optogenetic Electrophysiology Tools in Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Björk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current cardiac drug safety assessments focus on hERG channel block and QT prolongation for evaluating arrhythmic risks, whereas the optogenetic approach focuses on the action potential (AP waveform generated by a monolayer of human cardiomyocytes beating synchronously, thus assessing the contribution of several ion channels on the overall drug effect. This novel tool provides arrhythmogenic sensitizing by light-induced pacing in combination with non-invasive, all-optical measurements of cardiomyocyte APs and will improve assessment of drug-induced electrophysiological aberrancies. With the help of patch clamp electrophysiology measurements, we aimed to investigate whether the optogenetic modifications alter human cardiomyocytes' electrophysiology and how well the optogenetic analyses perform against this gold standard. Patch clamp electrophysiology measurements of non-transduced stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes compared to cells expressing the commercially available optogenetic constructs Optopatch and CaViar revealed no significant changes in action potential duration (APD parameters. Thus, inserting the optogenetic constructs into cardiomyocytes does not significantly affect the cardiomyocyte's electrophysiological properties. When comparing the two methods against each other (patch clamp vs. optogenetic imaging we found no significant differences in APD parameters for the Optopatch transduced cells, whereas the CaViar transduced cells exhibited modest increases in APD-values measured with optogenetic imaging. Thus, to broaden the screen, we combined optogenetic measurements of membrane potential and calcium transients with contractile motion measured by video motion tracking. Furthermore, to assess how optogenetic measurements can predict changes in membrane potential, or early afterdepolarizations (EADs, cells were exposed to cumulating doses of E-4031, a hERG potassium channel blocker, and drug effects were measured at both spontaneous and

  11. 75 FR 34199 - Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from the Pre-Hispanic Cultures of the Republic... Republic of Bolivia concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from the Pre-Columbian Cultures and Certain Ethnological Materials from the Colonial and Republican Periods of...

  12. Patient safety culture measurement in general care: clinimetric properties of 'SCOPE'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, D.L.M.; Langelaan, M.; Vooren, R.C. van de; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Kalkman, C.J.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagner, C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A supportive patient safety culture is considered to be an essential condition for improving patient safety. Assessing the current safety culture in general practice may be a first step to target improvements. To that end, we studied internal consistency and construct validity of a

  13. Brazilian Version of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ-Br): Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Evaluation of Measurement Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana F. B.; Laurindo, Ieda M. M.; Rodrigues, Priscilla T.; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Kowalski, S?rgio C.; Tanaka, Clarice

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese and to assess its measurement properties. INTRODUCTION: This instrument is an outcome measure with 10 domains with scores ranging from 0-100, worst to best, respectively. The translated instrument will improve the examinations and foot care of rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS: The questions were translated, back-translated, evaluated by a multidisciplinary committee and pr...

  14. The multi-dimensional model of Māori identity and cultural engagement: item response theory analysis of scale properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G; Houkamau, Carla A

    2013-01-01

    We argue that there is a need for culture-specific measures of identity that delineate the factors that most make sense for specific cultural groups. One such measure, recently developed specifically for Māori peoples, is the Multi-Dimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. The MMM-ICE is a 6-factor measure that assesses the following aspects of identity and cultural engagement as Māori: (a) group membership evaluation, (b) socio-political consciousness, (c) cultural efficacy and active identity engagement, (d) spirituality, (e) interdependent self-concept, and (f) authenticity beliefs. This article examines the scale properties of the MMM-ICE using item response theory (IRT) analysis in a sample of 492 Māori. The MMM-ICE subscales showed reasonably even levels of measurement precision across the latent trait range. Analysis of age (cohort) effects further indicated that most aspects of Māori identification tended to be higher among older Māori, and these cohort effects were similar for both men and women. This study provides novel support for the reliability and measurement precision of the MMM-ICE. The study also provides a first step in exploring change and stability in Māori identity across the life span. A copy of the scale, along with recommendations for scale scoring, is included.

  15. What makes astronomical heritage valuable? Identifying potential Outstanding Universal Value in cultural properties relating to astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Michel

    2016-10-01

    This communication presents the situation regarding astronomical and archaeoastronomical heritage related to the World Heritage Convention through recent years up until today. Some parallel events and works were promoted strongly within the IAU-UNESCO Initiative during the International Year of Astronomy (2009). This was followed by a joint program by the IAU and ICOMOS-an official advisory body assisting the World Heritage Committee in the evaluation of nomination dossiers. The result of that work is an important publication by around 40 authors from 20 different countries all around the world: Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the Context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (Ruggles & Cotte 2010). A second volume is under preparation (2015). It was also accompanied by some initiatives such as the ``Windows to the Universe" organisation and the parallel constitution of local ``Starlight Reserves''. Some regional meetings studying specific facets or regional heritage in the field giving significant knowledge progresses also accompanied the global trend for astronomical heritage. WH assessment is defined by a relatively strict format and methodology. A key phrase is ``demonstration of Outstanding Universal Value'' to justify the WH Listing by the Committee. This communication first examines the requirements and evaluation practices about of demonstrating OUV for a given place in the context of astronomical or archaeoastronomical heritage. That means the examination of the tangible attributes, an inventory of the property in terms of immoveable and moveable components and an inventory of intangible issues related to the history (history of the place in the context of the history of astronomy and cultural history). This is also related to the application to the site of the concept of integrity and authenticity, as regards the place itself and in comparison with other similar places (WH sites already listed, sites on national WH Tentative Lists

  16. Canonical wnt signaling regulates atrioventricular junction programming and electrophysiological properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillers, Benjamin S.; Chiplunkar, Aditi; Aly, Haytham; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Efimov, Igor R.; Boukens, Bastiaan J.; Rentschler, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Proper patterning of the atrioventricular canal (AVC) is essential for delay of electrical impulses between atria and ventricles, and defects in AVC maturation can result in congenital heart disease. To determine the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the myocardium during AVC development. We used a

  17. Development and Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure Hospital Organizational Culture for Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Brewster, Amanda L; Fosburgh, Heather; Cherlin, Emily J; Curry, Leslie A

    2017-03-01

    Because organizational culture is increasingly understood as fundamental to achieving high performance in hospital and other healthcare settings, the ability to measure this nuanced concept empirically has gained importance. Aside from measures of patient safety culture, no measure of organizational culture has been widely endorsed in the medical literature, limiting replication of previous findings and broader use in interventional studies. We sought to develop and assess the validity and reliability of a scale for assessing organizational culture in the context of hospitals' efforts to reducing 30-day risk-standardized mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The 31-item scale was completed by 147 individuals representing 10 hospitals during August and September 2014. The resulting organizational culture scale demonstrated high level of construct validity and internal consistency. Factor analyses indicated that the 31 items loaded well (loading values 0.48-0.90), supporting distinguishable domains of (1) learning environment, (2) psychological safety, (3) commitment to the organization, (4) senior management support, and (5) time for improvement efforts. Cronbach α coefficients were 0.94 for the scale and ranged from 0.77 to 0.88 for the subscales. The scale displayed reasonable convergent validity and statistically significant variability across hospitals, with hospital identity accounting for 11.3% of variance in culture scores across respondents. We developed and validated a relatively easy-to-administer survey that was able to detect substantial variability in organizational culture across different hospitals and may be useful in measuring hospital culture and evaluating changes in culture over time as part performance improvement efforts. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Scalable electrophysiology in intact small animals with nanoscale suspended electrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Daniel L.; Badhiwala, Krishna N.; Vercosa, Daniel G.; Avants, Benjamin W.; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Weiwei; Robinson, Jacob T.

    2017-07-01

    Electrical measurements from large populations of animals would help reveal fundamental properties of the nervous system and neurological diseases. Small invertebrates are ideal for these large-scale studies; however, patch-clamp electrophysiology in microscopic animals typically requires invasive dissections and is low-throughput. To overcome these limitations, we present nano-SPEARs: suspended electrodes integrated into a scalable microfluidic device. Using this technology, we have made the first extracellular recordings of body-wall muscle electrophysiology inside an intact roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans. We can also use nano-SPEARs to record from multiple animals in parallel and even from other species, such as Hydra littoralis. Furthermore, we use nano-SPEARs to establish the first electrophysiological phenotypes for C. elegans models for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and show a partial rescue of the Parkinson's phenotype through drug treatment. These results demonstrate that nano-SPEARs provide the core technology for microchips that enable scalable, in vivo studies of neurobiology and neurological diseases.

  19. Electrophysiological and pathological study of focal cortical dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodozuka, Akira; Hashizume, Kiyotaka; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Tanaka, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    -methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were almost negative in both areas. Glutamate R-1 receptors were decreased in both areas, but glutamate R-2 receptors were increased in both areas. These findings support the results of electrophysiological study. In conclusion, not only the epileptic property of experimental focal cortical dysplasia but also perilesional epileptogenesis was demonstrated. These findings support the results of surgery for patients with focal cortical dysplasia. In cases of FCD, total removal of the lesion and resection of the perilesional epileptic focus are needed for a good outcome. (author)

  20. Sedation for paediatric auditory electrophysiology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emergency departments and nuclear medicine.1 Added to this is the periodic need ... electrophysiology in the paediatric population in South Africa were not found. ..... to inadequate information technology infrastructure as well as limited data ...

  1. Interplay of differential cell mechanical properties, motility, and proliferation in emergent collective behavior of cell co-cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Leo; Kolbman, Dan; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Minglin; Das, Moumita

    The biophysics of cell co-cultures, i.e. binary systems of cell populations, is of great interest in many biological processes including formation of embryos, and tumor progression. During these processes, different types of cells with different physical properties are mixed with each other, with important consequences for cell-cell interaction, aggregation, and migration. The role of the differences in their physical properties in their collective behavior remains poorly understood. Furthermore, until recently most theoretical studies of collective cell migration have focused on two dimensional systems. Under physiological conditions, however, cells often have to navigate three dimensional and confined micro-environments. We study a confined, three-dimensional binary system of interacting, active, and deformable particles with different physical properties such as deformability, motility, adhesion, and division rates using Langevin Dynamics simulations. Our findings may provide insights into how the differences in and interplay between cell mechanical properties, division, and motility influence emergent collective behavior such as cell aggregation and segregation experimentally observed in co-cultures of breast cancer cells and healthy breast epithelial cells. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award.

  2. Pyramidal cell development: postnatal spinogenesis, dendritic growth, axon growth, and electrophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eElston

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we review recent findings related to postnatal spinogenesis, dendritic and axon growth, pruning and electrophysiology of neocortical pyramidal cells in the developing primate brain. Pyramidal cells in sensory, association and executive cortex grow dendrites, spines and axons at different rates, and vary in the degree of pruning. Of particular note is the fact that pyramidal cells in primary visual area (V1 prune more spines than they grow during postnatal development, whereas those in inferotemporal (TEO and TE and granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC; Brodmann’s area 12 grow more than they prune. Moreover, pyramidal cells in TEO, TE and the gPFC continue to grow larger dendritic territories from birth into adulthood, replete with spines, whereas those in V1 become smaller during this time. The developmental profile of intrinsic axons also varies between cortical areas: those in V1, for example, undergo an early proliferation followed by pruning and local consolidation into adulthood, whereas those in area TE tend to establish their territory and consolidate it into adulthood with little pruning. We correlate the anatomical findings with the electrophysiological properties of cells in the different cortical areas, including membrane time constant, depolarizing sag, duration of individual action potentials, and spike-frequency adaptation. All of the electrophysiological variables ramped up before 7 months of age in V1, but continued to ramp up over a protracted period of time in area TE. These data suggest that the anatomical and electrophysiological profiles of pyramidal cells vary among cortical areas at birth, and continue to diverge into adulthood. Moreover, the data reveal that the use it or lose it notion of synaptic reinforcement may speak to only part of the story, use it but you still might lose it may be just as prevalent in the cerebral cortex.

  3. Translation, cross-cultural adaption and measurement properties of the evidence-based practice profile

    OpenAIRE

    Titlestad, Kristine Berg; Snibsoer, Anne Kristin; Stromme, Hilde; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Graverholt, Birgitte; Espehaug, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Background The evidence-based practice profile (EBP2) questionnaire assesses students? self-reported knowledge, behaviour and attitudes related to evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt EBP2 into Norwegian and to evaluate the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version. Methods EBP2 was translated and cross-culturally adapted using recommended methodology. Face validity and feasibility were evaluated in a pilot on bache...

  4. Evaluation of psychometric properties of the German Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and its potential for cross-cultural comparisons: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambashidze, Nikoloz; Hammer, Antje; Brösterhaus, Mareen; Manser, Tanja

    2017-11-09

    To study the psychometric characteristics of German version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and to compare its dimensionality to other language versions in order to understand the instrument's potential for cross-national studies. Cross-sectional multicentre study to establish psychometric properties of German version of the survey instrument. 73 units from 37 departments of two German university hospitals. Clinical personnel (n=995 responses, response rate 39.6%). Psychometric properties (eg, model fit, internal consistency, construct validity) of the instrument and comparison of dimensionality across different language translations. The instrument demonstrated acceptable to good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.64-0.88). Confirmatory factor analysis of the original 12-factor model resulted in marginally satisfactory model fit (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.05; standardised root mean residual (SRMR)=0.05; comparative fit index (CFI)=0.90; goodness of fit index (GFI)=0.88; Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI)=0.88). Exploratory factor analysis resulted in an alternative eight-factor model with good model fit (RMSEA=0.05; SRMR=0.05; CFI=0.95; GFI=0.91; TLI=0.94) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.73-0.87) and construct validity. Analysis of the dimensionality compared with models from 10 other language versions revealed eight dimensions with relatively stable composition and appearance across different versions and four dimensions requiring further improvement. The German version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties for use in German hospitals. However, our comparison of instrument dimensionality across different language versions indicates limitations concerning cross-national studies. Results of this study can be considered in interpreting findings across national contexts, in further refinement of the instrument for cross-national studies and in better

  5. [Electrophysiological bases of semantic processing of objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlaoui, Karima; Baccino, Thierry; Joanette, Yves; Magnié, Marie-Noële

    2007-02-01

    How pictures and words are stored and processed in the human brain constitute a long-standing question in cognitive psychology. Behavioral studies have yielded a large amount of data addressing this issue. Generally speaking, these data show that there are some interactions between the semantic processing of pictures and words. However, behavioral methods can provide only limited insight into certain findings. Fortunately, Event-Related Potential (ERP) provides on-line cues about the temporal nature of cognitive processes and contributes to the exploration of their neural substrates. ERPs have been used in order to better understand semantic processing of words and pictures. The main objective of this article is to offer an overview of the electrophysiologic bases of semantic processing of words and pictures. Studies presented in this article showed that the processing of words is associated with an N 400 component, whereas pictures elicited both N 300 and N 400 components. Topographical analysis of the N 400 distribution over the scalp is compatible with the idea that both image-mediated concrete words and pictures access an amodal semantic system. However, given the distinctive N 300 patterns, observed only during picture processing, it appears that picture and word processing rely upon distinct neuronal networks, even if they end up activating more or less similar semantic representations.

  6. A brain electrophysiological correlate of depth perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akay, Ahmet; Celebi, Gurbuz

    2009-01-01

    To investigate brain electrical activity accompanying depth perception using random-dot stereograms. Additional experiments were conducted to ascertain the specificity of this potential to depth perception. In the present study, we performed 3 different and independent experiments on 34 subjects to establish the relationship between depth perception and its cortical electrophysiological correlate. Visual evoked potentials in response to visual stimulation by random-dot stereograms were recorded. To achieve this goal, a data acquisition and analysis system, different from common visual evoked potential recording systems, consisting of 2 personal computers, was used. One of the computers was used to generate the visual stimulus patterns and the other to record and digitally average the potentials evoked by the stimuli. This study was carried out at the Department of Biophysics of Ege University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey, from April to December, 2006. A negative potential component, which is thought to arise in association with depth perception, was recorded from the occipital region from 30 of the 34 subjects. Typically, it had a mean latency of 211.46 ms and 6.40 micron V amplitude. The negative potential is related to depth perception, as this component is present in the responses to stimulus, which carries disparity information but is absent when the stimulus is switched to no disparity information. Additional experiments also showed that the specificity of this component to depth perception becomes evident beyond doubt. (author)

  7. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Cherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation.

  8. Electrophysiological measurements of spectral sensitivities: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. DeVoe

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sensitivities of visual systems are specified as the reciprocals of the intensities of light (quantum fluxes needed at each wavelength to elicit the same criterion amplitude of responses. This review primarily considers the methods that have been developed for electrophysiological determinations of criterion amplitudes of slow-wave responses from single retinal cells. Traditional flash methods can require tedious dark adaptations and may yield erroneous spectral sensitivity curves which are not seen in such modifications as ramp methods. Linear response methods involve interferometry, while constant response methods involve manual or automatic adjustments of continuous illumination to keep response amplitudes constant during spectral scans. In DC or AC computerized constant response methods, feedback to determine intensities at each wavelength is derived from the response amplitudes themselves. Although all but traditional flash methods have greater or lesser abilities to provide on-line determinations of spectral sensitivities, computerized constant response methods are the most satisfactory due to flexibility, speed and maintenance of a constant adaptation level

  9. Stimfit: quantifying electrophysiological data with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Jose Guzman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular electrophysiological recordings provide crucial insights into elementary neuronal signals such as action potentials and synaptic currents. Analyzing and interpreting these signals is essential for a quantitative understanding of neuronal information processing, and requires both fast data visualization and ready access to complex analysis routines. To achieve this goal, we have developed Stimfit, a free software package for cellular neurophysiology with a Python scripting interface and a built-in Python shell. The program supports most standard file formats for cellular neurophysiology and other biomedical signals through the Biosig library. To quantify and interpret the activity of single neurons and communication between neurons, the program includes algorithms to characterize the kinetics of presynaptic action potentials and postsynaptic currents, estimate latencies between pre- and postsynaptic events, and detect spontaneously occurring events. We validate and benchmark these algorithms, give estimation errors, and provide sample use cases, showing that Stimfit represents an efficient, accessible and extensible way to accurately analyze and interpret neuronal signals.

  10. [On the first studies of electrophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    A historical outline of the evolution of electrophysiology from the eighteenth century is shortly presented. Topics concerning the so called animal electricity starting from the observations on descharges of Torpedo fish until Bolognese Galvani's researches on the frogs are exposed. The points of view of their oppositionists also are examined. These ones, leaded by the physicist Alessandro Volta, professor in the University of Pavia, believed that electricity detected by galvanists was not inherent to animal but was due to the action of the metallic conductors present in the circuit: contact electricity. Only towards the middle of the nineteenth century the physicist Carlo Matteucci attained to demonstrate the existente of the real animal electricity in form of injury current. It was possible to determine that quantitatively thanks to the capillary electrometer built in 1872 by the French physicist Gabriel Lippmann. This instrument was used by the English physiologist Waller in order to obtain the primitive electrocardiographic tracings in humans (1887). At beginnings of the twentieth century, the Dutch professor Willem Einthoven, of the University of Leiden, introduced his string galvanometer which permitted to allow the modern electrocardiography. So it was possible to record the electrical potentials of myocardial cells, first in vitro, later in isolated and perfused heart, son after in dog's heart in situ and finally in human heart. Therefore now it is possible to effectuate endocardial and epicardial mappings, indispensable in order to diagnose and treat the cardiac arrhythmias.

  11. Introduction to solid supported membrane based electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Costa, Wagner Steuer; Braner, Markus; Călinescu, Octavian; Hatahet, Lina; Fendler, Klaus

    2013-05-11

    The electrophysiological method we present is based on a solid supported membrane (SSM) composed of an octadecanethiol layer chemisorbed on a gold coated sensor chip and a phosphatidylcholine monolayer on top. This assembly is mounted into a cuvette system containing the reference electrode, a chlorinated silver wire. After adsorption of membrane fragments or proteoliposomes containing the membrane protein of interest, a fast solution exchange is used to induce the transport activity of the membrane protein. In the single solution exchange protocol two solutions, one non-activating and one activating solution, are needed. The flow is controlled by pressurized air and a valve and tubing system within a faraday cage. The kinetics of the electrogenic transport activity is obtained via capacitive coupling between the SSM and the proteoliposomes or membrane fragments. The method, therefore, yields only transient currents. The peak current represents the stationary transport activity. The time dependent transporter currents can be reconstructed by circuit analysis. This method is especially suited for prokaryotic transporters or eukaryotic transporters from intracellular membranes, which cannot be investigated by patch clamp or voltage clamp methods.

  12. Integrated platform and API for electrophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Andrey; Stoewer, Adrian; Leonhardt, Aljoscha; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Kellner, Christian J; Garbers, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in technology and methodology have led to growing amounts of increasingly complex neuroscience data recorded from various species, modalities, and levels of study. The rapid data growth has made efficient data access and flexible, machine-readable data annotation a crucial requisite for neuroscientists. Clear and consistent annotation and organization of data is not only an important ingredient for reproducibility of results and re-use of data, but also essential for collaborative research and data sharing. In particular, efficient data management and interoperability requires a unified approach that integrates data and metadata and provides a common way of accessing this information. In this paper we describe GNData, a data management platform for neurophysiological data. GNData provides a storage system based on a data representation that is suitable to organize data and metadata from any electrophysiological experiment, with a functionality exposed via a common application programming interface (API). Data representation and API structure are compatible with existing approaches for data and metadata representation in neurophysiology. The API implementation is based on the Representational State Transfer (REST) pattern, which enables data access integration in software applications and facilitates the development of tools that communicate with the service. Client libraries that interact with the API provide direct data access from computing environments like Matlab or Python, enabling integration of data management into the scientist's experimental or analysis routines.

  13. Closed-loop, open-source electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Rolston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple extracellular microelectrodes (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs effectively record rapidly varying neural signals, and can also be used for electrical stimulation. Multi-electrode recording can serve as artificial output (efferents from a neural system, while complex spatially and temporally targeted stimulation can serve as artificial input (afferents to the neuronal network. Multi-unit or local field potential recordings can not only be used to control real world artifacts, such as prostheses, computers or robots, but can also trigger or alter subsequent stimulation. Real-time feedback stimulation may serve to modulate or normalize aberrant neural activity, to induce plasticity, or to serve as artificial sensory input. Despite promising closed-loop applications, commercial electrophysiology systems do not yet take advantage of the bidirectional capabilities of multi-electrodes, especially for use in freely moving animals. We addressed this lack of tools for closing the loop with NeuroRighter, an open-source system including recording hardware, stimulation hardware, and control software with a graphical user interface. The integrated system is capable of multi-electrode recording and simultaneous patterned microstimulation triggered by recordings with minimal stimulation artifact. The potential applications of closed-loop systems as research tools and clinical treatments are broad; we provide one example where epileptic activity recorded by a multi-electrode probe is used to trigger targeted stimulation, via that probe, to freely moving rodents.

  14. Electrophysiological mapping of novel prefrontal - cerebellar pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Watson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the cerebellum is predominantly considered a sensorimotor control structure, accumulating evidence suggests that it may also subserve non motor functions during cognition. However, this possibility is not universally accepted, not least because the nature and pattern of links between higher cortical structures and the cerebellum are poorly characterized. We have therefore used in vivo electrophysiological methods in anaesthetized rats to directly investigate connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic subdivision, PrL and the cerebellum. Stimulation of deep layers of PrL evoked distinct field potentials in the cerebellar cortex with a mean latency to peak of approximately 35ms. These responses showed a well-defined topography, and were maximal in lobule VII of the contralateral vermis (a known oculomotor centre; they were not attenuated by local anesthesia of the overlying M2 motor cortex, though M2 stimulation did evoke field potentials in lobule VII with a shorter latency. Single-unit recordings showed that prelimbic cortical stimulation elicits complex spikes in lobule VII Purkinje cells, indicating transmission via a previously undescribed cerebro-olivocerebellar pathway. Our results therefore establish a physiological basis for communication between PrL and the cerebellum. The role(s of this pathway remain to be resolved, but presumably relate to control of eye movements and/or distributed networks associated with integrated prefrontal cortical functions.

  15. Evaluation of Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Measurement Properties of STarT Back Screening Tool: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zoubi, Fadi M; Eilayyan, Owis; Mayo, Nancy E; Bussières, André E

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the extent to which the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST) has been evaluated for (1) the quality of translation of evidence for cross-cultural adaptation and (2) the measurement properties in languages other than English. A systematic search of 8 databases, including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, was performed. Electronic databases were searched for the period between 2008 and December 27, 2016. We included studies related to cross-cultural adaptation, including translation and assessment of the measurement properties of SBST. Study selection, translation, methodologic and quality assessments, and data extraction were performed independently by 2 reviewers. Of the 1566 citations retrieved, 17 studies were admissible, representing 11 different SBST versions in 10 languages. The quadratic weighted κ statistics of the 2 reviewers, for the translation, methodologic assessment, and quality assessment were 0.85, 0.76, and 0.83, respectively. For translation, only 2 versions (Belgian-French and Mandarin) fulfilled all requirements. None of the versions had tested all the measurement properties, and when performed, these were found to have been conducted inadequately. With regard to quality assessment, overall, the included versions had a "Poor" total summary score except 2 (Persian and Swiss-German), which were rated as "Fair." Few versions fully met the standard criteria for valid translation, and none of the versions tested all the measurement properties. There is a clear need for more accurate cross-cultural adaptation of SBST and greater attention to the quality of psychometric evaluation of the adapted versions of SBST. At this time, caution is recommended when using SBST in languages other than English. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The presence of serum alters the properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and lowers their accumulation by cultured brain astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geppert, Mark; Petters, Charlotte; Thiel, Karsten; Dringen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Such particles are able to cross the blood–brain barrier and are taken up into brain cells. To test whether serum components affect the properties of IONPs and/or their uptake into brain cells, we have incubated dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic IONPs without and with fetal calf serum (FCS) and have exposed cultured brain astrocytes with IONPs in the absence or presence of FCS. Incubation with FCS caused a concentration-dependent increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the particles and of their zeta-potential. In the presence of 10 % FCS, the diameter of the IONPs increased from 57 ± 2 to 107 ± 6 nm and the zeta-potential of the particles from −22 ± 5 to −9 ± 1 mV. FCS affected also strongly the uptake of IONPs by cultured astrocytes. The efficient time- and temperature-dependent cellular accumulation of IONPs was lowered with increasing concentration of FCS by up to 90 %. In addition, in the absence of serum, endocytosis inhibitors did not alter the IONP accumulation by astrocytes, while chlorpromazine or wortmannin lowered significantly the accumulation of IONPs in the presence of FCS, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis are involved in astrocytic IONP uptake from serum-containing medium. These data demonstrate that the presence of FCS strongly affects the properties of IONPs as well as their accumulation by cultured brain cells.

  17. Role of commercial starter cultures on microbiological, physicochemical characteristics, volatile compounds and sensory properties of dry-cured foal sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Domínguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of three commercial starter cultures on microbial counts, physicochemical changes, volatile profile and sensory characteristics of dry-cured foal sausage. Methods: Microbial counts (lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, total viable counts and yeast, proximate parameters (moisture, fat and protein, colour analysis, texture analysis (texture profile analysis test, volatile compounds (solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer technique and sensory analysis were evaluated in the drycured foal sausages using the standard food analysis techniques. Results: The results revealed that the use of starter cultures increased the number of lactic acid bacteria and total viable counts, while completely reduced Enterobacteriaceae count. Started sausages presented the lowest value of pH, while CX and FL batches had the highest protein amount. In contrast, the use of starter cultures did not affect the other physicochemical parameters. According to volatile profile, there were no differences between batches in total volatile compounds, however, control batch presented the highest amount of aldehydes, derived from lipid oxidation. The sensory analysis showed low differences. Control batch presented higher flavour intensity and lower acid taste score and black pepper odour than inoculated batches. Conclusions: As a general conclusion, the use of starter cultures contributed to improve the hygienic quality with low impact in physicochemical and sensory properties.

  18. Insulin binding properties of normal and transformed human epidermal cultured keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrando, P.; Ortonne, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Insulin binding to its receptors was studied in cultured normal and transformed (A431 line) human epidermal keratinocytes. The specific binding was a temperature-dependent, saturable process. Normal keratinocytes possess a mean value of about 80,000 receptors per cell. Fifteen hours exposure of the cells to insulin lowered their receptor number (about 65% loss in available sites); these reappeared when the hormone was removed from the culture medium. In the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, there is a net decrease in insulin binding (84% of the initial bound/free hormone ratio in comparison with normal cells) essentially related to a loss in receptor affinity for insulin. Thus, cultured human keratinocytes which express insulin receptors may be a useful tool in understanding skin pathology related to insulin disorders

  19. Encoding and Decoding Models in Cognitive Electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Holdgraf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of “Encoding” models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and “Decoding” models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output. Here we review the current state of encoding and decoding models in cognitive electrophysiology and provide a practical guide toward conducting experiments and analyses in this emerging field. Our examples focus on using linear models in the study of human language and audition. We show how to calculate auditory receptive fields from natural sounds as well as how to decode neural recordings to predict speech. The paper aims to be a useful tutorial to these approaches, and a practical introduction to using machine learning and applied statistics to build models of neural activity. The data analytic approaches we discuss may also be applied to other sensory modalities, motor systems, and cognitive systems, and we cover some examples in these areas. In addition, a collection of Jupyter notebooks is publicly available as a complement to the material covered in this paper, providing code examples and tutorials for predictive modeling in python. The aim is to provide a practical understanding of predictive modeling of human brain data and to propose best-practices in conducting these analyses.

  20. Toxicity of functional nano-micro zinc oxide tetrapods: impact of cell culture conditions, cellular age and material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavlassopoulos, Heike; Mishra, Yogendra K; Kaps, Sören; Paulowicz, Ingo; Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Elbahri, Mady; Maser, Edmund; Adelung, Rainer; Röhl, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    With increasing production and applications of nanostructured zinc oxide, e.g., for biomedical and consumer products, the question of safety is getting more and more important. Different morphologies of zinc oxide structures have been synthesized and accordingly investigated. In this study, we have particularly focused on nano-micro ZnO tetrapods (ZnO-T), because their large scale fabrication has been made possible by a newly introduced flame transport synthesis approach which will probably lead to several new applications. Moreover, ZnO-T provide a completely different morphology then classical spherical ZnO nanoparticles. To get a better understanding of parameters that affect the interactions between ZnO-T and mammalian cells, and thus their biocompatibility, we have examined the impact of cell culture conditions as well as of material properties on cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate that the cell density of fibroblasts in culture along with their age, i.e., the number of preceding cell divisions, strongly affect the cytotoxic potency of ZnO-T. Concerning the material properties, the toxic potency of ZnO-T is found to be significantly lower than that of spherical ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, the morphology of the ZnO-T influenced cellular toxicity in contrast to surface charges modified by UV illumination or O2 treatment and to the material age. Finally, we have observed that direct contact between tetrapods and cells increases their toxicity compared to transwell culture models which allow only an indirect effect via released zinc ions. The results reveal several parameters that can be of importance for the assessment of ZnO-T toxicity in cell cultures and for particle development.

  1. 76 FR 32010 - Notice of Closed Meeting (With Open Session) of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... the Government of the Republic of Bolivia Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from the Pre-Columbian Cultures and Certain Ethnological Material from the Colonial and Republican Periods of Bolivia [Docket No. DOS-2011-0092]. An open session to receive oral public comment on...

  2. Heritage under siege: military implementation of the 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kila, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Heritage under Siege is the result of a five year long multidisciplinary research focusing on military implementation of protecting and safeguarding Cultural Heritage in the event of conflict. The subject necessitated to involve legal obligations and implications. The main juridical framework in

  3. Influence of physicochemical properties of beryllium particles on cultured cell toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Brooks, A.L.; Hoover, M.D.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of beryllium oxide (BeO)), beryllium metal, and beryllium sulfate (BeSO 4 ) was studied in two cell lines, Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and lung epithelial cells (LEC). Beryllium oxide particles were prepared at either 500 or 1000 deg. C, and two different particle sizes of beryllium metal were used. Following a 20-h exposure to beryllium compounds, cells were grown in culture to quantitate cloning ability relative to controls as a measure of cell killing, The LEC cultures were more sensitive to beryllium cytotoxicity than the CHO cells. When expressed on the basis of the mass of material added to the cultures, the order of toxicity was BeSO 4 ≥ 500 deg. C -BeO > 1000 deg. C -BeO > Be metal (small) Be metal (large). When cytotoxic effects were expressed on the basis of particulate surface rather than mass, the relative differences in toxicity between compounds was decreased. The order of toxicity was Be metal (small) ∼ Be metal (large) ∼ 500 deg. C-BeO ∼ 1000 deg. C-BeO. These data indicate that solubility influences beryllium toxicity to short-term cell cultures. (author)

  4. Brazilian version of the foot health status questionnaire (FHSQ-BR: cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of measurement properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. B. Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese and to assess its measurement properties. INTRODUCTION: This instrument is an outcome measure with 10 domains with scores ranging from 0-100, worst to best, respectively. The translated instrument will improve the examinations and foot care of rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS: The questions were translated, back-translated, evaluated by a multidisciplinary committee and pre-tested (n = 40 rheumatoid arthritis subjects. The new version was submitted to a field test (n = 65 to evaluate measurement properties such as test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. The Health Assessment Questionnaire, Numeric Rating Scale for foot pain and Sharp/van der Heijde scores for foot X-rays were used to test the construct validity. RESULTS: The cross-cultural adaptation was completed with minor wording adaptations from the original instrument. The evaluation of measurement properties showed high reliability with low variation coefficients between interviews. The a-Cronbach coefficients varied from 0.468 to 0.855, while correlation to the Health Assessment Questionnaire and Numeric Rating Scale was statistically significant for five out of eight domains. DISCUSSION: Intra- and inter-observer correlations showed high reliability. Internal consistency coefficients were high for all domains, revealing higher values for less subjective domains. As for construct validity, each domain revealed correlations with a specific group of parameters according to what the domains intended to measure. CONCLUSION: The FHSQ was cross-culturally adapted, generating a reliable, consistent, and valid instrument that is useful for evaluating foot health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Brazilian version of the foot health status questionnaire (FHSQ-BR): cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana F B; Laurindo, Ieda M M; Rodrigues, Priscilla T; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Kowalski, Sérgio C; Tanaka, Clarice

    2008-10-01

    To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese and to assess its measurement properties. This instrument is an outcome measure with 10 domains with scores ranging from 0-100, worst to best, respectively. The translated instrument will improve the examinations and foot care of rheumatoid arthritis patients. The questions were translated, back-translated, evaluated by a multidisciplinary committee and pre-tested (n = 40 rheumatoid arthritis subjects). The new version was submitted to a field test (n = 65) to evaluate measurement properties such as test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. The Health Assessment Questionnaire, Numeric Rating Scale for foot pain and Sharp/van der Heijde scores for foot X-rays were used to test the construct validity. The cross-cultural adaptation was completed with minor wording adaptations from the original instrument. The evaluation of measurement properties showed high reliability with low variation coefficients between interviews. The alpha-Cronbach coefficients varied from 0.468 to 0.855, while correlation to the Health Assessment Questionnaire and Numeric Rating Scale was statistically significant for five out of eight domains. Intra- and inter-observer correlations showed high reliability. Internal consistency coefficients were high for all domains, revealing higher values for less subjective domains. As for construct validity, each domain revealed correlations with a specific group of parameters according to what the domains intended to measure. The FHSQ was cross-culturally adapted, generating a reliable, consistent, and valid instrument that is useful for evaluating foot health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Electrophysiologic similarities of overdose between digoxin and bufadienolides found in a Chinese aphrodisiac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Bressman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Classically derived from toad venom, bufadienolides are a group of cardioactive steroids with properties similar to digoxin. Some traditional Chinese medications, including several aphrodisiacs, contain bufadienolides. Owing to their physiologic similarities to digoxin, bufadienolides have been shown to produce a toxic profile similar to that of digoxin and there have been multiple case reports of the use of these aphrodisiacs resulting in death. This report will describe a case that illustrates the electrophysiologic similarities between bufadienolide toxicity and digoxin toxicity as well as the treatment of bufadienolide toxicity.

  7. The formation of movable cultural property conservators-restorer in Brazil: memories and historical trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Arnaldo Nunes de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a panoramic reflection on the historical trajectory of the educational background of the conservator-restorer of cultural goods in the Brazilian context, covering the chronological interval that goes from 1855 to the 2010s. Using documentary data analysis and bibliographic review, it was also investigated the theoretical landmarks, paradigms, international influences and social policies that served as a foundation for the training and the development of this specialized professional within the Brazilian state.

  8. The Internet Addiction Test: assessing its psychometric properties in Bangladeshi culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Karim, A K M; Nigar, Naima

    2014-08-01

    There is growing importance of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in Internet addiction research around the world. Since the development of the IAT (Young, 1996, 1998), a number of validation studies have been done in various cultures. The aim of this study was to translate the instrument into Bangla and validate in Bangladeshi culture, a culture vulnerable to Internet addiction. A total of 177 Internet users (77 females and 100 males) participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the data from 172 participants (who provided complete responses) identified a four factor structure of the IAT with 18 items. The four factors namely 'Neglect of duty', 'Online dependence', 'Virtual fantasies', and 'Privacy and self-defense' together explained 55.68% of the total variance. Problematic (moderate/excessive) users on the IAT scored, on average, higher on each of the four IAT factors as compared to average or non-problematic (minimal) users consistently across genders. The IAT and its factors showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α=.89 for the IAT, and .60-.84 for the factors), strong convergent and discriminant validity. Thus, the Bangla version IAT appears to be valid and reliable and therefore may be used in further research on Internet addiction in the country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of neuronal network properties from the spectral analysis of calcium imaging signals in neuronal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibau, Elisenda; Valencia, Miguel; Soriano, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal networks in vitro are prominent systems to study the development of connections in living neuronal networks and the interplay between connectivity, activity and function. These cultured networks show a rich spontaneous activity that evolves concurrently with the connectivity of the underlying network. In this work we monitor the development of neuronal cultures, and record their activity using calcium fluorescence imaging. We use spectral analysis to characterize global dynamical and structural traits of the neuronal cultures. We first observe that the power spectrum can be used as a signature of the state of the network, for instance when inhibition is active or silent, as well as a measure of the network's connectivity strength. Second, the power spectrum identifies prominent developmental changes in the network such as GABAA switch. And third, the analysis of the spatial distribution of the spectral density, in experiments with a controlled disintegration of the network through CNQX, an AMPA-glutamate receptor antagonist in excitatory neurons, reveals the existence of communities of strongly connected, highly active neurons that display synchronous oscillations. Our work illustrates the interest of spectral analysis for the study of in vitro networks, and its potential use as a network-state indicator, for instance to compare healthy and diseased neuronal networks.

  10. Family Impact Scale (FIS): Cross-cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties for the Peruvian Spanish Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Albites, Ursula; Bönecker, Marcelo; Paiva, Saul M; Castillo, Jorge L; Aguilar-Gálvez, Denisse

    2015-12-01

    The lack of a Family Impact Scale (FIS) in Spanish language limits its use as an indicator in Spanish-speaking countries and precludes comparisons with data from other cultural and ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was therefore to adapt the FIS cross-culturally to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. In order to translate and adapt the FIS cross-culturally, it was answered by 60 parents in two pilot tests, after which it was tested on 200 parents of children aged 11 to 14 years who were clinically examined for dental caries experience and malocclusions. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the FIS on the same 200 parents enabled the test-retest reliability to be assessed via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the FIS with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) FIS total score was 5.20 (5.86). Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha 0.84. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC = 0.96). Construct validity was good, demonstrating statistically significant associations between total FIS score and global ratings of oral health (p=0.007) and overall wellbeing (p=0.002), as well as for the subscale scores (pfamily caused by children's oral conditions. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  11. Mechanical properties and structure-function relationships of human chondrocyte-seeded cartilage constructs after in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middendorf, Jill M; Griffin, Darvin J; Shortkroff, Sonya; Dugopolski, Caroline; Kennedy, Stephen; Siemiatkoski, Joseph; Cohen, Itai; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2017-10-01

    Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is a widely recognized method for the repair of focal cartilage defects. Despite the accepted use, problems with this technique still exist, including graft hypertrophy, damage to surrounding tissue by sutures, uneven cell distribution, and delamination. Modified ACI techniques overcome these challenges by seeding autologous chondrocytes onto a 3D scaffold and securing the graft into the defect. Many studies on these tissue engineered grafts have identified the compressive properties, but few have examined frictional and shear properties as suggested by FDA guidance. This study is the first to perform three mechanical tests (compressive, frictional, and shear) on human tissue engineered cartilage. The objective was to understand the complex mechanical behavior, function, and changes that occur with time in these constructs grown in vitro using compression, friction, and shear tests. Safranin-O histology and a DMMB assay both revealed increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content in the scaffolds with increased maturity. Similarly, immunohistochemistry revealed increased lubricin localization on the construct surface. Confined compression and friction tests both revealed improved properties with increased construct maturity. Compressive properties correlated with the sGAG content, while improved friction coefficients were attributed to increased lubricin localization on the construct surfaces. In contrast, shear properties did not improve with increased culture time. This study suggests the various mechanical and biological properties of tissue engineered cartilage improve at different rates, indicating thorough mechanical evaluation of tissue engineered cartilage is critical to understanding the performance of repaired cartilage. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2298-2306, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Particle formation induced by sonication during yogurt fermentation - Impact of exopolysaccharide-producing starter cultures on physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körzendörfer, Adrian; Nöbel, Stefan; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    Two major quality defects of yogurt are syneresis and the presence of large particles, and several reasons have been extensively discussed. Vibrations during fermentation, particularly generated by pumps, must be considered as a further cause as latest research showed that both ultrasound and low frequencies induced visible particles. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of sonication during fermentation with starter cultures differing in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis on the physical properties of set (syneresis, firmness) and stirred yogurt (large particles, laser diffraction, rheology). Skim milk was fermented with starter cultures YC-471 (low EPS) or YF-L 901 (high EPS) (Chr. Hansen) and sonicated for 5min at pH5.2. Sonicated set gels exhibited syneresis and were softer than respective controls. The mechanical treatment was adjusted to quantify visible particles (d≥0.9mm) in stirred yogurts properly. Sonication significantly increased particle numbers, however, the effect was less pronounced when YF-L 901 was used, indicating EPS as a tool to reduce syneresis and particle formation due to vibrations. Rheological parameters and size of microgel particles were rather influenced by starter cultures than by sonication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae Roots Extract and Protective Effects on Astroglial Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Campisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily. We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress.

  14. Antioxidant properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) roots extract and protective effects on astroglial cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Agata; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Bonfanti, Roberta; Raciti, Giuseppina; Amodeo, Andrea; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Iauk, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily). We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress.

  15. Human adipose stem cells maintain proliferative, synthetic and multipotential properties when suspension cultured as self-assembling spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, S K; Wang, X; Shang, H; Yun, S; Li, X; Feng, G; Khurgel, M; Katz, A J

    2012-01-01

    Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) have been gaining recognition as an extremely versatile cell source for tissue engineering. The usefulness of ASCs in biofabrication is further enhanced by our demonstration of the unique properties of these cells when they are cultured as three-dimensional cellular aggregates or spheroids. As described herein, three-dimensional formulations, or self-assembling ASC spheroids develop their own extracellular matrix that serves to increase the robustness of the cells to mechanical stresses. The composition of the extracellular matrix can be altered based on the external environment of the spheroids and these constructs can be grown in a reproducible manner and to a consistent size. The spheroid formulation helps preserve the viability and developmental plasticity of ASCs even under defined, serum-free media conditions. For the first time, we show that multiple generations of adherent ASCs produced from these spheroids retain their ability to differentiate into multiple cell/tissue types. These demonstrated properties support the idea that culture-expanded ASCs are an excellent candidate cellular material for ‘organ printing’—the approach of developing complex tissue structures from a standardized cell ‘ink’ or cell formulation. (paper)

  16. Cultural adaptation and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Spiritual Distress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Talita Prado; Lopes Chaves, Erika de Cássia; Campos de Carvalho, Emília; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Carvalho, Camila Csizmar; Ku, Ya-Li; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2016-01-01

    To culturally adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Spiritual Distress Scale. In Brazil, there is currently a lack of validated instruments that assess the spiritual dimension, which includes the spiritual distress phenomenon that can be experienced at different moments in a person's life. This can include times when a person is affected by a disease such as cancer, which occurs suddenly and causes significant life changes. Methodological and cross-sectional study. Cultural adaptation of the Spiritual Distress Scale was performed using translation and back-translation stages, evaluation of cultural equivalence, committee review and pretesting. An interview using the Brazilian version of the scale was conducted with 170 patients in a cancer treatment unit of a charitable general hospital (not state funded). The following psychometric properties were evaluated: construct validity (divergence and factor analysis) and internal consistency/reliability (Cronbach's α and Kappa). Reliability analysis in the intra- and inter-rater phase showed that more than half of the items had Kappa values > 0·75. A correlation between the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Spiritual Distress Scale was found. Overall, the Spiritual Distress Scale showed a Cronbach's α of 0·87, with three of its four domains showing significant parameters. The Brazilian version of the Spiritual Distress Scale proved to be a reliable, valid and efficient instrument that is capable of assessing spiritual distress. The Brazilian Spiritual Distress Scale presented reliability and validity parameters that correspond to the original English version of the scale. The existence of an internationally validated instrument that assesses spiritual distress will assist healthcare professionals and researchers in recognising this phenomenon in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Electrophysiological Evidence in Schizophrenia in Relation to Treatment Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sueyoshi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Several domains of cognitive function, e.g., verbal memory, information processing, fluency, attention, and executive function are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia have attracted interests as a treatment target, because they are considered to greatly affect functional outcome. Electrophysiological markers, including electroencephalogram (EEG, particularly, event-related potentials, have contributed to psychiatric research and clinical practice. In this review, we provide a summary of studies relating electrophysiological findings to cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Electrophysiological indices may provide an objective marker of cognitive processes, contributing to the development of effective interventions to improve cognitive and social outcomes. Further efforts to understand biological mechanisms of cognitive disturbances, and develop effective therapeutics are warranted.

  18. Electrophysiological Source Imaging: A Noninvasive Window to Brain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Sohrabpour, Abbas; Brown, Emery; Liu, Zhongming

    2018-06-04

    Brain activity and connectivity are distributed in the three-dimensional space and evolve in time. It is important to image brain dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are noninvasive measurements associated with complex neural activations and interactions that encode brain functions. Electrophysiological source imaging estimates the underlying brain electrical sources from EEG and MEG measurements. It offers increasingly improved spatial resolution and intrinsically high temporal resolution for imaging large-scale brain activity and connectivity on a wide range of timescales. Integration of electrophysiological source imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging could further enhance spatiotemporal resolution and specificity to an extent that is not attainable with either technique alone. We review methodological developments in electrophysiological source imaging over the past three decades and envision its future advancement into a powerful functional neuroimaging technology for basic and clinical neuroscience applications.

  19. A simplified protocol for differentiation of electrophysiologically mature neuronal networks from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunhanlar, N; Shpak, G; van der Kroeg, M; Gouty-Colomer, L A; Munshi, S T; Lendemeijer, B; Ghazvini, M; Dupont, C; Hoogendijk, W J G; Gribnau, J; de Vrij, F M S; Kushner, S A

    2017-04-18

    Progress in elucidating the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders has been hindered by the limited availability of living human brain tissue. The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has offered a unique alternative strategy using patient-derived functional neuronal networks. However, methods for reliably generating iPSC-derived neurons with mature electrophysiological characteristics have been difficult to develop. Here, we report a simplified differentiation protocol that yields electrophysiologically mature iPSC-derived cortical lineage neuronal networks without the need for astrocyte co-culture or specialized media. This protocol generates a consistent 60:40 ratio of neurons and astrocytes that arise from a common forebrain neural progenitor. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of 114 neurons derived from three independent iPSC lines confirmed their electrophysiological maturity, including resting membrane potential (-58.2±1.0 mV), capacitance (49.1±2.9 pF), action potential (AP) threshold (-50.9±0.5 mV) and AP amplitude (66.5±1.3 mV). Nearly 100% of neurons were capable of firing APs, of which 79% had sustained trains of mature APs with minimal accommodation (peak AP frequency: 11.9±0.5 Hz) and 74% exhibited spontaneous synaptic activity (amplitude, 16.03±0.82 pA; frequency, 1.09±0.17 Hz). We expect this protocol to be of broad applicability for implementing iPSC-based neuronal network models of neuropsychiatric disorders.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 18 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.56.

  20. Nutraceutical Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols. An Itinerary from Cultured Cells through Animal Models to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rigacci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed.

  1. Assessing safety culture in NICU: psychometric properties of the Italian version of Safety Attitude Questionnaire and result implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Alessandra; Zanolin, M Elisabetta; Negri, Roberta; Moretti, Francesca; Grassi, Mario; Tardivo, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are a high-risk setting. The Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ) is a widely used tool to measure safety culture. The aims of the study are to verify the psychometric properties of the Italian version of SAQ, to evaluate safety culture in the NICUs and to identify improvement interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 level III NICUs. The SAQ was translated into Italian and adapted to the context, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to validate the questionnaire. 193 questionnaires were collected. The mean response rate was 59.7% (range 44.5%-95.7%). The answers were analysed according to six factors: f1 - teamwork climate, f2 - safety climate, f3 - job satisfaction, f4 - stress recognition, f5 - perception of management, f6 - working conditions. The CFA indexes were adequate (McDonald's omega indexes varied from 0.74 to 0.94, the SRMR index was equal to 0.79 and the RMSEA index was 0.070, 95% CI = 0.063-0.078). The mean composite score was 57.6 (SD 17.9), ranging between 42.3 and 69.7 on a standardized 100-point scale. We highlighted significant differences among units and professions (P < 0.05). The Italian version of the SAQ proved to be an effective tool to evaluate and compare the safety culture in the NICUs. The obtained scores significantly varied both within and among the NICUs. The organizational and structural characteristics of the involved hospitals probably affect the safety culture perception by the staff. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties testing of the Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcia Rodrigues; Pinto, Rafael Zambelli; Delbaere, Kim; Eto, Bianca Yumie; Faria, Maíra Sgobbi; Aoyagi, Giovana Ayumi; Steffens, Daniel; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2018-02-14

    The Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES) is an innovative tool to assess concern of falling that uses pictures as visual cues to provide more complete environmental contexts. Advantages of Icon-FES over previous scales include the addition of more demanding balance-related activities, ability to assess concern about falling in highly functioning older people, and its normal distribution. To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to assess the measurement properties of the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES in a community-dwelling Brazilian older population. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the recommendations of international guidelines. We evaluated the measurement properties (i.e. internal consistency, test-retest reproducibility, standard error of the measurement, minimal detectable change, construct validity, ceiling/floor effect, data distribution and discriminative validity), in 100 community-dwelling people aged ≥60 years. The 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES-Brazil showed good internal consistency (alpha and omega >0.70) and excellent intra-rater reproducibility (ICC 2,1 =0.96 and 0.93, respectively). According to the standard error of the measurement and minimal detectable change, the magnitude of change needed to exceed the measurement error and variability were 7.2 and 3.4 points for the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES, respectively. We observed an excellent correlation between both versions of the Icon-FES and Falls Efficacy Scale - International (rho=0.83, pmeasurement properties to evaluate concern about falling among the community-dwelling older population. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. The Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire: Cross-Cultural Adaptation into Italian and Assessment of Its Measurement Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarotto, Alessandro; Vanti, Carla; Ostelo, Raymond W; Ferrari, Silvano; Tedesco, Giuseppe; Rocca, Barbara; Pillastrini, Paolo; Monticone, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) is a patient self-reported measurement instrument that evaluates pain self-efficacy beliefs in patients with chronic pain. The measurement properties of the PSEQ have been tested in its original and translated versions, showing satisfactory results for validity and reliability. The aims of this study were 2 fold as follows: (1) to translate the PSEQ into Italian through a process of cross-cultural adaptation, (2) to test the measurement properties of the Italian PSEQ (PSEQ-I). The cross-cultural adaptation was completed in 5 months without omitting any item of the original PSEQ. Measurement properties were tested in 165 patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) (65% women, mean age 49.9 years). Factor analysis confirmed the one-factor structure of the questionnaire. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) and test-retest reliability (ICCagreement  = 0.82) of the PSEQ-I showed good results. The smallest detectable change was equal to 15.69 scale points. The PSEQ-I displayed a high construct validity by meeting more than 75% of a priori hypotheses on correlations with measurement instruments assessing pain intensity, disability, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophizing, fear of movement, and coping strategies. Additionally, the PSEQ-I differentiated patients taking pain medication or not. The results of this study suggest that the PSEQ-I can be used as a valid and reliable tool in Italian patients with CLBP. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  4. Formation of nano iridium oxide: material properties and neural cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In-Seop; Whang, Chung-Nam; Lee, Young-Hee; Hwan Lee, Gun; Park, Bong-Joo; Park, Jong-Chul; Seo, Won-Seon; Cui Fuzhai

    2005-01-01

    Iridium film with the thickness of 30 and 60 nm were formed on both Si wafer and commercially pure (CP) Ti by electron beam evaporation. The thin iridium film showed the identical charge injection capability with the bulk Ir. However, the charge injection value of iridium film was decreased with continuous potential cycling when the deposited iridium became depleted due to the formation of oxide. The number of cycles at which the charge injection value decreased was 800 and 1600 cycles for the 30- and 60-nm-thick Ir film, respectively. FE-SEM observations on the cross section of Ir film clearly showed the thicker iridium oxide was formed with the more potential cycling. Ar ion beam etching to substrates before deposition certainly improved the adhesion strength of Ir film enough to resist to the strain induced by the larger volume occupation of iridium oxide. Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts culture on Ir and Ir oxide showed no cytotoxicity. Also, embryonic cortical neural cell culture on electrode indicated neurons adhered and survived by the formation of neurofilament

  5. N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading microbial enrichment cultures isolated from Penaeus vannamei shrimp gut and their probiotic properties in Brachionus plicatilis cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Asanka Gunasekara, R A Y S; Boon, Nico; Dierckens, Kristof; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Three bacterial enrichment cultures (ECs) were isolated from the digestive tract of Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei, by growing the shrimp microbial communities in a mixture of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules. The ECs, characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and subsequent rRNA sequencing, degraded AHL molecules in the degradation assays. Apparently, the resting cells of the ECs also degraded one of the three types of quorum-sensing signal molecules produced by Vibrio harveyi in vitro [i.e. harveyi autoinducer 1 (HAI-1)]. The most efficient AHL-degrading ECs, EC5, was tested in Brachionus experiments. EC5 degraded the V. harveyi HAI-1 autoinducer in vivo, neutralizing the negative effect of V. harveyi autoinducer 2 (AI-2) mutant, in which only the HAI-1- and CAI-1-mediated components of the quorum-sensing system are functional on the growth of Brachionus. This suggests that EC5 interferes with HAI-1-regulated metabolism in V. harveyi. These AHL-degrading ECs need to be tested in other aquatic systems for their probiotic properties, preferably in combination with specific AI-2-degrading bacteria.

  6. The use of chitosan-dextran gel shows anti-inflammatory, antibiofilm, and antiproliferative properties in fibroblast cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, Sathish; Jones, Damien; Baker, Leonie; Hanton, Lyall; Robinson, Simon; Wormald, Peter J; Tan, Lorwai

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan-dextran gel has been used as an antihemostatic agent and antiadhesive agent after endoscopic sinus surgery. Because Staphylococcus aureus biofilms have been implicated in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to further investigate the (i) anti-inflammatory, (ii) bacterial biofilm inhibition, (iii) antiproliferative effects, and (iv) wound-healing properties of chitosan and chitosan-dextran gel. Fibroblasts were isolated from human nasal tissue and were used to determine the effects of chitosan and chitosan-dextran gel on (i) cell proliferation, (ii) wound healing, (iii) inflammation in fibroblast cultures challenged with superantigens S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), and (iv) on S. aureus biofilms. Chitosan was highly effective at reducing IL-8 expression after TSST and SEB challenge. Chitosan was also effective at reducing IL-8 expression of nonchallenged fibroblasts showing its anti-inflammatory effects on fibroblasts in a diseased state. Chitosan-dextran gel showed strong antibiofilm properties at 50% (v/v) concentration in vitro. Dextran, on its own, showed antibiofilm properties at 1.25% (w/v) concentration. Chitosan, on its own, reduced proliferation of fibroblasts to 82% of control proliferation and chitosan-dextran gel reduced proliferation of the fibroblasts to 0.04% of control proliferation. Relative to the no treatment controls, chitosan-dextran gel significantly delayed the wound-healing rate over the first 48 hours of the experiment. Chitosan-dextran gel reduced fibroblast proliferation and wound-healing time, showing a possible mechanism of reducing adhesions in the postsurgical period. Chitosan reduced IL-8 levels, showing its anti-inflammatory properties. Chitosan-dextran gel and dextran treatment showed antibiofilm properties in our model.

  7. Properties of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia across Workers with Different Pain Experiences and Cultural Backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M B; Damsgård, E; Holtermann, A

    2015-01-01

    kinesiophobia by TSK (13 statement version) and number of days with pain during the past year (less than 8 days, less than 90 days and greater than 90 days). A Rasch analysis was used to evaluate the measurement properties of the TSK in the workers across pain levels, ages, genders and ethnicities. The TSK did...... not fit the Rasch model, but removing one item solved the poorness of fit. Invariance was found across the pain levels, ages and genders. Thus, with a few modifications, the TSK was shown to capture a unidimensional construct of fear of movement in workers with different pain levels, ages, and genders.......The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether the construct validity of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) is consistent with respect to its scaling properties, unidimensionality and targeting among workers with different levels of pain. The 311 participating Danish workers reported...

  8. Electrophysiological, histochemical, and hormonal adaptation of rat muscle after prolonged hindlimb suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Kyparos, Antonios; Albani, Maria; Frossinis, Athanasios; Papadelis, Christos L.; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Vivas, Ana; Guiba-Tziampiri, Olympia

    2004-05-01

    The perspective of long-duration flights for future exploration, imply more research in the field of human adaptation. Previous studies in rat muscles hindlimb suspension (HLS), indicated muscle atrophy and a change of fibre composition from slow-to-fast twitch types. However, the contractile responses to long-term unloading is still unclear. Fifteen adult Wistar rats were studied in 45 and 70 days of muscle unweighting and soleus (SOL) muscle as well as extensor digitorum longus (EDL) were prepared for electrophysiological recordings (single, twitch, tetanic contraction and fatigue) and histochemical stainings. The loss of muscle mass observed was greater in the soleus muscle. The analysis of electrophysiological properties of both EDL and SOL showed significant main effects of group, of number of unweighting days and fatigue properties. Single contraction for soleus muscle remained unchanged but there was statistically significant difference for tetanic contraction and fatigue. Fatigue index showed a decrease for the control rats, but increase for the HLS rats. According to the histochemical findings there was a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism during HLS. The data suggested that muscles atrophied, but they presented an adaptation pattern, while their endurance in fatigue was decreased.

  9. Modelling and properties of a nonlinear autonomous switching system in fed-batch culture of glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Sun, Qingying; Feng, Enmin

    2012-11-01

    A nonlinear autonomous switching system is proposed to describe the coupled fed-batch fermentation with the pH as the feedback parameter. We prove the non-Zeno behaviors of the switching system and some basic properties of its solution, including the existence, uniqueness, boundedness and regularity. Numerical simulation is also carried out, which reveals that the proposed system can describe the factual fermentation process properly.

  10. Physico-chemical properties of PDMS surfaces suitable as substrates for cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczkowska, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.raczkowska@uj.edu.pl [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland); Prauzner-Bechcicki, Szymon [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Lukes, Jaroslav; Sepitka, Josef [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH - University of Science and Technology, Reymonta 19, 30-049 Kraków (Poland); Awsiuk, Kamil [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland); Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Pabijan, Joanna; Lekka, Małgorzata [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Budkowski, Andrzej [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Series of PDMS substrates with monotonically tuned elasticity were produced. • Method to estimate PDMS stiffness based on AFM force-distance curves was shown. • No change in surface properties of PDMS other than elasticity was demonstrated. • MTT performed for cancer cells showed impact of PDMS elasticity on cells behavior. - Abstract: Elastic properties of the substrate have profound effect on adhesion and proliferation of cells. Here, we introduce a method to produce polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates with stiffness tuned monotonically from 1.67 to 0.24 MPa, by the time of UV irradiation adjusted up to 5 h. The Young’s modulus (determined by using nanoindenter) scales linearly with stiffness calculated using AFM-based force spectroscopy data. Such a relation enables the determination of the Young modulus from AFM force – distance curves also when the Herz model is not applicable. Our findings demonstrate that surface properties of PDMS substrates are not affected by the applied methodology of tuning substrate elasticity. Finally, the colorimetric proliferation assay (MTT) carried out for non-malignant (HCV29) and cancerous (T24) bladder cancer cells depicted a significant contribution of PDMS substrate elasticity to the behavior of cells. The softer PDMS substrate demonstrated excellent cytocompatibility whereas the stiff one is more cell-repellent.

  11. Health related quality of life measures in Arabic speaking populations: a systematic review on cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sayah, Fatima; Ishaque, Sana; Lau, Darren; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review was conducted to identify generic health related quality of life (HRQL) measures translated into Arabic, and evaluate their cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties. Six databases were searched, relevant journals were hand searched, and reference lists of included studies were reviewed. Previously established criteria were used to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation of the identified instruments and their measurement properties. Twenty studies that reported the Arabic translations and adaptations of HRQL measures and/or their measurement properties were included in this review. The identified instruments were SF-36, RAND-36, WHOQOL-Bref, COOP/WONCA charts, EQ-5D, and QLI. Cross-cultural adaptations of all measures were of moderate to good quality, and evaluation of measurement properties was limited due to insufficiency of evidence. Based on cross-cultural adaptation evaluation, each instrument is more applicable to the population for whom it was adapted, and to other Arabic populations of similar culture and language specific idioms. This review facilitates the selection among existing Arabic versions of generic HRQL for use in particular Arabic countries. However, each of the translated versions requires further investigation of measurement properties before more concrete recommendations could be made.

  12. Modeling and Properties of Nonlinear Stochastic Dynamical System of Continuous Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Feng, Enmin; Ye, Jianxiong; Xiu, Zhilong

    The stochastic counterpart to the deterministic description of continuous fermentation with ordinary differential equation is investigated in the process of glycerol bio-dissimilation to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. We briefly discuss the continuous fermentation process driven by three-dimensional Brownian motion and Lipschitz coefficients, which is suitable for the factual fermentation. Subsequently, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions for the stochastic system as well as the boundedness of the Two-order Moment and the Markov property of the solution. Finally stochastic simulation is carried out under the Stochastic Euler-Maruyama method.

  13. PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL SCREENING IN CHILDREN WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şedat IŞIKAY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The involvement of the peripheral nervous system in children with celiac disease is particularly rare. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the need for neurophysiological testing in celiac disease patients without neurological symptoms in order to detect early subclinical neuropathy and its possible correlations with clinical and demographic characteristics. Methods Two hundred and twenty consecutive children with celiac disease were screened for neurological symptoms and signs, and those without symptoms or signs were included. Also, patients with comorbidities associated with peripheral neuropathy or a history of neurological disease were excluded. The remaining 167 asymptomatic patients as well as 100 control cases were tested electro-physiologically for peripheral nervous system diseases. Motor nerve conduction studies, including F-waves, were performed for the median, ulnar, peroneal, and tibial nerves, and sensory nerve conduction studies were performed for the median, ulnar, and sural nerves with H reflex of the soleus muscle unilaterally. All studies were carried out using surface recording electrodes. Normative values established in our laboratory were used. Results Evidence for subclinical neuropathy was not determined with electrophysiological studies in any of the participants. Conclusion In this highly selective celiac disease group without any signs, symptoms as well as the predisposing factors for polyneuropathy, we did not determine any cases with neuropathy. With these results we can conclude that in asymptomatic cases with celiac disease electrophysiological studies are not necessary. However, larger studies with the electrophysiological studies performed at different stages of disease at follow-ups are warranted.

  14. Early electrophysiological findings in Fisher-Bickerstaff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, M A; Povedano, M; Montero, J; Casasnovas, C

    2017-09-06

    The term Fisher-Bickerstaff syndrome (FBS) has been proposed to describe the clinical spectrum encompassing Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis. The pathophysiology of FBS and the nature of the underlying neuropathy (demyelinating or axonal) are still subject to debate. This study describes the main findings of an early neurophysiological study on 12 patients diagnosed with FBS. Retrospective evaluation of clinical characteristics and electrophysiological findings of 12 patients with FBS seen in our neurology department within 10 days of disease onset. Follow-up electrophysiological studies were also evaluated, where available. The most frequent electrophysiological finding, present in 5 (42%) patients, was reduced sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude in one or more nerves. Abnormalities were rarely found in motor neurography, with no signs of demyelination. The cranial nerve exam revealed abnormalities in 3 patients (facial neurography and/or blink reflex test). Three patients showed resolution of SNAP amplitude reduction in serial neurophysiological studies, suggesting the presence of reversible sensory nerve conduction block. Results from cranial MRI scans were normal in all patients. An electrophysiological pattern of sensory axonal neuropathy, with no associated signs of demyelination, is an early finding of FBS. Early neurophysiological evaluation and follow-up are essential for diagnosing patients with FBS. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Reversible electrophysiological abnormalities in acute secondary hyperkalemic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karkal R Naik; Aralikatte O Saroja; Mallikarjun S Khanpet

    2012-01-01

    Hyperkalemia manifests clinically with acute neuromuscular paralysis, which can simulate Guillain Barr? syndrome (GBS) and other causes of acute flaccid paralysis. Primary hyperkalemic paralysis occurs from genetic defects in the sodium channel, and secondary hyperkalemic paralysis (SHP) from diverse causes including renal dysfunction, potassium retaining drugs, Addison's disease, etc. Clinical characteristics of SHP have been addressed in a number of publications. However, electrophysiologic...

  16. Retinal dysfunction and refractive errors: an electrophysiological study of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, D I; Adams, G G W; Robson, A G; Holder, G E

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the relation between refractive error and electrophysiological retinal abnormalities in children referred for investigation of reduced vision. Methods: The study group comprised 123 consecutive patients referred over a 14 month period from the paediatric service of Moorfields Eye Hospital for electrophysiological investigation of reduced vision. Subjects were divided into five refractive categories according to their spectacle correction: high myopia (⩽−6D), low myopia (>−6D and ⩽−0.75D), emmetropia (>−0.75 and 1.5D) and ERG abnormalities (18/35 with high astigmatism v 20/88 without, χ2 test, p = 0.002). There was no significant variation in frequency of abnormalities between low myopes, emmetropes, and low hyperopes. The rate of abnormalities was very similar in both high myopes (8/15) and high hyperopes (5/10). Conclusions: High ametropia and astigmatism in children being investigated for poor vision are associated with a higher rate of retinal electrophysiological abnormalities. An increased rate of refractive errors in the presence of retinal pathology is consistent with the hypothesis that the retina is involved in the process of emmetropisation. Electrophysiological testing should be considered in cases of high ametropia in childhood to rule out associated retinal pathology. PMID:15774929

  17. Electrophysiological Monitoring of Brain Injury and Recovery after Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxian Deng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable prognostic methods for cerebral functional outcome of post cardiac-arrest (CA patients are necessary, especially since therapeutic hypothermia (TH as a standard treatment. Traditional neurophysiological prognostic indicators, such as clinical examination and chemical biomarkers, may result in indecisive outcome predictions and do not directly reflect neuronal activity, though they have remained the mainstay of clinical prognosis. The most recent advances in electrophysiological methods—electroencephalography (EEG pattern, evoked potential (EP and cellular electrophysiological measurement—were developed to complement these deficiencies, and will be examined in this review article. EEG pattern (reactivity and continuity provides real-time and accurate information for early-stage (particularly in the first 24 h hypoxic-ischemic (HI brain injury patients with high sensitivity. However, the signal is easily affected by external stimuli, thus the measurements of EP should be combined with EEG background to validate the predicted neurologic functional result. Cellular electrophysiology, such as multi-unit activity (MUA and local field potentials (LFP, has strong potential for improving prognostication and therapy by offering additional neurophysiologic information to understand the underlying mechanisms of therapeutic methods. Electrophysiology provides reliable and precise prognostication on both global and cellular levels secondary to cerebral injury in cardiac arrest patients treated with TH.

  18. Electrophysiological assessment in patients with Mobius syndrome and clumsiness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, H.T.F.M.; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors studied the nature of clumsiness in Mobius syndrome in terms of motor or sensory deficits, and sought to clarify the pathophysiological mechanism of the syndrome. Standardized electrophysiologic studies were conducted, with special emphasis on the long motor and sensory tracts and

  19. A highly versatile and easily configurable system for plant electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsé, Benet; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rankl, Simone; Schröeder, Peter; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Barceló, Juan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a highly versatile and easily configurable system for measuring plant electrophysiological parameters and ionic flow rates, connected to a computer-controlled highly accurate positioning device. The modular software used allows easy customizable configurations for the measurement of electrophysiological parameters. Both the operational tests and the experiments already performed have been fully successful and rendered a low noise and highly stable signal. Assembly, programming and configuration examples are discussed. The system is a powerful technique that not only gives precise measuring of plant electrophysiological status, but also allows easy development of ad hoc configurations that are not constrained to plant studies. •We developed a highly modular system for electrophysiology measurements that can be used either in organs or cells and performs either steady or dynamic intra- and extracellular measurements that takes advantage of the easiness of visual object-oriented programming.•High precision accuracy in data acquisition under electrical noisy environments that allows it to run even in a laboratory close to electrical equipment that produce electrical noise.•The system makes an improvement of the currently used systems for monitoring and controlling high precision measurements and micromanipulation systems providing an open and customizable environment for multiple experimental needs.

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of the Brazilian Version of the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Cristina D; Oliveira, Mariana D; Campos, Victoria; Ferreira, Jane S S P; Sacco, Isabel C N

    The Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument is an easy-to-use questionnaire aimed at screening and detecting diabetic polyneuropathy. To translate and cross-culturally adapt the MNSI to Brazilian Portuguese and evaluate its measurement properties. Two bilingual translators translated from English into Brazilian Portuguese and made a synthetic version. The synthetic version was back translated into English. A committee of specialists and the translator checked the cultural adaptations and developed a pre-final questionnaire in Brazilian Portuguese (prefinal version). In pretesting, the prefinal version was applied to a sample of 34 subjects in which each subject was interviewed to determine whether they understood each item. For the later assessment of measurement properties, 84 subjects were assessed. A final Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument was produced after obtaining 80% agreement (SEM0.92), reasonable construct validity for the association between the MNSI and Neuropathy Symptom Score (r=0.46, p<0.05) and excellent association between the MNSI and Neuropathy Disability Score (r=0.79, p<0.05). We did not detect floor and ceiling effects (<9.5% of patients with maximum scores). The Brazilian Portuguese version of the MNSI is suitable for application in the Brazilian diabetic population and is a reliable tool for the screening and detection of DPN. The MNSI can be used both in clinical practice and also for research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the family questionnaire in a Brazilian sample of relatives of schizophrenia outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Ana C G; Wiedemann, Georg; Dantas, Rosana A S; Hayashida, Miyeko; de Azevedo-Marques, João M; Galera, Sueli A F

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the internal reliability and validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Family Questionnaire among families of schizophrenia outpatients. The main studies about the family environment of schizophrenia patients are related to the concept of Expressed Emotion. There is currently no instrument to evaluate this concept in Brazil that is easily applicable and comparable with studies from other countries. Methodological and cross-sectional research design. A convenience sample of 130 relatives of schizophrenia outpatients was selected. The translation and cultural adaptation of the instrument involved experts in mental health and experts in the German language and included back translation, semantic evaluation of items and pretesting of the instrument with 30 relatives of schizophrenia outpatients. The psychometric properties of the instrument were studied with another 100 relatives, which fulfilled the requirements for the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed by construct validity (using an analysis of its key components, comparisons between distinct groups-convergent validity with the Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale) and reliability (checking the internal consistency of its items and its test-retest reproducibility). The analysis of main components confirmed dimensionality patterns that were comparable between the original and adapted versions. In two domains of the instrument, critical comments and emotional over-involvement had moderate and significant correlations, respectively, with Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale, appropriate values of Cronbach's alpha and strong and significant correlations, respectively, in test-retest reproducibility. We observed significant differences between distinct groups of parents in the category of emotional over-involvement. We conclude that the Portuguese-adapted version of the Family Questionnaire is valid and reliable for the

  2. The Osteogenic Properties of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Cultures on TiO2 Sol-Gel-Derived Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibility of the bone implants is a crucial factor determining the successful tissue regeneration. The aim of this work was to compare cellular behavior and osteogenic properties of rat adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs and bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (BMSCs cultured on metallic substrate covered with TiO2 sol-gel-derived nanolayer. The morphology, proliferation rate, and osteogenic differentiation potential of both ASCs and BMSCs propagated on the biomaterials were examined. The potential for osteogenic differentiation of ASCs and BMSCs was determined based on the presence of specific markers of osteogenesis, that is, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, osteopontin (OPN, and osteocalcin (OCL. Additionally, the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in extracellular matrix was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. Obtained results showed that TiO2 layer influenced proliferation activity of ASCs, which manifested by shortening of population doubling time and increase of OPN secretion. However, characteristic features of cells morphology and growth pattern of cultures prompted us to conclude that ultrathin TiO2 layer might also enhance osteodifferentiation of BMSCs. Therefore in our opinion, both populations of MSCs should be used for biological evaluation of biomaterials compatibility, such results may enhance the area of investigations related to regenerative medicine.

  3. Influence of culture media on the physical and chemical properties of Ag-TiCN coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, I.; Escobar Galindo, R.; Henriques, M.; Palacio, C.; Carvalho, S.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible physical and chemical changes that may occur on the surface of Ag-TiCN coatings after exposure to the culture media used in microbiological and cytotoxic assays, respectively tryptic soy broth (TSB) and Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium (DMEM). After sample immersion for 24 h in the media, analyses were performed by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy discharge radiation (GDOES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of GDOES profile, RBS and XPS spectra, of samples immersed in TSB, demonstrated the formation of a thin layer of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen that could be due to the presence of proteins in TSB. After 24 h of immersion in DMEM, the results showed the formation of a thin layer of calcium phosphates on the surface, since the coatings displayed a highly oxidized surface in which calcium and phosphorus were detected. All these results suggested that the formation of a layer on the coating surface prevented the release of silver ions in concentrations that allow antibacterial activity.

  4. Improved Production and Antitumor Properties of Triterpene Acids from Submerged Culture of Ganoderma lingzhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ling; Ding, Zhong-Yang; Liu, Gao-Qiang; Yang, Hailong; Zhou, Guo-Ying

    2016-10-20

    Triterpene acids (TAs) are the major bioactive constituents in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lingzhi . However, fermentative production of TAs has not been optimized for commercial use, and whether the TAs isolated from G. lingzhi submerged culture mycelia possess antitumor activity needs to be further proven. In this study, enhanced TA yield and productivity were attained with G. lingzhi using response surface methodology. The interactions of three variables were studied using a Box-Benhnken design, namely initial pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and fermentation temperature. The optimum conditions were an initial pH of 5.9, 20.0% DO and 28.6 °C. These conditions resulted in a TA yield of 308.1 mg/L in a 5-L stirred bioreactor. Furthermore, the optimized conditions were then successfully scaled up to a production scale of 200 L, and maximum TA production and productivity of 295.3 mg/L and 49.2 mg/L/day were achieved, which represented 80.9% and 111.5% increases, respectively, compared with the non-optimized conditions. Additionally, the triterpene acid extract (TAE) from G. lingzhi mycelia was found to be cytotoxic to the SMMC-7721 and SW620 cell lines in vitro, and the TAE exhibited dose-dependent antitumor activity against the solid tumor sarcoma 180 in vivo. Chemical analysis revealed that the key active triterpene compounds, ganoderic acid T and ganoderic acid Me, predominated in the extract.

  5. Software and Hardware Infrastructure for Research in Electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman eMouček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other areas of experimental science, operation of electrophysiological laboratory, design and performance of electrophysiological experiments, collection, storage and sharing of experimental data and metadata, analysis and interpretation of these data, and publication of results are time consuming activities. If these activities are well organized and supported by a suitable infrastructure, work efficiency of researchers increases significantly.This article deals with the main concepts, design, and development of software and hardware infrastructure for research in electrophysiology. The described infrastructure has been primarily developed for the needs of neuroinformatics laboratory at the University of West Bohemia, the Czech Republic. However, from the beginning it has been also designed and developed to be open and applicable in laboratories that do similar research.After introducing the laboratory and the whole architectural concept the individual parts of the infrastructure are described. The central element of the software infrastructure is a web-based portal that enables community researchers to store, share, download and search data and metadata from electrophysiological experiments. The data model, domain ontology and usage of semantic web languages and technologies are described. Current data publication policy used in the portal is briefly introduced. The registration of the portal within Neuroscience Information Framework is described. Then the methods used for processing of electrophysiological signals are presented. The specific modifications of these methods introduced by laboratory researches are summarized; the methods are organized into a laboratory workflow. Other parts of the software infrastructure include mobile and offline solutions for data/metadata storing and a hardware stimulator communicating with an EEG amplifier and recording software.

  6. Software and hardware infrastructure for research in electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouček, Roman; Ježek, Petr; Vařeka, Lukáš; Rondík, Tomáš; Brůha, Petr; Papež, Václav; Mautner, Pavel; Novotný, Jiří; Prokop, Tomáš; Stěbeták, Jan

    2014-01-01

    As in other areas of experimental science, operation of electrophysiological laboratory, design and performance of electrophysiological experiments, collection, storage and sharing of experimental data and metadata, analysis and interpretation of these data, and publication of results are time consuming activities. If these activities are well organized and supported by a suitable infrastructure, work efficiency of researchers increases significantly. This article deals with the main concepts, design, and development of software and hardware infrastructure for research in electrophysiology. The described infrastructure has been primarily developed for the needs of neuroinformatics laboratory at the University of West Bohemia, the Czech Republic. However, from the beginning it has been also designed and developed to be open and applicable in laboratories that do similar research. After introducing the laboratory and the whole architectural concept the individual parts of the infrastructure are described. The central element of the software infrastructure is a web-based portal that enables community researchers to store, share, download and search data and metadata from electrophysiological experiments. The data model, domain ontology and usage of semantic web languages and technologies are described. Current data publication policy used in the portal is briefly introduced. The registration of the portal within Neuroscience Information Framework is described. Then the methods used for processing of electrophysiological signals are presented. The specific modifications of these methods introduced by laboratory researches are summarized; the methods are organized into a laboratory workflow. Other parts of the software infrastructure include mobile and offline solutions for data/metadata storing and a hardware stimulator communicating with an EEG amplifier and recording software.

  7. Electrophysiological measurements of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabeeb, Dheyauldeen; Najafi, Masoud; Hasanzadeh, Gholamreza; Hadian, Mohammed Reza; Musa, Ahmed Eleojio; Shirazi, Alireza

    2018-03-28

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the main complications of diabetes mellitus. One of the features of diabetic nerve damage is abnormality of sensory and motor nerve conduction study. An electrophysiological examination can be reproduced and is also a non-invasive approach in the assessment of peripheral nerve function. Population-based and clinical studies have been conducted to validate the sensitivity of these methods. When the diagnosis was based on clinical electrophysiological examination, abnormalities were observed in all patients. In this research, using a review design, we reviewed the issue of clinical electrophysiological examination of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in articles from 2008 to 2017. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus and Embase databases of journals were used for searching articles. The researchers indicated that diabetes (both types) is a very disturbing health issue in the modern world and should be given serious attention. Based on conducted studies, it was demonstrated that there are different procedures for prevention and treatment of diabetes-related health problems such as diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). The first objective quantitative indication of the peripheral neuropathy is abnormality of sensory and motor nerve conduction tests. Electrophysiology is accurate, reliable and sensitive. It can be reproduced and also is a noninvasive approach in the assessment of peripheral nerve function. The methodological review has found that the best method for quantitative indication of the peripheral neuropathy compared with all other methods is clinical electrophysiological examination. For best results, standard protocols such as temperature control and equipment calibration are recommended. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Properties of Two Novel Esterases Identified from Culture Supernatant of Penicillium purpurogenum Grown on Sugar Beet Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleas, Gabriela; Callegari, Eduardo; Sepulveda, Romina; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium purpurogenum grows on a variety of natural carbon sources, such as sugar beet pulp, and secretes to the medium a large number of enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate components of lignocellulose. Sugar beet pulp is rich in pectin, and the purpose of this work is to identify novel esterases produced by the fungus, which may participate in pectin degradation. Partially purified culture supernatants of the fungus grown on sugar beet pulp were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Peptides thus identified, which may be part of potential esterases were probed against the proteins deduced from the fungal genome sequence. The cDNAs of two putative esterases identified were expressed in Pichia pastoris and their properties studied. One of these enzymes, named FAET, is a feruloyl esterase, while the other, PE, is classified as a pectin methyl esterase. These findings add to our knowledge of the enzymology of pectin degradation by Penicillium purpurogenum, and define properties of two novel esterases acting on de-esterification of pectin. Their availability may be useful as tools for the study of pectin structure and degradation.

  9. Psychometric properties of a culture-adapted Spanish version of AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Moises; De Castro, Filipa; Arango, Ivan; Goth, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    The construct "identity" was discussed to be integrated as an important criterion for diagnosing personality disorders in DSM-5. According to Kernberg, identity diffusion is one of the relevant underlying structures in terms of personality organization for developing psychopathology, especially borderline personality disorder. Therefore, it would be important to differentiate healthy from pathological development already in adolescence. With the questionnaire termed AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence), a reliable and valid self-rating inventory was introduced by Goth, Foelsch, Schlueter-Mueller, & Schmeck (2012) to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents. To test the usefulness of the questionnaire in Mexico, we contributed to the development of a culture-specific Spanish translation of AIDA and tested the reliability and aspects of validity of the questionnaire in a juvenile Mexican sample. An adapted Spanish translation of AIDA was developed by an expert panel from Chile, Mexico, and Spain in cooperation with the original authors, focusing on content equivalence and comprehensibility by considering specific idioms, life circumstances, and culture-specific aspects. The psychometric properties of the Spanish version were first tested in Mexico. Participants were 265 students from a state school (N = 110) and private school (N = 155), aged between 12 and 19 years (mean 14.15 years). Of these, 44.9% were boys and 55.1% were girls. Item characteristics were analyzed by several parameters, scale reliability by Cronbach's Alpha, and systematic effects of gender, age, and socioeconomics by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). We evaluated aspects of criterion validity in a juvenile justice system sample (N = 41) of adolescent boys in conflict with the law who displayed various types of behavioral problems by comparing the AIDA scores of a subgroup with signs for borderline pathology (N = 14

  10. Impact of Organic and Conventional Systems of Coffee Farming on Soil Properties and Culturable Microbial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken with an objective of evaluating the long-term impacts of organic (ORG) and conventional (CON) methods of coffee farming on soil physical, chemical, biological, and microbial diversity. Electrical conductivity and bulk density were found to increase by 34% and 21%, respectively, in CON compared to ORG system, while water holding capacity was found decreased in both the systems. Significant increase in organic carbon was observed in ORG system. Major nutrients, nitrogen and potassium, levels showed inclination in both ORG and CON system, but the trend was much more pronounced in CON system. Phosphorus was found to increase in both ORG and CON system, but its availability was found to be more with CON system. In biological attributes, higher soil respiration and fluorescein diacetate activity were recorded in ORG system compared to CON system. Higher soil urease activity was observed in CON system, while dehydrogenase activity does not show significant differences between ORG and CON systems. ORG system was found to have higher macrofauna (31.4%), microbial population (34%), and microbial diversity indices compared to CON system. From the present study, it is accomplished that coffee soil under long-term ORG system has better soil properties compared to CON system.

  11. Protection zones as a factor of the sustainability of immobile cultural properties in Kosovo and Metohija on the example of monasteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The protections zones around immobile cultural properties in Serbia have been determined in compliance with the Law on Cultural Properties and for the purpose of establishing a status of a cultural monument. When reviewing the established status, the coverage of a protection zone was frequently corrected, which confirms that the areas of protected natural and cultural heritage are living organisms that need a change of borders in light of a contemporary urban and regional development. The protection zones around cultural monuments have a particular significance in the context of specific conditions for the survival of the Serbian cultural and spiritual heritage in Kosovo and Metohija. A cultural property is inseparable from the space in which it is located and its full life depends on the fullness of its function, which is also an imperative of a sustainable development. At the same time, integrative protection entails a thorough and multi-disciplinary approach in the process of studying and decision-making. The establishment of protection zones is also conditioned by the inviolable attitude of the owner and user - in this case the Serbian Orthodox Church, but also by the already established status of a cultural property by the Serbian Protection Service. It is also necessary to achieve the basic security conditions in the region with a high conflict risk. In addition, there is a significant expert participation of international institutions with regards to the defining of the criteria for the establishment of the zones, and there are also tendencies of the local community in Kosovo and Metohija. The practice has confirmed difficulties in harmonizing all positions related to the establishment of zones and particularly in defining the mechanisms for the management of the zones. In those terms, it is necessary to have an integration of legal regulations and cultural policy, establishment of the widest possible cooperation at all levels and the

  12. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric properties of the German version of the hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasimann, Angela; Dauphinee, Sharon Wood; Staal, J Bart

    2014-12-01

    Clinical measurement. To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) from English into German, and to study its psychometric properties in patients after hip surgery. There is no specific hip questionnaire in German that not only measures symptoms and function but also contains items about hip-related quality of life. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation involved forward translation, harmonization, cognitive debriefing, back translation, and comparison to the original HOOS following international guidelines. The German version was tested in 51 Swiss inpatients 8 weeks after different types of hip surgery, mainly total hip replacement. The mean age of the participants was 62.5 years, and the age range was from 27 to 87 years. Thirty (58.8%) of the participants were women. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated using Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients for agreement. For construct validity, total scores of the German HOOS were correlated with those of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. The HOOS was also compared to the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Cronbach alpha values for all German HOOS subscales were between .87 and .93. For test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient for agreement was 0.85 for the total scores of the German HOOS. The Spearman rho for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical functioning subscale compared to the sum of all HOOS subscales was 0.71, and that for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical component summary was 0.97. The German HOOS has demonstrated adequate reliability and validity. Use of the German HOOS is recommended for assessment of patients after hip surgery, with the proviso that additional psychometric testing should be done in future research.

  13. Validation of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2: psychometric properties and cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Mi-Yeon; Jo, Hye-Hyeon; Jung, Young-Chul; Kim, Joon-Ki; Kim, Kyung Ran

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in Korean patients with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to investigate cultural differences of EDI-2 between a Korean group and a North American standardization sample. The Korean version of the EDI-2 was prepared after comprehensive clinical assessment of Korean patients with eating disorders (n=327) as well as female undergraduates (n=176). Results were compared between eating disorder subgroups (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified) and those of a North American standardization sample and healthy controls. The results showed that the Korean EDI-2 had adequate internal consistency (0.77-0.93) and discriminated well between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls on all subscales. Significant differences in EDI-2 subscale scores between the eating disorder groups and the healthy control group were observed; however, there was no discernible difference among the eating disorder subgroups. When compared with a North American standardization sample, the Korean control group showed significantly higher scores for drive for thinness and asceticism. When patient groups were compared, the Korean group showed significantly lower scores for perfectionism. As expected, the results accurately reflected psychometric properties of the Korean version of EDI-2 for eating disorder patients in Korea. These findings also suggest that common characteristics for the eating disorder exist as a whole rather than with significant difference between each subgroup. In addition, significant differences between the Korean and the North American groups for both patients and controls also demonstrated specific cultural differences.

  14. Validation of the Korean Version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2: Psychometric Properties and Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Mi-Yeon; Jo, Hye-Hyeon; Jung, Young-Chul; Kim, Joon-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in Korean patients with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to investigate cultural differences of EDI-2 between a Korean group and a North American standardization sample. Materials and Methods The Korean version of the EDI-2 was prepared after comprehensive clinical assessment of Korean patients with eating disorders (n=327) as well as female undergraduates (n=176). Results were compared between eating disorder subgroups (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified) and those of a North American standardization sample and healthy controls. Results The results showed that the Korean EDI-2 had adequate internal consistency (0.77-0.93) and discriminated well between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls on all subscales. Significant differences in EDI-2 subscale scores between the eating disorder groups and the healthy control group were observed; however, there was no discernible difference among the eating disorder subgroups. When compared with a North American standardization sample, the Korean control group showed significantly higher scores for drive for thinness and asceticism. When patient groups were compared, the Korean group showed significantly lower scores for perfectionism. Conclusion As expected, the results accurately reflected psychometric properties of the Korean version of EDI-2 for eating disorder patients in Korea. These findings also suggest that common characteristics for the eating disorder exist as a whole rather than with significant difference between each subgroup. In addition, significant differences between the Korean and the North American groups for both patients and controls also demonstrated specific cultural differences. PMID:23074108

  15. Is looting-to-order “just a myth”? Open-source analysis of theft-to-order of cultural property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Andrew Hardy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Looting-to-order or theft-to-order of cultural assets has been widely dismissed as a myth. To test that, an open-source analysis of cases and testimony from law enforcement agents, perpetrators of cultural property crime and cultural heritage professionals was conducted. Web searches were conducted for reports that addressed looting, stealing or theft of cultural property on commission or to order; for material that discussed looters, robbers or thieves who had been contracted, employed, hired or paid to extract antiquities; and for academic publications that discussed “looting to order”, “theft to order” or any commodity “stolen to order”. Source-end employment/contracting that did not demonstrate a direct connection to market-end purchase and other cases that might have constituted “stealing to offer” were excluded, as were implicit and complicit orders that did not establish a contractual relationship. The analysis found historic and global evidence of commissioned theft of cultural property. It also found evidence that theft-to-order was a significant problem in some places and had served as a structure for conflict antiquities trading in Argentina, Cambodia and Syria. Since it is an exceptionally challenging form of an already difficult-to-police crime, the evidence of theft-to-order reinforces demands for increased market regulation through export and import licensing.

  16. Collective Intellectual Property in Michoacán: Negotiating Economic and Cultural Agendas in the Artisanal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero Ibarra Rojas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of Michoacán, México, has almost 50 collective trademarks registered for artisanal products, which were created by initiative of different state institutions. This article aims to understand the different influences that are mediated by law when collective forms of intellectual property are incorporated and negotiated by different institutions with different aims within the realm of the state. By looking closely at the experience in Michoacán, I argue that two economic/cultural agendas can be identified. On the one hand, there is the federal agenda that aims for a national and international projection of a Mexican product, focused on the successfully industrialized national products closely linked with México's imagery for a foreign audience. On the other hand, there are the expectations of Michoacán's local government, which are strongly related with a pluralist discourse and with the different policy approaches it inspires. Between the two, the country’s cultural agenda becomes shaped by economic concerns that are, in turn, defined by the worldviews of state institution's agents. El estado de Michoacán, México, tiene casi 50 marcas colectivas de productos artesanales, que fueron registradas por iniciativa de diferentes instituciones estatales. Este artículo busca comprender las variadas influencias que son mediadas por el derecho cuando se incorporan formas colectivas de propiedad intelectual, mediante la negociación de diferentes instituciones con diferentes objetivos dentro del ámbito estatal. A través de la experiencia de Michoacán, sostengo que se pueden identificar dos agendas económicas/culturales. Por un lado, se encuentra la agenda federal que busca una proyección nacional e internacional de un producto identificable como mexicano, enfocándose en los productos nacionales que han tenido una industrialización exitosa. Por otro lado, se encuentran las expectativas del gobierno local de Michoacán, que se

  17. Electrophysiological Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Cumhur

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, neurodegenerative movement disorder that typically affects elderly patients. Swallowing disorders are highly prevalent in PD and can have grave consequences, including pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration and mortality. Neurogenic dysphagia in PD can manifest with both overt clinical symptoms or silent dysphagia. Regardless, early diagnosis and objective follow-up of dysphagia in PD is crucial for timely and appropriate care for these patients. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the electrophysiological methods that can be used to objectively evaluate dysphagia in PD. We discuss the electrophysiological abnormalities that can be observed in PD, their clinical correlates and the pathophysiology underlying these findings. PMID:25360228

  18. Subthalamic stimulation: toward a simplification of the electrophysiological procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, Damien; Derrey, Stephane; Lefaucheur, Romain; Borden, Alaina; Wallon, David; Chastan, Nathalie; Maltete, David

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the consequences of a simplification of the electrophysiological procedure on the post-operative clinical outcome after subthalamic nucleus implantation in Parkinson disease. Microelectrode recordings were performed on 5 parallel trajectories in group 1 and less than 5 trajectories in group 2. Clinical evaluations were performed 1 month before and 6 months after surgery. After surgery, the UPDRS III score in the off-drug/on-stimulation and on-drug/on-stimulation conditions significantly improved by 66,9% and 82%, respectively in group 1, and by 65.8% and 82.3% in group 2 (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the total number of words (P<0.05) significantly decreased for fluency tasks in both groups. Motor disability improvement and medication reduction were similar in both groups. Our results suggest that the electrophysiological procedure should be simplified as the team's experience increases.

  19. Resuscitation great. Luigi Galvani and the foundations of electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajavilca, Christian; Varon, Joseph; Sternbach, George L

    2009-02-01

    Luigi Galvani became one of the greatest scientists of the 18th century with his research and the development of his theory on animal electricity. His work was appreciated by many scientists. Nevertheless, it gave rise to one of the most passionate scientific debates in history when Alessandro Volta postulated that Galvani had confused intrinsic animal electricity with small currents produced by metals. This debate would result in the creation of electrophysiology, electromagnetism, electrochemistry and the electrical battery. Galvani responded to each of the postulated theories of Volta giving irrefutable proof of the involvement of electricity in the contraction of muscles. However, his work was subsequently abandoned and silenced for many years but his ideas and theories were finally confirmed by the creation of new instruments and the interest of new scientists who helped position Galvani as the father of electrophysiology.

  20. Breadboard Amplifier: Building and Using Simple Electrophysiology Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Kevin M; Lin, Hunter; Prosper, Issa

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiology is a valuable skill for the neuroscientist, but the learning curve for students can be steep. Here we describe a very simple electromyography (EMG) amplifier that can be built from scratch by students with no electronics experience in about 30 minutes, making it ideal for incorporating into a laboratory activity. With few parts and no adjustments except the gain, students can begin physiology experiments quickly while having the satisfaction of having built the equipment themselves. Because the output of the circuit goes to a computer sound card, students can listen to electrophysiological activity as they see it on the computer screen, a feature many of our students greatly appreciated. Various applications are discussed, including dual channel recording, using streaming media platforms with remote lab partners and acquiring data in the field on a smart phone. Our students reported that they enjoyed being able to build a working device and using it to record from their own muscles.

  1. Computational Intelligence Techniques for Electro-Physiological Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Riera Sardà, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This work contains the efforts I have made in the last years in the field of Electrophysiological data analysis. Most of the work has been done at Starlab Barcelona S.L. and part of it at the Neurodynamics Laboratory of the Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology of the University of Barcelona. The main work deals with the analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) signals, although other signals, such as electrocardiography (ECG), electroculography (EOG) and electromiography (EMG) ...

  2. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2003-01-01

    . A cornerstone in current drug discovery is high throughput screening assays which allow examination of the activity of specific ion channels though only to a limited extent. Conventional patch clamp remains the sole technique with sufficiently high time resolution and sensitivity required for precise and direct....... The introduction of new powerful HTS electrophysiological techniques is predicted to cause a revolution in ion channel drug discovery....

  3. Characterisation and biochemical properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermenting cassava for selection as starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinek, M; Specht, I; Edward, V A; Pinto, C; Egounlety, M; Sossa, C; Mbugua, S; Dortu, C; Thonart, P; Taljaard, L; Mengu, M; Franz, C M A P; Holzapfel, W H

    2007-03-20

    A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into five main groups comprising strains of facultatively heterofermentative rods, obligately heterofermentative rods, heterofermentative cocci, homofermentative cocci and obligately homofermentative rods, in decreasing order of predominance. Most of the facultatively heterofermentative rods were identified by phenotypic tests as presumptive Lactobacillus plantarum-group strains, which also comprised the most predominant bacteria (54.4% of strains) isolated in the study. The next predominant group of lactic acid bacteria (14.1% of total isolates) consisted of obligately heterofermentative rods belonging either to the genus Lactobacillus or Weissella, followed by the heterofermentative cocci (13.9% of isolates) belonging to the genera Weissella or Leuconostoc. Homofermentative cocci were also isolated (13.3% of isolates). Biochemical properties such as production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, tannase, antimicrobials (presumptive bacteriocin and H(2)O(2)-production), acidification and fermentation of the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose, were evaluated in vitro for selection of potential starter strains. A total of 32 strains with one or more desirable biochemical properties were pre-selected and identified using rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 16S rRNA sequencing of representative rep-PCR cluster isolates. Of these strains, 18 were identified as L. plantarum, four as Lactobacillus pentosus, two each as Leuconostoc fallax, Weissella paramesenteroides and Lactobacillus fermentum, one each as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Weissella cibaria, while two remained unidentified but could be assigned to the L. plantarum-group. These strains were further investigated for clonal relationships, using RAPD-PCR with three primers, and of

  4. Wearable carbon nanotube based dry-electrodes for electrophysiological sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Ha, Tae-Jun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate all-solution-processed carbon nanotube (CNT) dry-electrodes for the detection of electrophysiological signals such as electrocardiograms (ECG) and electromyograms (EMG). The key parameters of P, Q, R, S, and T peaks are successfully extracted by such CNT based dry-electrodes, which is comparable with conventional silver/chloride (Ag/AgCl) wet-electrodes with a conducting gel film for the ECG recording. Furthermore, the sensing performance of CNT based dry-electrodes is secured during the bending test of 200 cycles, which is essential for wearable electrophysiological sensors in a non-invasive method on human skin. We also investigate the application of wearable CNT based dry-electrodes directly attached to the human skins such as forearm for sensing the electrophysiological signals. The accurate and rapid sensing response can be achieved by CNT based dry-electrodes to supervise the health condition affected by excessive physical movements during the real-time measurements.

  5. Primary Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cell Culture Quality Control: Some Properties of Myometrial Cells Cultured under Serum Deprivation Conditions in the Presence of Ovarian Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Camila; Andrade, Sheila Siqueira; Sumikawa, Joana Tomomi; Batista, Fabrício Pereira; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Girão, Manoel J B C; Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Castro, Rodrigo Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture is considered the standard media used in research to emulate the in vivo cell environment. Crucial in vivo experiments cannot be conducted in humans and depend on in vitro methodologies such as cell culture systems. However, some procedures involving the quality control of cells in culture have been gradually neglected by failing to acknowledge that primary cells and cell lines change over time in culture. Thus, we report methods based on our experience for monitoring primary cell culture of human myometrial cells derived from uterine leiomyoma. We standardized the best procedure of tissue dissociation required for the study of multiple genetic marker systems that include species-specific antigens, expression of myofibroblast or myoblast markers, growth curve, serum deprivation, starvation by cell cycle synchronization, culture on collagen coated plates, and 17 β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) effects. The results showed that primary myometrial cells from patients with uterine leiomyoma displayed myoblast phenotypes before and after in vitro cultivation, and leiomyoma cells differentiated into mature myocyte cells under the appropriate differentiation-inducing conditions (serum deprivation). These cells grew well on collagen coated plates and responded to E2 and P4, which may drive myometrial and leiomyoma cells to proliferate and adhere into a focal adhesion complex involvement in a paracrine manner. The establishment of these techniques as routine procedures will improve the understanding of the myometrial physiology and pathogenesis of myometrium-derived diseases such as leiomyoma. Mimicking the in vivo environment of fibrotic conditions can prevent false results and enhance results that are based on cell culture integrity.

  6. Primary Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cell Culture Quality Control: Some Properties of Myometrial Cells Cultured under Serum Deprivation Conditions in the Presence of Ovarian Steroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bonazza

    Full Text Available Cell culture is considered the standard media used in research to emulate the in vivo cell environment. Crucial in vivo experiments cannot be conducted in humans and depend on in vitro methodologies such as cell culture systems. However, some procedures involving the quality control of cells in culture have been gradually neglected by failing to acknowledge that primary cells and cell lines change over time in culture. Thus, we report methods based on our experience for monitoring primary cell culture of human myometrial cells derived from uterine leiomyoma. We standardized the best procedure of tissue dissociation required for the study of multiple genetic marker systems that include species-specific antigens, expression of myofibroblast or myoblast markers, growth curve, serum deprivation, starvation by cell cycle synchronization, culture on collagen coated plates, and 17 β-estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 effects. The results showed that primary myometrial cells from patients with uterine leiomyoma displayed myoblast phenotypes before and after in vitro cultivation, and leiomyoma cells differentiated into mature myocyte cells under the appropriate differentiation-inducing conditions (serum deprivation. These cells grew well on collagen coated plates and responded to E2 and P4, which may drive myometrial and leiomyoma cells to proliferate and adhere into a focal adhesion complex involvement in a paracrine manner. The establishment of these techniques as routine procedures will improve the understanding of the myometrial physiology and pathogenesis of myometrium-derived diseases such as leiomyoma. Mimicking the in vivo environment of fibrotic conditions can prevent false results and enhance results that are based on cell culture integrity.

  7. The Swedish version of the Acceptance of Chronic Health Conditions Scale for people with multiple sclerosis: Translation, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslin, Mia; Kottorp, Anders; Kierkegaard, Marie; Johansson, Sverker

    2016-11-11

    To translate and culturally adapt the Acceptance of Chronic Health Conditions (ACHC) Scale for people with multiple sclerosis into Swedish, and to analyse the psychometric properties of the Swedish version. Ten people with multiple sclerosis participated in translation and cultural adaptation of the ACHC Scale; 148 people with multiple sclerosis were included in evaluation of the psychometric properties of the scale. Translation and cultural adaptation were carried out through translation and back-translation, by expert committee evaluation and pre-test with cognitive interviews in people with multiple sclerosis. The psychometric properties of the Swedish version were evaluated using Rasch analysis. The Swedish version of the ACHC Scale was an acceptable equivalent to the original version. Seven of the original 10 items fitted the Rasch model and demonstrated ability to separate between groups. A 5-item version, including 2 items and 3 super-items, demonstrated better psychometric properties, but lower ability to separate between groups. The Swedish version of the ACHC Scale with the original 10 items did not fit the Rasch model. Two solutions, either with 7 items (ACHC-7) or with 2 items and 3 super-items (ACHC-5), demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties. Use of the ACHC-5 Scale with super-items is recommended, since this solution adjusts for local dependency among items.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrino, Flávia M; Dantas, Rosana A S; Corbi, Inaiara S A; da Silva Carvalho, Ariana R; Schmidt, André; Pazin Filho, Antônio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal reliability and validity of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale (DASS) among cardiovascular patients. Oral anticoagulation is widely used to prevent and treat thromboembolic events in several conditions, especially in cardiovascular diseases; however, this therapy can induce dissatisfaction and reduce the quality of life. Methodological and cross-sectional research design. The cultural adaptation of the DASS included the translation and back-translation, discussions with healthcare professionals and patients to ensure conceptual equivalence, semantic evaluation and instrument pretest. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the DASS was tested among subjects followed in a university hospital anticoagulation outpatient clinic. The psychometric properties were assessed by construct validity (convergent, known groups and dimensionality) and internal consistency/reliability (Cronbach's alpha). A total of 180 subjects under oral anticoagulation formed the baseline validation population. DASS total score and SF-36 domain correlations were moderate for General health (r=-0.47, pDASS score and most of the subscales, except Limitation (r=-0.375, pscale, and it ranged from 0.76 (hassles and burdens)-0.46 (psychological impact) among the domains, confirming the internal consistency reliability. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the DASS has shown levels of reliability and validity comparable with the original English version. Healthcare practitioners and researchers need internationally validated measurement tools to compare outcomes of interventions in clinical management and research tools in oral anticoagulation therapy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Changes in cell wall properties coincide with overexpression of extensin fusion proteins in suspension cultured tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Qian, Jin; Arter, Allison; Chen, Liwei; Hahn, Michael G; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Kieliszewski, Marcia J

    2014-01-01

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increased wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. These data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.

  10. Psychometric properties of the multidimensional health locus of control scale form C in a non-Western culture.

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    Barna Konkolÿ Thege

    Full Text Available Form C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales (MHLC-C was designed to investigate health-related control beliefs of persons with an existing medical condition. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of this instrument in a culture characterized by external control beliefs and learned helplessness-contrary to the societal context of original test development. Altogether, 374 Hungarian patients with cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders were enrolled in the study. Besides the MHLC-C, instruments measuring general control beliefs, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, and health behaviors were also administered to evaluate the validity of the scale. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to investigate the factor structure of the scale. Our results showed that the Hungarian adaptation of the instrument had a slightly different structure than the one originally hypothesized: in the present sample, a three-factor structure emerged where the items of the Doctors and the Others subscales loaded onto a single common component. Internal reliability of all three subscales was adequate (alphas between .71 and .79. Data concerning the instrument's validity were comparable with previous results from Western countries. These findings may suggest that health locus of control can be construed very similarly to Western countries even in a post-communist society-regardless of the potential differences in general control beliefs.

  11. Electrophysiological Data and the Biophysical Modelling of Local Cortical Circuits

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    Dimitris Pinotsis

    2014-03-01

    empirical MEG data and looked for potential determinants of the spectral properties of an individual's gamma response, and how they relate to underlying visual cortex microcircuitry and excitation/inhibition balance. We found correlations between peak gamma frequency and cortical inhibition (parameterized by the excitatory drive to inhibitory cell populations over subjects. This constitutes a compelling illustration of how non-invasive data can provide quantitative estimates of the spatial properties of neural sources and explain systematic variations in the dynamics those sources generate. Furthermore, the conclusions fitted comfortably with studies of contextual interactions and orientation discrimination suggesting that local contextual interactions in V1 are weaker in individuals with a large V1 area [13, 14]. Finally, we will use dynamic causal modeling and neural fields to test specific hypotheses about precision and gain control based on predictive coding formulations of neuronal processing. We exploited finely sampled electrophysiological responses from awake-behaving monkeys and an experimental manipulation (the contrast of visual stimuli to look at changes in the gain and balance of excitatory and inhibitory influences. Our results suggest that increasing contrast effectively increases the sensitivity or gain of superficial pyramidal cells to inputs from spiny stellate populations. Furthermore, they are consistent with intriguing results showing that the receptive fields of V1 units shrinks with increasing visual contrast. The approach we will illustrate in this paper rests on neural field models that are optimized in relation to observed gamma responses from the visual cortex and are – crucially – compared in terms of their evidence. This provides a principled way to address questions about cortical structure, function and the architectures that underlie neuronal computations.

  12. Interesting asian plants: their compounds and effects on electrophysiology and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-10-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries.

  13. Evaluation of cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of breast cancer-specific quality-of-life questionnaires: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Indiara Soares; da Cunha Menezes Costa, Lucíola; Fagundes, Felipe Ribeiro Cabral; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2015-05-01

    To assess the procedures of translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and measurement properties of breast cancer-specific quality-of-life questionnaires. Searches were conducted in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and SciELO using the keywords: "Questionnaires," "Quality of life," and "Breast cancer." The studies were analyzed in terms of methodological quality according to the guidelines for the procedure of cross-cultural adaptation and the quality criteria for measurement properties of questionnaires. We found 24 eligible studies. Most of the articles assessed the translation and measurement properties of the instrument EORTC QLQ-BR23. Description about translation and cross-cultural adaptation was incomplete in 11 studies. Translation and back translation were the most tested phases, and synthesis of the translation was the most omitted phase in the articles. Information on assessing measurement properties was provided incompletely in 23 articles. Internal consistency was the most tested property in all of the eligible articles, but none of them provided information on agreement. Construct validity was adequately tested in only three studies that used the FACT-B and QLQ-BR23. Eight articles provided information on reliability; however, only four found positive classification. Responsiveness was tested in four articles, and ceiling and floor effects were tested in only three articles. None of the instruments showed fully adequate quality. There is limited evidence on cross-cultural adaptations and measurement properties; therefore, it is recommended that caution be exercised when using breast cancer-specific quality-of-life questionnaires that have been translated, adapted, and tested.

  14. Enhanced differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes by combining hanging drop culture and 5-azacytidine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung Sun; Yoo, Seung Jun; Lee, Jeoung Eun; You, Seungkwon; Lee, Hoon Taek; Yoon, Hyun Soo

    2006-04-01

    Cell replacement therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cardiac diseases. It is, however, challenged by a limited supply of appropriate cells. Therefore, we have investigated whether functional cardiomyocytes can be efficiently generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In this study, we developed an efficient protocol for the generation of functional cardiomyocytes from hESCs by combining hanging drop culture and 5-azacytidine, a well-known demethylating agent, and then evaluated the expression of cardiac-specific markers. hESCs were cultured both in the medium without or with 0.1, 1, or 10 microM of 5-azacytidine under a hanging drop culture. The expression of several cardiac-specific markers was determined by real-time PCR, RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy. To verify the structural and functional properties of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes, we performed electron microscopy and electrophysiological recording. The efficiency of beating cell generation was significantly improved in the hanging drop culture compared with that in suspension culture. Treatment of hESCs with 0.1 microM of 5-azacytidine for 1-3 days significantly increased the number of beating cells and simultaneously enhanced the expression of cardiac-specific markers. Transmission electron microscopy and electrophysiological recording showed that hESC-derived cardiomyocytes acquired structural and functional properties of cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, these results suggest that differentiation of hESCs into cardiomyocytes can be enhanced by the combination of hanging drop culture and 5-azacytidine treatment. Also the methylation status of genes related to cardiomyocyte development may play an important role in the differentiation of hESCs into cardiomyocytes.

  15. Influence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the extracellular matrix, material properties, and gene expression of long-term articular chondrocyte cultures: loss of chondrocyte stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, David A; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Carlson, Cathy S; Lewis, Jack L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on articular chondrocyte tissues grown as monolayers in vitro for up to 8 weeks. Articular chondrocytes were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits and plated in monolayer cultures. The cultures were supplemented with 100 ng/mL of BMP-2 for up to 8 weeks and the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, material properties, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were analyzed. mRNA expression of cartilage-specific genes, type II collagen, and aggrecan showed that BMP-2 enhanced chondrocyte stability for up to 3 weeks. After 3 weeks in culture, there was substantially more type I collagen expression and more osteopontin and runt-related transcription factor 2 expression in 5- and 8-week cultures treated with BMP-2 than in controls. Additionally, matrix metalloproteinase-13 and ADAMTS-5 (A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin 5) were upregulated in 5- and 8-week cultures treated with BMP-2, coinciding with a loss of ECM density, collagen, and proteoglycan. Eight-week tissue stimulated with BMP-2 was more fragile and tore more easily when removed from the culture dish as compared to controls, suggesting temporal limitations to the effectiveness of BMP-2 in monolayer systems and perhaps other models to enhance the generation of a cartilage-like tissue for tissue engineering purposes.

  16. Compounds from Lactobacillus plantarum culture supernatants with potential pro-healing and anti-pathogenic properties in skin chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alberto N; Sesto Cabral, Maria E; Arena, Mario E; Arrighi, Carlos F; Arroyo Aguilar, Abel A; Valdéz, Juan C

    2015-03-01

    It is necessary to advance the field of alternative treatments for chronic wounds that are financially accessible to the least economically developed countries. Previously we demonstrated that topical applications of Lactobacillus plantarum culture supernatants (LAPS) on human-infected chronic wounds reduce the pathogenic bioburden, the amount of necrotic tissue, and the wound area, as well as promote debridement, granulation tissue, and wound healing. To study LAPS chemically and biologically and to find potential molecules responsible for its pro-healing and anti-pathogenic properties in chronic wounds. (1) Chemical analysis: extracts were subjected to a column chromatography and the fractions obtained were studied by GCMS. (2) Quantification: dl-lactic acid (commercial kit), phenolic compounds (Folin-Ciocalteu), H2O2 (micro-titration), and cations (flame photometry). (3) Biological analysis: autoinducers type 2 (AI-2) (Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioassay), DNAase activity (Agar DNAase), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm inhibition (crystal violet technique). According to its biological activity, the most significant molecules found by GCMS were the following: antimicrobials (mevalonolactone, 5-methyl-hydantoine, benzoic acid, etc.); surfactants (di-palmitin, distearin, and 1,5-monolinolein); anesthetics (barbituric acid derivatives), and AI-2 precursors (4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione and 2-methyl-2,3,3,4-tetrahydroxytetrahydrofurane). Concentrations measured (µg/mL): DL-lactic acid (11.71 ± 1.53) and H2O2 (36 ± 2.0); phenolic compounds (485.2 ± 15.20); sodium (370 ± 17); potassium 920 ± 24); calcium (20 ± 4); and magnesium (15 ± 3). DNAase from LAPS had activity on genomic DNA from PMNs and P. aeruginosa. The molecules and biological activities found in LAPS could explain the observed effects in human chronic wounds.

  17. Electrophysiological and pharmacological evidence for the existence of distinct subpopulations of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, P D; German, D C

    1988-11-01

    The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of dopaminergic neurons were systematically examined throughout the anterior-posterior extent of the substantia nigra zona compacta in the rat. Cells were characterized in terms of their (1) firing pattern, (2) firing rate, (3) antidromic response properties, and (4) inhibition in firing rate following dopaminergic agonist administration. These properties were then related to the cell's position within one of four anterior-posterior segments of the nucleus. There were three types of neuronal discharge pattern encountered; irregular, burst and regular. Cells which exhibited different firing patterns exhibited different firing rates and anatomical locations within the substantia nigra zona compacta. All neurons were antidromically activated from the striatum, however, the burst- and regular-firing cells exhibited significantly faster estimated conduction velocities than irregular-firing cells. The irregular-firing cells were most sensitive to dopaminergic autoreceptor agonists whereas the burst-firing cells were most sensitive to an indirect-acting dopaminergic agonist. These experiments provide both electrophysiological and pharmacological evidence to indicate that nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are composed of distinct subpopulations which are characterized by their firing pattern.

  18. Anatomical and electrophysiological characterization of presumed dopamine-containing neurons within the supramammillary region of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, P D; Mihailoff, G A; German, D C

    1988-03-01

    A combination of immunocytochemical, electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques were employed to study the properties of neurons within the supramammillary (SUM) complex of the rat. The SUM region contains a small, but dense, population of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons. Following injection of the orthograde neuroanatomical tracer, Phaseolus Vulgaris leucoagglutinin, into the SUM region, heavy terminal labeling was observed in the lateral septal nucleus, diagonal band of Broca and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of antidromically-activated SUM neurons revealed evidence of two neuronal populations. Both groups of neurons exhibited long duration action potentials (greater than 2 msec) and slow conduction velocities (less than 0.5 m/sec). However, cells in one group were characterized by slow and erratic firing rates and insensitivity to dopamine (DA) autoreceptor agonists. Cells in the other group typically exhibited no spontaneous activity but could be induced to discharge by iontophoretic application of glutamate. These latter cells were sensitive to DA autoreceptor stimulation. Of the two populations of mammilloseptal SUM neurons, the silent population exhibited several properties similar to those of midbrain DA neurons.

  19. Electrophysiological Evaluation of People With Volatile Substance Addiction

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    Nurten Uzun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Scientific BACKGROUND: There is an increase in addiction of volatile substances in recent years. Miscellaneous electrophysiological pathological findings are determined in volatile substance abusers. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to examine the neurologic effects of these substances by electrophysiologic methods. METHODS: Cases and METHOD: Twenty-three patients from Bakirkoy Psychiatry Hospital, Alcohol and Substance Addiction Research and Treatment Center were included in this study. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies, somatosensorial, visual and auditory evoked potentials (SEP, VEP, BAEP as well as electroencephalography (EEG were studied in all 23 patients. The results were compared with the published data and the values of age matched 19 normal controls. RESULTS: RESULTS: In nerve conduction studies, there were pathological findings in 14 (60.9% cases, in three (13% mild sensorimotor polyneuropathy was determined. Tibial nerve motor distal latencies as well as median nerve sensorial and sural nerve distal latencies were longer in patients compared to controls (p<0.05. SEP findings were pathological in six (26.1% cases, VEP in two (8.7% cases and BAEP in eight (34.8% cases. Scalp SEP distal latency by tibial nerve stimulation as well as distal latencies of right and left V. wave, left III-V interpeak latency, right and left interpeak latencies and I-V interaural latency difference in BAEP were longer in abusers (p<0.05. Although it was not statistically significant, the ratio of pathological findings was higher if the exposure time was over 2 years. EEG was found to be normal in all patients. CONCLUSION: YORUM: Our results showed that toluene results in slowly progressive multifocal central nervous system damage and subclinical damage could be determined in early stages by electrophysiologic methods

  20. Electrophysiological Basis of Fecal Incontinence and Its Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The majority of patients with neuropathic incontinence and other pelvic floor conditions associated with straining at stool have damage to the pudendal nerves distal to the ischial spine. Sacral nerve stimulation appears to be a promising innovation and has been widely adopted and currently considered the standard of care for adults with moderate to severe fecal incontinence and following failed sphincter repair. From a decision-to-treat perspective, the short-term efficacy is good (70%–80%), but the long-term efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation is around 50%. Newer electrophysiological tests and improved anal endosonography would more effectively guide clinical decision making. PMID:29159162

  1. Analyzing clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of Paroxysmal Dyskinesia

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    Jue-qian Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification, clinical and electrophysiological characteristics, treatment outcome and pathogenesis of paroxysmal dyskinesia were summarized and analyzed. Paroxysmal dyskinesia was classified into three types. Different types had different incentives in clinical practice. Patients were mostly male adolescents, and the attacks, which were in various forms, manifested as dysmyotonia of choreoathetosis, body torsion and facemaking; no disturbance of consciousness during attacks. Electroencephalogram and other examinations showed no specific abnormalities during both the attacks and interictal period. Paroxysmal dyskinesia was an independent disease and different from epilepsy.

  2. Language effects in second-language learners: A longitudinal electrophysiological study of spanish classroom learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-09-01

    How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Conduction disturbances after TAVR: Electrophysiological studies and pacemaker dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Nader; Dollery, Jenn; Jones, Danielle; Crestanello, Juan; Lilly, Scott

    Permanent pacemaker (PPM) placement occurs in 5-20% of patients after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Although predictors of pacemaker implantation have been established, features that predispose patients to pacemaker utilization on follow up have not been widely reported. We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing commercial TAVR between 2011 and 2016. We collated patients that underwent in-hospital PPM implantation and had a follow up of at least 3months. Data abstraction was performed for electrophysiological studies (EPS), pacemaker indication, timing, and device interrogation for pacemaker dependency on follow up. A total of 24 patients received in-hospital PPM post-TAVR (14% of total cohort), and mean follow up was 22months. Indications for PPM included resting complete heart block (CHB; 15/24, 63%), left bundle branch block and abnormal electrophysiological study (EPS; 7/24, 29%), alternating bundle branch block (1/24, 4%) and tachy-brady syndrome (1/24, 4%). Pacemaker dependency (underlying ventricular asystole, complete heart block, or >50% pacing) occurred in 8/24 patients (33%) during follow-up, 7 of whom had resting CHB, and one with CHB invoked during EPS. Pacemaker dependency after TAVR is common among those that exhibited CHB, but not among those with a prolonged HV delay during EPS. Although preliminary, these observations are relevant to management of rhythm disturbances after TAVR, and may inform the practice of EPS-based PPM implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrophysiological Correlates of Reading the Single- and Interactive-Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Wen; Zheng, Yu-Wei; Lin, Chong-De; Wu, Jie; Shen, De-Li

    2011-01-01

    Understanding minds is the cognitive basis of successful social interaction. In everyday life, human mental activity often happens at the moment of social interaction among two or multiple persons instead of only one-person. Understanding the interactive mind of two- or multi-person is more complex and higher than understanding the single-person mind in the hierarchical structure of theory of mind. Understanding the interactive mind maybe differentiate from understanding the single mind. In order to examine the dissociative electrophysiological correlates of reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind, the 64 channels event-related potentials were recorded while 16 normal adults were observing three kinds of Chinese idioms depicted physical scenes, one-person with mental activity, and two- or multi-person with mental interaction. After the equivalent N400, in the 500- to 700-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of late positive component (LPC) over frontal for reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind were significantly more positive than for physical representation, while there was no difference between the former two. In the 700- to 800-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of LPC over frontal–central for reading the interactive mind were more positive than for reading the single mind and physical representation, while there was no difference between the latter two. The present study provides electrophysiological signature of the dissociations between reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind. PMID:21845178

  5. Electrophysiological correlates of reading the single- and interactive-mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen eWang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding minds is the cognitive basis of successful social interaction. In everyday life, human mental activity often happens at the moment of social interaction among two or multiple persons instead of only one person. Understanding the interactive mind of two- or multi-person is more complex and higher than understanding the single-person mind in the hierarchical structure of theory-of-mind. Understanding the interactive mind maybe differentiate from understanding the single mind. In order to examine the dissociative electrophysiological correlates of reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind, the 64 channels event-related potentials (ERP were recorded while 16 normal adults were observing three kinds of Chinese idioms depicted physical scenes, one-person with mental activity and two- or multi-person with mental interaction. After the equivalent N400, in the 500- to 700-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of late positive component (LPC over frontal for reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind were significantly more positive than for physical representation, while there was no difference between the former two. In the 700-to 800-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of LPC over frontal-central for reading the interactive mind were more positive than for reading the single mind and physical representation, while there was no difference between the latter two. The present study provides electrophysiological signature of the dissociations between reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind.

  6. Behavioral and electrophysiological signatures of word translation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Lea B; Radman, Narges; Buetler, Karin A; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-31

    Translation is a demanding process during which a message is analyzed, translated and communicated from one language to another. Despite numerous studies on translation mechanisms, the electrophysiological processes underlying translation with overt production remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated how behavioral response patterns and spatial-temporal brain dynamics differ in a translation compared to a control within-language word-generation task. We also investigated how forward and backward translation differs on the behavioral and electrophysiological level. To address these questions, healthy late bilingual subjects performed a translation and a within-language control task while a 128-channel EEG was recorded. Behavioral data showed faster responses for translation compared to within-language word generation and faster responses for backward than forward translation. The ERP-analysis revealed stronger early ( processes for between than within word generation. Later (424-630ms) differences were characterized by distinct engagement of domain-general control networks, namely self-monitoring and lexical access interference. Language asymmetry effects occurred at a later stage (600ms), reflecting differences in conceptual processing characterized by a larger involvement of areas implicated in attention, arousal and awareness for forward versus backward translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Obesity, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Inhibition Function: An Electrophysiological Study

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    Tai-Fen Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine how obesity and cardiovascular fitness are associated with the inhibition aspect of executive function from behavioral and electrophysiological perspectives. One hundred college students, aged 18 to 25 years, were categorized into four groups of equal size on the basis of body mass index and cardiovascular fitness: a normal-weight and high-fitness (NH group, an obese-weight and high-fitness (OH group, a normal-weight and low-fitness (NL group, and an obese-weight and low-fitness (OL group. Behavioral measures of response time and number of errors, as well as event-related potential (ERP measures of P3 and N1, were assessed during the Stroop Task. The results revealed that, in general, the NH group exhibited shorter response times and larger P3 amplitudes relative to the OH, NL, and OL groups, wherein the OL group exhibited the longest response time in the incongruent condition. No group differences in N1 indices were also revealed. These findings suggest that the status of being both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness is associated with better behavioral and later stages of electrophysiological indices of inhibition. However, these benefits in inhibition function would be lost in an individual who is obese or has low cardiovascular fitness, reflecting the importance keeping both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness.

  8. Simulation Methods and Validation Criteria for Modeling Cardiac Ventricular Electrophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarjee Krishnamoorthi

    Full Text Available We describe a sequence of methods to produce a partial differential equation model of the electrical activation of the ventricles. In our framework, we incorporate the anatomy and cardiac microstructure obtained from magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of a New Zealand White rabbit, the Purkinje structure and the Purkinje-muscle junctions, and an electrophysiologically accurate model of the ventricular myocytes and tissue, which includes transmural and apex-to-base gradients of action potential characteristics. We solve the electrophysiology governing equations using the finite element method and compute both a 6-lead precordial electrocardiogram (ECG and the activation wavefronts over time. We are particularly concerned with the validation of the various methods used in our model and, in this regard, propose a series of validation criteria that we consider essential. These include producing a physiologically accurate ECG, a correct ventricular activation sequence, and the inducibility of ventricular fibrillation. Among other components, we conclude that a Purkinje geometry with a high density of Purkinje muscle junctions covering the right and left ventricular endocardial surfaces as well as transmural and apex-to-base gradients in action potential characteristics are necessary to produce ECGs and time activation plots that agree with physiological observations.

  9. Simulation Methods and Validation Criteria for Modeling Cardiac Ventricular Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee; Perotti, Luigi E; Borgstrom, Nils P; Ajijola, Olujimi A; Frid, Anna; Ponnaluri, Aditya V; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin; Klug, William S; Ennis, Daniel B; Garfinkel, Alan

    2014-01-01

    We describe a sequence of methods to produce a partial differential equation model of the electrical activation of the ventricles. In our framework, we incorporate the anatomy and cardiac microstructure obtained from magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of a New Zealand White rabbit, the Purkinje structure and the Purkinje-muscle junctions, and an electrophysiologically accurate model of the ventricular myocytes and tissue, which includes transmural and apex-to-base gradients of action potential characteristics. We solve the electrophysiology governing equations using the finite element method and compute both a 6-lead precordial electrocardiogram (ECG) and the activation wavefronts over time. We are particularly concerned with the validation of the various methods used in our model and, in this regard, propose a series of validation criteria that we consider essential. These include producing a physiologically accurate ECG, a correct ventricular activation sequence, and the inducibility of ventricular fibrillation. Among other components, we conclude that a Purkinje geometry with a high density of Purkinje muscle junctions covering the right and left ventricular endocardial surfaces as well as transmural and apex-to-base gradients in action potential characteristics are necessary to produce ECGs and time activation plots that agree with physiological observations.

  10. Electrophysiologic Assessments of Involuntary Movements: Tremor and Myoclonus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Dong Park

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tremor is defined as a rhythmical, involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part. Although neurological examination reveals information regarding its frequency, regularity, amplitude, and activation conditions, the electrophysiological investigations help in confirming the tremor, in differentiating it from other hyperkinetic disorders like myoclonus, and may provide etiological clues. Accelerometer with surface electromyogram (EMG can be used to document the dominant frequency of a tremor, which may be useful as certain frequencies are more characteristic of specific etiologies than others hyperkinetic disorders. It may show rhythmic bursts, duration and activation pattern (alternating or synchronous. Myoclonus is a quick, involuntary movement. Electrophysiological studies may helpful in the evaluation of myoclonus, not only for confirming the clinical diagnosis but also for understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms. Electroencephalogram (EEG-EMG correlates can give us important information about myoclonus. Jerk-locked back-averaging and evoked potentials with recording of the long-latency, long-loop reflexes are currently available to study the pathophysiology of myoclonus.

  11. Electrophysiological mechanisms of the SI SII SIII electrocardiographic morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayes de Luna, A.; Carrio, I.; Subirana, M.T.; Torner, P.; Cosin, J.; Sagues, F.; Guindo, J.

    1987-01-01

    We studied three groups of individuals by means of spatial-velocity electrocardiograms and thallium-201 myocardial imaging to figure out the electrophysiological explanation of the SI SII SIII electrocardiographic morphology. We studied twelve healthy individuals without SI SII SIII, seven healthy individuals with SI SII SIII and fifteen patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with SI SII SIII. The average values of the QRS-E and QRS-F intervals were higher in the second and third groups than in the first. One patient of the second group and thirteen of the third showed right ventricular enlargement. The slowing down of the right ventricular conduction explained the SI SII SIII morphology in normal individuals in more than half the cases. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with SI SII SIII the conduction delay plays an important part in the electrogenesis of the right ventricular enlargement electrocardiographic morphology. We think that these observations can give further data about the electrophysiologic mechanism of the SI SII SIII morphology

  12. Electrophysiological correlates of mental navigation in blind and sighted people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Wood, Guilherme; Kampl, Christiane; Neuper, Christa; Ischebeck, Anja

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate functional reorganization of the occipital cortex for a mental navigation task in blind people. Eight completely blind adults and eight sighted matched controls performed a mental navigation task, in which they mentally imagined to walk along familiar routes of their hometown during a multi-channel EEG measurement. A motor imagery task was used as control condition. Furthermore, electrophysiological activation patterns during a resting measurement with open and closed eyes were compared between blind and sighted participants. During the resting measurement with open eyes, no differences in EEG power were observed between groups, whereas sighted participants showed higher alpha (8-12Hz) activity at occipital sites compared to blind participants during an eyes-closed resting condition. During the mental navigation task, blind participants showed a stronger event-related desynchronization in the alpha band over the visual cortex compared to sighted controls indicating a stronger activation in this brain region in the blind. Furthermore, groups showed differences in functional brain connectivity between fronto-central and parietal-occipital brain networks during mental navigation indicating stronger visuo-spatial processing in sighted than in blind people during mental navigation. Differences in electrophysiological parameters between groups were specific for mental navigation since no group differences were observed during motor imagery. These results indicate that in the absence of vision the visual cortex takes over other functions such as spatial navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrophysiological biomarkers of epileptogenicity after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, Piero; Smith, Gregory; Santana-Gomez, Cesar; Bragin, Anatol; Staba, Richard

    2018-06-05

    Post-traumatic epilepsy is the architype of acquired epilepsies, wherein a brain insult initiates an epileptogenic process culminating in an unprovoked seizure after weeks, months or years. Identifying biomarkers of such process is a prerequisite for developing and implementing targeted therapies aimed at preventing the development of epilepsy. Currently, there are no validated electrophysiological biomarkers of post-traumatic epileptogenesis. Experimental EEG studies using the lateral fluid percussion injury model have identified three candidate biomarkers of post-traumatic epileptogenesis: pathological high-frequency oscillations (HFOs, 80-300 Hz); repetitive HFOs and spikes (rHFOSs); and reduction in sleep spindle duration and dominant frequency at the transition from stage III to rapid eye movement sleep. EEG studies in humans have yielded conflicting data; recent evidence suggests that epileptiform abnormalities detected acutely after traumatic brain injury carry a significantly increased risk of subsequent epilepsy. Well-designed studies are required to validate these promising findings, and ultimately establish whether there are post-traumatic electrophysiological features which can guide the development of 'antiepileptogenic' therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Automatic fitting of spiking neuron models to electrophysiological recordings

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    Cyrille Rossant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Spiking models can accurately predict the spike trains produced by cortical neurons in response to somatically injected currents. Since the specific characteristics of the model depend on the neuron, a computational method is required to fit models to electrophysiological recordings. The fitting procedure can be very time consuming both in terms of computer simulations and in terms of code writing. We present algorithms to fit spiking models to electrophysiological data (time-varying input and spike trains that can run in parallel on graphics processing units (GPUs. The model fitting library is interfaced with Brian, a neural network simulator in Python. If a GPU is present it uses just-in-time compilation to translate model equations into optimized code. Arbitrary models can then be defined at script level and run on the graphics card. This tool can be used to obtain empirically validated spiking models of neurons in various systems. We demonstrate its use on public data from the INCF Quantitative Single-Neuron Modeling 2009 competition by comparing the performance of a number of neuron spiking models.

  15. Conductive Hearing Loss during Infancy: Effects on Later Auditory Brain Stem Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; Finitzo, Terese

    1991-01-01

    Long-term effects on auditory electrophysiology from early fluctuating hearing loss were studied in 27 children, aged 5 to 7 years, who had been evaluated originally in infancy. Findings suggested that early fluctuating hearing loss disrupts later auditory brain stem electrophysiology. (Author/DB)

  16. Culturing on decellularized extracellular matrix enhances antioxidant properties of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhou, Long; Chen, Xi; Liu, Tao; Pan, Guoqing; Cui, Wenguo; Li, Mao; Luo, Zong-Ping; Pei, Ming; Yang, Huilin; Gong, Yihong; He, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have attracted great interest in clinical application because of their regenerative potential and their lack of ethical issues. Our previous studies showed that decellularized cell-deposited extracellular matrix (ECM) provided an in vivo-mimicking microenvironment for MSCs and facilitated in vitro cell expansion. This study was conducted to analyze the cellular response of UC-MSCs when culturing on the ECM, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular antioxidative enzymes, and the resistance to exogenous oxidative stress. After decellularization, the architecture of cell-deposited ECM was characterized as nanofibrous, collagen fibrils and the matrix components were identified as type I and III collagens, fibronectin, and laminin. Compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) plates, culturing on ECM yielded a 2-fold increase of UC-MSC proliferation and improved the percentage of cells in the S phase by 2.4-fold. The levels of intracellular ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) in ECM-cultured cells were reduced by 41.7% and 82.9%, respectively. More importantly, ECM-cultured UC-MSCs showed enhanced expression and activity of intracellular antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, up-regulated expression of silent information regulator type 1, and suppressed phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, a continuous treatment with exogenous 100 μM H_2O_2 dramatically inhibited osteogenic differentiation of UC-MSCs cultured on TCPS, but culturing on ECM retained the differentiation capacity for matrix mineralization and osteoblast-specific marker gene expression. Collectively, by providing sufficient cell amounts and enhancing antioxidant capacity, decellularized ECM can be a promising cell culture platform for in vitro expansion of UC-MSCs. - Highlights: • Decellularization preserved the architecture and components of cell-deposited ECM.

  17. Size- and time-dependent growth properties of human induced pluripotent stem cells in the culture of single aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Suman C; Horie, Masanobu; Nagamori, Eiji; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Aggregate culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is a promising method to obtain high number of cells for cell therapy applications. This study quantitatively evaluated the effects of initial cell number and culture time on the growth of hiPSCs in the culture of single aggregate. Small size aggregates ((1.1 ± 0.4) × 10 1 -(2.8 ± 0.5) × 10 1 cells/aggregate) showed a lower growth rate in comparison to medium size aggregates ((8.8 ± 0.8) × 10 1 -(6.8 ± 1.1) × 10 2 cells/aggregate) during early-stage of culture (24-72 h). However, when small size aggregates were cultured in conditioned medium, their growth rate increased significantly. On the other hand, large size aggregates ((1.1 ± 0.2) × 10 3 -(3.5 ± 1.1) × 10 3 cells/aggregate) showed a lower growth rate and lower expression level of proliferation marker (ki-67) in the center region of aggregate in comparison to medium size aggregate during early-stage of culture. Medium size aggregates showed the highest growth rate during early-stage of culture. Furthermore, hiPSCs proliferation was dependent on culture time because the growth rate decreased significantly during late-stage of culture (72-120 h) at which point collagen type I accumulated on the periphery of aggregate, suggesting blockage of diffusive transport of nutrients, oxygen and metabolites into and out of the aggregates. Consideration of initial cell number and culture time are important to maintain balance between autocrine factors secretion and extracellular matrix accumulation on the aggregate periphery to achieve optimal growth of hiPSCs in the culture of single aggregate. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Culturing on decellularized extracellular matrix enhances antioxidant properties of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaozhen [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Long; Chen, Xi [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Liu, Tao [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Pan, Guoqing; Cui, Wenguo; Li, Mao; Luo, Zong-Ping [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Pei, Ming [Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Yang, Huilin [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Gong, Yihong, E-mail: gongyih@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); He, Fan, E-mail: fanhe@suda.edu.cn [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have attracted great interest in clinical application because of their regenerative potential and their lack of ethical issues. Our previous studies showed that decellularized cell-deposited extracellular matrix (ECM) provided an in vivo-mimicking microenvironment for MSCs and facilitated in vitro cell expansion. This study was conducted to analyze the cellular response of UC-MSCs when culturing on the ECM, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular antioxidative enzymes, and the resistance to exogenous oxidative stress. After decellularization, the architecture of cell-deposited ECM was characterized as nanofibrous, collagen fibrils and the matrix components were identified as type I and III collagens, fibronectin, and laminin. Compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) plates, culturing on ECM yielded a 2-fold increase of UC-MSC proliferation and improved the percentage of cells in the S phase by 2.4-fold. The levels of intracellular ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in ECM-cultured cells were reduced by 41.7% and 82.9%, respectively. More importantly, ECM-cultured UC-MSCs showed enhanced expression and activity of intracellular antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, up-regulated expression of silent information regulator type 1, and suppressed phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, a continuous treatment with exogenous 100 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dramatically inhibited osteogenic differentiation of UC-MSCs cultured on TCPS, but culturing on ECM retained the differentiation capacity for matrix mineralization and osteoblast-specific marker gene expression. Collectively, by providing sufficient cell amounts and enhancing antioxidant capacity, decellularized ECM can be a promising cell culture platform for in vitro expansion of UC-MSCs. - Highlights: • Decellularization preserved the architecture and components of cell

  19. Validating the cross-cultural factor structure and invariance property of the Insomnia Severity Index: evidence based on ordinal EFA and CFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yi; Yang, Chien-Ming; Morin, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) across samples recruited from different countries. We tried to identify the most appropriate factor model for the ISI and further examined the measurement invariance property of the ISI across samples from different countries. Our analyses included one data set collected from a Taiwanese sample and two data sets obtained from samples in Hong Kong and Canada. The data set collected in Taiwan was analyzed with ordinal exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to obtain the appropriate factor model for the ISI. After that, we conducted a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), which is a special case of the structural equation model (SEM) that concerns the parameters in the measurement model, to the statistics collected in Canada and Hong Kong. The purposes of these CFA were to cross-validate the result obtained from EFA and further examine the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the ISI. The three-factor model outperforms other models in terms of global fit indices in Taiwan's population. Its external validity is also supported by confirmatory factor analyses. Furthermore, the measurement invariance analyses show that the strong invariance property between the samples from different cultures holds, providing evidence that the ISI results obtained in different cultures are comparable. The factorial validity of the ISI is stable in different populations. More importantly, its invariance property across cultures suggests that the ISI is a valid measure of the insomnia severity construct across countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Minimum Information about a Cardiac Electrophysiology Experiment (MICEE): standardised reporting for model reproducibility, interoperability, and data sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, T. A.; Granite, S.; Allessie, M. A.; Antzelevitch, C.; Bollensdorff, C.; Bub, G.; Burton, R. A. B.; Cerbai, E.; Chen, P. S.; Delmar, M.; DiFrancesco, D.; Earm, Y. E.; Efimov, I. R.; Egger, M.; Entcheva, E.; Fink, M.; Fischmeister, R.; Franz, M. R.; Garny, A.; Giles, W. R.; Hannes, T.; Harding, S. E.; Hunter, P. J.; Iribe, G.; Jalife, J.; Johnson, C. R.; Kass, R. S.; Kodama, I.; Koren, G.; Lord, P.; Markhasin, V. S.; Matsuoka, S.; McCulloch, A. D.; Mirams, G. R.; Morley, G. E.; Nattel, S.; Noble, D.; Olesen, S. P.; Panfilov, A. V.; Trayanova, N. A.; Ravens, U.; Richard, S.; Rosenbaum, D. S.; Rudy, Y.; Sachs, F.; Sachse, F. B.; Saint, D. A.; Schotten, U.; Solovyova, O.; Taggart, P.; Tung, L.; Varró, A.; Volders, P. G.; Wang, K.; Weiss, J. N.; Wettwer, E.; White, E.; Wilders, R.; Winslow, R. L.; Kohl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac experimental electrophysiology is in need of a well-defined Minimum Information Standard for recording, annotating, and reporting experimental data. As a step towards establishing this, we present a draft standard, called Minimum Information about a Cardiac Electrophysiology Experiment

  1. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  2. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  3. Identification of a population of cells with hematopoietic stem cell properties in mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Ohtsu, Naoki; Okada, Seiji; Nakagata, Naomi; Taga, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a primary source of definitive hematopoietic cells in the midgestation mouse embryo. In cultures of dispersed AGM regions, adherent cells containing endothelial cells are observed first, and then non-adherent hematopoietic cells are produced. Here we report on the characterization of hematopoietic cells that emerge in the AGM culture. Based on the expression profiles of CD45 and c-Kit, we defined three cell populations: CD45 low c-Kit + cells that had the ability to form hematopoietic cell colonies in methylcellulose media and in co-cultures with stromal cells; CD45 low c-Kit - cells that showed a granulocyte morphology; CD45 high c-Kit low/- that exhibited a macrophage morphology. In co-cultures of OP9 stromal cells and freshly prepared AGM cultures, CD45 low c-Kit + cells from the AGM culture had the abilities to reproduce CD45 low c-Kit + cells and differentiate into CD45 low c-Kit - and CD45 high c-Kit low/- cells, whereas CD45 low c-Kit - and CD45 high c-Kit low/- did not produce CD45 low c-Kit + cells. Furthermore, CD45 low c-Kit + cells displayed a long-term repopulating activity in adult hematopoietic tissue when transplanted into the liver of irradiated newborn mice. These results indicate that CD45 low c-Kit + cells from the AGM culture have the potential to reconstitute multi-lineage hematopoietic cells

  4. Clinical and electrophysiological aspects of tics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiullina, G I; Safiullina, A A

    2015-01-01

    Tics are diverse in nature inappropriate movements or vocalizations. They significantly degrade patients' quality of life, lead to social difficulties, and disturbance of learning especially during exacerbations. The prevalence of tics among children ranges from 4% to 24%, thus emphasizing the relevance of the problem. To study clinical and electrophysiological features of tics in children with development of new treatment methods. We conducted a comprehensive clinical and electrophysiological examination of 50 patients with tics, aged 5 to 15 years. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children. The research included a thorough study of the history, neurological examination, manual testing of skeletal muscles, psychological testing. Electrophysiological examination included a review of the functional state of corticospinal tract (CST) by the method of magnetic stimulation (MS), study of polysynaptic reflex excitability (PRE) according to a late component of the blink reflex (BR). Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric methods of data processing. All children of the study group showed signs of minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), they had complicated antenatal and postnatal history (trauma, disease, occurring with intoxication). There was a trend towards the increase of MBD signs with worsening of tics. Manual diagnosis in patients identified functional blockade at different levels of the vertebral column, sacroiliac joints, we identified latent myofascial trigger points (MFTP) mainly in the cervical-collar zone, in the area of the paravertebral muscles, periosteal triggers in the area of the sacroiliac joints.The research allowed determining decrease in propagation velocity of excitation (PVE) throughout CST in patients with tics. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between the severity of tics and PVE (r = -0.38; p tics: I - low and moderate type of reflex responses; and II - high type of reflex responses. Collation of data

  5. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  6. Electrophysiological and Pharmacological Analyses of Nav1.9 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel by Establishing a Heterologous Expression System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nav1. 9 voltage-gated sodium channel is preferentially expressed in peripheral nociceptive neurons. Recent progresses have proved its role in pain sensation, but our understanding of Nav1.9, in general, has lagged behind because of limitations in heterologous expression in mammal cells. In this work, functional expression of human Nav1.9 (hNav1.9 was achieved by fusing GFP to the C-terminal of hNav1.9 in ND7/23 cells, which has been proved to be a reliable method to the electrophysiological and pharmacological studies of hNav1.9. By using the hNav1.9 expression system, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of four mutations of hNav1.9 (K419N, A582T, A842P, and F1689L, whose electrophysiological functions have not been determined yet. The four mutations significantly caused positive shift of the steady-state fast inactivation and therefore increased hNav1.9 activity, consistent with the phenotype of painful peripheral neuropathy. Meanwhile, the effects of inflammatory mediators on hNav1.9 were also investigated. Impressively, histamine was found for the first time to enhance hNav1.9 activity, indicating its vital role in hNav1.9 modulating inflammatory pain. Taken together, our research provided a useful platform for hNav1.9 studies and new insight into mechanism of hNav1.9 linking to pain.

  7. Electrophysiological characterization of spinal neurons in different models of diabetes type 1- and type 2-induced neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuelert, N; Gorodetskaya, N; Just, S; Doods, H; Corradini, L

    2015-04-16

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is a devastating complication of diabetes. The underlying pathogenesis of DPN is still elusive and an effective treatment devoid of side effects presents a challenge. There is evidence that in type-1 and -2 diabetes, metabolic and morphological changes lead to peripheral nerve damage and altered central nociceptive transmission, which may contribute to neuropathic pain symptoms. We characterized the electrophysiological response properties of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in three diabetic models. The streptozotocin (STZ) model was used as a drug-induced model of type-1 diabetes, and the BioBreeding/Worcester (BB/Wor) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat models were used for genetic DPN models. Data were compared to the respective control group (BB/Wor diabetic-resistant, Zucker lean (ZL) and saline-injected Wistar rat). Response properties of WDR neurons to mechanical stimulation and spontaneous activity were assessed. We found abnormal response properties of spinal WDR neurons in all diabetic rats but not controls. Profound differences between models were observed. In BB/Wor diabetic rats evoked responses were increased, while in ZDF rats spontaneous activity was increased and in STZ rats mainly after discharges were increased. The abnormal response properties of neurons might indicate differential pathological, diabetes-induced, changes in spinal neuronal transmission. This study shows for the first time that specific electrophysiological response properties are characteristic for certain models of DPN and that these might reflect the diverse and complex symptomatology of DPN in the clinic. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced nutrient transport improves the depth-dependent properties of tri-layered engineered cartilage constructs with zonal co-culture of chondrocytes and MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwook; Farrell, Megan J; Steinberg, David R; Burdick, Jason A; Mauck, Robert L

    2017-08-01

    Biomimetic design in cartilage tissue engineering is a challenge given the complexity of the native tissue. While numerous studies have generated constructs with near-native bulk properties, recapitulating the depth-dependent features of native tissue remains a challenge. Furthermore, limitations in nutrient transport and matrix accumulation in engineered constructs hinders maturation within the central core of large constructs. To overcome these limitations, we fabricated tri-layered constructs that recapitulate the depth-dependent cellular organization and functional properties of native tissue using zonally derived chondrocytes co-cultured with MSCs. We also introduced porous hollow fibers (HFs) and HFs/cotton threads to enhance nutrient transport. Our results showed that tri-layered constructs with depth-dependent organization and properties could be fabricated. The addition of HFs or HFs/threads improved matrix accumulation in the central core region. With HF/threads, the local modulus in the deep region of tri-layered constructs nearly matched that of native tissue, though the properties in the central regions remained lower. These constructs reproduced the zonal organization and depth-dependent properties of native tissue, and demonstrate that a layer-by-layer fabrication scheme holds promise for the biomimetic repair of focal cartilage defects. Articular cartilage is a highly organized tissue driven by zonal heterogeneity of cells, extracellular matrix proteins and fibril orientations, resulting in depth-dependent mechanical properties. Therefore, the recapitulation of the functional properties of native cartilage in a tissue engineered construct requires such a biomimetic design of the morphological organization, and this has remained a challenge in cartilage tissue engineering. This study demonstrates that a layer-by-layer fabrication scheme, including co-cultures of zone-specific articular CHs and MSCs, can reproduce the depth-dependent characteristics

  9. The Preservation of Traditional Knowledge and the Cultural Expression of Craft Rumah Gadang’s Walls as the Intellectual Property Of West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Armilia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the problems of the preservation of Minangkabau craft culture, especially the problem of Intellectual Property Rights in the form of traditional knowledge that is on the craft of Rumah Gadang’s walls. The method of this research is qualitative. The informant of this study is determined by using purposive sampling. The chosen informants that are people involved in crafting of Rumah Gadang’s walls and the Department of Tourism of West Sumatra Province. This research was conducted at Minangkabau representative area of Luhak Nan Tigo (Agam, Tanah Datar, Lima Puluh Kota. The results of the study shows the extinction of craft of Rumah Gadang's walls was caused by the development factor of modern society's mindset, thus eliminating the value of a local culture of desire to learn old local culture. Moreover, the history and the topic of craft of Rumah Gadang's walls are deleted from Muatan Lokal Subject from the elementary to college level. Besides, the absence of efforts of local governments in trying to preserve the cultural values contained in traditional of craft of Rumah Gadang’s walls.

  10. Electrophysiologic studies of the thoracic limb of the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, L L; Kitchell, R L

    1982-09-01

    The cutaneous innervation of the thoracic limb was investigated in 18 barbiturate-anesthetized horses, using electrophysiologic techniques. The cutaneous area (CA) innervated by each cutaneous nerve was delineated in at least 4 horses by stroking the hairs with a small watercolor brush while recording from the nerve. Mapping of adjacent CA revealed areas of considerable overlap. The part of a CA of a given nerve supplied only by that nerve is referred to as its autonomous zone (AZ). In contrast to the standard textbook illustrations cutaneous branches of the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, and ulnar nerves overlapped extensively in the antebrachium. Clinically testable AZ were found in the antebrachium for the caudal cutaneous antebrachial nerve of the ulnar nerve and in the carpus and manus for the cutaneous branches of the median, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerves; AZ were not found for the cutaneous branches of the radial and axillary nerves.

  11. Electrophysiology of blunted emotional bias in psychopathic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Patrick L; Jaspers-Fayer, Fern; Asmaro, Deyar T; Douglas, Kevin S; Liotti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Diminished emotional capacity is a core characteristic of psychopathic personality. We examined behavioral and electrophysiological differences in attentional bias to emotional material in 34 healthy individuals rated high or low in psychopathic traits using the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (18 high-trait, 16 low-trait). While performing an emotional Stroop task, high-trait participants displayed reduced emotional modulation of the late positive potential (LPP, 400-600 ms), and early anterior positivity (EAP, 200-300 ms) amplitudes. Results suggest blunted bias to affective content in psychopathic personality, characterized by diminished early capture to emotional salience (EAP) and dampened cognitive emotional processing (LPP). Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. The up and down of sleep: From molecules to electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Lobato, Irene; Genzel, Lisa

    2018-03-12

    Alternations of up and down can be seen across many different levels during sleep. Neural firing-rates, synaptic markers, molecular pathways, and gene expression all show differential up and down regulation across brain areas and sleep stages. And also the hallmarks of sleep - sleep stage specific oscillations - are characterized themselves by up and down as seen within the slow oscillation or theta cycles. In this review, we summarize the up and down of sleep covering molecules to electrophysiology and present different theories how this up and down could be regulated by the up and down of sleep oscillations. Further, we propose a tentative theory how this differential up and down could contribute to various outcomes of sleep related memory consolidation: enhancement of hippocampal representations of very novel memories and cortical consolidation of memories congruent with previous knowledge-networks. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternans promotion in cardiac electrophysiology models by delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Johnny M; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Cherry, Elizabeth M

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac electrical alternans is a state of alternation between long and short action potentials and is frequently associated with harmful cardiac conditions. Different dynamic mechanisms can give rise to alternans; however, many cardiac models based on ordinary differential equations are not able to reproduce this phenomenon. A previous study showed that alternans can be induced by the introduction of delay differential equations (DDEs) in the formulations of the ion channel gating variables of a canine myocyte model. The present work demonstrates that this technique is not model-specific by successfully promoting alternans using DDEs for five cardiac electrophysiology models that describe different types of myocytes, with varying degrees of complexity. By analyzing results across the different models, we observe two potential requirements for alternans promotion via DDEs for ionic gates: (i) the gate must have a significant influence on the action potential duration and (ii) a delay must significantly impair the gate's recovery between consecutive action potentials.

  14. Electrophysiological correlates of error processing in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchsow, Martin; Walter, Henrik; Buchheim, Anna; Martius, Philipp; Spitzer, Manfred; Kächele, Horst; Grön, Georg; Kiefer, Markus

    2006-05-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of error processing were investigated in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) using event-related potentials (ERP). Twelve patients with BPD and 12 healthy controls were additionally rated with the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS-10). Participants performed a Go/Nogo task while a 64 channel EEG was recorded. Three ERP components were of special interest: error-related negativity (ERN)/error negativity (Ne), early error positivity (early Pe) reflecting automatic error processing, and the late Pe component which is thought to mirror the awareness of erroneous responses. We found smaller amplitudes of the ERN/Ne in patients with BPD compared to controls. Moreover, significant correlations with the BIS-10 non-planning sub-score could be demonstrated for both the entire group and the patient group. No between-group differences were observed for the early and late Pe components. ERP measures appear to be a suitable tool to study clinical time courses in BPD.

  15. Alternans promotion in cardiac electrophysiology models by delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Johnny M.; dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Cherry, Elizabeth M.

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac electrical alternans is a state of alternation between long and short action potentials and is frequently associated with harmful cardiac conditions. Different dynamic mechanisms can give rise to alternans; however, many cardiac models based on ordinary differential equations are not able to reproduce this phenomenon. A previous study showed that alternans can be induced by the introduction of delay differential equations (DDEs) in the formulations of the ion channel gating variables of a canine myocyte model. The present work demonstrates that this technique is not model-specific by successfully promoting alternans using DDEs for five cardiac electrophysiology models that describe different types of myocytes, with varying degrees of complexity. By analyzing results across the different models, we observe two potential requirements for alternans promotion via DDEs for ionic gates: (i) the gate must have a significant influence on the action potential duration and (ii) a delay must significantly impair the gate's recovery between consecutive action potentials.

  16. Electrophysiology of Extraocular Cranial Nerves: Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Praveen; Balzer, Jeffery R; Anetakis, Katherine; Crammond, Donald J; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D

    2018-01-01

    The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits. Apart from surgical applications, electromyography of extraocular muscles has also been used to guide botulinum toxin injections in patients with strabismus and as an adjuvant diagnostic test in myasthenia gravis. In this article, we briefly review the rationale, current available techniques to monitor extraocular cranial nerves, technical difficulties, clinical and surgical applications, as well as future directions for research.

  17. Frontal negativity: An electrophysiological index of interpersonal guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bingbing; Wang, Xiangling; Cao, Bihua; Li, Fuhong

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the temporal course and electrophysiological correlates of interpersonal guilt. Human participants were asked to perform multiple rounds of a dot-estimation task with their partners, while event-related potential being recorded. The paired participants were informed that they would win money if both responded correctly; otherwise, both of them would lose money. The feeling of guilt in Self-Wrong condition (SW) was significantly higher than that in Both-Wrong and Partner-Wrong conditions. At approximately 350 ms after the onset of feedback presentation, greater negativities were observed in the frontal regions in the guilt condition (i.e., SW) than those in the non-guilt condition. The guilt-modulated frontal negativity might reflect the interactions of self-reflection, condemnation, and negative emotion.

  18. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Trigeminal and Facial Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Iryna M; Estephan, Bachir

    2018-01-01

    The clinical examination of the trigeminal and facial nerves provides significant diagnostic value, especially in the localization of lesions in disorders affecting the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The electrodiagnostic evaluation of these nerves and their pathways adds further accuracy and reliability to the diagnostic investigation and the localization process, especially when different testing methods are combined based on the clinical presentation and the electrophysiological findings. The diagnostic uniqueness of the trigeminal and facial nerves is their connectivity and their coparticipation in reflexes commonly used in clinical practice, namely the blink and corneal reflexes. The other reflexes used in the diagnostic process and lesion localization are very nerve specific and add more diagnostic yield to the workup of certain disorders of the nervous system. This article provides a review of commonly used electrodiagnostic studies and techniques in the evaluation and lesion localization of cranial nerves V and VII.

  19. Central vs. peripheral neuraxial sympathetic control of porcine ventricular electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kentaro; Howard-Quijano, Kimberly; Zhou, Wei; Rajendran, Pradeep; Yagishita, Daigo; Vaseghi, Marmar; Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Armour, J. Andrew; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Sympathoexcitation is associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of thoracic dorsal root afferent neural inputs to the spinal cord in modulating ventricular sympathetic control of normal heart electrophysiology. We hypothesize that dorsal root afferent input tonically modulates basal and evoked efferent sympathetic control of the heart. A 56-electrode sock placed on the epicardial ventricle in anesthetized Yorkshire pigs (n = 17) recorded electrophysiological function, as well as activation recovery interval (ARI) and dispersion in ARI, at baseline conditions and during stellate ganglion electrical stimulation. Measures were compared between intact states and sequential unilateral T1–T4 dorsal root transection (DRTx), ipsilateral ventral root transection (VRTx), and contralateral dorsal and ventral root transections (DVRTx). Left or right DRTx decreased global basal ARI [Lt.DRTx: 369 ± 12 to 319 ± 13 ms (P < 0.01) and Rt.DRTx: 388 ± 19 to 356 ± 15 ms (P < 0.01)]. Subsequent unilateral VRTx followed by contralateral DRx+VRTx induced no further change. In intact states, left and right stellate ganglion stimulation shortened ARIs (6 ± 2% vs. 17 ± 3%), while increasing dispersion (+139% vs. +88%). There was no difference in magnitude of ARI or dispersion change with stellate stimulation following spinal root transections. Interruption of thoracic spinal afferent signaling results in enhanced basal cardiac sympathoexcitability without diminishing the sympathetic response to stellate ganglion stimulation. This suggests spinal dorsal root transection releases spinal cord-mediated tonic inhibitory control of efferent sympathetic tone, while maintaining intrathoracic cardiocentric neural networks. PMID:26661096

  20. Novel electrophysiological approaches to clinical epilepsy. Diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Riki; Ikeda, Akio; Kinoshita, Masako

    2011-01-01

    Seizure onset zone (SOZ) is currently defined by ictal epileptiform discharges, which are most commonly recorded as regional low-voltage fast waves or repetitive spikes. Interictal epileptiform discharges, on the other hand, are not specific enough for SOZ as they are recorded at zones other than the SOZ; they are also recorded from areas that do not generate the ictal pattern and from areas to which ictal discharges propagate. Besides spikes and sharp waves, a novel index of human epileptogenicity has been investigated in association with wide-band electroencephalography (EEG) analysis. We primarily noted the following during clinical neurophysiological analysis for clinical epilepsy. Recent development of digital EEG technology enabled us to record wide-band EEG in a clinical setting. Thus, high frequency (>200 Hz) and low frequency (<1 Hz) components can be reliably recorded using subdural electrodes. Direct current shift, slow shift, ripple, and fast ripple can be well delineated, and they will be potentially useful in the diagnosis and management of epileptic patients. Fiber tractography (morphological parameter) and cortico-cortical-evoked potentials with single cortical stimulation (electrophysiological parameter) elucidated cortico-cortical connections in human brain. The data thus obtained can help us understand the mechanism of seizure propagation and normal cortical functional connectivity. Non-invasive simultaneous recording of EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provided information on the roles of deep brain structures associated with scalp-recorded epileptiform discharges. Interventional neurophysiology can shed light on the non-pharmacological treatment of epilepsy. In this report, we discuss these novel electrophysiological approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of clinical epilepsy. (author)

  1. The development of future-oriented control: an electrophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxer, Matthew; Morton, J Bruce

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive control, or the ability to focus attention and select task-appropriate responses, is not static but can be dynamically adjusted in the face of changing environmental circumstances. Several models suggest a role for conflict-monitoring in triggering these adjustments, whereby instances of response uncertainty are detected by the anterior cingulate cortex and strengthen attention-guiding rules actively maintained by lateral prefrontal cortex. Given the continued development of active maintenance mechanisms into adolescence, these models predict that the capacity to dynamically modulate control should be protracted in its development. The present study tested this prediction by examining age-related differences in behavioral and electrophysiological adaptations to prior conflict. Children, adolescents, and adults were administered the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS; Zelazo, 2006) - a developmentally-appropriate task modified so that response conflict varied from trial to trial - as cortical activity was measured by means of event-related potentials (ERPs). Although all groups showed a robust conflict effect, there were pronounced age-related differences in behavioral and electrophysiological adaptations to prior conflict. First, responses to incongruent trials were faster following incongruent trials than following congruent trials, but only for adults and adolescents. Second, ERP components that indexed response conflict, and the cortical source of these components, were modulated by preceding conflict for adults and adolescents, but not children. Taken together, the findings suggest that adults and adolescents take advantage of prior conflict to prepare for the future, whereas children respond to cognitive challenges as they occur. Theoretical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrophysiological mechanisms of sophocarpine as a potential antiarrhythmic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-fang; Li, Ci-zhen; Wang, Wei; Chen, Ying-min; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Yuan-mou; Wang, Hong-wei

    2011-03-01

    To examine the electrophysiological effects of sophocarpine on action potentials (AP) and ionic currents of cardiac myocytes and to compare some of these effects with those of amiodarone. Langendorff perfusion set-up was used in isolated guinea pig heart, and responses to sophocarpine were monitored using electrocardiograph. Conventional microelectrode, voltage clamp technique and perforated patch were employed to record fast response AP (fAP), slow response AP (sAP) and ionic currents in guinea pig papillary muscle or rabbit sinus node cells. Tachyarrhythmia produced by isoprenaline (15 μmol/L) could be reversed by sophocarpine (300 μmol/L). Sophocarpine (10 μmol/L) decreased the amplitude by 4.0%, maximal depolarization velocity (V(max)) of the fAP by 24.4%, and Na(+) current (I(Na)) by 18.0%, while it prolonged the effective refractory period (ERP) by 21.1%. The same concentration of sophocarpine could also decrease the amplitude and V(max) of the sAP, by 26.8% and 25.7%, respectively, and attenuated the Ca(2+) current (I(CaL)) and the K(+) tail current substantially. Comparison of sophocarpine with amiodarone demonstrated that both prolonged the duration and the ERP of fAP and sAP, both decreased the amplitude and V(max) of the fAP and sAP, and both slowed the automatic heart rate. Sophocarpine could reverse isoprenaline-induced arrhythmia and inhibit I(Na), I(CaL), and I(Kr) currents. The electrophysiological effects of sophocarpine are similar to those of amiodarone, which might be regarded as a prospective antiarrhythmic agent.

  3. Reentrant Information Flow in Electrophysiological Rat Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Zhang, Yunxiang; Guo, Fengru; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that the rodent brain shows a default mode network (DMN) activity similar to that in humans, offering a potential preclinical model both for physiological and pathophysiological studies. However, the neuronal mechanism underlying rodent DMN remains poorly understood. Here, we used electrophysiological data to analyze the power spectrum and estimate the directed phase transfer entropy (dPTE) within rat DMN across three vigilance states: wakeful rest (WR), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). We observed decreased gamma powers during SWS compared with WR in most of the DMN regions. Increased gamma powers were found in prelimbic cortex, cingulate cortex, and hippocampus during REMS compared with WR, whereas retrosplenial cortex showed a reverse trend. These changed gamma powers are in line with the local metabolic variation of homologous brain regions in humans. In the analysis of directional interactions, we observed well-organized anterior-to-posterior patterns of information flow in the delta band, while opposite patterns of posterior-to-anterior flow were found in the theta band. These frequency-specific opposite patterns were only observed in WR and REMS. Additionally, most of the information senders in the delta band were also the receivers in the theta band, and vice versa. Our results provide electrophysiological evidence that rat DMN is similar to its human counterpart, and there is a frequency-dependent reentry loop of anterior-posterior information flow within rat DMN, which may offer a mechanism for functional integration, supporting conscious awareness.

  4. A Wireless Headstage for Combined Optogenetics and Multichannel Electrophysiological Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon-Turcotte, Gabriel; LeChasseur, Yoan; Bories, Cyril; Messaddeq, Younes; De Koninck, Yves; Gosselin, Benoit

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a wireless headstage with real-time spike detection and data compression for combined optogenetics and multichannel electrophysiological recording. The proposed headstage, which is intended to perform both optical stimulation and electrophysiological recordings simultaneously in freely moving transgenic rodents, is entirely built with commercial off-the-shelf components, and includes 32 recording channels and 32 optical stimulation channels. It can detect, compress and transmit full action potential waveforms over 32 channels in parallel and in real time using an embedded digital signal processor based on a low-power field programmable gate array and a Microblaze microprocessor softcore. Such a processor implements a complete digital spike detector featuring a novel adaptive threshold based on a Sigma-delta control loop, and a wavelet data compression module using a new dynamic coefficient re-quantization technique achieving large compression ratios with higher signal quality. Simultaneous optical stimulation and recording have been performed in-vivo using an optrode featuring 8 microelectrodes and 1 implantable fiber coupled to a 465-nm LED, in the somatosensory cortex and the Hippocampus of a transgenic mouse expressing ChannelRhodospin (Thy1::ChR2-YFP line 4) under anesthetized conditions. Experimental results show that the proposed headstage can trigger neuron activity while collecting, detecting and compressing single cell microvolt amplitude activity from multiple channels in parallel while achieving overall compression ratios above 500. This is the first reported high-channel count wireless optogenetic device providing simultaneous optical stimulation and recording. Measured characteristics show that the proposed headstage can achieve up to 100% of true positive detection rate for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) down to 15 dB, while achieving up to 97.28% at SNR as low as 5 dB. The implemented prototype features a lifespan of up to 105

  5. Postirradiation changes in the amount and contact properties of bone marrow neutrophils in a short-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukhlovin, A.B.; Nikolaevskaya, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the adherence to plastic Petri dishes and viability ( as non-pyknotic cell counts) of rat bone marrow cells cultured for 5 to 22 h in 199 media containing 15% fresh isologous serum. An overall decrease in the number of viable myelokaryocytes including mature neutrophils was observed in the cultures irradiated with doses of 3 to 12 Gy. In addition gamma irradiation increased substantially the adherence of neutrophyls and to a lesser extent of other myelokaryocytes. A possibility of early radiation-induced disturbances in granulocytic maturation is discussed

  6. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica increases hair inductive property through inhibition of STAT signaling pathway in three-dimensional spheroid cultured human dermal papilla cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeong Min; An, Sungkwan; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Kim, Young Sam; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Bae, Seunghee

    2017-12-01

    Dermal papilla (DP) is a pivotal part of hair follicle, and the smaller size of the DP is related with the hair loss. In this study, we investigated the effect of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) on hair growth inductive property on 3D spheroid cultured human DP cells (HDP cells). Significantly increased effect of TECA on cell viability was only shown in 3D sphered HPD cells, not in 2D cultured HDP cells. Also, TECA treatment increased the sphere size of HDP cells. The luciferase activity of STAT reporter genes and the expression of STAT-targeted genes, SOCS1 and SOCS3, were significantly decreased. Also, TECA treatment increased the expression of the hair growth-related signature genes in 3D sphered HDP cells. Furthermore, TECA led to downregulation of the level of phosphorylated STAT proteins in 3D sphered HDP cells. Overall, TECA activates the potential of hair inductive capacity in HDP cells.

  7. Beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research: psychometric scale properties, construct associations, demographic correlates, and cross-cultural comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Furnham, Adrian

    2007-12-01

    Using two new scales, this study examined beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research in student samples from Austria, Malaysia, Romania, and the United Kingdom. For both constructs, effects of culture were detectable, whereas those related to key demographics were either small and inconsistent across samples (political orientation and religiosity) or zero (sex and age). Judged from factorial dimensionality and internal consistency, the psychometric properties of both scales were satisfactory. Belief in genetic determinism had lower prevalence and corresponded only modestly to positive attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research which had higher prevalence. The correlations of both constructs with a preference of inequality among social groups (social dominance orientation) were modest and inconsistent across samples. Both scales appear appropriate for cross-cultural applications, in particular for research into lay theories and public perceptions regarding genetic vs environmental effects on human behavior, mental disorders, and behavioral and psychiatric genetic research related to these.

  8. Hypothalamic Tuberomammillary Nucleus Neurons: Electrophysiological Diversity and Essential Role in Arousal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akie; Bonnavion, Patricia; Wilson, Miryam H; Mickelsen, Laura E; Bloit, Julien; de Lecea, Luis; Jackson, Alexander C

    2017-09-27

    Histaminergic (HA) neurons, found in the posterior hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), extend fibers throughout the brain and exert modulatory influence over numerous physiological systems. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the activity of HA neurons is important in the regulation of vigilance despite the lack of direct, causal evidence demonstrating its requirement for the maintenance of arousal during wakefulness. Given the strong correlation between HA neuron excitability and behavioral arousal, we investigated both the electrophysiological diversity of HA neurons in brain slices and the effect of their acute silencing in vivo in male mice. For this purpose, we first validated a transgenic mouse line expressing cre recombinase in histidine decarboxylase-expressing neurons ( Hdc -Cre) followed by a systematic census of the membrane properties of both HA and non-HA neurons in the ventral TMN (TMNv) region. Through unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis, we found electrophysiological diversity both between TMNv HA and non-HA neurons, and among HA neurons. To directly determine the impact of acute cessation of HA neuron activity on sleep-wake states in awake and behaving mice, we examined the effects of optogenetic silencing of TMNv HA neurons in vivo We found that acute silencing of HA neurons during wakefulness promotes slow-wave sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during a period of low sleep pressure. Together, these data suggest that the tonic firing of HA neurons is necessary for the maintenance of wakefulness, and their silencing not only impairs arousal but is sufficient to rapidly and selectively induce slow-wave sleep. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The function of monoaminergic systems and circuits that regulate sleep and wakefulness is often disrupted as part of the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. One such circuit is the posterior hypothalamic histamine (HA) system, implicated in supporting wakefulness and higher brain

  9. Culture of Desmodesmus communis (E.Hegewald E.Hegewald and Its Determination of the Biochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıza Akgül

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, culture medium and growth conditions were detected for Desmodesmus communis (E. Hegewald E. Hegewald (Sphaeropleales with KF470792 Accession Number that isolated from Thrace inland water (Bahçedere Stream, Tekirdağ, Turkey and determined by molecular taxonomy techniques. The microalgae was cultured under detected conditions (nutrients, pH, temperature, light density and aeration and when the culture was reached to stationary phase microalgae biomass was harvested for biochemical analysis. Total protein, total lipid, fatty acid and amino acid compositions, vitamin E amounts and variety were detected. Cell density was 9.76x105 colony/ml; dry biomass was 0.762 g/l; chlorophyll-a was 13.3 mg/l in BG11 culture medium (7.5 pH, 24±2ºC, 500 ml/min. aeration. According to biochemical analysis; total protein amount was 42.59% (dw/w; total lipid amount was 5.23% (dw/w and vitamin E amount was 3694.24 µg/glipid. The most abundant fatty acid was linolenic acid (35.18%; amino acid was glutamic acid (46.9 mg/g.

  10. Comparison of Biocompatibility and Adsorption Properties of Different Plastics for Advanced Microfluidic Cell and Tissue Culture Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Midwoud, Paul M.; Janse, Arnout; Merema, M.T.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic technology is providing new routes toward advanced cell and tissue culture models to better understand human biology and disease. Many advanced devices have been made from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to enable experiments, for example, to study drug metabolism by use of precision cut

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire-Dutch Language Version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carin Schröder; Francois Maissan; Edwin de Raaij; Jan Pool; Dr. H.M. Wittink

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ever since Engel's Biopsychosocial Model (1977) emotions, thoughts, beliefs and behaviors are accepted as important factors of health. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ) assesses these beliefs. Aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Brief IPQ into the

  12. Effect of the small-world structure on encoding performance in the primary visual cortex: an electrophysiological and modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li; Niu, Xiaoke; Wan, Hong

    2015-05-01

    The biological networks have been widely reported to present small-world properties. However, the effects of small-world network structure on population's encoding performance remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we applied a small world-based framework to quantify and analyze the response dynamics of cell assemblies recorded from rat primary visual cortex, and further established a population encoding model based on small world-based generalized linear model (SW-GLM). The electrophysiological experimental results show that the small world-based population responses to different topological shapes present significant variation (t test, p 0.8), while no significant variation was found for control networks without considering their spatial connectivity (t test, p > 0.05; effect size: Hedge's g < 0.5). Furthermore, the numerical experimental results show that the predicted response under SW-GLM is more accurate and reliable compared to the control model without small-world structure, and the decoding performance is also improved about 10 % by taking the small-world structure into account. The above results suggest the important role of the small-world neural structure in encoding visual information for the neural population by providing electrophysiological and theoretical evidence, respectively. The study helps greatly to well understand the population encoding mechanisms of visual cortex.

  13. Effects of cyclic compression on the mechanical properties and calcification process of immature chick bone tissue in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eijiro; Nakagaki, Masashi; Ichikawa, Katsuhisa; Nagayama, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Takeo

    2017-06-01

    Contribution of mechanical loading to tissue growth during both the development and post-natal maturation is of a particular interest, as its understanding would be important to strategies in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The present study has been performed to investigate how immature bone responds to mechanical loading using an ex vivo culture system. A slice of the tibia, with the thickness of 3 mm, was obtained from 0-day-old chick. For the ex vivo culture experiment in conjunction with cyclic compressive loading, we developed a custom-made, bioreactor system where both the load and the deformation applied to the specimen was recorded. Cyclic compression, with an amplitude of 0.3 N corresponding to 1 to 2% compressive strain, was applied to immature bone specimen during a 3-day culture period at an overall loading rate 3-4 cycles/min, in the presence of β-glycerol phosphate and dexamethasone in culture medium. The stress-strain relationship was obtained at the beginning and the end of the culture experiment. In addition, analyses for alkaline phosphate release, cell viability and tissue calcification were also performed. It was exhibited that elastic moduli of bone slices were significantly elevated at the end of the 3-day culture in the presence of cyclic compression, which was a similar phenomenon to significant elevation of the elastic moduli of bone tissue by the maturation from 0-day old to 3-day old. By contrast, no significant changes in the moduli were observed in the absence of cyclic compression or in deactivated, cell-free samples. The increases in the moduli were coincided with the increase in calcified area in the bone samples. It was confirmed that immature bone can respond to compressive loading in vitro and demonstrate the growth of bone matrix, similar to natural, in vivo maturation. The elevation of the elastic moduli was attributable to the increased calcified area and the realignment of collagen fibers parallel to

  14. Effects of cyclic compression on the mechanical properties and calcification process of immature chick bone tissue in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijiro Maeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contribution of mechanical loading to tissue growth during both the development and post-natal maturation is of a particular interest, as its understanding would be important to strategies in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The present study has been performed to investigate how immature bone responds to mechanical loading using an ex vivo culture system. A slice of the tibia, with the thickness of 3 mm, was obtained from 0-day-old chick. For the ex vivo culture experiment in conjunction with cyclic compressive loading, we developed a custom-made, bioreactor system where both the load and the deformation applied to the specimen was recorded. Cyclic compression, with an amplitude of 0.3 N corresponding to 1 to 2% compressive strain, was applied to immature bone specimen during a 3-day culture period at an overall loading rate 3–4 cycles/min, in the presence of β-glycerol phosphate and dexamethasone in culture medium. The stress-strain relationship was obtained at the beginning and the end of the culture experiment. In addition, analyses for alkaline phosphate release, cell viability and tissue calcification were also performed. It was exhibited that elastic moduli of bone slices were significantly elevated at the end of the 3-day culture in the presence of cyclic compression, which was a similar phenomenon to significant elevation of the elastic moduli of bone tissue by the maturation from 0-day old to 3-day old. By contrast, no significant changes in the moduli were observed in the absence of cyclic compression or in deactivated, cell-free samples. The increases in the moduli were coincided with the increase in calcified area in the bone samples. It was confirmed that immature bone can respond to compressive loading in vitro and demonstrate the growth of bone matrix, similar to natural, in vivo maturation. The elevation of the elastic moduli was attributable to the increased calcified area and the realignment of collagen

  15. Cultured human foreskin fibroblasts produce a factor that stimulates their growth with properties similar to basic fibroblast growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    To determine if fibroblasts could be a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in tissue, cells were initiated in culture from newborn human foreskin. Fibroblast cell lysates promoted radiolabeled thymidine uptake by cultured quiescent fibroblasts. Seventy-nine percent of the growth-promoting activity of lysates was recovered from heparin-Sepharose. The heparin-binding growth factor reacted on immunoblots with antiserum to human placenta-derived basic FGF and competed with iodinated basic FGF for binding to antiserum to (1-24)bFGF synthetic peptide. To confirm that fibroblasts were the source of the growth factor, cell lysates were prepared from cells incubated with radiolabeled methionine. Heparin affinity purified material was immunoprecipitated with basic FGF antiserum and electrophoresed. Radiolabeled material was detected on gel autoradiographs in the same molecular weight region as authentic iodinated basic FGF. The findings are consistant with the notion that cultured fibroblasts express basic FGF. As these cells also respond to the mitogen, it is possible that the regulation of their growth is under autocrine control. Fibroblasts may be an important source of the growth factor in tissue

  16. Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccadei, Stefania; Di Venere, Donato; Cardinali, Angela; Romano, Ferdinando; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Fraioli, Rocco; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (AE). The hepatocytes were exposed to H2O2generated in situ by glucose oxidase and were treated with either AE, or pure chlorogenic acid (ChA) or with the well known antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenilenediamine (DPPD). Addition of glucose oxidase to the culture medium caused depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cultures, as a lipid peroxidation indicator, and cell death. These results demonstrated that AE protected cells from the oxidative stress caused by glucose oxidase, comparable to DPPD. Furthermore, AE, as well as ChA, prevented the loss of total GSH and the accumulation of MDA. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with AE reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, however, ChA had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, AE rather than ChA induced apoptosis, measured by flow cytometric analysis of annexin and by activation of caspase-3, in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that AE had a marked antioxidative potential that protects hepatocytes from an oxidative stress. Furthermore, AE reduced cell viability and had an apoptotic activity on a human liver cancer cell line.

  17. Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum involved in the processing of dolo and pito, West African sorghum beers, for the selection of starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Traoré, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and amy......AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs...... the isolates which were clustered in four groups according to their rates of acidification of sorghum malt broth. The faster acidifying group of isolates (43.48%) had a rate of acidification evaluated as Delta pH of 1.14 +/- 0.15 pH unit after 6 h of fermentation, followed by a second group of isolates (38.......08%) with a similar rate of acidification after 9 h of fermentation. From the isolates endowed with an antimicrobial activity, 5.76% belonged to the faster acidifying group and 40.38% belonged to the second group. 88.7% of the isolates had the ability for producing EPSs but not amylase. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus...

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and preliminary psychometric properties of the Affective Reactivity Index in Brazilian Youth: implications for DSM-5 measured irritability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Araújo DeSousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of the Affective Reactivity Index (ARI to Brazilian Portuguese and to investigate preliminary psychometric properties of the adapted version. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation was based on the investigation of the theoretical and operational equivalences of the original ARI in the Brazilian context, followed by a process of translation, back-translation, and review by a committee of experts. Data analysis was carried out in a community sample of 133 schoolchildren aged 8 to 17 years to investigate the following characteristics of the ARI: 1 factor structure; 2 internal consistency; 3 construct validity comparing differential relationships between irritability and anxiety dimensions and impairment; and 4 item response theory (IRT parameters. Results: A final Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument was defined and is presented. Internal consistency was good, and our analysis supported the original single-factor structure of the ARI. Correlations of the ARI with distress-related anxiety dimensions were higher than with phobic-related anxiety dimensions, supporting its construct validity. In addition, higher ARI scores were associated with higher irritability-related impairment. IRT analysis underscored frequency of loss of temper as essential to inform about pathological states of irritability. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the ARI seems to be very similar to the original instrument in terms of conceptual, item, semantic, and operational equivalence. Our preliminary analysis replicates and extends previous evidence confirming promising psychometric properties for the ARI.

  19. Motor Neuropathy in Hypothyroidism: Clinical and Electrophysiological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Yeasmin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is a clinical condition associated with low levels of thyroid hormones with raised TSH. Peripheral neuropathy may be associated with hypothyroidism which usually develops insidiously over a long period of time due to irregular taking of drugs or lack of thyroid hormone replacement. Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate the clinical and electro-physiological findings in hypothyroid patients in order to evaluate the neuromuscular dysfunction as well as motor neuropathy. Method: In this study, 70 subjects with the age range from 20 to 50 years of both sexes were included of whom 40 hypothyroids were taken in study group (B with the duration of 6 months to 5 years and 30 healthy euthyroid subjects were taken as control (Group A. On the basis of their TSH level, group B was further divided into group B1 with TSH level <60 MIU /L (less severe and group B2 with TSH >60 MIU /L (severe group. The d latency and NCV for motor nerve function were measured by NCV machine in median and ulnar nerve for upper limb and in common peroneal nerve for lower limb. TT3, TT4 were measured by RIA and TSH by IRMA method. All these parameters were measured on the day 1 (one of their first visit. Data were analysed statistically by ANOVA and Z test. Result: Both TT3, TT4 levels were significantly (P<0.01 lower in hypothyroids in comparison to those of control. Diminished or absence of most of the deep tendon reflexes were found in all the hypothyroids. Most of the patients (67.5% showed significantly higher (P <0.01 motor distal latencies (MDL with lower (P> 0.001 conduction velocities (MNCV and all these changes were more marked in group B2. Conclusion: So, the study revealed that motor neuropathy may be a consequence of hypothyroidism.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v1i1.3692 Key Words: Hypothyroidism; neuropathy; electrophysiology BSMMU J 2008; 1(1: 15-18

  20. A microelectrode array electrodeposited with reduced graphene oxide and Pt nanoparticles for norepinephrine and electrophysiological recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Song, Yilin; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Shengwei; Xu, Huiren; Wang, Mixia; Wang, Yang; Cai, Xinxia

    2017-11-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), a common neurotransmitter released by locus coeruleus neurons, plays an essential role in the communication mechanism of the mammalian nervous system. In this work, a microelectrode array (MEA) was fabricated by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology to provide a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for the direct determination in NE dynamic secretion. To improve the electrical performance, the MEA was electrodeposited with the reduced graphene oxide and Pt nanoparticles (rGOPNps). rGOPNps-MEA was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry exhibited remarkably electrocatalytic properties towards NE. Calibration results showed a sensitivity of 1.03 nA µM-1 to NE with a detection limit of 0.08 µM. In Particular, the MEA was successfully used for measuring dynamic extracellular NE secretion from the locus coeruleus brain slice, as well as monitoring spike firing from the hippocampal brain slice. This fabricated device has potential in studies of spatially resolved delivery of trace neurochemicals and electrophysiological activities of a variety of biological tissues in vitro.

  1. Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ePedroni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Granule cells (GCs in the dentate gyrus are generated mainly postnatally. Between embryonic day 10 and 14, neural precursors migrate from the primary dentate matrix to the dentate gyrus where they differentiate into neurons. Neurogenesis reaches a peak at the end of the first postnatal week and it is completed at the end of the first postnatal month. This process continues at a reduced rate throughout life. Interestingly, immediately after birth, GCs exhibit a clear GABAergic phenotype. Only later they integrate the classical glutamatergic trisynaptic hippocampal circuit. Here, whole patch clamp recordings, in current clamp mode, were performed from immature GCs, intracellularly loaded with biocytin (in hippocampal slices from P0-P3 old rats in order to compare their morphological characteristics with their electrophysiological properties. The vast majority of GCs were very immature with small somata, few dendritic branches terminating with small varicosities and growth cones. In spite of their immaturity their axons reached often the CA3 area. Immature GCs generated, upon membrane depolarization, either rudimentary sodium spikes or more clear overshooting action potentials that fired repetitively. They exhibited also low threshold calcium spikes. In addition, most spiking neurons showed spontaneous synchronized network activity, reminiscent of giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs generated in the hippocampus by the synergistic action of glutamate and GABA, both depolarizing and excitatory. This early synchronized activity, absent during adult neurogenesis, may play a crucial role in the refinement of local neuronal circuits within the developing dentate gyrus.

  2. From neuroscience to application in neuropharmacology: A generation of progress in electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzo, S; Fornaro, S; Garbarino, S; Saturno, M; Sannita, W G

    2006-04-01

    A continuum from neuronal cellular/subcellular properties to system processes appears to exist in many instances and to allow privileged approaches in neuroscience and neuropharmacology research. Brain signals and the cholinergic and GABAergic systems, in vivo and in vitro evidence from studies on the retina, or the "gamma band" oscillations in neuron membrane potential/spiking rate and neuronal assemblies are examples in this respect. However, spontaneous and stimulus-event-related signals at any location and time point reflect brain state conditions that depend on neuromodulation, neurotransmitter interaction, hormones (e.g., glucocorticois, ACTH, estrogens) and neuroendocrine interaction at different levels of complexity, as well as on the spontaneous or experimentally-induced changes in metabolism (e.g., glucose, ammonia), blood flow, pO2, pCO2, acid/base balance, K activity, etc., that occur locally or systemically. Any of these factors can account for individual differences and/or changes over time that often are (or need to be) neglected in pharmaco-EEG studies or are dealt with statistically and by controlling the experimental conditions. As a result, the electrophysiological effects of neuroactive drugs are to an extent non-specific and require adequate modeling and precise correlation with independent parameters (e.g., drug kinetics, vigilance, hormonal profile or metabolic status, etc.) to avoid biased results in otherwise controlled studies.

  3. Biophysical characterisation of electrofused giant HEK293-cells as a novel electrophysiological expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, D.; Terpitz, U.; Zhou, A.; Reuss, R.; Mueller, K.; Sukhorukov, V.L.; Gessner, P.; Nagel, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Bamberg, E.

    2006-01-01

    Giant HEK293 cells of 30-65 μm in diameter were produced by three-dimensional multi-cell electrofusion in 75 mOsm sorbitol media. These strong hypotonic conditions facilitated fusion because of the spherical shape and smooth membrane surface of the swollen cells. A regulatory volume decrease (RVD), as observed at higher osmolalities, did not occur at 75 mOsm. In contrast to field-treated, but unfused cells, the increase in volume induced by hypotonic shock was only partly reversible in the case of fused giant cells after their transfer into isotonic medium. The large size of the electrofused cells allowed the study of their electrophysiological properties by application of both whole-cell and giant excised patch-clamp techniques. Recordings on giant cells yielded a value of 1.1 ± 0.1 μF/cm 2 for the area-specific membrane capacitance. This value was consistent with that of the parental cells. The area-specific conductivity of giant cells (diameter > 50 μm) was found to be between 12.8 and 16.1 μS/cm 2 , which is in the range of that of the parental cells. Measurements with patch-pipettes containing fluorescein showed uniform dye uptake in the whole-cell configuration, but not in the cell-attached configuration. The diffusion-controlled uniform uptake of the dye into the cell interior excludes internal compartmentalisation. The finding of a homogeneous fusion was also supported by expression of the yellow fluorescent protein YFP (as part of the fusion-protein ChR2-YFP) in giant cells since no plasma-membrane bound YFP-mediated fluorescence was detected in the interior of the electrofused cells. Functional expression and the electrophysiological characterisation of the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) yielded similar results as for parental cells. Most importantly, the giant cells exhibited a comparable expression density of the channel protein in the plasma membrane as observed in parental cells. This demonstrates that electrofused cells

  4. Use of human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes to examine sunitinib mediated cardiotoxicity and electrophysiological alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.D., E-mail: jennifer.cohen@roche.com [Early and Investigative Safety, Nonclinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche, 340 Kingsland Street, Nutley, NJ 07110 (United States); Babiarz, J.E., E-mail: joshua.babiarz@roche.com [Early and Investigative Safety, Nonclinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche, 340 Kingsland Street, Nutley, NJ 07110 (United States); Abrams, R.M., E-mail: rory.abrams@roche.com [Early and Investigative Safety, Nonclinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche, 340 Kingsland Street, Nutley, NJ 07110 (United States); Guo, L., E-mail: liang.guo@roche.com [Early and Investigative Safety, Nonclinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche, 340 Kingsland Street, Nutley, NJ 07110 (United States); Kameoka, S., E-mail: sei.kameoka@roche.com [Early and Investigative Safety, Nonclinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche, 340 Kingsland Street, Nutley, NJ 07110 (United States); Chiao, E., E-mail: eric.chiao@roche.com [Early and Investigative Safety, Nonclinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche, 340 Kingsland Street, Nutley, NJ 07110 (United States); Taunton, J., E-mail: taunton@cmp.ucsf.edu [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Kolaja, K.L., E-mail: kyle.kolaja@roche.com [Early and Investigative Safety, Nonclinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche, 340 Kingsland Street, Nutley, NJ 07110 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Sunitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stroma tumor, is associated with clinical cardiac toxicity. Although the precise mechanism of sunitinib cardiotoxicity is not known, both the key metabolic energy regulator, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and ribosomal S 6 kinase (RSK) have been hypothesized as causative, albeit based on rodent models. To study the mechanism of sunitinib-mediated cardiotoxicity in a human model, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) having electrophysiological and contractile properties of native cardiac tissue were investigated. Sunitinib was cardiotoxic in a dose-dependent manner with an IC{sub 50} in the low micromolar range, observed by a loss of cellular ATP, an increase in oxidized glutathione, and induction of apoptosis in iPSC-CMs. Pretreatment of iPSC-CMs with AMPK activators AICAR or metformin, increased the phosphorylation of pAMPK-T172 and pACC-S79, but only marginally attenuated sunitinib mediated cell death. Furthermore, additional inhibitors of AMPK were not directly cytotoxic to iPSC-CMs up to 250 {mu}M concentrations. Inhibition of RSK with a highly specific, irreversible, small molecule inhibitor (RSK-FMK-MEA) did not induce cytotoxicity in iPSC-CMs below 250 {mu}M. Extensive electrophysiological analysis of sunitinib and RSK-FMK-MEA mediated conduction effects were performed. Taken together, these findings suggest that inhibition of AMPK and RSK are not a major component of sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Although the exact mechanism of cardiotoxicity of sunitinib is not known, it is likely due to inhibition of multiple kinases simultaneously. These data highlight the utility of human iPSC-CMs in investigating the potential molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced cardiotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytoxic effect of sunitinib on human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes Black

  5. Use of human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes to examine sunitinib mediated cardiotoxicity and electrophysiological alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.D.; Babiarz, J.E.; Abrams, R.M.; Guo, L.; Kameoka, S.; Chiao, E.; Taunton, J.; Kolaja, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Sunitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stroma tumor, is associated with clinical cardiac toxicity. Although the precise mechanism of sunitinib cardiotoxicity is not known, both the key metabolic energy regulator, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and ribosomal S 6 kinase (RSK) have been hypothesized as causative, albeit based on rodent models. To study the mechanism of sunitinib-mediated cardiotoxicity in a human model, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) having electrophysiological and contractile properties of native cardiac tissue were investigated. Sunitinib was cardiotoxic in a dose-dependent manner with an IC 50 in the low micromolar range, observed by a loss of cellular ATP, an increase in oxidized glutathione, and induction of apoptosis in iPSC-CMs. Pretreatment of iPSC-CMs with AMPK activators AICAR or metformin, increased the phosphorylation of pAMPK-T172 and pACC-S79, but only marginally attenuated sunitinib mediated cell death. Furthermore, additional inhibitors of AMPK were not directly cytotoxic to iPSC-CMs up to 250 μM concentrations. Inhibition of RSK with a highly specific, irreversible, small molecule inhibitor (RSK-FMK-MEA) did not induce cytotoxicity in iPSC-CMs below 250 μM. Extensive electrophysiological analysis of sunitinib and RSK-FMK-MEA mediated conduction effects were performed. Taken together, these findings suggest that inhibition of AMPK and RSK are not a major component of sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Although the exact mechanism of cardiotoxicity of sunitinib is not known, it is likely due to inhibition of multiple kinases simultaneously. These data highlight the utility of human iPSC-CMs in investigating the potential molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced cardiotoxicity. -- Highlights: ► Cytoxic effect of sunitinib on human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes ► Sunitinib causes ATP depletion, LDH release, GSH

  6. Retinal Electrophysiology Is a Viable Preclinical Biomarker for Drug Penetrance into the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Charng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether retinal electrophysiology is a useful surrogate marker of drug penetrance into the central nervous system (CNS. Materials and Methods. Brain and retinal electrophysiology were assessed with full-field visually evoked potentials and electroretinograms in conscious and anaesthetised rats following systemic or local administrations of centrally penetrant (muscimol or nonpenetrant (isoguvacine compounds. Results. Local injections into the eye/brain bypassed the blood neural barriers and produced changes in retinal/brain responses for both drugs. In conscious animals, systemic administration of muscimol resulted in retinal and brain biopotential changes, whereas systemic delivery of isoguvacine did not. General anaesthesia confounded these outcomes. Conclusions. Retinal electrophysiology, when recorded in conscious animals, shows promise as a viable biomarker of drug penetration into the CNS. In contrast, when conducted under anaesthetised conditions confounds can be induced in both cortical and retinal electrophysiological recordings.

  7. Decreased mechanical properties of heart valve tissue constructs cultured in platelet lysate as compared to fetal bovine serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geemen, van D.; Riem Vis, P.W.; Soekhradj - Soechit, R.S.; Sluijter, J.P.G.; Liefde - van Beest, de M.; Kluin, J.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    2011-01-01

    In autologous heart valve tissue engineering, there is an ongoing search for alternatives of fetal bovine serum (FBS). Human platelet-lysate (PL) might be a promising substitute. In the present article, we aimed to examine the tissue formation, functionality, and mechanical properties of engineered

  8. The Role of Culture in the Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, David; Folarin-Schleicher, Antonia; Moshi, Lioba

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of culture in second language instruction; Examines properties of culture, culture as a product of human activity, culture as a shared product, culture as an artificial product, cultural diversity, cultural relativism, cultural sensitivity, and stages of cultural awareness. Focuses on how to teach cultural knowledge, and the…

  9. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Du

    Full Text Available Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  10. Electrophysiological changes in rats after modulated microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, L.D.; Thuroczy, G.; Kubinyi, G.; Bakos, J.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of modulated microwave irradiation on the electrophysiological changes in rats were studied. The response of the central nervous system (CNS) was observed simultaneously to the cardiovascular system by using quantitative polygraphic measuring system. In acute experiments on rat the electroencephalogram (EEG), rheoencephalogram (REG) as an index of cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain tissue DC impedance and temperature, ECG were recorded in parallel before, during and after exposure of the brain localized amplitude (AM) modulated (16 Hz) and continuous wave (CW) microwave exposure. The average specific absorption rates (SAR) in the brain were 8.4 mW/g, 16.8 mW/g and 42 mW/g (CW) respectively. At thermal level CW exposure the delta band of EEG increased. In case of low intensities modulated exposure the beta band of EEG spectrum increased. No changes were observed during athermal CW irradiation on the EEG. Moderate modulation depended changes were measured in cerebral metabolism, cerebral blood flow and cardiorespiratoric system during microwave irradiation. (author)

  11. Logo Effects on Brand Extension Evaluations from the Electrophysiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qian; Pei, Guanxiong; Dai, Shenyi; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2017-01-01

    Brand extension typically has two strategies: brand name extension (BN) and brand logo extension (BL). The current study explored which strategy (BN or BL) better enhanced the success of dissimilar brand extension and product promotion in enterprises. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate electrophysiological processes when subjects evaluated their acceptance of the brand extension using a combined picture of S1 and S2. S1 was a famous brand presented by two identity signs (brand name and brand logo). S2 was a picture of an extension product that belonged to a dissimilar product category than S1. The behavior data showed that BL was more acceptable than BN in the dissimilar brand extension. The neurophysiology process was reflected by a less negative N2 component and a larger P300 component in the BL than in the BN. We suggested that N2 reflected a whole conflict between the brand-product combination and the long-term memory and that P300 could be regarded as the reflection of the categorization process in the working memory.

  12. Myokit: A simple interface to cardiac cellular electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerx, Michael; Collins, Pieter; de Lange, Enno; Volders, Paul G A

    2016-01-01

    Myokit is a new powerful and versatile software tool for modeling and simulation of cardiac cellular electrophysiology. Myokit consists of an easy-to-read modeling language, a graphical user interface, single and multi-cell simulation engines and a library of advanced analysis tools accessible through a Python interface. Models can be loaded from Myokit's native file format or imported from CellML. Model export is provided to C, MATLAB, CellML, CUDA and OpenCL. Patch-clamp data can be imported and used to estimate model parameters. In this paper, we review existing tools to simulate the cardiac cellular action potential to find that current tools do not cater specifically to model development and that there is a gap between easy-to-use but limited software and powerful tools that require strong programming skills from their users. We then describe Myokit's capabilities, focusing on its model description language, simulation engines and import/export facilities in detail. Using three examples, we show how Myokit can be used for clinically relevant investigations, multi-model testing and parameter estimation in Markov models, all with minimal programming effort from the user. This way, Myokit bridges a gap between performance, versatility and user-friendliness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrophysiological evaluation of Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembilla-Perrot, Beatrice

    2002-01-01

    Sudden death might complicate the follow-up of symptomatic patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) and might be the first event in patients with asymptomatic WPW. The risk of sudden death is increased in some clinical situations. Generally, the noninvasive studies are unable to predict the risk of sudden death correctly . The electrophysiological study is the best means to detect the risk of sudden death and to evaluate the nature of symptoms. Methods used to define the prognosis of WPW are well-defined. At first the maximal rate of conduction through the accessory pathway is evaluated; programmed atrial stimulation using 1 and 2 extrastimuli delivered at different cycle lengths is then used to determine the accessory pathway refractory period and to induce a supraventricular tachycardia. These methods should be performed in the control state and repeated in adrenergic situations either during exercise test or more simply during a perfusion of small doses of isoproterenol. The induction of an atrial fibrillation with rapid conduction through the accessory pathway (> 240/min in control state, > 300/min after isoproterenol) is the sign of a form of WPW at risk of sudden death. PMID:16951730

  14. Electrophysiological evaluation of Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Brembilla-Perrot

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death might complicate the follow-up of symptomatic patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW and might be the first event in patients with asymptomatic WPW. The risk of sudden death is increased in some clinical situations. Generally, the noninvasive studies are unable to predict the risk of sudden death correctly . The electrophysiological study is the best means to detect the risk of sudden death and to evaluate the nature of symptoms. Methods used to define the prognosis of WPW are well-defined. At first the maximal rate of conduction through the accessory pathway is evaluated; programmed atrial stimulation using 1 and 2 extrastimuli delivered at different cycle lengths is then used to determine the accessory pathway refractory period and to induce a supraventricular tachycardia. These methods should be performed in the control state and repeated in adrenergic situations either during exercise test or more simply during a perfusion of small doses of isoproterenol. The induction of an atrial fibrillation with rapid conduction through the accessory pathway (> 240/min in control state, > 300/min after isoproterenol is the sign of a form of WPW at risk of sudden death.

  15. Audiological and electrophysiological assessment of professional pop/rock musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Matas, Carla G; Carvallo, Renata M M; Gomes, Raquel F; de Beija, Carolina S; Magliaro, Fernanda C L; Rabelo, Camila M

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated peripheral and central auditory pathways in professional musicians (with and without hearing loss) compared to non-musicians. The goal was to verify if music exposure could affect auditory pathways as a whole. This is a prospective study that compared the results obtained between three groups (musicians with and without hearing loss and non-musicians). Thirty-two male individuals participated and they were assessed by: Immittance measurements, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies from 0.25 to 20 kHz, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), and Cognitive Potential. The musicians showed worse hearing thresholds in both conventional and high frequency audiometry when compared to the non-musicians; the mean amplitude of Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions was smaller in the musicians group, but the mean latencies of Auditory Brainstem Response and Cognitive Potential were diminished in the musicians when compared to the non-musicians. Our findings suggest that the population of musicians is at risk for developing music-induced hearing loss. However, the electrophysiological evaluation showed that latency waves of ABR and P300 were diminished in musicians, which may suggest that the auditory training to which these musicians are exposed acts as a facilitator of the acoustic signal transmission to the cortex.

  16. Audiological and electrophysiological assessment of professional pop/rock musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra G Samelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated peripheral and central auditory pathways in professional musicians (with and without hearing loss compared to non-musicians. The goal was to verify if music exposure could affect auditory pathways as a whole. This is a prospective study that compared the results obtained between three groups (musicians with and without hearing loss and non-musicians. Thirty-two male individuals participated and they were assessed by: Immittance measurements, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies from 0.25 to 20 kHz, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR, and Cognitive Potential. The musicians showed worse hearing thresholds in both conventional and high frequency audiometry when compared to the non-musicians; the mean amplitude of Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions was smaller in the musicians group, but the mean latencies of Auditory Brainstem Response and Cognitive Potential were diminished in the musicians when compared to the non-musicians. Our findings suggest that the population of musicians is at risk for developing music-induced hearing loss. However, the electrophysiological evaluation showed that latency waves of ABR and P300 were diminished in musicians, which may suggest that the auditory training to which these musicians are exposed acts as a facilitator of the acoustic signal transmission to the cortex.

  17. Visual search elicits the electrophysiological marker of visual working memory.

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    Stephen M Emrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although limited in capacity, visual working memory (VWM plays an important role in many aspects of visually-guided behavior. Recent experiments have demonstrated an electrophysiological marker of VWM encoding and maintenance, the contralateral delay activity (CDA, which has been shown in multiple tasks that have both explicit and implicit memory demands. Here, we investigate whether the CDA is evident during visual search, a thoroughly-researched task that is a hallmark of visual attention but has no explicit memory requirements. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results demonstrate that the CDA is present during a lateralized search task, and that it is similar in amplitude to the CDA observed in a change-detection task, but peaks slightly later. The changes in CDA amplitude during search were strongly correlated with VWM capacity, as well as with search efficiency. These results were paralleled by behavioral findings showing a strong correlation between VWM capacity and search efficiency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the activity observed during visual search was generated by the same neural resources that subserve VWM, and that this activity reflects the maintenance of previously searched distractors.

  18. Groin hematoma after electrophysiological procedures-incidence and predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Anja Borgen; Jakobsen, Christina Spåbæk; Riahi, Sam; Hjortshøj, Søren

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the incidence and predisposing factors of groin hematomas after electrophysiological (EP) procedures. Prospective, observational study, enrolling consecutive patients after EP procedures (Atrial fibrillation: n = 151; Supraventricular tachycardia/Diagnostic EP: n = 82; Ventricular tachycardia: n = 18). Patients underwent manual compression for 10 min and 3 h post procedural bed rest. AF ablations were performed with INR 2-3, ACT > 300, and no protamine sulfate. Adhesive pressure dressings (APDs) were used if sheath size ≥ 10F; procedural time > 120 min; and BMI > 30. Patient-reported hematomas were recorded by a telephone follow-up after 2 weeks. Hematoma developed immediately in 26 patients (10%) and after 14 days significant hematoma was reported in 68 patients (27%). Regression analysis on sex, age, BMI 25, ACT 300, use of APD, sheath size and number, and complicated venous access was not associated with hematoma, either immediately after the procedure or after 14 days. Any hematoma presenting immediately after procedures was associated with patient-reported hematomas after 14 days, odds ratio 18.7 (CI 95%: 5.00-69.8; P hematoma immediately after EP procedures was the sole predictor of patient-reported hematoma after 2 weeks. Initiatives to prevent groin hematoma should focus on the procedure itself as well as post-procedural care.

  19. Electrophysiological measurement of interest during walking in a simulated environment.

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    Takeda, Yuji; Okuma, Takashi; Kimura, Motohiro; Kurata, Takeshi; Takenaka, Takeshi; Iwaki, Sunao

    2014-09-01

    A reliable neuroscientific technique for objectively estimating the degree of interest in a real environment is currently required in the research fields of neuroergonomics and neuroeconomics. Toward the development of such a technique, the present study explored electrophysiological measures that reflect an observer's interest in a nearly-real visual environment. Participants were asked to walk through a simulated shopping mall and the attractiveness of the shopping mall was manipulated by opening and closing the shutters of stores. During the walking task, participants were exposed to task-irrelevant auditory probes (two-stimulus oddball sequence). The results showed a smaller P2/early P3a component of task-irrelevant auditory event-related potentials and a larger lambda response of eye-fixation-related potentials in an interesting environment (i.e., open-shutter condition) than in a boring environment (i.e., closed-shutter condition); these findings can be reasonably explained by supposing that participants allocated more attentional resources to visual information in an interesting environment than in a boring environment, and thus residual attentional resources that could be allocated to task-irrelevant auditory probes were reduced. The P2/early P3a component and the lambda response may be useful measures of interest in a real visual environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrophysiological CNS-processes related to associative learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Gert R J; Schachtman, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    The neurophysiology of human associative memory has been studied with electroencephalographic techniques since the 1930s. This research has revealed that different types of electrophysiological processes in the human brain can be modified by conditioning: sensory evoked potentials, sensory induced gamma-band activity, periods of frequency-specific waves (alpha and beta waves, the sensorimotor rhythm and the mu-rhythm) and slow cortical potentials. Conditioning of these processes has been studied in experiments that either use operant conditioning or repeated contingent pairings of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (classical conditioning). In operant conditioning, the appearance of a specific brain process is paired with an external stimulus (neurofeedback) and the feedback enables subjects to obtain varying degrees of control of the CNS-process. Such acquired self-regulation of brain activity has found practical uses for instance in the amelioration of epileptic seizures, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It has also provided communicative means of assistance for tetraplegic patients through the use of brain computer interfaces. Both extra and intracortically recorded signals have been coupled with contingent external feedback. It is the aim for this review to summarize essential results on all types of electromagnetic brain processes that have been modified by classical or operant conditioning. The results are organized according to type of conditioned EEG-process, type of conditioning, and sensory modalities of the conditioning stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in Inward Rectifier K+ Channels in Hepatic Stellate Cells During Primary Culture

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    Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kong, In Deok; Lee, Joong-Woo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the expression and function of inward rectifier K+ channels in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Materials and Methods The expression of inward rectifier K+ channels was measured using real-time RT-PCR, and electrophysiological properties were determined using the gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp technique. Results The dominant inward rectifier K+ channel subtypes were Kir2.1 and Kir6.1. These dominant K+ channel subtypes decreased significantly during the primary culture throughout activation process. HSC can be classified into two subgroups: one with an inward-rectifying K+ current (type 1) and the other without (type 2). The inward current was blocked by Ba2+ (100 µM) and enhanced by high K+ (140 mM), more prominently in type 1 HSC. There was a correlation between the amplitude of the Ba2+-sensitive current and the membrane potential. In addition, Ba2+ (300 µM) depolarized the membrane potential. After the culture period, the amplitude of the inward current decreased and the membrane potential became depolarized. Conclusion HSC express inward rectifier K+ channels, which physiologically regulate membrane potential and decrease during the activation process. These results will potentially help determine properties of the inward rectifier K+ channels in HSC as well as their roles in the activation process. PMID:18581597

  2. Maintained in Very Good Condition or Virtually Rebuilt? Destruction of Cultural Property and Narration of Violent Histories

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    Samuel Andrew Hardy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of cultural heritage in shaping public understandings of history, identity and justice; it focuses on misinterpretations and misrepresentations of damage to and destruction of archaeological sites and historic buildings in Cyprus. It examines: restoration and its impact on public understandings of history; scholarly conduct in the collection and presentation of data; denial of violence as a tactic to establish peace and recognition of violence as a strategy for building trust; and denial of violence as a strategy for fostering nationalist sentiment and inciting ethnic hatred. First, it addresses the role of monuments and their destruction in memory and amnesia. Then, it identifies inappropriate restoration, which has misdirected professional and public understanding of history. It also demonstrates either wilful ignorance of events or conscious exclusion of inconvenient facts from archaeological and official texts; either way, this is unprofessional practice, which has led to the implicit denial of real violence that was intended to cause ethnic cleansing.

  3. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiho, T; Hui, J; Yamane, A; Ukai, S

    1993-12-01

    Crude polysaccharides were obtained from a hot-water extract and alkaline extracts of the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. They showed significant activity in normal mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice as a result of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP) obtained from 5% sodium hydroxide extract slightly lowered the plasma glucose level in normal mice by oral (p.o.) administration. A neutral polysaccharide (CS-F30) exhibited higher hypoglycemic activity than its crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP), exhibited by i.p. injection, and it significantly lowered the glucose level by p.o. administration (50 mg/kg). However, it hardly affected the plasma insulin level in normal mice. CS-F30 ([alpha]D + 21 degrees in water) is composed of galactose, glucose and mannose (molar percent, 62:28:10), and its molecular weight is about 45000.

  4. Differences in growth properties of endometrial cancer in three dimensional (3D) culture and 2D cell monolayer

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    Chitcholtan, Kenny; Asselin, Eric; Parent, Sophie; Sykes, Peter H.; Evans, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models have an invaluable role in understanding the behaviour of tumour cells in a well defined microenvironment. This is because some aspects of tumour characteristics cannot be fully recapitulated in a cell monolayer (2D). In the present study, we compared growth patterns, expression of signalling molecules, and metabolism-associated proteins of endometrial cancer cell lines in 3D and 2D cell cultures. Cancer cells formed spherical structures in 3D reconstituted basement membrane (3D rBM), and the morphological appearance was cell line dependent. Cell differentiation was observed after 8 days in the 3D rBM. There was reduced proliferation, detected by less expression of PCNA in 3D rBM than in 2D cell monolayers. The addition of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cancer cells induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt in both cell culture conditions. The uptake of glucose was selectively altered in the 3D rBM, but there was a lack of association with Glut-1 expression. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) was selectively altered in 3D rBM, and it was cell line dependent. Our data demonstrated that 3D rBM as an in vitro model can influence proliferation and metabolism of endometrial cancer cell behaviour compared to 2D cell monolayer. Changes are specific to individual cell types. The use of 3D rBM is, therefore, important in the in vitro study of targeted anticancer therapies.

  5. Differences in growth properties of endometrial cancer in three dimensional (3D) culture and 2D cell monolayer

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    Chitcholtan, Kenny, E-mail: kenny.chitcholtan@otago.ac.nz [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand); Asselin, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Asselin@uqtr.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Quebec, at Trois-Rivières, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada G9A 5H7 (Canada); Parent, Sophie, E-mail: Sophie.Parent@uqtr.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Quebec, at Trois-Rivières, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada G9A 5H7 (Canada); Sykes, Peter H., E-mail: peter.sykes@otago.ac.nz [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand); Evans, John J., E-mail: john.evans@otago.ac.nz [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand); Centre of Neuroendocrinology and The MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand)

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models have an invaluable role in understanding the behaviour of tumour cells in a well defined microenvironment. This is because some aspects of tumour characteristics cannot be fully recapitulated in a cell monolayer (2D). In the present study, we compared growth patterns, expression of signalling molecules, and metabolism-associated proteins of endometrial cancer cell lines in 3D and 2D cell cultures. Cancer cells formed spherical structures in 3D reconstituted basement membrane (3D rBM), and the morphological appearance was cell line dependent. Cell differentiation was observed after 8 days in the 3D rBM. There was reduced proliferation, detected by less expression of PCNA in 3D rBM than in 2D cell monolayers. The addition of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cancer cells induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt in both cell culture conditions. The uptake of glucose was selectively altered in the 3D rBM, but there was a lack of association with Glut-1 expression. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) was selectively altered in 3D rBM, and it was cell line dependent. Our data demonstrated that 3D rBM as an in vitro model can influence proliferation and metabolism of endometrial cancer cell behaviour compared to 2D cell monolayer. Changes are specific to individual cell types. The use of 3D rBM is, therefore, important in the in vitro study of targeted anticancer therapies.

  6. Multiscale electrophysiology format: an open-source electrophysiology format using data compression, encryption, and cyclic redundancy check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Stengel, Keith A; Worrell, Gregory A; Stead, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Continuous, long-term (up to 10 days) electrophysiological monitoring using hybrid intracranial electrodes is an emerging tool for presurgical epilepsy evaluation and fundamental investigations of seizure generation. Detection of high-frequency oscillations and microseizures could provide valuable insights into causes and therapies for the treatment of epilepsy, but requires high spatial and temporal resolution. Our group is currently using hybrid arrays composed of up to 320 micro- and clinical macroelectrode arrays sampled at 32 kHz per channel with 18-bits of A/D resolution. Such recordings produce approximately 3 terabytes of data per day. Existing file formats have limited data compression capabilities, and do not offer mechanisms for protecting patient identifying information or detecting data corruption during transmission or storage. We present a novel file format that employs range encoding to provide a high degree of data compression, a three-tiered 128-bit encryption system for patient information and data security, and a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check to verify the integrity of compressed data blocks. Open-source software to read, write, and process these files are provided.

  7. The Portuguese version of the Epilepsy Surgery Inventory (ESI-55): cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Neide Barreira; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita; da Silva, Tatiana Indelicato; Westphal-Guitti, Ana Carolina; Azevedo, Auro Mauro; da Silva Noffs, Maria Helena; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Targas Yacubian, Elza Márcia

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Portuguese version of the Epilepsy Surgery Inventory (ESI-55) and to assess its psychometric properties. Sixty patients with temporal lobe epilepsy related to unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis who underwent presurgical evaluation at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) formed the sample for this study. The psychometric properties of the ESI-55 included: reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Internal consistency was high in all domains (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.76 for Social Function to 0.88 for Physical Function) except Overall Quality of Life (alpha=0.45). Test-retest reliability after 1 week was good, with the intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.79 (Energy/Fatigue) to 0.92 (Role Limitations due to Emotional Problems). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.84 (Cognitive Function) to 0.94 (Role Limitations due to Physical Problems). For construct validity, we verified a high correlation between the ESI-55 and Health Assessment Questionnaire-8 for the Physical Function domain (Pearson linear correlation=-0.84), and a moderate correlation for the Pain domain (P=-0.58), but for the other subscales no correlation was detected. Beck Depression Inventory and ESI-55 domains were highly statistically correlated (ANOVA: P0.05). With respect to demographic characteristics, a statistically significant correlation was observed for the variable educational level (Student t, PESI-55 scores. There was a high correlation between seizure frequency and ESI-55 domains for clinical variables (ANOVA, Pgroup in three domains--Health Perception (1.24), Emotional Well-Being (1.32), and Energy/Fatigue (1.48)-as reflected by the standard response mean and the effect size of the sample. Our results support the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the ESI-55 as a measure of health-related quality of life.

  8. Effect of aluminium on migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, Philippa D; Bakir, Ayse; Iskakova, Elzira

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) has been measured in human breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid and breast cyst fluid, and recent studies have shown that at tissue concentrations, aluminium can induce DNA damage and suspension growth in human breast epithelial cells. This paper demonstrates for the first time that exposure to aluminium can also increase migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Long-term (32 weeks) but not short-term (1 week) exposure of MCF-7 cells to 10(-4) M aluminium chloride or 10(-4) M aluminium chlorohydrate increased motility of the cells as measured by live cell imaging (cumulative length moved by individual cells), by a wound healing assay and by migration in real time through 8 μm pores of a membrane using xCELLigence technology. Long-term exposure (37 weeks) to 10(-4) M aluminium chloride or 10(-4) M aluminium chlorohydrate also increased the ability of MCF-7 cells to invade through a matrigel layer as measured in real time using the xCELLigence system. Although molecular mechanisms remain to be characterized, the ability of aluminium salts to increase migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 cells suggests that the presence of aluminium in the human breast could influence metastatic processes. This is important because mortality from breast cancer arises mainly from tumour spread rather than from the presence of a primary tumour in the breast. © 2013.

  9. Self-assembling hydrogels crosslinked solely by receptor-ligand interactions: tunability, rationalization of physical properties, and 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael S; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Chwalek, Karolina; Bornhauser, Martin; Schlierf, Michael; Werner, Carsten; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-02-16

    We report a novel, noncovalent hydrogel system crosslinked solely by receptor-ligand interactions between biotin and avidin. The simple hydrogel synthesis and functionalization together with the widespread use of biotinylated ligands in biosciences make this versatile system suitable for many applications. The gels possess a range of tunable physical properties, including stiffness, lifetime, and swelling. The erosion rates, unexpectedly fast compared to the kinetic parameters for biotin-avidin, are explored in terms of stretching tensions on the polymers, a concept well-known on the single-molecule level, but largely unexplored in supramolecular systems. As proof of utility, the gels were functionalized with different peptide sequences to control human mesenchymal stromal cell morphology in 3D culture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Empathy and Systemizing Quotient: The Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and a Review of the Cross-Cultural Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Y; Fuermaier, A B M; Den Heijer, A E; Tucha, O; Althaus, M

    2015-09-01

    The 'Empathy Quotient' (EQ) and 'Systemizing Quotient' (SQ) are used worldwide to measure people's empathizing and systemizing cognitive styles. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Dutch EQ and SQ in healthy participants (n = 685), and high functioning males with autism spectrum disorder (n = 42). Factor analysis provided support for three subscales of the abridged 28-item EQ: Cognitive Empathy, Emotional Empathy and Social Skills. Overall, the Dutch EQ and SQ appeared reliable and valid tools to assess empathizing and systemizing cognitive style in healthy adults and high functioning adults with autism. The literature showed good cross-cultural stability of the SQ and EQ in Western countries, but in Asian countries EQ is less stable and less sensitive to sex differences.

  11. Properties of Polymer-Composite Used as Fills of Asian Lacquerware: Issues on Restoration Processes of Lacquered Objects from Cultural Heritage

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    Anne-Solenn Le Hô

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the common problems encountered in lacquerware issued from cultural heritage is the appearance of lifting areas and some losses of material. Composite systems made of commercial polymer and different fills were tested as filling agents for the cracking, splitting, and losses compensation of Asian lacquer. For that purpose, the stability of traditional and modern commercially available materials usually used in the restoration practice of historical lacquerware was assessed. Their thermomechanical and chemical properties and surface state were evaluated by a set of techniques (TGA, DMA, mechanical test, contact angle value, and microtopography. There is a drastic change of the behavior of the interface between fill and Asian lacquer, dependent on the nature of the composite fillers. So the evaluation of materials and processes for the restoration of Asian lacquer were emphasized. The commercial Paraloid B72 used with glass microspheres as additives appeared to be the most stable of all of the investigated fillers.

  12. Extracellular Matrix-Mediated Maturation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Monolayer Structure and Electrophysiological Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Todd J; Rocha, Andre Monteiro Da; Campbell, Katherine F; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Willis, B Cicero; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Liu, Qinghua; Klos, Matt; Musa, Hassan; Zarzoso, Manuel; Bizy, Alexandra; Furness, Jamie; Anumonwo, Justus; Mironov, Sergey; Jalife, José

    2016-04-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) monolayers generated to date display an immature embryonic-like functional and structural phenotype that limits their utility for research and cardiac regeneration. In particular, the electrophysiological function of hPSC-CM monolayers and bioengineered constructs used to date are characterized by slow electric impulse propagation velocity and immature action potential profiles. Here, we have identified an optimal extracellular matrix for significant electrophysiological and structural maturation of hPSC-CM monolayers. hPSC-CM plated in the optimal extracellular matrix combination have impulse propagation velocities ≈2× faster than previously reported (43.6±7.0 cm/s; n=9) and have mature cardiomyocyte action potential profiles, including hyperpolarized diastolic potential and rapid action potential upstroke velocity (146.5±17.7 V/s; n=5 monolayers). In addition, the optimal extracellular matrix promoted hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes and the expression of key mature sarcolemmal (SCN5A, Kir2.1, and connexin43) and myofilament markers (cardiac troponin I). The maturation process reported here relies on activation of integrin signaling pathways: neutralization of β1 integrin receptors via blocking antibodies and pharmacological blockade of focal adhesion kinase activation prevented structural maturation. Maturation of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte monolayers is achieved in a 1-week period by plating cardiomyocytes on PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) coverslips rather than on conventional 2-dimensional cell culture formats, such as glass coverslips or plastic dishes. Activation of integrin signaling and focal adhesion kinase is essential for significant maturation of human cardiac monolayers. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Electrophysiological effects of trace amines on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

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    Ada eLedonne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trace amines (TAs are a class of endogenous compounds strictly related to classic monoamine neurotransmitters with regard to their structure, metabolism and tissue distribution. Although the presence of TAs in mammalian brain has been recognized for decades, until recently they were considered to be by-products of amino acid metabolism or as ‘false’ neurotransmitters. The discovery in 2001 of a new family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, namely trace amines receptors, has re-ignited interest in TAs. In particular, two members of the family, trace amine receptor 1 (TA1 and trace amine receptor 2 (TA2, were shown to be highly sensitive to these endogenous compounds. Experimental evidence suggests that TAs modulate the activity of catecholaminergic neurons and that TA dysregulation may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and Parkinson’s disease, all of which are characterised by altered monoaminergic networks. Here we review recent data concerning the electrophysiological effects of TAs on the activity of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. In the context of recent data obtained with TA1 receptor knockout mice, we also discuss the mechanisms by which the activation of these receptors modulates the activity of these neurons. Three important new aspects of TAs action have recently emerged: (a inhibition of firing due to increased release of dopamine; (b reduction of D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory responses (excitatory effects due to dysinhibition; and (c a direct TA1 receptor-mediated activation of GIRK channels which produce cell membrane hyperpolarization. While the first two effects have been well documented in our laboratory, the direct activation of GIRK channels by TA1 receptors has been reported by others, but has not been seen in our laboratory (Geracitano et al., 2004. Further research is needed to address this point, and to further

  14. Clinical and Electrophysiological Report of a Unilateral Retinitis Pigmentosa Case

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    Sedaghat MR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To describe clinical and electrophysiological features of a patient with unilateral Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP. Case: A 29-year-old female with a long history of progressive visual disturbance in the right eye has undergone multiple eye examinations during the past eight years. There was nothing noticeable in her past medical and ocular history. Comprehensive eye examinations were done in the first visit. All data was suggestive of right eye RP. Posterior segment fundal examination findings were: a pallor waxy disc, vessel attenuation, and extended pigmentary degeneration of the mid-peripheral retina. The left eye examination was normal. Comparing the automated 60 degree and 30 degree visual fields of both eyes obviously showed significant defects in the right eye visual field but normal in the left eye.  All of the probable infectious agents, which can cause similar ocular manifestations, were ruled out by serological tests. The standard photopic and scotopic electroretinographies were significantly reduced in amplitude in the right eye; however, they were normal in the left eye. Also, the standard Electro-Oculography (EOG results were the same as the Electro-Retinography (ERG ones in both eyes. Eye examinations were normal in other family members. Over an eight-year follow-up period, progressive deteriorating vision has gradually become more noticeable in the right eye. The left eye has been completely normal since.  This data was compatible with the Francois and Verriesr unilateral RP diagnostic criteria. Conclusion: Clinical signs and symptoms, a minimum of a five-year follow-up period, and confirmatory ERG and EOG are very helpful to diagnose andaffirm the case of unilateral RP.

  15. Electrophysiological signatures of atypical intrinsic brain connectivity networks in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Guofa; Mosconi, Matthew W.; Wang, Jun; Ethridge, Lauren E.; Sweeney, John A.; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Abnormal local and long-range brain connectivity have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet the nature of these abnormalities and their functional relevance at distinct cortical rhythms remains unknown. Investigations of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) and their coherence across whole brain networks hold promise for determining whether patterns of functional connectivity abnormalities vary across frequencies and networks in ASD. In the present study, we aimed to probe atypical intrinsic brain connectivity networks in ASD from resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) data via characterizing the whole brain network. Approach. Connectivity within individual ICNs (measured by spectral power) and between ICNs (measured by coherence) were examined at four canonical frequency bands via a time-frequency independent component analysis on high-density EEG, which were recorded from 20 ASD and 20 typical developing (TD) subjects during an eyes-closed resting state. Main results. Among twelve identified electrophysiological ICNs, individuals with ASD showed hyper-connectivity in individual ICNs and hypo-connectivity between ICNs. Functional connectivity alterations in ASD were more severe in the frontal lobe and the default mode network (DMN) and at low frequency bands. These functional connectivity measures also showed abnormal age-related associations in ICNs related to frontal, temporal and motor regions in ASD. Significance. Our findings suggest that ASD is characterized by the opposite directions of abnormalities (i.e. hypo- and hyper-connectivity) in the hierarchical structure of the whole brain network, with more impairments in the frontal lobe and the DMN at low frequency bands, which are critical for top-down control of sensory systems, as well as for both cognition and social skills.

  16. An electrophysiological analysis of altered cognitive functions in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, T F; Ridao-Alonso, M E; Preinfalk, J; Jung, A; Wieringa, B M; Matzke, M; Dengler, R; Johannes, S

    1997-09-01

    Neuropsychological deficits are a main feature of Huntington disease (HD) with previous data suggesting involvement of memory functions and visual processing. To increase the knowledge about cognitive malfunction in HD in the domains of visual processing and memory by the use of modern electrophysiological techniques (event-related potentials [ERPs]). A case-control design was used. Three ERP paradigms were used; a parallel visual search paradigm allowed for the simultaneous processing of a multi-element visual array in search of a target stimulus, while a serial search paradigm with varied numbers of distractor items necessitated a serial one by one scanning of the arrays. The third experiment was a word-recognition memory task. The measurements were obtained in a neurophysiological laboratory of a university hospital. Nine patients with HD and 9 control subjects matched for age, sex, and education were studied. Components of averaged ERPs were quantified by latency and amplitude measures and subjected to statistical analysis. Behavioral measures (search time, hit rate, and recognition accuracy) were assessed as well. The early visual components showed a significant latency shift (delay of about 50 milliseconds) in HD. In the search paradigms the P3 components differentiating target and standard stimuli were virtually absent in HD as was the ERP effect indexing word recognition. This was accompanied by a marked delay in search times and lower hit rates in the search tasks and a grossly reduced recognition accuracy in the memory task. The results suggest marked impairments of patients with HD in early visual sensory processing (early components). Deficits in visual search might be attributed to an impairment to deploy attentional resources across the visual field and/or an inability to control eye movements. The ERPs in the memory task differed grossly from similar data obtained by others in patients with Alzheimer disease, suggesting a different neural basis for

  17. Electrophysiological correlates of melodic processing in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omigie, Diana; Pearce, Marcus T; Williamson, Victoria J; Stewart, Lauren

    2013-08-01

    Music listening involves using previously internalized regularities to process incoming musical structures. A condition known as congenital amusia is characterized by musical difficulties, notably in the detection of gross musical violations. However, there has been increasing evidence that individuals with the disorder show preserved musical ability when probed using implicit methods. To further characterize the degree to which amusic individuals show evidence of latent sensitivity to musical structure, particularly in the context of stimuli that are ecologically valid, electrophysiological recordings were taken from a sample of amusic and control participants as they listened to real melodies. To encourage them to pay attention to the music, participants were asked to detect occasional notes in a different timbre. Using a computational model of auditory expectation to identify points of varying levels of expectedness in these melodies (in units of information content (IC), a measure which has an inverse relationship with probability), ERP analysis investigated the extent to which the amusic brain differs from that of controls when processing notes of high IC (low probability) as compared to low IC ones (high probability). The data revealed a novel effect that was highly comparable in both groups: Notes with high IC reliably elicited a delayed P2 component relative to notes with low IC, suggesting that amusic individuals, like controls, found these notes more difficult to evaluate. However, notes with high IC were also characterized by an early frontal negativity in controls that was attenuated in amusic individuals. A correlation of this early negative effect with the ability to make accurate note expectedness judgments (previous data collected from a subset of the current sample) was shown to be present in typical individuals but compromised in individuals with amusia: a finding in line with evidence of a close relationship between the amplitude of such a

  18. StimDuino: an Arduino-based electrophysiological stimulus isolator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinin, Anton; Lavi, Ayal; Michaelevski, Izhak

    2015-03-30

    Electrical stimulus isolator is a widely used device in electrophysiology. The timing of the stimulus application is usually automated and controlled by the external device or acquisition software; however, the intensity of the stimulus is adjusted manually. Inaccuracy, lack of reproducibility and no automation of the experimental protocol are disadvantages of the manual adjustment. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed StimDuino, an inexpensive Arduino-controlled stimulus isolator allowing highly accurate, reproducible automated setting of the stimulation current. The intensity of the stimulation current delivered by StimDuino is controlled by Arduino, an open-source microcontroller development platform. The automatic stimulation patterns are software-controlled and the parameters are set from Matlab-coded simple, intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface. The software also allows remote control of the device over the network. Electrical current measurements showed that StimDuino produces the requested current output with high accuracy. In both hippocampal slice and in vivo recordings, the fEPSP measurements obtained with StimDuino and the commercial stimulus isolators showed high correlation. Commercial stimulus isolators are manually managed, while StimDuino generates automatic stimulation patterns with increasing current intensity. The pattern is utilized for the input-output relationship analysis, necessary for assessment of excitability. In contrast to StimuDuino, not all commercial devices are capable for remote control of the parameters and stimulation process. StimDuino-generated automation of the input-output relationship assessment eliminates need for the current intensity manually adjusting, improves stimulation reproducibility, accuracy and allows on-site and remote control of the stimulation parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Revisiting the earliest electrophysiological correlate of familiar face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wanyi; Wu, Xia; Hu, Liping; Wang, Lei; Ding, Yulong; Qu, Zhe

    2017-10-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to reinvestigate the earliest face familiarity effect (FFE: ERP differences between familiar and unfamiliar faces) that genuinely reflects cognitive processes underlying recognition of familiar faces in long-term memory. To trigger relatively early FFEs, participants were required to categorize upright and inverted famous faces and unknown faces in a task that placed high demand on face recognition. More importantly, to determine whether an observed FFE was linked to on-line face recognition, systematical investigation about the relationship between the FFE and behavioral performance of face recognition was conducted. The results showed significant FFEs on P1, N170, N250, and P300 waves. The FFEs on occipital P1 and N170 (faces, and were not correlated with any behavioral measure (accuracy, response time) or modulated by learning, indicating that they might merely reflect low-level visual differences between face sets. In contrast, the later FFEs on occipito-temporal N250 (~230ms) and centro-parietal P300 (~350ms) showed consistent polarities for upright and inverted faces. The N250 FFE was individually correlated with recognition speed for upright faces, and could be obtained for inverted faces through learning. The P300 FFE was also related to behavior in many aspects. These findings provide novel evidence supporting that cognitive discrimination of familiar and unfamiliar faces starts no less than 200ms after stimulus onset, and the familiarity effect on N250 may be the first electrophysiological correlate underlying recognition of familiar faces in long-term memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties can be cultured from colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, J; Agnholt, J; Hoffmann, H J; Rømer, J L; Hvas, C L; Dahlerup, J F

    2005-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and ensure a balanced immune response competent of fighting pathogens and at the same time recognizing commensals as harmless. This feature is lost in Crohn's disease (CD). The forkhead/winged helix transcription factor FoxP3 is a master gene for Treg function and defects in the FoxP3 gene lead to a clinical picture similar to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Murine colitis can be cured by adoptive transfer of Tregs and ex vivo-generated gut-specific Tregs represent an attractive option for therapy in CD. Thus, defective Tregs could contribute to the development of CD. We cultured biopsies of colonic mucosa in the presence of high concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 to overcome the anergic nature of naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the mucosa. We investigated the expression of FoxP3 and regulatory potential of gut-derived CD4+CD25+ T cells cultured from patients with CD and healthy individuals. The FoxP3 expression was analysed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the suppressive effect of FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells on proliferation and cytokine production of autologous CD4+ T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Cultured gut-derived T cells with CD4+CD25+ phenotype expressed FoxP3 and were able as the freshly isolated Tregs from peripheral blood to suppress proliferation and cytokine production of autologous CD4+ T cells. Thus, we demonstrate that FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties can be propagated in vitro from inflamed mucosa of CD patients, which may be of interest in adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:16045746

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of the italian version of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacchio, Angelo; Necozione, Stefano; MacDermid, Joy C; Rompe, Jan Dirk; Maffulli, Nicola; di Orio, Ferdinando; Santilli, Valter; Paoloni, Marco

    2012-08-01

    The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire is a tool designed for self-assessment of forearm pain and disability in patients with lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET). However, an Italian version of this questionnaire has not been available. The aims of this study were: (1) to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into Italian and (2) to evaluate its measurement properties. This was a longitudinal, observational measurement study. The PRTEE questionnaire was cross-culturally adapted to Italian according to established guidelines. Ninety-five individuals (41 women, 54 men) with unilateral, imaging-confirmed, chronic LET were selected consecutively to assess the measurement properties of the PRTEE questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness were estimated. The Italian version of the PRTEE displayed a high degree of internal consistency, with a Cronbach alpha of .95. The test-retest reliability was high for both short-term and medium-term, with intraclass correlation coefficients (2,1) of .95 and .93, respectively. The PRTEE exhibited a strong correlation (r=.77-.91, P<.0001) with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) at the baseline and a moderate correlation (r=.58-.74, P<.0001) at discharge. The responsiveness was higher for the PRTEE than for the DASH. Limitations A methodological limitation of the study is that due to the small sample size, a factor analysis was not performed to assess convergent validity. The Italian version of the PRTEE questionnaire is internally consistent, demonstrates expected correlations with other measures, and is more responsive than the DASH in Italian patients with chronic LET.

  2. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R): psychometric properties of the Korean version and the order, gender, and cultural effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Kwon, Seok-Man; Lim, Young-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the OCI-R and the effects of order, gender, and culture on the inventory were examined in a nonclinical and in a clinical sample comprised of 702 college students and 91 patients with OCD. As a result, the original six-factor model is supported by the confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and the convergent and divergent validity of the OCI-R total and its subscales were good. Additionally, the receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the OCI-R is an effective screening tool for OCD. For the negative results, the internal consistency of the neutralizing subscale was poor, and the hoarding and ordering subscale failed to distinguish patients with OCD from college students. Further, the divergent validity of the obsessing subscale appeared to be poor. A minor order effect on the OCI-R total score was observed-the decrease of the score when administered after another OCD symptom measure. No gender effects were found, whereas the cultural differences were found in some of the subscales. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inotropic effect, binding properties, and calcium flux effects of the calcium channel agonist CGP 28392 in intact cultured embryonic chick ventricular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, S.; Kim, D.; Smith, T.W.; Marsh, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    CGP 28392 is a recently described dihydropyridine derivative with positive inotropic properties. To study the mechanism of action of this putative calcium channel agonist, we have related the effects of CGP 28392 on contraction (measured with an optical video system) and radioactive calcium uptake to ligand-binding studies in cultured, spontaneously beating chick embryo ventricular cells. CGP 28392 produced a concentration-dependent increase in amplitude and velocity of contraction (EC 50 = 2 x 10(-7) M; maximum contractile effect = 85% of the calcium 3.6 mM response). Nifedipine produced a shift to the right of the concentration-effect curve for CGP 28392 without decreasing the maximum contractile response, suggesting competitive antagonism (pA2 = 8.3). Computer analysis of displacement of [ 3 H]nitrendipine binding to intact heart cells by unlabeled CGP 28392 indicated a K /sub D/ = 2.2 +/- 0.95 x 10(-7) M, in good agreement with the EC 50 for the inotropic effect. CGP 28392 increased the rate of radioactive calcium influx (+39% at 10 seconds) without altering beating rate, while nifedipine decreased radioactive calcium influx and antagonized the CGP 28392-induced increase in calcium influx. Our results indicate that, in intact cultured myocytes, CGP 28392 acts as a calcium channel agonist and competes for the dihydropyridine-binding site of the slow calcium channel. In contrast to calcium channel blockers, CGP 28392 increases calcium influx and enhances the contractile state

  5. Pore Size Distribution Influence on Suction Properties of Calcareous Stones in Cultural Heritage: Experimental Data and Model Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water sorptivity symbolises an important property associated with the preservation of porous construction materials. The water movement into the microstructure is responsible for deterioration of different types of materials and consequently for the indoor comfort worsening. In this context, experimental sorptivity tests are incompatible, because they require large quantities of materials in order to statistically validate the results. Owing to these reasons, the development of analytical procedure for indirect sorptivity valuation from MIP data would be highly beneficial. In this work, an Intermingled Fractal Units’ model has been proposed to evaluate sorptivity coefficient of calcareous stones, mostly used in historical buildings of Cagliari, Sardinia. The results are compared with experimental data as well as with other two models found in the literature. IFU model better fits experimental data than the other two models, and it represents an important tool for estimating service life of porous building materials.

  6. Cross-Cultural and Psychometric Properties Assessment of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisconti, Fernando; Mahmoud Smaili Santos, Suhaila; Lopes, Josiane; Rosa Cardoso, Jefferson; Lopes Lavado, Edson

    2017-11-29

    The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale (ESES) is a reliable measure, in the English language, of exercise self-efficacy in individuals with spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to culturally adjust and validate the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale in the Portuguese language. The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale was applied to 76 subjects, with three-month intervals (three applications in total). The reliability was appraised using the intra-class correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman methods, and the internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach´s alpha. The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale was correlated with the domains of the Quality of life Questionnaire SF-36 and Functional Independence Measure and tested using the Spearman rho coefficient. The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale-Brazil presented good internal consistency (alpha 1 = 0.856; alpha 2 = 0.855; alpha 3 = 0.822) and high reliability in the test-retest (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.97). There was a strong correlation between the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale-Brazil and the SF-36 only in the functional capacity domain (rho = 0.708). There were no changes in Exercise Self-Efficacy scale-Brazil scores between the three applications (p = 0.796). The validation of the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale questionnaire permits the assessor to use it reliably in Portuguese speaking countries, since it is the first instrument measuring self-efficacy specifically during exercises in individuals with spinal cord injury. Furthermore, the questionnaire can be used as an instrument to verify the effectiveness of interventions that use exercise as an outcome. The results of the Brazilian version of the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale support its use as a reliable and valid measurement of exercise self-efficacy for this population.

  7. Effectively Engaging in Tribal Consultation to protect Traditional Cultural Properties while navigating the 1872 Mining Law - Tonto National Forest, Western Apache Tribes, & Resolution Copper Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nez, N.

    2017-12-01

    By effectively engaging in government-to-government consultation the Tonto National Forest is able to consider oral histories and tribal cultural knowledge in decision making. These conversations often have the potential to lead to the protection and preservation of public lands. Discussed here is one example of successful tribal consultation and how it let to the protection of Traditional Cultural Properties (TCPs). One hour east of Phoenix, Arizona on the Tonto National Forest, Resolution Copper Mine, is working to access a rich copper vein more than 7,000 feet deep. As part of the mining plan of operation they are investigating viable locations to store the earth removed from the mine site. One proposed storage location required hydrologic and geotechnical studies to determine viability. This constituted a significant amount of ground disturbance in an area that is of known importance to local Indian tribes. To ensure proper consideration of tribal concerns, the Forest engaged nine local tribes in government-government consultation. Consultation resulted in the identification of five springs in the project area considered (TCPs) by the Western Apache tribes. Due to the presence of identified TCPs, the Forest asked tribes to assist in the development of mitigation measures to minimize effects of this project on the TCPs identified. The goal of this partnership was to find a way for the Mine to still be able to gather data, while protecting TCPs. During field visits and consultations, a wide range of concerns were shared which were recorded and considered by Tonto National Forest. The Forest developed a proposed mitigation approach to protect springs, which would prevent (not permit) the installation of water monitoring wells, geotechnical borings or trench excavations within 1,200 feet of perennial springs in the project area. As an added mitigation measure, a cultural resources specialist would be on-site during all ground-disturbing activities. Diligent work on

  8. Denervation syndromes of the shoulder girdle: MR imaging with electrophysiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredella, M.A.; Wischer, T.K.; Stork, A.; Genant, H.K.; Tirman, P.F.J.; Fritz, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the use of MR imaging in the characterization of denervated muscle of the shoulder correlated with electrophysiologic studies.Design and patients. We studied with MR imaging five patients who presented with shoulder weakness and pain and who underwent electrophysiologic studies. On MR imaging the distribution of muscle edema and fatty infiltration was recorded, as was the presence of masses impinging on a regional nerve.Results. Acute/subacute denervation was best seen on T2-weighted fast spin-echo images with fat saturation, showing increased SI related to neurogenic edema. Chronic denervation was best seen on T1-weighted spin-echo images, demonstrating loss of muscle bulk and diffuse areas of increased signal intensity within the muscle. Three patients showed MR imaging and electrophysiologic findings of Parsonage Turner syndrome. One patient demonstrated an arteriovenous malformation within the spinoglenoid notch, impinging on the suprascapular nerve with associated atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle. The fifth patient demonstrated fatty atrophy of the teres minor muscle caused by compression by a cyst of the axillary nerve and electrophysiologic findings of an incomplete axillary nerve block.Conclusion. MR imaging is useful in detecting and characterizing denervation atrophy and neurogenic edema in shoulder muscles. MR imaging can provide additional information to electrophysiologic studies by estimating the age (acute/chronic) and identifying morphologic causes for shoulder pain and atrophy. (orig.)

  9. Shoulder pain and disability index: cross cultural validation and evaluation of psychometric properties of the Spanish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrilla-Mesa, Miguel David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Pozuelo-Calvo, Rocio; Tejero-Fernández, Victor; Martín-Martín, Lydia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2015-12-21

    The Shoulder Pain Disability Index (SPADI) is a recently published but widely used outcome measure. This study included 136 patients with shoulder disorders. SPADI was first translated and back-translated and then subjected to psychometric validation. Participants completed the Spanish versions of the SPADI, general health (SF-12), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST), Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaires and a pain intensity visual analog scale (VAS). The factors explained 62.8 % of the variance, with an internal consistency of α = 0.916 and 0.860, respectively. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a Comparative Fit Index of 0.82 and a Normed Fit Index of 0.80. The Root Mean Square Error of Aproximation was 0.12. The x (2) test for the 2-factor model was significant (x (2) = 185.41, df = 62, p validity analysis, strong positive correlations were observed between Spanish Version of the SPADI and DASH (pain: r = 0.80; p Spanish Version of the SPADI and VAS (pain: r = 0.67; p Spanish Version of the SPADI and SST-Sp (pain: r = -0.71; p Spanish Version of the SPADI was only weakly correlated with physical and mental components of SF-12 (both r = 0.40; p Spanish version of SPADI demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties in a patient sample in the hospital setting.

  10. Stone Carving in The Locality 0f Eskişehir With its Natural and Cultural Properties: Meerschaum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbiye UZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Also known as sepiolite, meerschaum is a rock with magnesium and silicium base. This stone is whitish in color, with a very thin texture. Although known to be mostly used for making pipes, the archeological researches about this stone revealed that it had been known for about 5000 years and had been used for various purposes. Today it is seen to be used as a filtering and insulation material thanks to its absorbent property, whereas it has another use in knickknack making with its easily carved texture. Meerschaum is found in countries such as Somali, Czech Republic, United States of America, Greece, Spain, and France in the world, and around the city of Eskişehir in our country. Almost all of the free-milling deposits of this stone is in Turkey, quarrying of which is rather hard. Meerschaum carving, as a craft identified with Eskişehir, is a challenging artisanship that requires mastery, experience, skill, and patience. Although the sizes and durability are not very attractive for the artists, it is possible to see examples of sculpture made of meerschaum. 

  11. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  12. Sewage sludge used as organic manure in Moroccan sunflower culture: Effects on certain soil properties, growth and yield components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Bourioug; Mounia, Krouna; Aziz, Abouabdillah; Ahmed, Harraq; Rachid, Bouabid; Lotfi, Aleya

    2018-06-15

    The wastewater treatment and sludge production sectors in Morocco are recent. Considered as waste, no management strategy for sewage sludge (SS) has been implemented. Thus, its disposal definitely represents a major environmental problem since sludge is either incinerated, used as landfill or simply deposited near wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dehydrated SS on certain soil properties (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Mineral nitrogen, available phosphate P 2 O 5 , and soluble potassium K 2 O), and also on growth and yield components of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). An experiment was conducted using six treatment rates (0; 0 + NPK; 15; 30; 60 and 120 t ha -1 ). The results showed that soil pH was significantly affected by SS, becoming less alkaline compared to the control, while electrical conductivity increased significantly when the applied doses were above 30 t ha -1 . Also, a significant enrichment in mineral N and available phosphorus was detected in amended soil. However, no differences were found between pots having received the mineral fertilization and the SS at 15 t ha -1 . Stem height growth of the sunflower seedlings receiving SS increased significantly compared to the two controls. For both the aerial and root parts, significant increases in dry biomass accumulation were observed compared to the unamended plants. Net CO 2 assimilation (A n ) increased, while stomatal conductance (g sw ) and transpiration rates (T r ) decreased with increasing SS rates. SS application at 15 t ha -1 presented similar values of the yield components compared to plants fertilized chemically. However, grain yield (in quintals ha -1 ) was noted to be 2.4, 5 and 8 times higher in treatments receiving SS respectively at the rate of 30, 60 and 120 t ha -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity of marine pollutants on the ascidian oocyte physiology: an electrophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra

    2018-02-01

    In marine animals with external fertilization, gametes are released into seawater where fertilization and embryo development occur. Consequently, pollutants introduced into the marine environment by human activities may affect gametes and embryos. These xenobiotics can alter cell physiology with consequent reduction of fertilization success. Here the adverse effects on the reproductive processes of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidian) of different xenobiotics: lead, zinc, an organic tin compound and a phenylurea herbicide were evaluated. By using the electrophysiological technique of whole-cell voltage clamping, the effects of these compounds on the mature oocyte plasma membrane electrical properties and the electrical events of fertilization were tested by calculating the concentration that induced 50% normal larval formation (EC50). The results demonstrated that sodium currents in mature oocytes were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by all tested xenobiotics, with the lowest EC50 value for lead. In contrast, fertilization current frequencies were differently affected by zinc and organic tin compound. Toxicity tests on gametes demonstrated that sperm fertilizing capability and fertilization oocyte competence were not altered by xenobiotics, whereas fertilization was inhibited in zinc solution and underwent a reduction in organic tin compound solution (EC50 value of 1.7 µM). Furthermore, fertilized oocytes resulted in a low percentage of normal larvae with an EC50 value of 0.90 µM. This study shows that reproductive processes of ascidians are highly sensitive to xenobiotics suggesting that they may be considered a reliable biomarker and that ascidians are suitable model organisms to assess marine environmental quality.

  14. Electrophysiological, vasoactive, and gastromodulatory effects of stevia in healthy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesmine, Saquiba; Connolly, Kylie; Hill, Nicholas; Coulson, Fiona R; Fenning, Andrew S

    2013-07-01

    Antihypertensive and antidiabetic effects of stevia, Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae), have been demonstrated in several human and animal models. The current study aims to define stevia's role in modifying the electrophysiological and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Tissues from thoracic aorta, mesenteric arteries, ileum, and left ventricular papillary muscles were excised from 8-week-old healthy Wistar rats. The effects of stevia (1 × 10-9 M to 1 × 10-4 M) were measured on these tissues. Stevia's effects in the presence of verapamil, 4-AP, and L-NAME were also assessed. In cardiomyocytes, stevia attenuated the force of contraction, decreased the average peak amplitude, and shortened the repolarisation phase of action potential - repolarisation phase of action potential20 by 25 %, repolarisation phase of action potential50 by 34 %, and repolarisation phase of action potential90 by 36 %. Stevia caused relaxation of aortic tissues which was significantly potentiated in the presence of verapamil. In mesenteric arteries, incubation with L-NAME failed to block stevia-induced relaxation indicating the mechanism of action may not be fully via nitric oxide-dependent pathways. Stevia concentration-dependently reduced electrical field stimulated and carbachol-induced contractions in the isolated ileum. This study is the first to show the effectiveness of stevia in reducing cardiac action potential duration at 20 %, 50 %, and 90 % of repolarisation. Stevia also showed beneficial modulatory effects on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tissues via calcium channel antagonism, activation of the M2 muscarinic receptor function, and enhanced nitric oxide release. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Block of GABA(A) receptor ion channel by penicillin: electrophysiological and modeling insights toward the mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossokhin, Alexey V; Sharonova, Irina N; Bukanova, Julia V; Kolbaev, Sergey N; Skrebitsky, Vladimir G

    2014-11-01

    GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R) mainly mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Different classes of modulators target GABA(A)R properties. Penicillin G (PNG) belongs to the class of noncompetitive antagonists blocking the open GABA(A)R and is a prototype of β-lactam antibiotics. In this study, we combined electrophysiological and modeling approaches to investigate the peculiarities of PNG blockade of GABA-activated currents recorded from isolated rat Purkinje cells and to predict the PNG binding site. Whole-cell patch-сlamp recording and fast application system was used in the electrophysiological experiments. PNG block developed after channel activation and increased with membrane depolarization suggesting that the ligand binds within the open channel pore. PNG blocked stationary component of GABA-activated currents in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 value of 1.12mM at -70mV. The termination of GABA and PNG co-application was followed by a transient tail current. Protection of the tail current from bicuculline block and dependence of its kinetic parameters on agonist affinity suggest that PNG acts as a sequential open channel blocker that prevents agonist dissociation while the channel remains blocked. We built the GABA(A)R models based on nAChR and GLIC structures and performed an unbiased systematic search of the PNG binding site. Monte-Carlo energy minimization was used to find the lowest energy binding modes. We have shown that PNG binds close to the intracellular vestibule. In both models the maximum contribution to the energy of ligand-receptor interactions revealed residues located on the level of 2', 6' and 9' rings formed by a bundle of M2 transmembrane segments, indicating that these residues most likely participate in PNG binding. The predicted structural models support the described mechanism of PNG block. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrophysiological Characteristics of Human iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes for the Assessment of Drug-Induced Proarrhythmic Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Yamamoto

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to (1 characterize basic electrophysiological elements of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs that correspond to clinical properties such as QT-RR relationship, (2 determine the applicability of QT correction and analysis methods, and (3 determine if and how these in-vitro parameters could be used in risk assessment for adverse drug-induced effects such as Torsades de pointes (TdP. Field potential recordings were obtained from commercially available hiPSC-CMs using multi-electrode array (MEA platform with and without ion channel antagonists in the recording solution. Under control conditions, MEA-measured interspike interval and field potential duration (FPD ranged widely from 1049 to 1635 ms and from 334 to 527 ms, respectively and provided positive linear regression coefficients similar to native QT-RR plots obtained from human electrocardiogram (ECG analyses in the ongoing cardiovascular-based Framingham Heart Study. Similar to minimizing the effect of heart rate on the QT interval, Fridericia's and Bazett's corrections reduced the influence of beat rate on hiPSC-CM FPD. In the presence of E-4031 and cisapride, inhibitors of the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current, hiPSC-CMs showed reverse use-dependent FPD prolongation. Categorical analysis, which is usually applied to clinical QT studies, was applicable to hiPSC-CMs for evaluating torsadogenic risks with FPD and/or corrected FPD. Together, this results of this study links hiPSC-CM electrophysiological endpoints to native ECG endpoints, demonstrates the appropriateness of clinical analytical practices as applied to hiPSC-CMs, and suggests that hiPSC-CMs are a reliable models for assessing the arrhythmogenic potential of drug candidates in human.

  17. Dopaminergic modulation of mitral cell activity in the frog olfactory bulb: a combined radioligand binding-electrophysiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchamp, A.; Moyse, E.; Delaleu, J.-C.; Coronas, V.; Duchamp-Viret, P.

    1997-01-01

    Dopamine content in the amphibian olfactory bulb is supplied by interneurons scattered among mitral cells in the external plexiform/mitral cell layer. In mammals, dopamine has been found to be involved in various aspects of bulbar information processing by influencing mitral cell odour responsiveness. Dopamine action in the bulb depends directly on the localization of its receptor targets, found to be mainly of the D 2 type in mammals. The present study assessed, in the frog, both the anatomical localization of D 2 -like, radioligand-labelled receptors of dopamine and the in vivo action of dopamine on unitary mitral cell activity in response to odours delivered over a wide range of concentrations. The [ 125 I]iodosulpride-labelled D 2 binding sites were visualized on frozen sagittal sections of frog brains by film radioautography. The sites were found to be restricted to the external plexiform/mitral cell layer; other layers of the olfactory bulb were devoid of specific labelling. Electrophysiological recordings of mitral unit activity revealed that dopamine or its agonist apomorphine induced a drastic reduction of spontaneous firing rate of mitral cells in most cases without altering odour intensity coding properties of these cells. Moreover, pre-treatment with the D 2 antagonist eticlopride blocked the dopamine-induced reduction of mitral cell spontaneous activity.In the frog olfactory bulb, both anatomical localization of D 2 -like receptors and functional data on dopamine involvement in information processing differ from those reported in mammals. This suggests a phylogenetic evolution of dopamine action in the olfactory bulb. In the frog, anatomical data perfectly corroborate electrophysiological results, together strongly suggesting a direct action of dopamine on mitral cells. In a physiologically operating system, such an action would result in a global improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights

  18. Determining the psychometric properties of the Enhancing Decision-making Assessment in Midwifery (EDAM) measure in a cross cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefford, Elaine; Jomeen, Julie; Martin, Colin R

    2016-04-28

    midwifery practice'. EDAM would generally appear to be a robust, valid and reliable psychometric instrument for measuring midwifery decision-making, which performs consistently across differing international contexts. The 'women's relationship with midwife' subscale marginally failed to meet the threshold for determining good instrument reliability, which may be due to its brevity. Further research using larger samples and in a wider international context to confirm the veracity of the instrument's measurement properties and its wider global utility, would be advantageous.

  19. On the identification of multiple space dependent ionic parameters in cardiac electrophysiology modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Yassine; Bellassoued, Mourad; Mahjoub, Moncef; Zemzemi, Nejib

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the inverse problem of space dependent multiple ionic parameters identification in cardiac electrophysiology modelling from a set of observations. We use the monodomain system known as a state-of-the-art model in cardiac electrophysiology and we consider a general Hodgkin-Huxley formalism to describe the ionic exchanges at the microscopic level. This formalism covers many physiological transmembrane potential models including those in cardiac electrophysiology. Our main result is the proof of the uniqueness and a Lipschitz stability estimate of ion channels conductance parameters based on some observations on an arbitrary subdomain. The key idea is a Carleman estimate for a parabolic operator with multiple coefficients and an ordinary differential equation system.

  20. Existence of a sex pheromone in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduvidae: II. Electrophysiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. de Brito Sanchez

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The stimulus provided by a copulating pair of Triatoma infestans significantly affects the electrical activity of the nervous system of Triatoma infestans. Electrophysiological recordings were perfomed on stationary adult males presented with stimuli of an air current carrying odors from males, females, non-copulating pairs and mating pairs. The electrophysiological response was characterized by the low frequency occurrence of biphasic compound impulses. A significant increase in the frequency of the impulses occurred in stationary males when exposed to air currents of mating pairs, when compared to that evoked by a clean air stream. Analysis of the time course of the assays, showed that the electrophisiological activity during the copula was higher than prior to or after copula. The electrophysiological evidence presented here strongly supports the existence of pheromone(s released by one or both sexes during mating and which is perceived by male chemoreceptors located on the antennae.

  1. Electrophysiology Meets Ecology: Investigating How Vision is Tuned to the Life Style of an Animal using Electroretinography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, Annette; Mohr, Sarah; Buschbeck, Elke; Vilinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Students learn best when projects are multidisciplinary, hands-on, and provide ample opportunity for self-driven investigation. We present a teaching unit that leads students to explore relationships between sensory function and ecology. Field studies, which are rare in neurobiology education, are combined with laboratory experiments that assess visual properties of insect eyes, using electroretinography (ERG). Comprised of nearly one million species, insects are a diverse group of animals, living in nearly all habitats and ecological niches. Each of these lifestyles puts different demands on their visual systems, and accordingly, insects display a wide array of eye organizations and specializations. Physiologically relevant differences can be measured using relatively simple extracellular electrophysiological methods that can be carried out with standard equipment, much of which is already in place in most physiology laboratories. The teaching unit takes advantage of the large pool of locally available species, some of which likely show specialized visual properties that can be measured by students. In the course of the experiments, students collect local insects or other arthropods of their choice, are guided to formulate hypotheses about how the visual system of "their" insects might be tuned to the lifestyle of the species, and use ERGs to investigate the insects' visual response dynamics, and both chromatic and temporal properties of the visual system. Students are then guided to interpret their results in both a comparative physiological and ecological context. This set of experiments closely mirrors authentic research and has proven to be a popular, informative and highly engaging teaching tool.

  2. An electrophysiological approach to the diagnosis of neurogenic dysphagia: implications for botulinum toxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, E; Merlo, I M; Ponzio, M; Montomoli, C; Tassorelli, C; Biancardi, C; Lozza, A; Martignoni, E

    2010-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle has been proposed for the treatment of neurogenic dysphagia due to CP hyperactivity. The aim was to determine whether an electrophysiological method exploring oropharyngeal swallowing could guide treatment and discriminate responders from non-responders, based on the association of CP dysfunction with other electrophysiological abnormalities of swallowing. Patients with different neurological disorders were examined: Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy-Parkinson variant, multiple system atrophy cerebellar variant, stroke, multiple sclerosis and ataxia telangiectasia. All patients presented with clinical dysphagia, and with complete absence of CP muscle inhibition during the hypopharyngeal phase of swallowing. Each patient underwent clinical and electrophysiological investigations before and after treatment with BTX into the CP muscle of one side (15 units of Botox). Clinical and electrophysiological procedures were performed in a blind manner by two different investigators. The following electrophysiological measures were analysed: (1) duration of EMG activity of suprahyoid/submental muscles (SHEMG-D); (2) duration of laryngopharyngeal mechanogram (LPM-D); (3) duration of the inhibition of the CP muscle EMG activity (CPEMG-ID); and (4) interval between onset of EMG activity of suprahyoid/submental muscles and onset of laryngopharyngeal mechanogram (I-SHEMG-LPM). Two months after treatment, 50% of patients showed a significant improvement. Patients with prolonged or reduced SHEMG-D values and prolonged I-SHEMG-LPM values did not respond to BTX. Therefore, values for which BTX had no effect (warning values) were identified. This electrophysiological method can recognise swallowing abnormalities which may affect the outcome of the therapeutic approach to dysphagia with BTX treatment.

  3. Electrophysiological gap detection thresholds: effects of age and comparison with a behavioral measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shannon B; Musiek, Frank E

    2014-01-01

    Temporal processing ability has been linked to speech understanding ability and older adults often complain of difficulty understanding speech in difficult listening situations. Temporal processing can be evaluated using gap detection procedures. There is some research showing that gap detection can be evaluated using an electrophysiological procedure. However, there is currently no research establishing gap detection threshold using the N1-P2 response. The purposes of the current study were to 1) determine gap detection thresholds in younger and older normal-hearing adults using an electrophysiological measure, 2) compare the electrophysiological gap detection threshold and behavioral gap detection threshold within each group, and 3) investigate the effect of age on each gap detection measure. This study utilized an older adult group and younger adult group to compare performance on an electrophysiological and behavioral gap detection procedure. The subjects in this study were 11 younger, normal-hearing adults (mean = 22 yrs) and 11 older, normal-hearing adults (mean = 64.36 yrs). All subjects completed an adaptive behavioral gap detection procedure in order to determine their behavioral gap detection threshold (BGDT). Subjects also completed an electrophysiologic gap detection procedure to determine their electrophysiologic gap detection threshold (EGDT). Older adults demonstrated significantly larger gap detection thresholds than the younger adults. However, EGDT and BGDT were not significantly different in either group. The mean difference between EGDT and BGDT for all subjects was 0.43 msec. Older adults show poorer gap detection ability when compared to younger adults. However, this study shows that gap detection thresholds can be measured using evoked potential recordings and yield results similar to a behavioral measure. American Academy of Audiology.

  4. [Cultural adaptation to Spanish and assessment of an Adolescent Peer Relationships Tool for detecting school bullying: Preliminary study of the psychometric properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón-Cánovas, Juan J; Russo de Leon, Jessica Roxanna; Cózar Fernandez, Antonio; Heredia Calzado, Jose M

    2017-07-01

    School bullying is a growing problem. The current study is aimed at culturally adapting and assessing the psychometric properties of a brief scale to measure bullying. A cross-cultural adaptation of the brief scale -Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument-Bullying (APRI)- was performed using the translation and back-translation technique. The Spanish version of APRI questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,428 schoolchildren aged 12-14years in the region of Mar Menor in Murcia (Spain). Exploratory factor analysis, with oblique rotation, was used to assess the validity of the internal structure, the Cronbach's alpha to analyse their consistency, and the Kruskal-Wallis test to check their ability to discriminate between subjects with varying degrees of bullying according to Kidscreen-52 scale of social acceptability RESULTS: Two factors were identified in the adapted version of APRI (physical victimisation and verbal/social victimisation), similar to those in the original scale. The questionnaire has high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.94) and discrimination capacity (P<01), with significant effect sizes between degrees of bullying. The internal structure of the APRI Spanish version is similar to the original, and its scores confirm high reliability and construct validity. Further studies need to be performed with broader age ranges and confirmatory analysis techniques, to ratify the equivalence of the adapted version with the original version. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Distinct electrophysiological potentials for intention in action and prior intention for action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Mikkel C; Jensen, Mads; Overgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The role of conscious intention in relation to motoric movements has become a major topic of investigation in neuroscience. Traditionally, reports of conscious intention have been compared to various features of the readiness-potential (RP) – an electrophysiological signal that appears before...... electrophysiological “intention potential” above the mid-frontal areas at the time participants formed a distal intention. This potential was only found when the distal intention was self-paced and not when the intention was formed in response to an external cue....

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of generic and cancer-related patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for use with cancer patients in Brazil: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albach, Carlos Augusto; Wagland, Richard; Hunt, Katherine J

    2018-04-01

    This systematic review (1) identifies the current generic and cancer-related patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that have been cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese and applied to cancer patients and (2) critically evaluates their cross-cultural adaptation (CCA) and measurement properties. Seven databases were searched for articles regarding the translation and evaluation of measurement properties of generic and cancer-related PROMs cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese that are applied in adult (≥18 years old) cancer patients. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. The bibliographic search retrieved 1674 hits, of which seven studies analysing eight instruments were included in this review. Data on the interpretability of scores were poorly reported. Overall, the quality of the CCA process was inconsistent throughout the studies. None of the included studies performed a cross-cultural validation. The evidence concerning the quality of measurement properties is limited by poor or fair methodological quality. Moreover, limited information regarding measurement properties was provided within the included papers. This review aids the selection process of Brazilian Portuguese PROMs for use in cancer patients. After acknowledging the methodological caveats and strengths of each tool, our opinion is that for quality of life and symptoms assessment the adapted FACT-G version and the ESAS could be recommended, respectively. Future research should rely on the already accepted standards of CCA and validation studies.

  7. How to achieve ultrasound-guided femoral venous access: the new standard of care in the electrophysiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Benedict M; Child, Nicholas; Roberts, Paul R

    2017-06-01

    Bedside vascular ultrasound machines are increasingly available. They are used to facilitate safer vascular access across a number of different specialties. In the electrophysiology laboratory however, where patients are frequently anticoagulated and require the insertion of multiple venous sheaths, anatomical landmark techniques predominate. Despite the high number of vascular complications associated with electrophysiological procedures and the increasing evidence to support its use in electrophysiology, ultrasound remains underutilised. A new standard of care is required. A comprehensive technical report, providing a detailed explanation of this important technique, will provide other electrophysiology centres with the knowledge and justification for adopting ultrasound guidance as their standard practice. We review the increasing body of evidence which demonstrates that routine ultrasound usage can substantially improve the safety of femoral venous access in the electrophysiology laboratory. We offer a comprehensive technical report to guide operators through the process of ultrasound-guided venous access, with a specific focus on the electrophysiology laboratory. Additionally, we detail a novel technique which utilises real-time colour Doppler ultrasound to accurately identify needle tip location during venous puncture. The use of vascular ultrasound to guide femoral venous cannulation is rapid, inexpensive and easily learnt. Ultrasound is readily available and offers the potential to significantly reduce vascular complications in the unique setting of the electrophysiology laboratory. Ultrasound guidance to achieve femoral venous access should be the new standard of care in electrophysiology.

  8. Evaluation of mRNA expression levels and electrophysiological function of neuron-like cells derived from canine bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Rei; Edamura, Kazuya; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Narita, Takanori; Okabayashi, Ken; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Teshima, Kenji; Asano, Kazushi; Nakayama, Tomohiro

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the in vitro differentiation of canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into functional, mature neurons. Bone marrow from 6 adult dogs. BMSCs were isolated from bone marrow and chemically induced to develop into neurons. The morphology of the BMSCs during neuronal induction was monitored, and immunocytochemical analyses for neuron markers were performed after the induction. Real-time PCR methods were used to evaluate the mRNA expression levels of markers for neural stem or progenitor cells, neurons, and ion channels, and western blotting was used to assess the expression of neuronal proteins before and after neuronal induction. The electrophysiological properties of the neuron-like cells induced from canine BMSCs were evaluated with fluorescent dye to monitor Ca(2)+ influx. Canine BMSCs developed a neuron-like morphology after neuronal induction. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that these neuron-like cells were positive for neuron markers. After induction, the cells' mRNA expression levels of almost all neuron and ion channel markers increased, and the protein expression levels of nestin and neurofilament-L increased significantly. However, the neuron-like cells derived from canine BMSCs did not have the Ca(2)+ influx characteristic of spiking neurons. Although canine BMSCs had neuron-like morphological and biochemical properties after induction, they did not develop the electrophysiological characteristics of neurons. Thus, these results have suggested that canine BMSCs could have the capacity to differentiate into a neuronal lineage, but the differentiation protocol used may have been insufficient to induce development into functional neurons.

  9. Electrophysiological Assessment of Serotonin and GABA Neuron Function in the Dorsal Raphe during the Third Trimester Equivalent Developmental Period in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Russell A; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the development of the serotonin system can have prolonged effects, including depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Serotonin axonal projections from the dorsal raphe undergo extensive refinement during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy). However, little is known about the functional properties of serotonin and GABA neurons in the dorsal raphe during this critical developmental period. We assessed the functional properties and synaptic connectivity of putative serotoninergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in the dorsal raphe during early [postnatal day (P) P5-P7] and late (P15-P17) stages of the third trimester equivalent period using electrophysiology. Our studies demonstrate that GABAergic neurons are hyperexcitable at P5-P7 relative to P15-P17. Furthermore, putative serotonin neurons exhibit an increase in both excitatory and GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents during this developmental period. Our data suggest that GABAergic neurons and putative serotonin neurons undergo significant electrophysiological changes during neonatal development.

  10. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Measurement Properties of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mesquita, Gabriel Nunes; de Oliveira, Marcela Nicácio Medeiros; Matoso, Amanda Ellen Rodrigues; Filho, Alberto Galvão de Moura; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro

    2018-04-24

    Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background Achilles tendon disorders are very common among athletes and it is important to objectively measure symptoms and functional limitations related to Achilles tendinopathy using outcome measures that have been validated in the language of the target population. Objectives To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to evaluate the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire. Methods We adapted the VISA-A questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese (VISA-A-Br). The questionnaire was applied on 2 occasions with an interval of 5 to 14 days. We evaluated the following measurement properties: internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error, construct validity, and ceiling and floor effects. Results The VISA-A-Br showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79; after excluding 1 item at a time, Cronbach's α = 0.73 to 0.84), good test-retest reliability (ICC agreement2,1 = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.71-0.91), an acceptable measurement error (standard error of measurement = 3.25 points and Smallest Detectable Change= 9.02 points), good construct validity (Spearman's coefficient with LEFS= 0.73 and FAOS in its 5 subscales; Pain= 0.66, other Symptoms=0.48, Function in daily living (ADL)= 0.59, Function in sport and recreation=0.67, and foot and ankle-related Quality of Life = 0.7), and no ceiling and floor effects. Conclusion The VISA-A-Br is equivalent to the original version; it has been validated and confirmed as reliable to measure pain and function among the Brazilian population with Achilles tendinopathy, and it can be used in clinical and scientific settings. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 24 Apr 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7897.

  11. Measurement properties of the QuickDASH (disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand) outcome measure and cross-cultural adaptations of the QuickDASH: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Carol A; Beaton, Dorcas E; Smith, Peter; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Tang, Kenneth; Inrig, Taucha; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Linton, Denise; Couban, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    To identify and synthesize evidence for the measurement properties of the QuickDASH, a shortened version of the 30-item DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) instrument. This systematic review used a best evidence synthesis approach to critically appraise the measurement properties [using COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN)] of the QuickDASH and cross-cultural adaptations. A standard search strategy was conducted between 2005 (year of first publication of QuickDASH) and March 2011 in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL. The search identified 14 studies to include in the best evidence synthesis of the QuickDASH. A further 11 studies were identified on eight cross-cultural adaptation versions. Many measurement properties of the QuickDASH have been evaluated in multiple studies and across most of the measurement properties. The best evidence synthesis of the QuickDASH English version suggests that this tool is performing well with strong positive evidence for reliability and validity (hypothesis testing), and moderate positive evidence for structural validity testing. Strong negative evidence was found for responsiveness due to lower correlations with global estimates of change. Information about the measurement properties of the cross-cultural adaptation versions is still lacking, or the available information is of poor overall methodological quality.

  12. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some physical-mechanical properties of wood used in Brazilian cultural and artistic heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiano, Lucio Cesar

    2010-01-01

    Wood is considered a natural composite of extreme complexity, basically composed by cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose (polyosis) and extractives. Its composition favors biological attacks from different species. In this context, several techniques have been studied and applied for disinfecting and decontaminating wood-made works of art and cultural heritage, which have been damaged by fungi, bacteria and insects. Gamma radiation emitted by unstable isotopes, such as 60- cobalt, has also been studied as an alternative to the conventional wood preservatives. So, gamma rays treatment has been shown to be efficient to the removal of infestations by insects and microorganisms in wood-made artifacts, to be fast and not to require quarantine because it does not generate toxic waste. Similar to other techniques, this process does not prevent the irradiated material of re-infestation or recontamination. In this context, the effects of relatively high disinfestation gamma radiation doses (up to 100 kGy) on cedro rosa and imbuia, two typical Brazilian wood species, are accompanied by the changes on the following attributes: apparent density, retracting, parallel compression to fibers, bending in the modulus of elasticity, hardness, shear and thermal stability. Results have shown that gamma radiation, in the studied dose range, does not promote alterations on properties of investigated wood species. In case of a re-infestation, these observations indicate that the wood species can be submitted to repeatedly irradiation processes without causing damage to their structure up to the studied dose range, in despite of radiation effects be always cumulative. (author)

  13. Antioxidant and bone repair properties of quercetin-functionalized hydroxyapatite: An in vitro osteoblast-osteoclast-endothelial cell co-culture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Lucia; Torricelli, Paola; Boanini, Elisa; Gazzano, Massimo; Rubini, Katia; Fini, Milena; Bigi, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    functionalized with different amounts of quercetin and obtain new composite materials which display both the good bioactivity of the inorganic phase and the therapeutic properties of the flavonoid. The innovative in vitro model developed in this study, which involves co-culture of osteoblast, osteoclast and endothelial cells, allows to state that the new materials exert a beneficial action onto bone repair microenvironment, stimulating osteoblast proliferation and activity, downregulating osteoclastogenesis, and supporting microangiogenetic processes necessary for new bone formation. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of graded mechanical compression of rabbit sciatic nerve on nerve blood flow and electrophysiological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayama, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Uchida, Kenzo; Kokubo, Yasuo; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Takeno, Kenichi; Awara, Kosuke; Mwaka, Erisa S; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2010-04-01

    Entrapment neuropathy is a frequent clinical problem that can be caused by, among other factors, mechanical compression; however, exactly how a compressive force affects the peripheral nerves remains poorly understood. In this study, using a rabbit model of sciatic nerve injury (n=12), we evaluated the time-course of changes in intraneural blood flow, compound nerve action potentials, and functioning of the blood-nerve barrier during graded mechanical compression. Nerve injury was applied using a compressor equipped with a custom-made pressure transducer. Cessation of intraneural blood flow was noted at a mean compressive force of 0.457+/-0.022 N (+/-SEM), and the compound action potential became zero at 0.486+/-0.031 N. Marked extravasation of Evans blue albumin was noted after 20 min of intraneural ischemia. The functional changes induced by compression are likely due to intraneural edema, which could subsequently result in impairment of nerve function. These changes may be critical factors in the development of symptoms associated with nerve compression. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica L. root on electrophysiological properties of isolated rabbit atrioventricular node

    OpenAIRE

    A. Enayati; V. Khori*; M. Azadbakhat; M. Zahedi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: The ideal drug for treatment of a wide range of supraventricular arrhythmia hasn't yet been developed. Previous studies have shown antihypertensive and negative inotropic effects of the Urtica dioica L. (nettle). Therefore, the aim of present study is to determine the rate dependent inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of nettle root and investigate the role of adrenoceptors in the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nettle on the isolated rabbit atrio-ventricular node. M...

  16. Effects of bepridil on the electrophysiological properties of guinea-pig ventricular muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Anno, T.; Furuta, T.; Itho, M.; Kodama, I.; Toyama, J.; Yamada, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of bepridil, a new antianginal and potential antiarrhythmic agent, on transmembrane action potentials of ventricular muscles were examined in isolated right ventricular papillary muscles of guinea-pig. Bepridil at concentrations above 5 X 10(-6)M caused a dose-dependent decrease in both the maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax) and the action potential duration from the upstroke to 30% repolarization ( APD30 ). On the other hand, the resting potential (RP), the amplitude of action potentia...

  17. Electrophysiological properties of hypoglossal motoneurons of guinea-pigs studied in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosfeldt Laursen, A; Rekling, J C

    1989-01-01

    nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. In both nuclei the two types were mixed. Antidromic spikes elicited from hypoglossal root fibres had initial segment and somatodendritic components. Electrical stimulation of the reticular matter dorsolateral to the hypoglossal nucleus elicited excitatory postsynaptic...

  18. Impact of KChIP2 on Cardiac Electrophysiology and the Progression of Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Søren; Callø, Kirstine; Thomsen, Morten B

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiological remodeling of cardiac potassium ion channels is important in the progression of heart failure. A reduction of the transient outward potassium current (I(to)) in mammalian heart failure is consistent with a reduced expression of potassium channel interacting protein 2 (KChIP2...

  19. Electrophysiological and olfactometer responses of two histerid predators to three pine bark beetle pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    William P. Shepherd; Brian T. Sullivan; Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig

    2005-01-01

    We measured electrophysiological responses in the antennae of two predaceous hister beetles, Platysoma parallelum and Plegaderus transversus, exposes to racemic mixtures of primary aggregation pheromones of scolytid bark beetle prey, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and frontalin. No significant differences were found for either histerid...

  20. Electrophysiological Markers of Categorical Perception of Color in 7-Month Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.; Holmes, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The origin of color categories has been debated by psychologists, linguists and cognitive scientists for many decades. Here, we present the first electrophysiological evidence for categorical responding to color before color terms are acquired. Event-related potentials were recorded on a visual oddball task in 7-month old infants. Infants were…

  1. Electrophysiological safety of sertindole in dogs with normal and remodeled hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Volders, Paul G A; Stengl, Milan

    2003-01-01

    Inhibition of the potassium current IKr and QT prolongation are associated with drug-induced torsades de pointes arrhythmias (TdP) and sudden cardiac death. We investigated the cardiac electrophysiological effects of sertindole, an antipsychotic drug reported to prolong the QT interval...

  2. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewarie, P.; Bright, M.G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S.E.; Gascoyne, L.E.; Morris, P.G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  3. Electrophysiological Evidence of Heterogeneity in Visual Statistical Learning in Young Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Shafali S.; Kirkham, Natasha; Senturk, Damla; Hasenstab, Kyle; Sugar, Catherine; Kupelian, Chloe; Baker, Elizabeth; Sanders, Andrew J.; Shimizu, Christina; Norona, Amanda; Paparella, Tanya; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical learning is characterized by detection of regularities in one's environment without an awareness or intention to learn, and it may play a critical role in language and social behavior. Accordingly, in this study we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of visual statistical learning in young children with autism…

  4. Electrophysiological Evidence of Developmental Changes in the Duration of Auditory Sensory Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Hilary; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Investigated developmental change in duration of auditory sensory memory for tonal frequency by measuring mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological component of the auditory event-related potential that is relatively insensitive to attention and does not require a behavioral response. Findings among children and adults suggest that there are…

  5. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-10-15

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures or neuronal activity patterns for a given brain function. It is nowadays feasible to combine NTBS, either consecutively or concurrently, with a variety of neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques. Here we discuss what kind of information can be gained from combined approaches, which often are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation and "offline" NTBS effects outlasting plasticity-inducing NTBS protocols can be assessed. Finally, both strategies can be combined to close the loop between measuring and modulating brain activity by means of closed-loop brain state-dependent NTBS. In this paper, we will provide a conceptual framework, emphasizing principal strategies and highlighting promising future directions to exploit the benefits of combining NTBS with neuroimaging or electrophysiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of cortical and sub-cortical function in neonates by electrophysiological monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennekens, W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the assessment of cortical and sub-cortical function in neonates by electrophysiological monitoring, i.e. to evaluate the function of the neonatal cortex and brainstem through quantitative analysis of signals readily available in the NICU. These signals include

  7. Electrophysiological evidence for enhanced representation of food stimuli in working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutters, F.; Kumar, S.; Higgs, S.; Humphreys, G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Studies from our laboratory have shown that, relative to neutral objects, food-related objects kept in working memory (WM) are particularly effective in guiding attention to food stimuli (Higgs et al. in Appetite, 2012). Here, we used electrophysiological measurements to investigate the neural

  8. Serum cytokine contents in schizophrenia patient with metabolic syndrome and their correlation with nerve electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yong Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze serum cytokine contents in schizophrenia patient with metabolic syndrome (MS and their correlation with nerve electrophysiology. Methods: A total of 90 chizophrenia patient with MS, including 41 cases with simple schizophrenia and 39 cases with simple metabolic syndrome were included for study. The values of nerve electrophysiology indexes and serum illness-related indexes were compared among included patients, and the correlation between the two was further analyzed. Results: Compared with simple schizophrenia group and simple MS group, P300 latency of schizophrenia with MS group was longer, and the amplitude was shorter; N2-P3 latency and amplitude were shorter (P<0.05; serum SOD, S100b, BDNF, ABAb, PAI-1, 毩-HBDH, AST, cystatin c, TG, FBG and 2hPG values of schizophrenia with MS group were higher, IGF1, HMW-APN and HDL-C levels were lower, and compared with simple schizophrenia group and simple MS group, differences were significant (P<0.05; P300 latency, P300 amplitude, N2-P3 latency and N2- P3 amplitude of schizophrenia with MS group were directly correlated with serum cytokine contents (P<0.05. Conclusions: There are significantly abnormal serum cytokines and nerve electrophysiology indexes in schizophrenia patient with MS, and nerve electrophysiology detection can be used as the means to judge disease and guide treatment.

  9. FieldTrip: Open source software for advanced analysis of MEG, EEG, and invasive electrophysiological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenveld, R.; Fries, P.; Maris, E.G.G.; Schoffelen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow

  10. Evidence for Acute Electrophysiological and Cognitive Changes Following Routine Soccer Heading

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    Thomas G. Di Virgilio

    2016-11-01

    Discussion: Sub-concussive head impacts routine in soccer heading are associated with immediate, measurable electrophysiological and cognitive impairments. Although these changes in brain function were transient, these effects may signal direct consequences of routine soccer heading on (long-term brain health which requires further study.

  11. Positive Behavioral and Electrophysiological Changes following Neurofeedback Training in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. A.; Brang, D.; Hecht, E.; Edwards, L.; Carey, S.; Bacon, M.; Futagaki, C.; Suk, D.; Tom, J.; Birnbaum, C.; Rork, A.

    2008-01-01

    Two electrophysiological studies tested the hypothesis that operant conditioning of mu rhythms via neurofeedback training can renormalize mu suppression, an index of mirror neuron activity, and improve behavior in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In Study 1, eight high-functioning ASD participants were assigned to placebo…

  12. Evaluation on prebiotic properties of β-glucan and oligo-β-glucan from mushrooms by human fecal microbiota in fecal batch culture

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    Chiraphon Chaikliang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: β-glucan is dietary fiber, a structural polysaccharide, β-linked linear chains of D-glucose polymers with variable frequency of branches. β-glucan is isolated from different sources such as cell walls of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cereals (oat and barley and various species of mushrooms. Among 8 mushrooms in the study, Schizophylum commune Fr and Auricularia auricula Judae had the highest in β-glucan contents and the cheapest cost of mushroom per content of β-glucan, respectively. Even the function of β-glucan on immune modulation has been known however no report on interaction between β-glucan and human gut microbiota. Gut microbiota is thought to have health effects by interaction with non-digestible component particular fermentable dietary fiber. It is important to correlate the specific groups of the microbial communities associated with β-glucan fermentation and the consequential SCFA profiles. β-glucan from mushroom may has potential prebiotic function similar to those from commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-glucan. Objective: To evaluate on prebiotic properties of soluble β-glucans and oligo-β-glucans from Schizophylum commune Fr and Auricularia auricula Judae by fecal fermentation in batch culture. Methods: In vitro fecal fermentation in anaerobic batch cultures under simulated conditions similar to human colon with human faecal samples from three donors were performed. Comparison on 3 β-glucans and 2 oligo-β-glucans have been studied. Sample was taken at 0 h, 24 h and 48 h to analyze the numbers of bacterial changes by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA were analyzed by HPLC. The prebiotic index (PI was calculated according to the change of 5 specific bacterial genus within 48 h fermentation. Results: Soluble β-glucan from Auricularia auricula Judae increased numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus significantly (P<0.05. The PI of

  13. Serial electrophysiological findings in Guillain-Barré syndrome not fulfilling AIDP or AMAN criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takafumi; Nakajima, Hideto; Unoda, Kiichi; Yamane, Kazushi; Doi, Yoshimitsu; Ishida, Shimon; Kimura, Fumiharu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2016-09-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is categorized into two major subtypes: acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). However, a proportion of patients are electrophysiologically unclassified because of electrophysiological findings that do not fulfil AIDP or AMAN criteria, and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and lesion distributions of unclassified patients are not well defined. The aims of this study are to elucidate disease pathophysiology and lesion distribution in unclassified patients. We retrospectively studied 48 consecutive GBS patients. Patients were classified on the basis of initial electrophysiological findings according to Ho's criteria. Clinical and serial electrophysiological examinations of unclassified patients were conducted. Twelve (25 %) GBS patients were unclassified. All unclassified patients were able to walk independently at 21 days after onset. No unclassified patients, except one patient with diabetes mellitus, had sensory nerve involvement. Eight patients underwent a follow-up study within 15 days of the initial study. Distal motor latencies (DMLs) of the left median motor nerve were found to be significantly and uniformly decreased compared with initial studies (p = 0.008). DMLs (p < 0.0001) and distal compound action potential (CMAP) durations (p = 0.002) of all nerves were significantly decreased, and distal CMAP amplitudes (p = 0.026) significantly increased compared with initial studies. In unclassified GBS patients, DML values during initial electrophysiological studies would be prolonged compared with expected values in the same patient unaffected by GBS and later improve rapidly with increased distal CMAP amplitudes without the development of excessive temporal dispersions. Lesions are also present in distal nerve segments caused by reversible conduction failure.

  14. Cohort of Patients Referred for Brugada Syndrome Investigation in an Electrophysiology Service - 19-Year Registry

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    Stefan Warpechowski Neto

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Brugada syndrome (SBr is an arrhythmic condition characterized by ST-T segment abnormalities in the right precordial leads associated with a high risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Local data regarding the clinical characteristics of patients with a typical electrocardiographic (ECG pattern undergoing electrophysiological study are scarce. Objective: To evaluate patients with an ECG pattern suggestive of SBr referred for electrophysiological evaluation in a specialized center. Methods: Cohort study of patients referred for electrophysiological study because of an ECG pattern compatible with SBr between January 1998 and March 2017. Results: Of the 5506 procedures, 35 (0.64% were for SBr investigation, 25 of which (71.42% were performed in men. The mean age was 43.89 ± 13.1 years. The ECG patterns were as follows: type I, 22 (62.85%; type II, 12 (34.30%; and type III, 1 (2.85%. Twenty-three patients (65.7% were asymptomatic, 6 (17.14% had palpitations, 5 (14.3% had syncope, and 3 (8.6% had a family history of sudden death. Electrophysiological study induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 16 cases (45.7%, the mean ventricular refractory period being 228 ± 36 ms. Ajmaline / procainamide was used in 11 cases (31.4%, changing the ECG pattern to type I in 7 (63.6%. Sixteen cases (45.7% received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD. In a mean 5-year follow-up, 1 of the 16 patients (6.25% with ICD had appropriate therapy for ventricular fibrillation. There was no death. Other arrhythmias occurred in 4 (11.4% cases. Conclusions: Most patients are men, and a type I ECG pattern is the main indication for electrophysiological study. Class IA drugs have a high ECG conversion rate. The ICD event rate was 6%. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  15. Electrophysiological Monitoring in Patients With Tumors of the Skull Base Treated by Carbon-12 Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzo, Simone [Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology, and Genetics, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Schardt, Dieter [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Narici, Livio [Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Combs, Stephanie E.; Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Sannita, Walter G., E-mail: wgs@dism.unige.it [Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology, and Genetics, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To report the results of short-term electrophysiologic monitoring of patients undergoing {sup 12}C therapy for the treatment of skull chordomas and chondrosarcomas unsuitable for radical surgery. Methods and Materials: Conventional electroencephalogram (EEG) and retinal and cortical electrophysiologic responses to contrast stimuli were recorded from 30 patients undergoing carbon ion radiation therapy, within a few hours before the first treatment and after completion of therapy. Methodologies and procedures were compliant with the guidelines of the International Federation for Clinical Neurophysiology and International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision. Results: At baseline, clinical signs were reported in 56.6% of subjects. Electrophysiologic test results were abnormal in 76.7% (EEG), 78.6% (cortical evoked potentials), and 92.8% (electroretinogram) of cases, without correlation with neurologic signs, tumor location, or therapy plan. Results on EEG, but not electroretinograms and cortical responses, were more often abnormal in patients with reported clinical signs. Abnormal EEG results and retinal/cortical responses improved after therapy in 40% (EEG), 62.5% (cortical potentials), and 70% (electroretinogram) of cases. Results on EEG worsened after therapy in one-third of patients whose recordings were normal at baseline. Conclusions: The percentages of subjects whose EEG results improved or worsened after therapy and the improvement of retinal/cortical responses in the majority of patients are indicative of a limited or negligible (and possibly transient) acute central nervous system toxicity of carbon ion therapy, with a significant beneficial effect on the visual pathways. Research on large samples would validate electrophysiologic procedures as a possible independent test for central nervous system toxicity and allow investigation of the correlation with clinical signs; repeated testing over time after therapy would demonstrate, and may

  16. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

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    Firosh Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001, HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001, and HADS depression score (P = 0.01. CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103, HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211, or HADS depression score (P = 0.55. CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048. Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity.

  17. The Effects of Terminalia catappa L. Leaves Extract on the Water Quality Properties, Survival and Blood Profile of Ornamental fish (Betta sp Cultured

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    Rudy Agung Nugroho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the phytochemicals content of Terminalia catappa leaves extract (TCL and its effects on the survival and blood profiles of ornamental fish (Betta sp Ninety fish were randomly assigned into six triplicates groups and reared in various concentration of TCL: 0 (control, 125, 250, 375, 500, 625 ppm for 30 days. Temperature, Dissolve oxygen (DO, and pH were monitored during the trial. After 30 days, survival, Red Blood Cells (RBC, White Blood Cells (WBC, haemoglobin (Hb, lymphocyte, and total protein serum (TPS were analyzed. Based on the phytochemicals test, saponin, triterpenoid, quinon, phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid were detected on the TCL. Temperature and DO were not affected by any concentration of TCL. The lowest pH (5.05 was found in fish medium immersed with 625 ppm of TCL. Adding TCL above 375 ppm resulted in significantly higher survival, RBC, and Hb. The highest WBC was found in fish immersed with 625 ppm whereas the lowest lymphocyte was found in fish immersed with 375 of TCL. However, immersing any various concentration of TCL did not affect on the TPS. In summary, immersing TCL above 375 ppm is beneficial to enhance survival, RBC, WBC, and Hb of Betta sp.How to CiteNugroho, R. A., Manurung, H., Saraswati, D., Ladyescha, D. & Nur, F. M. (2016. The Effects of Terminalia catappa L. Leaves Extract on the Water Quality Properties, Survival and Blood Profile of Ornamental fish (Betta sp Cultured. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 240-247.

  18. Forward Masking in Cochlear Implant Users: Electrophysiological and Psychophysical Data Using Pulse Train Maskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Youssef; Hilkhuysen, Gaston; Noreña, Arnaud; Cazals, Yves; Roman, Stéphane; Macherey, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of auditory nerve fibers using cochlear implants (CI) shows psychophysical forward masking (pFM) up to several hundreds of milliseconds. By contrast, recovery of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) from forward masking (eFM) was shown to be more rapid, with time constants no greater than a few milliseconds. These discrepancies suggested two main contributors to pFM: a rapid-recovery process due to refractory properties of the auditory nerve and a slow-recovery process arising from more central structures. In the present study, we investigate whether the use of different maskers between eCAP and psychophysical measures, specifically single-pulse versus pulse train maskers, may have been a source of confound.In experiment 1, we measured eFM using the following: a single-pulse masker, a 300-ms low-rate pulse train masker (LTM, 250 pps), and a 300-ms high-rate pulse train masker (HTM, 5000 pps). The maskers were presented either at same physical current (Φ) or at same perceptual (Ψ) level corresponding to comfortable loudness. Responses to a single-pulse probe were measured for masker-probe intervals ranging from 1 to 512 ms. Recovery from masking was much slower for pulse trains than for the single-pulse masker. When presented at Φ level, HTM produced more and longer-lasting masking than LTM. However, results were inconsistent when LTM and HTM were compared at Ψ level. In experiment 2, masked detection thresholds of single-pulse probes were measured using the same pulse train masker conditions. In line with our eFM findings, masked thresholds for HTM were higher than those for LTM at Φ level. However, the opposite result was found when the pulse trains were presented at Ψ level.Our results confirm the presence of slow-recovery phenomena at the level of the auditory nerve in CI users, as previously shown in animal studies. Inconsistencies between eFM and pFM results, despite using the same masking conditions, further

  19. Comparison of two integration methods for dynamic causal modeling of electrophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; George, Nathalie; David, Olivier

    2018-06-01

    Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) is a methodological approach to study effective connectivity among brain regions. Based on a set of observations and a biophysical model of brain interactions, DCM uses a Bayesian framework to estimate the posterior distribution of the free parameters of the model (e.g. modulation of connectivity) and infer architectural properties of the most plausible model (i.e. model selection). When modeling electrophysiological event-related responses, the estimation of the model relies on the integration of the system of delay differential equations (DDEs) that describe the dynamics of the system. In this technical note, we compared two numerical schemes for the integration of DDEs. The first, and standard, scheme approximates the DDEs (more precisely, the state of the system, with respect to conduction delays among brain regions) using ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and solves it with a fixed step size. The second scheme uses a dedicated DDEs solver with adaptive step sizes to control error, making it theoretically more accurate. To highlight the effects of the approximation used by the first integration scheme in regard to parameter estimation and Bayesian model selection, we performed simulations of local field potentials using first, a simple model comprising 2 regions and second, a more complex model comprising 6 regions. In these simulations, the second integration scheme served as the standard to which the first one was compared. Then, the performances of the two integration schemes were directly compared by fitting a public mismatch negativity EEG dataset with different models. The simulations revealed that the use of the standard DCM integration scheme was acceptable for Bayesian model selection but underestimated the connectivity parameters and did not allow an accurate estimation of conduction delays. Fitting to empirical data showed that the models systematically obtained an increased accuracy when using the second

  20. Electrophysiological Features of Neurons in the Mesencephalic Trigeminal Nuclei

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    Jun-Ling Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Mes V neurons represent an uncommon class of primary sensory neurons. Besides receiving somatosensory information, Mes V neurons are also involved in regulating multisensory information. The present review first describes the passive features as well as three important currents, followed by a distinct excitability classification and a description of the excitability transition of Mes V neurons. Furthermore, their resonance property, the existence of membrane oscillation and electrical coupling which may promote strong synchronization, as well as their function in controlling stretch reflex activity, are discussed.

  1. Intracellular recording, sensory field mapping, and culturing identified neurons in the leech, Hirudo medicinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlow, Josh; Majeed, Zana R; Nicholls, John G; Cooper, Robin L

    2013-11-04

    The freshwater leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is a versatile model organism that has been used to address scientific questions in the fields of neurophysiology, neuroethology, and developmental biology. The goal of this report is to consolidate experimental techniques from the leech system into a single article that will be of use to physiologists with expertise in other nervous system preparations, or to biology students with little or no electrophysiology experience. We demonstrate how to dissect the leech for recording intracellularly from identified neural circuits in the ganglion. Next we show how individual cells of known function can be removed from the ganglion to be cultured in a Petri dish, and how to record from those neurons in culture. Then we demonstrate how to prepare a patch of innervated skin to be used for mapping sensory or motor fields. These leech preparations are still widely used to address basic electrical properties of neural networks, behavior, synaptogenesis, and development. They are also an appropriate training module for neuroscience or physiology teaching laboratories.

  2. Comparison of vectorial ion transport in primary murine airway and human sinonasal air-liquid interface cultures, models for studies of cystic fibrosis, and other airway diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoyan; Fortenberry, James A; Cohen, Noam A; Sorscher, Eric J; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare vectorial ion transport within murine trachea, murine nasal septa, and human sinonasal cultured epithelium. Our hypothesis is that murine septal epithelium, rather than trachea, will more closely mimic the electrophysiology properties of human sinonasal epithelium. Epithelium from murine trachea, murine septa, and human sinonasal tissue were cultured at an air-liquid interface to confluence and full differentiation. A limited number of homozygous dF508 epithelia were also cultured. Monolayers were mounted in modified Ussing chambers to investigate pharmacologic manipulation of ion transport. The change in forskolin-stimulated current (delta-I(SC), expressed as micro-A/cm(2)) in murine septal (n = 19; 16.84 +/- 2.09) and human sinonasal (n = 18; 12.15 +/- 1.93) cultures was significantly increased over murine tracheal cultures (n = 15; 6.75 +/- 1.35; p = 0.035 and 0.0005, respectively). Forskolin-stimulated I(SC) was inhibited by the specific cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) inhibitor INH-172 (5 microM). No forskolin-stimulated I(SC) was shown in cultures of dF508 homozygous murine septal epithelium (n = 3). Murine septal I(SC) was largely inhibited by amiloride (12.03 +/- 0.66), whereas human sinonasal cultures had a very limited response (0.70 +/- 0.47; p < 0.0001). The contribution of CFTR to stimulated chloride current as measured by INH-172 was highly significantly different between all groups (murine septa, 19.51 +/- 1.28; human sinonasal, 11.12 +/- 1.58; murine trachea, 4.85 +/- 0.49; p < 0.0001). Human sinonasal and murine septal epithelial cultures represent a useful model for studying CFTR activity and may provide significant advantages over lower airway tissues for investigating upper and lower respiratory pathophysiology.

  3. NeuroMatic: An Integrated Open-Source Software Toolkit for Acquisition, Analysis and Simulation of Electrophysiological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jason S.; Silver, R. Angus

    2018-01-01

    Acquisition, analysis and simulation of electrophysiological properties of the nervous system require multiple software packages. This makes it difficult to conserve experimental metadata and track the analysis performed. It also complicates certain experimental approaches such as online analysis. To address this, we developed NeuroMatic, an open-source software toolkit that performs data acquisition (episodic, continuous and triggered recordings), data analysis (spike rasters, spontaneous event detection, curve fitting, stationarity) and simulations (stochastic synaptic transmission, synaptic short-term plasticity, integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-like single-compartment models). The merging of a wide range of tools into a single package facilitates a more integrated style of research, from the development of online analysis functions during data acquisition, to the simulation of synaptic conductance trains during dynamic-clamp experiments. Moreover, NeuroMatic has the advantage of working within Igor Pro, a platform-independent environment that includes an extensive library of built-in functions, a history window for reviewing the user's workflow and the ability to produce publication-quality graphics. Since its original release, NeuroMatic has been used in a wide range of scientific studies and its user base has grown considerably. NeuroMatic version 3.0 can be found at http://www.neuromatic.thinkrandom.com and https://github.com/SilverLabUCL/NeuroMatic. PMID:29670519

  4. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2003-01-01

    Proper function of ion channels is crucial for all living cells. Ion channel dysfunction may lead to a number of diseases, so-called channelopathies, and a number of common diseases, including epilepsy, arrhythmia, and type II diabetes, are primarily treated by drugs that modulate ion channels....... A cornerstone in current drug discovery is high throughput screening assays which allow examination of the activity of specific ion channels though only to a limited extent. Conventional patch clamp remains the sole technique with sufficiently high time resolution and sensitivity required for precise and direct...... characterization of ion channel properties. However, patch clamp is a slow, labor-intensive, and thus expensive, technique. New techniques combining the reliability and high information content of patch clamping with the virtues of high throughput philosophy are emerging and predicted to make a number of ion...

  5. Clinical Characteristics, Electrophysiology, and Skin Biopsy of 38 Peripheral Neuropathy Cases with Small Fiber Involvement of Various Etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: IENFD of patients included in the present study weakly correlated with various electrophysiological parameters. Small and large fibers are more involved in patients with MS-related PN than in patients with idiopathic PN.

  6. Inheritance of electrophysiological responses to leaf saps of host- and nonhost plants in two helicoverpa species and their hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Q.B.; Huang, L.Q.; Wang, C.Z.; Tang, Q.B.T.; Zhan, H.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The polyphagous cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and the oligophagous oriental tobacco budworm Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) display contrasting heritable feeding preferences for cotton and pepper leaves. In this study, electrophysiological response patterns to

  7. Heterogeneity of Monosymptomatic Resting Tremor in a Prospective Study: Clinical Features, Electrophysiological Test, and Dopamine Transporter Positron Emission Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Guang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: mRT is heterogeneous in presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration, which can be determined by DAT-PET brain imaging. Clinical and electrophysiological features may provide clues to distinguish PD from SWEDDs.

  8. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  9. IMPROVING QUALITY OF WORK LIFE THROUGH ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY: AN IDEA ACCEPTED BY INDUSTRY

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    Evanthia Giagloglou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Work Life (QWL and Occupational Health and Safety (OHS are two interconnected and important human needs. Modern industry shows a clear will for improving QWL and OHS, nevertheless, existent automatization and technological advances may negatively influence employees' wellbeing and result as triggers to their health deterioration. Subjective measures of employees workload can help, however, the lack of objectivity may be an issue. Improvement of working life needs objective measures. There is technology for measuring objectively employees' psychophysiology, but is considered to interfere with the flexibility needed for performing working tasks. Today electrophysiological methods require minimal dimensions, are wireless connected, allow movement and are proved to be useful in capturing psychophysical wellbeing. This study shows that the industry is ready to accept electrophysiological measures for monitoring and improving the employees' wellbeing.

  10. Role of Electrophysiological Study and Catheter Ablation for Recurrent Ventricular Tachycardia Complicating Myocarditis

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    Emanuele Cecchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the case of a 31-year-old man admitted to our hospital with echocardiografic and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance signs of myocarditis complicated by ventricular tachycardia, initially resolved with direct current shock. After the recurrence of ventricular tachycardia the patient was submitted to electrophysiological study revealing a re-entrant circuit at the level of the medium segment of interventricular septum, successfully treated with transcatheter ablation. This case highlights how the presence of recurrent ventricular arrhythmias at the onset of acute myocarditis, suspected or proven, could be associated with a pre-existing arrhythmogenic substrate, therefore these patients should be submitted to electrophysiological study in order to rule out the presence of arrhythmogenic focuses that can be treated with transcatheter ablation.

  11. Solid-state NMR, electrophysiology and molecular dynamics characterization of human VDAC2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattin, Zrinka; Schneider, Robert; Laukat, Yvonne; Giller, Karin; Maier, Elke; Zweckstetter, Markus; Griesinger, Christian; Benz, Roland; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is the most abundant protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane and constitutes the major pathway for the transport of ADP, ATP, and other metabolites. In this multidisciplinary study we combined solid-state NMR, electrophysiology, and molecular dynamics simulations, to study the structure of the human VDAC isoform 2 in a lipid bilayer environment. We find that the structure of hVDAC2 is similar to the structure of hVDAC1, in line with recent investigations on zfVDAC2. However, hVDAC2 appears to exhibit an increased conformational heterogeneity compared to hVDAC1 which is reflected in broader solid-state NMR spectra and less defined electrophysiological profiles

  12. Solid-state NMR, electrophysiology and molecular dynamics characterization of human VDAC2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattin, Zrinka; Schneider, Robert; Laukat, Yvonne; Giller, Karin [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry (Germany); Maier, Elke [Theodor-Boveri-Institut (Biozentrum) der Universität Würzburg, Lehrstuhl für Biotechnologie (Germany); Zweckstetter, Markus; Griesinger, Christian [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry (Germany); Benz, Roland [Theodor-Boveri-Institut (Biozentrum) der Universität Würzburg, Lehrstuhl für Biotechnologie (Germany); Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam, E-mail: alange@fmp-berlin.de [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is the most abundant protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane and constitutes the major pathway for the transport of ADP, ATP, and other metabolites. In this multidisciplinary study we combined solid-state NMR, electrophysiology, and molecular dynamics simulations, to study the structure of the human VDAC isoform 2 in a lipid bilayer environment. We find that the structure of hVDAC2 is similar to the structure of hVDAC1, in line with recent investigations on zfVDAC2. However, hVDAC2 appears to exhibit an increased conformational heterogeneity compared to hVDAC1 which is reflected in broader solid-state NMR spectra and less defined electrophysiological profiles.

  13. The Effectiveness of Cultural Property and Conservation Learning in Elementary Education and Evaluation of the Contribution of Non-Governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem UÇAR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A definition of cultural heritage, with its tangible and intangible meanings, encompasses places that are a part of daily life, and brings them into the realm of conservation efforts. In this context, conservation becomes a concern of daily life and means that users of these places must shoulder more responsibility for them. With this in mind, people need to be aware of the values and importance of cultural heritage and their individual role in its conservation. To develop public awareness of conservation of cultural heritage, awareness studies need to begin in childhood education, and in recognition of this, cultural heritage concepts have been included in Turkish primary school education programs. Additionally, a number of awareness studies have been carried out by non-governmental organizations to date. This paper aims to evaluate the concept of cultural heritage in social science programs in elementary education, and discuss the potential contributions to the education system of awareness studies carried out by non-governmental organizations. The first part of the paper deals with the place of the individual in conservation studies, and is followed by cultural heritage learning areas in social science programs in elementary education. The third section examines the results of a survey held to evaluate students’ degrees of learning. The fourth part evaluates some awareness-raising studies carried out by national and international non-governmental organizations. The final part proposes a number of criteria to be considered when attempting to raise cultural heritage education among children.

  14. Pitch Discrimination Learning: Specificity for Pitch and Harmonic Resolvability, and Electrophysiological Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Carcagno, Samuele; Plack, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-hour training on a pitch discrimination task dramatically decreases the threshold for detecting a pitch difference between two harmonic complexes. Here, we investigated the specificity of this perceptual learning with respect to the pitch and the resolvability of the trained harmonic complex, as well as its cortical electrophysiological correlates. We trained 24 participants for 12 h on a pitch discrimination task using one of four different harmonic complexes. The complexes differed...

  15. A strategy to measure electrophysiological changes with photoacoustic imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepela, Rebecka J.; Sherlock, Benjamin E.; Tian, Lin; Marcu, Laura; Sack, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technology capable of both functional and structural biological imaging. Absorption and scattering in tissue limit the penetration depth of conventional microscopy techniques to live cell imaging. This technology could permit photoacoustic imaging of electrophysiological dynamics in deep tissue, such as the brain. Further optimization of this technology could lead to concurrent imaging of neural activity and hemodynamic responses, a crucial step towards understanding neurovascular coupling in the brain.

  16. NeoAnalysis: a Python-based toolbox for quick electrophysiological data processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Dai, Ji; Zhang, Tao

    2017-11-13

    In a typical electrophysiological experiment, especially one that includes studying animal behavior, the data collected normally contain spikes, local field potentials, behavioral responses and other associated data. In order to obtain informative results, the data must be analyzed simultaneously with the experimental settings. However, most open-source toolboxes currently available for data analysis were developed to handle only a portion of the data and did not take into account the sorting of experimental conditions. Additionally, these toolboxes require that the input data be in a specific format, which can be inconvenient to users. Therefore, the development of a highly integrated toolbox that can process multiple types of data regardless of input data format and perform basic analysis for general electrophysiological experiments is incredibly useful. Here, we report the development of a Python based open-source toolbox, referred to as NeoAnalysis, to be used for quick electrophysiological data processing and analysis. The toolbox can import data from different data acquisition systems regardless of their formats and automatically combine different types of data into a single file with a standardized format. In cases where additional spike sorting is needed, NeoAnalysis provides a module to perform efficient offline sorting with a user-friendly interface. Then, NeoAnalysis can perform regular analog signal processing, spike train, and local field potentials analysis, behavioral response (e.g. saccade) detection and extraction, with several options available for data plotting and statistics. Particularly, it can automatically generate sorted results without requiring users to manually sort data beforehand. In addition, NeoAnalysis can organize all of the relevant data into an informative table on a trial-by-trial basis for data visualization. Finally, NeoAnalysis supports analysis at the population level. With the multitude of general-purpose functions provided

  17. The diagnostic efficacy of clinical findings and electrophysiological studies in carpal tunnel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Buyukkoyuncu Pekel, Nilufer; Nar Senol, Pelin; Yildiz, Demet; Kilic, Ahmet Kasim; Kamaci Sener, Deniz; Seferoglu, Meral; Gunes, Aygul

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the relation between clinical findings, neurological examination and electrophysiological studies in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and share our institutional experience in patients with CTS. Methods. Patients presenting with complaints of pain, paresthesia, and weakness in hands who diagnosed CTS between 2014 and 2015 were examined retrospectively. Demographic characteristics, clinical and neurological examination findings and electrod...

  18. Electrophysiological correlates of emotional face processing in typically developing adults and adults with high functioning Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Barrie, Jennifer Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Emotional expressions have been found to affect various event-related potentials (ERPs). Furthermore, socio-emotional functioning is altered in individuals with autism, and a growing body of neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence substantiates underlying neural differences for face processing in this population. However, relatively few studies have examined the time-course of emotional face processing in autism. This study examined how implicit (not the intended focus of attention) ve...

  19. An animal model (guinea pig) of ocular siderosis: histopathology, pharmacology, and electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Ozge, Gokhan; Soykut, Bugra; Erdem, Onur; Gunal, Armagan; Acikel, Cengizhan

    2015-03-01

    Ocular siderosis is a rare sight-threatening complication that occurs after a penetrating ocular injury by an iron-containing foreign body. The purposes of this study were to (i) investigate the histopathology, electrophysiology and iron levels/accumulation in ocular siderosis using an animal (Guinea pig) model and (ii) determine the appropriate timing for follow-up foreign body-removal surgery. Thirty guinea pigs were divided into five groups (n = 6 animals/group). On day-1, an iron body was inserted into the vitreous of the right eye of all animals; the left eyes were left undisturbed and were used as controls. At the end of each week during the 5-week study period, electroretinography (ERG) was performed on all animals in one of the five groups. Each animal in that group was sacrificed, after which both eyes were enucleated for histopathological and pharmacological evaluation of intraocular iron. Accumulated iron levels of study eyes were significantly higher than those of control eyes (135.13 and 13.55 μg/g, respectively, p < 0.01). In addition, there was a significant decrease in electrophysiological responses of study eyes. During the first week, iron levels were higher in study eyes than control eyes, but neither histological iron accumulation nor decreased electrophysiological responses could be detected. By the end of the second week, increased iron accumulation was observed histologically in intraocular tissues, along with signs of retinal toxicity, as verified by decreased electrophysiological responses. The present study indicates that the 14th day after a penetrating eye injury by an iron-containing intraocular foreign body represents a clinically critical threshold, after which structural damage to and functional alterations in ocular tissues occur.

  20. Cardiac autonomic modulation by estrogen in female mice undergoing ambulatory monitoring and in vivo electrophysiologic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Samir; Shusterman, Vladimir; Usiene, Irmute; London, Barry

    2004-04-01

    Estrogen is an important modulator of cardiovascular risk, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy and its timing on the cardiac electrophysiology in mice. Thirty female mice (age 18.8 +/- 3.1 weeks) underwent in vivo electrophysiologic testing before and after autonomic blockade. Fifteen mice were ovariectomized prepuberty (PRE) and ten postpuberty (POST), 2 weeks prior to electrophysiologic testing. Five age-matched sham-operated female mice (Control) served as controls. A subset of 13 mice (5 PRE, 3 POST, and 5 Controls) underwent 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. With ambulatory monitoring, the average (668 +/- 28 vs 769 +/- 52 b/min, P = 0.008) and minimum (485 +/- 47 vs 587 +/- 53 b/min, P = 0.02) heart rates were significantly slower in the ovariectomized mice (PRE and POST groups) compared to the Control group. At baseline electrophysiologic testing, there were no significant differences among the ovariectomized and intact mice in any of the measured parameters. With autonomic blockade, the Control group had a significantly larger change (delta) in the atrioventricular (AV) nodal Wenckebach (AVW) periodicity (deltaAVW = 11.3 +/- 2.9 vs 2.1 +/- 7.3 ms, P = 0.05) and functional refractory period (deltaFRP = 11.3 +/- 2.1 vs 1.25 +/- 6.8 ms, P = 0.02) compared to the ovariectomized mice. These results were not altered by the time of ovariectomy (PRE vs POST groups). Our results suggest that estrogen modulates the autonomic inputs into the murine sinus and AV nodes. These findings, if replicated in humans, might underlie the observed clustering of certain arrhythmias around menstruation and explain the higher incidence of arrhythmias in men and postmenopausal women.

  1. Pediatric Electrophysiology in India: A Sub-speciality Come of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology started in India in the early 70's with the earliest published diagnostic His bundle studies coming from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences by Bhatia ML et al and the GB Pant Hospital by Khalilullah et al . That era was remarkable with the first indigenously made temporary pacemaker being used to treat complete heart block as early as in 1970

  2. A novel radiation protection drape reduces radiation exposure during fluoroscopy guided electrophysiology procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Joseph J; Day, Gina; Gregorious, David; Natarajan, Venkataraman; Cohen, Todd

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel disposable lead-free radiation protection drape for decreasing radiation scatter during electrophysiology procedures. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of electrophysiology (EP) procedures exposing patients, operators and laboratory staff to higher radiation doses. The RADPAD was positioned slightly lateral to the incision site for pectoral device implants and superior to the femoral vein during electrophysiology studies. Each patient served as their own control and dosimetric measurements were obtained at the examiner's elbow and hand. Radiation badge readings for the operator were obtained three months prior to RADPAD use and three months after introduction. Radiation dosimetry was obtained in twenty patients: 7 electrophysiology studies, 6 pacemakers, 5 catheter ablations, and 2 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Eleven women and nine men with a mean age of 63 +/- 4 years had an average fluoroscopy time of 2.5 +/- 0.42 minutes per case. Mean dosimetric measurements at the hand were reduced from 141.38 +/- 24.67 to 48.63 +/- 9.02 milliroentgen (mR) per hour using the protective drape (63% reduction; p < 0.0001). Measurements at the elbow were reduced from 78.78 +/- 7.95 mR per hour to 34.50 +/- 4.18 mR per hour using the drape (55% reduction; p < 0.0001). Badge readings for three months prior to drape introduction averaged 2.45 mR per procedure versus 1.54 mR per procedure for 3 months post-initiation (37% reduction). The use of a novel radiation protection surgical drape can significantly reduce scatter radiation exposure to staff and operators during a variety of EP procedures.

  3. A Quantitative Electrophysiological Biomarker of Duplication 15q11.2-q13.1 Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Frohlich

    Full Text Available Duplications of 15q11.2-q13.1 (Dup15q syndrome are highly penetrant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD. A distinct electrophysiological (EEG pattern characterized by excessive activity in the beta band has been noted in clinical reports. We asked whether EEG power in the beta band, as well as in other frequency bands, distinguished children with Dup15q syndrome from those with non-syndromic ASD and then examined the clinical correlates of this electrophysiological biomarker in Dup15q syndrome.In the first study, we recorded spontaneous EEG from children with Dup15q syndrome (n = 11, age-and-IQ-matched children with ASD (n = 10 and age-matched typically developing (TD children (n = 9 and computed relative power in 6 frequency bands for 9 regions of interest (ROIs. Group comparisons were made using a repeated measures analysis of variance. In the second study, we recorded spontaneous EEG from a larger cohort of individuals with Dup15q syndrome (n = 27 across two sites and examined age, epilepsy, and duplication type as predictors of beta power using simple linear regressions.In the first study, spontaneous beta1 (12-20 Hz and beta2 (20-30 Hz power were significantly higher in Dup15q syndrome compared with both comparison groups, while delta (1-4 Hz was significantly lower than both comparison groups. Effect sizes in all three frequency bands were large (|d| > 1. In the second study, we found that beta2 power was significantly related to epilepsy diagnosis in Dup15q syndrome.Here, we have identified an electrophysiological biomarker of Dup15q syndrome that may facilitate clinical stratification, treatment monitoring, and measurement of target engagement for future clinical trials. Future work will investigate the genetic and neural underpinnings of this electrophysiological signature as well as the functional consequences of excessive beta oscillations in Dup15q syndrome.

  4. A low-energy x-ray irradiator for electrophysiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Zeman, G.H.; Pellmar, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    A 50 kVp molybdenum target/filter x-ray tube has been installed inside a lead-shielded Faraday cage. High-dose rates of up to 1.54 Gy min -1 (17.4 keV weighted average photons) have been used to conduct local in vitro irradiations of the hippocampal region of guinea pig brains. Electrophysiological recordings of subtle changes in neuronal activity indicate this system is suitable for this application. (author)

  5. A relationship between bruxism and orofacial-dystonia? A trigeminal electrophysiological approach in a case report of pineal cavernoma

    OpenAIRE

    Frisardi, Gianni; Iani, Cesare; Sau, Gianfranco; Frisardi, Flavio; Leornadis, Carlo; Lumbau, Aurea; Enrico, Paolo; Sirca, Donatella; Staderini, Enrico Maria; Chessa, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In some clinical cases, bruxism may be correlated to central nervous system hyperexcitability, suggesting that bruxism may represent a subclinical form of dystonia. To examine this hypothesis, we performed an electrophysiological evaluation of the excitability of the trigeminal nervous system in a patient affected by pineal cavernoma with pain symptoms in the orofacial region and pronounced bruxism. Methods: Electrophysiological studies included bilateral electrical transcrania...

  6. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  7. Breakdown evaluation of corneal epithelial barrier caused by antiallergic eyedrops using an electrophysiologic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Mikiro; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Teshima, Mugen; To, Hideto; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Taniyama, Kotaro; Nishida, Koyo; Nakamura, Junzo; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of an electrophysiologic method for predicting corneal epithelial breakdown by antiallergic eyedrops and comparing the results with those in other appraisal methods. Six kinds of antiallergic eyedrops, including benzalkonium chloride (BK) as an ophthalmic preservative and two kinds of BK-free antiallergic eyedrops, were used in this study. Eyedrops were applied to excise rabbit corneas and monitoring was performed according to an electrophysiologic method, using a commercially available chamber system to mimic human tear turnover. Changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in the corneal surface were recorded. The cytotoxicity of each kind of eyedrops in a normal rabbit corneal epithelial (NRCE) cell line and a human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 was also examined. The extent of decrease in the corneal TEER after applying antiallergic eyedrops was dependent on the concentration of the BK included as a preservative, but it was also affected by the different kinds of drugs when the BK concentration was low. Higher cytotoxicity of the eyedrops against the NRCE and EA.hy926 cell lines was observed with a reduction of TEER. Monitoring changes in the corneal TEER, according to the electrophysiologic method with the application of antiallergic eyedrops, is useful for predicting corneal epithelial breakdown caused by their instillation.

  8. LBM-EP: Lattice-Boltzmann method for fast cardiac electrophysiology simulation from 3D images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaka, S; Mansi, T; Georgescu, B; Pop, M; Wright, G A; Kamen, A; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2012-01-01

    Current treatments of heart rhythm troubles require careful planning and guidance for optimal outcomes. Computational models of cardiac electrophysiology are being proposed for therapy planning but current approaches are either too simplified or too computationally intensive for patient-specific simulations in clinical practice. This paper presents a novel approach, LBM-EP, to solve any type of mono-domain cardiac electrophysiology models at near real-time that is especially tailored for patient-specific simulations. The domain is discretized on a Cartesian grid with a level-set representation of patient's heart geometry, previously estimated from images automatically. The cell model is calculated node-wise, while the transmembrane potential is diffused using Lattice-Boltzmann method within the domain defined by the level-set. Experiments on synthetic cases, on a data set from CESC'10 and on one patient with myocardium scar showed that LBM-EP provides results comparable to an FEM implementation, while being 10 - 45 times faster. Fast, accurate, scalable and requiring no specific meshing, LBM-EP paves the way to efficient and detailed models of cardiac electrophysiology for therapy planning.

  9. 3D stereotaxis for epileptic foci through integrating MR imaging with neurological electrophysiology data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Min; Peng Chenglin; Wang Kang; Lei Wenyong; Luo Song; Wang Xiaolin; Wang Xuejian; Wu Ruoqiu; Wu Guofeng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To improve the accuracy of the epilepsy diagnoses by integrating MR image from PACS with data from neurological electrophysiology. The integration is also very important for transmiting diagnostic information to 3D TPS of radiotherapy. Methods: The electroencephalogram was redisplayed by EEG workstation, while MR image was reconstructed by Brainvoyager software. 3D model of patient brain was built up by combining reconstructed images with electroencephalogram data in Base 2000. 30 epileptic patients (18 males and 12 females) with their age ranged from 12 to 54 years were confirmed by using the integrated MR images and the data from neurological electrophysiology and their 3D stereolocating. Results: The corresponding data in 3D model could show the real situation of patients' brain and visually locate the precise position of the focus. The suddessful rate of 3D guided operation was greatly improved, and the number of epileptic onset was markedly decreased. The epilepsy was stopped for 6 months in 8 of the 30 patients. Conclusion: The integration of MR image and information of neurological electrophysiology can improve the diagnostic level for epilepsy, and it is crucial for imp roving the successful rate of manipulations and the epilepsy analysis. (authors)

  10. Large-scale electrophysiology: acquisition, compression, encryption, and storage of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Stengel, Keith A; Worrell, Gregory A; Stead, Matt

    2009-05-30

    The use of large-scale electrophysiology to obtain high spatiotemporal resolution brain recordings (>100 channels) capable of probing the range of neural activity from local field potential oscillations to single-neuron action potentials presents new challenges for data acquisition, storage, and analysis. Our group is currently performing continuous, long-term electrophysiological recordings in human subjects undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery using hybrid intracranial electrodes composed of up to 320 micro- and clinical macroelectrode arrays. DC-capable amplifiers, sampling at 32kHz per channel with 18-bits of A/D resolution are capable of resolving extracellular voltages spanning single-neuron action potentials, high frequency oscillations, and high amplitude ultra-slow activity, but this approach generates 3 terabytes of data per day (at 4 bytes per sample) using current data formats. Data compression can provide several practical benefits, but only if data can be compressed and appended to files in real-time in a format that allows random access to data segments of varying size. Here we describe a state-of-the-art, scalable, electrophysiology platform designed for acquisition, compression, encryption, and storage of large-scale data. Data are stored in a file format that incorporates lossless data compression using range-encoded differences, a 32-bit cyclically redundant checksum to ensure data integrity, and 128-bit encryption for protection of patient information.

  11. The sound of feelings: electrophysiological responses to emotional speech in alexithymia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Sophia Goerlich

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in the cognitive processing of emotions (cognitive dimension and in the experience of emotions (affective dimension. Previous research focused mainly on visual emotional processing in the cognitive alexithymia dimension. We investigated the impact of both alexithymia dimensions on electrophysiological responses to emotional speech in 60 female subjects.During unattended processing, subjects watched a movie while an emotional prosody oddball paradigm was presented in the background. During attended processing, subjects detected deviants in emotional prosody. The cognitive alexithymia dimension was associated with a left-hemisphere bias during early stages of unattended emotional speech processing, and with generally reduced amplitudes of the late P3 component during attended processing. In contrast, the affective dimension did not modulate unattended emotional prosody perception, but was associated with reduced P3 amplitudes during attended processing particularly to emotional prosody spoken in high intensity.Our results provide evidence for a dissociable impact of the two alexithymia dimensions on electrophysiological responses during the attended and unattended processing of emotional prosody. The observed electrophysiological modulations are indicative of a reduced sensitivity to the emotional qualities of speech, which may be a contributing factor to problems in interpersonal communication associated with alexithymia.

  12. Review: electrophysiology of basal ganglia and cortex in models of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellens, Damien J; Leventhal, Daniel K

    2013-01-01

    Incomplete understanding of the systems-level pathophysiology of Parkinson Disease (PD) remains a significant barrier to improving its treatment. Substantial progress has been made, however, due to the availability of neurotoxins that selectively target monoaminergic (in particular, dopaminergic) neurons. This review discusses the in vivo electrophysiology of basal ganglia (BG), thalamic, and cortical regions after dopamine-depleting lesions. These include firing rate changes, neuronal burst-firing, neuronal oscillations, and neuronal synchrony that result from a combination of local microanatomic changes and network-level interactions. While much is known of the clinical and electrophysiological phenomenology of dopamine loss, a critical gap in our conception of PD pathophysiology is the link between them. We discuss potential mechanisms by which these systems-level electrophysiological changes may emerge, as well as how they may relate to clinical parkinsonism. Proposals for an updated understanding of BG function are reviewed, with an emphasis on how emerging frameworks will guide future research into the pathophysiology and treatment of PD.

  13. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: clinical characteristics, conventional electrophysiology and quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Roman; Rolke, Silke; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Geber, Christian; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Letzel, Stephan; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    Workers exposed to vibrating tools may develop hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). We assessed the somatosensory phenotype using quantitative sensory testing (QST) in comparison to electrophysiology to characterize (1) the most sensitive QST parameter for detecting sensory loss, (2) the correlation of QST and electrophysiology, and (3) the frequency of a carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in HAVS. QST, cold provocation tests, fine motor skills, and median nerve neurography were used. QST included thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds. Thirty-two patients were examined (54 ± 11 years, 91% men) at the more affected hand compared to 16 matched controls. Vibration detection threshold was the most sensitive parameter to detect sensory loss that was more pronounced in the sensitivity range of Pacinian (150 Hz, x12) than Meissner's corpuscles (20 Hz, x3). QST (84% abnormal) was more sensitive to detect neural dysfunction than conventional electrophysiology (37% abnormal). Motor (34%) and sensory neurography (25%) were abnormal in HAVS. CTS frequency was not increased (9.4%). Findings are consistent with a mechanically-induced, distally pronounced motor and sensory neuropathy independent of CTS. HAVS involves a neuropathy predominantly affecting large fibers with a sensory damage related to resonance frequencies of vibrating tools. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain imaging and electrophysiology biomarkers: is there a role in poverty and education outcome research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, Alexandra E; Noble, Kimberly; Pavlakis, Steven G; Ali, Noorjahan; Frank, Yitzchak

    2015-04-01

    Prekindergarten educational interventions represent a popular approach to improving educational outcomes, especially in children from poor households. Children from lower socioeconomic groups are at increased risk for delays in cognitive development that are important for school success. These delays, which may stem from stress associated with poverty, often develop before kindergarten. Early interventions have been proposed, but there is a need for more information on effectiveness. By assessing socioeconomic differences in brain structure and function, we may better be able to track the neurobiologic basis underlying children's cognitive improvement. We conducted a review of the neuroimaging and electrophysiology literature to evaluate what is known about differences in brain structure and function as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiology and evoked response potentials among children from poor and nonpoor households. Differences in lower socioeconomic groups were found in functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging as well as electroencephalography and evoked response potentials compared with higher socioeconomic groups. The findings suggest a number of neurobiologic correlates for cognitive delays in children who are poor. Given this, we speculate that magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiology parameters might be useful as biomarkers, after more research, for establishing the effectiveness of specific prekindergarten educational interventions. At the very least, we suggest that to level the playing field in educational outcomes, it may be helpful to foster communication and collaboration among all professionals involved in the care and education of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. History of Bioelectrical Study and the Electrophysiology of the Primo Vascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primo vascular system is a new anatomical structure whose research results have reported the possibility of a new circulatory system similar to the blood vascular system and cells. Electrophysiology, which measures and analyzes bioelectrical signals tissues and cells, is an important research area for investigating the function of tissues and cells. The bioelectrical study of the primo vascular system has been reported by using modern techniques since the early 1960s by Bonghan Kim. This paper reviews the research result of the electrophysiological study of the primo vascular system for the discussion of the circulatory function. We hope it would help to study the electrophysiology of the primo vascular system for researchers. This paper will use the following exchangeable expressions: Kyungrak system = Bonghan system = Bonghan circulatory system = primo vascular system = primo system; Bonghan corpuscle = primo node; Bonghan duct = primo vessel. We think that objective descriptions of reviewed papers are more important than unified expressions when citing the papers. That said, this paper will unify the expressions of the primo vascular system.

  16. Electrophysiological studies in thyrotoxicosis with and without associated sick sinus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talwar, K.K.; Gupta, V.; Kaul, U.; Ahuja, M.M.; Bhatia, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in 13 patients with thyrotoxicosis (5 men and 8 women, aged 17 to 76 years) are reported. Five patients presented with features of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) (Group A) while the remaining 8 patients (Group B) had no detectable cardiovascular abnormality. Sinus node function (corrected sinus node recovery and sinoatrial conduction time) was abnormal in all Group A but normal in Group B patients. Intra-atrial, artioventricular (AV) nodal, and infranodal conduction time and effective refractory period of atrium were normal in all patients in both groups. Effective refractory period of AV node was decreased in 6 patients (3 in each group). All Group A patients received radioiodine with complete clinical remission of sick sinus state in 4 subjects. Repeat electrophysiological studies in two of these patients, 6 and 12 months after treatment, showed complete normalization of sinus node function. This is the first reported electrophysiological study documenting the occurrence of SSS in thyrotoxicosis reversed by effective antithyroid treatment. We suggest that attempts should be made to identify underlying thyrotoxicosis in all patients with SSS, especially in the older age group. Appropriate medical treatment may prevent unnecessary implantation of permanent pacemakers in such patients

  17. Electrophysiological evidence for enhanced representation of food stimuli in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, Femke; Kumar, Sanjay; Higgs, Suzanne; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-02-01

    Studies from our laboratory have shown that, relative to neutral objects, food-related objects kept in working memory (WM) are particularly effective in guiding attention to food stimuli (Higgs et al. in Appetite, 2012). Here, we used electrophysiological measurements to investigate the neural representation of food versus non-food items in WM. Subjects were presented with a cue (food or non-food item) to either attend to or hold in WM. Subsequently, they had to search for a target, while the target and distractor were each flanked by a picture of a food or non-food item. Behavioural data showed that a food cue held in WM modulated the deployment of visual attention to a search target more than a non-food cue, even though the cue was irrelevant for target selection. Electrophysiological measures of attention, memory and retention of memory (the P3, LPP and SPCN components) were larger when food was kept in WM, compared to non-food items. No such effect was observed in a priming task, when the initial cue was merely identified. Overall, our electrophysiological data are consistent with the suggestion that food stimuli are particularly strongly represented in the WM system.

  18. Analyzing the electrophysiological effects of local epicardial temperature in experimental studies with isolated hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormos, Alvaro; Millet, José; Guill, Antonio; Chorro, Francisco J; Cánoves, Joaquín; Mainar, Luis; Such, Luis; Alberola, Antonio; Trapero, Isabel; Such-Miquel, Luis

    2008-01-01

    As a result of their modulating effects upon myocardial electrophysiology, both hypo- and hyperthermia can be used to study the mechanisms that generate or sustain cardiac arrhythmias. The present study describes an original electrode developed with thick-film technology and capable of controlling regional temperature variations in the epicardium while simultaneously registering its electrical activity. In this way, it is possible to measure electrophysiological parameters of the heart at different temperatures. The results obtained with this device in a study with isolated and perfused rabbit hearts are reported. An exploration has been made of the effects of local temperature changes upon the electrophysiological parameters implicated in myocardial conduction. Likewise, an analysis has been made of the influence of local temperature upon ventricular fibrillation activation frequency. It is concluded that both regional hypo- and hyperthermia exert reversible and opposite effects upon myocardial refractoriness and conduction velocity in the altered zone. The ventricular activation wavelength determined during constant pacing at 250 ms cycles is not significantly modified, however. During ventricular fibrillation, the changes in the fibrillatory frequency do not seem to be transmitted to normal temperature zones

  19. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  20. Organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1988-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  1. Semantic relations differentially impact associative recognition memory: electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriukova, Olga; Bridger, Emma; Mecklinger, Axel

    2013-10-01

    Though associative recognition memory is thought to rely primarily on recollection, recent research indicates that familiarity might also make a substantial contribution when to-be-learned items are integrated into a coherent structure by means of an existing semantic relation. It remains unclear how different types of semantic relations, such as categorical (e.g., dancer-singer) and thematic (e.g., dancer-stage) relations might affect associative recognition, however. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we addressed this question by manipulating the type of semantic link between paired words in an associative recognition memory experiment. An early midfrontal old/new effect, typically linked to familiarity, was observed across the relation types. In contrast, a robust left parietal old/new effect was found in the categorical condition only, suggesting a clear contribution of recollection to associative recognition for this kind of pairs. One interpretation of this pattern is that familiarity was sufficiently diagnostic for associative recognition of thematic relations, which could result from the integrative nature of the thematic relatedness compared to the similarity-based nature of categorical pairs. The present study suggests that the extent to which recollection and familiarity are involved in associative recognition is at least in part determined by the properties of semantic relations between the paired associates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrophysiological evidence for effects of color knowledge in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Xu, Guiping; Jin, Hua; Mo, Lei; Zhang, Jijia; Zhang, John X

    2010-01-29

    Knowledge about the typical colors associated with familiar everyday objects (i.e., strawberries are red) is well-known to be represented in the conceptual semantic system. Evidence that such knowledge may also play a role in early perceptual processes for object recognition is scant. In the present ERP study, participants viewed a list of object pictures and detected infrequent stimulus repetitions. Results show that shortly after stimulus onset, ERP components indexing early perceptual processes, including N1, P2, and N2, differentiated between objects in their appropriate or congruent color from these objects in an inappropriate or incongruent color. Such congruence effect also occurred in N3 associated with semantic processing of pictures but not in N4 for domain-general semantic processing. Our results demonstrate a clear effect of color knowledge in early object recognition stages and support the following proposal-color as a surface property is stored in a multiple-memory system where pre-semantic perceptual and semantic conceptual representations interact during object recognition. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Slow conduction in mixed cultured strands of primary ventricular cells and stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavel Kucera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern concepts for the treatment of myocardial diseases focus on novel cell therapeutic strategies involving stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (SCMs. However, functional integration of SCMs requires similar electrophysiological properties as primary cardiomyocytes (PCMs and the ability to establish intercellular connections with host myocytes in order to contribute to the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. The aim of this project was to investigate the properties of cardiac conduction in a co-culture approach using SCMs and PCMs in cultured cell strands. Murine embryonic SCMs were pooled with fetal ventricular cells and seeded in predefined proportions on microelectrode arrays to form patterned strands of mixed cells. Conduction velocity (CV was measured during steady state pacing. SCM excitability was estimated from action potentials measured in single cells using the patch clamp technique. Experiments were complemented with computer simulations of conduction using a detailed model of cellular architecture in mixed cell strands.CV was significantly lower in strands composed purely of SCMs (5.5±1.5 cm/s, n=11 as compared to PCMs (34.9±2.9 cm/s, n=21 at similar refractoriness (100% SCMs: 122±25 ms, n=9; 100% PCMs: 139±67 ms, n=14. In mixed strands combining both cell types, CV was higher than in pure SCMs strands, but always lower than in 100% PCM strands. Computer simulations demonstrated that both intercellular coupling and electrical excitability limit CV.These data provide evidence that in cultures of murine ventricular cardiomyocytes, SCMs cannot restore CV to control levels resulting in slow conduction, which may lead to reentry circuits and arrhythmias.

  4. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers’ gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eHanulíková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker’s gender, i.e. the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker’s gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbours were upset because I *stoleMASC plums’ elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker’s gender, a disagreement between a formally-marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM *stoleMASC plums resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally-marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and electrophysiological effects of sotalol hydrochloride in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broux, B; De Clercq, D; Decloedt, A; Vera, L; Devreese, M; Gehring, R; Croubels, S; van Loon, G

    2018-05-01

    Arrhythmias in horses may require long-term anti-arrhythmic therapy. Unfortunately, oral anti-arrhythmic drugs for use in horses are currently scarce. In human patients and small animals, sotalol, a β-blocker with class III anti-arrhythmic properties, is often used for long-term treatment. To determine the pharmacokinetics of sotalol at multiple oral dosages in unfasted horses, as well as the effects on electro- and echocardiographic measurements, right atrial and ventricular monophasic action potential (MAP) and effective refractory period (ERP). Placebo controlled, double-blinded experiment. Six healthy, unfasted Warmblood horses were given either 0, 2, 3 or 4 mg/kg bodyweight (bwt) sotalol orally (PO) twice daily (bid) for 9 days in a randomised cross-over design. Echocardiography and surface electrocardiography were performed and plasma concentrations of sotalol and right atrial and right ventricular MAPs and ERPs were determined at steady-state conditions. Statistical analysis was performed using a repeated measures univariate analysis with post hoc Bonferroni corrections. Calculated mean steady-state plasma concentrations determined by nonlinear mixed-effect modelling were 287 (range 234-339), 409 (359-458) and 543 (439-646) ng/mL for 2, 3 and 4 mg/kg bwt sotalol PO bid respectively. Sotalol significantly increased the QT interval and ERPs, but, despite increasing plasma concentrations, higher dosages did not result in a progressive increase in QT interval or ERPs. Echocardiographic and other electrocardiographic measurements did not change significantly. MAP durations at 90% repolarisation were not significantly different during sotalol treatment. Besides transient local sweating, no side effects were noted. Study size and ad libitum feeding of hay. Sotalol at a dose of 2, 3 and 4 mg/kg bwt PO bid increases the QT interval and ERP and might be a useful drug for long-term anti-arrhythmic therapy in horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers' gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker's gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker's gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbors were upset because I (∗)stoleMASC plums') elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker's gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM (∗)stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  7. Inhibition of calcineurin inhibits the desensitization of capsaicin evoked currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurones from adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docherty, RJ; Yeats, JC; Bevan, S; Boddeke, HWGM

    Capsaicin activates a non-specific cation conductance in mammalian sensory neurones. If capsaicin is applied continuously or repeatedly then there is a progressive decline in responsiveness. We have studied the mechanism of this desensitization using electrophysiological methods in cultured dorsal

  8. Electrophysiological and Morphological Characterization of Chrna2 Cells in the Subiculum and CA1 of the Hippocampus: An Optogenetic Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Nichol

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha2 subunit (Chrna2 is a specific marker for oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM interneurons in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus. It was recently shown using a Chrna2-cre mice line that OLM interneurons can modulate entorhinal cortex and CA3 inputs and may therefore have an important role in gating, encoding, and recall of memory. In this study, we have used a combination of electrophysiology and optogenetics using Chrna2-cre mice to determine the role of Chrna2 interneurons in the subiculum area, the main output region of the hippocampus. We aimed to assess the similarities between Chrna2 subiculum and CA1 neurons in terms of the expression of interneuron markers, their membrane properties, and their inhibitory input to pyramidal neurons. We found that subiculum and CA1 dorsal Chrna2 cells similarly expressed the marker somatostatin and had comparable membrane and firing properties. The somas of Chrna2 cells in both regions were found in the deepest layer with axons projecting superficially. However, subiculum Chrna2 cells displayed more extensive projections with dendrites which occupied a significantly larger area than in CA1. The post-synaptic responses elicited by Chrna2 cells in pyramidal cells of both regions revealed comparable inhibitory responses elicited by GABAA receptors and, interestingly, GABAB receptor mediated components. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of Chrna2 cells in the subiculum, and suggests that subiculum and CA1 Chrna2 cells are generally similar and may play comparable roles in both sub-regions.

  9. Electrophysiology of glioma: a Rho GTPase-activating protein reduces tumor growth and spares neuron structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Eleonora; Olimpico, Francesco; Middei, Silvia; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; de Graaf, Erik L; McDonnell, Liam; Schmidt, Gudula; Fabbri, Alessia; Fiorentini, Carla; Baroncelli, Laura; Costa, Mario; Caleo, Matteo

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastomas are the most aggressive type of brain tumor. A successful treatment should aim at halting tumor growth and protecting neuronal cells to prevent functional deficits and cognitive deterioration. Here, we exploited a Rho GTPase-activating bacterial protein toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), to interfere with glioma cell growth in vitro and vivo. We also investigated whether this toxin spares neuron structure and function in peritumoral areas. We performed a microarray transcriptomic and in-depth proteomic analysis to characterize the molecular changes triggered by CNF1 in glioma cells. We also examined tumor cell senescence and growth in vehicle- and CNF1-treated glioma-bearing mice. Electrophysiological and morphological techniques were used to investigate neuronal alterations in peritumoral cortical areas. Administration of CNF1 triggered molecular and morphological hallmarks of senescence in mouse and human glioma cells in vitro. CNF1 treatment in vivo induced glioma cell senescence and potently reduced tumor volumes. In peritumoral areas of glioma-bearing mice, neurons showed a shrunken dendritic arbor and severe functional alterations such as increased spontaneous activity and reduced visual responsiveness. CNF1 treatment enhanced dendritic length and improved several physiological properties of pyramidal neurons, demonstrating functional preservation of the cortical network. Our findings demonstrate that CNF1 reduces glioma volume while at the same time maintaining the physiological and structural properties of peritumoral neurons. These data indicate a promising strategy for the development of more effective antiglioma therapies. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  11. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  12. A comparative assessment of the biological properties of soils in the cultural and native cenoses of the Central Caucasus (using the example of the Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality in Kabardino-Balkaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobtsova, O. N.; Gedgafova, F. V.; Uligova, T. S.; Tembotov, R. Kh.

    2016-01-01

    The biological properties of the most widespread automorphic and hydromorphic soils of cultural and native cenoses in the Terskii variant of the altitudinal zonality (Kabardino-Balkaria) are compared. The data on the humus reserves in the 0- to 20-cm soil layer and those on the carbon content in the microbial biomass calculated on the basis of the results of substrate-induced respiration measurements are presented. The share of carbon in the microbial biomass of the total organic carbon in the soils was determined. Long-term (more than 70 years) farming on the studied soils significantly changed their biological properties. The humus content and its reserves became lower by 25-40%. The physiological activity of the microbial biomass in the cultural soils decreased by more than 60%. Presently, the soils of the cultural