WorldWideScience

Sample records for culturally sensitive framework

  1. Integrative Report on a culture-sensitive quality & curriculum framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylva, Kathy; Ereky-Stevens, Katharina; Pastori, Giulia; Slot, P.L.; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report draws together research findings that support a comprehensive culture-sensitive European curriculum and quality assessment framework that can inform practice, teacher education and policy. The aim of this integrative report is to inform the development of a comprehensive, culture-sensiti

  2. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    . Background. Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity......Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students...... and incorporate this into caregiving. Method. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Findings. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming...

  3. Culturally sensitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C P; Kumru, A

    1999-04-01

    Issues of cultural interaction and culturally sensitive assessment and treatment of young children have become prominent in recent years for mental health professionals, for reasons having to do with changing demographics, public values, and professional vision. "Culture" refers to the sociocultural adaptation of design for living shared by people as members of a community. Mental health professionals who work with culturally diverse populations need to become culturally self-aware and find abstract and experiential ways to build a useful body of professional knowledge concerning childrearing and discipline practices, health and illness beliefs, communication styles, and expectations about family or professional relations or other group interactions. They also need to learn how to work effectively in intercultural teams, use families as partners and resources, train and work with interpreters, and select and use formal and nonformal assessment procedures in appropriate, culturally sensitive ways.

  4. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods: The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results: As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions: In summary

  5. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Ulrich; Bryant, Richard A.; Ehlers, Anke; Foa, Edna B.; Hasan, Aram; Mwiti, Gladys; Kristensen, Christian H.; Neuner, Frank; Oe, Misari; Yule, William

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-)stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions In summary, culture-sensitive

  6. CULTURE, CULTURE LEARNING AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES: TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Levy

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple). Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and th...

  7. Culture and Development : An Analytical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, P.; Zabojnik, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops a framework which analyzes how a population's culture affects the decisions of rational profit maximizing firms, while simultaneously exploring how the actions of these firms in turn affect the population's culture.By endogenizing culture as well as the more usual economic variab

  8. Culturally Conscious Organizations: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paula M.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses workplace culture in academic libraries as an aspect of organizational success in achieving on-the-job diversity. It introduces a conceptual framework in the form of selected indicators as measurements of cultural integration in the workplace. Characteristics of organizational cultural health are also identified in order to…

  9. CULTURE, CULTURE LEARNING AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES: TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Levy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple. Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and thereby to provide a valid and useful point of departure for thinking about the practice of culture learning and teaching with new technologies. The referenced literature draws from a broad range of disciplines and definitions of culture. In Part Two, five projects are chosen to represent relevant technologies currently in use for culture learning: e-mail, chat, a discussion forum and a Web-based project. Each project is used to illustrate facets of the culture concept discussed in Part One with a view to identifying key elements within a pedagogical framework that can help us respond effectively to the challenge of culture learning and teaching utilising new technologies. Thus the goal is to align fundamental qualities of the culture concept with specific pedagogical designs, tasks and technologies.

  10. Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2010-01-01

    In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

  11. Viewpoint: physician, know thyself: the professional culture of medicine as a framework for teaching cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; Foster, Jordan C; Konopasek, Lyuba

    2008-01-01

    The need for physicians who are well equipped to treat patients of diverse social and cultural backgrounds is evident. To this end, cultural competence education programs in medical schools have proliferated. Although these programs differ in duration, setting, and content, their intentions are the same: to bolster knowledge, promote positive attitudes, and teach appropriate skills in cultural competence. However, to advance the current state of cultural competence curricula, a number of challenges have to be addressed. One challenge is overcoming learner resistance, a problem that is encountered when attempting to convey the importance of cultural competence to students who view it as a "soft science." There is also the challenge of avoiding the perpetuation of stereotypes and labeling groups as "others" in the process of teaching cultural competence. An additional challenge is that few cultural competence curricula are specifically designed to foster an awareness of the student's own cultural background. The authors propose the professional culture of medicine as a framework to cultural competence education that may help mitigate these challenges. Rather than focusing on patients as the "other" group, this framework explores the customs, languages, and beliefs systems that are shared by physicians, thus defining medicine as a culture. Focusing on the physician's culture may help to broaden students' concept of culture and may sensitize them to the importance of cultural competence. The authors conclude with suggestions on how students can explore the professional culture of medicine through the exploration of films, role-playing, and the use of written narratives.

  12. Continuing professional development in sensitive cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K

    2008-01-01

    Many cultures of the world face threats to their existence due to the homogenizing effects of the global commercial pop culture. These same influences present challenges to vulnerable cultures that seek the benefits of modern medicine, while attempting to preserve their unique identities. This paper briefly reviews some of these challenges and presents one novel approach to providing continuing medical education that minimizes the potential for adverse influences on the sensitive culture.

  13. A Sixth Sense--Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Francesina R.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents suggestions for culturally sensitive modifications to help students from all backgrounds learn better. The modifications include building trust, building a repertoire of instructional strategies, using effective questioning techniques, providing effective feedback, analyzing instructional materials, and establishing positive…

  14. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  15. Culturally Sensitive Refugee Mental Health Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Refugees Assistance Program - Mental Health Technical Assistance Center.

    This report, based on a survey conducted during the summer and fall of 1986, identifies culturally sensitive training programs for professionals, paraprofessionals, and others who provide mental health services to refugees. An introductory section discusses the language, cultural, racial, experiential, and socioeconomic factors of refugee mental…

  16. The effect of culture on pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthy, M; Ohrbach, R; Michelotti, A; List, T

    2016-02-01

    Cross-cultural differences in pain sensitivity have been identified in pain-free subjects as well as in chronic pain patients. The aim was to assess the impact of culture on psychophysical measures using mechanical and electrical stimuli in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and pain-free matched controls in three cultures. This case-control study compared 122 female cases of chronic TMD pain (39 Saudis, 41 Swedes and 42 Italians) with equal numbers of age- and gender-matched TMD-free controls. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and tolerance (PPTo) were measured over one hand and two masticatory muscles. Electrical perception threshold and electrical pain threshold (EPT) and tolerance (EPTo) were recorded between the thumb and index fingers. Italian females reported significantly lower PPT in the masseter muscle than other cultures (P cultures (P = 0.017). Italians reported significantly lower PPTo in all muscles than Swedes (P ≤ 0.006) and in the masseter muscle than Saudis (P cultures (P = 0.01). Temporomandibular disorder cases, compared to TMD-free controls, reported lower PPT and PPTo in all the three muscles (P cultural differences between groups in the PPT, PPTo and EPTo. Overall, Italian females reported the highest sensitivity to both mechanical and electrical stimulation, while Swedes reported the lowest sensitivity. Mechanical pain thresholds differed more across cultures than did electrical pain thresholds. Cultural factors may influence response to type of pain test.

  17. European higher health care education curriculum: development of a cultural framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Liisa; Kelly, Hélène Taylor; Bergknut, Eva; Lundberg, Pranee; Muir, Nita; Olt, Helen; Richardson, Eileen; Sairanen, Raija; De Vlieger, Lily

    2012-07-01

    This article concerns the European Curriculum in Cultural Care Project (2005-2009), which aimed at developing a curriculum framework for the enhancement of cultural competence in European health care education. The project was initiated and supported by the Consortium of Institutes in Higher Education in Health and Rehabilitation, whose goal is to nurture educational development and networking among member institutions. The framework is the result of a collaborative endeavor by nine nurse educators from five different European countries. The production of the framework will be described in accordance with the following tenets: developing cultural competence is a continuing process, cultural competence is based on sensitivity toward others, and cultural competence is a process of progressive inquiry. Critique concerning the framework will be presented.

  18. Becoming Culturally Responsive: A Framework for Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagle, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for the development of culturally responsive practices in beginning teachers to meet the needs of diverse students in multicultural classrooms. The framework describes the trajectory beginning teachers undergo toward becoming culturally responsive and discusses how teacher educators in liberal arts colleges can…

  19. Can Discipline Education be Culturally Sensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley E; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Scholer, Seth J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Inappropriate discipline such as harsh physical punishment is a social determinant of health. The objective was to determine if a brief parent training intervention that teaches discipline strategies is culturally sensitive. Methods English or Spanish-speaking parents of 1-5 year old children viewed a multimedia program that teaches appropriate discipline strategies. The intervention, Play Nicely, was viewed in the exam room before the physician's visit. Parents viewed 4 of 20 discipline strategies of their choosing; the average viewing time was 7 min. Results Of 204 parents eligible to participate, 197 (96 %) completed the study; 41 % were Black, 31 % were White, and 21 % were Hispanic. At least 80 % of parents from each racial/ethnic group reported that the program built their confidence to care for their child, addressed their family needs, explained things in a way they could understand, respected their family values, and was sensitive to their personal beliefs. Overall, 80 % of parents reported that the program answered individual questions. One parent (0.5 %) reported that the program did not respect her family values. Conclusions for Practice Discipline education can be integrated into the pediatric primary care clinic in a way that is family-centered and culturally sensitive for the majority of parents. The results have implications for the development and implementation of population-based parenting programs and the primary prevention of child abuse and violence.

  20. Videoconferencing across cultures : A conceptual framework for floor control issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dustdar,; Schahram,; Hofstede, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses critical issues in cross-cultural communication and collaboration using desktop videoconferencing tools. Our first objective is to propose a conceptual framework for predicting which issues will be important for communication in cross-cultural desktop videoconferencing. Using th

  1. Revising and Updating the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer A.; Cushner, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The following article outlines research conducted to examine cross-cultural sensitivity in a sample of 949 incoming university students in the USA. The study was conducted during the process of updating an existing measure of cross-cultural sensitivity known as the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity (ICCS), and to examine the various levels…

  2. Is Ethical Sensitivity in Teaching Culturally Bound? Comparing Finnish and Iranian Teachers' Ethical Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Khalil; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the culture-invariant and culture-dependent nature of teachers' ethical sensitivity in two countries. Our case study involves teachers from Finland (n = 864) representing Western culture, and from Iran (n = 556) representing Eastern culture. Culturally bound elements of ethical sensitivity were studied with the…

  3. Designing Multi-Channel Web Frameworks for Cultural Tourism Applications: The MUSE Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzotto, Franca; Salmon, Tullio; Pigozzi, Massimiliano

    A framework for the design of multi-channel (MC) applications in the cultural tourism domain is presented. Several heterogeneous interface devices are supported including location-sensitive mobile units, on-site stationary devices, and personalized CDs that extend the on-site experience beyond the visit time thanks to personal memories gathered…

  4. Political culture in Macedonia after the Ohrid Framework Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Jonuz Abdullai

    2012-06-01

    • interethnic relations after the Ohrid Framework Agreement. Political culture in South-Eastern European countries has been analysed in different views, especially in the reform process, where it has an important role. Conclusions of this paper are that Macedonia must fulfil the conditions set forth, both political and institutional, based on the political culture for EU integration, since political culture, according to scholar L. Pye represents a “set of basic values, emotions and knowledge shaping and feeding political processes”.

  5. Should We Use a Capital Framework to Understand Culture? Applying Cultural Capital to Communities of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Kip Austin

    2015-01-01

    Social science research on communities of color has long been shaped by theories of social and cultural capital. This article is a hermeneutic reading of metaphorical capital frameworks, including community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge. Financial capital, the basis of these frameworks, is premised on unequal exchange. Money only becomes…

  6. Should We Use a Capital Framework to Understand Culture? Applying Cultural Capital to Communities of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Kip Austin

    2015-01-01

    Social science research on communities of color has long been shaped by theories of social and cultural capital. This article is a hermeneutic reading of metaphorical capital frameworks, including community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge. Financial capital, the basis of these frameworks, is premised on unequal exchange. Money only becomes…

  7. Sensitized photoluminescence of erbium silicate synthesized on porous silicon framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao; Xu, Lingbo; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2017-09-01

    Er silicate/porous silicon (PS) composites with effective sensitized erbium emission at 1.53 μm have been synthesized on the PS framework. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal that the PS is coated by Er silicate in composites. Indirect excitation of Er3+ ion luminescence via energy transfer from PS is confirmed. The temperature dependence of Er-related photoluminescence intensity and lifetime is investigated, which concludes a phonon-mediated energy transfer process. The combination of the PS framework and Er silicate provides a possible strategy for practical silicon-based light sources.

  8. Social justice: a framework for culturally competent care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Evelyn

    2011-10-01

    Nurse scholars with expertise in global health and culturally competent care recently proposed standards of practice for culturally competent nursing care that are founded on social justice as a broad framework. The purpose of this article is to respond to invited dialogue about the standards and to offer commentary on social justice and its relationship with context, advocacy, leadership, and culturally competent care. A model of culturally competent care for vulnerable groups informs this discussion. The context and culture that surround migrant and seasonal farmworkers illustrate how social justice illuminates their health inequities and necessitates their need for culturally competent care. The article concludes with recommendations for culturally competent education, practice, and research and offers suggestions for developing culturally competent interventions for migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

  9. A quarter century of Culture's Consequences: a review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede's cultural values framework

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley L Kirkman; Kevin B Lowe; Cristina B Gibson

    2006-01-01

    Since Geert Hofstede's Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (Sage, 1980) was published, researchers have utilized Hofstede's cultural values framework in a wide variety of empirical studies. We review 180 studies published in 40 business and psychology journals and two international annual volumes between 1980 and June 2002 to consolidate what is empirically verifiable about Hofstede's cultural values framework. We discuss limitations in the Hofstede-inspir...

  10. Incorporating Organizational Culture into a Decision Framework for Identifying and Selecting Knowledge Management Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    in the original research to develop the decision framework recommended that organizational culture be more emphasized. Therefore, this research...effort evaluated the decision framework proposed by Captain Bower and adapted the framework by including organizational culture . To incorporate... organizational culture into the framework, this research identified cultural factors that can be assessed to determine whether or not a given organizational

  11. What Is a Moose? Becoming Culturally Sensitive Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Lori; Wilhite, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    At a summer camp that introduces Japanese high school students to American culture, the authors learned the following basic principles underlying culturally responsive camp activities: sensitivity to cultural nuances in communication, deliberate and sequential processes, appreciation of one's own cultural biases, understanding perceived risks, and…

  12. Culturally Sensitive Health Care and Counseling Psychology: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Ferdinand, Lisa A.; Mirsu-Paun, Anca; Hasan, Nadia T.; Beato, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution, which focuses on counseling psychologists' roles in addressing health disparities through culturally sensitive health care research and interventions. First, the authors provide a rationale for conducting research focused on culturally sensitive health care and then offer definitions of…

  13. Making Career Theories More Culturally Sensitive: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A.; Marshall, Sheila K.; Valach, Ladislav

    2007-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is whether and how career theories can be more culturally sensitive without losing value as conceptual explanations or their usefulness for counselors. Contextual action theory is identified as a means to develop culturally sensitive explanations. Six steps are proposed and illustrated, including…

  14. Socialization to the Academic Culture: a Framework of Inquiry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mendoza.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical framework and methodology for the understanding and study of the academic culture. It is based on previous works on organizational culture with emphasis on sociological and cognitive perspectives and applicable to all types of organizations. In particular, this article describes the application of socialization and sensemaking perspectives to the formation and development of the organizational culture in academic departments with emphasis on how new faculty members socialize and engage in sensemaking as they gain full membership in their entering department. It also provides a specific methodology to systematically assess potential cultural shifts in academic departments as incoming faculty interact with faculty in the entering academic unit.

  15. Framework for transforming departmental culture to support educational innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C. Corbo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] This paper provides a research-based framework for promoting institutional change in higher education. To date, most educational change efforts have focused on relatively narrow subsets of the university system (e.g., faculty teaching practices or administrative policies and have been largely driven by implicit change logics; both of these features have limited the success of such efforts at achieving sustained, systemic change. Drawing from the literature on organizational and cultural change, our framework encourages change agents to coordinate their activities across three key levels of the university and to ground their activities in the various change perspectives that emerge from that literature. We use examples from a change project that we have been carrying out at a large research university to illustrate how our framework can be used as a basis for planning and implementing holistic change.

  16. Framework for transforming departmental culture to support educational innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, Joel C.; Reinholz, Daniel L.; Dancy, Melissa H.; Deetz, Stanley; Finkelstein, Noah

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] This paper provides a research-based framework for promoting institutional change in higher education. To date, most educational change efforts have focused on relatively narrow subsets of the university system (e.g., faculty teaching practices or administrative policies) and have been largely driven by implicit change logics; both of these features have limited the success of such efforts at achieving sustained, systemic change. Drawing from the literature on organizational and cultural change, our framework encourages change agents to coordinate their activities across three key levels of the university and to ground their activities in the various change perspectives that emerge from that literature. We use examples from a change project that we have been carrying out at a large research university to illustrate how our framework can be used as a basis for planning and implementing holistic change.

  17. Towards a Cultural Framework of Audience Response and Television Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Császi, Lajos

    2008-01-01

    In his paper "Towards a Cultural Framework of Audience Response and Television Violence" Lajos Császi argues that media violence is not a reification of social violence; rather, a popular ritual allowing contemporary societies to sublimate, to substitute, and to discuss aggression in the public sphere. Császi reviews the central questions of contemporary debates about television violence including Stuart Hall's thought on this topic and introduces the ideas of Elias, Geertz, Turner, Bettelhei...

  18. Everyone Else is They: A New Framework for Operational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    and Afghanistan. Introducing the concepts of culture outlined in this framework will posture the military and intelligence communities to interact...intelligence communities will be better postured to integrate the whole of government into proposed lines of effort, and make informed recommendations to...that it compiles a long list of litter--artifacts and pieces of information that may form part of the skeleton of a society--without making the

  19. Culture and religion in nursing: providing culturally sensitive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Aysha

    Last month, Aysha Mendes discussed the impact on care of personal beliefs held by both nurses and patients. This month, she delves into the aspects of culture and religion, which form important pieces of this puzzle, as well as the importance of culturally appropriate care provision in nursing practice.

  20. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening.

  1. Culturally sensitive curriculum development in international cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assure high quality education in developing countries, curriculum development endeavours are often initiated as part of international cooperation projects. Since culture affects the educational context of the countries involved and the way in which curriculum developers from different countries

  2. Recommendations for Culturally Sensitive Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H.; Patall, Erika A.; Rackley, Kadie R.; Reilly, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    As the US continues to diversify, methods for accurately assessing human behavior must evolve. This paper offers multicultural research considerations at several stages of the research process for psychological research and consultation. Implications regarding the comparative research framework are discussed and suggestions are offered on how to…

  3. Recommendations for Culturally Sensitive Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H.; Patall, Erika A.; Rackley, Kadie R.; Reilly, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    As the US continues to diversify, methods for accurately assessing human behavior must evolve. This paper offers multicultural research considerations at several stages of the research process for psychological research and consultation. Implications regarding the comparative research framework are discussed and suggestions are offered on how to…

  4. REM: A Collaborative Framework for Building Indigenous Cultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Tamara; Virdun, Claudia; Sherwood, Juanita; Parker, Nicola; Van Balen, Jane; Gray, Joanne; Jackson, Debra

    2016-09-01

    The well-documented health disparities between the Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous population mandates a comprehensive response from health professionals. This article outlines the approach taken by one faculty of health in a large urban Australian university to enhance cultural competence in students from a variety of fields. Here we outline a collaborative and deeply respectful process of Indigenous and non-Indigenous university staff collectively developing a model that has framed the embedding of a common faculty Indigenous graduate attribute across the curriculum. Through collaborative committee processes, the development of the principles of "Respect; Engagement and sharing; Moving forward" (REM) has provided both a framework and way of "being and doing" our work. By drawing together the recurring principles and qualities that characterize Indigenous cultural competence the result will be students and staff learning and bringing into their lives and practice, important Indigenous cultural understanding.

  5. Smart licensing and environmental flows: Modeling framework and sensitivity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, R. L.; Fenn, C. R.; Wood, P. J.; Timlett, R.; Lequesne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Adapting to climate change is just one among many challenges facing river managers. The response will involve balancing the long-term water demands of society with the changing needs of the environment in sustainable and cost effective ways. This paper describes a modeling framework for evaluating the sensitivity of low river flows to different configurations of abstraction licensing under both historical climate variability and expected climate change. A rainfall-runoff model is used to quantify trade-offs among environmental flow (e-flow) requirements, potential surface and groundwater abstraction volumes, and the frequency of harmful low-flow conditions. Using the River Itchen in southern England as a case study it is shown that the abstraction volume is more sensitive to uncertainty in the regional climate change projection than to the e-flow target. It is also found that "smarter" licensing arrangements (involving a mix of hands off flows and "rising block" abstraction rules) could achieve e-flow targets more frequently than conventional seasonal abstraction limits, with only modest reductions in average annual yield, even under a hotter, drier climate change scenario.

  6. An evolutionary framework for cultural change: selectionism versus communal exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabora, Liane

    2013-06-01

    Dawkins' replicator-based conception of evolution has led to widespread mis-application of selectionism across the social sciences because it does not address the paradox that necessitated the theory of natural selection in the first place: how do organisms accumulate change when traits acquired over their lifetime are obliterated? This is addressed by von Neumann's concept of a self-replicating automaton (SRA). A SRA consists of a self-assembly code that is used in two distinct ways: (1) actively deciphered during development to construct a self-similar replicant, and (2) passively copied to the replicant to ensure that it can reproduce. Information that is acquired over a lifetime is not transmitted to offspring, whereas information that is inherited during copying is transmitted. In cultural evolution there is no mechanism for discarding acquired change. Acquired change can accumulate orders of magnitude faster than, and quickly overwhelm, inherited change due to differential replication of variants in response to selection. This prohibits a selectionist but not an evolutionary framework for culture and the creative processes that fuel it. The importance non-Darwinian processes in biological evolution is increasingly recognized. Recent work on the origin of life suggests that early life evolved through a non-Darwinian process referred to as communal exchange that does not involve a self-assembly code, and that natural selection emerged from this more haphazard, ancestral evolutionary process. It is proposed that communal exchange provides an evolutionary framework for culture that enables specification of cognitive features necessary for a (real or artificial) societies to evolve culture. This is supported by a computational model of cultural evolution and a conceptual network based program for documenting material cultural history, and it is consistent with high levels of human cooperation.

  7. An evolutionary framework for cultural change: Selectionism versus communal exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabora, Liane

    2013-06-01

    Dawkins' replicator-based conception of evolution has led to widespread mis-application of selectionism across the social sciences because it does not address the paradox that necessitated the theory of natural selection in the first place: how do organisms accumulate change when traits acquired over their lifetime are obliterated? This is addressed by von Neumann's concept of a self-replicating automaton (SRA). A SRA consists of a self-assembly code that is used in two distinct ways: (1) actively deciphered during development to construct a self-similar replicant, and (2) passively copied to the replicant to ensure that it can reproduce. Information that is acquired over a lifetime is not transmitted to offspring, whereas information that is inherited during copying is transmitted. In cultural evolution there is no mechanism for discarding acquired change. Acquired change can accumulate orders of magnitude faster than, and quickly overwhelm, inherited change due to differential replication of variants in response to selection. This prohibits a selectionist but not an evolutionary framework for culture and the creative processes that fuel it. The importance non-Darwinian processes in biological evolution is increasingly recognized. Recent work on the origin of life suggests that early life evolved through a non-Darwinian process referred to as communal exchange that does not involve a self-assembly code, and that natural selection emerged from this more haphazard, ancestral evolutionary process. It is proposed that communal exchange provides an evolutionary framework for culture that enables specification of cognitive features necessary for a (real or artificial) societies to evolve culture. This is supported by a computational model of cultural evolution and a conceptual network based program for documenting material cultural history, and it is consistent with high levels of human cooperation.

  8. A Culture-Sensitive Agent in Kirman's Ant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Heng; Liou, Wen-Ching; Chen, Ting-Yu

    The global financial crisis brought a serious collapse involving a "systemic" meltdown. Internet technology and globalization have increased the chances for interaction between countries and people. The global economy has become more complex than ever before. Mark Buchanan [12] indicated that agent-based computer models will prevent another financial crisis and has been particularly influential in contributing insights. There are two reasons why culture-sensitive agent on the financial market has become so important. Therefore, the aim of this article is to establish a culture-sensitive agent and forecast the process of change regarding herding behavior in the financial market. We based our study on the Kirman's Ant Model[4,5] and Hofstede's Natational Culture[11] to establish our culture-sensitive agent based model. Kirman's Ant Model is quite famous and describes financial market herding behavior from the expectations of the future of financial investors. Hofstede's cultural consequence used the staff of IBM in 72 different countries to understand the cultural difference. As a result, this paper focuses on one of the five dimensions of culture from Hofstede: individualism versus collectivism and creates a culture-sensitive agent and predicts the process of change regarding herding behavior in the financial market. To conclude, this study will be of importance in explaining the herding behavior with cultural factors, as well as in providing researchers with a clearer understanding of how herding beliefs of people about different cultures relate to their finance market strategies.

  9. Culturally sensitive curriculum development in international cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assure high quality education in developing countries, curriculum development endeavours are often initiated as part of international cooperation projects. Since culture affects the educational context of the countries involved and the way in which curriculum developers from different countries a

  10. Empathy and Cross-Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Robbie J.; Jo, Hanik; Roberts, Amber

    Multicultural empathy has been recognized as an important factor in successfully treating ethnic minority clients. A study detailing the relationship between White counselor trainees' general ability to empathize and their ability to interact comfortably outside their culture of origin is described in this paper. Thirty-three counselor trainees…

  11. Cuento Therapy: A Culturally Sensitive Modality for Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of a modeling therapy designed to be sensitive to Hispanic culture using cuentos (folktales) from Puerto Rican culture to present models of adaptive behavior and folktales tailored to bridge Puerto Ricans' bicultural conflict. Cuento therapy significantly reduced children's trait anxiety relative to traditional…

  12. Cultural Psychology of Differences and EMS; a New Theoretical Framework for Understanding and Reconstructing Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2017-09-01

    In this paper I introduce the outlines of our new type of theoretical framework named 'Cultural psychology of Differences' for understanding cultural others and dialogically reconstructing interactions among cultural others. In order to understand cultural others, it is necessary for us to reconstruct a new concept which enables us to analyze dynamic generation processes of culture. We propose the concept of Expanded Mediational Structure, EMS, as an elementary unit for understanding human social interactions. EMS is composed of subjects who interacts each other using objects of some kind as mediators, and a normative mediator, NM, which mediates their interactions. It is necessary to generate, share and adjust a NM to keep social interactions stable, and culture will appear when interaction malfunction is attributed to a gaps of NMs. The concept of EMS helps us to understand how culture is functionally substantialized in the plane of collective (or communal) intersubjectivity and how cultural conflicts develop and intensify. Focusing on the generation process of culture through interactions provides us with another option to understand cultural others through dialogical interactions with them.

  13. A framework for understanding the role of culture in entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Urban

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Synthesising research findings on business regulations, culture, self, and entrepreneurship, this article provides a broad overview of the potential patterns of relationships between cultural values, personal and contextual factors, and entrepreneurial outcomes. Theories of entrepreneurship where either environmental or personality variables have been specified as unique predictors of entrepreneurship are investigated to determine whether they capture the complexity of entrepreneurial action that encompasses the interaction of environmental, cognitive, and behavioural variables. Emphasis is also placed on the South African business environment, where business regulations that may enhance or constrain new business activity are analysed. Design/Methodology/Approach: Building on previous conceptualisations and empirical findings, the article identifies salient antecedents and consequences of venture creation from established literature. A framework is then proposed, building on previous findings to approach the interaction between the multiple interacting influences on entrepreneurship more systematically.Findings: Principal literature reviews indicate that, despite SA's apparent favourable regulatory environment, low entrepreneurial activity persists, and understanding the interplay between culture, self, context and entrepreneurship remains imperative for policymakers and practitioners. In the proposed model, cultural values affect the perception of an individual resulting in key entrepreneurial outcomes; culture is depicted as a moderator in the relationship between contextual factors (business regulations and entrepreneurial outcomes, and acts as a catalyst rather than a causal agent of entrepreneurial outcomes. Limitations include lack of any causal inferences, and thus directionality between the variables which are not fully explored or empirical tested.Implications: Implications for policymakers encouraging entrepreneurship in SA

  14. Improving the sensitivity of blood culture for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Samir; Darmstadt, Gary; Naheed, Aliya; Arifeen, Shams; Islam, Maksuda; Fatima, Kaniz; Breiman, Robert; Sack, David; Hamer, Davidson

    2011-06-01

    Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae is jeopardized by low sensitivity of blood culture, autolysis and contamination with fast-growing organism(s). We performed an immunochromatographic (ICT) test for S. pneumoniae on chocolatized blood culture bottles and also sub-cultured contaminated bottles on a selective medium, thus identifying an additional eight and three cases, respectively, and improving the detection of pneumococcus by 23% (48% vs. 59%). Prescreening of culture bottles in a blinded fashion could rationalize the use of ICT with ~99% accuracy. These two approaches can aid microbiology laboratories in resource-poor countries to substantially improve rates of detection of S. pneumoniae.

  15. Intergroup anxiety, cultural sensitivity and socio-cultural diverse leaders’ effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Peruginni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This intended to analyze differences in the level of perception –of general population participants- in regards to leaders with diverse socio-cultural characteristics (gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, nationality and also verify by means of structural equations, the influence of intergroup anxiety and the cultural sensitivity in terms of the level of effectiveness perception. Participants: 481 adults from Argentina (52.8% female, 47.2% male; age average = 35.45 years old. Instruments: Intergroup Anxiety scale, Cultural Sensitivity scale, and an ad hoc protocol designed to assess level of effectiveness perception in socio-culturally diverse leaders. Results: Differences in the level of perception of effectiveness according to sociocultural characteristics could not be confirmed. However, a direct effect of cultural sensitivity and an indirect effect of intergroup anxiety on the levels of effectiveness perception were confirmed. This work contributes to previous studies on prejudice and leadership.

  16. Educational Policy vs. Culturally Sensitive Programs in Turkish Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of elementary school teachers about the sensitiveness of principals, teachers, and curriculum on multicultural education. Education provides the transmission and the advancement of its culture while it is developing and enhancing the common values, the integrity and the progress of…

  17. Native American Youth and Culturally Sensitive Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Hodge, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) with Native American youth was conducted. Method: Electronic bibliographic databases, Web sites, and manual searches were used to identify 11 outcome studies that examined CSI effectiveness with Native American youth. Results: This review found…

  18. Culturally Sensitive Dementia Caregiving Models and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, Andrew P.; Mitcham-Smith, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Family caregiving for individuals with dementia is an increasingly complex issue that affects the caregivers' and care recipients' physical, mental, and emotional health. This article presents 3 key culturally sensitive caregiver models along with clinical interventions relevant for mental health counseling professionals.

  19. Development of culturally sensitive dialog tools in diabetes education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Folmann Hempler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Person-centeredness is a goal in diabetes education, and cultural influences are important to consider in this regard. This report describes the use of a design-based research approach to develop culturally sensitive dialog tools to support person-centered dietary education targeting Pakistani immigrants in Denmark with type 2 diabetes. The approach appears to be a promising method to develop dialog tools for patient education that are culturally sensitive, thereby increasing their acceptability among ethnic minority groups. The process also emphasizes the importance of adequate training and competencies in the application of dialog tools and of alignment between researchers and health care professionals with regards to the educational philosophy underlying their use.

  20. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, J.; Nielsen, L.S.; Lueg, Rainer;

    2014-01-01

    Dalby, J., Nielsen, Lueg, R., L. S., Pedersen, L., Tomoni, A. C. 2014. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(4): 379-498.......Dalby, J., Nielsen, Lueg, R., L. S., Pedersen, L., Tomoni, A. C. 2014. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(4): 379-498....

  1. Automatic Damage Detection for Sensitive Cultural Heritage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerra, D.; Tian, J.; Lysandrou, V.; Plank, S.

    2016-06-01

    The intentional damages to local Cultural Heritage sites carried out in recent months by the Islamic State (IS) have received wide coverage from the media worldwide. Earth Observation data is an important tool to assess these damages in such non-accessible areas: If a fast response is desired, automated image processing techniques would be needed to speed up the analysis. This paper shows the first results of applying fast and robust change detection techniques to sensitive areas. A map highlighting potentially damaged buildings is derived, which could help experts at timely assessing the damages to the Cultural Heritage sites in the observed images.

  2. The Influence of Social Background on Participation in Adult Education:Applying the Cultural Capital Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincinnato, Sebastiano; De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the issue of participation in adult education building on the cultural capital framework. This theoretical framework suggests that (educational) practices are affected by one's social background and, more precisely, by the cultural resources handed down in the family context. To examine the validity of this theoretical…

  3. School Culture and Teenage Substance Use: A Conceptual and Operational Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Wolfgang A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a conceptual and operational framework for understanding the relationships between school culture and teenage substance use (smoking, drinking and illicit drug use). The framework draws upon Bernstein's theory of cultural transmission, a theory of health promoting schools and a frame for understanding the effects of place on…

  4. Sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles in the detection of cornea organ culture media contamination by bacteria and fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Thuret, G; Carricajo, A.; Chiquet, C.; Vautrin, A C; Celle, N; Boureille, M; Acquart, S; Aubert, G.; Maugery, J; Gain, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To test the bactericidal activity of standard organ culture medium, and to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles with conventional microbiological methods for detection of bacteria and fungi inoculated in a standard cornea organ culture medium.

  5. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  6. Luminescent metal-organic framework films as highly sensitive and fast-response oxygen sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Zhongshang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Yang, Deren; Qian, Guodong

    2014-04-16

    Luminescent metal-organic framework films, CPM-5⊃Tb(3+) and MIL-100(In)⊃Tb(3+), have been constructed by postfunctionalization of two porous indium-organic frameworks with different structures, respectively. The MIL-100(In)⊃Tb(3+) film shows high oxygen sensitivity (KSV = 7.59) and short response/recovery time (6 s/53 s).

  7. A new framework for climate sensitivity and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Ragone, Francesco; Lunkeit, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of the climate system to increasing CO2 concentration and the response at decadal time scales are still major factors of uncertainty for the assessment of the long and short term effects of anthropogenic climate change. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to use Ruelle's response theory to predict the impact of an arbitrary CO2 forcing scenario on the global surface temperature of a general circulation model. Response theory puts the concept of climate sensitivity on firm theoretical grounds, and addresses rigorously the problem of predictability at different time scales. Conceptually, our results show that climate change assessment is a well defined problem from a physical and mathematical point of view. Practically, our results show that considering one single CO2 forcing scenario is enough to construct operators able to predict the response of climatic observables to any other CO2 forcing scenario, without the need to perform additional numerical simulations, thus paving the way for red...

  8. International Cultural Immersion: Assessing the Influence of a Group Intervention on Intercultural Sensitivity for Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Shannonhouse, Laura; Mobley, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Scholars (e.g., Bemak & Chung, 2004) underscore the need for group workers to be culturally sensitive. One group training strategy, cultural immersion, is often employed to develop cultural sensitivity. However, no studies have utilized quasi-experimental methodologies to assess differences in cultural sensitivity between trainees that immerse…

  9. Stereotypes in the Framework of Personality Traits Cultural Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L D Surmanidze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the results of the investigation of Georgian people socio-cultural identity based on the analysis of personality cultural evaluation criteria in Georgian folklore. The approach involved enables the author to make inferences about historical stereotypes of Georgian culture.

  10. Cultural competence: a conceptual framework for teaching and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Seeleman; J. Suurmond; K. Stronks

    2009-01-01

    The need to address cultural and ethnic diversity issues in medical education as a means to improve the quality of care for all has been widely emphasised. Cultural competence has been suggested as an instrument with which to deal with diversity issues. However, the implementation of culturally comp

  11. TEACH (Train to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulitz, Russell; Santarelli, Thomas; Barnieu, Joanne; Rosenzweig, Larry; Yi, Na Yi; Zachary, Wayne; OConnor, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Personnel from diverse ethnic and demographic backgrounds come together in both civilian and military healthcare systems, facing diagnoses that at one level are equalizers: coronary disease is coronary disease, breast cancer is breast cancer. Yet the expression of disease in individuals from different backgrounds, individual patient experience of disease as a particular illness, and interactions between patients and providers occurring in any given disease scenario, all vary enormously depending on the fortuity of the equation of "which patient happens to arrive in whose exam room." Previously, providers' absorption of lessons-learned depended on learning as an apprentice would when exposed over time to multiple populations. As a result, and because providers are often thrown into situations where communications falter through inadequate direct patient experience, diversity in medicine remains a training challenge. The questions then become: Can simulation and virtual training environments (VTEs) be deployed to short-track and standardize this sort of random-walk problem? Can we overcome the unevenness of training caused by some providers obtaining the valuable exposure to diverse populations, whereas others are left to "sink or swim"? This paper summarizes developing a computer-based VTE called TEACH (Training to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare). TEACH was developed to enhance healthcare providers' skills in delivering culturally sensitive care to African-American women with breast cancer. With an authoring system under development to ensure extensibility, TEACH allows users to role-play in clinical oncology settings with virtual characters who interact on the basis of different combinations of African American sub-cultural beliefs regarding breast cancer. The paper reports on the roll-out and evaluation of the degree to which these interactions allow providers to acquire, practice, and refine culturally appropriate communication skills and to

  12. Enhanced external and culturally sensitive attributions after extended intercultural contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, Johanna Ray

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of close and extended intercultural contact on attributions for behaviour of out-group members. Specifically, it was hypothesized that extended intercultural contact would enhance the ability to make external and culturally sensitive attributions for ambiguous behaviour of out-group members, while decreasing the common tendency to overestimate internal factors. A content analysis of open-ended attributions supported these hypotheses, revealing that majority group members in Germany who had hosted an exchange student from another continent used significantly less internal and more external as well as culturally sensitive attributions to explain the behaviour described in critical intercultural incidents, compared to future hosts. The effect remained significant when controlling for perspective taking and prior intercultural experience. Moreover, the hypothesis was supported for scenarios describing different cultural groups (regardless of the exchange students' country of origin), suggesting a generalized effect. Problems of selection bias are discussed, and the importance of studying a range of positive outcomes of intercultural contact is emphasized.

  13. Photodamage of the cells in culture sensitized with bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlenkova, O. A.; Plavskaya, L. G.; Mikulich, A. V.; Leusenko, I. A.; Tretyakova, A. I.; Plavskii, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that exposure to radiation of LED sources of light with an emission band maximum at about 465 and 520 nm having substantially identical damaging effects on animal cells in culture, that are in a logarithmic growth phase and preincubated with pigment. Photobiological effect is caused by photodynamic processes involving singlet oxygen generated by triplet excited sensitizer. Mono-exponential type dependence of cell survival on the energy dose indicates that it is bilirubin that acts as a sensitizer but not its photoproducts. The inclusion of bilirubin in the cells, where it is primarily localized in the mitochondria cells, it is accompanied by multiple amplification photochemical stability compared to pigment molecules bound with albumin

  14. Quantitative social science. A network framework of cultural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schich, Maximilian; Song, Chaoming; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Mirsky, Alexander; Martino, Mauro; Barabási, Albert-László; Helbing, Dirk

    2014-08-01

    The emergent processes driving cultural history are a product of complex interactions among large numbers of individuals, determined by difficult-to-quantify historical conditions. To characterize these processes, we have reconstructed aggregate intellectual mobility over two millennia through the birth and death locations of more than 150,000 notable individuals. The tools of network and complexity theory were then used to identify characteristic statistical patterns and determine the cultural and historical relevance of deviations. The resulting network of locations provides a macroscopic perspective of cultural history, which helps us to retrace cultural narratives of Europe and North America using large-scale visualization and quantitative dynamical tools and to derive historical trends of cultural centers beyond the scope of specific events or narrow time intervals.

  15. Culture-bound syndrome and a culturally sensitive approach: from a viewpoint of medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, A; Miyakawa, T

    2000-08-01

    Some aspects of the culture-bound syndrome are presented for discussion. From the psychiatric and medical anthropological viewpoints, kamidaari is described as an initiatory illness for seeing a shaman, and focus on clinical realities developing between different therapeutic subcultures in the same culture and the complementary practices of two epistemological ones, namely, the shamanistic and modern psychiatric system in the shamanistic climate. It is suggested that the culture-bound syndrome that reflects cultural influences on disease patterns and renders them difficult to place in a universal classificatory system should be seen as a vernacular bricolage or as tactics used by people within the web of their own local culture of origin. Therapists who treat patients in a cross-epistemological milieu should be aware of the subcultural-epistemological issues that may affect the clinical process. It should be recognized that, depending on the nature of a particular psychiatric crisis, the clinical encounter is straddling the boundaries of multiple clinical realities. At every stage in the clinical field, there is an intersection, consonance, or interruption of rejoinders in the open dialog by all those engaged in the clinical time. Aspects of climatic, culturally sensitive psychotherapy will be described, and the concept of the culture-bound syndrome will be reconsidered. Our approach could be seen as 'situation- and fudo-bound'.

  16. Cultural framework, anger expression, and health status in Russian immigrant women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Edmondson, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of anger expression and cultural framework in predicting Russian immigrant women's physical and psychological health status. One hundred Russian immigrant women between the ages of 30 and 65 completed questionnaires assessing anger expression, cultural framework, and health status. All research questions were addressed using hierarchical regression procedures. The results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding immigration experiences of Russian women who migrate from countries that are more collectivistic and less individualistic than the United States.

  17. A Framework for Enhancing and Assessing Cultural Competency Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of medical practice using accepted evidence-based approaches is matched by a growing trend for shared curricula in medicine and other health professions across international boundaries. Interest in the common challenges of curricular design, delivery and assessment is expressed in conferences and dialogues focused on topics such as teaching of professionalism, humanism, integrative medicine, bioethics and cultural competence. The spirit of collaboration, sharing, acknowledgment and mutual respect is a guiding principle in cross-cultural teaching. This paper uses the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competency Training to explore methods for designing and implementing cultural competency curricula. The intent is to identify elements shared across institutional, national and cross-cultural borders and derive common principles for the assessment of learners and the curricula. Two examples of integrating new content into existing clerkships are provided to guide educators interested in an integrated and learner-centered approach to assimilate cultural competency teaching into existing required courses, clerkships and elective experiences. The paper follows an overarching principle that “every patient–doctor encounter is a cross-cultural encounter”, whether based on ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, sex, religious values, disability, sexual orientation or other differences; and whether the differences are explicit or implicit.

  18. Culture care theory: a framework for expanding awareness of diversity and racism in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, and the nursing profession does not, there has been a focus on promoting both cultural competence and diversity within the profession. Although culture and diversity are widely discussed in nursing education, the issue of racism may be avoided or suppressed. Institutionalized racism within nursing education must be acknowledged and discussed before nursing education may be transformed. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory is an established nursing theory that emphasizes culture and care as essential concepts in nursing. Theoretical frameworks abound in nursing, and Culture Care Theory may be underutilized and misunderstood within nursing education. This article examines the issue of racism in nursing education and recommends Culture Care Theory as a relevant framework for enhancing both cultural competence and diversity.

  19. Using a Theoretical Framework of Institutional Culture to Analyse an Institutional Strategy Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anthea Hydi Maxine

    2016-01-01

    This paper builds on a conceptual analysis of institutional culture in higher education. A theoretical framework was proposed to analyse institutional documents of two higher education institutions in the Western Cape, for the period 2002 to 2012 (Jacobs 2012). The elements of this theoretical framework are "shared values and beliefs",…

  20. Framework for Transforming Departmental Culture to Support Educational Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, Joel C.; Reinholz, Daniel L.; Dancy, Melissa H.; Deetz, Stanley; Finkelstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a research-based framework for promoting institutional change in higher education. To date, most educational change efforts have focused on relatively narrow subsets of the university system (e.g., faculty teaching practices or administrative policies) and have been largely driven by implicit change logics; both of these…

  1. [Towards a theoretical framework for rethinking cultural accessibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Fernando; Cowes, Valeria González; D'Amore, Eliana

    2014-02-01

    Health services accessibility is a key health policy issue. However, few in-depth studies have addressed it theoretically. Most distinguish between availability, accessibility, and acceptability, or between geographic, financial, administrative, and cultural accessibility. We discuss and analyze the concept of accessibility as conflictive articulation between supply and demand in health. The article addresses the importance of cultural accessibility, rethinking it as a social interface, i.e., a social arena with clashing worldviews (namely, those of physicians and patients). The approach sheds light on the complex processes of grasping, translating, and reshaping knowledge and recommendations within such interaction.

  2. Theoretical Framework for Evaluation of Cross-cultural Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.

    1977-01-01

    Considers six types of cross-cultural training including general, specific, affective, cognitive, behavioral and self-insight, and examines the quantity and timing of the training and the attributes of the trainers and the trainees. Available from: Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers--The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903,…

  3. Information and Communication Technologies – and Culturally Sensitive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Michail

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the perceptions of Egyptian minority groups in relation to internet information technology with which they feel empowered to protect, affirm and communicate their oppressed existence, on local and global dimensions. The research employs qualitative methods and interpretive analysis, to focus on the use of Internet information technology tools by Egyptian minority groups, in particular, their online platforms and chat rooms, and the related issues associated with these practices and usages. The paper argues that cyberspace is used by specific minority groups in Egypt as a "gateway to freedom" in which it constitutes an ally to establish newly founded cyber identities that aide them to exercise their basic human rights of freedom of thought, speech and expression. The paper thus examines cyberspace a medium or tool for the carrying out of information exchange without the traditional fear of politics and power that is deeply engraved in the roots of the Egyptian culture. In this way, these minority groups are analysed as the newly conceived human information systems (HIS residing on Internet information technology and infrastructure. The paper proposes an adaptive and culturally sensitive model of human information systems as well as human information systems development life cycle (HISDLC to aid in establishing effective processes of information exchange and creation, hence assisting in the emancipation of conflicting parties residing in Egypt, elsewhere in the Middle East and globally.

  4. In vitro versus in vivo culture sensitivities: an unchecked assumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation A patient presents to urgent care with the symptoms of a urinary tract infection (UTI. The urinalysis is consistent with infection, and the urine culture is sent to lab. In the interim, a physician prescribes empiric treatment, and sends the patient home. Two days later, the culture is positive for E. coli, resistant to the drug prescribed (Ciprofloxacin, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC 64 μg/ml, but attempts to contact the patient (by telephone are not successful. The patient returns the call two weeks later to say that the infection resolved without sequelae.Discussion Many clinicians have the experience of treatment success in the setting of known antibiotic resistance, and, conversely, treatment failure in the setting of known sensitivity. Such anomalies and empiric research described here forces us to revisit assumptions about the relationship between in vivo and in vitro drug responses. When it comes to the utility of microbiology…

  5. Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Ellis, Sara Marie

    2003-04-15

    The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate genetic health information in a culturally sensitive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying in socioeconomic status and gender. The audiotaped focus groups consisted of presentation of the educational materials, followed by a feedback session led by an African American facilitator. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified important themes and the educational materials were revised in response to the participants' suggestions. The products included a booklet and a flip chart for use in educational sessions. Focus group participants recommended a substantial reduction in technical detail, and recommended that information be personalized and made relevant to the lives of the target population. Other critical themes included the importance of building trust in the medical system and avoiding words and images that have strong negative associations in the African American community. Strategies that were successful included nontechnical images to explain genetic concepts, clip art images to energize and personalize word slides, vibrant color, identifiably African American figures, and the development of themes relevant to many African Americans. The use of these materials in an ongoing study offering BRCA1 counseling and testing to a large, rural Louisiana-based kindred will provide additional feedback about the effectiveness of the culturally tailored genetic education and counseling materials.

  6. Understanding childbirth practices as an organizational cultural phenomenon: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Misago, Chizuru

    2013-11-11

    Understanding the main values and beliefs that might promote humanized birth practices in the specialized hospitals requires articulating the theoretical knowledge of the social and cultural characteristics of the childbirth field and the relations between these and the institution. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework allowing examination of childbirth practices through the lens of an organizational culture theory. A literature review performed to extrapolate the social and cultural factors contribute to birth practices and the factors likely overlap and mutually reinforce one another, instead of complying with the organizational culture of the birth place. The proposed conceptual framework in this paper examined childbirth patterns as an organizational cultural phenomenon in a highly specialized hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Allaire and Firsirotu's organizational culture theory served as a guide in the development of the framework. We discussed the application of our conceptual model in understanding the influences of organizational culture components in the humanization of birth practices in the highly specialized hospitals and explained how these components configure both the birth practice and women's choice in highly specialized hospitals. The proposed framework can be used as a tool for understanding the barriers and facilitating factors encountered birth practices in specialized hospitals.

  7. Validation of a Culturally Appropriate Social Capital Framework to Explore Health Conditions in Canadian First Nations Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Elias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An earlier study of our research group formulated a conceptual framework of social capital for First Nation communities and developed a culturally appropriate instrument for its measurement. We tested this instrument further with the Manitoba (Canada First Nations Regional Health Survey, 2003. Using data from this survey, we investigated the bonding dimension of the social capital conceptual framework, with a total sample of 2,765 First Nations individuals living in 24 Manitoba First Nations communities. Twenty seven Likert-scale survey questions measured aspects of bonding social capital, socially-invested resources, ethos,and networks. Validation analyses included an evaluation of internal consistency, factor analyses to explore how well the items clustered together into the components of the social capital framework, and the ability of the items to discriminate across the communities represented in the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was computed on the 27 scale items, producing an Alpha of 0.84 indicating high internal consistency. The factor analyses produced five distinct factors with a total explained variance of 54.3%. Lastly, a one-way analysis of variancerun by community produced highly significant F-ratios between the groups on all twenty-seven bonding items. The culturally-sensitive items included in the social capital framework were found to be an appropriate tool to measure bonding aspects among Manitoba First Nations communities. Research and policy implications are discussed.

  8. A geohydrologic framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to climate warming in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safeeq

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summer streamflows in the Pacific Northwest are largely derived from melting snow and groundwater discharge. As the climate warms, diminishing snowpack and earlier snowmelt will cause reductions in summer streamflow. Most assessments of the impacts of a changing climate to streamflow make use of downscaled temperature and precipitation projections from General Circulation Models (GCMs. Projected climate simulations from these GCMs are often too coarse for planning purposes, as they do not capture smaller scale topographic controls and other important watershed processes. This uncertainty is further amplified when downscaled climate predictions are coupled to macroscale hydrologic models that fail to capture streamflow contributions from deep groundwater. Deep aquifers play an important role in mediating streamflow response to climate change, and groundwater needs to be explicitly incorporated into sensitivity assessments. Here we develop and apply an analytical framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to a change in the timing and magnitude of recharge in a spatially-explicit fashion. Two patterns emerge from this analysis: first, areas with high streamflow sensitivity also have higher summer streamflows as compared to low sensitivity areas. Second, the level of sensitivity and spatial extent of highly sensitive areas diminishes over time as the summer progresses. Results of this analysis point to a robust, practical, and scalable approach that can help assess risk at the landscape scale, complement the downscaling approach, be applied to any climate scenario of interest, and provide a framework to assist land and water managers adapt to an uncertain and potentially challenging future.

  9. A new framework for comprehensive, robust, and efficient global sensitivity analysis: 1. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulation models are continually growing in complexity with increasingly more factors to be identified. Sensitivity Analysis (SA) provides an essential means for understanding the role and importance of these factors in producing model responses. However, conventional approaches to SA suffer from (1) an ambiguous characterization of sensitivity, and (2) poor computational efficiency, particularly as the problem dimension grows. Here, we present a new and general sensitivity analysis framework (called VARS), based on an analogy to "variogram analysis," that provides an intuitive and comprehensive characterization of sensitivity across the full spectrum of scales in the factor space. We prove, theoretically, that Morris (derivative-based) and Sobol (variance-based) methods and their extensions are special cases of VARS, and that their SA indices can be computed as by-products of the VARS framework. Synthetic functions that resemble actual model response surfaces are used to illustrate the concepts, and show VARS to be as much as two orders of magnitude more computationally efficient than the state-of-the-art Sobol approach. In a companion paper, we propose a practical implementation strategy, and demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency, and reliability (robustness) of the VARS framework on real-data case studies.

  10. A New Framework for Effective and Efficient Global Sensitivity Analysis of Earth and Environmental Systems Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin

    2015-04-01

    Earth and Environmental Systems (EES) models are essential components of research, development, and decision-making in science and engineering disciplines. With continuous advances in understanding and computing power, such models are becoming more complex with increasingly more factors to be specified (model parameters, forcings, boundary conditions, etc.). To facilitate better understanding of the role and importance of different factors in producing the model responses, the procedure known as 'Sensitivity Analysis' (SA) can be very helpful. Despite the availability of a large body of literature on the development and application of various SA approaches, two issues continue to pose major challenges: (1) Ambiguous Definition of Sensitivity - Different SA methods are based in different philosophies and theoretical definitions of sensitivity, and can result in different, even conflicting, assessments of the underlying sensitivities for a given problem, (2) Computational Cost - The cost of carrying out SA can be large, even excessive, for high-dimensional problems and/or computationally intensive models. In this presentation, we propose a new approach to sensitivity analysis that addresses the dual aspects of 'effectiveness' and 'efficiency'. By effective, we mean achieving an assessment that is both meaningful and clearly reflective of the objective of the analysis (the first challenge above), while by efficiency we mean achieving statistically robust results with minimal computational cost (the second challenge above). Based on this approach, we develop a 'global' sensitivity analysis framework that efficiently generates a newly-defined set of sensitivity indices that characterize a range of important properties of metric 'response surfaces' encountered when performing SA on EES models. Further, we show how this framework embraces, and is consistent with, a spectrum of different concepts regarding 'sensitivity', and that commonly-used SA approaches (e.g., Sobol

  11. Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-01-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and…

  12. Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-01-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and…

  13. Clinical exchange: one model to achieve culturally sensitive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, J; Moore, D

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports on a clinical exchange programme that formed part of a pre-registration European nursing degree run by three collaborating institutions in England, Holland and Spain. The course included: common and shared learning including two summer schools; and the development of a second language before the students went on a three-month clinical placement in one of the other base institutions' clinical environments. The aim of the course was to enable students to become culturally sensitive carers. This was achieved by developing a programme based on transcultural nursing principles in theory and practice. Data were gathered by interview, focus groups, and questionnaires from 79 exchange students, fostering the strategies of illuminative evaluation. The paper examines: how the aims of the course were met; the factors that inhibited the attainment of certain goals; and how the acquisition of a second language influenced the students' learning about nursing. A model is presented to illustrate the process of transformative learning from the exchange experience.

  14. Diversifying the Midwifery Workforce: Inclusivity, Culturally Sensitive Bridging, and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Holliday; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline

    2016-11-01

    Midwifery educators and regulators in Canada have begun to address diversity, equity, and inclusion in admission processes and program curricula. Populations served by midwives value internationally educated midwives from their countries of origin. The International Midwifery Pre-Registration Program at Ryerson University in Toronto, Ontario, provides assessment, midwifery workplace orientation, and accelerated education for internationally educated midwives on behalf of the regulatory College of Midwives of Ontario. Between 2003 and 2015, midwives from 41 countries participated in the bridging program, and 214 (80%) successfully completed the program and qualified for licensure. Of these 214 graduates, 100% passed the Canadian Midwifery Registration Examination and 193 (90%) were employed full time as midwives within 4 months of graduation. The program curriculum enables the integration of these midwives into health care workplaces utilizing innovative approaches to assessment and competency enhancement. Critical to the bridging process are simulation-based practices to develop effective psychomotor learning, virtual and real primary care community placements, and coaching in empathetic, client-centered communication. Cultural sensitivity is embedded into the multiple assessment and learning modalities, and addresses relevant barriers faced by immigrant midwives in the workplace. Findings from the 13 years of the program may be applicable to increase diversity in other North American midwifery settings. This article describes the process, content, outcomes, and findings of the program. Midwifery educators and regulators may consider the utility of these approaches for their settings. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. Task parallel sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation of groundwater simulations through the SALSSA framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Chase, Jared M.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Chin, George; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika

    2010-07-15

    The Support Architecture for Large-Scale Subsurface Analysis (SALSSA) provides an extensible framework, sophisticated graphical user interface, and underlying data management system that simplifies the process of running subsurface models, tracking provenance information, and analyzing the model results. Initially, SALSSA supported two styles of job control: user directed execution and monitoring of individual jobs, and load balancing of jobs across multiple machines taking advantage of many available workstations. Recent efforts in subsurface modelling have been directed at advancing simulators to take advantage of leadership class supercomputers. We describe two approaches, current progress, and plans toward enabling efficient application of the subsurface simulator codes via the SALSSA framework: automating sensitivity analysis problems through task parallelism, and task parallel parameter estimation using the PEST framework.

  16. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment.

  17. A Framework for Cultural Competence, Advocacy, and Social Justice: Applications for Global Multiculturalism and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.

    2014-01-01

    Immigration and globalization, coupled with heightened economic challenges, prescribe that career counselors and practitioners need to be culturally sensitive and mindful about both general factors affecting nations throughout the world and cross-cultural beliefs and behaviors that career counseling clients may present. Concurrently, the renewed…

  18. A Framework for Cultural Competence, Advocacy, and Social Justice: Applications for Global Multiculturalism and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.

    2014-01-01

    Immigration and globalization, coupled with heightened economic challenges, prescribe that career counselors and practitioners need to be culturally sensitive and mindful about both general factors affecting nations throughout the world and cross-cultural beliefs and behaviors that career counseling clients may present. Concurrently, the renewed…

  19. Immunization to regulate fertility: biological and cultural frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrater, A F

    1995-09-01

    Deliberate immunization to control fertility differs from that to control disease. Those differences can be discussed within various frameworks, e.g., intent, recipient population, biological bases, and immunological targets. Others include differing perspectives of developers, providers and users, and rights of the state to impose programs of control. Almost all of the differences are grounded in the social, economic, and gendered aspects of societies. The intent of providing a fertility-regulating vaccine is to prevent pregnancy. In theory, men as well as women could receive such vaccines; in reality, most are designed for women. Traditional vaccines are intended to prevent disease and are generally given to susceptible individuals whether male or female, child or adult. The biological bases of contraceptive vaccines are molecules specific to reproduction. The immune response generated by most anti-fertility vaccines is directed toward 'self', one's own cells and molecules. In contrast, the bases of traditional vaccines are materials derived from non-self, disease-causing microorganisms; the immunological targets are those microorganisms or their toxic products. From a developer perspective vaccines that regulate fertility differ little from those that control disease; both prevent a particular condition. Developers cite these advantages to contraceptive vaccines: non-invasive, no serious side-effects, easy to use, reduced patient failure, and long-lasting but naturally reversible. Because anti-fertility vaccines have been tested only in small-scale clinical trials, information on user reactions and experiences is limited. Not surprisingly, the perspectives of women's health advocates and of potential users (mostly women) often differ markedly from those of developers. Women cite as disadvantages the cryptic nature of immunity which leaves one without an obvious signal for the beginning of protection (against pregnancy) and its decline, and the inability to 'turn

  20. When I grow up: Culturally sensitive graphic design explorations

    OpenAIRE

    Schutte, Grace

    2013-01-01

    With a global village that is growing and a world that is getting smaller it becomes evermore important for graphic designers to successfully cross cultural borders, yet this is easier said than done. My theoretical work aims at making these cross-cultural design experiences easier for graphic designers, as well as creating higher awareness of the differences that exist within cultural constructions. An amalgamation of design practices, cultural and anthropological research, the theory e...

  1. Student nurses' experiences of living and studying in a different culture to their own and the development of cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi

    With the increase of culturally diverse people residing in Denmark, it has become imperative to provide student nurses with knowledge and skills that will enable them to become culturally sensitive in order interact effectively with clients from culturally diverse backgrounds. The aim of this study...... was to explore whether student nurses develop cultural sensitivity as a consequence of living and studying in a culture that is different from their own. Seven Danish student nurses who had participated in student exchanges in Jamaica, Australia, Malta and Greenland took part in this study. A qualitative...... characteristics of openness and flexibility and support networks facilitated the students transition and adjustment to the host culture. Reflection on their experiences with students from a similar background to themselves and clinical mentors from the host culture assisted the students in their understanding...

  2. A Conceptual Framework for the Cultural Integration of Cooperative Learning: A Thai Primary Mathematics Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Yong; Nuntrakune, Tippawan

    2013-01-01

    The Thailand education reform adopted cooperative learning to improve the quality of education. However, it has been reported that the introduction and maintenance of cooperative learning has been difficult and uncertain because of the cultural differences. The study proposed a conceptual framework developed based on making a connection between…

  3. Mapping cultural ecosystem services: A framework to assess the potential for outdoor recreation across the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paracchini, M.L.; Zulian, G.; Kopperoinen, L.; Maes, J.; Schagner, J.P.; Termansen, M.; Zandersen, M.; Perez-Soba, M.; Scholefield, P.A.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity is re

  4. Anthropology and International Business Research Methods in DBA Teaching: Frameworks for Cultural Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Alma

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for introducing anthropology into a doctoral-level international business research methods course. Describes three anthropological frameworks designed for the course: a cultural awareness model adapted from G. Morgan's (1980) idea of paradigmatic orthodoxy; key organizing principles; and a mapping model allowing researchers…

  5. Meeting the Discipline-Culture Framework of Physics Knowledge: A Teaching Experience in Italian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Olivia; Bertozzi, Eugenio; Gagliardi, Marta; Tomasini, Nella Grimellini; Pecori, Barbara; Tasquier, Giulia; Galili, Igal

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with physics teaching/learning in high school. An investigation in three upper secondary school classes in Italy explored the reactions of students to a structuring lecture on optics within the discipline-culture (DC) framework that organises physics knowledge around four interrelated fundamental theories of light. The lecture…

  6. From Linguistic Analysis to Cultural Awareness: A Translation Framework for the Spanish Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Barbara N.; Rivera-Mills, Susana V.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes a translation framework to be used in the Spanish foreign-language classroom as a supplementary teaching technique. The use of translation techniques in the classroom can bridge the gap between language and culture by helping students develop metalinguistic skills that bring them to a higher level of awareness about the target language…

  7. The DigCurV Curriculum Framework for Digital Curation in the Cultural Heritage Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Molloy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the DigCurV collaborative network completed development of a Curriculum Framework for digital curation skills in the European cultural heritage sector. DigCurV synthesised a variety of established skills and competence models in the digital curation and LIS sectors with expertise from digital curation professionals, in order to develop a new Curriculum Framework. The resulting Framework provides a common language and helps define the skills, knowledge and abilities that are necessary for the development of digital curation training; for benchmarking existing programmes; and for promoting the continuing production, improvement and refinement of digital curation training programmes. This paper describes the salient points of this work, including how the project team conducted the research necessary to develop the Framework, the structure of the Framework, the processes used to validate the Framework, and three ‘lenses’ onto the Framework. The paper also provides suggestions as to how the Framework might be used, including a description of potential audiences and purposes.

  8. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students' experiences of a study abroad programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Heidi C; Turner, de Sales

    2007-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students. background: Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity and incorporate this into caregiving. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming comfortable with the experience of making a transition from one culture to another, making adjustments to cultural differences, and growing personally. Central to this process was the students' experience of studying in an unfamiliar environment, experiencing stress and varying degrees of culture shock, and making a decision to take on the ways of the host culture. These actions led to an understanding that being sensitive to another culture required being open to its dynamics, acknowledging social and political structures, and incorporating other people's beliefs about health and illness. The findings suggest that study abroad is a useful strategy for bridging the theory-practice divide. However, further research is needed with larger and more diverse students to test the generalizability of the findings. Longitudinal research is also needed to assess the impact of study abroad programmes on the deliver of culturally sensitive care.

  9. Evaluation of water-energy balance frameworks to predict the sensitivity of streamflow to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Renner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Long term average change in streamflow is a major concern in hydrology and water resources management. Some simple analytical methods exist for the assessment of the sensitivity of streamflow to climatic variations. These are based on the Budyko hypothesis, which assumes that long term average streamflow can be predicted by climate conditions, namely by annual average precipitation and evaporative demand. Recently, Tomer and Schilling (2009 presented an ecohydrological concept to distinguish between effects of climate change and basin characteristics change on streamflow. We relate the concept to a coupled consideration of the water and energy balance. We show that the concept is equivalent to the assumption that the sum of the ratio of annual actual evapotranspiration to precipitation and the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration is constant, even when climate conditions are changing.

    Here, we use this assumption to derive analytical solutions to the problem of streamflow sensitivity to climate. We show how, according to this assumption, climate sensitivity would be influenced by different climatic conditions and the actual hydrological response of a basin. Finally, the properties and implications of the method are compared with established Budyko sensitivity methods and illustrated by three case studies. It appears that the largest differences between both approaches occur under limiting conditions. Specifically, the sensitivity framework based on the ecohydrological concept does not adhere to the water and energy limits, while the Budyko approach accounts for limiting conditions by increasing the sensitivity of streamflow to a catchment parameter encoding basin characteristics. Our findings do not support any application of the ecohydrological concept under conditions close to the water or energy limits, instead we suggest a correction based on the Budyko framework.

  10. "Fools Rush In": Developing Cross-Cultural Sensitivity Using Film-Based Group Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Charles H., Jr.

    Although role playing games and self-awareness surveys are typical methods of developing cross-cultural sensitivity, this presentation advocates the use small group projects focusing on feature films such as "Fools Rush In" as an effective class or training exercise to develop sensitivity to other cultures. Despite some disadvantages…

  11. The relationship between the nursing environment and delivering culturally sensitive perinatal hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixer, Sandra J; Lindley, Lisa; Wallace, Heather; Fornehed, Mary Lou; Wool, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    Wide variations exist among perinatal hospices, and barriers to perinatal palliative care exist at the healthcare level. Research in the area of culturally sensitive perinatal palliative care has been scarce, a gap which this study addresses. To evaluate the relationship between the nurse work environment and the delivery of culturally sensitive perinatal hospice care. This retrospective, correlational study used data from the National Home and Hospice Care Survey, which includes a nationally representative sample of hospice care providers. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between the delivery of culturally sensitive care and the nurse work environment. Accreditation, teaching status, and baccalaureate-prepared registered nurse staff had an impact on the provision of culturally sensitive perinatal care Conclusions: The hospice and nursing unit environments, specifically in regards to education and technology, may be important contributors to the delivery of culturally sensitive care.

  12. Development and Validation of Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paz E. Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study combined qualitative approaches with quantitative research design to come up with a survey instrument called Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES.This survey instrument is intended to extract the learners’ beliefs and expectations on the integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts. Significant contribution of the instrument can be traced to establishing and defining the constructs and categories on how curriculum localization and context-based science learning can be developed aligned with students’ expectations and beliefs. The development process employed non-conventional processes adopted from literature which included pilot study to identify pre-deterministic constructs and specific categories for the items to be included in the survey. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and factor analysis to establish the categories or constructs of the survey instruments. Reliability measures of the instrument and its respective constructs were established for standardization. These categories were intended to aid researchers for an in-depth analysis when the instrument is administered for its purpose. The raw statistical categories were qualitatively paralleled with the pre-deterministic constructs to establish congruence of the survey tool to Instructional Congruence Framework (ICF.

  13. [Home care in a culturally sensitive environment: perspectives of caregivers of Haitian elderly patients and relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Francine; Paquet, Mario; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Carpentier, Normand; Lévesque, Louise; Trudeau, Denise

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the care provided by families occurs in an increasingly multiethnic context. Against this backdrop, the present qualitative study aims to explore the needs/expectations and solutions not only of (female) natural caregivers of an elderly relative hailing from Haiti (presented in terms of tracking cases) but also of remunerated home care providers - all with a view to developing a culturally sensitive service offering. As such, this study works from a conceptual framework centring on the negotiation of a common area of agreement between the stakeholders involved (i.e., natural caregivers and home care providers). To this end, focus groups and individual interviews were conducted among 15 caregivers and 37 home care providers. The three recurrent themes emerging from the data analysis concern, in context, the needs/expectations and solutions surrounding the experience of service use, barriers to use, and the relationships between natural caregivers and home care providers. The statements of both groups evidenced a consistency of views and have thus provided a basis for developing some recommendations acceptable to all stakeholders from the perspective of making culturally-based adjustments to the service offering.

  14. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  15. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  16. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  17. Cultural Sensitivity in ATOD Agencies: Administrator and Staff Perceptions in the Hispanic Heartland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hodge

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Administrator and staff perceptions (N = 72 of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD agency cultural sensitivity were explored in a predominantly Hispanic rural area with elevated levels of acculturation and high ATOD usage. While providers generally agreed that a relatively moderate need existed for training related to cultural issues, a more nuanced picture emerged in the purview of culturally- related barriers. Administrators viewed the lack of appropriate interpreters and language as a greater barrier than did the staff. Administrators also held higher perceptions of agencies’ cultural competency. The overall high assessment of cultural sensitivity may result from the substantial number of Latino providers.

  18. Flexible, Luminescent Metal-Organic Frameworks Showing Synergistic Solid-Solution Effects on Porosity and Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Dong; He, Chun-Ting; Liao, Pei-Qin; Cheng, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Yan-Tong; Ye, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2016-12-23

    Mixing molecular building blocks in the solid solution manner is a valuable strategy to obtain structures and properties in between the isostructural parent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). We report nonlinear/synergistic solid-solution effects using highly related yet non-isostructural, phosphorescent Cu(I) triazolate frameworks as parent phases. Near the phase boundaries associated with conformational diversity and ligand heterogeneity, the porosity (+150 %) and optical O2 sensitivity (410 times, limit of detection 0.07 ppm) can be drastically improved from the best-performing parent MOFs and even exceeds the records hold by precious-metal complexes (3 ppm) and C70 (0.2 ppm).

  19. Test of a cultural framework of parenting with Latino families of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Anicama, Catherine; Fernandez, Yenny; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the mental health and academic functioning of 442 4- and 5-year old children of Mexican (MA) and Dominican (DA) immigrant mothers using a cultural framework of Latino parenting. Data were collected on mothers' self-reported acculturative status, parenting practices and cultural socialization, and on children's behavioral functioning (mother- and teacher-report) and school readiness (child test). Results provide partial support for the validity of the framework in which mothers' acculturative status and socialization of respeto (a Latino cultural value of respect) and independence (a U.S. American cultural value) predict parenting practices. For both groups, English language competence was related to less socialization of respeto, and other domains of acculturative status (i.e., U.S. American/ethnic identity, and U.S. American/ethnic cultural competence) were related to more socialization of respeto and independence. Socialization of respeto was related to the use of authoritarian practices and socialization of independence was related to the use of authoritative practices. Socialization of respeto was also related to lower school readiness for DA children, whereas socialization of independence was related to higher school readiness for MA children. Independence was also related to higher teacher-rated externalizing problems for MA children. For both groups, authoritarian parenting was associated with more parent-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. The discussion focuses on ethnic subgroup differences and similarities to further understanding of Latino parenting from a cultural perspective.

  20. A framework for real-time glycosylation monitoring (RT-GM) in mammalian cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Wu, Chao-Hsiang; Callahan, Susan; T Goudar, Chetan

    2015-06-01

    Glycosylation is a critical characteristic of biotherapeutics because of its central role in in vivo efficacy. Multiple factors including medium composition and process conditions impact protein glycosylation and characterizing cellular response to these changes is essential to understand the underlying relationships. Current practice typically involves glycosylation characterization at the end of a fed-batch culture, which in addition to being an aggregate of the process, reflects a bias towards the end of the culture where a majority of the product is made. In an attempt to rigorously characterize the entire time-course of a fed-batch culture, a real-time glycosylation monitoring (RT-GM) framework was developed. It involves using the micro sequential injection (μSI) system as a sample preparation platform coupled with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system for real-time monitoring of the antibody glycan profile. Automated sampling and sample preparations were performed using the μSI system and this framework was used to study manganese (Mn)-induced glycosylation changes over the course of a fed-batch culture. As expected, Mn-supplemented cultures exhibited higher galactosylation levels compared to control while the fucosylation and mannosylation were consistent for both supplemented and control cultures. Overall, the approach presented in the study allows real time monitoring of glycosylation changes and this information can be rapidly translated into process control and/or process optimization decisions to accelerate process development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The relationship between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress among nurses working with foreign patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Özge; Sevinç, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    To determine the relationship between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress of nurses working at Kilis State Hospital. As foreigners live in and visit Turkey for various reasons, it is essential to provide culturally appropriate healthcare. Descriptive and cross-sectional design. This study was implemented at the State Hospital in Kilis on the southeast border of Turkey, between June-July 2014. The study sample consisted of 120 nurses. Data collection tools included a questionnaire about the socio-demographic and professional characteristics of participants, the Chen and Starosta's Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. The average score for nurse cultural sensitivity was 84·32 (SD, 11·40) and the average score for perceived stress was 27·97 (SD, 7·32), corresponding to a medium level. We identified negative correlation between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress. Nurses working at Kilis State Hospital have a medium level of cultural sensitivity and perceived stress, and cultural sensitivity tended to be affected by perceived stress. This study suggests that training programmes for cultural sensitivity and stress management should be available for nurses. Furthermore, patient care plans should be adapted to consider different cultural backgrounds of patients. These findings should be considered when designing nurses' education and continuing education programmes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Information space a framework for learning in organizations, institutions and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Boisot, Max H

    2016-01-01

    In this book the author lays the foundations for a new political economy of information. The information space, or I-Space is the conceptual framework in which organizations, institutions and cultures are being transformed by new information and communication technologies. In the penultimate chapter, the I-Space's usefulness as an explanatory framework is illustrated with an application: a case study of China's modernization. Information Space proposes a radical shift in the way that we approach the emerging information age and the implications it holds for societies, organizations and individuals.

  3. A Culture of Success--Examining School Culture and Student Outcomes via a Performance Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Matthew; Swanson, Anne; Adams-Manning, Andrea; Byrd, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This study is a report of the relationship between a collaborative school culture, teacher quality and the influence these variables have upon student attendance and suspensions. The research is based upon data gathered from 50 public schools throughout the southeastern United States. Surveys were administered to examine teacher quality…

  4. Business Planning for Cultural Heritage Institutions. A Framework and Resource Guide to Assist Cultural Heritage Institutions with Business Planning for Sustainability of Digital Asset Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishoff, Liz; Allen, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a framework and resource guide to help cultural heritage institutions plan sustainable access to their digital cultural assets and to do so by means that link their missions to planning modes and models. To aid cultural heritage organizations in the business-planning process, this resource will do the…

  5. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R., E-mail: mundy.william@epa.gov

    2011-11-15

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  6. Examination of Cultural Shock, Inter-Cultural Sensitivity and Willingness to Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clare; Singaraju, Stephen; Halimi, Tariq; Sillivan Mort, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify themes on international experiences that impact culture and how these findings will intervene in understanding cross-cultural training programs. Thereby an attempt is made to: evaluate cross-cultural insensitivity influences on cross-cultural shock and willingness to adapt, identify cultural…

  7. Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Romo, Dawn N; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Rivera, José O; Garza, Aida A; Klein-Bradham, Kristina; Jokerst, Jason R; Janiga, Xan; Brown, Bob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity, while controlling for patients' sociodemographic, clinical, and communication factors, as well as pharmacist factors, and to identify clinical pharmacists' cultural factors that are important to Spanish-speaking patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Central Texas during August 2011 to May 2012. PARTICIPANTS Spanish-speaking patients of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A Spanish-translated survey assessed Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. RESULTS Spanish-speaking patients (N = 101) reported overall satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patients also indicated that pharmacists' cultural rapport (e.g., ability to speak Spanish, respectfulness) was generally important to Spanish speakers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cultural rapport was significantly related to satisfaction with pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSION Overall, patients were satisfied with pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patient satisfaction initiatives that include cultural rapport should be developed for pharmacists who provide care to Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.

  8. Defining the true sensitivity of culture for the diagnosis of melioidosis using Bayesian latent class models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direk Limmathurotsakul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Culture remains the diagnostic gold standard for many bacterial infections, and the method against which other tests are often evaluated. Specificity of culture is 100% if the pathogenic organism is not found in healthy subjects, but the sensitivity of culture is more difficult to determine and may be low. Here, we apply Bayesian latent class models (LCMs to data from patients with a single Gram-negative bacterial infection and define the true sensitivity of culture together with the impact of misclassification by culture on the reported accuracy of alternative diagnostic tests. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from published studies describing the application of five diagnostic tests (culture and four serological tests to a patient cohort with suspected melioidosis were re-analysed using several Bayesian LCMs. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs were calculated. Of 320 patients with suspected melioidosis, 119 (37% had culture confirmed melioidosis. Using the final model (Bayesian LCM with conditional dependence between serological tests, the sensitivity of culture was estimated to be 60.2%. Prediction accuracy of the final model was assessed using a classification tool to grade patients according to the likelihood of melioidosis, which indicated that an estimated disease prevalence of 61.6% was credible. Estimates of sensitivities, specificities, PPVs and NPVs of four serological tests were significantly different from previously published values in which culture was used as the gold standard. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Culture has low sensitivity and low NPV for the diagnosis of melioidosis and is an imperfect gold standard against which to evaluate alternative tests. Models should be used to support the evaluation of diagnostic tests with an imperfect gold standard. It is likely that the poor sensitivity/specificity of culture is not specific for melioidosis, but rather a generic

  9. Outsiders in nursing education: cultural sensitivity in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrew, Jacqueline Kayler; Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Chun, Edna

    2014-01-01

    Cultural competence is a stated value of nursing and nursing education. However, some institutional and traditional practices in nursing education can unintentionally impede nurses from achieving cultural competence. Both the literature and interviews with nurse educators show that despite educators' intentions to treat all students the same, nontraditional students may feel singled out and may in fact be singled out for closer scrutiny because of their difference from the demographic norms of nursing students. To ensure that the nursing profession reflects the composition of the patient population it serves, nurse educators must first acknowledge the Eurocentric culture of nursing education and, then, work to change the environment in which students are recruited, learn, and take on the role of beginning practicing nurses.

  10. The Stampede Toward Hofstede's Framework: Avoiding the Sample Design Pit in Cross-Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, K.; Cheryl Nakata

    2001-01-01

    We propose a method to design better multi-country samples for international business studies using Hofstede's framework and aimed at determining the effects of national culture on various business phenomena. We describe typical research scenarios, then develop sets of algorithms that calculate indexes reflecting the power of different samples for hypotheses testing. The indexes were computed from Hofstede's data, then rank ordered. The top multi-country samples are presented in tables for se...

  11. Ethnicity and Diet of Children: Development of Culturally Sensitive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Applegate, Brooks; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; Morris, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing global concern. Examining dietary habits of individuals can facilitate the development of important prevention approaches, which are needed to decrease the incidence of obesity and other related diseases and improve quality of life indices. Because food preferences and dietary habits vary across cultures, it is essential that…

  12. Cultural Sensitivity: The Key to Teaching Global Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Judee A.

    2003-01-01

    More ethical practices in business begin with ethical training in business schools. International business education classes can compare corporate codes and actual behavior; explore the role of cultural differences in values, principles, and standards; and analyze ethical dilemmas in a global environment. (SK)

  13. Culturally Sensitive Best Practices for Sex Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Santiago, Verenice; Hund, Alycia M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about sexuality is a lifelong process that begins in childhood and continues through the lifespan. Through family and peer interactions and media sources, youth learn about sexuality and relationships, and develop their own values. The learning process and trajectory, however, may differ among youth from diverse cultures. In fact,…

  14. Culturally Sensitive Mentoring for Asian International Students in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon; Wada, Kaori; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    With growing attention to the internationalization of counseling psychology in the past decade, discussion on effective training of international students is much-needed. In order to provide effective mentorship to international students, the mentor needs to be aware of specific challenges faced by international students and cultural differences…

  15. Integration of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy Into the Science Learning Progression Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Cyntra

    This study integrated elements of culturally relevant pedagogy into a science learning progression framework, with the goal of enhancing teachers' cultural knowledge and thereby creating better teaching practices in an urban public high school science classroom. The study was conducted using teachers, an administrator, a science coach, and students involved in science courses in public high school. Through a qualitative intrinsic case study, data were collected and analyzed using traditional methods. Data from primary participants (educators) were analyzed through identification of big ideas, open coding, and themes. Through this process, patterns and emergent ideas were reported. Outcomes of this study demonstrated that educators lack knowledge about research-based academic frameworks and multicultural education strategies, but benefit through institutionally-based professional development. Students from diverse cultures responded positively to culturally-based instruction. Their progress was further manifested in better communication and discourse with their teacher and peers, and increased academic outcomes. This study has postulated and provided an exemplar for science teachers to expand and improve multicultural knowledge, ultimately transferring these skills to their pedagogical practice.

  16. Applying the framework for culturally responsive teaching to explore the adaptations that teach first beginning teachers use to meet the needs of their pupils in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hramiak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that beginning teachers are capable of adapting their practice to the needs of ethnically diverse pupils. This paper investigates the possibility that such teachers were developing their practice into what I have termed culturally adaptive teaching. A variety of methods were used to collect qualitative data that focused on the perspectives of teachers in schools across Yorkshire and Humberside, (UK over the course of an academic year. The framework for culturally responsive teaching (CRT was used as a lens through which to analyse the data collected. It enabled findings to emerge that took the framework beyond that of CRT, to one of culturally adaptive teaching. Teachers continually adapted their practice, in terms of cultural sensitivity, to better meet the needs of their pupils. If we can apply this framework and support beginning teachers to help them understand issues of cultural diversity in the classroom, we might be able to engender a real systematic change in teaching for the benefit of pupils.

  17. Initial Considerations When Applying an Instructional Sensitivity Framework: Partitioning the Variation between and within Classrooms for Two Mathematics Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Drawing inferences about the extent to which student performance reflects instructional opportunities relies on the premise that the measure of student performance is reflective of instructional opportunities. An instructional sensitivity framework suggests that some assessments are more sensitive to detecting differences in instructional…

  18. A new framework for comprehensive, robust, and efficient global sensitivity analysis: 2. Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the theoretical framework for sensitivity analysis called "Variogram Analysis of Response Surfaces" (VARS), developed in the companion paper, we develop and implement a practical "star-based" sampling strategy (called STAR-VARS), for the application of VARS to real-world problems. We also develop a bootstrap approach to provide confidence level estimates for the VARS sensitivity metrics and to evaluate the reliability of inferred factor rankings. The effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of STAR-VARS are demonstrated via two real-data hydrological case studies (a 5-parameter conceptual rainfall-runoff model and a 45-parameter land surface scheme hydrology model), and a comparison with the "derivative-based" Morris and "variance-based" Sobol approaches are provided. Our results show that STAR-VARS provides reliable and stable assessments of "global" sensitivity across the full range of scales in the factor space, while being 1-2 orders of magnitude more efficient than the Morris or Sobol approaches.

  19. Upconversion fluorescence metal-organic frameworks thermo-sensitive imprinted polymer for enrichment and sensing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Gu, Dahai; Yang, Yukun; Wang, Shuo

    2016-05-15

    A novel fluorescence material with thermo-sensitive for the enrichment and sensing of protein was successfully prepared by combining molecular imprinting technology with upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Herein, the UCNPs acted as signal reporter for composite materials because of its excellent fluorescence property and chemical stability. MOFs were introduced to molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) due to its high specific surface area which increases the rate of mass transfer relative to that of traditional bulk MIP. The thermo-sensitive imprinted material which allows for swelling and shrinking with response to temperature changes was prepared by choosing Bovine hemoglobin (BHB) as the template, N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) as the temperature-sensitive functional monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker. The recognition characterizations of imprinted material-coated UCNPs/MOFs (UCNPs/MOFs/MIP) were evaluated, and the results showed that the fluorescence intensity of UCNPs/MOFs/MIP reduced gradually with the increase of BHB concentration. The fluorescence material was response to the temperature. The adsorption capacity was as much as 167.6 mg/g at 28°C and 101.2mg/g at 44°C, which was higher than that of traditional MIP. Therefore, this new fluorescence material for enrichment and sensing protein is very promising for future applications.

  20. A framework for evaluating regional hydrologic sensitivity to climate change using archetypal watershed modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Lopez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the development of a regional framework to evaluate hydrologic and sediment sensitivity due to predicted future climate variability using developed archetypal watersheds. The developed archetypes are quasi-synthetic watersheds that integrate observed regional physiographic features (i.e., geomorphology, land cover patterns, etc. with synthetic derivation of basin and reach networks. Each of the three regional archetypes (urban, vegetated and mixed land covers simulates satisfactory hydrologic and sediment behavior compared to historical observations (flow and sediment prior to the climate sensitivity analysis. Climate scenarios considered increasing temperature estimated from the IPCC and precipitation variability based on historical observations and expectations. Archetypal watersheds are modeled using the Environmental Protection Agency's Hydrologic Simulation Program–Fortran model (EPA HSPF and relative changes to streamflow and sediment flux are evaluated. Results indicate that the variability and extent of vegetation play a key role in watershed sensitivity to predicted climate change. Temperature increase alone causes a decrease in annual flow and an increase in sediment flux within the vegetated archetypal watershed only, and these effects are partially mitigated by the presence of impervious surfaces within the urban and mixed archetypal watersheds. Depending on extent of precipitation variability, urban and moderately urban systems can expect the largest alteration to flow regimes where high flow events are expected to become more frequent. As a result, enhanced wash-off of suspended-sediments from available pervious surfaces is expected.

  1. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Tatar, Moshé

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices...

  2. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Moshé Tatar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices...

  3. National Culture and Business Model Change - A Framework for Successful Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenskov, Lea Houmark; Lueg, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework to analyse how a company’s business model needs to be adjusted if it is expanded into another cultural context. For this, we use the example of changes in the business model of a Danish ITcompany opening a new office in the U.S. Using a single case study......, we integrate the concepts of business models (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2005) and national culture (Hofstede, 1980). Our findings explain why and how adjustments in the business model are necessary regarding the company’s communication, team composition, and customer involvement in projects....... As to implications, we construct a matrix combining business models and national culture that other multinational companies can use to achieve better understanding of their business model in different national contexts....

  4. Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.

  5. Cultural Sensitiveness of School Goals and Students’ Failure in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Education is the means by which society provides for the transmission or advancement of its culture and it is formally done at schools that are the arena of human interaction aimed at producing learning. But some people in that interaction aimed at producing learning cannot achieve as much as the others due to some social or individual factors especially when the society is not homogeneous in terms of culture, language, etc.All cultures do not require the same kinds of knowledge and all may have distinct goals and expectations in education. This study aims at presenting the consensus and conflict in perspectives of students of different ethnic origins on general goals of education and expectations from schools in East and Southeast Turkey. The results will be used to generate a rationale to assume that the failure of students in East and Southeast Turkey where majority of population is ethnically diverse, may be because of the lack of divergent goals and expectations set for school curriculum or that the failure of students is dependent on some other factors except the unique school curriculum unresponsive to cultural or ethnic diversity. For this purpose, the goals of general education (1973, Law number 1739, Item number 2, and school expectations developed by House (1973 were prepared as questionnaire items, piloted, validated and administered to 9373 secondary school students in east and southeast Turkey. The findings of this study were that the students of different ethnic origins value the goals and expectations set for school curriculum in Turkey in significantly different ways.

  6. Incorporating the cultural value of respeto into a framework of Latino parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Fernandez, Yenny; Cortes, Dharma E

    2010-01-01

    Latino families face multiple stressors associated with adjusting to United States mainstream culture that, along with poverty and residence in inner-city communities, may further predispose their children to risk for negative developmental outcomes. Evidence-based mental health treatments may require culturally informed modifications to best address the unique needs of the Latino population, yet few empirical studies have assessed these cultural elements. The current study examined cultural values of 48 Dominican and Mexican mothers of preschoolers through focus groups in which they described their core values as related to their parenting role. Results showed that respeto, family and religion were the most important values that mothers sought to transmit to their children. Respeto is manifested in several domains, including obedience to authority, deference, decorum, and public behavior. The authors describe the socialization messages that Latina mothers use to teach their children respeto and present a culturally derived framework of how these messages may relate to child development. The authors discuss how findings may inform the cultural adaptation of evidence-based mental health treatments such as parent training programs.

  7. Dopamine-System Genes and Cultural Acquisition: The Norm Sensitivity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; King, Anthony; Hsu, Ming; Liberzon, Israel; Yoon, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in cultural psychology shows that cultures vary in the social orientation of independence and interdependence. To date, however, little is known about how people may acquire such global patterns of cultural behavior or cultural norms. Nor is it clear what genetic mechanisms may underlie the acquisition of cultural norms. Here, we draw on recent evidence for certain genetic variability in the susceptibility to environmental influences and propose a norm sensitivity hypothesis, which holds that people acquire culture, and rules of cultural behaviors, through reinforcement-mediated social learning processes. One corollary of the hypothesis is that the degree of cultural acquisition should be influenced by polymorphic variants of genes involved in dopaminergic neural pathways, which have been widely implicated in reinforcement learning. We reviewed initial evidence for this prediction and discussed challenges and directions for future research. PMID:28491931

  8. Sensitive resonant gas sensor operating in air with metal organic frameworks coating

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-08-09

    We report a practical resonant gas sensor that is uniformly coated with metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and excited near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of the squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic force electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOFs functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  9. Learning Tolerance: The Impact of Comparative Politics Courses on Levels of Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In addition to exposing students to basic concepts, theories, and ideas, teachers of comparative politics often claim to foster and promote values of tolerance and cultural sensitivity through exposure to the histories, cultures, and societies of cases from around the world. This claim, however, has been largely speculative and unsupported by any…

  10. Sensitivity of Students to the Natural Environment, Animals, Social Problems and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtdede Fidan, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to determine the sensitivity levels of fourth-grade students to the natural environment, animals, social concerns and cultural heritage. Besides, it has been investigated whether some personal characteristics of the students have differentiating effect on the views related to the sensitivity to the natural environment, animals,…

  11. Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashcroft, D M; Morecroft, C; Parker, D; Noyce, P R

    2005-01-01

    To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting...

  12. Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ashcroft, D; Morecroft, C; D. Parker; Noyce, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting.

  13. THE GROWTH OF ASIBI STRAIN YELLOW FEVER VIRUS IN TISSUE CULTURES. I. SENSITIVITY AND CAPACITY OF TISSUE CULTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    directed to HeLa cells . The following results were obtained: Of those cultures that were susceptible, three different patterns of dose response were...obtained that were interpreted as different possible manifestations of interference. HeLa cells , which were among the least sensitive to low infection

  14. Conceptual framework for distributed expert-system use in time-sensitive hierarchical control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henningsen, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    There are many problems faced by decision makers involved in complex, time-sensitive hierarchical control systems. These may include maintaining knowledge of the functional status of the system components, forecasting the impact of past and future events, transferring information to a distant or poorly connected location, changing the requirements for an operation according to resources available, or creating an independent course of action when system connectivity falls. These problems are transdisciplinary in nature, so decision makers in a variety of organizations face them. This research develops a framework for the use of distributed expert systems in support of time-sensitive hierarchical control systems. Attention is focused on determining ways to enhance the likelihood that a system will remain functional during a crisis in which one or more of the system nodes fail. Options in the use of distributed expert systems for this purpose are developed following investigation of related research in the areas of cooperative and distributed systems. A prototype under development of a generic system model called DES (distributed expert systems) is described. DES is a trimular form of support structure, where a trimule is defined to be a combination of a human decision agent, a component system model and an expert system. This concept is an extension of the domular theory of Tenney and Sandell (1981).

  15. Metal-organic frameworks supported surface-imprinted nanoparticles for the sensitive detection of metolcarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Wang, Junping; Pan, Mingfei; Wang, Shuo; Pu, Yuehong

    2016-05-15

    A novel approach to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles using a MIL-101 support (a type of metal-organic framework) is reported herein for the first time; the sample is referred as MIL@MIP. The nanoparticles were well distributed within the polymer film, and exhibit an octahedral shape, satisfied thermal stability, and a high specific surface area (SSA) of 1579.43 m(2)g(-1). The adsorption behavior of MIL@MIP toward metolcarb in aqueous solution was subsequently examined. The synthesized MIL@MIP displayed satisfactory high transfer mass rates and a high selective adsorption affinity for metolcarb. Based on these results, a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor based on MIL@MIP was subsequently constructed and examined for the sensitive detection of metolcarb. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit of the system assessed in pear juice was 0.0689 mg L(-1) within a linear concentration range of 0.1-0.9 mg L(-1). MIL@MIP-QCM system combines the advantages of MIL-101 and molecularly imprinted technology (MIT), thereby achieving high detection sensitivity and selectivity. The current findings suggest the potential of MIL@MIP for detecting trace level pesticides and veterinary drugs for food safety and environmental control.

  16. Assessing the cultural in culturally sensitive printed patient-education materials for Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Evelyn Y; Tran, Henrietta; Chesla, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects Chinese Americans at an alarming rate. To address this health disparity, research in the area of cultural sensitivity and health literacy provides useful guidelines for creating culturally appropriate health education. In this article, we use discourse analysis to examine a group of locally available, Chinese- and English-language diabetes print documents from a surface level and deep structure level of culture. First, we compared these documents to research findings about printed health information to determine whether and how these documents apply current best practices for health literacy and culturally appropriate health communication. Second, we examined how diabetes as a disease and diabetes management is being constructed. The printed materials addressed surface level culture through the use of Chinese language, pictures, foods, and exercises. From a deeper cultural level, the materials constructed diabetes management as a matter of measurement and control that contrasted with previous research suggesting an alternative construction of balance. A nuanced assessment of both surface and deeper levels of culture is essential for creating health education materials that are more culturally appropriate and can lead to increased health literacy and improved health outcomes.

  17. Culturally sensitive health counseling to prevent lifestyle-related diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Miki; Miyazaki, Misako

    2010-09-01

    This study explored the methods that are used by public health nurses to provide culturally sensitive health counseling to elderly Japanese farmers in order to motivate them to adopt healthy behaviors. Fourteen elderly farmers (eight men and six women) from three rural communities underwent health counseling and then changed their habits to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. Qualitative and inductive analyses were conducted to determine the effects of the culturally sensitive counseling. Five methods for providing culturally sensitive counseling were identified: (i) showing an interest in, and respect for, the local culture; (ii) stimulating the participants' awareness of the health risks inherited in their local cultural practices through the use of familiar examples; (iii) accepting and understanding the participants' ambivalence about their local culture; (iv) connecting the reasons for the participants to change their lifestyle with their local culture; and (v) adjusting the health-promoting behaviors of the participants to fit their local culture. Public health nurses should consider the pride that elderly farmers have in their background and their resistance to change and use these factors to point out the discrepancies in their lifestyle and promote more quality-of-life-oriented and practical self-care behaviors.

  18. Sr/Ca Sensitivity to Aragonite Saturation in Cultured Coral Measured by NanoSIMS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, A. C.; Adkins, J. F.; Erez, J.

    2010-12-01

    NanoSIMS was used to identify and com¬positionally characterize the micron scale region of skeletal growth resulting from a short coral culture experiment. Using this technique we quantify the sensitivity of Sr/Ca, a proxy for temperature, to aragonite saturation (Ω), a parameter that varied in the past ocean and is predicted to change with continued ocean acidification. Five adult branches of the surface coral Stylophora sp. were all grown at 25 °C but at different and near constant carbonate ion concentrations, from 180 to 400 µM (pH of 7.9 to 8.5), yielding a two-fold range in calcification rate. Despite the range of Ωs and calcification rates, the average Sr/Ca of nanoSIMS spot measurements corresponding to each condition are within 1.2% (2σ std. dev. of the 5 means). Furthermore, the average Sr/Ca measured in this study agrees with two previous coral culture experiments conducted at the same temperature but where Ω was not controlled. These results suggest carbonate ion concentration is not a complicating factor to Sr/Ca paleothermometry over this range of Ω. Within the framework of a closed system (Rayleigh) model for biomineralization, similar Sr/Ca ratios suggest similar amounts of Rayleigh fractionation. Combined with existing data for low Ω conditions, the extent of Rayleigh fractionation is used to test alternative biomineralization models governing the acid-base chemistry of the calcifying fluid. Assuming that coral use alkalinity pumping to increase local calcifying fluid carbonate ion concentration, we try to understand what controls this pumping. Under most conditions, Sr/Ca ratios are consistent with a scenario where calcifying fluid alkalinity increases until reaching a target pH. However, under conditions of very low seawater Ω, coral cannot pump enough alkalinity to reach the target pH. Below this threshold value, between approximately 1<Ω<2.4, coral pump a maximal and finite amount of alkalinity. The interaction between these rules

  19. Cultured stem cells are sensitive to gravity changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravkova, L. B.; Romanov, Yu. A.; Konstantinova, N. A.; Buravkov, S. V.; Gershovich, Yu. G.; Grivennikov, I. A.

    2008-09-01

    Stem and precursor cells play an important role in development and regeneration. The state of these cells is regulated by biochemical substances, mechanical stimuli and cellular interactions. To estimate gravity effects we used two types of cultured stem cells: human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) from bone marrow and mice embryonic stem (mESC) line R1. Gravity changes were simulated by long-term (4-7 days) slow clinorotation and leaded to decreased hMSC proliferation, changes of cell morphology and modified F-actin cytoskeleton. We did not find the shifts in cell phenotype except for decreased expression of HLA 1 and CD105 but excretion of IL-6 into medium increased significantly. Remodeling of cytoskeleton started after first 4 h and was similar to preapoptotic changes. This data suggested the modification in cell adhesion and possible commitment of hMSC. It was observed that expression of alkaline phosphatase by MSC in osteogenic medium was more intensive in control. On the contrary, clinorotation did not change formation of mESC colonies and increased proliferation activity in LIF+-medium. However, the number of embryonic bodies after clinorotation was less than in static control. It is suggested that ESCs kept the viability and proliferative potential but decreased the differentiation ability after changes in gravity stimulation.

  20. Cultural targeting and tailoring of shared decision making technology: a theoretical framework for improving the effectiveness of patient decision aids in culturally diverse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Schapira, Marilyn; Stiggelbout, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Patient decision aids are known to positively impact outcomes critical to shared decision making (SDM), such as gist knowledge and decision preparedness. However, research on the potential improvement of these and other important outcomes through cultural targeting and tailoring of decision aids is very limited. This is the case despite extensive evidence supporting use of cultural targeting and tailoring to improve the effectiveness of health communications. Building on prominent psychological theory, we propose a two-stage framework incorporating cultural concepts into the design process for screening and treatment decision aids. The first phase recommends use of cultural constructs, such as collectivism and individualism, to differentially target patients whose cultures are known to vary on these dimensions. Decision aid targeting is operationalized through use of symbols and values that appeal to members of the given culture. Content dimensions within decision aids that appear particularly appropriate for targeting include surface level visual characteristics, language, beliefs, attitudes and values. The second phase of the framework is based on evidence that individuals vary in terms of how strongly cultural norms influence their approach to problem solving and decision making. In particular, the framework hypothesizes that differences in terms of access to cultural mindsets (e.g., access to interdependent versus independent self) can be measured up front and used to tailor decision aids. Thus, the second phase in the framework emphasizes the importance of not only targeting decision aid content, but also tailoring the information to the individual based on measurement of how strongly he/she is connected to dominant cultural mindsets. Overall, the framework provides a theory-based guide for researchers and practitioners who are interested in using cultural targeting and tailoring to develop and test decision aids that move beyond a "one-size fits all" approach

  1. The Deaf Mentoring Survey: A Community Cultural Wealth Framework for Measuring Mentoring Effectiveness with Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Derek C.; Gormally, Cara; Clark, M. Diane

    2017-01-01

    Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not underrepresented individuals. We describe the development of a next-generation mentoring survey built upon capital theory and critical race theory. It emphasizes community cultural wealth, thought to be instrumental to the success of individuals from minority communities. Our survey targets relationships between deaf mentees and their research mentors and includes Deaf community cultural wealth. From our results, we identified four segregating factors: Being a Scientist, which incorporated the traditional capitals; Deaf Community Capital; Asking for Accommodations; and Communication Access. Being a Scientist scores did not vary among the mentor and mentee variables that we tested. However, Deaf Community Capital, Asking for Accommodations, and Communication Access were highest when a deaf mentee was paired with a mentor who was either deaf or familiar with the Deaf community, indicating that cultural competency training should improve these aspects of mentoring for deaf mentees. This theoretical framework and survey will be useful for assessing mentoring relationships with deaf students and could be adapted for other underrepresented groups. PMID:28188283

  2. Egalitarian Sexism: A Kantian Framework for Assessing the Cultural Evolution of Marriage (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmquist Stephen R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This first part of a two-part series exploring implications of the natural differences between the sexes for the cultural evolution of marriage assesses whether Kant should be condemned as a sexist due to his various offensive claims about women. Being antithetical to modern-day assumptions regarding the equality of the sexes, Kant’s views seem to contradict his own egalitarian ethics. A philosophical framework for making cross-cultural ethical assessments requires one to assess those in other cultures by their own ethical standards. Sexism is inappropriate if it exhibits or reinforces a tendency to dominate the opposite sex. Kant’s theory of marriage, by contrast, illustrates how sexism can be egalitarian: given the natural differences between the sexes, different roles and cultural norms help to ensure that females and males are equal. Judged by the standards of his own day and in the context of his philosophical system, Kant’s sexism is not ethically inappropriate.

  3. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-12-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and development of culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by these learners' cultural preference or profile. Pilot-study using interviews and focus group discussions with natives of Pangasinan and document analysis were conducted to identify the culture, practices, and traditions integrated in the lesson development. Comparison of experimental participants' pretest and posttest results on science attitude measure showed significant statistical difference. Appraisal of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data deduced from post implementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries showed the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study revealed that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts enabled students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  5. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshé Tatar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices are analysed as means for the reinforcement of present conditions or as ways for changing them. The concepts of empowerment of and advocacy for our clients are put forward as main components in the challenging new roles of the counseling profession. Implications for counselors are suggested.

  6. Developing a Framework for Reducing the Cultural Clash between African American Parents and the Special Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; Correa, Vivian I.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual framework was developed to provide proactive relationship building strategies for professionals in special education and the African American families they serve. Cultural clashes have occurred between the respective groups because of the dissimilar cultural and personal experiences that shape one group's perceptions of the other.…

  7. Meeting the Discipline-Culture Framework of Physics Knowledge: A Teaching Experience in Italian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Olivia; Bertozzi, Eugenio; Gagliardi, Marta; Tomasini, Nella Grimellini; Pecori, Barbara; Tasquier, Giulia; Galili, Igal

    2014-09-01

    The paper deals with physics teaching/learning in high school. An investigation in three upper secondary school classes in Italy explored the reactions of students to a structuring lecture on optics within the discipline-culture (DC) framework that organises physics knowledge around four interrelated fundamental theories of light. The lecture presented optics as an unfolding conceptual discourse of physicists regarding the nature of light. Along with the knowledge constructed in a school course of a scientific lyceum, the students provided epistemological comments, displaying their perception of physics knowledge presented in the classroom. Students' views and knowledge were investigated by questionnaires prior to and after the lecture and in special discussions held in each class. They revealed a variety of attitudes and views which allowed inferences about the potential of the DC framework in an educational context. The findings and interpretation indicate the positive and stimulating impact of the lecture and the way in which DC-based approach to knowledge organization makes physics at school cultural and attractive.

  8. Towards culturally relevant classroom science: a theoretical framework focusing on traditional plant healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate local culture in science classrooms. A multi-focal approach is adopted because the integration of indigenous knowledge and modern classroom science is complex. The central argument in this paper is that a multi-focal lens accommodates the multifaceted nature of integrating indigenous knowledge and western oriented classroom science. The objective of the paper, therefore, is to construct a theoretical framework that can be used to guide and inform the integration of indigenous knowledge and western science at classroom science level. The traditional plant healing form of indigenous knowledge is used as a case study. The paper is important for raising the complexities, tensions and dilemmas inherent in the design and implementation of indigenous knowledge-science integrated curricula. An understanding of the issues raised will pave the way towards achieving culturally relevant classroom science.

  9. The Relationship Between Cultural Sensitivity and Assertiveness in Nursing Students from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Serap Parlar; Sevinç, Sibel

    2017-07-01

    As foreigners live in and visit Turkey for various reasons, it is essential to provide culturally appropriate health care. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between cultural sensitivity and assertiveness in university nursing students. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at two universities in the cities of Kilis and Elazığ, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 444 nursing students. Data collection tools included a questionnaire about participant sociodemographic characteristics, Chen and Starosta's Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. The mean age of participants was 21.09 years. Most students (71.6%) were female and 34.7% of the students stayed at the hostel. Of the students, 44.4%, 27.5%, and 28.2% attended were the second-, third-, and fourth-year students, respectively. Participants were asked about problems related to caring for patients who speak different languages. The mean score for the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale was 89.42 ± 13.55 and the total score for all students for the Assertiveness Scale was 112.64 ± 15.61. We identified a positive relationship between total scores for the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale and the Assertiveness Scale ( p < .001). There was relationship between cultural sensitivity and gender and want to work overseas; assertiveness and year of nursing education and want to work overseas. Nursing students at both schools had a moderate level of cultural sensitivity and assertiveness. It has been determined that as assertiveness level of the students increased, intercultural sensitivity of them also increased. Consequently, it is concluded that training as assertive and self-confident individuals during the nursing education of students has a contribution to making patient-specific and culture-sensitive care.

  10. Isolated hippocampal neurons in cryopreserved long-term cultures: development of neuroarchitecture and sensitivity to NMDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, M P; Kater, S B

    1988-01-01

    Isolated neurons in long-term culture provide a unique opportunity to address important problems in neuronal development. In the present study we established conditions for cryopreservation and long-term primary culture of isolated embryonic hippocampal neurons. This culture system was then used for initial characterizations of the development of neuroarchitecture and neurotransmitter response systems. Cryoprotection with 8% dimethylsulfoxide, slow freezing, and rapid thawing provided high-yield cultures which appeared normal in terms of cell types, mitotic ability, axonal and dendritic outgrowth, and sensitivity to glutamate neurotoxicity. A reduced medium volume and moderate elevation in extracellular K+ to 20 mM promoted survival of isolated neurons through 3 weeks of culture. The outgrowth of axons and dendrites in pyramidal-like neurons was found to differ over a 3-week culture period such that axons continued to grow at a relatively constant rate while dendritic outgrowth slowed during the second week and ceased by the end of week 3. Developmental changes were also observed in the sensitivity of pyramidal neurons to glutamate neurotoxicity; functional kainate/quisqualate receptors were present during the first week of culture, while responses to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) did not appear until the second week. The technologies for cryopreservation and long-term culture of isolated hippocampal neurons reported here provide a useful system in which to address a variety of problems in development neuroscience.

  11. Assessing culturally sensitive factors in the learning environment of science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Darrell L.; Waldrip, Bruce G.

    1997-03-01

    As schools are becoming increasingly diverse in their scope and clientele, any examination of the interaction of culturally sensitive factors of students' learning environments with learning science assumes critical importance. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop an instrument to assess learning environment factors that are culturally sensitive, to provide initial validation information on the instrument and to examine associations between students' perceptions of their learning environments and their attitudes towards science and achievement of enquiry skills. A measure of these factors of science student's learning environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed from past learning environment instruments and influenced by Hofstede's four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, and Masculinity/Femininity). The reliability and discriminant validity for each scale were obtained and associations between learning environment, attitude to science and enquiry skills achievement were found.

  12. [Culture-Sensitive Aspects in Diagnostics of Mental Distress in Refugees - Two Commented Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterko, Yuriy; Kaiser, Marie; Glaesmer, Heide

    2017-04-01

    High levels of mental disorders, especially PTSD, are commonly known among groups of people forced to leave their homeland as a consequence of war-related experiences (e. g. armed conflict, torture or persecution). Depending on the cultural background the perceptions of illnesses vary, different symptom presentation and thereupon different coping strategies respectively expectations towards health care services exist. To minimize the danger of misdiagnosis by different experts working with refugees in the host countries, a culture-sensitive diagnostic approach is needed from the beginning. This article describes important aspects of culture-sensitive diagnostics by means of 2 commented case reports. Special focus is set on the aspect of linguistic and in a broader sense cultural comprehension between therapist, client and if necessary language mediator. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. [On the Way to Culture-Sensitive Patient Information Materials: Results of a Focus Group Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars

    2017-09-28

    Aim This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). Method A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Conclusion Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; John D E Gabrieli

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion ...

  15. A multi-indicator framework for mapping cultural ecosystem services: The case of freshwater recreational fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Mogollon, Beatriz; Angermeier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent interest, ecosystem services are not yet fully incorporated into private and public decisions about natural resource management. Cultural ecosystem services (CES) are among the most challenging of services to include because they comprise complex ecological and social properties and processes that make them difficult to measure, map or monetize. Like others, CES are vulnerable to landscape changes and unsustainable use. To date, the sustainability of services has not been adequately addressed and few studies have considered measures of service capacity and demand simultaneously. To facilitate sustainability assessments and management of CES, our study objectives were to (1) develop a spatially explicit framework for mapping the capacity of ecosystems to provide freshwater recreational fishing, an important cultural service, (2) map societal demand for freshwater recreational fishing based on license data and identify areas of potential overuse, and (3) demonstrate how maps of relative capacity and relative demand could be interfaced to estimate sustainability of a CES. We mapped freshwater recreational fishing capacity at the 12-digit hydrologic unit-scale in North Carolina and Virginia using a multi-indicator service framework incorporating biophysical and social landscape metrics and mapped demand based on fishing license data. Mapping of capacity revealed a gradual decrease in capacity eastward from the mountains to the coastal plain and that fishing demand was greatest in urban areas. When comparing standardized relative measures of capacity and demand for freshwater recreational fishing, we found that ranks of capacity exceeded ranks of demand in most hydrologic units, except in 17% of North Carolina and 5% of Virginia. Our GIS-based approach to view freshwater recreational fishing through an ecosystem service lens will enable scientists and managers to examine (1) biophysical and social factors that foster or diminish cultural ecosystem

  16. Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells based on Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 Framework Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong; CHENG Yun-Fei; LI Fu-You; ZHOU Zhi-Guo; YI Tao; HUANG Chun-Hui; JIA Neng-Qin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We develop a novel and efficient quasi-solid-state electrolyte based on the mesoporous silica SBA-15 as a framework material for a dye sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell. A solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.34% is achieved under AM 1.5 illumination (100mW/cm2).

  17. A Culturally Sensitive Analysis of Culture in the Context of Context: When Is Enough Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.

    Cultural context is not the sole source of human knowledge. Postmodern theory, in both its deconstructionist and affirmative approaches, offers an incomplete basis by which to study race, class, and gender, and undermines ethical interaction. Deconstructionism calls for the abandonment of generalizable research findings, asserting that the concept…

  18. Practical strategies for providing culturally sensitive, ethical care in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J; Holcomb, Lygia

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care in developing nations results in cultural and ethical challenges for health care professionals. The authors' intent is to raise readers' awareness of how to maintain an ethical and culturally sensitive approach to practice in developing nations. Four practical approaches to ethical decision-making, developed from the literature and praxis, in conjunction with traditional moral theory and guidelines from professional and international organizations are discussed. Ethical multiculturalism, a view that combines universalism and multiculturalism undergirds culturally appropriate and ethically responsive decisions.

  19. Building Cultural Sensitivity and Interprofessional Collaboration Through a Study Abroad Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Irene; Attridge, Russell T; Attridge, Rebecca L; Maize, David F; McNeill, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Study abroad (SA) experiences for health professions students may be used to heighten cultural sensitivity to future patients and incorporate interprofessional education (IPE). Two groups of nursing and pharmacy students participated in an SA elective over a 2-year period, traveling to China and India. Both groups improved significantly in knowledge, awareness, and skills following the travel experiences. Student reflections indicate that the SA experience was transformative, changing their views of travel, other cultures, personal environment, collaboration with other health professionals, and themselves. Use of SA programs is a novel method to encourage IPE, with a focus on enhancing the acquisition of cultural competency skills. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Building a culture of innovation a practical framework for placing innovation at the core of your business

    CERN Document Server

    Beswick, Cris; Geraghty, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Being a truly innovative company is more than the dreaming up of new products and services by external consultants and internal taskforces. Staying one step ahead of the competition requires you to embed innovation into your organizational culture. Innovation needs to be embodied in everything that gets done by everyone who works there. By changing your organizational culture to one that supports innovation, you will remove the barriers that stop you responding quickly and agilely to changing market conditions and opportunities for growth. Building a Culture of Innovation presents a practical framework that you can follow to design and embed a culture of innovation in your business.The six-step Innovation Culture Change Framework offers a structured process to make change stick, from assessing your organization's innovation-readiness to leading a managed change process that will foster innovation at each level. It includes case studies from international organizations which have shifted their focus to an inno...

  1. Hofstede’s cultural Dimensions and tourist behaviors: A review and conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita A. Manrai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a conceptual framework for analyzing tourist behaviors and identifies three categories of behaviors based on the applications of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the processes underlying these influences. Our findings indicate that tourist behaviors in the Before-Travel, During-Travel, and After-Travel stages differ significantly in terms of the applicability and process through which Hofstede’s cultural dimensions operate. The results of our analysis suggest three categories of behavioral patterns, namely, "Social Interaction Driven Travel Behaviors," (SID, "Risk Tendencies Driven Travel Behaviors," (RTD, and "Collectivity Orientation Driven Travel Behaviors," (COD. SID relates to the evaluation of travel experiences in the after-travel stage. The dominant cultural values associated with SID are Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity, and Power Distance. These three values act either independently or in pairs or all three together. RTD relates to the consumption of travel products in the during-travel stage, and COD relates to the formation of travel preferences in the before-travel stage. Individualism/Collectivism and Uncertainty Avoidance are associated with both RTD and COD. However, the underlying processes differ for these two categories of travel behaviors. In addition to their independent influences on travel behaviors, these two values associated with RTD and COD also have an interactive effect. For RTD, the Uncertainty Avoidance motive determines the Individualism/Collectivism outcome, whereas, for COD, the opposite is true: the Individualism/Collectivism determines the Uncertainty Avoidance outcome. The paper also discusses the application of a fifth cultural dimension, Confucian Dynamism (short-term versus long-term orientation, for the study of tourists’ behaviors.

  2. SABRE: A Sensitive Attribute Bucketization and REdistribution framework for t-closeness

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Jianneng

    2010-05-19

    Today, the publication of microdata poses a privacy threat: anonymous personal records can be re-identified using third data sources. Past research has tried to develop a concept of privacy guarantee that an anonymized data set should satisfy before publication, culminating in the notion of t-closeness. To satisfy t-closeness, the records in a data set need to be grouped into Equivalence Classes (ECs), such that each EC contains records of indistinguishable quasi-identifier values, and its local distribution of sensitive attribute (SA) values conforms to the global table distribution of SA values. However, despite this progress, previous research has not offered an anonymization algorithm tailored for t-closeness. In this paper, we cover this gap with SABRE, a SA Bucketization and REdistribution framework for t-closeness. SABRE first greedily partitions a table into buckets of similar SA values and then redistributes the tuples of each bucket into dynamically determined ECs. This approach is facilitated by a property of the Earth Mover\\'s Distance (EMD) that we employ as a measure of distribution closeness: If the tuples in an EC are picked proportionally to the sizes of the buckets they hail from, then the EMD of that EC is tightly upper-bounded using localized upper bounds derived for each bucket. We prove that if the t-closeness constraint is properly obeyed during partitioning, then it is obeyed by the derived ECs too. We develop two instantiations of SABRE and extend it to a streaming environment. Our extensive experimental evaluation demonstrates that SABRE achieves information quality superior to schemes that merely applied algorithms tailored for other models to t-closeness, and can be much faster as well. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Using the competing values framework (CVF to investigate organisational culture in a major private security company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Kokt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of crime, especially in the South African context, has placed considerable emphasis on the private security industry.  This has also increased fierce competition in the private security domain with both national and international private security companies infiltrating the South African market.  Like public policing private security has an important role to play in combating crime and other transgressions, with the exception that private security owes its existence to paying customers.  By using the Competing Values Framework (CVF as conceptual guide, the researchers are able to provide the managers of the company under investigation with insight on how their cultural orientation affects their functioning and ultimately their competitive advantage.

  4. The Development Of A Theoretical Lean Culture Causal Framework To Support The Effective Implementation Of Lean In Automotive Component Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Merwe, Karl Robert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that lean manufacturing improves operational performance, many organisations are struggling to adapt to the lean philosophy. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a more effective strategy for implementing the lean manufacturing improvement philosophy. The study sets out both to integrate well-researched findings and theories related to generic organisational culture with more recent research and experience related to lean culture, and to examine the role that culture plays in the effective implementation of lean manufacturing principles and techniques. The ultimate aim of this exercise is to develop a theoretical lean culture causal framework.

  5. A Framework for the Study of Complex mHealth Interventions in Diverse Cultural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marion A; Yeates, Karen; Perkins, Nancy; Boesch, Lisa; Hua-Stewart, Diane; Liu, Peter; Sleeth, Jessica; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2017-04-20

    To facilitate decision-making capacity between options of care under real-life service conditions, clinical trials must be pragmatic to evaluate mobile health (mHealth) interventions under the variable conditions of health care settings with a wide range of participants. The mHealth interventions require changes in the behavior of patients and providers, creating considerable complexity and ambiguity related to causal chains. Process evaluations of the implementation are necessary to shed light on the range of unanticipated effects an intervention may have, what the active ingredients in everyday practice are, how they exert their effect, and how these may vary among recipients or between sites. Building on the CONSORT-EHEALTH (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials of Electronic and Mobile HEalth Applications and onLine TeleHealth) statement and participatory evaluation theory, we present a framework for the process evaluations for mHealth interventions in multiple cultural settings. We also describe the application of this evaluation framework to the implementation of DREAM-GLOBAL (Diagnosing hypertension-Engaging Action and Management in Getting Lower BP in Indigenous and LMIC [low- and middle-income countries]), a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT), and mHealth intervention designed to improve hypertension management in low-resource environments. We describe the evaluation questions and the data collection processes developed by us. Our literature review revealed that there is a significant knowledge gap related to the development of a process evaluation framework for mHealth interventions. We used community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods and formative research data to develop a process evaluation framework nested within a pragmatic RCT. Four human organizational levels of participants impacted by the mHealth intervention were identified that included patients, providers, community and organizations actors, and health systems and

  6. Practitioners' Perspectives on Cultural Sensitivity in Latina/o Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.; Lee, Faye C. H.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined practitioners' understandings of cultural sensitivity in the context of pregnancy prevention programs for Latina teens. Fifty-eight practitioners from teen pregnancy prevention programs in California were interviewed in a guided conversation format. Three themes emerged in our analysis. First, practitioners' definitions of…

  7. Predicting Changes in Cultural Sensitivity among Students of Spanish during Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad programs of less than a semester are becoming increasingly popular among undergraduate students in the United States. However, little research has examined the changes in students' cultural sensitivity through their participation in such programs or what factors may predict growth and improvement in such areas. This study…

  8. Adapting the SRQ for Ethiopian Populations : A Culturally-Sensitive Psychiatric Screening Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youngmann, Rafael; Zilber, Nelly; Workneh, Fikre; Giel, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive psychiatric screening instrument valid for Ethiopians in Ethiopia and Israel. The study sample was composed of 356 Amharic-speaking Ethiopians from Ethiopia and Israel, aged 18-55, divided into three groups: i) general population; ii)

  9. How Commercial and "Violent" Video Games Can Promote Culturally Sensitive Science Learning: Some Questions and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In their paper, Munoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Munoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3[R] precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and…

  10. The Effects of the Japan Bridge Project on Third Graders' Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lindsay; Sherman, Lilian; MaKinster, James

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the Japan BRIDGE Project, a global education program, on its third grade participants. Characterization of lessons and analysis of student interviews were used to investigate the nature of the curriculum and whether or not student participants were more culturally sensitive due to participation. Results indicate…

  11. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultures from cattle clinically suspected of bacterial endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Eriksen, L.; Jungersen, Gregers;

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the number of blood culture-positive cattle among 215 animals clinically suspected of having bacterial endocarditis. For animals that were necropsied, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the diagnosis of endocarditis were calculated on the basis...

  12. Developing Culturally Sensitive HIV/AIDS and Substance Abuse Prevention Curricula for Native American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Critical steps in developing these curricula included: selecting integrative theory to address multidimensional antecedents of HIV/AIDS and substance abuse among Native Americans; using ethnography to obtain input from target groups and community members to ensure developmental and cultural sensitivity; and using process and outcome evaluations of…

  13. Listening to the third voices of Pangasinan students: designing and enacting culturally sensitive curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    This response builds upon Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" by exploring how an expanded understanding of the ubiquitous nature of adolescent literacy practices and identities challenge traditional notions of "in school" and "out of school" cultural spaces. Listening to the "third voices" of adolescents can promote a deeper understanding of the complex literate lives of Pangasinan students and inform both the official and the enacted culturally sensitive curriculum. To hear the literate lives of adolescents is to push back against politically dehumanizing and "de-literacizing" neo-liberal educational policies and practices which privilege a singular, whitewashed view of literacy in order to standardize curriculum and instruction, preserve power in the hands of the powerful, and exacerbate socio-economic, racial, ethnic, and linguistic divisions.

  14. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in Spanish: culture-sensitive manualized treatment in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2010-08-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities.

  15. Patients-people-place: developing a framework for researching organizational culture during health service redesign and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nicola K; Shapiro, Jonathan; McLeod, Hugh S T; Redwood, Sabi; Hewison, Alistair

    2014-08-20

    Organizational culture is considered by policy-makers, clinicians, health service managers and researchers to be a crucial mediator in the success of implementing health service redesign. It is a challenge to find a method to capture cultural issues that is both theoretically robust and meaningful to those working in the organizations concerned. As part of a comparative study of service redesign in three acute hospital organizations in England, UK, a framework for collecting data reflective of culture was developed that was informed by previous work in the field and social and cultural theory. As part of a larger mixed method comparative case study of hospital service redesign, informed by realist evaluation, the authors developed a framework for researching organisational culture during health service redesign and change. This article documents the development of the model, which involved an iterative process of data analysis, critical interdisciplinary discussion in the research team, and feedback from staff in the partner organisations. Data from semi-structured interviews with 77 key informants are used to illustrate the model. In workshops with NHS partners to share and debate the early findings of the study, organizational culture was identified as a key concept to explore because it was perceived to underpin the whole redesign process. The Patients-People-Place framework for studying culture focuses on three thematic areas ('domains') and three levels of culture in which the data could be organised. The framework can be used to help explain the relationship between observable behaviours and cultural artefacts, the values and habits of social actors and the basic assumptions underpinning an organization's culture in each domain. This paper makes a methodological contribution to the study of culture in health care organizations. It offers guidance and a practical approach to investigating the inherently complex phenomenon of culture in hospital organizations

  16. Highly sensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) based on a zirconium metal-organic framework in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xia, Tifeng; Jiang, Ke; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2017-09-01

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) fluorescent probe UiO-66-PSM is obtained by the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) reaction of UiO-66-N3 with phenylacetylene. The click-generated triazole unit can act as the metal binding site to coordinate with Hg2+, which exhibits the most pronounced fluorescence response (rapid response, excellent selectivity, and high sensitivity) over other metal ions. Moreover, it is capable of detecting Hg2+ in environmental water samples without any structural disintegration of the framework, indicating its high potential in practical applications.

  17. PRIMARY TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF CULTURAL DİVERSITY AND INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Rengi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The teachers’ perception of cultural diversity is important to provide justice and equality in education, prevent the cultural conflicts and communication productivity of interactions in schools that there are cultural differences. This study aims to determine primary teachers’ perception of cultural diversity and observe teachers’ levels of “intercultural sensitivity” in relation to their students. The working group in this research is 286 primary teachers who work public schools province of Kocaeli (Çayırova in 2013-2014 acedemic year. The mixed model is used. The research data was collected by using the “İntercultural Sensitivity Scale” (Chen and Starosta, 2000. It is used t-tests, test of ANOVA and arithmetic average for composing quantitative data. The qualitative data was collected by using the teachers’ answers that “ What do you think the cultural differences of students?”. It is provided content analysis for qualitative data. It is seen that the teachers’ intercultural sensitivity is high. Morever ‘‘differences of languages’’ are the most striking the perception of primary teachers’ cultural differences.

  18. The Relationship of Workplace Culture With Nursing-Sensitive Organizational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; McCormack, Brendan; Paavilainen, Eija; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relations of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive organizational factors. The need for standardized and valid measures for nursing-sensitive organizational outcomes has already been recognized in the literature. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 21 inpatient acute care units in 9 organizations at the municipal primary healthcare level was conducted. Participants included licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, and nurse managers. Workplace culture, especially the overarching factor of stress, correlated with the use of supplemental nursing staff and patients' length of stay. It is essential to find and test workplace-sensitive indicators so that managers will have a wider range of methods to plan and evaluate nursing outcomes.

  19. Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, D M; Morecroft, C; Parker, D; Noyce, P R

    2005-12-01

    To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting. An iterative review process in which the framework was developed and evaluated through a series of 10 focus groups with a purposive sample of 67 community pharmacists and support staff in the UK. Development of the framework and qualitative process feedback on its acceptability, face validity, and feasibility for use in community pharmacies. Using this process, a version of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework (MaPSAF) was developed that is suitable for application to community pharmacies. The participants were able to understand the concepts, recognised differences between the five stages of safety culture maturity, and concurred with the descriptions from personal experience. They also indicated that they would be willing to use the framework but recognised that staff would require protected time in order to complete the assessment. In practice the MaPSAF is likely to have a number of uses including raising awareness about patient safety and illustrating any differences in perception between staff, stimulating discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of patient safety culture within the pharmacy, identifying areas for improvement, and evaluating patient safety interventions and tracking changes over time. This will support the development of a mature safety culture in community pharmacies.

  20. Sensitivity of primary fibroblasts in culture to atmospheric oxygen does not correlate with species lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Alison; Seluanov, Michael; Hwang, Chaewon; Tam, Jonathan; Khan, Tanya; Morgenstern, Ari; Wiener, Lauren; Vazquez, Juan M.; Zafar, Hiba; Wen, Robert; Muratkalyeva, Malika; Doerig, Katherine; Zagorulya, Maria; Cole, Lauren; Catalano, Sophia; Lobo Ladd, Aliny AB; Coppi, A. Augusto; Coşkun, Yüksel; Tian, Xiao; Ablaeva, Julia; Nevo, Eviatar; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Vijg, Jan; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the way human and mouse fibroblasts experience senescence in culture had long puzzled researchers. While senescence of human cells is mediated by telomere shortening, Parrinello et al. demonstrated that senescence of mouse cells is caused by extreme oxygen sensitivity. It was hypothesized that the striking difference in oxygen sensitivity between mouse and human cells explains their different rates of aging. To test if this hypothesis is broadly applicable, we cultured cells from 16 rodent species with diverse lifespans in 3% and 21% oxygen and compared their growth rates. Unexpectedly, fibroblasts derived from laboratory mouse strains were the only cells demonstrating extreme sensitivity to oxygen. Cells from hamster, muskrat, woodchuck, capybara, blind mole rat, paca, squirrel, beaver, naked mole rat and wild-caught mice were mildly sensitive to oxygen, while cells from rat, gerbil, deer mouse, chipmunk, guinea pig and chinchilla showed no difference in the growth rate between 3% and 21% oxygen. We conclude that, although the growth of primary fibroblasts is generally improved by maintaining cells in 3% oxygen, the extreme oxygen sensitivity is a peculiarity of laboratory mouse strains, possibly related to their very long telomeres, and fibroblast oxygen sensitivity does not directly correlate with species' lifespan. PMID:27163160

  1. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Joseph R.; Green, Alexander R.; Carrillo, J. Emilio; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic disparities in health in the U.S. have been well described. The field of "cultural competence" has emerged as one strategy to address these disparities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the authors develop a definition of cultural competence, identify key components for intervention, and describe a practical framework for implementation of measures to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. METHODS: The authors conducted a literature...

  2. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Sergueev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, bacteriophages (phages have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types.

  3. Variogram Analysis of Response surfaces (VARS): A New Framework for Global Sensitivity Analysis of Earth and Environmental Systems Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S.; Gupta, H. V.

    2015-12-01

    Earth and environmental systems models (EESMs) are continually growing in complexity and dimensionality with continuous advances in understanding and computing power. Complexity and dimensionality are manifested by introducing many different factors in EESMs (i.e., model parameters, forcings, boundary conditions, etc.) to be identified. Sensitivity Analysis (SA) provides an essential means for characterizing the role and importance of such factors in producing the model responses. However, conventional approaches to SA suffer from (1) an ambiguous characterization of sensitivity, and (2) poor computational efficiency, particularly as the problem dimension grows. Here, we present a new and general sensitivity analysis framework (called VARS), based on an analogy to 'variogram analysis', that provides an intuitive and comprehensive characterization of sensitivity across the full spectrum of scales in the factor space. We prove, theoretically, that Morris (derivative-based) and Sobol (variance-based) methods and their extensions are limiting cases of VARS, and that their SA indices can be computed as by-products of the VARS framework. We also present a practical strategy for the application of VARS to real-world problems, called STAR-VARS, including a new sampling strategy, called "star-based sampling". Our results across several case studies show the STAR-VARS approach to provide reliable and stable assessments of "global" sensitivity across the full range of scales in the factor space, while being at least 1-2 orders of magnitude more efficient than the benchmark Morris and Sobol approaches.

  4. Increased sensitivity to ET-1 in rat cerebral arteries following organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, J; Edvinsson, L

    2000-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is recognized as being involved in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. Using organ culture as a model for possible pathological changes we studied changes in ET(A) and ETB receptor function using a sensitive in vitro method. We observed an up-regulation of the ET......(B) receptor and an amazingly increased sensitivity to ET-1 by 3 log units in pEC50; pEC50(fresh) was 8.7 +/- 0.1, and pEC50(cultured) was 11.7 +/- 0.3. pA2 for FR139317 in the fresh vessel was 7.0 +/- 0.2 whereas it could not be obtained for the cultured vessel, indicating a possible cross-talk between the ET......(A) and ET(B) receptors. The increased sensitivity to ET-1 could also take place during cerebrovascular disease such as stroke or haemorrhage rendering the vessels considerably more sensitive to ET-1....

  5. Sensitive Photoacoustic IR Spectroscopy for the Characterization of Amino/Azido Mixed-Linker Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Jerome; Lysenko, Vladimir; Lehtinen, Jaakko; Legrand, Alexandre; Wisser, Florian M; Quadrelli, Elsje Alessandra; Farrusseng, David

    2017-08-23

    Photoacoustic Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy makes it possible to determine the organic composition of mixed-linker metal-organic frameworks. The sound produced upon IR irradiation enables the discrimination of azido and amino linkers in three different MOF platforms with a sensitivity that is two orders of magnitude higher than that achieved using classic IR analysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Using the Cultural Dimension and Accounting Value Classification Frameworks to Investigate Cultural Diversity in a Multi-National South African-Based Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stander

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The developing South African economy provides good business opportunities for global companies. Despite the popularity of mergers and acquisitions as a way to expand into a developing economy, many such business transaction fail to create sustainable organisations due to issues pertaining to national and corporate cross-cultural issues. This study investigated the potential impact of national cultural differences pertinent to the acquisition of a South African-based resource company by a French-based international group. It was evident that there were cultural differences in the manner which certain attitudes and actions were expressed within the workplace, which have led to some conflict that hampered the optimum functioning of the accounting-related functions within the company. By using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions andGray’s accounting value classification frameworks within this case study, the organization’s management was provided with insights into how national cultural orientation affects their functioning.

  7. An investigation of Helicobacter pylori using culture, histopathological and serological examination methods and its antimicrobial sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Asuman; Gulsun, Serda; Guveli, Hakan; Tascioglu, Jale; Goktas, Pasa

    2005-04-01

    In this study, the determination of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by culture, histopathological and serological methods in cases of endoscopically diagnosed as duodenitis and duodenal ulcer (DU), a comparison of their relative advantages, and its antibiotic sensitivities were investigated. Helicobacter pylori was investigated using 3 methods (culture, histopathological and serological examination) in 50 patients (25 diagnosed with duodenitis and 25 with DU) at the Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Istanbul Haydarpasa Numune Hospital, Turkey between December 2000 and February 2001. An investigation into its antibiotic sensitivities to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and azithromycin by disc diffusion methods and to amoxicillin and clarithromycin by E-test were investigated. Helicobacter pylori bacteria were observed in Gram stained preparates prepared from biopsy material in 34 out of 50 patients (68%), and were able to be produced in active culture in all these cases. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of H. pylori in 80% cases of DU and 60% cases of duodenitis; anti-CagA(IgG) was positively determined in 88% DU cases and in 60% duodenitis cases. There was a significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of diagnosis by histopathological and serological methods. The difference between the 2 groups produced in active culture in 84% cases of DU cases and 52% of duodenitis was statistically significant (p=0.0322). Using the E-test and disc diffusion methods, 8.8% of the strains that reproduced in culture were resistant to and 91.2% were sensitive to clarithromycin. All strains were determined to be sensitive to amoxicillin: 17.6% of the strains were determined to be resistant to metronidazole, 11.7% to azithromycin. It was observed that Gram staining is a rapid and reliable method of pre-diagnosis for H. pylori; that histopathological examination methods are of considerable importance in diagnosis; and that the investigation of

  8. Bioimpedance monitoring of 3D cell culturing--complementary electrode configurations for enhanced spatial sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir; Høyum, Per; Pettersen, Fred-Johan; Hemmingsen, Mette; Wolff, Anders; Dufva, Martin; Martinsen, Ørjan Grøttem; Emnéus, Jenny

    2015-01-15

    A bioimpedance platform is presented as a promising tool for non-invasive real-time monitoring of the entire process of three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing in a hydrogel scaffold. In this study, the dynamics involved in the whole process of 3D cell culturing, starting from polymerisation of a bare 3D gelatin scaffold, to human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation and proliferation, was monitored over time. The platform consists of a large rectangular culture chamber with four embedded vertical gold plate electrodes that were exploited in two- and three terminal (2T and 3T) measurement configurations. By switching between the different combinations of electrode couples, it was possible to generate a multiplexing-like approach, which allowed for collecting spatially distributed information within the 3D space. Computational finite element (FE) analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) characterisation were used to determine the configurations' sensitivity field localisation. The 2T setup gives insight into the interfacial phenomena at both electrode surfaces and covers the central part of the 3D cell culture volume, while the four 3T modes provide focus on the dynamics at the corners of the 3D culture chamber. By combining a number of electrode configurations, complementary spatially distributed information on a large 3D cell culture can be obtained with maximised sensitivity in the entire 3D space. The experimental results show that cell proliferation can be monitored within the tested biomimetic environment, paving the way to further developments in bioimpedance tracking of 3D cell cultures and tissue engineering.

  9. DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURE POSITIVE URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY PROFILE IN TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Sreekumar Pius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection is very common all over the world and in India more than 10 million cases are reported per year. It is one of the common infections diagnosed in the outpatients as well as the hospitalised patients. Empirical treatment of community acquired urinary tract infections are determined by the antibiotic sensitivity in a population. This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial sensitivity amongst the uropathogens to help establish local guidelines on treatment of urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, we collected 1306 samples from patients in whom we suspected to have urinary tract infection based on clinical signs and symptoms (e.g. with fever (greater than 38°C without another explanation or from a patient who had at least one urinary symptom (dysuria, urgency, frequency, or suprapubic pain or tenderness in our hospital during January 2016-June 2016. RESULTS Urine cultures were positive for 18% of the patients. Among these cultures, Klebsiella pneumonia (41%, Escherichia coli (35% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7% were the common organisms found. Highest antimicrobial sensitivity amongst these pathogens was found with cefoperazone/sulbactam and amikacin. CONCLUSION Cefoperazone/sulbactam and amikacin were the highly sensitive systemic antibiotics while ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were the sensitive oral antibiotics in our locality.

  10. Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Competing Values Framework's Theoretical Suppositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, Chad A.; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial…

  11. Educational Spaces of Cultural Capitalism: The Concept of Consumer Culture as a New Framework for Contemporary Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Phillip D. Th.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a specific concept of consumer culture into the international and European discussion about new concepts and categories in comparative education. Basic meanings of consumer culture are presented in reference to consumer research, consumer culture theory, and a revisited concept of world polity. In addition to general…

  12. Educational Spaces of Cultural Capitalism: The Concept of Consumer Culture as a New Framework for Contemporary Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Phillip D. Th.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a specific concept of consumer culture into the international and European discussion about new concepts and categories in comparative education. Basic meanings of consumer culture are presented in reference to consumer research, consumer culture theory, and a revisited concept of world polity. In addition to general…

  13. Implementation and evaluation of a low health literacy and culturally sensitive diabetes education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swavely, Deborah; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Maldonado, Edgardo; Eid, Sherrine; Etchason, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Low health literacy is more prevalent in persons with limited education, members of ethnic minorities, and those who speak English as a second language, and is associated with multiple adverse diabetes-related health outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of a low health literacy and culturally sensitive diabetes education program for economically and socially disadvantaged adult patients with type 2 diabetes. A pre-post prospective study design was used to examine outcomes over 12 months. Outcome measures included diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care, measured using reliable and valid survey tools, and A1C. Over this period of time 277 patients were enrolled in the program, with 106 participants completing survey data. At the completion of the program patients had significant improvements in diabetes knowledge (p diabetes education program designed to be culturally sensitive and meet the needs of individuals with low health literacy improves short-term outcomes. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  14. Sensitivity of PCR IS6110 in relation to culture and staining in Pott′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid diagnosis is essential to decrease the morbidity and mortality of Pott′s disease. The bacteriological methods are time-consuming or insensitive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR provides a rapid diagnostic tool and hope for early diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to compare and assess of a rapid and effective method among diagnostic battery (Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture and PCR of Pott′s disease. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five specimens from clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease were included in this study. They were processed for ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture, and PCR IS6110. The tests tool′s efficiency, positive agreement Kc (Kappa coefficient, and significance level (P value were calculated for correlation between PCR and performed tests. Results: The PCR sensitivity reached to 96% and 46.3% among positive and negative specimens on ZN microscopy. Further, 94% and 36.4% sensitivity were found among positive and negative specimens by BACTEC culture. The total 38 (58.5% specimens were detected either ZN microscopy or by BACTEC culture. Thus, the overall sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 95% and 74.1%. The kappa coefficient and P value, calculated for PCR against BACTEC culture and combined results of performed bacteriological tests were (Kc=0.60, (P<0.001 and (Kc=0.70, (P<0.001, respectively. Above statistical relations showed a fair agreement with significant differences. Conclusion: The PCR IS6110 may be useful in rapid detection of clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease and those that are negative with bacteriological methods.

  15. Organizational culture and organizational effectiveness: a meta-analytic investigation of the competing values framework's theoretical suppositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, Chad A; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo

    2011-07-01

    We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial performance). The paper also tests theoretical suppositions undergirding the CVF by investigating the framework's nomological validity and proposed internal structure (i.e., interrelationships among culture types). Results based on data from 84 empirical studies with 94 independent samples indicate that clan, adhocracy, and market cultures are differentially and positively associated with the effectiveness criteria, though not always as hypothesized. The findings provide mixed support for the CVF's nomological validity and fail to support aspects of the CVF's proposed internal structure. We propose an alternative theoretical approach to the CVF and delineate directions for future research.

  16. [The sensitivity to antibiotics of biofilm cultures of toxigenic strains Corynebacterium diphtheriae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Ya N; Kharseyeva, G G; Mironov, A Yu

    2014-06-01

    The article presents analysis of sensitivity to antibacterial preparations of typical and biofilm culture of museum strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae gravis tox+ SV-665. The strain was obtained from the L.A. Tarasevitch state research institute of standardization and control of medical biological preparations. The second strain C. diphtheriaecirculates gravis tox+ circulates in population of the Rostov oblast and it was recovered from patient with diagnosis of "localized form of diphtheria" by bacteriologic laboratory "1002 CGSEN SKVO" of Rostov-on-Don. The week and month biofilm cultures of both strains of C. diphtheriae gravis tox+ were used. The sensitivity to antibacterial preparations of typical and biofilm cultures of museum and circulating in population strains of agent of diphtheria were detected using minimal suppressing concentration by technique of serial dilutions in fluid growth medium. It is demonstrated that the most effective in respect of C. diphtheriae are such preparations as cefotaxinum, gentamycinum, lincomycin, canamycin and cefasolin. The sensitivity of pathogen in composition of biofilm to these preparations has no changes.

  17. Influence of organizational culture on provider adherence to the diabetic clinical practice guideline: using the competing values framework in Palestinian Primary Healthcare Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan M

    2017-08-01

    should preferably mix quantitative and qualitative approaches and explore the use of more sensitive instruments to measure such a complex construct and its effects on guideline adherence in small-sized clinics. Keywords: organizational culture, clinical practice guideline, adherence, diabetes mellitus, competing values framework 

  18. Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohr David C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA. The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51% from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85. However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems

  19. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication: An Agenda for Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies-observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences.

  1. Highly sensitive and selective fluoride detection in water through fluorophore release from a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterholzinger, Florian M; Rühle, Bastian; Wuttke, Stefan; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Bein, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The detection, differentiation and visualization of compounds such as gases, liquids or ions are key challenges for the design of selective optical chemosensors. Optical chemical sensors employ a transduction mechanism that converts a specific analyte recognition event into an optical signal. Here we report a novel concept for fluoride ion sensing where a porous crystalline framework serves as a host for a fluorescent reporter molecule. The detection is based on the decomposition of the host scaffold which induces the release of the fluorescent dye molecule. Specifically, the hybrid composite of the metal-organic framework NH2-MIL-101(Al) and fluorescein acting as reporter shows an exceptional turn-on fluorescence in aqueous fluoride-containing solutions. Using this novel strategy, the optical detection of fluoride is extremely sensitive and highly selective in the presence of many other anions.

  2. Sensitivity and uncertainty in flood inundation modelling – concept of an analysis framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Weichel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After the extreme flood event of the Elbe in 2002 the definition of flood risk areas by law and their simulation became more important in Germany. This paper describes a concept of an analysis framework to improve the localisation and duration of validity of flood inundation maps. The two-dimensional finite difference model TrimR2D is used and linked to a Monte-Carlo routine for parameter sampling as well as to selected performance measures. The purpose is the investigation of the impact of different spatial resolutions and the influence of changing land uses in the simulation of flood inundation areas. The technical assembling of the framework is realised and beside the model calibration, first tests with different parameter ranges were done. Preliminary results show good correlations with observed data, but the investigation of shifting land uses reflects only poor changes in the flood extension.

  3. Development of an Inventory for Health-Care Office Staff to Self-Assess Their Patient-Centered Cultural Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M. Tucker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care (PC-CSHC is a best practice approach for improving health-care delivery to culturally diverse populations and reducing health disparities. Despite patients’ report that cultural sensitivity by health-care office staff is an important aspect of PC-CSHC, the majority of available research on PC-CSHC focuses exclusively on health-care providers. This may be due in part to the paucity of instruments available to assess the cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff. The objective of the present study is to determine the psychometric properties of the Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Office Staff Inventory-Self-Assessment Form (T-CSHCOSI-SAF. This instrument is designed to enable health-care office staff to self-assess their level of agreement that they display behaviors and attitudes that culturally diverse patients have identified as office staff cultural sensitivity indicators. Methods: A sample of 510 health-care office staff were recruited at 67 health-care sites across the United States. These health-care office staff anonymously completed the T-CSHCOSI-SAF and a demographic data questionnaire. Results and Level of Evidence: Confirmatory factor analyses of the T-CSHCOSI-SAF revealed that this inventory has 2 factors with high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s αs= .916 and .912. Conclusion and Implications: The T-CSHCOSI-SAF is a useful inventory for health-care office staff to assess their own level of patient-centered cultural sensitivity. Such self-assessment data can be used in the development and implementation of trainings to promote patient-centered cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff and to help draw the attention of these staff to displaying patient-centered cultural sensitivity.

  4. Development of an Inventory for Health-Care Office Staff to Self-Assess Their Patient-Centered Cultural Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M. Tucker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care (PC-CSHC is a best practice approach for improving health-care delivery to culturally diverse populations and reducing health disparities. Despite patients’ report that cultural sensitivity by health-care office staff is an important aspect of PC-CSHC, the majority of available research on PC-CSHC focuses exclusively on health-care providers. This may be due in part to the paucity of instruments available to assess the cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff. The objective of the present study is to determine the psychometric properties of the Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Office Staff Inventory-Self-Assessment Form (T-CSHCOSI-SAF. This instrument is designed to enable health-care office staff to self-assess their level of agreement that they display behaviors and attitudes that culturally diverse patients have identified as office staff cultural sensitivity indicators. Methods: A sample of 510 health-care office staff were recruited at 67 health-care sites across the United States. These health-care office staff anonymously completed the T-CSHCOSI-SAF and a demographic data questionnaire. Results and Level of Evidence: Confirmatory factor analyses of the T-CSHCOSI-SAF revealed that this inventory has 2 factors with high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s αs= .916 and .912. Conclusion and Implications: The T-CSHCOSI-SAF is a useful inventory for health-care office staff to assess their own level of patient-centered cultural sensitivity. Such self-assessment data can be used in the development and implementation of trainings to promote patient-centered cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff and to help draw the attention of these staff to displaying patient-centered cultural sensitivity.

  5. The Pursuit of Sustainable Development Through Cultural Law and Governance Frameworks: A South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoma Laura Owosuyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of including a cultural dimension in development policies has become the focus of international scholarly and policy debates. Analysing and conceptualising the role of culture in the sustainable development context was brought into focus by the World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD, with the publication of the report Our Creative Diversity: Report of the World Commission on Culture and Development in 1995. The Report highlighted the cultural dimensions of a human-centered development paradigm and proposed placing culture at the center stage of development thinking. This argument was taken further at the International Conference on Cultural Policies for Development held in Stockholm in 1998, where it was proposed that cultural policies become key components of development strategies. This article will examine the infiltration of culture into the contemporary understanding of sustainable development and the relevance of international law developments to domestic (South African law and policy with regards to sustainable development and culture.

  6. Parameterization Sensitivity and Instability Characteristics of the Maximum Sustainable Heat Flux Framework for Predicting Turbulent Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Amber; Monahan, Adam; Rees, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    The collapse of turbulence in the stable boundary layer is investigated using a one dimensional model of Couette flow. We demonstrate that the maximum sustainable heat flux (MSHF) framework for predicting turbulent collapse is qualitatively robust to the choice of turbulence parameterization and extend these earlier stability analyses by numerically determining the unstable modes along the unstable branch. All of the parametrizations exhibit a MSHF beyond which turbulence collapses, yet important quantitative differences in equilibrium structure between the models were found. Whereas the equilibrium structure for Businger-Dyer-type stability functions are independent of the momentum roughness length z0, all of the other relations show a strong dependence on z0 with regard to their shapes and the value of the MSHF. As for the stability properties of the equilibrium curves, these all depend on z0 and only a single unstable eigenmode was found along the unstable branches. Transitions between stable and unstable regimes occur at extrema of the equilbrium curves in parameter space. Remarkably, some of the parameterizations even exhibit multiple extrema separating, disjointed regions of stability and instability. In practice, the MSHF framework is robust qualitatively, but the quantitative differences that arise as a result of varying the turbulent closure scheme must be accounted for when using the MSHF framework to predict the collapse of turbulence in the SBL especially in the case of small z0.

  7. Challenges to culturally sensitive care for elderly chinese patients: a first-generation Chinese-American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Karen C

    2013-01-01

    Physicians and medical institutions in the United States are placing increasing emphasis on providing culturally sensitive care for patients, such as implementing a Confucian family-based model of medical decision making when caring for elderly Chinese patients. In this article, I articulate various reasons why deferring to the family is not a guarantee of culturally sensitive care, particularly when family members are first-generation Chinese-Americans. Nonetheless, I offer several suggestions to help physicians, medical institutions, and family members to provide more culturally sensitive care for elderly Chinese patients.

  8. Fabrication of gold nanoparticle-embedded metal-organic framework for highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuling; Liao, Jia; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Gongke

    2014-04-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals strongly rely on the interactions and distance between analyte molecules and metallic nanostructures. In this work, the use of a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-embedded metal-organic framework was introduced for the highly sensitive SERS detection. The AuNPs were in situ grown and encapsulated within the host matrix of MIL-101 by a solution impregnation strategy. The as-synthesized AuNPs/MIL-101 nanocomposites combined the localized surface plasmon resonance properties of the gold nanoparticles and the high adsorption capability of metal-organic framework, making them highly sensitive SERS substrates by effectively preconcentrating analytes in close proximity to the electromagnetic fields at the SERS-active metal surface. We discussed the fabrication, physical characterization, and SERS activity of our novel substrates by measuring the Raman signals of a variety of model analytes. The SERS substrate was found to be highly sensitive, robust, and amiable to several different target analytes. A SERS detection limit of 41.75 and 0.54 fmol for Rhodamine 6G and benzadine, respectively, was demonstrated. The substrate also showed high stability and reproducibility, as well as molecular sieving effect thanks to the protective shell of the metal-organic framework. Subsequently, the potential practical application of the novel SERS substrate was evaluated by quantitative analysis of organic pollutant p-phenylenediamine in environmental water and tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein in human serum. The method showed good linearity between 1.0 and 100.0 ng/mL for p-phenylenediamine and 1.0-130.0 ng/mL for alpha-fetoprotein with the correlation coefficients of 0.9950 and -0.9938, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 80.5% to 114.7% for p-phenylenediamine in environmental water and 79.3% to 107.3% for alpha-fetoprotein in human serum. These results foresee promising application of the novel metal-organic framework based composites as

  9. Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory as a framework for research on personality-psychopathology associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Beck, Ilse; Claes, Laurence; Vandereycken, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) presupposes individual differences in the sensitivity of basic brain systems that respond to punishing and reinforcing stimuli. These differences are thought to underlie the personality dimensions of anxiety and impulsivity, and to have relevance for psychopathology. The present article aims at reviewing RST-based research on personality-psychopathology associations. First, RST and its revisions are described and the link between RST systems and personality dimensions is discussed. Second, studies investigating associations between RST systems and specific types of psychopathology are summarized. Although the available research yields a rather consistent picture with respect to constellations of BIS/BAS sensitivity that are associated with specific types of psychopathology, it also provides a clear indication that much work remains to be done. The discussion section highlights several topics that deserve future research attention.

  10. Influence of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive nurse outcomes in municipal primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; Paavilainen, Eija; McCormack, Brendan; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-10-01

    To explore the influence of workplace culture on sickness absences, overtime work and occupational injuries in municipal primary health care. The need to improve nursing sensitive outcomes has been highlighted. Therefore, an adequate understanding of the influence of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive nurse outcomes is essential for nurse managers to meet the requirements of improving nursing outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design was used to incorporating the data from 21 inpatient acute care units of nine organisations at the Finnish municipal primary health care system from 2011 to 2012. Findings emphasise in particular the importance of the practice environment as being an interpretative factor for nurses' absences owing to sickness, overtime work and occupational injuries. To ensure favourable nursing sensitive outcomes it is essential that there is a shared interest in the unit to invest in the creation of a supportive practice environment. Outcome improvements require a special focus on issues related to nursing management, adequate staffing and resources and intention to leave. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A new framework for the interpretation of IgE sensitization tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, G; Ollert, M; Aalberse, R.;

    2016-01-01

    IgE sensitization tests, such as skin prick testing and serum-specific IgE, have been used to diagnose IgE-mediated clinical allergy for many years. Their prime drawback is that they detect sensitization which is only loosely related to clinical allergy. Many patients therefore require provocation...... pretest probabilities for diverse setting, regions and allergens. Also, cofactors, such as exercise, may be necessary for exposure to an allergen to result in an allergic reaction in specific IgE-positive patients. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergy is now being aided by the introduction of allergen...

  12. Computation of eigenvalue sensitivity to base flow modifications in a discrete framework: Application to open-loop control

    CERN Document Server

    Mettot, Clément; Sipp, Denis

    2014-01-01

    A fully discrete formalism is introduced to perform stability analysis of a turbulent compressible flow whom dynamics is modeled with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The discrete equations are linearized using finite differences and the Jacobian is computed using repeated evaluation of the residuals. Stability of the flow is assessed solving an eigenvalue problem. The sensitivity gradients which indicate regions of the flow where a passive control device could stabilize the unstable eigenvalues are defined within this fully discrete framework. Second order finite differences are applied to the discrete residual to compute the gradients. In particular, the sensitivity gradients are shown to be linked to the Hessian of the RANS equations. The introduced formalism and linearization method are generic: the code used to evaluate the residual of the RANS equations can be used in a black box manner, and the complex linearization of the Hessian is avoided. The method is tested on a two dimension...

  13. A generative inference framework for analysing patterns of cultural change in sparse population data with evidence for fashion trends in LBK culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Shennan, Stephen

    2015-12-06

    Cultural change can be quantified by temporal changes in frequency of different cultural artefacts and it is a central question to identify what underlying cultural transmission processes could have caused the observed frequency changes. Observed changes, however, often describe the dynamics in samples of the population of artefacts, whereas transmission processes act on the whole population. Here we develop a modelling framework aimed at addressing this inference problem. To do so, we firstly generate population structures from which the observed sample could have been drawn randomly and then determine theoretical samples at a later time t2 produced under the assumption that changes in frequencies are caused by a specific transmission process. Thereby we also account for the potential effect of time-averaging processes in the generation of the observed sample. Subsequent statistical comparisons (e.g. using Bayesian inference) of the theoretical and observed samples at t2 can establish which processes could have produced the observed frequency data. In this way, we infer underlying transmission processes directly from available data without any equilibrium assumption. We apply this framework to a dataset describing pottery from settlements of some of the first farmers in Europe (the LBK culture) and conclude that the observed frequency dynamic of different types of decorated pottery is consistent with age-dependent selection, a preference for 'young' pottery types which is potentially indicative of fashion trends. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. A simple water-energy balance framework to predict the sensitivity of streamflow to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Renner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term average change in streamflow is a major concern in hydrology and water resources management. Some simple analytical methods exist for the assessment of the sensitivity of streamflow to climatic variations. These are based on the Budyko hypothesis, which assumes that long term average streamflow can be predicted by climate conditions, namely by annual average precipitation and evaporative demand. Recently, Tomer and Schilling (2009 presented an ecohydrological concept to distinguish between effects of climate change and basin characteristics change on streamflow. We provide a theoretical foundation of this concept by showing that it is based on a coupled consideration of the water and energy balance. The concept uses a special condition that the sum of the ratio of annual actual evapotranspiration to precipitation and the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration is constant, even when climate conditions are changing.

    Here we apply this assumption and derive analytical solutions to the problem of streamflow sensitivity on climate. We show how climate sensitivity is influenced by different climatic conditions and the actual hydrological response of a basin. Finally, the properties and implications of the new method are compared with established Budyko sensitivity methods.

  15. Adapting the SRQ for Ethiopian populations: a culturally-sensitive psychiatric screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngmann, Rafael; Zilber, Nelly; Workneh, Fikre; Giel, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive psychiatric screening instrument valid for Ethiopians in Ethiopia and Israel. The study sample was composed of 356 Amharic-speaking Ethiopians from Ethiopia and Israel, aged 18-55, divided into three groups: i) general population; ii) people in non-psychiatric treatment; iii) people in psychiatric treatment. They were interviewed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ), modified to include 10 culturally specific items, and the Brief Psychiatric Research Scale (BPRS) as a criterion of psychopathology. Physicians also completed an encounter form about the presence of mental health symptoms in participants. To make the questions more culturespecific, the translation of 12 items on the SRQ was changed. The content, construct, and criterion validity of each question were also examined, leading to the deletion of five items. The validity of the revised instrument (SRQ-F) was superior to that of the original instrument (SRQ). This study demonstrates the need for psychiatric screening instruments to be adapted to different cultures by incorporating meaningful translations and adding culturally specific items.

  16. Beyond exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity: A response based ecological framework to assess species climate change vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas; Schubert, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    As the impacts of global climate change on species are increasingly evident, there is a clear need to adapt conservation efforts worldwide. Species vulnerability assessments (VAs) are increasingly used to summarize all relevant information to determine a species’ potential vulnerability to climate change and are frequently the first step in informing climate adaptation efforts. VAs commonly integrate multiple sources of information by utilizing a framework that distinguishes factors relevant to species exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. However, this framework was originally developed for human systems, and its use to evaluate species vulnerability has serious practical and theoretical limitations. By instead defining vulnerability as the degree to which a species is unable to exhibit any of the responses necessary for persistence under climate change (i.e., toleration of projected changes, migration to new climate-compatible areas, enduring in microrefugia, and evolutionary adaptation), we can bring VAs into the realm of ecological science without applying borrowed abstract concepts that have consistently challenged species-centric research and management. This response-based framework to assess species vulnerability to climate change allows better integration of relevant ecological data and past research, yielding results with much clearer implications for conservation and research prioritization.

  17. An Organizational Culture Assessment Using the Competing Values Framework: A Profile of Ohio State University Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrio, Angel A.

    2003-01-01

    Current and preferred culture of Ohio State University Extension was assessed by 297 extension staff categorized by gender, location, program area, title, age, and years employed. Most categories selected a Clan culture type as dominant in both the current and preferred situations. The Clan culture portrays an organization that concentrates on…

  18. Developing Alternative Frameworks for Exploring Intercultural Learning: A Critique of Hofstede's Cultural Difference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Paola; Wiesemes, Rolf; Murphy, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Hofstede's model of cultural difference has been used widely for exploring aspects of culture in educational settings. In this paper, we review Hofstede's model and explore some of its limitations, particularly in relation to the field of higher education. These limitations include an oversimplification of cultural differences, inconsistencies…

  19. Mapping Proxy Sensitivity: A New Technique for Compositional Analysis of Cultured Biominerals and Inorganically Precipitated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, A. C.; DePaolo, D. J.; DeYoreo, J.; Spero, H. J.; Russell, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral composition is controlled by a host of environmental factors during precipitation. To build accurate paleo-reconstructions we need to separate the impact of each parameter on proxy behavior and use these data to build a chemical-scale understanding of mineral growth. Biomineral culture and inorganic precipitation experiments, where growth parameters can be manipulated independently, are uniquely suited to calibrate proxies and probe mechanism. Culture and precipitation experiments often involve overgrowth of an initial material. For example, seed crystals are used to control mineralogy and avoid nucleation during inorganic precipitation, while culture experiments in marine organisms typically start with wild specimens. New growth corresponding to the experimental conditions must be resolved from the initial material. Separation is typically achieved using microanalysis, skeletal dissection, or estimates of the initial mass and composition. Each approach imposes limits on the accuracy, precision or types of materials that can be analyzed. Slow growth rates and complicated geometries can make these techniques especially challenging when applied to biominerals. We present a method of compositional analysis for use in biological culture and inorganic growth experiments that overcomes many of these challenges. This method relies on growth in a mixed element stable isotope spike, requires neither the initial mass nor the initial composition to be known, harnesses the precision and sensitivity of bulk analysis, and applies even when it is impossible to physically identify newly grown material. Error analysis suggests this method can significantly improve the precision of metal/calcium measurements in experimentally grown material compared to current methods. Furthermore, the method can isolate different events through time, separating, for example, the impact of day and night cycles on biomineral composition. We will present metal/calcium ratios measured using the

  20. Shifting Attitudes toward Teaching Culture within the Framework of English as an International Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guerra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the cultural dimensions of EIL, which are analysed based on the following domains: (a subjects’ attitudes toward teaching about specific cultures (native and non-native; and (b subjects’ attitudes toward teaching about culture in general. In essence, a view of culture based on native cultures can emerge from three different approaches: it may promote British culture only, it may focus on both the UK and the US, or it may incorporate other English native cultures. Likewise, a more international viewpoint can also be offered from three perspectives: it may refer to ESL contexts only, it may present both ESL and EFL communities – including the local culture – or it may introduce international aspects not specific to any culture. However, the analysis of data in this study indicates that the subjects’ attitudes toward teaching culture do not usually correspond to just one of these perspectives; rather, teachers display a manifold set of beliefs which may at times be closer or more distant to an international approach to teaching culture.

  1. A Framework Approach to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Public Engagement Strategies for Radioactive Waste Management - 13430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Laura [Potomac Communications Group, 1133 20th St NW Washington DC 20035 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The complex interplay of politics, economics and culture undermines attempts to define universal best practices for public engagement in the management of nuclear materials. In the international context, communicators must rely on careful adaptation and creative execution to make standard communication techniques succeed in their local communities. Nuclear professionals need an approach to assess and adapt culturally specific public engagement strategies to meet the demands of their particular political, economic and social structures. Using participant interviews and public sources, the Potomac Communications Group reviewed country-specific examples of nuclear-related communication efforts to provide insight into a proposed approach. The review considered a spectrum of cultural dimensions related to diversity, authority, conformity, proximity and time. Comparisons help to identify cross-cultural influences of various public engagement tactics and to inform a framework for communicators. While not prescriptive in its application, the framework offers a way for communicators to assess the salience of outreach tactics in specific situations. The approach can guide communicators to evaluate and tailor engagement strategies to achieve localized public outreach goals. (authors)

  2. Cross-cultural upbringing : A comparison of the "Third Culture Kids" framework and "Kaigai/Kikoku-shijo" studies

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper will look at two fields of study which, although dealing with a similar subject matter, have up until now grown quite independently from each other. American scholars who look at the phenomenon of "Third Culture Kids" and Japanese scholars in "Kaigai/Kikoku-shijo" studies are both interested in the impact of a cross-cultural overseas upbringing on a child's subsequent life experience. We will examine some of the main findings from the respective fields, and point out their common t...

  3. Interplay wellbeing framework: a collaborative methodology 'bringing together stories and numbers' to quantify Aboriginal cultural values in remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Sheree; Abbott, Tammy; Quinn, Stephen; Yamaguchi, Jessica; Wilson, Byron; Wakerman, John

    2017-05-03

    Wellbeing has been difficult to understand, measure and strengthen for Aboriginal people in remote Australia. Part of the challenge has been genuinely involving community members and incorporating their values and priorities into assessment and policy. Taking a 'shared space' collaborative approach between remote Aboriginal communities, governments and scientists, we merged Aboriginal knowledge with western science - by bringing together stories and numbers. This research aims to statistically validate the holistic Interplay Wellbeing Framework and Survey that bring together Aboriginal-identified priorities of culture, empowerment and community with government priorities including education, employment and health. Quantitative survey data were collected from a cohort of 842 Aboriginal people aged 15-34 years, recruited from four different Aboriginal communities in remote Australia. Aboriginal community researchers designed and administered the survey. Structural equation modeling showed good fit statistics (χ/df = 2.69, CFI = 0.95 and RMSEA = 0.045) confirming the holistic nature of the Interplay Wellbeing Framework. The strongest direct impacts on wellbeing were 'social and emotional wellbeing' (r = 0.23; p cultural factors have indirect impacts on wellbeing, such as through Aboriginal literacy. All cultural variables correlated highly with each other, and with empowerment and community. Empowerment also correlated highly with all education and work variables. 'Substances' (lack thereof) was linked with positive outcomes across culture, education and work. Specific interrelationships will be explored in detail separately. The Interplay Wellbeing Framework and Survey were statistically validated as a collaborative approach to assessing wellbeing that is inclusive of other cultural worldviews, values and practices. New community-derived social and cultural indicators were established, contributing valuable insight to psychometric assessment across

  4. Pigments for natural dye-sensitized solar cells from in vitro grown shoot cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, Chiara; Forni, Cinzia; Di Carlo, Aldo; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Teoli, Federico; Nota, Paolo; Matteocci, Fabio; Frattarelli, Andrea; Caboni, Emilia; Lucioli, Simona

    2017-04-01

    In vitro grown shoots cultures (Prunus salicina × Prunus persica), elicited by methyl jasmonate (MJ), are reported here for the first time to prepare a natural dye for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Redox properties of the dye, its photostability, and light absorption properties suggested it as a candidate as natural photosensitizers for TiO2 photoelectrodes. Redox properties of the dye influence the DSSC production of photocurrent, thus three antioxidant assays were performed in order to characterize the antioxidant potential of this dye. The dye exhibited a high antioxidant activity in all the assays performed. Photostability assay revealed that the dye was quite stable to light. The power conversion efficiency that we obtained (0.53%) was comparable to the data by other authors with anthocyanins-based dyes from in vivo grown plants. Finally, we compared the dye with the partially purified one as photosensitizer in DSSC. The results indicated that the raw pigment from in vitro shoot cultures of P. salicina × P. persica elicited with MJ can be proposed without the needing of any other chemicals, thermal or purification process, or pH adjustments, as a dye for natural sensitized solar cells.

  5. Cultural differences in sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts: evidence from P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Umla-Runge, Katja; Hofmann, Juliane; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-06-18

    Cross-cultural differences in Easterners and Westerners have been observed in different cognitive domains. Differential sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts might be an underlying cognitive mechanism for these differences. Twenty-one Chinese and 22 Germans participated in a three-stimulus event-related potential oddball task. They were instructed to monitor geometrical forms filled in black (targets) that were presented among a series of blank geometrical forms (standards). Novel stimuli were colored images of common objects. Robust novelty P3 and target P3 over the entire scalp were observed in both groups. As compared with the German group, Chinese participants showed larger amplitudes of novelty P3 and target P3 over frontal regions and earlier peak latency for target P3. This indicates a higher sensitivity to the relationship between contexts and objects in the Chinese as compared with the German group, which might be an underlying mechanism for cross-cultural differences reported in many cognitive domains.

  6. How commercial and ``violent'' video games can promote culturally sensitive science learning: some questions and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-12-01

    In their paper, Muñoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Muñoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3® precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and violent representations of gender, race, class, nationality, science and technology. However, there are many questions that arise in bringing these commercial video games into science classrooms, including the questions of how students' capacities for critical reflection can be facilitated, whether traditional science teachers can take on the role of using such games in their classrooms, and which video games would be most appropriate to use. In this response, I raise these questions and consider some of the challenges in order to further the possibility of implementing Muñoz and El-Hani's creative proposal for generating culturally sensitive science classrooms.

  7. A framework for improving a seasonal hydrological forecasting system using sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Louise; Pappenberger, Florian; Smith, Paul; Cloke, Hannah

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal streamflow forecasts are of great value for the socio-economic sector, for applications such as navigation, flood and drought mitigation and reservoir management for hydropower generation and water allocation to agriculture and drinking water. However, as we speak, the performance of dynamical seasonal hydrological forecasting systems (systems based on running seasonal meteorological forecasts through a hydrological model to produce seasonal hydrological forecasts) is still limited in space and time. In this context, the ESP (Ensemble Streamflow Prediction) remains an attractive forecasting method for seasonal streamflow forecasting as it relies on forcing a hydrological model (starting from the latest observed or simulated initial hydrological conditions) with historical meteorological observations. This makes it cheaper to run than a standard dynamical seasonal hydrological forecasting system, for which the seasonal meteorological forecasts will first have to be produced, while still producing skilful forecasts. There is thus the need to focus resources and time towards improvements in dynamical seasonal hydrological forecasting systems which will eventually lead to significant improvements in the skill of the streamflow forecasts generated. Sensitivity analyses are a powerful tool that can be used to disentangle the relative contributions of the two main sources of errors in seasonal streamflow forecasts, namely the initial hydrological conditions (IHC; e.g., soil moisture, snow cover, initial streamflow, among others) and the meteorological forcing (MF; i.e., seasonal meteorological forecasts of precipitation and temperature, input to the hydrological model). Sensitivity analyses are however most useful if they inform and change current operational practices. To this end, we propose a method to improve the design of a seasonal hydrological forecasting system. This method is based on sensitivity analyses, informing the forecasters as to which element of

  8. Highly sensitive detection of ionizing radiations by a photoluminescent uranyl organic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jian; Wang, Yaxing; Liu, Wei; Yin, Xuemiao; Chen, Lanhua; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Shuao [School for Radiological and interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zou, Youming [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Liu, Guokui [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-19

    Precise detection of low-dose X- and γ-radiations remains a challenge and is particularly important for studying biological effects under low-dose ionizing radiation, safety control in medical radiation treatment, survey of environmental radiation background, and monitoring cosmic radiations. We report here a photoluminescent uranium organic framework, whose photoluminescence intensity can be accurately correlated with the exposure dose of X- or γ-radiations. This allows for precise and instant detection of ionizing radiations down to the level of 10{sup -4} Gy, representing a significant improvement on the detection limit of approximately two orders of magnitude, compared to other chemical dosimeters reported up to now. The electron paramagnetic resonance analysis suggests that with the exposure to radiations, the carbonyl double bonds break affording oxo-radicals that can be stabilized within the conjugated uranium oxalate-carboxylate sheet. This gives rise to a substantially enhanced equatorial bonding of the uranyl(VI) ions as elucidated by the single-crystal structure of the γ-ray irradiated material, and subsequently leads to a very effective photoluminescence quenching through phonon-assisted relaxation. The quenched sample can be easily recovered by heating, enabling recycled detection for multiple runs. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  10. Metal-Organic Framework Templated Synthesis of Copper Azide as the Primary Explosive with Low Electrostatic Sensitivity and Excellent Initiation Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianyou; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Shan; Song, Naimeng; Chen, Yifa; Tong, Wenchao; Han, Yuzhen; Yang, Li; Wang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    A powerful yet safe primary explosive, embedded in a conductive carbon scaffold, is prepared by using a metal-organic framework as precursor. It simultaneously possesses low electrostatic sensitivity, good flame sensitivity, and excellent initiation ability. This method is simple, scalable, and provides a new platform for the development of energetic materials especially those employed in miniaturized explosive systems.

  11. A framework to update Hofstede's cultural value indices: economic dynamics and institutional stability

    OpenAIRE

    Linghui Tang; Peter E Koveos

    2008-01-01

    This study offers an update of the Hofstede cultural value dimensions. We argue that changes in economic conditions are the source of cultural dynamics, while the endurance of institutional characteristics provides the foundation for cultural stability. It is found that national wealth, measured by GDP per capita, has a curvilinear relationship with individualism, long-term orientation, and power distance scores. Relatively speaking, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity mainly reflect some r...

  12. Evaluating U.S. and Chinese Cyber Security Strategies Within a Cultural Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    and strategic levels. Common themes, however, are that culture is shared, transmitted, malleable, and internalized by a common group of people or a...founded on both the short-term orientation of national culture , as well as the political ideology of the US; liberal, free- market , and educated...Five Personality Traits: Patterns and Profiles of Human Self- Description Across 56 Nations.” Journal of Cross - Cultural Psychology 38, no. 2 (March

  13. The Epic Narrative of Intellectual Culture as a Framework for Curricular Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Robert N.

    This paper describes a proposed middle school curriculum designedto coordinate the major subject areas around a single coherent story line, and to tell theepic tale of the development of formal intellectual culture from its distant origins to the present day.Ourstory explores the history of scientific culture from the perspective of foundational disciplines (history,philosophy, sociology, psychology, anthropology). It examines the growth of scientific culture againstthe backdrop of the world's traditional cultures, and balances the role of the sciences against the role ofthe arts in their respective contributions to the life of the mind.

  14. Intercultural communication between patients and health care providers: an exploration of intercultural communication effectiveness, cultural sensitivity, stress, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrey, K L; Amason, P

    2001-01-01

    Cultural diversity is becoming increasingly more important in the workplace. This is particularly true in health care organizations facing demographic shifts in the patients served and their families. This study serves to aid the development of intercultural communication training programs for health care providers by examining how cultural sensitivity and effective intercultural communication, besides helping patients, personally benefit health care providers by reducing their stress. Effective intercultural communication and cultural sensitivity were found to be related. Health care providers' levels of intercultural anxiety also were found to correlate with effective intercultural communication.

  15. The Framework of Collective Action and its Cultural Implications for the Construction of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Delgado Salazar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The present considerations seek to emphasize the approaches of the framework of collective action theory and identify those components that allow us to understand the “agentization” of social movements as renewed expressions of citizenship. The framework of collective action theory allows us to gain a better understanding about the sense and the meaning that the members of an organization or social movement ascribe to the experience of participating and mobilizing citizens.

  16. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Baldwin M; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-06-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature-nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism-collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism-collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences.

  17. Fluorescent metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al) for highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe3+ in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Ren, Hu-Bo; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2013-08-06

    Fluorescent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received great attention in sensing application. Here, we report the exploration of fluorescent MIL-53(Al) for highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe(3+) in aqueous solution. The cation exchange between Fe(3+) and the framework metal ion Al(3+) in MIL-53(Al) led to the quenching of the fluorescence of MIL-53(Al) due to the transformation of strong-fluorescent MIL-53(Al) to weak-fluorescent MIL-53(Fe), allowing highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe(3+) in aqueous solution with a linear range of 3-200 μM and a detection limit of 0.9 μM. No interferences from 0.8 M Na(+); 0.35 M K(+); 11 mM Cu(2+); 10 mM Ni(2+); 6 mM Ca(2+), Pb(2+), and Al(3+); 5.5 mM Mn(2+); 5 mM Co(2+) and Cr(3+); 4 mM Hg(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), and Mg(2+); 3 mM Fe(2+); 0.8 M Cl(-); 60 mM NO2(-) and NO3(-); 10 mM HPO4(2-), H2PO4(-), SO3(2-), SO4(2-), and HCOO(-); 8 mM CO3(2-), HCO3(-), and C2O4(2-); and 5 mM CH3COO(-) were found for the detection of 150 μM Fe(3+). The possible mechanism for the quenching effect of Fe(3+) on the fluorescence of MIL-53(Al) was elucidated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The specific cation exchange behavior between Fe(3+) and the framework Al(3+) along with the excellent stability of MIL-53(Al) allows highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe(3+) in aqueous solution. The developed method was applied to the determination of Fe(3+) in human urine samples with the quantitative spike recoveries from 98.2% to 106.2%.

  18. Discrimination of skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers by interleukin-1α and interleukin-6 production on cultured human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daun; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chun, Young-Jin; Heo, Yong; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2016-09-01

    In vitro testing methods for classifying sensitizers could be valuable alternatives to in vivo sensitization testing using animal models, such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GMT), but there remains a need for in vitro methods that are more accurate and simpler to distinguish skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Thus, the aim of our study was to establish an in vitro assay as a screening tool for detecting skin sensitizers using the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. HaCaT cells were exposed to 16 relevant skin sensitizers and 6 skin non-sensitizers. The highest dose used was the dose causing 75% cell viability (CV75) that we determined by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The levels of extracellular production of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-6 were measured. The sensitivity of IL-1α was 63%, specificity was 83% and accuracy was 68%. In the case of IL-6, sensitivity: 69%, specificity: 83% and accuracy: 73%. Thus, this study suggests that measuring extracellular production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6 by human HaCaT cells may potentially classify skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Teaching Sexual Matters in Taiwan: The Analytical Framework for Popular Culture and Youth Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsing-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Although most teachers realize the potential of using popular culture within the sexuality education classroom, incorporating it successfully is complex. Especially, how can teachers critically analyse the ideology contained in popular culture without lapsing into moralizing and design motivating activities? For teachers in Taiwan, whose training…

  20. Teaching Sexual Matters in Taiwan: The Analytical Framework for Popular Culture and Youth Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsing-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Although most teachers realize the potential of using popular culture within the sexuality education classroom, incorporating it successfully is complex. Especially, how can teachers critically analyse the ideology contained in popular culture without lapsing into moralizing and design motivating activities? For teachers in Taiwan, whose training…

  1. Pedagogical Conditions for the Development of Students' Intellect within the Framework of the Research Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizimbayeva, Almira; Ashirbayeva, Nazilya; Oralkenuly, Danabek; Sabyt, Taulanov

    2016-01-01

    The article presents different opinions for the concept of "research culture," gives the characteristics of this phenomenon from the point of view of the pedagogical science including the functions, components of this phenomenon; the article studies the complex of research skills as the basis of the research culture. Special attention is…

  2. Americans Create Hybrid Spaces in Costa Rica: A Framework for Exploring Cultural and Linguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the ways in which English-speaking immigrants negotiate new linguistic and cultural landscapes. I examine immigration and intercultural communication in a more complex and nuanced manner by researching the ways in which expatriates or "high-end" immigrants relocate and interact with host cultures. I conducted 11 months of…

  3. Ultra-sensitive near-infrared fiber-optic gas sensors enhanced by metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Xinyuan; Kim, Ki-Joong; Li, Erwen; Zhang, Yujing; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Chang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Alan X.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate ultra-sensitive near-infrared (NIR) fiber-optic gas sensors enhanced by metalorganic framework (MOF) Cu-BTC (BTC=benzene-1,3,5- tricarboxylate), which is coated on a single-mode optical fiber. For the first time, we obtained high-resolution NIR spectroscopy of CO2 adsorbed in MOF without seeing any rotational side band. Real-time measurement showed different response time depending on the concentration of CO2, which is attributed to the complex adsorption and desorption mechanism of CO2 in Cu-BTC. The lowest detection limit of CO2 we achieved is 20 ppm with only 5-cm long Cu-BTC film.

  4. A Terbium Metal-Organic Framework for Highly Selective and Sensitive Luminescence Sensing of Hg(2+) Ions in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tifeng; Song, Tao; Zhang, Gege; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Qian, Guodong

    2016-12-19

    A series of isomorphic lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) Ln(TATAB)⋅(DMF)4 (H2 O)(MeOH)0.5 (LnTATAB, Ln=Eu, Tb, Sm, Dy, Gd; H3 TATAB=4,4',4''-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoic acid) have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Among these MOFs, TbTATAB exhibits good water stability and a high fluorescence quantum yield. Because mercury ions (Hg(2+) ) have a high affinity to nitrogen atoms, and the space between multiple nitrogen atoms from triazine and imino groups is suitable for interacting with Hg(2+) ions, TbTATAB shows highly selective and sensitive detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solution with a detection limit of 4.4 nm. Furthermore, it was successfully applied to detect Hg(2+) ions in natural water samples. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Barriers to accessing the culturally sensitive healthcare that could decrease the disabling effects of arthritis in a rural Mayan community: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Richardson, Julie; Wilkins, Seanne; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-05-01

    The impact of living with arthritis in a rural Mexican Mayan community along with the barriers encountered by people living with this chronic condition were investigated in this study. The community needs around this health issue were investigated by conducting an ethnographic study using data obtained during two time periods (August 2012-April 2013 and December 2013-December 2014). During the first period, fieldwork observations and interviews with 65 individuals, which included people with arthritis, health professionals, traditional health providers, and community leaders were undertaken. During the second period, 46 community meetings were conducted to identify the needs associated with arthritis in the municipality. Data were analyzed following a modified version of the Framework approach. The results show that arthritis reduces the health-related quality of life of the people in Chankom through a process of disablement, conditioning a need to access culturally sensitive healthcare. Availability, attainability, and acceptability barriers prevent access to this type of healthcare and result from power imbalance between indigenous and non-indigenous people. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive rehabilitation services for people living with arthritis in Chankom. Mayan people should be involved in the design and implementation of these services. Moreover, it is important to improve our understanding of the processes behind the healthcare access inequities identified in this study by attending to the historical generation of current social, economical, cultural, and political structures.

  6. Evaluation on Sensitivity of the Human Sperm Motility Assay for Detecting Endotoxin in Culture Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-jie ZHU; Jing LI; Wen-hong ZHANG; Kang-shou YAO

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sensitivity of the human sperm motility assay for detecting endotoxin in culture medium Materials & Methods Motile sperm were separated and exposed to different concentrations of endotoxin (0.5 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, 1 000 ng/mL, 10 000 ng/mL, and 50 000 ng/mL), and sperm motility was determined after incubation. Effects of endotoxin on sperm motility in media without albumin were also examined. In addition, at the same concentrations of endotoxin (0.5 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL, and 10 ng/mL), the sensitivity of the human sperm motility assay was compared to those of 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryo bioassays.Results At levels of 0.5 ng/mL~1 000 ng/mL endotoxin in media with 2 mg/mL albumin, sperm did not show significant change in motility during 24 h of incubation when compared with the control (P>0.05). However, the sperm motility was significantly inhibited at endotoxin dosages of 10 000 and 50 000 ng/mL. In the absence of albumin supplementation, at endotoxin levels of 50 000 ng/mL, and 1 000 ng/mL, there was a marked decrease in sperm motility compared with the control after 2 h or 8 h of incubation, respectively (P<0.01). In media containing 0.5 ng/mL and 1 ng/mL endotoxin, 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryos had significantly reduced developmental rates in all developmental stages, and at the level of 10 ng/mL, the development of the embryos was arrested.Conclusion The human sperm motility assay could detect high levels of endotoxin in culture medium but its sensitivity to endotoxin would be inferior to that of the 1-cell or 2-cell mouse embryo bioassay. In the absence of albumin supplementation, the sensitivity of the sperm motility assay could be improved.

  7. A Sensitive Competitive ELISA for Determination of Biotin in Transformed Yeast Culture Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGHong

    2003-01-01

    Aim To develop a sensitive competitive ELISA for the determination of biotin in transformed yeast culture media.Methods The ELISA plate was firstly coated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and then successively incubated with rabbit ami-Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae serum and goat anti-rabbit IgG-biotin to form the solid biotin, which competed with the biotin in the solution (standard or sample) for the limited streptavidin-horse radish peroxidase conjugate. The standard calibration curve for biotin analysis was constructed in the range of 50-2000ng·L-1. Results The detection limit for biotin was found to be 83 ng·L-1 , which waa about 1000 times lower than the lowest determination concenlration in the reported ELISA for biotin analysis. The relative standard deviations for the spiked samples at biotin concerarations of 200 ng·L-1, 500 ng·L-1 , and 1000 ng·L-1 were 24.87%, 6.15%, and 7.86%, respectively, with the average recovery of 101.13%. The wild yeast and its sixty-three transformed yeast culture media were applied to the developed ELISA for the determination of biotin. It was found that the biotin concentrations in more than 85 % of the tested samples were enhanced with different increase factors after transformation. Conclusion Utilization of Mycoplasma hyopnetunoniae as the coating protein improves the precision and accmacy oftbe ELISA assay, which might be used for the biotin assay in other media.

  8. NRSF causes cAMP-sensitive suppression of sodium current in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, H.; Lester, H. A.

    2002-01-01

    The neuron restrictive silencer factor (NRSF/REST) has been shown to bind to the promoters of many neuron-specific genes and is able to suppress transcription of Na(+) channels in PC12 cells, although its functional effect in terminally differentiated neurons is unknown. We constructed lentiviral vectors to express NRSF as a bicistronic message with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and followed infected hippocampal neurons in culture over a period of 1-2 wk. NRSF-expressing neurons showed a time-dependent suppression of Na(+) channel function as measured by whole cell electrophysiology. Suppression was reversed or prevented by the addition of membrane-permeable cAMP analogues and enhanced by cAMP antagonists but not affected by increasing protein expression with a viral enhancer. Secondary effects, including altered sensitivity to glutamate and GABA and reduced outward K(+) currents, were duplicated by culturing GFP-infected control neurons in TTX. The striking similarity of the phenotypes makes NRSF potentially useful as a genetic "silencer" and also suggests avenues of further exploration that may elucidate the transcription factor's in vivo role in neuronal plasticity.

  9. The nomenclature of publishing activities within the framework of creative and cultural industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nives Tomašević

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the nomenclature basis of publishing activities in the Republic of Croatia and the EU, and deals with the challenges of future comparative studies dealing with the structure of classifications. Creative and cultural industries are trying to find the optimal classification to define, track and direct creative/cultural activities. In some EU countries, the classification frames are in line with the stated classification, although some countries are still searching for nomenc...

  10. Towards Culturally Relevant Classroom Science: A Theoretical Framework Focusing on Traditional Plant Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate…

  11. Towards Culturally Relevant Classroom Science: A Theoretical Framework Focusing on Traditional Plant Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate…

  12. Isolates and antibiotic sensitivity of eighty culture-proven endophthalmitis cases from Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Ilker; Kapran, Ziya; Altan, Tugrul; Ozel Karatas, Meltem; Aydin, Derya; Okaygun, Eda; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the spectrum of organisms causing endophthalmitis and their sensitivity to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Medical records of 80 consecutive patients treated at Beyoglu Eye Hospital for endophthalmitis from January 2001 to April 2006 were reviewed. Specimens were obtained from either the vitreous (93%, 81/87) or anterior chamber (7%, 6/87) during pars plana vitrectomy or vitreous tap, and were inoculated into blood culture bottles. A Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test was performed to determine antibiotic susceptibility. The outcome measures included isolates identified and antibiotic sensitivity of the specimens. Fifty-six of 87 (64.4%) isolates were Gram-positive organisms, 29 (33.3%) were Gram-negative organisms, and 2 (2.3%) were fungi. The most common organism group identified was coagulase-negative staphylococci in 26.4% (23/87). While vancomycin was active against all Gram-positive isolates tested (100%), ceftazidime had the highest susceptibility rate (100%) for Gram-negative organisms isolated. Although coagulase-negative micrococci predominated in this series, a high isolation rate for Gram-negative organisms was obtained. High susceptibility rates for ofloxacin make it an alternative to ceftazidime and vancomycin in both Gram-negative- and Gram-positive-derived endophthalmitis, respectively. Studies with larger series and additional antibiotics are needed to confirm these findings. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Potential interactions of calcium-sensitive reagents with zinc ion in different cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Koichi; Fukumori, Ryo; Nakamura, Saki; Kutsukake, Takaya; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been widely used to evaluate the involvement of free Ca(2+) in mechanisms underlying a variety of biological responses for decades. Here, we report high reactivity to zinc of well-known Ca(2+)-sensitive reagents in diverse cultured cells. In rat astrocytic C6 glioma cells loaded with the fluorescent Ca(2+) dye Fluo-3, the addition of ZnCl2 gradually increased the fluorescence intensity in a manner sensitive to the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA irrespective of added CaCl2. The addition of the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 drastically increased Fluo-3 fluorescence in the absence of ZnCl2, while the addition of the Zn(2+) ionophore pyrithione rapidly and additionally increased the fluorescence in the presence of ZnCl2, but not in its absence. In cells loaded with the zinc dye FluoZin-3 along with Fluo-3, a similarly gradual increase was seen in the fluorescence of Fluo-3, but not of FluoZin-3, in the presence of both CaCl2 and ZnCl2. Further addition of pyrithione drastically increased the fluorescence intensity of both dyes, while the addition of the Zn(2+) chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) rapidly and drastically decreased FluoZin-3 fluorescence. In cells loaded with FluoZin-3 alone, the addition of ZnCl2 induced a gradual increase in the fluorescence in a fashion independent of added CaCl2 but sensitive to EGTA. Significant inhibition was found in the vitality to reduce 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide in a manner sensitive to TPEN, EDTA and BAPTA in C6 glioma cells exposed to ZnCl2, with pyrithione accelerating the inhibition. Similar inhibition occurred in an EGTA-sensitive fashion after brief exposure to ZnCl2 in pluripotent P19 cells, neuronal Neuro2A cells and microglial BV2 cells, which all expressed mRNA for particular zinc transporters. Taken together, comprehensive analysis is absolutely required for the demonstration of a variety of physiological and pathological responses

  14. Institutional comunication and cultural marketing: Peculiarities in museum communication within the framework of public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia BURGHELE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural management theoreticians believe that the main target of museum communication is gaining knowledge on specific messages by as large a number of people as possible. Museum public relation practice – intensified and upgraded at the same time with the revolution of the new communication technologies – is both science and art which analyse certain tendences (in attitude, taste and informal of anticipating their consequences for implementing certain museum offer programs to appeal to the public.As an institution with a decisive role in guarding cultural heritage and in outlining cultural identity – as it keeps the necessary instruments for this, the specialists and also the motivation through its own purposes – the museum in its dynamic, modern, enhanced shape must provide an attractive cultural product to the public, based on a anthropological approach to cultural fact.Modern museum-ology is built upon the concept that museum is a story and modern museums stimulate to a high degree participative learning, generated by a productive dialogue.

  15. Development and testing of culturally sensitive patient information material for Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migrants with depression or chronic low back pain (KULTINFO): study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Zill, Jördis M; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bermejo, Isaac

    2014-07-04

    Many of the approximately 15 million people with a migration background living in Germany (19% of the population) are inadequately reached by existing healthcare provision. In the literature, the necessity for cultural adaptation of information material for patients with a migration background is often cited as a measure for improving healthcare.In this study, culturally sensitive information material will be developed and evaluated for patients with a migration background and depression or chronic low back pain. In this respect, it will be examined whether culturally sensitive information material is judged as more useful by the patients than standard translated patient information without cultural adaptation. The implementation and evaluation of culturally sensitive patient information material will occur in the framework of a double-blind randomized controlled parallel-group study in four study centres in Germany. Primary care patients with a Turkish, Polish, Russian or Italian migration background with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or chronic low back pain will be included and randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group. In the intervention group, culturally sensitive patient information will be handed to the patient at the end of the physician consultation, while in the control group, standard translated patient information material will be provided. The patients will be surveyed by means of questionnaires following the consultation as well as after 8 weeks and 6 months. In addition to the primary outcome (subjective usefulness), several patient- and physician-rated secondary outcomes will be considered. The study will provide an empirical answer to the question of whether persons with a migration background perceive culturally sensitive patient information material as more useful than translated information material without cultural adaptation. Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS-ID) DRKS00004241 and Universal Trial Number

  16. Sensitivity of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR assays for milk and colostrum samples from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infectious dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Emilie; McKenna, Shawn; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be shed in feces, milk, and colostrum. The goal of this study was to assess assays that detect MAP in these sample types, including effects of lactation stage or season. Understanding the performance of these assays could improve how they are used, limiting the risk of infection to calves. Forty-six previously confirmed MAP-positive cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms were identified for colostrum sampling and monthly sampling of milk and feces over a 12-mo period. Samples were assayed for MAP using solid culture, broth culture, and direct real-time PCR (qPCR). Across assay types, test sensitivity when applied to milk samples averaged 25% of that when applied to fecal samples. For colostrum samples, sensitivity depended on assay type, with sensitivity of qPCR being approximately 46% of that in feces. Across sample types, sensitivity of qPCR was higher than that of the other assays. Sensitivity of qPCR, when applied to milk samples, was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. Summer was also the season with highest agreement between milk and fecal samples collected within the same month. Our results suggest that qPCR would detect more cows shedding MAP in their milk and colostrum than solid or broth culture assays, particularly during the summer, thus providing better management information to limit exposure of calves to this infectious organism.

  17. DESCRIPCIÓN DE UN FRAMEWORK METODOLOGICO PARA EL DESARROLLO DE APLICACIONES RELACIONADAS CON EL PATRIMONIO CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Mauricio Hincapié-Montoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservar los espacios y difundirlos es una función social que debe mantener unidos a los pueblos y que no puede dejarse a un lado por el clamor y la voz del desarrollo. Para ello la tecnología juega un papel de facilitador mediático a través de la cual se puede llegar a diferentes espacios y lugares históricamente importantes pero físicamente inaccesibles por su desaparición. En los últimos años se han desarrollado aplicaciones que buscan reactivar el patrimonio cultural y hacen uso de tecnologías como realidad virtual, realidad aumentada o juegos serios. Sin embargo, la mayoría son casos de estudio en un tema particular y el área carece de un framework metodológico, que guie y facilite el desarrollo de este tipo de aplicaciones. En este articulo proponemos un framework metodológico conceptual, el cual busca guiar el desarrollo de aplicaciones relacionadas con la reactivación del patrimonio cultural al tiempo que maximiza el aprendizaje de los usuarios en este tema.

  18. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Liqing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 21 million new cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths every year. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but it is time-consuming and takes several days for isolation and identification of causative organisms. It is then too late to initiate proper antibiotic therapy. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity, and no practical value in endemic areas. As early diagnosis of the disease and prompt treatment are essential for optimal management, especially in children, a rapid sensitive detection method for typhoid fever is urgently needed. Although PCR is sensitive and rapid, initial research indicated similar sensitivity to blood culture and lower specificity. We developed a fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, allowing same-day initiation of treatment after accurate diagnosis of typhoid. Methods An ox bile tryptone soy broth was optimized for blood culture, which allows the complete lysis of blood cells to release intracellular bacteria without inhibiting the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Using the optimised broth Salmonella Typhi bacteria in artificial blood samples were enriched in blood culture and then detected by a PCR targeting the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi. Results Tests demonstrated that 2.4% ox bile in blood culture not only lyzes blood cells completely within 1.5 hours so that the intracellular bacteria could be released, but also has no inhibiting effect on the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Three hour enrichment of Salmonella Typhi in tryptone soya broth containing 2.4% ox bile could increase the bacterial number from 0.75 CFU per millilitre of blood which is similar to clinical typhoid samples to the level which regular PCR can detect. The whole blood culture PCR assay takes less than 8 hours to complete rather than several days for conventional blood culture

  19. The Culture of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Academic Framework: Some Literary Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sandhya Rao

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is swiftly emerging as an integral part of corporate culture and discourse. Associated with notions of responsibility, accountability and community involvement, it remains privileged with concerns that increasingly define the new millennium. Less developed, however, is the relevance of CSR ideas to academic…

  20. Cultural Competence: A Conceptual Framework for Library and Information Science Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Patricia Montiel

    2009-01-01

    Today's twenty-first-century library and information science (LIS) professionals are faced with the challenge of a growing population of individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds, many of whom are from minority and underserved populations representing the poorest segments of society with little or no experience with libraries. This article…

  1. Familism, Interparental Conflict, and Parenting in Mexican-Origin Families: A Cultural-Contextual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle; Conger, Rand D.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined the relations between the cultural belief of familism and various aspects of family functioning and child adjustment, including interparental conflict, parenting, and children's attachment to school, in a sample of 549 two-parent Mexican-origin families. The results indicated that parents' familistic values were…

  2. The Methodological Framework of Occupational Training in Culture and Art High Schools of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbekova, ?igul K.; Tleubayeva, Balzhan S.; Tleubayev, Seraly Sh.; Saparova, Yulduz A.; Dildebayeva, Gulmira R.; Daribayeva, Raushan D.; Omar, Esen O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine specific features of the traditional Kazakh dances as the methodological foundation of training specialists in the culture and art universities. The article describes the main typologies of Kazakh dances, such as ritual and ceremonial, combative-hunting, work dances, household-imitative dances, festive and…

  3. Cultural Competence: A Conceptual Framework for Library and Information Science Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Patricia Montiel

    2009-01-01

    Today's twenty-first-century library and information science (LIS) professionals are faced with the challenge of a growing population of individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds, many of whom are from minority and underserved populations representing the poorest segments of society with little or no experience with libraries. This article…

  4. A Framework to Support Global Corporate M-Learning: Learner Initiative and Technology Acceptance across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Corporations are growing more and more international and accordingly need to train and develop an increasingly diverse and dispersed employee based. M-learning seems like it may be the solution if it can cross cultures. Learner initiative has been shown to be a disadvantage of distant learning environments, which would include m-learning.…

  5. A Culturally Appropriate Framework for Educating Collegiate International Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    International students enrolling in American universities may receive education on alcohol use because alcohol consumption is a key concern across American colleges and universities. However, general alcohol education often overlooks the specific cultural, language, and learning needs of international students. This article reviews one current…

  6. Investigating the Reliability and Validity of Chen and Starosta’s Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) against Chinese Cultural Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涵; Salasiah Che Lah

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC), as one of the research ifelds of intercultural communication, has been given much importance from scholars all around the world. Intercultural sensitivity is one of the three dimensions in Dr Chen’s ICC model. This research investigates the reliability and validity of Chen and Starosta’s Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) (2000) against Chinese cultural background by using Chinese university students majoring in English as respondents.

  7. Development of Cross-cultural Sensitivity in Business Courses: The Culturelog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr-Glass, David

    1995-01-01

    Foreign students in a business administration and marketing program in Israel are required to keep a journal noting observations of cultural differences and examine them in relation to their own cultures and the Israeli culture. Non-Americans also note cross-cultural concepts raised by their American textbooks. The log helps students perceive,…

  8. Different sensitivities of cultured mammalian cells towards aphidicolin-enhanced DNA effects in the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speit, Günter; Schütz, Petra; Bausinger, Julia

    2016-06-01

    The comet assay in combination with the polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin (APC) has been used to measure DNA excision repair activity, DNA repair kinetics and individual DNA repair capacity. Since APC can enhance genotoxic effects of mutagens measured by the comet assay, this approach has been proposed for increasing the sensitivity of the comet assay in human biomonitoring. The APC-modified comet assay has mainly been performed with human blood and it was shown that it not only enhances the detection of DNA damage repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) but also damage typically repaired by base excision repair (BER). Recently, we reported that in contrast to blood leukocytes, A549 cells (a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line) seem to be insensitive towards the repair-inhibiting action of APC. To further elucidate the general usefulness of the APC-modified comet assay for studying repair in cultured mammalian cells, we comparatively investigated further cell lines (HeLa, TK6, V79). DNA damage was induced by BPDE (benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide) and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) in the absence and presence of APC (3 or 15μM). APC was either added for 2h together with the mutagen or cells were pre-incubated for 30min with APC before the mutagen was added. The results indicate that the cell lines tested differ fundamentally with regard to their sensitivity and specificity towards the repair-inhibiting effect of APC. The actual cause for these differences is still unclear but potential molecular explanations are discussed. Irrespective of the underlying mechanism(s), our study revealed practical limitations of the use of the APC-modified comet assay.

  9. Institutional comunication and cultural marketing: Peculiarities in museum communication within the framework of public relations

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia BURGHELE

    2011-01-01

    Cultural management theoreticians believe that the main target of museum communication is gaining knowledge on specific messages by as large a number of people as possible. Museum public relation practice – intensified and upgraded at the same time with the revolution of the new communication technologies – is both science and art which analyse certain tendences (in attitude, taste and informal) of anticipating their consequences for implementing certain museum offer programs to appeal to the...

  10. Presenting Cultural Heritage Landscapes - from GIS via 3d Models to Interactive Presentation Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechtel, N.; Münster, S.; Kröber, C.; Schubert, C.; Schietzold, S.

    2013-07-01

    Two current projects of the authors try to approach cultural heritage landscapes from both cultural sciences and geography through a combination of customised geo-information (GIS) and visualisation/presentation technology. In excess of a mere academic use, easyto- handle virtual 3D web presentations may contribute to knowledge, esteem, commemoration and preservation. The examples relate to pre-historic Scythian burial sites in the South-Siberian Altay Mountains ("Uch Enmek") as well as to a "virtual memorial" of contemporary history ("GEPAM"), a chapter of Jewish prosecution in the "Third Reich", which historically connects the town of Dresden with the Czech Terezin (Theresienstadt). It is common knowledge that a profound understanding of (pre-)historic artefacts and places may reflect a larger environment as well as an individual geographic setting. Coming from this background, the presented projects try to find technical solutions. They start from GIS models and aim at customised interactive presentations of 3D models. In using the latter a widely-spanned public is invited to a land- or townscape of specific cultural importance. The geographic space is thought to work as a door to a repository of educational exhibits under the umbrella of a web application. Within this concept a landscape/townscape also accounts for the time dimension in different scales (time of construction/operation versus actual state, and in sense of a season and time of the day as a principal modulator of visual perception of space).

  11. A framework for the systematic design of fed-batch strategies in mammalian cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, Sarantos; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2014-12-01

    A methodology to calculate the required amount of amino acids (a.a.) and glucose in feeds for animal cell culture from monitoring their levels in batch experiments is presented herein. Experiments with the designed feeds on an antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell line resulted in a 3-fold increase in titer compared to batch culture. Adding 40% more nutrients to the same feed further increases the yield to 3.5 higher than in batch culture. Our results show that above a certain threshold there is no linear correlation between nutrient addition and the integral of viable cell concentration. In addition, although high ammonia levels hinder cell growth, they do not appear to affect specific antibody productivity, while we hypothesize that high extracellular lactate concentration is the cause for the metabolic shift towards lactate consumption for the cell line used. Overall, the performance of the designed feeds is comparable to that of a commercial feed that was tested in parallel. Expanding this approach to more nutrients, as well as changing the ratio of certain amino acids as informed by flux balance analysis, could achieve even higher yields. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A Digital Archives Framework for the Preservation of Cultural Artifacts with Technological Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Boutard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of artistic works with technological components, such as musical works, is recognised as an issue by both the artistic community and the archival community. Preserving such works involves tackling the difficulties associated with digital information in general, but also raises its own specific problems, such as constantly evolving digital instruments embodied within software and idiosyncratic human-computer interactions. Because of these issues, standards in place for archiving digital information are not always suitable for the preservation of these works. The impact on the organisation and the descriptions of such archives need to be conceptualised in order to provide these technological components with readability, authenticity and intelligibility. While previous projects emphasized readability and authenticity, less effort has been dedicated to addressing intelligibility issues.The research into the specification of significant properties and its extension, namely significant knowledge, offers some grounds for reflecting on this question. Furthermore, the relevance of taking into account the creative process involved in the production of technological components offers an opportunity to redefine the status of technological agents in the performative aspect of digital records. Altogether, the research on significant knowledge and creative processes provide us with a conceptual framework that we propose to bring together with digital archives models to form a coherent framework.

  13. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Framework Nanosheets: Preparation and Application in Highly Sensitive and Selective DNA Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yongwu

    2017-06-03

    The ability to prepare ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic framework (COF) nanosheets (NSs) in high yield is of great importance for the further exploration of their unique properties and potential applications. Herein, by elaborately designing and choosing two flexible molecules with C3v molecular symmetry as building units, a novel imine-linked COF, namely TPA-COF, with hexagonal layered structure and sheet-like morphology, is synthesized. Since the flexible building units are integrated into the COF skeletons, the interlayer stacking becomes weak, resulting in the easy exfoliation of TPA-COF into ultrathin 2D NSs. Impressively, for the first time, the detailed structural information, i.e. the pore channels and individual building units in the NSs, is clearly visualized by using the recently developed low-dose imaging technique of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained ultrathin COF NSs are used as a novel fluorescence sensing platform for the highly sensitive and selective detection of DNA.

  14. The appearance culture between friends and adolescent appearance-based rejection sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-06-01

    Appearance-based rejection sensitivity (appearance-RS) is the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to signs of rejection based on one's appearance, and is associated with a number of psychological and social problems (Park, 2007). This study of 380 adolescents (Mage = 13.84) examined a model linking the appearance culture between friends with appearance-RS in adolescent boys and girls, via internalisation of appearance ideals, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction. Gender differences were also tested. Consistent with expectations, appearance-focused characteristics of the friendship context were associated with heightened appearance-RS via internalization of appearance ideals, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction. The appearance-focused friend characteristics that were associated with appearance-RS included exposure to friends' appearance conversations, appearance teasing that caused distress, and perceived pressure to be attractive. Notably, associations rarely differed for boys and girls, with one exception: the association between BMI and body dissatisfaction was stronger in girls than in boys.

  15. Stability and Sensitivity Analysis of a Plant Disease Model with Continuous Cultural Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a plant disease model with continuous cultural control strategy and time delay is formulated. Then, how the time delay affects the overall disease progression and, mathematically, how the delay affects the dynamics of the model are investigated. By analyzing the transendental characteristic equation, stability conditions related to the time delay are derived for the disease-free equilibrium. Specially, when R0=1, the Jacobi matrix of the model at the disease-free equilibrium always has a simple zero eigenvalue for all τ≥0. The center manifold reduction and the normal form theory are used to discuss the stability and the steady-state bifurcations of the model near the nonhyperbolic disease-free equilibrium. Then, the sensitivity analysis of the threshold parameter R0 and the positive equilibrium E* is carried out in order to determine the relative importance of different factors responsible for disease transmission. Finally, numerical simulations are employed to support the qualitative results.

  16. Simple and sensitive method for monitoring drug-induced cell injury in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirhatti, V.; Krishna, G.

    1985-06-01

    A simple, sensitive method has been developed for evaluating cell injury noninvasively in monolayer cells in culture. The cell ATP pool was radiolabeled by incubating the cells with (/sup 14/C)adenine. The uptake and incorporation of (/sup 14/C)adenine was shown to proportional to the number of cells. As determined by HPLC, about 65-70% of the incorporated /sup 14/C label was in the ATP pool, 15-20% was in the ADP pool, and the rest was in the 5'-AMP pool. When prelabeled cells were exposed to toxic drugs (acetaminophen, calcium ionophore A-23187, or daunomycin) there was a marked decrease in cell ATP with a concomitant increase in leakage of labeled nucleotides, mainly 5'-AMP and 5'IMP. The authors have shown that leakage of /sup 14/C label into the medium from the prelabeled cells may be employed for quantitation of cell injury. This new measure of toxicity was shown to correlate very well with LDH leakage from the cells, which is a well accepted measure of cell injury. The leakage of 5'-(/sup 14/C)AMP also correlated very well with the reduction of cell ATP in cardiac myocytes. This method has been used for monitoring drug-induced toxicity in liver cells, cardiac myocytes, and LB cells.

  17. Comparison of communication skills between trained and untrained students using a culturally sensitive nurse-client communication guideline in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Tuah, R.; Riskione, P.; Prabandari, Y.S.; Effendy, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A communication guideline that is sensitive to the local culture is influential in the process of nursing care. The Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline, the "Ready-Greet-Invite-Discuss," was meant (1) to strengthen the relationship between the nurse and the client despite of

  18. Common identity framework of cultural knowledge and practices of Javanese Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiyono Susilo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous literatures apparently argued that Javanese Islam is characterized by orthodox thought and practice which is still mixed with pre-Islamic traditions. By using approach of the sociology of religion, this article tries to explain contextualization of Islamic universal values in local space. The results showed that synthesis of orthodox thought and practice with pre-Islamic traditions is doubtless as a result of interaction between Islam and pre-Islamic traditions during the Islamization of Java. In addition, this study found the intersection of Islam and Javanese culture in the terms of genealogy of culture, Islamic mysticism, orientation of traditional Islamic teachings, and the conception of the power in Javanese kingdom. Since kejawen practices accordance with Islamic mysticism can be justified by the practice of the Muslims. Thus the typology of the relationship between Islam and Javanese culture are not contradictory but dialectical. Finally, a number of implications and suggestions are discussed Berbagai literatur sebelumnya mengenai studi Islam di Jawa umumnya berpendapat bahwa Islam Jawa ditandai dengan pemikiran dan praktek yang masih tercampur dengan tradisi pra-Islam. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan sosiologi agama, artikel ini mencoba untuk menjelaskan makna dari kontekstualisasi nilai-nilai universal Islam pada lingkup lokal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintesis pemikiran dan praktek dengan tradisi pra-Islam merupakan hal yang lumrah sebagai hasil interaksi antara Islam dan tradisi praIslam selama periode Islamisasi. Penelitian ini menemukan persamaan identitas antara Islam dan budaya Jawa dalam hal genealogi budaya, mistisisme Islam, orientasi pengajaran Islam tradisional, dan konsepsi kekuasaan di keratonkeraton Jawa. Karena praktek kejawen dapat dijustifikasi sesuai dengan praktek mistisisme Islam, maka tipologi hubungan antara Islam dan budaya Jawa tidak bertentangan tetapi bersifat dialektis.

  19. Visitors’ Experience, Place Attachment and Sustainable Behaviour at Cultural Heritage Sites: A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Buonincontri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism research has attracted wide interest from scholars and practitioners. While several heritage sites are mandated to provide optimum visitor satisfaction with increasing competition in the market, managers of heritage sites face growing challenges in striking a balance between consumption and conservation. This calls for promoting more sustainable behaviours among consumers of heritage. This study proposes a conceptualization of sustainable behaviour for heritage consumers. Using the attitude–behaviour relationship underpinned by the Theory of Reasoned Action, it develops and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates visitors’ heritage experiences, their attachment to heritage sites, and their general and site-specific sustainable heritage behaviour and presents their interrelationships as proposed hypotheses. Theoretical contributions and practical implications for heritage site managers are discussed.

  20. Assessing the Impact of the National Cultural Framework on Responsible Corporate Behaviour towards Consumers: an Application of Geert Hofstede`s Cultural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gănescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to define and measure responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers in EU countries by defining an index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers and to establish the impact of Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions on the responsible behaviour of organisations towards consumers. The index uses a specific measurement methodology based on three major components of responsible corporate behaviour towards customers and on content analysis of the Eurostat databases, the RAPEX 2012 Annual Report, the 2012-2013 Global Competitiveness Report and the Global Reporting Initiative database. We used the multifactorial regression and the Wald significance test to demonstrate that organisations operating in countries characterised by low power distance, individualism, femininity, tolerance of unknown and long-term orientation pay more attention to responsible corporate behaviour towards customers. The study highlights theoretical considerations that support the influence of the national cultural framework on responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers. The methodology for calculating the index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers can become a basis of analysis of responsible corporate behaviour towards local consumers or other stakeholders.

  1. Towards Optimal Spectral and Spatial Documentation of Cultural Heritage. Cosch - AN Interdisciplinary Action in the Cost Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boochs, F.; Bentkowska-Kafel, A.; Degringy, C.; Hautta-Kasari, M.; Rizvic, S.; Sitnik, R.; Tremeau, A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the aims and early activities of Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage (COSCH), an interdisciplinary European network of experts in the latest optical measuring techniques and electronic imaging applied to documentation of artefacts. COSCH is a forum open to organisations, institutions and companies interested in collaboration within the emerging field of precise spectral and spatial imaging techniques, in physical and chemical sciences applied to cultural heritage objects, as well as in research and applications to conservation and art-historical analysis of such objects. COSCH started in November 2012. Funded by COST, an intergovernmental framework for European Cooperation in Science and Technology, COSCH networking activities enable knowledge exchange and coordination of nationally-funded research on a European level with occasional contribution of experts from other countries. Funding has been made available for four years (2012-2016). Participation is open to researchers across a wide range of disciplines, including computer scientists and museum professionals, art historians and academics in heritage-related fields. COSCH is a trans-domain Action (TD1201) of the COST Domain Materials, Physics and Nanosciences (MPNS) which facilitates and promotes innovation in material science. The work of COSCH is defined in the Memorandum of Understanding between the COST Office and the Chairman of COSCH. The Memorandum is available from http://www.cost.eu/domains_actions/mpns/Actions/TD1201 alongside the latest progress report and other documents. The scientific work draws on earlier and current research of the participants and is organised around the following areas: spectral and spatial object documentation; algorithms and procedures; analysis and restoration of surfaces and objects of material culture; visualisation of cultural heritage objects and its dissemination. Up-to-date information about COSCH activities, including its scientific and

  2. Materializing Culture - Culturizing Material. On the Status, Responsibilities and Function of Cultural Property Repositories within the Framework of a "Transformative Scholarship"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hilgert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain theoretical streams in the cultural and social sciences that are occasionally subsumed under the term “New Materialism” 2 (see Witzgall, as well as recent social, political, cultural and media technology developments require a theoretical and research-political repositioning of academic object repositories. For it is obvious that under the influence of these multi-layered, partly interwoven processes, the status, responsibilities, as well as the function and spheres of activity of these object or cultural property repositories with research commitment (on the term see section 2 below are currently undergoing long-lasting change. For the respective institutions, these changes not only result in complex challenges regarding contents and structure, but also present extraordinary opportunities for the fulfillment of their academic, social and political responsibilities. The appropriate handling of these challenges and opportunities can substantially contribute to the sharpening of the academic and social profile of these institutions and increase their visibility on both a national and international level.

  3. Exploring Child Play within the Framework of Cultural-Historical Psychology: Experience and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Elkoninova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper reconstructs the history of the problem of the development of mind on the example of child play. It reveals how researchers from the cultural-historical school of thought explored the developmental function of play, recorded quantitative leaps in its development and attempted to reconstruct it — from the works of L.S. Vygotsky and his followers (activity approach to role play: A.N. Leontiev, D.B. Elkonin, N.Ya. Mikhaylenko, N.A. Korotkova and others to the works of researchers who studied the very act of development in play (L.I. Elkoninova, T.V. Bazhanova, K.O. Yuryeva. It is argued that the concept of the cultural form of play that contains the Challenge (limited by possibilities of action, by risk and the Response to it serves as a foundation not only for role-playing games, but also for games with rules and computer games too. The Challenge is associated with action which transforms the situation of acting and is typical of all forms of play that are required to tie together everything that is separated in an everyday behavior of a child.

  4. Teaching methods and an outcome tool for measuring cultural sensitivity in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kathleen H; Hood, Lucy J

    2007-01-01

    A major challenge facing the nursing profession is to educate and assist nurses to develop the skills to provide culturally relevant care. This article describes one school's multicultural curriculum for baccalaureate nursing students and a tool to measure changes in behaviors and attitudes. The article presents the psychometric properties of the Cross-Cultural Evaluation Tool that yields a cross-cultural interaction score. Successful teaching strategies are presented that are substantiated by increased student cross-cultural interaction score scores.

  5. Ethnic Identity and Parenting Stress in South Asian Families: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Aneesa

    2009-01-01

    The South Asian culture is one in which family obligation and loyalty, as well as self-sacrifice and obedience toward one's elders, are paramount. These values can be different from those of the more individualistically oriented Euro-Canadian dominant culture, and can prompt challenges of cultural adjustment among Canadian-born South Asian youth…

  6. Commentary on a framework for multicultural education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Karin F

    2014-09-01

    Today's changing demographics require that multicultural factors be considered in the delivery of quality patient-centred health care in chiropractic. Yet minimal training in cultural competency in chiropractic education leaves graduates ill-equipped to treat a diverse population. This commentary examines cultural competency training in current literature, demonstrates frameworks for curriculum integration, and suggests how cultural competency might be included in a chiropractic college curriculum. A database search yielded little evidence that cultural competency is integrated into curricula of chiropractic schools. Some journal articles note that promoting multicultural education and cultural sensitivity is an important goal. However, they provide no mechanisms as to how this can be achieved within training programs. Thus, although an undeniable need exists for all healthcare practitioners to develop cultural competency in the face of an increasingly diverse population, cultural competency education has not kept pace. Chiropractic schools must review their curricula to develop the cultural competencies of their graduates and a basic framework is suggested.

  7. Rhamnolipids elicit the same cytotoxic sensitivity between cancer cell and normal cell by reducing surface tension of culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lifang; Shen, Chong; Long, Xuwei; Zhang, Guoliang; Meng, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Biosurfactant rhamnolipids have been claimed to show biological activities of inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, the cytotoxicity of rhamnolipids was examined on four cancer cells (HepG2, Caco-2, Hela, MCF-7 cells) and two normal cells (HK-2 cell, primary hepatocyte). Interestingly, both cancer cells and normal cells exhibited similar sensitivities to the addition of rhamnolipids in culture medium, and the cytotoxicity was largely attenuated by the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture medium. In correlation of the mono-/di-rhamnolipid cytotoxicity with the surface tension of culture medium, it was found that rhamnolipids triggered cytotoxicity whenever the surface tension of culture medium decreased below 41 mN/m irrespective of the FBS content in culture medium, cell line, or rhamnolipid congener. Similarly, each chemical surfactant (Tween-80, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate) could cause cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells whenever its addition made the surface tension under 41 mN/m in culture medium with or without the presence of FBS. It seems that rhamnolipids, like chemical surfactants, exhibited cytotoxicity by reducing the surface tension of culture medium rather than by changing its specific molecular structure, which had no selection on tumor cells. This study could offer helps to correct the misleading biological activity of rhamnolipids and to avoid the possible large wastes of time and expenses on developing the applications in antitumor drugs.

  8. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Pil-Mun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Seok [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Gwacheon 427-715 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Jin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D{sub 10} value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  9. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Pil-Mun; Park, Jae Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Chung, Young-Jin; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D10 value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  10. Case Study on Influence Factor Trend Analysis of the Accidents and Events of Nuclear Power Plants by applying Nuclear Safety Culture Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. Y.; Park, Y. W.; Park, H.G. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study 1) established the standard based on frameworks of safety culture principles that show safety culture promotion goals, 2) analyzed the linkages with the frameworks that were established by analyzing each incident cause and weak point from selected 268 cases(rating over INES grade 1) among 4,088 cases (as of April 1, 2015). The 4,088 cases were selected as a result of database analysis from 702 accidents recorded in accident and rating evaluation reports that were published in the National Nuclear Safety Commission and overseas IRS (International Reporting System for operating Experience), and 3) finally conducted a trend analysis studies with these comprehensive results. From the investigations, followings were concluded. 1) In order to analyze the safety culture, analysis methodology is required. 2) Analytical methodology for building sustainable safety culture promoting a virtuous cycle system was developed 3) Among variety of process input data, 970 domestic and overseas incidents were selected as targets and 502 accidents were classified as safety culture related events by utilizing screen filter of IAEA GS-G-3.5 Appendix I and Framework (Nuclear Safety Culture Base Frame) developed by BEES, Inc. for safety culture analysis method. 4) As a result, complex safety culture influence factors for the one reason which was difficult to separate by conventional methods was able to be analyzed. 5) The cumulative data through the system was results of virtuous trend analysis rather than temporary results. Thus, it could be unique cultural factors of the domestic industry and could derive trend differences for domestic safety culture factors accordingly.

  11. [The preparation phosprenyl suppresses diarrhea and cattle infectious rhinotracheitis virus multiplication in sensitive cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozherelkov, S V; Belousova, R V; Danilov, L L; Deeva, A V; Mal'tsev, S D; Narovlianskiĭ, A N; Sanin, A V; Pronin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fosprenil suppressed the multiplication of cattle diarrhea virus in calf coronary vessel cell culture. Added to the culture of infected cells in a dose of 200 mg, the drug decreased the virus titer 30-fold in comparison with infected control cultures. Antiviral activity of fosprenil towards infective rhinotracheitis virus multiplication was still higher: in a dose of 100 mg it decreased the virus titer in fetal calf lung culture 100-fold in comparison with the control. Moreover, the cytopathogenic effects of the viruses in infected cultures were 24-48 h delayed under the effect of fosprenil in comparison with infected control cultures. These results recommend fosprenil for the treatment of cattle viral diseases.

  12. Randomised Response Technique-An Innovative Method To Measure Culturally Sensitive Variables : Results From A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudarssanane M. B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: What is the advantage of Randomized Response Technique (RRT over the conventional Direct Interview (DI and Anonymous Questionnaire (AQ in the assessment of culturally sensitive variables? Objectives: To compare the efficacy of the three methods, namely RRT, DI and AQ in the measurement of prevalence of Pre/Extra marital sex. Study design: Cross sectional study, using the three methods. Setting: A pilot study in a given community in Pondicherry. Statistical analysis: Probability equations. Results: The prevalence of pre/extra marital sex in the study population by the DI, AQ and RRT methods were 0%, 6% and 10% respectively in this pilot study. Conclusion: RRT improves validity of measurement of culturally sensitive variables both by ensuring a high participation in the study and by enabling a true response by assuring full confidentiality of information.

  13. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  14. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  15. Incorporating Cultural Sensitivity into Interactive Entertainment-Education for Diabetes Self-Management Designed for Hispanic Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly N; Montealegre, Jane R; Rustveld, Luis O; Glover, Talar L; Chauca, Glori; Reed, Brian C; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes self-management education can improve outcomes in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, Hispanics, a group that carries a large burden of disease, may not participate in diabetes education programs. Audience engagement with entertainment-education has been associated with improved health education outcomes and may engage and empower Hispanic users to active self-care. Successful use of entertainment-education relies on the use of characters and situations with whom the viewers can feel some sense of involvement and for Hispanic audiences is encouraged when storylines and characters are culturally sensitive. In this study, we used a mixed methods approach that included descriptive statistics of closed-ended and content analysis of open-ended questions to measure the cultural sensitivity of the telenovela portion of a novel technology-based application called Sugar, Heart, and Life (SHL). Specifically, we analyzed the responses of 123 male and female patients diagnosed with uncontrolled T2DM to determine viewer involvement with characters and situations in the telenovela, viewer perceived self-efficacy in following recommendations, as well as viewer satisfaction with the program. Our findings indicate that the SHL application achieved its goal of creating a user-friendly program that depicted realistic, culturally sensitive characters and storylines that resonated with Hispanic audiences and ultimately fostered perceived self-efficacy related to following recommendations given about healthy lifestyle changes for diabetes self-management. These findings suggest that the SHL application is a culturally sensitive health education intervention for use by Hispanic male and female individuals that may empower them in self-management of T2DM.

  16. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based practice utilizing an iterative stakeholder process and theoretical framework: problem solving therapy for Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Joyce P; Huynh, Loanie; Areán, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Main objectives were to familiarize the reader with a theoretical framework for modifying evidence-based interventions for cultural groups, and to provide an example of one method, Formative Method for Adapting Psychotherapies (FMAP), in the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for a cultural group notorious for refusing mental health treatment. Provider and client stakeholder input combined with an iterative testing process within the FMAP framework was utilized to create the Problem Solving Therapy--Chinese Older Adult (PST-COA) manual for depression. Data from pilot-testing the intervention with a clinically depressed Chinese elderly woman are reported. PST-COA is categorized as a 'culturally-adapted' treatment, where core mediating mechanisms of PST were preserved, but cultural themes of measurement methodology, stigma, hierarchical provider-client relationship expectations, and acculturation enhanced core components to make PST more understandable and relevant for Chinese elderly. Modifications also encompassed therapeutic framework and peripheral elements affecting engagement and retention. PST-COA applied with a depressed Chinese older adult indicated remission of clinical depression and improvement in mood. Fidelity with and acceptability of the treatment was sufficient as the client completed and reported high satisfaction with PST-COA. PST, as a non-emotion-focused, evidence-based intervention, is a good fit for depressed Chinese elderly. Through an iterative stakeholder process of cultural adaptation, several culturally-specific modifications were applied to PST to create the PST-COA manual. PST-COA preserves core therapeutic PST elements but includes cultural adaptations in therapeutic framework and key administration and content areas that ensure greater applicability and effectiveness for the Chinese elderly community. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A Study of the Inter-Cultural Sensitivity among the Faculty of English Language Centre of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context. The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female, qualification (Masters' & Ph.D and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims. However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context. Keywords: Adaptability, English Teaching, Intercultural Sensitivity

  18. A Cross-cultural Analytical Framework for Territorial Development Policies: The Application to Flood Risk Management Policies in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongwinriyaphanich, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a proposed analytical framework that takes cultural dimensions as main parameters to explain territorial development processes. It is illustrated through the analysis of flood risk management in two case study areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. It aims t

  19. A Cross-cultural Analytical Framework for Territorial Development Policies: The Application to Flood Risk Management Policies in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongwinriyaphanich, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a proposed analytical framework that takes cultural dimensions as main parameters to explain territorial development processes. It is illustrated through the analysis of flood risk management in two case study areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. It aims

  20. Novel Quasi-solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Based on Monolayer Capped TiO2 Nanoparticles Framework Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA,Jiang-Bin(夏江滨); LI,Fu-You(李富友); HUANG,Chun-Hui(黄春辉)

    2004-01-01

    Dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-capped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized and employed in dye-sensitized solar cells to form a quasi-solid state electrolyte. Owing to the long alkyl-chain capping around the TiO2nanoparticles interacting with the liquid solvent, the dye sensitized solar cell based on such DBS-capped TiO2nanoparticle framework material gel electrolyte shows higher stability compared with the non-capped one in the long-term application and gives a comparable overall efficiency of 6.3% at AM 1.5 illumination.

  1. Hemin Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Hepatocytes and Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions. Furthermore, hemin diminishes the accumulation of triglyceride and increases in free fatty acid content in primary hepatocytes induced by palmitate. Oral administration of hemin decreases body weight, energy intake, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and improves insulin and glucose tolerance as well as hepatic insulin signaling and hepatic steatosis in male mice fed a high-fat diet. In addition, hemin treatment decreases the mRNA and protein levels of some hepatic genes involved in lipogenic regulation, fatty acid synthesis and storage, and increases the mRNA level and enzyme activity of CPT1 involved in fatty acid oxidation. These data demonstrate that hemin can improve lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in both cultured hepatocytes and mice fed a high-fat diet, and show the potential beneficial effects of hemin from food on lipid and glucose metabolism.

  2. The role of national culture in advertising's sensitivity to business cycles : An investigation across continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleersnyder, B.; DeKimpe, M.; Steenkamp, J.E.M.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conduct a systematic investigation into the cyclical sensitivity of advertising expenditures in 37 countries, covering four key media: magazines, newspapers, radio, and television. They show that advertising is considerably more sensitive to business-cycle fluctuations than the economy a

  3. Shear sensitivity of animal cells from a culture-medium perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der L.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, several groups have published data on the shear sensitivity of suspended animal cells and the protective effect of certain polymers. These findings did not, at the time, seem to have great practical application because shear sensitivity did not cause great problems for large-scale applicat

  4. The role of national culture in advertising's sensitivity to business cycles : An investigation across continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleersnyder, B.; DeKimpe, M.; Steenkamp, J.E.M.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conduct a systematic investigation into the cyclical sensitivity of advertising expenditures in 37 countries, covering four key media: magazines, newspapers, radio, and television. They show that advertising is considerably more sensitive to business-cycle fluctuations than the economy a

  5. Cultural ergonomics in interactional and experiential design: conceptual framework and case study of the Taiwanese twin cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Long; Chen, Si-Jing; Hsiao, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Rungtai

    2016-01-01

    Cultural ergonomics is an approach that considers interaction- and experience-based variations among cultures. Designers need to develop a better understanding of cultural ergonomics not just to participate in cultural contexts but also to develop interactive experiences for users. Cultural ergonomics extends our understanding of cultural meaning and our ability to utilize such understanding for design and evaluate everyday products. This study aims to combine cultural ergonomics and interactive design to explore human-culture interaction in user experiences. The linnak is a typical Taiwanese aboriginal cultural object. This study examined the cultural meaning and operational interface of the linnak, as well as the scenarios in which it is used in interaction and user experiences. The results produced a cultural ergonomics interface for examining the manner in which designers communicate across cultures as well as the interweaving of design and culture in the design process.

  6. Evaluate, assess, treat: development and evaluation of the EAT framework to increase effective communication regarding sensitive oral-systemic health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, R D; Cragun, D; Gallentine, A A; Severson, H H; Shaw, T; Cantwell, C; Christiansen, S; Koerber, A; Hendricson, W; Tomar, S L; McCormack Brown, K; Tedesco, L A

    2012-11-01

    Oral healthcare providers are likely to encounter a number of sensitive oral/systemic health issues whilst interacting with patients. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a framework aimed at oral healthcare providers to engage in active secondary prevention of eating disorders (i.e. early detection of oral manifestations of disordered eating behaviours, patient approach and communication, patient-specific oral treatment, and referral to care) for patients presenting with signs of disordered eating behaviours. The EAT Framework was developed based on the Brief Motivational Interviewing (B-MI) conceptual framework and comprises three continuous steps: Evaluating, Assessing, and Treating. Using a group-randomized control design, 11 dental hygiene (DH) and seven dental (D) classes from eight institutions were randomized to either the intervention or control conditions. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Hierarchical linear models were conducted to measure the effects of the intervention whilst controlling for baseline levels. Statistically significant improvements from pre- to post-intervention were observed in the Intervention group compared with the Control group on knowledge of eating disorders and oral findings, skills-based knowledge, and self-efficacy (all P oral/systemic health issues. Because the EAT Framework was developed by translating B-MI principles and procedures, the framework can be easily adopted as a non-confrontational method for patient communication.

  7. Comparison of communication skills between trained and untrained students using a culturally sensitive nurse-client communication guideline in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Tuah, Rodianson; Riskione, Patricia; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Effendy, Christantie

    2016-01-01

    A communication guideline that is sensitive to the local culture is influential in the process of nursing care. The Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline, the "Ready-Greet-Invite-Discuss," was meant (1) to strengthen the relationship between the nurse and the client despite of socio-culturally hierarchical gap between health providers and clients in Indonesian context, (2) to provide attention to the unspoken concerns especially in the context of indirect communication which mostly using non-verbal signs and politeness etiquettes, and (3) to initiate dialog in the society which hold a more community-oriented decision making. Our aim is to compare the communication skills of nursing students who had and had not received a training using a culture-sensitive Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline. This was a quasi experimental randomized control study to the fifth semester students of a nursing school at Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The intervention group was trained by the Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline. Both intervention and the control group had learned general nurse-client communication guidelines. The training was 4h with role-plays, supportive information and feedback sessions. An objective-structured clinical examination (OSCE) was conducted 1week after the training, in seven stations, with seven simulated clients. Observers judged the communication skills of the students using a checklist of 5-point Likert scale, whereas simulated clients judged their satisfaction using 4-point Likert scale represented in colorful ribbons. There were significant mean differences in each domain of communication guideline observed between the trained and the control groups as judged by the teachers (p≤0.05) and simulated clients. Training using a culture-sensitive communication skills guideline could improve the communication skills of the nursing students and may increase satisfaction of the clients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Sensitivity of Scenedesmus obliquus and Microcystis aeruginosa to atrazine: effects of acclimation and mixed cultures, and their removal ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalifour, Annie; LeBlanc, André; Sleno, Lekha; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide frequently detected in watercourses that can affect the phytoplankton community, thus impacting the whole food chain. This study aims, firstly, to measure the sensitivity of monocultures of the green alga Scenedemus obliquus and toxic and non-toxic strains of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa before, during and after a 30-day acclimation period to 0.1 µM of atrazine. Secondly, the sensitivity of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa to atrazine in mixed cultures was evaluated. Finally, the ability of these strains to remove atrazine from the media was measured. We demonstrated that both strains of M. aeruginosa had higher growth rate-based EC50 values than S. obliquus when exposed to atrazine, even though their photosynthesis-based EC50 values were lower. After being exposed to 0.1 µM of atrazine for 1 month, only the photosynthesis-based EC50 of S. obliquus increased significantly. In mixed cultures, the growth rate of the non-toxic strain of M. aeruginosa was higher than S. obliquus at high concentrations of atrazine, resulting in a ratio of M. aeruginosa to total cell count of 0.6. This lower sensitivity might be related to the higher growth rate of cyanobacteria at low light intensity. Finally, a negligible fraction of atrazine was removed from the culture media by S. obliquus or M. aeruginosa over 6 days. These results bring new insights on the acclimation of some phytoplankton species to atrazine and its effect on the competition between S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in mixed cultures.

  9. The Cultural Dependence of the Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire: The Case of Iranian Kurdish Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A good theory-based tool for measuring ethical sensitivity, which is usable in different contexts, is scarce. In this study, we examined the Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ in line with its seven-dimension structure. The scale was presented to a sample of 556 Iranian Kurdish teachers in primary, middle, and high schools. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to scrutinize the original factor structure of the ESSQ. The results confirmed that the ESSQ supports a reasonable model fit to study the seven dimensions of ethical sensitivity as it was developed in the original study. However, some modifications were conducted to free high error covariance between four pairs of items in the scale. This modification increased the fit indices and thus resulted in a good model fit. In addition to examining the satiability of the ESSQ, a further analysis showed that the level of ethical sensitivity in the targeted sample was high.

  10. CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY OF BACTERIAL GROWTH FROM EXOTIC COWS SUFFERING FROM ENDOMETRITIS UNDER PAKISTANI CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriology of endometritis and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates in Holstein Friesian and Jersey cows maintained at Research Institute for Physiology of Animal Reproduction, Bhunikey, District Kasur were carried out. Out of 100 samples, 89 contained different strains of bacteria and 11 were found bacteriologically sterile. Different species of bacteria isolated from these samples were, Bacillus subtilis (08.99%, Corynebacterium pyogenes (19.10%, Escherichia coli (29.21%, Neisseria meningitides (03.37%, Staphylococcus aureus (23.60%, Streptococcus pneumonia (03.37% and Streptococcus pyogenes (12.36%. The in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that the highest number of isolates (92% were sensitive to neomycin, followed by doxycyline (89%. Clindramycin showed the lowest results in terms of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity (51%.

  11. Bioimpedance monitoring of 3D cell culturing-Complementary electrode configurations for enhanced spatial sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir

    2015-01-01

    configurations. By switching between the different combinations of electrode couples, it was possible to generate a multiplexing-like approach, which allowed for collecting spatially distributed information within the 3D space. Computational finite element (FE) analysis and electrochemical impedance......A bioimpedance platform is presented as a promising tool for non-invasive real-time monitoring of the entire process of three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing in a hydrogel scaffold. In this study, the dynamics involved in the whole process of 3D cell culturing, starting from polymerisation...... of a bare 3D gelatin scaffold, to human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation and proliferation, was monitored over time. The platform consists of a large rectangular culture chamber with four embedded vertical gold plate electrodes that were exploited in two- and three terminal (2T and 3T) measurement...

  12. Cultural Variations in the Effect of Interview Privacy and the Need for Social Conformity on Reporting Sensitive Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mneimneh Zeina M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy is an important feature of the interview interaction mainly due to its potential effect on reporting information, especially sensitive information. Here we examine the effect of third-party presence on reporting both sensitive and relatively neutral outcomes. We investigate whether the effect of third-party presence on reporting sensitive information is moderated by the respondent’s need for social conformity and the respondent’s country of residence. Three types of outcomes are investigated: behavioral, attitudinal, and relatively neutral health events. Using data from 22,070 interviews and nine countries in the cross-national World Mental Health Survey Initiative, we fit multilevel logistic regression to study reporting effects on questions about suicidal behavior and marital ratings, and contrast these with questions about having high blood pressure, asthma, or arthritis. We find that there is an effect of third-party presence on reporting sensitive information and no effect on reporting of neutral information. Further, the effect of the interview privacy setting on reporting sensitive information is moderated by the need for social conformity and the cultural setting.

  13. Communication Skills, Cultural Sensitivity, and Collaboration in an Experiential Language Village Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allen; Minami, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses five college students' experiences in a simulated full-immersion, Arabic-speaking language village and the impact of that experience on learners' beliefs about the power of collaborative learning, the critical importance of cultural awareness, the efficacy of learning languages within a functioning community of practice, and…

  14. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  15. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  16. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation.

  17. The ESL Family Science Night: a model for culturally sensitive science education pedagogy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valadez, Gilbert; Moineau, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    ... general findings and suggestions for further research and pre-service teacher education as it relates to teaching science pedagogy in a way that better serves minority children and their parents and/or guardians. Here, we are defining minority children as those that come from non-mainstream Anglo-American culture and are second language learners. L...

  18. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  19. Self-starvation in context: towards a culturally sensitive understanding of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S

    1995-07-01

    Extreme forms of self-starvation can be traced across time and place, and may be construed using a variety of explanatory models. Curiously, the prevailing biomedical definition of anorexia nervosa has assigned primacy to the exclusive use of 'fat phobia' by the affected subjects to justify their diminished food intake. This paper assembles evidence to show that this culturally constructed version of fat phobic anorexia nervosa has neglected the full metaphorical significance of self-starvation and, when applied in a cross-cultural context, may constitute a category fallacy. By delegitimizing other rationales for non-eating and thereby barring subjective expressions, this regnant interpretive strategy may obscure clinicians' understanding of patients' lived experience, and even jeopardize their treatment. Nonetheless, it is a relatively simple task to attune the extant diagnostic criteria to a polythetic approach which will avert cultural parochialism in psychiatric theory and practice. As a corollary of the archival and ethnocultural study of extreme self-starvation, there is, contrary to epistemological assumptions embedded in the biomedical culture of contemporary psychiatry, no 'core psychopathology' of anorexia nervosa.

  20. Cuento Therapy. Folktales as a Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapy for Puerto Rican Children. Monograph No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    A seven-year project developing and testing cuento therapy, a form of child psychotherapy in which Puerto Rican mothers recount to their children folktales taken from Puerto Rican culture, is described and evaluated in this monograph. Chapter 1 explains how the research presented in later chapters fits into substantially broader patterns of…

  1. Human bone marrow cell culture: a sensitive method for determination of the biocompatibility of implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, A; Landgraff, M; Orth, J; Poenitz, H; Kienapfel, H; Boelte, K; Griss, P; Franke, R P

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a test method for determining the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of various biomaterials that are used in orthopaedic surgery. This method is based on the use of a human bone marrow cell culture and was developed as an alternative to animal experiments. Human bone marrow cell culture has certain advantages over other cell culture models, as its results show a greater conformity with animal experimental results and clinical studies. Primary cell adherence, cell number, cell proliferation, production of extracellular matrix, cell viability and cell differentiation were used as indicative parameters of biocompatibility. After 2 weeks in culture, differences could be observed between the biomaterials with respect to these parameters. Cell numbers were greatest on the hydroxyapatite ceramic specimens, but were decreased on the titanium alloy specimens. Extracellular matrix hydroxyapatite production was high for ceramics, but reduced for titanium specimens. The polymers allowed only a few cells to adhere, and there were no signs of extracellular matrix production. The influence of biomaterials on differentiation of large numbers of cells was analysed by using flow cytophotometry. There were similar populations of T cells and monocytes on all specimens. However, extended B cell and granulocyte populations were observed with titanium and polyethylene.

  2. Using cognitive behaviour therapy with South Asian Muslims: Findings from the culturally sensitive CBT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Phiri, Peter; Munshi, Tariq; Rathod, Shanaya; Ayub, Muhhhamad; Gobbi, Mary; Kingdon, David

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) needs adaptation for it to be effective for patients from collectivistic cultures, as currently CBT is underpinned by individualistic values. In prior studies we have demonstrated that CBT could be adapted for Pakistani patients in Southampton, UK, and for local populations in Pakistan. Findings from these studies suggest that CBT can be adapted for patients from collectivistic cultures using a series of steps. In this paper we focus on these steps, and the process of adapting CBT for specific groups. The adaptation process should focus on three major areas of therapy, rather than simple translation of therapy manuals. These include (1) awareness of relevant cultural issues and preparation for therapy, (2) assessment and engagement, and (3) adjustments in therapy. We also discuss the best practice guidelines that evolved from this work to help therapists working with this population. We reiterate that CBT can be adapted effectively for patients from traditional cultures. This is, however, an emerging area in psychotherapy, and further work is required to refine the methodology and to test adapted CBT.

  3. An Exploration on the Cultural Causes for the Framework of “ The Other” in Western Reports on Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, Tibet has been one of the main items on the agenda in western re-ports on China .In many media reports , there is a highly homogenized “stereotype”.While defining and retelling the history and present status of Ti-bet, the western media has mixed a collective un-conscious imagination and assumptions derived from western culture . The special operational mechanism mentioned above is defined as a news-framework of “the other”.“Stereotypes” objec-tively correspond to a people ’ s psychological ex-pectations on the culture of “the other”, and make the outsider ’ s understanding to the “heter-ogeneous” culture which was originally isolated from each other become relatively easy .The west-ern’ s media construction on Tibet is just such a typical example . Due to the application of the news-framework of “the other”, what the media ’ s presentation of the “authenticity” to the audi-ence is not equal to the objective truth , but a kind of artificial construction based on political benefit , economic competition and cultural tradition . Be-cause they live within a different cultural scene , westerners hold a traditional European imperialistic view of Tibet, and this mentality has a direct in-fluence on the modern westerners ’ understanding of the Tibet issue . On the one hand , within the public opinion of the West , Tibet is a holy land full of aesthetic imagination .This vision and fan-tasy is triggered by the literature which is promoted a kind of value orientation of absolutism in the western religious context .On the other hand , the image of Tibet in the western media is not only part of realistic portrayal of Tibet , but also a projection of the desire of western culture , and it reflects a strong mentality of orientalism . 1.The Mentality of Orientalism in the“Shangri-La Scenario” The 20th century is a turning point in theprocess of when the westerners ’ contempt and rejectionof Tibet changed to one which

  4. Global sensitivity analysis approach for input selection and system identification purposes--a new framework for feedforward neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Eric

    2014-08-01

    A new algorithm for the selection of input variables of neural network is proposed. This new method, applied after the training stage, ranks the inputs according to their importance in the variance of the model output. The use of a global sensitivity analysis technique, extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, gives the total sensitivity index for each variable, which allows for the ranking and the removal of the less relevant inputs. Applied to some benchmarking problems in the field of features selection, the proposed approach shows good agreement in keeping the relevant variables. This new method is a useful tool for removing superfluous inputs and for system identification.

  5. Survey and Recording Technologies in Italian Underwater Cultural Heritage: Research and Public Access Within the Framework of the 2001 UNESCO Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secci, Massimiliano

    2017-08-01

    The 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage is slowly but peremptorily becoming a standard reference tool for underwater archaeology and underwater cultural heritage management. The many provisions included within the Convention touch on many aspects that are key to an effective protection and promotion of the underwater cultural heritage. Within the web of these provisions many aspects are gaining consideration and driving research in underwater archaeology worldwide. These provisions, when seen within a wider frame of social, economical and technological dynamics, pinpoint many aspects requiring further scrutiny from the disciplinary circle. In the framework of the 2001 UNESCO Convention, this article will analyze the path traveled in technological acquisition in the practice of Italian underwater archaeology and how this has affected the approach to underwater cultural heritage management, particularly highlighting how this process has been further influenced by the adoption in 2001 of the Convention and Italy's ratification of it in 2010.

  6. On Ji'nan Historical and Cultural Heritage Development Framework%济南历史文化遗产开发框架浅议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾敬龙; 徐备

    2012-01-01

    本文通过对济南市现状历史文化遗产框架组成的各因素分析,分别从古代人物、市井文化、佛教文化、殖民建筑等方面提出其开发设想,进而采用框图的模式,总结归纳出济南古城历史文化遗产的开发对策。%This article through to the Ji'nan state historical and cultural heritage framework consisting of various factors analysis,respectively,from the ancient characters,pop culture,Buddhist culture,colonial architecture and other aspects of its development,and then using the block diagram model,summed up Ji'nan city history cultural heritage development countermeasure.

  7. The roles of effective communication and client engagement in delivering culturally sensitive care to immigrant parents of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Desmarais, Chantal; Lindsay, Sally; Piérart, Geneviève; Tétreault, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Delivering pediatric rehabilitation services to immigrant parents of children with disabilities requires the practice of culturally sensitive care. Few studies have examined the specific nature of culturally sensitive care in pediatric rehabilitation, especially the notions of effective communication and client engagement. Interviews were held with 42 therapists (10 social workers, 16 occupational therapists and 16 speech language pathologists) from two locations in Canada (Toronto and Quebec City). Data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach. Study themes included the importance and nature of effective communication and client engagement in service delivery involving immigrant parents. Participants discussed using four main types of strategies to engage immigrant parents, including understanding the family situation, building a collaborative relationship, tailoring practice to the client's situation and ensuring parents' understanding of therapy procedures. The findings illuminate the importance of effective, two-way communication in providing the mutual understanding needed by therapists to engage parents in the intervention process. The findings also richly describe the engagement strategies used by therapists. Clinical implications include recommendations for strategies for therapists to employ to engage this group of parents. Furthermore, the findings are applicable to service provision in general, as engaging families in a collaborative relationship through attention to their specific situation is a general principle of good quality, family-centered care. Implications for Rehabilitation Effective communication permeates the delivery of culturally sensitive care and provides mutual understanding, which is fundamental to client engagement. The findings illuminate the nature of "partnership" by indicating the role of collaborative therapist strategies in facilitating engagement. Four main strategies facilitate effective communication and

  8. Culture microtitration: a sensitive method for quantifying Leishmania infantum in tissues of infected mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Buffet, P. A.; Sulahian, A.; Garin, Y J; Nassar, N.; Derouin, F

    1995-01-01

    We developed a microtitration method to determine the parasite burdens in homogenized organs of mice infected with Leishmania infantum. This method proved more sensitive than direct enumeration of amastigotes in stained organs, was appropriate for describing the kinetics of infection, and can be considered for physiopathological or pharmaceutical experimental studies.

  9. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how the factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...... and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and give an overview about India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and tentative concluding remarks....

  10. Effectiveness and Sensitivity of the Arctic Observing Network in a Coupled Ocean-Sea Ice State Estimation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. T.; Heimbach, P.; Garg, V.; Ocana, V.

    2016-12-01

    Over the last few decades, various agencies have invested heavily in the development and deployment of Arctic ocean and sea ice observing platforms, especially moorings, profilers, gliders, and satellite-based instruments. These observational assets are heterogeneous in terms of variables sampled and spatio-temporal coverage, which calls for a dynamical synthesis framework of the diverse data streams. Here we introduce an adjoint-based Arctic Subpolar gyre sTate estimate (ASTE), a medium resolution model-data synthesis that leverages all the possible observational assets. Through an established formal state and parameter estimation framework, the ASTE framework produces a 2002-present ocean-sea ice state that can be used to address Arctic System science questions. It is dynamically and kinematically consistent with known equations of motion and consistent with observations. Four key aspects of ASTE will be discussed: (1) How well is ASTE constrained by the existing observations; (2) which data most effectively constrain the system, and what impact on the solution does spatial and temporal coverage have; (3) how much information does one set of observation (e.g. Fram Strait heat transport) carry about a remote, but dynamically linked component (e.g. heat content in the Beaufort Gyre); and (4) how can the framework be used to assess the value of hypothetical observations in constraining poorly observed parts of the Arctic Ocean and the implied mechanisms responsible for the changes occurring in the Arctic. We will discuss the suggested geographic distribution of new observations to maximize the impact on improving our understanding of the general circulation, water mass distribution and hydrographic changes in the Arctic.

  11. Investigation of Various Tissue Culture Monolayers Sensitivity in Detection of Clostridium difficile Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. It is usually a consequence of antibi­otic treatment, but sporadic cases can occur. The purpose of this study was to investigate five tissue culture monolayers sen­sitivity in detection of C. difficile-toxin. Methods: A total of 402 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea hospitalized in three hospitals of Tehran Uni­versity of Medical Sciences (TUMS were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C for 4 days. Isolates were characterized to species level by con­ventional biochemical tests. Bacterial cytotoxicity was assayed on five tissue culture monolayers. Results: Our findings show that of the total patients, 24 toxigenic C. difficile (6% were isolated. All 24 C. difficile toxins showed cytotoxic effect at ³ 1:10 dilution on Hela, Hep2, Vero, McCoy and Mdck cells after 16, 20, 24, 24 and 30 hours, re­spectively. C. difficile toxin showed cytotoxic effect at ³ 1:100 dilutions only on Hela cell monolayer after 48 hours. Conclusion: Hela cell monolayer may be a satisfactory substitute for the detection of C. difficile toxin in clinical specimens.   

  12. Analysis of Culture and Drug Sensitivity Tests of Mycoplasmas for 387 Patients with Nongonococcal Urethritis (Cervicitis) in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟志芳; 郝飞; 钟白玉; 黄秀英; 唐书谦; 刁庆春

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of mycoplasma infections and the sensitivity to antibiotics among patients with nongonococcal urethritis or cervicitis (NGU) in Chongqing. Methods: 387 NGU cases with mycoplasma-positive results upon culture were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: The majority of patients with mycoplasma infections were in the 20-40 year old age group. No significant difference was found between males and females. Ureaplasma urealyticum is the main pathogen of these NGU cases and no clear relationship between its concentration and pathogenic ability was noted. Drug sensitivity was tested against nine antibiotics; the sensitivity rates to josamycin, minocycline and doxycycline were 94.06%, 88.89% and 86.82% respectively, while the resistance rates to lincomycin, ofloxacin, azithromycin and roxthromycin were 74.94%, 42.12%, 41.60% and 40.31% in turn. Conclusions: Josamycin, minocycline and doxycycline could be used as the first choice to treat NGU with mycoplasma infections in Chongqing. It is important to select antibiotics for NGU treatment with mycoplasma infections based on the results of drug sensitivity tests.

  13. Ionic Liquid Based Electrolyte with Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 as Framework for Quasi-solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG, Hong; CHENG, Yun-Fei; ZHOU, Zhi-Guo; CHEN, Zhi-Gang; LI, Fu-You; YI, Tao; HUANG, Chun-Hui

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-solid-state electrolytes were fabricated with mesoporous silica SBA-15 as a framework material. Ionic conductivity measurements revealed that SBA-15 can enhance the conductivity of the quasi-solid-state electrolyte.The diffusion coefficients of polyiodide ions such as I-3 and I-5 which were confirmed by Raman spectroscopic measurement, were about twice larger than that of I-. The optimized photoenergy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) with the quasi-solid-state electrolyte was 4.3% under AM 1.5 irradiation at 75 mW·cm-2 light intensity.

  14. A new strategy for storage and transportation of sensitive high-energy materials: guest-dependent energy and sensitivity of 3D metal-organic-framework-based energetic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Xiangyu; Yang, Qi; Su, Zhiyong; Gao, Wenjuan; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli

    2014-06-23

    Reaction of Co(II) with the nitrogen-rich ligand N,N-bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-amine (H2bta) leads to a mixed-valence, 3D, porous, metal-organic framework (MOF)-based, energetic material with the nitrogen content of 51.78%, [Co9(bta)10(Hbta)2(H2O)10]n⋅(22 H2O)n (1). Compound 1 was thermohydrated to produce a new, stable, energetic material with the nitrogen content of 59.85% and heat of denotation of 4.537 kcal cm(-3), [Co9(bta)10(Hbta)2(H2O)10]n (2). Sensitivity tests show that 2 is more sensitivity to external stimuli than 1, reflecting guest-dependent energy and sensitivity of 3D, MOF-based, energetic materials. Less-sensitive 1 can be regarded as a more safe form for storage and transformation to sensitive 2. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Potassium Hydroxide Smear and Fungal Culture Relative to Clinical Assessment in the Evaluation of Tinea Pedis: A Pooled Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Oren Levitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5% and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%, respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5% and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%. Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  16. Evaluating the Linguistic Appropriateness and Cultural Sensitivity of a Self-Report System for Spanish-Speaking Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Tofthagen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish speakers in the United States encounter numerous communication barriers during cancer treatment. Communication-focused interventions may help Spanish speakers communicate better with healthcare providers and manage symptoms and quality of life issues (SQOL. For this study, we developed a Spanish version of the electronic self-report assessment for cancer (ESRA-C, a web-based program that helps people with cancer report, track, and manage cancer-related SQOL. Four methods were used to evaluate the Spanish version. Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted with 51 Spanish-speaking individuals to elicit feedback. Readability was assessed using the Fry readability formula. The cultural sensitivity assessment tool was applied by three bilingual, bicultural reviewers. Revisions were made to personalize the introduction using a patient story and photos and to simplify language. Focus group participants endorsed changes to the program in a second round of focus groups. Cultural sensitivity of the program was scored unacceptable (x¯=3.0 for audiovisual material and acceptable (x¯=3.0 for written material. Fry reading levels ranged from 4th to 10th grade. Findings from this study provide several next steps to refine ESRA-C for Spanish speakers with cancer.

  17. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. 37 primary care practices. 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. provision of standard translated material. Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high level of immersion (p=0.005). Cultural adaptation of patient information material provides benefits over high quality

  18. Hybrid Photonic Cavity with Metal-Organic Framework Coatings for the Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds with High Immunity to Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jifang; Wang, Xuerui; Sun, Tao; Cai, Hong; Wang, Yuxiang; Lin, Tong; Fu, Dongliang; Ting, Lennon Lee Yao; Gu, Yuandong; Zhao, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at parts-per-billion (ppb) level is one of the most challenging tasks for miniature gas sensors because of the high requirement on sensitivity and the possible interference from moisture. Herein, for the first time, we present a novel platform based on a hybrid photonic cavity with metal-organic framework (MOF) coatings for VOCs detection. We have fabricated a compact gas sensor with detection limitation ranging from 29 to 99 ppb for various VOCs including styrene, toluene, benzene, propylene and methanol. Compared to the photonic cavity without coating, the MOF-coated solution exhibits a sensitivity enhancement factor up to 1000. The present results have demonstrated great potential of MOF-coated photonic resonators in miniaturized gas sensing applications.

  19. Sensitivity of Human Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Subtypes to Chemotherapeutics and Molecular Targeted Agents: A Study on Primary Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraveto, Alice; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Giuliante, Felice; De Rose, Agostino Maria; Grazi, Gian Luca; Napoletano, Chiara; Semeraro, Rossella; Lustri, Anna Maria; Costantini, Daniele; Nevi, Lorenzo; Di Matteo, Sabina; Renzi, Anastasia; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA) subtypes to chemotherapeutics and molecular targeted agents. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were prepared from surgical specimens (N. 18 IHCCA patients) and evaluated for cell proliferation (MTS assay) and apoptosis (Caspase 3) after incubation (72 hours) with increasing concentrations of different drugs. In vivo, subcutaneous human tumor xenografts were evaluated. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were characterized by a different pattern of expression of cancer stem cell markers, and by a different drug sensitivity. Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination were more active in inhibiting cell proliferation in mixed-IHCCA while Cisplatin or Abraxane were more effective against mucin-IHCCA, where Abraxane also enhances apoptosis. 5-Fluoracil showed a slight inhibitory effect on cell proliferation that was more significant in mixed- than mucin-IHCCA primary cultures and, induced apoptosis only in mucin-IHCCA. Among Hg inhibitors, LY2940680 and Vismodegib showed slight effects on proliferation of both IHCCA subtypes. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Imatinib Mesylate and Sorafenib showed significant inhibitory effects on proliferation of both mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib, inhibited proliferation of only mucin-IHCCA while the aminopeptidase-N inhibitor, Bestatin was more active against mixed-IHCCA. The c-erbB2 blocking antibody was more active against mixed-IHCCA while, the Wnt inhibitor, LGK974, similarly inhibited proliferation of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. Either mucin- or mixed-IHCCA showed high sensitivity to nanomolar concentrations of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, in subcutaneous xenografts, either NVP-BEZ235 or Abraxane, blocked tumor growth. In conclusion, mucin- and mixed-IHCCA are characterized by a different drug sensitivity. Cisplatin, Abraxane and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib were more

  20. Sensitivity of Human Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Subtypes to Chemotherapeutics and Molecular Targeted Agents: A Study on Primary Cell Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Fraveto

    Full Text Available We investigated the sensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA subtypes to chemotherapeutics and molecular targeted agents. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were prepared from surgical specimens (N. 18 IHCCA patients and evaluated for cell proliferation (MTS assay and apoptosis (Caspase 3 after incubation (72 hours with increasing concentrations of different drugs. In vivo, subcutaneous human tumor xenografts were evaluated. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were characterized by a different pattern of expression of cancer stem cell markers, and by a different drug sensitivity. Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination were more active in inhibiting cell proliferation in mixed-IHCCA while Cisplatin or Abraxane were more effective against mucin-IHCCA, where Abraxane also enhances apoptosis. 5-Fluoracil showed a slight inhibitory effect on cell proliferation that was more significant in mixed- than mucin-IHCCA primary cultures and, induced apoptosis only in mucin-IHCCA. Among Hg inhibitors, LY2940680 and Vismodegib showed slight effects on proliferation of both IHCCA subtypes. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Imatinib Mesylate and Sorafenib showed significant inhibitory effects on proliferation of both mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib, inhibited proliferation of only mucin-IHCCA while the aminopeptidase-N inhibitor, Bestatin was more active against mixed-IHCCA. The c-erbB2 blocking antibody was more active against mixed-IHCCA while, the Wnt inhibitor, LGK974, similarly inhibited proliferation of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. Either mucin- or mixed-IHCCA showed high sensitivity to nanomolar concentrations of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, in subcutaneous xenografts, either NVP-BEZ235 or Abraxane, blocked tumor growth. In conclusion, mucin- and mixed-IHCCA are characterized by a different drug sensitivity. Cisplatin, Abraxane and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib

  1. Enhancing plant regeneration in tissue culture: a molecular approach through manipulation of cytokinin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristine; Schaller, G Eric

    2013-10-01

    Micropropagation is used for commercial purposes worldwide, but the capacity to undergo somatic organogenesis and plant regeneration varies greatly among species. The plant hormones auxin and cytokinin are critical for plant regeneration in tissue culture, with cytokinin playing an instrumental role in shoot organogenesis. Type-B response regulators govern the transcriptional output in response to cytokinin and are required for plant regeneration. In our paper published in Plant Physiology, we explored the functional redundancy among the 11 type-B Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs). Interestingly, we discovered that the enhanced expression of one family member, ARR10, induced hypersensitivity to cytokinin in multiple assays, including callus greening and shoot induction of explants. Here we 1) discuss the hormone dependence for in vitro plant regeneration, 2) how manipulation of the cytokinin response has been used to enhance plant regeneration, and 3) the potential of the ARR10 transgene as a tool to increase the regeneration capacity of agriculturally important crop plants. The efficacy of ARR10 for enhancing plant regeneration likely arises from its ability to transcriptionally regulate key cytokinin responsive genes combined with an enhanced protein stability of ARR10 compared with other type-B ARRs. By increasing the capacity of key tissues and cell types to respond to cytokinin, ARR10, or other type-B response regulators with similar properties, could be used as a tool to combat the recalcitrance of some crop species to tissue culture techniques.

  2. Cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells are resistant to methylamine toxicity: no correlation to semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, S. D.; Trent, M. B.; Boor, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Methylamine (MA), a component of serum and a metabolite of nicotine and certain insecticides and herbicides, is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). MA is toxic to cultured human umbilical vein and calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Endothelial cells, which do not exhibit endogenous SSAO activity, are exposed to SSAO circulating in serum. In contrast, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) do exhibit innate SSAO activity both in vivo and in vitro. This property, together with the critical localization of VSMC within the arterial wall, led us to investigate the potential toxicity of MA to VSMC. Cultured rat VSMC were treated with MA (10-5 to 1 M). In some cultures, SSAO was selectively inhibited with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 [(E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-fluoroallylamine]. Cytotoxicity was measured via MTT, vital dye exclusion, and clonogenic assays. MA proved to be toxic to VSMC only at relatively high concentrations (LC(50) of 0.1 M). The inhibition of SSAO with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 did not increase MA toxicity, suggesting that the production of formaldehyde via tissue-bound, SSAO-mediated MA metabolism does not play a role in the minimal toxicity observed in isolated rat VSMC. The omission of fetal calf serum (FCS), which contains high SSAO activity, from media similarly showed little effect on cytotoxicity. We conclude that VSMC--in contrast to previous results in endothelial cells--are relatively resistant to MA toxicity, and SSAO does not play a role in VSMC injury by MA.

  3. Reduction in porphyrin excretion as a sensitive indicator of lead toxicity in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Vega, B; Hernandez, A; Mendoza-Figueroa, T

    1996-12-01

    Alterations of specific metabolic pathways can be used as sensitive indicators of toxicity by chemicals and can give valuable information on the mechanism(s) involved. Short-term effects of lead on hepatic haem biosynthesis were studied in an in vitro system. Primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were exposed for 24-48 hr to lead (0.024-3.6 mm), and excreted and intracellular porphyrins were measured in untreated and lead-treated cultures. Cytotoxicity, as estimated by enzyme leakage, and morphological alterations were also evaluated. Control hepatocytes produced porphyrins at a rate of 387 pmol/mg cellular protein/day. Most of the released and intracellular porphyrins were protoporphyrins, although uro- and coproporphyrins were also detected in lower amounts. After 24 hr of exposure to 0.1-3.6 mm Pb(2+) , excreted porphyrins decreased by 24-92% and intracellular porphyrins by 36-60%, while 48 hr of exposure to 0.024-3.6 mm Pb(2+) caused a progressive reduction of 77-97% in porphyrin excretion and of 49-67% in intracellular porphyrins. Lead exposure also produced a differential decrease of proto-, copro- and uro-porphyrin excretion. These lead effects can be explained mainly by inhibition of the enzyme 5-aminolaevulinate dehydratase, resulting in a decreased monopyrrole supply for porphyrin biosynthesis, and probably by inhibition of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. Morphological alterations and enzyme leakage were detected only after 24 hr of exposure to 2.4 mm and 48 hr of exposure to 3.6 mm Pb(2+), respectively. The results show that changes in porphyrin production, and particularly in their excretion, in cultured rat hepatocytes are useful indicators of lead toxicity, since they are more sensitive than enzyme leakage and can give preliminary information on the enzyme(s) that could be affected. They also suggest the potential benefits of the use of this method for the evaluation of compounds that alter haem biosynthesis.

  4. Capillary size exclusion chromatography with picogram sensitivity for analysis of monoclonal antibodies purified from harvested cell culture fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Jennifer C; Moreno, G Tony; Vampola, Lisa; Lou, Yun; van Haan, Bjorn; Tremintin, Guillaume; Simmons, Laura; Nava, Adrian; Wang, Yajun Jennifer; Farnan, Dell

    2012-01-06

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is widely used in the characterization and quality control of therapeutic proteins to detect aggregates. Aggregation is a carefully monitored quality attribute from the earliest stages of clinical development owing to the possibility of eliciting an immunogenic response in the patient. During early stage molecule assessment for cell culture production, small-scale screening experiments are performed to permit rapid turn-around of results so as to not delay timelines. We report the development of a capillary SEC methodology for preliminary molecule assessment to support the evaluation of therapeutic candidates at an early stage of development. By making several key modifications to a commercially available liquid chromatography system, we demonstrate a platform process to perform capillary SEC with excellent precision, picogram sensitivity and good ruggedness. The limit of quantitation was determined to be approximately 15 pg; picogram sensitivity for SEC analysis of monoclonal antibodies had not been achieved prior to this work. In addition, we have developed a method to capture low levels of antibody (1 μg/mL) from harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) for capillary SEC analysis. Up to 40% recovery efficiency was achieved using this micro-recovery method on 3 mL HCCF samples. Using early stage cell culture transient transfection samples, which typically have much lower titers than stable cell line samples, we demonstrate a consistent method for analyzing aggregates in low protein concentration HCCF samples for molecule assessment and early stage candidate screening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of therapeutic hypothermia by pharmacological modulation of temperature-sensitive TRP channels: theoretical framework and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feketa, Viktor V; Marrelli, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as a remarkably effective method of neuroprotection from ischemia and is being increasingly used in clinics. Accordingly, it is also a subject of considerable attention from a basic scientific research perspective. One of the fundamental problems, with which current studies are concerned, is the optimal method of inducing hypothermia. This review seeks to provide a broad theoretical framework for approaching this problem, and to discuss how a novel promising strategy of pharmacological modulation of the thermosensitive ion channels fits into this framework. Various physical, anatomical, physiological and molecular aspects of thermoregulation, which provide the foundation for this text, have been comprehensively reviewed and will not be discussed exhaustively here. Instead, the first part of the current review, which may be helpful for a broader readership outside of thermoregulation research, will build on this existing knowledge to outline possible opportunities and research directions aimed at controlling body temperature. The second part, aimed at a more specialist audience, will highlight the conceptual advantages and practical limitations of novel molecular agents targeting thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in achieving this goal. Two particularly promising members of this channel family, namely TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), will be discussed in greater detail.

  6. Improving Human-Computer Interaction by Developing Culture-sensitive Applications based on Common Sense Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Anacleto, Junia Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    The advent of Web 3.0, claiming for personalization in interactive systems (Lassila & Hendler, 2007), and the need for systems capable of interacting in a more natural way in the future society flooded with computer systems and devices (Harper et al., 2008) show that great advances in HCI should be done. This chapter presents some contributions of LIA for the future of HCI, defending that using common sense knowledge is a possibility for improving HCI, especially because people assign meaning to their messages based on their common sense and, therefore, the use of this knowledge in developing user interfaces can make them more intuitive to the end-user. Moreover, as common sense knowledge varies from group to group of people, it can be used for developing applications capable of giving different feedback for different target groups, as the applications presented along this chapter illustrate, allowing, in this way, interface personalization taking into account cultural issues. For the purpose of using com...

  7. Evaluating mobile learning practice. Towards a framework for analysis of user-generated contexts with reference to the socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Seipold

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Against the conceptual and theoretical background of a socio-culturally orientated approach to mobile learning (Pachler, Bachmair and Cook, 2010, this paper examines the evaluation of user-generated contexts by referring to an example from the use of mobile phones in schools. We discuss how mobile device-related, user- generated contexts around structures, agency and cultural practices might be brought into a fruitful relationship with institution-based learning. And, we provide categories for evaluating the use of mobile devices to generate meaning from and with fragmented and discontinuous media and modes at the interface of learning in formal, institutionalised and informal, self-directed settings. The evaluation criteria build on the framework of a socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning developed by the London Mobile Learning Group.

  8. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  9. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  10. Selective sensitiveness of mesenchymal stem cells to shock waves leads to anticancer effect in human cancer cell co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglietta, Federica; Duchi, Serena; Canaparo, Roberto; Varchi, Greta; Lucarelli, Enrico; Dozza, Barbara; Serpe, Loredana

    2017-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) possess the distinctive feature of homing in on and engrafting into the tumor stroma making their therapeutic applications in cancer treatment very promising. Research into new effectors and external stimuli, which can selectively trigger the release of cytotoxic species from MSC toward the cancer cells, significantly raises their potential. Shock waves (SW) have recently gained recognition for their ability to induce specific biological effects, such as the local generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a non-invasive and tunable manner. We thus investigate whether MSC are able to generate ROS and, in turn, affect cancer cell growth when in co-culture with human glioblastoma (U87) or osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells and exposed to SW. MSC were found to be the cell line that was most sensitive to SW treatment as shown by SW-induced ROS production and cytotoxicity. Notably, U87 and U2OS cancer cell growth was unaffected by SW exposure. However, significant decreases in cancer cell growth, 1.8 fold for U87 and 2.3 fold for U2OS, were observed 24h after the SW treatment of MSC co-cultures with cancer cells. The ROS production induced in MSC by SW exposure was then responsible for lipid peroxidation and cell death in U87 and U2OS cells co-cultured with MSC. This experiment highlights the unique ability of MSC to generate ROS upon SW treatment and induce the cell death of co-cultured cancer cells. SW might therefore be proposed as an innovative tool for MSC-mediated cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Culturally sensitive assessments as a strength-based approach to wellness in Native communities: A community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verney, Steven P; Avila, Magdalena; Espinosa, Patricia Rodríguez; Cholka, Cecilia Brooke; Benson, Jennifer G; Baloo, Aihsa; Pozernick, Caitlin Devin

    2016-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have a unique, traumatic, and alienating history of education in the U.S., which may be directly related to overall health and well-being. Community engagement is critical in well-being research with Native communities, especially when investigating culturally sensitive topics, such as early education experiences. This study investigates the value of a community-based participatory research approach in gaining valuable culturally sensitive information from Native people in a respectful manner. Assessment participation and feedback are analyzed and presented as indicators of Native participant engagement success in a potentially sensitive research project exploring early education experiences.

  12. Validation of a provider self-report inventory for measuring patient-centered cultural sensitivity in health care using a sample of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsu-Paun, Anca; Tucker, Carolyn M; Herman, Keith C; Hernandez, Caridad A

    2010-04-01

    The paper describes the construction and initial evaluation of the new Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Inventory (T-CSHCI) Provider Form, which was developed to address the shortcomings of existing similar measures. Two hundred seventeen (217) 3rd and 4th year medical students completed the T-CSHCI-Provider Form. Factor analysis was used to identify non-overlapping items. The final solution produced five factors: patient-centeredness, interpersonal skills, disrespect/disempowerment, competence, and cultural knowledge/responsiveness. The five T-CSHCI-Provider Form factors/subscales proved to be reliable and were associated with related constructs as hypothesized. This study provides initial evidence that the T-CSHCI-Provider Form measures independent dimensions of patient-centered culturally sensitive health care as perceived by medical students. Recommendations for ways in which the T-CSHCI Provider Form can be used to guide culturally sensitive health care training are provided.

  13. Cultural Identity Among Afghan and Iraqi Traumatized Refugees: Towards a Conceptual Framework for Mental Health Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon P N; Richters, Annemiek; Laban, Cornelis J; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2017-01-20

    Cultural identity in relation with mental health is of growing interest in the field of transcultural psychiatry. However, there is a need to clarify the concept of cultural identity in order to make it useful in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to unravel the complexity and many layers of cultural identity, and to assess how stress and acculturation relate to (changes in) cultural identity. As part of a larger study about cultural identity, trauma, and mental health, 85 patients from Afghanistan and Iraq in treatment for trauma-related disorders were interviewed with a Brief Cultural Interview. The interviews were analysed through qualitative data analysis using the procedures of grounded theory. The analysis resulted in three domains of cultural identity: personal identity, ethnic identity and social identity. Within each domain relationships with stress and acculturation were identified. The results offer insight into the intensity of changes in cultural identity, caused by pre-and post-migration stressors and the process of acculturation. Based on the research findings recommendations are formulated to enhance the cultural competency of mental health workers.

  14. Working with Jewish ultra-orthodox patients: guidelines for a culturally sensitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilu, Y; Witztum, E

    1993-06-01

    The epistemological gap between the medical reality of mental health practitioners and the sacred reality of their Jewish ultra-orthodox patients poses a major challenge for therapy. Based on our work with psychiatric patients from the ultra-orthodox community of northern Jerusalem, we propose a set of guidelines to cope with this challenge. Basically, we seek to incorporate religiously congruent elements, composed of metaphoric images, narratives and actions, into the wide range of our "secular" treatment modalities in order to respond to the patient's suffering, often expressed through distinctively religious idioms of distress. This endeavor calls for "a temporary suspension of disbelief" on both sides. The guidelines presented include three sets of factors which appear pertinent to working with ultra-orthodox patients. The first set is contextual in nature, dealing with the image of the clinic and its physical setting; the second discusses the necessary role requisites of the therapists; and the third one, accorded a central importance, deals on various levels with the therapeutic interventions administered in terms of form and content. Several case vignettes are presented to illustrate three classes of religiously informed interventions: healing rituals, dream interpretation, and the use of culturally congruent metaphors and stories. In the concluding part we discuss ethical and instrumental issues that the proposed therapeutic guidelines may raise.

  15. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed. PMID:22899952

  16. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Quave

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed.

  17. Preparation and participation of undergraduate students to inform culturally sensitive research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jo Nell; Cagle, Carolyn Spence

    2009-07-01

    Most student work as research assistants occurs at the graduate level of nursing education, and little is known about the role of undergraduate students as research assistants (RAs) in major research projects. Based on our desire to study Mexican American (MA) cancer caregivers, we needed bilingual and bicultural RAs to serve as data collectors with women who spoke Spanish and possessed cultural beliefs that influenced their caregiving. Following successful recruitment, orientation, and mentoring based on Bandura's social learning theory [Bandura, A., 2001. Social learning theory: an agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology 52, 1-26] and accepted teaching-learning principles, RAs engaged in various behaviors that facilitated study outcomes. Faculty researchers, RAs, and study participants benefitted greatly from the undergraduate student involvement in this project. This article describes successful student inclusion approaches, ongoing faculty-RA interactions, and lessons learned from the research team experience. Guidelines discussed support the potential for making the undergraduate RA role a useful and unique learning experience.

  18. Human development and ecology of the urban landscape in the context of evolutionary values of modern culture in the framework of cultural-environmental module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the features of cultural-ecological approach, which is an important methodological basis of modernization of Russian education, held in a worsening of environmental problems and understanding the leading role of culture in their resolution. This confirms the importance of the use of this approach for the development of modern geographic education. The particular value it has in the initial course of physical geography, where we have developed a cultural-ecological module “I am Nizhny Novgorod native”, comprehensively revealing different aspects of the urban landscape.

  19. Assessing the sensitivity of a water-limited, mixed tree-grass-shrub ecosystem to climate change and geomorphic controls using a community modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, L.; Nudurupati, S. S.; Yager, E.; Glenn, N. F.; Pierce, J. L.; Flores, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    The distribution of vegetation in water-limited ecosystems is a product of complex and nonlinear interactions between climatic forcings and the underlying geomorphic template, which includes topography and soils. Changes in climate, particularly in precipitation and temperature, can dramatically alter the organization of vegetation, although the response to climate change is itself complex and nonlinear due to interactions between plants, soils, and topography. Understanding and predicting how the distribution of plant species will change in these ecosystems is critical to predicting important future landscape changes such as landslides, erosion, fires, and water storage capacity. This study promotes understanding of the relative sensitivity of vegetation types to changes in precipitation and temperature in water-limited environments by using a land modeling framework, Landlab, to diagnose how changes in precipitation and temperature regimes effect the organization of plant functional types across varying hillslope aspects in a semi-arid savanna-like ecosystems. To add model robustness, we took an ensemble approach, generating 500 realizations of climate altered precipitation and temperature forcings. Regardless of climate scenario, we find that vegetation patterns on North-facing slopes did not change with either precipitation or temperature. By contrast, South-facing slopes were sensitive to changes in both. In climate scenarios with less precipitation, tree coverage declined, while shrub coverage increased to fill areas vacated by trees. Temperature exacerbated this trend. The climate scenario with low precipitation and high temperatures had the lowest recorded tree cover, while high precipitation negated the effects of temperature. Using the Landlab framework allowed us to rapidly develop an effective model the relative sensitives of vegetation types and conclude that precipitation is the most important variable with regard to forest conservation.

  20. Identification and control of dissolved oxygen in hybridoma cell culture in a shear sensitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Karim, M N

    2001-01-01

    The productivity of mammalian cells can be enhanced by facilitating adequate oxygen transfer into the cultivation medium. However, current methods of controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) fail to account for alterations in medium composition during the course of the fermentation. These changes, which directly affect gas solubility and overall mass transfer coefficient, may be significant and deteriorate controller's performance in the long run. In this paper, the applications of Generalized Predictive Controllers (GPC) to DO control were investigated in a shear sensitive environment and compared to PID and Model Predictive Controllers (MPC). Input and output data for system identification were initially generated by varying the composition of oxygen fed into the bioreactor from 0 to 0.21 mol % while keeping the total inlet gas flow rate at 8.75 vvm. The process was identified using an AutoRegressive model with eXogeneous inputs (ARX) model and tested on different data sets. The model parameters were then correlated with the overall mass transfer coefficients. In simulation tests, the output of the PID controller switched from minimum to maximum values while more continuous control signals were obtained with the MPC and GPC controllers. When tested in a cell-free medium, all three controllers were able to track setpoint changes with some chattering observed in the control signals. The GPC outperformed the MPC and PID controllers when applied to the cultivation of hybridoma cells.

  1. A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hofmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B’. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B’ gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B’ promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

  2. A sensitive sensor cell line for the detection of oxidative stress responses in cultured human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ute; Priem, Melanie; Bartzsch, Christine; Winckler, Thomas; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2014-06-25

    In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B' promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B'. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B' gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B' promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS) that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

  3. A General Model of Sensitized Luminescence in Lanthanide-Based Coordination Polymers and Metal-Organic Framework Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einkauf, Jeffrey D; Clark, Jessica M; Paulive, Alec; Tanner, Garrett P; de Lill, Daniel T

    2017-05-15

    Luminescent lanthanides containing coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks hold great potential in many applications due to their distinctive spectroscopic properties. While the ability to design coordination polymers for specific functions is often mentioned as a major benefit bestowed on these compounds, the lack of a meaningful understanding of the luminescence in lanthanide coordination polymers remains a significant challenge toward functional design. Currently, the study of these compounds is based on the antenna effect as derived from molecular systems, where organic antennae are used to facilitate lanthanide-centered luminescence. This molecular-based approach does not take into account the unique features of extended network solids, particularly the formation of band structure. While guidelines for the antenna effect are well established, they require modification before being applied to coordination polymers. A series of nine coordination polymers with varying topologies and organic linkers were studied to investigate the accuracy of the antenna effect in coordination polymer systems. By comparing a molecular-based approach to a band-based one, it was determined that the band structure that occurs in aggregated organic solids needs to be considered when evaluating the luminescence of lanthanide coordination polymers.

  4. A Culture Framework for Education: Defining Quality Values and Their Impact in U.S. High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detert, James R.; Louis, Karen Seashore; Schroeder, Roger G.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses relatively unsubstantiated claims of an important relationship between organizational culture and the ability to implement total quality management in schools. Results of this literature review suggest that some of the nine quality-management culture dimensions are highly consistent with school improvement research; others are more…

  5. The PRIDE (Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education) Toolkit: Development and Evaluation of Novel Literacy and Culturally Sensitive Diabetes Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kathleen; Chambers, Laura; Bumol, Stefan; White, Richard O; Gregory, Becky Pratt; Davis, Dianne; Rothman, Russell L

    2016-02-01

    Patients with low literacy, low numeracy, and/or linguistic needs can experience challenges understanding diabetes information and applying concepts to their self-management. The authors designed a toolkit of education materials that are sensitive to patients' literacy and numeracy levels, language preferences, and cultural norms and that encourage shared goal setting to improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes. The Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education (PRIDE) toolkit was developed to facilitate diabetes self-management education and support. The PRIDE toolkit includes a comprehensive set of 30 interactive education modules in English and Spanish to support diabetes self-management activities. The toolkit builds upon the authors' previously validated Diabetes Literacy and Numeracy Education Toolkit (DLNET) by adding a focus on shared goal setting, addressing the needs of Spanish-speaking patients, and including a broader range of diabetes management topics. Each PRIDE module was evaluated using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument to determine the material's cultural appropriateness and its sensitivity to the needs of patients with low literacy and low numeracy. Reading grade level was also assessed using the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Coleman-Liau, Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, and SMOG formulas. The average reading grade level of the materials was 5.3 (SD 1.0), with a mean SAM of 91.2 (SD 5.4). All of the 30 modules received a "superior" score (SAM >70%) when evaluated by 2 independent raters. The PRIDE toolkit modules can be used by all members of a multidisciplinary team to assist patients with low literacy and low numeracy in managing their diabetes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validity of the Korean version of the pain sensitivity questionnaire in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Yeo, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Hyeon-Guk; Yi, Je-Min; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate pain sensitivity questionnaires (PSQ) into the Korean language, perform a cross-cultural adaption of the PSQ, and validate the Korean version of PSQ in patients with degenerative spinal disease. The PSQ was translated forward and backward, cross-culturally adapted by 2 independent translators, and approved by an expert committee. The final Korean version of the PSQ was tested on 72 patients with degenerative spinal disease. Test-retest reliability was evaluated for 60 patients (83%) who completed the second assessment in an interval of 4 weeks. The mean PSQ-minor, PSQ-moderate, and PSQ-total (standard deviation [SD]) were 5.40 (2.02), 6.46 (1.98), and 5.93 (1.93), respectively. The PSQ-total, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate of the Korean version showed very good internal consistencies determined by the Cronbach's α of 0.926, 0.869, and 0.877, respectively. For convergent validity, the PSQ scores of the Korean version showed significant correlations with pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) (r = 0.377, P = 0.002; r = 0.365, P = 0.003; r = 0.362, P = 0.003 for PSQ-total, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate of the Korean version, respectively). For test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.782 for PSQ-total, 0.752 for PSQ-minor, and 0.793 for PSQ-moderate. In conclusion, the validated Korean version of PSQ is a transculturally equivalent, reliable, and valid tool to assess individual pain sensitivity. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  7. The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay: Rapid, Sensitive and Culture-Independent Identification of Bacteria and Candida in Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metzgar

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infection (BSI and sepsis are rising in incidence throughout the developed world. The spread of multi-drug resistant organisms presents increasing challenges to treatment. Surviving BSI is dependent on rapid and accurate identification of causal organisms, and timely application of appropriate antibiotics. Current culture-based methods used to detect and identify agents of BSI are often too slow to impact early therapy and may fail to detect relevant organisms in many positive cases. Existing methods for direct molecular detection of microbial DNA in blood are limited in either sensitivity (likely the result of small sample volumes or in breadth of coverage, often because the PCR primers and probes used target only a few specific pathogens. There is a clear unmet need for a sensitive molecular assay capable of identifying the diverse bacteria and yeast associated with BSI directly from uncultured whole blood samples. We have developed a method of extracting DNA from larger volumes of whole blood (5 ml per sample, amplifying multiple widely conserved bacterial and fungal genes using a mismatch- and background-tolerant PCR chemistry, and identifying hundreds of diverse organisms from the amplified fragments on the basis of species-specific genetic signatures using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS. We describe the analytical characteristics of the IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay and compare its pre-clinical performance to current standard-of-care methods in a collection of prospectively collected blood specimens from patients with symptoms of sepsis. The assay generated matching results in 80% of culture-positive cases (86% when common contaminants were excluded from the analysis, and twice the total number of positive detections. The described method is capable of providing organism identifications directly from uncultured blood in less than 8 hours.The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay is not available in the United States.

  8. 3D origami electrochemical device for sensitive Pb(2+) testing based on DNA functionalized iron-porphyrinic metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu; Yang, Chunlei; Zhu, Shaojun; Yan, Mei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2017-01-15

    A highly sensitive electrochemical (EC) biosensor combined with a 3D origami device for detection of Pb(2+)was developed based on novel Au nanoparticles modified paper working electrode (Au-PWE) as sensor platform and DNA functionalized iron-porphyrinic metal-organic framework ((Fe-P)n-MOF-Au-GR) hybrids as signal probes. In the presence of Pb(2+), GR could be specifically cleaved at the ribonucleotide (rA) site, which produced the short (Fe-P)n-MOF-linked oligonucleotide fragment to hybridize with hairpin DNA immobilized on the surface of Au-PWE. Because of the mimic peroxidase property of (Fe-P)n-MOF, enzymatically amplified electrochemical signal was obtained to offer the sensitive detection of Pb(2+). In addition, benefiting from the Pb(2+) dependent GR, the proposed assay could selectively detect Pb(2+) in the presence of other metal ions. This method showed a good linear relationship between the current response and the Pb(2+) concentration ranging from 0.03 to 1000nmolL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.02nmolL(-1). The Au-PWE based electrochemical sensor along with the (Fe-P)n-MOF-Au-GR probe exhibited the advantages of low-cost, simple fabrication, high sensitivity and selectivity, providing potential application of real-time Pb(2+) detection both in environmental and biological samples.

  9. Athletes’ careers across cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia

    This symposium will introduce a project developed under the auspices of the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) in an effort to inspire and support the development of culturally sensitive theoretical frameworks and research methodologies in career studies and career assistance services...... in this symposium continue the initiated dialogue of the relevance of culture and cultural issues in their analyses of how social and cultural discourses shape career development and career transitions of athletes in different countries. Opening the foundations of sport psychological knowledge to culturally diverse...... and, perhaps, unfamiliar intellectual traditions, perspectives and concerns, the symposium will demonstrate how local knowledge of problems enables researchers and practitioners to better understand the dynamics of cultural diversity within the topic of athlete career development and assistance....

  10. [EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SMALLPOX VIRUS BY THE PRIMARY CULTURES OF THE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamedyanskaya, A S; Titova, K A; Sergeev, Al A; Kabanov, A S; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, Ar A; Galakhova, D O; Nesterov, A E; Nosareva, O V; Shishkina, L N; Taranov, O S; Omigov, V V; Agafonov, A P; Sergeev, A N

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the primary cultures of granulocytes, mononuclear, and monocyte-macrophage cells derived from human blood were performed using variola virus (VARV) in the doses of 0.001-0.021 PFU/cell (plaques-forming units per cell). Positive dynamics of the virus accumulation was observed only in the monocyte-macrophages with maximum values of virus concentration (5.0-5.5 Ig PFU/ml) mainly within six days after the infection. The fact of VARV replication in the monocyte-macrophages was confirmed by the data of electron microscopy. At the same time, virus vaccines when tested in doses 3.3 and 4.2 Ig PFU/ml did not show the ability to reproduce in these human cells. The people sensitivity to VARV as assessed from the data obtained on human monocyte-macrophages corresponded to -1 PFU (taking into account the smooth interaction of the virus in the body to the cells of this type), which is consistent to previously found theoretical data on the virus sensitivity. The human susceptibility to VARV assessed experimentally can be used to predict the adequacy of developed smallpox models (in vivo) based on susceptible animals. This is necessary for reliable assessment of the efficiency of development of drugs for treatment and prophylaxis of the smallpox.

  11. Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanoparticle Sensitized Metal-Organic Framework Derived Mesoporous TiO2 as Photoanodes for High-Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Xie, Zhirun; Zhou, Shujie; Zhang, Yanan; Yuan, Zhimin; Zhang, Luyuan; Yin, Longwei

    2016-08-31

    We present a facile hot injection and hydrothermal method to synthesize Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles sensitized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived mesoporous TiO2. The MOFs-derived TiO2 inherits the large specific surface area and abundantly porous structures of the MOFs structure, which is of great benefit to effectively enhance the dye loading capacity, prolong the incident light traveling length by enhancing the multiple interparticle light-scattering process, and therefore improve the light absorption capacity. The sensitization of CZTS nanoparticles effectively enlarges the photoresponse range of TiO2 to the visible light region and facilitates photoinduced carrier transport. The formed heterostructure between CZTS nanoparticles and MOFs-derived TiO2 with matched band gap structure effectively suppresses the recombination rates of photogenerated electron/hole pairs and prolongs the lifespan of the carriers. Photoanodes based upon CZTS/MOFs-derived TiO2 photoanodes can achieve the maximal photocurrent of 17.27 mA cm(-2) and photoelectric conversion performance of 8.10%, nearly 1.93 and 2.21 times higher than those of TiO2-based photoanode. The related mechanism and model are investigated. The strikingly improved photoelectric properties are ascribed to a synergistic action between the MOFs-derived TiO2 and the sensitization of CZTS nanoparticles.

  12. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Vigil, Dena M.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Lefantzi, Sophia (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Eddy, John P.

    2011-12-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a theoretical manual for selected algorithms implemented within the DAKOTA software. It is not intended as a comprehensive theoretical treatment, since a number of existing texts cover general optimization theory, statistical analysis, and other introductory topics. Rather, this manual is intended to summarize a set of DAKOTA-related research publications in the areas of surrogate-based optimization, uncertainty quantification, and optimization under uncertainty that provide the foundation for many of DAKOTA's iterative analysis capabilities.

  13. Dakota, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebeida, Mohamed Salah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eldred, Michael S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jakeman, John Davis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stephens, John Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vigil, Dena M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wildey, Timothy Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohnhoff, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hu, Kenneth T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dalbey, Keith R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauman, Lara E [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hough, Patricia Diane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The Dakota (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a exible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. Dakota contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quanti cation with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the Dakota toolkit provides a exible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the Dakota software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  14. A Metal-Organic Framework Containing Unusual Eight-Connected Zr–-Oxo Secondary Building Units and Orthogonal Carboxylic Acids for Ultra-sensitive Metal Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carboni, Michaël; Lin, Zekai; Abney, Carter W.; Zhang, Teng; Lin, Wenbin (UC)

    2015-08-21

    Two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Zr-oxo secondary building units (SBUs) were prepared by using p,p'-terphenyldicarboxylate (TPDC) bridging ligands pre-functionalized with orthogonal succinic acid (MOF-1) and maleic acid groups (MOF-2). Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of MOF-1 provides the first direct evidence for eight-connected SBUs in UiO-type MOFs. In contrast, MOF-2 contains twelve-connected SBUs as seen in the traditional UiO MOF topology. These structural assignments were confirmed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. The highly porous MOF-1 is an excellent fluorescence sensor for metal ions with the detection limit of <0.5 ppb for Mn2+ and three to four orders of magnitude greater sensitivity for metal ions than previously reported luminescent MOFs.

  15. A rare 3D chloro-laced Mn(II) metal-organic framework to show sensitive probing effect to Hg2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Mei; Bai, Na

    2017-10-01

    Two 3D Mn(II) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Mn(L-Cl)(DMA)](H2O) (1) and Mn(L-CH3)(DMA) (2) (H2L-Cl = 2,2'-dichloro-4,4'-azodibenzoic acid, H2L-CH3 = 2,2'-dimethyl-4,4'-azodibenzoic acid) were synthesized under similar solvothermal condition. Both MOFs crystallize in the orthorhombic system and show the 3D rod-packing networks in 2-fold interpenetrated pattern with sra topology. Due to the different substituent laces of MOFs (-Cl vs -CH3), only MOF 1 shows highly selective and sensitive fluorescence sensing effect for detecting Hg2+ ion.

  16. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Xue, Can

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h-1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  17. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy and Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhang, Ming-Yi [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Xue, Can, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [Solar Fuels Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  18. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h−1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  19. The Concepts of "Putting People First" and "Regarding Harmony as the Fundamentality" under the Framework of Cultural Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Xiaowen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Human civilization is cur rently undergoing another important turn.Following the economic globalization,cultural globalization has become an inevitable trend. Traditional Christian civilization and Islamic civilization insisy monotheism and universalism.

  20. Sensitivity of Future U.S. Water Shortages to Socioeconomic and Climate Drivers: A Case Study in Georgia Using an Integrated Human-Earth System Modeling Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Kyle, G. Page; Liu, Lu; McJeon, Haewon C.; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit L.; Rice, Jennie S.; Voisin, Nathalie

    2016-01-06

    One of the most important interactions between humans and climate is in the demand and supply of water. Humans withdraw, use, and consume water and return waste water to the environment for a variety of socioeconomic purposes, including domestic, commercial ,and industrial use, production of energy resources and cooling thermal-electric power plants, and growing food, fiber, and chemical feedstocks for human consumption. Uncertainties in the future human demand for water and in the future impacts of climatic change on water supplies are expected to impinge on policy decisions at the international, national, regional, and local level, but until recently tools were not available to assess the uncertainties surrounding these decisions. This paper demonstrates the use of a multi-model framework in a structured sensitivity analysis to project and quantify uncertainty in deficits in future surface water in the context of climate and socioeconomic change for all U.S. states and sub-basins. The framework treats all sources of water demand and supply consistently from the world to local level. The paper features an illustrative case study of a river basin in Georgia within the South Atlantic-Gulf Basin. Despite a substantial climate-related uncertainty in water supplies, the uncertainty with the largest impact on deficits was identified as growth of irrigation demand. Potential adaptive responses are discussed.

  1. An Information Technology Framework for the Development of an Embedded Computer System for the Remote and Non-Destructive Study of Sensitive Archaeology Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya Georgiev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an information technology framework for the development of an embedded remote system for non-destructive observation and study of sensitive archaeological sites. The overall concept and motivation are described. The general hardware layout and software configuration are presented. The paper concentrates on the implementation of the following informational technology components: (a a geographically unique identification scheme supporting a global key space for a key-value store; (b a common method for octree modeling for spatial geometrical models of the archaeological artifacts, and abstract object representation in the global key space; (c a broadcast of the archaeological information as an Extensible Markup Language (XML stream over the Web for worldwide availability; and (d a set of testing methods increasing the fault tolerance of the system. This framework can serve as a foundation for the development of a complete system for remote archaeological exploration of enclosed archaeological sites like buried churches, tombs, and caves. An archaeological site is opened once upon discovery, the embedded computer system is installed inside upon a robotic platform, equipped with sensors, cameras, and actuators, and the intact site is sealed again. Archaeological research is conducted on a multimedia data stream which is sent remotely from the system and conforms to necessary standards for digital archaeology.

  2. Highly sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor for kinase activity detection and inhibition based on the surface defect recognition and multiple signal amplification of metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zonghua; Yan, Zhiyong; Wang, Feng; Cai, Jibao; Guo, Lei; Su, Jiakun; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-15

    A turn-on photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the surface defect recognition and multiple signal amplification of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) was proposed for highly sensitive protein kinase activity analysis and inhibitor evaluation. In this strategy, based on the phosphorylation reaction in the presence of protein kinase A (PKA), the Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (UiO-66) accommodated with [Ru(bpy)3](2+) photoactive dyes in the pores were linked to the phosphorylated kemptide modified TiO2/ITO electrode through the chelation between the Zr(4+) defects on the surface of UiO-66 and the phosphate groups in kemptide. Under visible light irradiation, the excited electrons from [Ru(bpy)3](2+) adsorbed in the pores of UiO-66 injected into the TiO2 conduction band to generate photocurrent, which could be utilized for protein kinase activities detection. The large surface area and high porosities of UiO-66 facilitated a large number of [Ru(bpy)3](2+) that increased the photocurrent significantly, and afforded a highly sensitive PEC analysis of kinase activity. The detection limit of the as-proposed PEC biosensor was 0.0049UmL(-1) (S/N!=!3). The biosensor was also applied for quantitative kinase inhibitor evaluation and PKA activities detection in MCF-7 cell lysates. The developed visible-light PEC biosensor provides a simple detection procedure and a cost-effective manner for PKA activity assays, and shows great potential in clinical diagnosis and drug discoveries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cultured mast cells from asthmatic patients and controls respond with similar sensitivity to recombinant Der P2 induced, IgE-mediated activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Inge Jacoba Maria Kortekaas; Sverrild, Asger; Lund, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    The function of cultured mast cells may depend on genetic or environmental influence on the stem cell donor. This study investigates whether asthma or atopy in the donor influenced the growth and sensitivity of mast cells cultured from patients with asthma and healthy controls under identical...... conditions. Mast cells were cultured from peripheral blood from twelve patients with an objectively confirmed asthma diagnosis and eight healthy subjects. During the last 2 weeks of culture, mast cells were incubated with IL-4 and 80 kU/l recombinant human IgE containing two clones (7% + 7%) specific...... for mite allergen Der p2. The sensitivity of IgE-mediated activation of mast cells was investigated as FcεRI-mediated upregulation of CD63. Ten subjects were atopic, defined as a positive skin prick test (>3 mm) to at least one of ten common allergens. After activation with recombinant Der p2, the maximum...

  4. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  5. Glucose oxidase-initiated cascade catalysis for sensitive impedimetric aptasensor based on metal-organic frameworks functionalized with Pt nanoparticles and hemin/G-quadruplex as mimicking peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingxing; Guo, Shijing; Gao, Jiaxi; Zhao, Jianmin; Xue, Shuyan; Xu, Wenju

    2017-12-15

    Based on cascade catalysis amplification driven by glucose oxidase (GOx), a sensitive electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for protein (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA as tested model) was proposed by using Cu-based metal-organic frameworks functionalized with Pt nanoparticles, aptamer, hemin and GOx (Pt@CuMOFs-hGq-GOx). CEA aptamer loaded onto Pt@CuMOFs was bound with hemin to form hemin@G-quadruplex (hGq) with mimicking peroxidase activity. Through sandwich-type reaction of target CEA and CEA aptamers (Apt1 and Apt2), the obtained Pt@CuMOFs-hGq-GOx as signal transduction probes (STPs) was captured to the modified electrode interface. When 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and glucose were introduced, the cascade reaction was initiated by GOx to catalyze the oxidation of glucose, in situ generating H2O2. Simultaneously, the decomposition of the generated H2O2 was greatly promoted by Pt@CuMOFs and hGq as synergistic peroxide catalysts, accompanying with the significant oxidation process of DAB and the formation of nonconductive insoluble precipitates (IPs). As a result, the electron transfer in the resultant sensing interface was effectively hindered and the electrochemical impedimetric signal (EIS) was efficiently amplified. Thus, the high sensitivity of the proposed CEA aptasensor was successfully improved with 0.023pgmL(-1), which may be promising and potential in assaying certain clinical disease related to CEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Introduction of culturally sensitive HIV prevention in the context of female initiation rites: an applied anthropological approach in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanyi, Sophie; Krings-Ney, Brigitte

    2009-12-01

    In Mozambique, initiation rites represent the most appropriate socio-cultural context for dealing with sexuality for a large part of the population. As the group most vulnerable to HIV exposure, HIV-prevention counselling could be ideally introduced to young women during initiation rites. This article demonstrates how interventions can take advantage of the positive aspects of this tradition. We discuss local notions of social 'contamination' versus biological 'contamination,' and we present a culturally sensitive communication strategy to bridge the divergent paradigms around AIDS-similar symptoms. Because of the emotional importance of the initiation rites, the suggested approach goes far beyond cognitive knowledge. After training, the godmothers in initiation rites became highly motivated to teach novice girls about HIV prevention and they trained other elderly women as well. Thus, the initiation rites turned into a process of empowerment for women in their own communities. A central agenda of the female initiation rites in Mozambique is to inculcate respect towards ancestors, elders, authorities and others; however, this respectful attitude between genders and between generations is disappearing due to factors like warfare and the cash economy. HIV-prevention counselling may be successfully introduced into initiation rites because of the unconscious, emotional impact of the process on the initiates' behaviour. Other studies have shown that cognitive knowledge is not enough to lead to behavioural changes. Without changing the traditional initiation rites for females, which in Mozambique includes no genital cutting, a complementary approach introduces HIV-prevention counselling during ritual counselling moments, thereby motivating godmothers and novice girls and young women to be more aware and take precautions to prevent HIV infection.

  7. An Overview of a Comprehensive Leisure Participation Framework and Its Application for Cross-cultural Leisure Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordon J.Walker; Haidong Liang

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of a "good" theory is its potential to be "integrative"[1]153-167.Unfortunately,there has been very little theory integration in either mainstream social psychology or the social psychology of leisure,although this has recently begun to change.In terms of the former,for example,Hagger,Chatzisarantis,and Harris[2] developed and tested a framework that combined self-determination theory[3] and the theory of planned behavior[4].In terms of the latter,Kleiber,Walker,and Mannell[5] envisioned how leisure constraints theory[6] could be integrated into Hagger and associates' work,as well as how it could be further extended by also incorporating personality traits and physiological needs.Thus,the first objective of this paper is to provide an overview of this comprehensive leisure participation framework.

  8. Assessing the Impact of the National Cultural Framework on Responsible Corporate Behaviour towards Consumers: an Application of Geert Hofstede`s Cultural Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Gănescu; Andreea Gangone; Mihaela Asandei

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to define and measure responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers in EU countries by defining an index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers and to establish the impact of Geert Hofstede`s cultural dimensions on the responsible behaviour of organisations towards consumers. The index uses a specific measurement methodology based on three major components of responsible corporate behaviour towards customers and on content analysis of the Eurostat databases...

  9. Moving towards Ethnorelativism: A Framework for Measuring and Meeting Students' Needs in Cross-Cultural Business and Technical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Scholars in business and technical communication have continuously made efforts to look for effective teaching approaches for cross-cultural business and technical communication; however, little research has been conducted to study the process by which students develop intercultural competence; fewer studies have been conducted to assess learners'…

  10. A Multilevel Framework for Recruiting and Supporting Graduate Students from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds in School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapin, Sally L.; Lee, Erica T.; Jaafar, Dounia

    2015-01-01

    The lack of cultural diversity among practitioners and trainers in the field of school psychology has been recognized as a longstanding problem. In particular, individuals from racial, ethnic, and linguistic minority and international backgrounds often encounter a range of barriers to pursuing graduate study in school psychology. Given the urgent…

  11. Integrated economic and experimental framework for screening of primary recovery technologies for high cell density CHO cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Daria; Stonier, Adam; Pain, David; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J; Farid, Suzanne S

    2016-07-01

    Increases in mammalian cell culture titres and densities have placed significant demands on primary recovery operation performance. This article presents a methodology which aims to screen rapidly and evaluate primary recovery technologies for their scope for technically feasible and cost-effective operation in the context of high cell density mammalian cell cultures. It was applied to assess the performance of current (centrifugation and depth filtration options) and alternative (tangential flow filtration (TFF)) primary recovery strategies. Cell culture test materials (CCTM) were generated to simulate the most demanding cell culture conditions selected as a screening challenge for the technologies. The performance of these technology options was assessed using lab scale and ultra scale-down (USD) mimics requiring 25-110mL volumes for centrifugation and depth filtration and TFF screening experiments respectively. A centrifugation and depth filtration combination as well as both of the alternative technologies met the performance selection criteria. A detailed process economics evaluation was carried out at three scales of manufacturing (2,000L, 10,000L, 20,000L), where alternative primary recovery options were shown to potentially provide a more cost-effective primary recovery process in the future. This assessment process and the study results can aid technology selection to identify the most effective option for a specific scenario.

  12. Culturally Relevant Education and Skill-Based Education for Sustainability: Moving towards an Integrated Theoretical and Methodological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study considers how educators can cultivate the skills that prepare students from all cultural backgrounds for an active role in creating a sustainable global future. These skills include systems thinking skills, collaborative skills, creative and critical thinking skills, self-directed inquiry skills, and skills for active citizenship.…

  13. Moving towards Ethnorelativism: A Framework for Measuring and Meeting Students' Needs in Cross-Cultural Business and Technical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Scholars in business and technical communication have continuously made efforts to look for effective teaching approaches for cross-cultural business and technical communication; however, little research has been conducted to study the process by which students develop intercultural competence; fewer studies have been conducted to assess learners'…

  14. Cultural Omnivorousness and Musical Gentrification: An Outline of a Sociological Framework and Its Applications for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyndahl, Petter; Karlsen, Sidsel; Skårberg, Odd; Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we aim to develop a theoretical model to understand what we refer to as "musical gentrification" and to explore how this model might be applied to and inform music education research. We start from a Bourdieusian point of view, elaborating on the connections between social class and cultural capital, and then move on to…

  15. Cultural Omnivorousness and Musical Gentrification: An Outline of a Sociological Framework and Its Applications for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyndahl, Petter; Karlsen, Sidsel; Skårberg, Odd; Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we aim to develop a theoretical model to understand what we refer to as "musical gentrification" and to explore how this model might be applied to and inform music education research. We start from a Bourdieusian point of view, elaborating on the connections between social class and cultural capital, and then move on to…

  16. Cultural competence: a framework for promoting voluntary medical male circumcision among VaRemba communities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumba, Kemist; Lubombo, Musara

    2017-07-01

    Almost a decade after the formal introduction of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an important technology for HIV prevention, its implementation is still fraught with acceptability challenges. This is especially true among ethnic groups where male circumcision is conducted as a rite of passage into adulthood. In this article we question why VMMC is being met with resistance despite widespread awareness of its promise to reduce HIV incidence in a culturally circumcising community in Zimbabwe. In-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with selected VaRemba initiation graduates and surgeons respectively in Mposi area in Mberengwa to explore why VMMC has not been readily accepted in their community. Findings suggest that male circumcision among VaRemba is not only the removal of prepuce but comprises a secretive and rich curriculum rooted in their culture and identity. Such a conceptualisation renders some social and programmatic impediments for VMMC uptake. To scale up VMMC uptake among VaRemba, we argue for a reorganisation and adaptation of VMMC services in a culturally competent way that accounts for local conceptions of circumcision and respect for the cultural beliefs and practices of VaRemba communities.

  17. Use of sensitive, broad-spectrum molecular assays and human airway epithelium cultures for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pyrc

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate detection and identification of viruses causing respiratory tract infections is important for patient care and disease control. Despite the fact that several assays are available, identification of an etiological agent is not possible in ~30% of patients suffering from respiratory tract diseases. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a diagnostic set for the detection of respiratory viruses with sensitivity as low as 1-10 copies per reaction. Evaluation of the assay using a training clinical sample set showed that viral nucleic acids were identified in ~76% of cases. To improve assay performance and facilitate the identification of novel species or emerging strains, cultures of fully differentiated human airway epithelium were used to pre-amplify infectious viruses. This additional step resulted in the detection of pathogens in all samples tested. Based on these results it can be hypothesized that the lack of an etiological agent in some clinical samples, both reported previously and observed in the present study, may result not only from the presence of unknown viral species, but also from imperfections in the detection methods used.

  18. Use of Sensitive, Broad-Spectrum Molecular Assays and Human Airway Epithelium Cultures for Detection of Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Krzysztof; Gawron, Katarzyna; Zeglen, Slawomir; Karolak, Wojciech; Wojarski, Jacek; Ochman, Marek; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Bochenek, Grazyna; Sanak, Marek; Zembala, Marian; Szczeklik, Andrzej; Potempa, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection and identification of viruses causing respiratory tract infections is important for patient care and disease control. Despite the fact that several assays are available, identification of an etiological agent is not possible in ∼30% of patients suffering from respiratory tract diseases. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a diagnostic set for the detection of respiratory viruses with sensitivity as low as 1–10 copies per reaction. Evaluation of the assay using a training clinical sample set showed that viral nucleic acids were identified in ∼76% of cases. To improve assay performance and facilitate the identification of novel species or emerging strains, cultures of fully differentiated human airway epithelium were used to pre-amplify infectious viruses. This additional step resulted in the detection of pathogens in all samples tested. Based on these results it can be hypothesized that the lack of an etiological agent in some clinical samples, both reported previously and observed in the present study, may result not only from the presence of unknown viral species, but also from imperfections in the detection methods used. PMID:22403676

  19. Experience of using an interdisciplinary task force to develop a culturally sensitive multipronged tool to improve stroke outcomes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedunni S. Arulogun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The burden of stroke is on the rise in Nigeria. A multi-faceted strategy is essential for reducing this growing burden and includes promoting medication adherence, optimizing traditional biomarker risk targets (blood pressure, cholesterol and encouraging beneficial lifestyle practices. Successful implementation of this strategy is challenged by inadequate patient health literacy, limited patient/medical system resources, and lack of a coordinated interdisciplinary treatment approach. Moreover, the few interventions developed to improve medical care in Nigeria have generally been aimed at physicians (primarily and nurses (secondarily with minimal input from other key health care providers, and limited contributions from patients, caregivers, and the community itself. The Tailored Hospital-based Risk Reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES study is assessing the efficacy of a culturally sensitive multidimensional intervention for controlling blood pressure in recent stroke survivors. A key component of the intervention development process was the constitution of a project task force comprising various healthcare providers and administrators. This paper describes the unique experience in Sub-Saharan Africa of utilizing of an interdisciplinary Task force to facilitate the development of the multipronged behavioral intervention aimed at enhancing stroke outcomes in a low-middle income country.

  20. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behera B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. Materials and Methods: A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. Results: No ′very major′ discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in β lactam - β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Conclusions: Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  1. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  2. Abundance and diversity of culturable Pseudomonas constitute sensitive indicators for adverse long-term copper impacts in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Maja Kristine; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Nybroe, Ole

    2013-01-01

    heterotrophic bacteria. This indicates that the Pseudomonas population is not resilient towards copper stress and that culturable Pseudomonas spp. comprise sensitive bio-indicators of adverse copper impacts in contaminated soils. Further this study shows that copper exposure decreases bacterial diversity...

  3. Rapid antibiotic sensitivity testing and trimethoprim-mediated filamentation of clinical isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae assayed on a novel porous culture support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingham, C.J.; Ende, van den M.; Wever, P.C.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A porous inorganic material (Anopore) was employed as a microbial culture and microcolony imaging support. Rapid Anopore-based antibiotic sensitivity testing (AST) methods were developed to assess the growth of clinical isolates, with the primary focus on testing the response of the Enterobacteriace

  4. Building a culture of health: A new framework and measures for health and health care in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Matthew D; Plough, Alonzo

    2016-09-01

    For generations, Americans' health has been unequally influenced by income, education, ethnicity, and geography. Health care systems have operated largely apart from each other and from community life. The definition of health has been the "absence of illness," rather than the recognition that all aspects of our lives should support health. Today, a growing number of communities, regions, and states are working to redefine what it means to get and stay healthy by addressing the multiple determinants of health. The requirements of federal health care reform are changing who has access to care, how care is paid for and delivered, and how patients and providers interact. Coordinated efforts to promote wellness and prevent diseases are proliferating among a diverse set of stakeholders. These developments in health and in society present a window of opportunity for real societal transformation-a chance to catalyze a national movement that demands and supports a widely shared, multifaceted vision for a Culture of Health. To address this challenge, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has embarked on a strategic direction to use the tools of a large national philanthropy to catalyze a social movement which we are calling Building a Culture of Health. This article presents the Foundation's new model for a Culture of Health, the trans-disciplinary research that developed a set of metrics that tie to the model, and the community engagement activities undertaken in the development of both the model and metrics. The model and associated metrics and extensive communication, in addition to partnership, and grant funding strategies, represent a culture change strategy being implemented over 20 years. Addressing underlying inequities in health affirming life conditions and improving social cohesion across diverse groups to take action to improve theses condition lay at the heart of this strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving Business Investment Confidence in Culture-Aligned Indigenous Economies in Remote Australian Communities: A Business Support Framework to Better Inform Government Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E. Fleming

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that culture-aligned economies are more effective in engaging remote-living Indigenous Australians in work long-term. Despite this evidence, governments remain resistant to investing substantially in these economies, with the result that low employment rates persist. This article argues that governmental systems of organisation are not designed to support non-mainstream economies and this position is unlikely to change. Similarly, the commercial sector lacks confidence that investing in culture-aligned economies will generate financial returns. This article presents a localised, pragmatic approach to Indigenous business support that works within existing systems of government, business and culture. Most unsuccessful programs fail to recognise the full suite of critical factors for sustained market engagement by both business and Indigenous people. This article reports on work to bring all critical factors together into a business support framework to inform the design and implementation of an aquaculture development program in a remote Indigenous Australian community.

  6. A critical examination of the construct of perfectionism and its relationship to mental health in Asian and African Americans using a cross-cultural framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Rendón, María José

    2012-04-01

    Although the bulk of the research literature on the construct of perfectionism and its relationship to mental health in the last 20 years has focused predominantly on Caucasian American samples, researchers are paying increasing attention to understanding perfectionism's dimensions across ethnicities. Given this momentum, the purpose of this paper is to use a cross-cultural framework to review published studies assessing perfectionism in members of an ethnic minority group living in the United States. Research to date has focused exclusively on Asian and African American samples and we organize our review by separating this literature into those studies that use level and structure-oriented cross-cultural approaches. Structure-oriented approaches empirically explore the phenomenology and/or correlates of perfectionism within each ethnic group whereas level-oriented approaches examine the relative magnitude of perfectionism's levels across groups. The last section of the review critically examines the strength of the evidence in support of researchers' arguments that certain sociocultural factors, such as collectivism and parenting style, influence perfectionism's expression and implications for ethnic minorities. Throughout the review, we offer a series of steps researchers can take to foster our understanding of perfectionism and its impacts using a cross-cultural perspective.

  7. Declining physical activity and the socio-cultural context of the geography of industrial restructuring: a novel conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2014-05-01

    At the population level, the prevalence of physical activity has declined considerably in many developed countries in recent decades. There is some evidence that areas exhibiting the lowest activity levels are those which have undergone a particularly strong transition away from employment in physically demanding occupations. We propose that processes of deindustrialization may be causally linked to unexplained geographical disparities in levels of physical activity. While the sociocultural correlates of physical activity have been well studied, and prior conceptual frameworks have been developed to explain more general patterns of activity, none have explicitly attempted to identify the components of industrial change that may impact physical activity. In this work we review the current literature on sociocultural correlates of health behaviors before using a case study centered on the United Kingdom to present a novel framework that links industrial change to declining levels of physical activity. We developed a comprehensive model linking sociocultural correlates of physical activity to processes associated with industrial restructuring and discuss implication for policy and practice. A better understanding of sociocultural processes may help to ameliorate adverse health consequences of employment decline in communities that have experienced substantial losses of manual employment.

  8. Malaysian Culture and Race Relations in a Dynamic Work Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, Hemish K.

    2009-01-01

    Race Relations in Malaysia have been a sensitive issue since Malaysia’s independence. Cultural factors have also affected Malaysia’s business world. Using Hofstede’s framework on the five dimensions of national culture, and by looking deeper into Air Asia by using Schein’s 3-Level model, this dissertation is an attempt to identify the cultural sources that affect a Malaysian Organisation. Leadership is a vital factor that determines the culture, both nationally and within an organisation, and...

  9. Perceptions of the Host Country's Food Culture among Female Immigrants from Africa and Asia: Aspects Relevant for Cultural Sensitivity in Nutrition Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdol, Annhild

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: Oslo, Norway. Participants: Twenty one female…

  10. Perceptions of the Host Country's Food Culture among Female Immigrants from Africa and Asia: Aspects Relevant for Cultural Sensitivity in Nutrition Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdol, Annhild

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: Oslo, Norway. Participants: Twenty one female…

  11. 2D zirconium-based metal-organic framework nanosheets for highly sensitive detection of mucin 1: consistency between electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linghao; Duan, Fenghe; Song, Yingpan; Guo, Chuanpan; Zhao, Hui; Tian, Jia-Yue; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Chun-Sen; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Peiyuan; Du, Miao; Fang, Shao-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) zirconium-based metal-organic framework (denoted as 521-MOF) nanosheets with the thickness of 6.0-7.5 nm were prepared with the aid of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) under the mild conditions and low temperature (50 °C). Since 521-MOF nanosheets displayed good electrochemical activity, high surface area, and strong affinity interaction between the MOF and the oligonucleotides sequences, they can impel the immobilization of large amounts of aptamer strands when applied as a platform of biosensor. As a result, the developed aptasensor exhibited sensitive bio-recognition for the cancer determination marker protein, mucin 1 (MUC1). The combination of electrochemical techniques and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) was performed to probe the kinetic processes of the aptamer immobilization and the MUC1 detection. The consistency between different determination approaches was observed, in which the developed aptasensor based on 521-MOF nanosheets exhibits pretty high sensitivity for detecting MUC1 with a low detect limit of 0.12 and 0.65 pg·ml-1 deduced from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and SPR, respectively, within the broad concentration range of MUC1 from 0.001 to 0.5 ng·ml-1. Simultaneously, a comparable affinity constant, K a, was derived from EIS and SPR, which also demonstrates that this new biosensing strategy has high selectivity, stability, reproducibility, and good applicability for the MUC1 detection in the human serum. The present finding indicates that the synthesized 521-MOF nanosheets can be employed in the fields of the biosensing or biomedical diagnosis and explored for different kinds of biosensors.

  12. Differential sensitivity to beta-cell secretagogues in cultured rat pancreatic islets exposed to human interleukin-1 beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizirik, D L; Sandler, S; Hallberg, A; Bendtzen, K; Sener, A; Malaisse, W J

    1989-08-01

    The early stages of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are characterized by a selective inability to secrete insulin in response to glucose, coupled to a better response to nonnutrient secretagogues. The deficient glucose response may be a result of the autoimmune process directed toward the beta-cells. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been suggested to be one possible mediator of immunological damage of the beta-cells. In the present study we characterized the sensitivity of beta-cells to different secretagogues after human recombinant IL-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) exposure. Furthermore, experiments were performed to clarify the biochemical mechanisms behind the defective insulin response observed in these islets. Rat pancreatic islets were isolated and kept in tissue culture (medium RPMI-1640 plus 10% calf serum) for 5 days. The islets were subsequently exposed to 60 pM human recombinant IL-1 beta during 48 h in the same culture conditions as above and examined immediately after IL-1 exposure. The rIL-1 beta-treated islets showed a marked reduction of glucose-stimulated insulin release. Stimulation with arginine plus different glucose concentrations, and leucine plus glutamine partially counteracted the rIL-1 beta-induced reduction of insulin release. The activities of the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase, glucokinase, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were similar in control and IL-1-exposed islets. Treatment with IL-1 also did not impair the activities of NADH+- and NADPH+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-aspartate transaminase, glutamate-alanine transaminase, citrate synthase, and NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase. The oxidation of D-[6-14C]glucose and L-[U-14C]leucine were decreased by 50% in IL-1-treated islets. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the ratios of [2-14C]pyruvate oxidation/[1-14C]pyruvate decarboxylation and L-[U-14C]leucine oxidation/L-[1-14C]leucine decarboxylation, indicating that IL-1 decreases the proportion of

  13. COUNSELING MODEL BASED ON GUSJIGANG CULTURE: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF COUNSELING MODEL BASED ON LOCAL WISDOMS IN KUDUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Zamroni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the developing of conceptual framework of gusjigang counseling model as a manifestation of local wisdoms hold by the people of Kudus regency. Gusjigang is a philosophy of life taught by Sunan Kudus (one of the nine Java island’s first Muslim missionaries which teaches men to have a good behavior (gus, to be good at reciting Koran (ji as well as trading (gang. Gusjigang counseling model is close to Islamic counseling nuance which sets out the Islamic values of Kudus people who have been widely known as religious people. The goals of this counseling model are to develop men's virtuous characters, scientific and systematic thoughts, and improve persistence, creativity, innovativeness to survive.

  14. A Conceptual Framework for Inclusive Digital Storytelling to Increase Diversity and Motivation for Cultural Tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemsarn, Kittichai; Nickpour, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Cultural tourism is considered to be a niche market and little attention has been paid to it, as compared with mass tourism. Moreover, visitors have little motivation to visit actual historical sites and read the story displayed behind the exhibitions. These issues highlight a good opportunity to increase further potential extended tourism and increase the motivation of visitors. To broaden and increase the potential market, this study applies inclusive design principles as 'understanding and designing for diversity' and presents reports on the first study. To increase the motivation of tourists, this study adopts digital storytelling as 'the guideline to increase motivation' and illustrates this in the second study.

  15. Ce-based metal-organic frameworks and DNAzyme-assisted recycling as dual signal amplifiers for sensitive electrochemical detection of lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a sensitive electrochemical aptasensor was designed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detection based on Ce-based metal-organic frameworks (Ce-MOFs) and Zn(2+) dependent DNAzyme-assisted recycling as dual signal amplifiers. Herein, Ce-MOFs were decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain AuNPs/Ce-MOFs, and the resultant AuNPs/Ce-MOFs not only acted as nanocarriers to capture -SH terminated hairpin probes 2 (HP2) for acquiring HP2/AuNPs/Ce-MOFs signal probes, but also as catalysts to catalyze the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA). In the presence of target LPS, report DNA was released from the prepared duplex DNA and then hybridized with hairpin probes 1 (HP1, which were immobilized on the electrode). With the help of Zn(2+), report DNA could act as Zn(2+) dependent DNAzyme to cleave HP1 circularly. Then a large amount of capture probes were produced on the electrode to combine with HP2/AuNPs/Ce-MOFs signal probes. When the detection solution contained electrochemical substrate of AA, AuNPs/Ce-MOFs could oxide AA to obtain enhanced signal. Under the optimized conditions, this proposed aptasensor for LPS exhibited a low detection limit of 3.3 fg/mL with a wide linear range from 10fg/mL to 100ng/mL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In situ solvothermal synthesis of metal-organic framework coated fiber for highly sensitive solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia; Huang, Chuanhui; Lin, Yifen; Tong, Ping; Zhang, Lan

    2016-03-04

    The present work reported a facile and simple in situ solvothermal growth method for immobilization of metal-organic framework UiO-66 via covalent bonding on amino functional silica fiber for highly sensitive solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by coupling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The developed SPME coated fiber has been characterized through SEM, TGA and XRD, confirmed the coating thickness of ∼25μm with high thermal and chemical stability. Under optimized conditions, the obtained method exhibited satisfactory linearity in range of 1.0-5000.0ngL(-1) for all the PAHs. The low detection limits were from 0.28ngL(-1) to 0.60ngL(-1) (S/N=3). The UiO-66 coated fibers showed good repeatability (RSDs less than 8.2%, n=5) and satisfying reproducibility between fiber to fiber (RSDs less than 8.9%, n=5). This method was successfully used for simultaneous determination of ten PAHs from Minjiang water and soil samples with satisfactory recoveries of 87.0-113.6% and 83.8-116.7%, respectively. Experimental results shows that the chemical bonding approach has dramatically improve the stability and lifetime of pure MOFs coating for SPME in sample pretreatment.

  17. Novel CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages by direct sulfurizing metal-organic frameworks for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaodan; Xie, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Owing to its excellent electrocatalytic properties, cobalt disulfide (CoS2) is regarded as a promising counter electrode (CE) material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, hindered by its relatively poor electrical conductivity and chemical instability, it remains a challenge to apply it into high-performance DSSCs. In this work, we have developed novel CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages as a CE in DSSCs, using ZIF-67 (zeolitic imidazolate framework 67, Co(mim)2, mim = 2-methylimidolate) as a template. The CoS2 samples sulfurized for different time lengths are prepared through a facile solution process. It is found that the sulfurization time can be optimized to maximize the DSSC efficiency and the DSSC based on the CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages sulfurized for 4 hours exhibits the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.20%, higher than those of DSSCs consisting of other CoS2 CEs and Pt-based DSSC (7.88%). The significantly improved DSSC PCE is contributed by the synergic effect of inner CoS2 nanoparticles and an amorphous carbon matrix, leading to a CE with high catalytic activity, good electrical conductivity and excellent durability. This study demonstrates that the CE based on inexpensive CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages is a prospective substitute to expensive platinum and provides a new approach for commercializing high-efficiency DSSCs.

  18. Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2014-11-01

    We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320 nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs.

  19. Rapid and highly sensitive detection of extracellular and intracellular H2S by an azide-functionalized Al(iii)-based metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Soutick; Reinsch, Helge; Banesh, Sooram; Stock, Norbert; Trivedi, Vishal; Biswas, Shyam

    2017-09-18

    A new, azide-functionalized Al(iii)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) denoted as CAU-10-N3 (1, CAU = Christian-Albrechts-University) and consisting of the 5-azido-isophthalic acid (H2IPA-N3) ligand was employed as a reaction-based fluorescent turn-on probe for the detection of H2S. The activated compound (1') showed fast, selective and highly sensitive sensing properties for extracellular H2S in HEPES buffer (10 mM, pH = 7.4). The material retained its high selectivity even in the presence of possibly competing biological species. The limit of detection of 1' for H2S is 2.65 μM, which is lower than the earlier reports on MOFs for H2S sensing. The material displayed a short response time (420 s) and a significant increase (20-fold and 26-fold after 1 and 7 min of addition of Na2S, respectively) in the fluorescence intensity towards H2S. Macrophage cells loaded with probe 1' exhibited blue fluorescence with a response time of 15 min after Na2S addition, indicating the suitability of the probe for intracellular H2S detection. Moreover, CAU-10-N3 featured excellent detection performance (quick response and 32-fold increment in fluorescence intensity after 7 min of Na2S addition) in water. Hence, it can be utilized to regulate the H2S level in aqueous samples collected from the environment.

  20. Robust optimization for nonlinear time-delay dynamical system of dha regulon with cost sensitivity constraint in batch culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Chongyang; Chang, Liang; Xie, Jun; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong

    2016-09-01

    Time-delay dynamical systems, which depend on both the current state of the system and the state at delayed times, have been an active area of research in many real-world applications. In this paper, we consider a nonlinear time-delay dynamical system of dha-regulonwith unknown time-delays in batch culture of glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol induced by Klebsiella pneumonia. Some important properties and strong positive invariance are discussed. Because of the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentrations of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium points for the time-delay system, a quantitative biological robustness for the concentrations of intracellular substances is defined by penalizing a weighted sum of the expectation and variance of the relative deviation between system outputs before and after the time-delays are perturbed. Our goal is to determine optimal values of the time-delays. To this end, we formulate an optimization problem in which the time delays are decision variables and the cost function is to minimize the biological robustness. This optimization problem is subject to the time-delay system, parameter constraints, continuous state inequality constraints for ensuring that the concentrations of extracellular and intracellular substances lie within specified limits, a quality constraint to reflect operational requirements and a cost sensitivity constraint for ensuring that an acceptable level of the system performance is achieved. It is approximated as a sequence of nonlinear programming sub-problems through the application of constraint transcription and local smoothing approximation techniques. Due to the highly complex nature of this optimization problem, the computational cost is high. Thus, a parallel algorithm is proposed to solve these nonlinear programming sub-problems based on the filled function method. Finally, it is observed that the obtained optimal estimates for the time-delays are highly satisfactory

  1. An optimisation approach for culturing shear-sensitive dinoflagellate microalgae in bench-scale bubble column photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, L; García-Camacho, F; Sánchez-Mirón, A; Contreras-Gómez, A; Molina-Grima, E

    2015-12-01

    The dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum was grown in bubble column photobioreactors and a genetic algorithm-based stochastic search strategy used to find optimal values for the culture parameters gas flow rate, culture height, and nozzle sparger diameter. Cell production, concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane fluidity and photosynthetic efficiency were studied throughout the culture period. Gas-flow rates below 0.26Lmin(-1), culture heights over 1.25m and a nozzle diameter of 1.5mm were found to provide the optimal conditions for cell growth, with an increase of 60% in cell production with respect to the control culture. Non-optimal conditions produced a sufficiently high shear stress to negatively affect cell growth and even produce cell death. Cell physiology was also severely affected in stressed cultures. The production of ROS increased by up to 200%, whereas cell membrane fluidity decreased by 60% relative to control cultures. Photosynthetic efficiency decreased concomitantly with membrane fluidity.

  2. Rethinking Assessments: Creating a New Tool Using the Zone Of Proximal Development within a Cultural-Historical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minson V.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a picture of the current theoretical positions and methods used to assess children’s development. A maturational understanding of development is seen to be predominately used to inform the assessment tools which track how children develop across the 0—5 age group. This paper proposes that with the movement towards a cultural-historical understanding of development, a tool following from this standpoint should be developed. It is envisaged that a new assessment tool will be developed from this analysis. A theoretical rationale is given to support why the Zone of Proximal Development can be used to identify the indicators of children’s actual and potential levels of development, moving away from age/level based testing. Developing an assessment tool aligned to the principles of the ZPD can offer alternative method to assess children’s development in a theoretically robust way, providing empirical evidence to rethink the methodologies of child development assessments.

  3. A framework for assessing hydrological regime sensitivity to climate change in a convective rainfall environment: a case study of two medium-sized eastern Mediterranean catchments, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Peleg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modeling framework is formulated and applied to assess the sensitivity of the hydrological regime of two catchments in a convective rainfall environment with respect to projected climate change. The study uses likely rainfall scenarios with high spatiotemporal resolution that are dependent on projected changes in the driving regional meteorological synoptic systems. The framework was applied to a case study in two medium-sized Mediterranean catchments in Israel, affected by convective rainfall, by combining the HiReS-WG rainfall generator and the SAC-SMA hydrological model. The projected climate change impact on the hydrological regime was examined for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios, comparing the historical (beginning of the 21st century and future (mid-21st-century periods from three general circulation model simulations available from CMIP5. Focusing on changes in the occurrence frequency of regional synoptic systems and their impact on rainfall and streamflow patterns, we find that the mean annual rainfall over the catchments is projected to be reduced by 15% (outer range 2–23% and 18% (7–25% for the RCP4.5 sand RCP8.5 emission scenarios, respectively. The mean annual streamflow volumes are projected to be reduced by 45% (10–60% and 47% (16–66%. The average events' streamflow volumes for a given event rainfall depth are projected to be lower by a factor of 1.4–2.1. Moreover, the streamflow season in these ephemeral streams is projected to be shorter by 22% and 26–28% for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The amplification in reduction of streamflow volumes relative to rainfall amounts is related to the projected reduction in soil moisture, as a result of fewer rainfall events and longer dry spells between rainfall events during the wet season. The dominant factors for the projected reduction in rainfall amount were the reduction in occurrence of wet synoptic systems and the shortening of the wet synoptic systems

  4. [Human bone marrow cell culture--a sensitive method for the evaluation of the biocompatibility of materials used in orthopedics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, A; von Hirschheydt, S; Orth, J; Kienapfel, H; Griss, P; Franke, R P

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a test system to determine the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of different biomaterials used in orthopedic surgery. This system was based on the use of a human bone marrow cell culture and the purpose was to find a screening method as a alternative to early animal experimental methods. The established human bone marrow cell culture has certain advantages when compared with other cell culture models. The result demonstrated a high conformity with animal experimental results.

  5. Class Position and Musical Tastes: A Sing-Off between the Cultural Omnivorism and Bourdieusian Homology Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2015-05-01

    The longstanding debate between the homology and omnivorism approaches to the class bases of cultural tastes and practices rages on in cultural sociology. The homology thesis claims that class positions throughout the class hierarchy are accompanied by specified cultural tastes and specialized modes of appreciating them while the cultural omnivorism thesis contends that elites are (increasingly) characterized by a breadth of cultural tastes of any and all kinds. This study tests the applicability of these theses to musical tastes in Canada through the application of multiple correspondence analysis, latent class analysis, and logistic regression modeling to original telephone survey data (n = 1,595) from Toronto and Vancouver. I find that musical omnivorism, an appreciation for diverse musical styles, is not dispersed along class lines. Instead I find a homology between class position and musical tastes that designates blues, choral, classical, jazz, musical theater, opera, pop, reggae, rock, and world/international as relatively highbrow and country, disco, easy listening, golden oldies, heavy metal, and rap as relatively lowbrow. Of the highbrow tastes, all but jazz are disliked by lower class people, and of the lowbrow tastes, country, easy listening, and golden oldies are concurrently disliked by higher class people. Consistent with the homology thesis, it appears that class position is aligned with specific musical likes and dislikes. Le vieux débat entre les approches de l'homologie et de l'omnivorisme aux bases des classes des goûts et des pratiques culturels fait rage dans la sociologie culturelle. La thèse de l'homologie prétend que les positions des classes à travers la hiérarchie des classes sont accompagnées par des goûts culturels spécifiés et des modes spécialisés permettant leur appréciation. La thèse de l'omnivorisme culturel, en revanche, soutient que les élites sont (de plus en plus) caractérisées par un éventail de go

  6. The biocompatibility of metal-organic framework coatings: an investigation on the stability of SURMOFs with regard to water and selected cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Maximilian; Arslan, Hasan K; Bauer, Stella; Zybaylo, Olexandra; Christophis, Christof; Gliemann, Hartmut; Rosenhahn, Axel; Wöll, Christof

    2012-05-01

    Highly porous thin films based on a [Cu(bdc)(2)](n) (bdc = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid) metal-organic framework, MOF, grown using liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) show remarkable stability in pure water as well as in artificial seawater. This opens the possibility to use these highly porous coatings for environmental and life science applications. Here we characterize in detail the stability of these SURMOF 2 thin films under aqueous and cell culture conditions. We find that the material degrades only very slowly in water and artificial seawater (ASW) whereas in typical cell culture media (PBS and DMEM) a rapid dissolution is observed. The release of Cu(2+) ions resulting from the dissolution of the SURMOF 2 in the liquids exhibits no adverse effect on the adhesion of fibroblasts, prototype eukaryotic cells, to the substrate and their subsequent proliferation, thus demonstrating the biocompatibility of SURMOF 2 surface coatings. Thus, the results are an important step toward application of these porous materials as a slow release matrix, for example, for pharmaceuticals and growth factors.

  7. Events as a Framework for Tourist Destination Branding – Case Studies of Two Cultural Events in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Trošt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Events have become an increasingly significant component of destination branding. Many destinations throughout the world have developed events portfolios as a strategic initiative to attract tourists and to reinforce their brand. In this paper, the focus of research will be on tourist destination branding by means of events. The relationship between events and destination branding is examined through six phases of the process of building a destination brand identity with the use of events. When it comes to destination branding, a need for an analysis of strategic documents of destination development imposes because event tourism strategies help destinations plan how to use events in a tourism role. The purpose of this study is to examine which factors are of the top priorities when using events as a marketing approach. The method of case study will be used, by which two cultural events which take place in the Republic of Croatia will be analyzed, namely, “Špancirfest” in Varaždin and “Trka na prstenac” in Barban. Varaždin and Barban are on different levels in their branding work. The different sizes and locations of the destinations naturally affect the operating procedures. This article may be of interest to destination marketers and event organizers, especially in developing destinations which intend to differentiate themselves from the competitive market.

  8. Ex vivo cultures of glioblastoma in three-dimensional hydrogel maintain the original tumor growth behavior and are suitable for preclinical drug and radiation sensitivity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiguet Jiglaire, Carine, E-mail: carine.jiguet-jiglaire@univ-amu.fr [Aix Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille (France); CRO2, UMR 911, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille Cedex (France); INSERM, U911, 13005 Marseille (France); Baeza-Kallee, Nathalie; Denicolaï, Emilie; Barets, Doriane [Aix Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille (France); CRO2, UMR 911, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille Cedex (France); INSERM, U911, 13005 Marseille (France); Metellus, Philippe [Aix Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille (France); CRO2, UMR 911, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille Cedex (France); INSERM, U911, 13005 Marseille (France); APHM, Timone Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, 13005 Marseille (France); Timone Hospital, 264 Rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2014-02-15

    Identification of new drugs and predicting drug response are major challenges in oncology, especially for brain tumors, because total surgical resection is difficult and radiation therapy or chemotherapy is often ineffective. With the aim of developing a culture system close to in vivo conditions for testing new drugs, we characterized an ex vivo three-dimensional culture system based on a hyaluronic acid-rich hydrogel and compared it with classical two-dimensional culture conditions. U87-MG glioblastoma cells and seven primary cell cultures of human glioblastomas were subjected to radiation therapy and chemotherapy drugs. It appears that 3D hydrogel preserves the original cancer growth behavior and enables assessment of the sensitivity of malignant gliomas to radiation and drugs with regard to inter-tumoral heterogeneity of therapeutic response. It could be used for preclinical assessment of new therapies. - Highlights: • We have compared primary glioblastoma cell culture in a 2D versus 3D-matrix system. • In 3D morphology, organization and markers better recapitulate the original tumor. • 3D-matrix culture might represent a relevant system for more accurate drug screening.

  9. Increasing Self-Awareness, Decreasing Dogmatism and Expanding Disciplinary Horizons: Synthesising a Plan of Action towards Culture-Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    The author recognises the fact that knowledge of cultural diversity and its implications is growing in the field of giftedness research and practice. In some ways, the target article could therefore be considered "old news." The author contends that his effort to address culture variation and its problematic impact on research, however, is not to…

  10. Are Perfectionism, Individualism, and Racial Color-Blindness Associated with Less Cultural Sensitivity? Exploring Diversity Awareness in White Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T.; Castro, Antonio J.; Cunningham, Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Cultural ideologies of meritocracy and individualism act as strong barriers for college students in understanding the most complex systems of inequity across racial, cultural, and gendered lines. The dichotomous thinking patterns of maladaptive perfectionists may also relate to resistance of multicultural awareness. This study examined whether…

  11. Are Perfectionism, Individualism, and Racial Color-Blindness Associated with Less Cultural Sensitivity? Exploring Diversity Awareness in White Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T.; Castro, Antonio J.; Cunningham, Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Cultural ideologies of meritocracy and individualism act as strong barriers for college students in understanding the most complex systems of inequity across racial, cultural, and gendered lines. The dichotomous thinking patterns of maladaptive perfectionists may also relate to resistance of multicultural awareness. This study examined whether…

  12. Using the framework of corporate culture in “mergers” to support the development of a cultural basis for integrative medicine – guidance for building an integrative medicine department or service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt CM

    2015-01-01

    merger. In a merger, two or more organizations - usually companies - are combined into one in order to strengthen the companies financially and strategically. The corporate culture of both merger partners has an important influence on the integration.Purpose: The aim of this project was to transfer the concept of corporate culture in mergers to the merging of two medical systems.Methods: A two-step approach (literature analyses and expert consensus procedure was used to develop practical guidance for the development of a cultural basis for integrative medicine, based on the framework of corporate culture in “mergers,” which could be used to build an integrative medicine department or integrative medicine service.Results: Results include recommendations for general strategic dimensions (definition of the medical model, motivation for integration, clarification of the available resources, development of the integration team, and development of a communication strategy, and recommendations to overcome cultural differences (the clinic environment, the professional language, the professional image, and the implementation of evidence-based medicine.Conclusion: The framework of mergers in corporate culture provides an understanding of the difficulties involved in integrative medicine projects. The specific recommendations provide a good basis for more efficient implementation. Keywords: integrative medicine, mergers, corporate culture

  13. Mardin Süryanilerinde Belleğin Teolojik-Kültürel Çerçevesi / Theological - Cultural Framework of Memory in Mardin Syriacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Pekasil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Theological - Cultural Framework of Memory in Mardin Syriacs Abstract In this article, “theological/ritual-cultural framework of memory”, "memory participation tools" "recall figures" will be examined in the case of Mardin Syriac Orthodox Church. "Ritual participation" and "rhythmic repetition" which enables "theological-social inclusion" and "integration", also mobilizes remembering instruments and guarantees protection, revival and transfer of cultural memory. This also ensures continuation of sense of belonging. Priests who are accepted as "vicarious memory" enable participation to memory in church which is a "memory space" mediating to the "transmission of blessing and grace by ritual representation". Priests also by institutionalizing ceremonies and rituals which integrated with music, makes cultural meanings functional. The theme is discussed from the perspective of cultural memory and supported by face to face interviews. Mardin Süryanilerinde Belleğin Teolojik-Kültürel Çerçevesi Öz Bu yazıda, Mardin Süryani Ortodoks Kilisesi örneğinden hareketle “belleğin teolojik/ritüel- kültürel çerçevesi”, “belleğe katılım araçları”, “hatırlama figürleri” ele alınacaktır. “Teolojik ve toplumsal katılımı”, “bütünleşmeyi” sağlayan “ritüel katılım” ve “ritmik tekrar”, hatırlama araçlarını harekete geçirerek kültürel belleğin korunmasını, canlandırılmasını ve aktarılmasını garanti etmekte, aidiyetin devamını sağlamaktadır. Belleğe katılımı sağlayan “vekil hafıza” olarak kabul edilen papazlar, bir “hafıza mekânı” olan kilisede, “inayetin ritüel temsille aktarımına” aracılık yapmakta; “ritüel tasarım” yoluyla müzikle bütünleştirdikleri ayin ve ritüelleri kurumsallaştırarak kültürel anlamlara işlerlik kazandırmaktadırlar. Çalışma konusu, kültürel bellek perspektifinden ele alınmış ve mülakat örnekleri ile desteklenmiştir.

  14. Down-modulation of antigen-induced activation of murine cultured mast cells sensitized with a highly cytokinergic IgE clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanaka, Mariko; Kurimune, Yuki; Yamada, Keiko; Hyodo, Nao; Natsuhara, Mayuko; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that several IgE clones can activate mast cells during the sensitization phase even in the absence of antigen. They were found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine release, histamine synthesis, chemotaxis, adhesion, and accelerated maturation of mast cells, although it remains unknown whether antigen-induced responses can be affected by differences of IgE clones. We compared two IgE clones, which were different in the capacity to activate mast cells during sensitization, in terms of potentials to affect antigen-induced degranulation and cytokine releases using IL-3-dependent murine bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs). Antigen-induced degranulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were augmented, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone IgE-3, which did not induce phosphorylation of JNK and cytokine release in the absence of antigen, whereas those were significantly rather decreased, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone SPE-7, one of the most potent cytokinergic IgE clones, which intensively induced phosphorylation of JNK. This attenuated response with SPE-7 was accompanied by decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the cellular proteins including Syk upon antigen stimulation. SP600125, which is known to inhibit JNK, restored the levels of antigen-induced degranulation and phosphorylation of Syk in BMMCs sensitized with higher concentrations of a clone SPE-7 when it was added before sensitization. Treatment with anisomycin, a potent activator of JNK, before IgE sensitization significantly suppressed antigen-induced degranulation. These findings suggest that differences of sensitizing IgE clones can affect antigen-induced responses and activation of JNK during sensitization might suppress antigen-induced activation of mast cells.

  15. A simple colony-formation assay in liquid medium, termed 'tadpoling', provides a sensitive measure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Aaron Z; Koshland, Douglas E

    2013-12-01

    Here we describe the first high-throughput amenable method of quantifying Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. Current high-throughput methods of assessing yeast cell viability, such as flow cytometry and SGA analysis, do not measure the percentage viability of a culture but instead measure cell vitality or colony fitness, respectively. We developed a method, called tadpoling, to quantify the percentage viability of a yeast culture, with the ability to detect as few as one viable cell amongst ~10(8) dead cells. The most important feature of this assay is the exploitation of yeast colony formation in liquid medium. Utilizing a microtiter dish, we are able to observe a range of viability of 100% to 0.0001%. Comparison of tadpoling to the traditional plating method to measure yeast culture viability reveals that, for the majority of Saccharomyces species analyzed there is no significant difference between the two methods. In comparison to flow cytometry using propidium iodide, the high-throughput method of measuring yeast culture viability, tadpoling is much more accurate at culture viabilities viability.

  16. Comparison of the sensitivity of culture, PCR and quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sputum of cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vos Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen involved in the decline of lung function in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Early aggressive antibiotic therapy has been shown to be effective in preventing chronic colonization. Therefore, early detection is important and sensitive detection methods are warranted. In this study, we used a dilution series of P. aeruginosa positive sputa, diluted in a pool of P. aeruginosa negative sputa, all from CF patients - to mimick as closely as possible the sputa sent to routine laboratories - to compare the sensitivity of three culture techniques versus that of two conventional PCR formats and four real-time PCR formats, each targeting the P. aeruginosa oprL gene. In addition, we compared five DNA-extraction protocols. Results In our hands, all three culture methods and the bioMérieux easyMAG Nuclisens protocol Generic 2.0.1, preceded by proteinase K pretreatment and followed by any of the 3 real-time PCR formats with probes were most sensitive and able to detect P. aeruginosa up to 50 cfu/ml, i.e. the theoretical minimum of one cell per PCR mixture, when taking into account the volumes used in this study of sample for DNA-extraction, of DNA-elution and of DNA-extract in the PCR mixture. Conclusion In this study, no difference in sensitivity could be found for the detection of P. aeruginosa from sputum between microbiological culture and optimized DNA-extraction and real-time PCR. The results also indicate the importance of the optimization of the DNA-extraction protocol and the PCR format.

  17. Exploiting multi-function Metal-Organic Framework nanocomposite Ag@Zn-TSA as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Sheying, E-mail: dongsyy@126.com [College of Sciences, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China); Zhang, Dandan; Suo, Gaochao; Wei, Wenbo [College of Sciences, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China); Huang, Tinglin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China)

    2016-08-31

    A novel multi-function Metal-Organic Framework composite Ag@Zn-TSA (zinc thiosalicylate, Zn(C{sub 7}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}S), Zn-TSA) was synthesized as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of myoglobin (Mb)/glucose oxidase (GOx) for electrochemical biosensing. The electrochemical biosensors based on Ag@Zn-TSA composite and ionic liquid (IL) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) were fabricated successfully. Furthermore, the properties of the sensors were discussed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometric current-time curve, respectively. The results showed the proposed biosensors had wide linear response to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the range of 0.3–20,000 μM, to nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) for 1.3 μM–1660 μM and 2262 μM–1,33,000 μM, to glucose for 2.0–1022 μM, with a low detection limit of 0.08 μM for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 0.5 μM for NO{sub 2}{sup −}, 0.8 μM for glucose. The values of the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) for Mb and GOx were estimated as 2.05 s{sup −1} and 2.45 s{sup −1}, respectively. Thus, Ag@Zn-TSA was a kind of ideal material as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing. In addition, this work indicated that MOF nanocomposite had a great potential for constructing wide range of sensing interface. - Highlights: • Novel Ag@Zn-TSA was used as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of Mb/glucose. • We exploited multi-function MOFs for a wide range of electrocatalytic sensing interface. • The proposed biosensors had an excellent catalytic effect on the small molecule (NO{sub 2}{sup −}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, glucose).

  18. Diagnostic Algorithm Using a Sensitive Broth Culture Method for Detection of Clostridium difficile Toxin from Stool Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bayardelle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-step glutamate dehydrogenase antigencytotoxicity neutralization assay algorithm has been found to be reliable for the diagnosis of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. However, the high sensitivity of the screening method is compromised by the relative low sensitivity of the second step, the direct cytotoxin neutralization assay (DCNA using a fecal filtrate. The objective of the present study was to compare the DCNA with an indirect cytotoxin neutralization assay (ICNA.

  19. Development of a Highly Sensitive Cell-Based Assay for Detecting Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A through Neural Culture Media Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Won S; Pezzi, Hannah M; Schuster, Andrea R; Berry, Scott M; Sung, Kyung E; Beebe, David J

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most lethal naturally produced neurotoxin. Due to the extreme toxicity, BoNTs are implicated in bioterrorism, while the specific mechanism of action and long-lasting effect was found to be medically applicable in treating various neurological disorders. Therefore, for both public and patient safety, a highly sensitive, physiologic, and specific assay is needed. In this paper, we show a method for achieving a highly sensitive cell-based assay for BoNT/A detection using the motor neuron-like continuous cell line NG108-15. To achieve high sensitivity, we performed a media optimization study evaluating three commercially available neural supplements in combination with retinoic acid, purmorphamine, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), and ganglioside GT1b. We found nonlinear combinatorial effects on BoNT/A detection sensitivity, achieving an EC50 of 7.4 U ± 1.5 SD (or ~7.9 pM). The achieved detection sensitivity is comparable to that of assays that used primary and stem cell-derived neurons as well as the mouse lethality assay.

  20. A voltage-sensitive dye-based assay for the identification of differentiated neurons derived from embryonic neural stem cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson N Leão

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pluripotent and multipotent stem cells hold great therapeutical promise for the replacement of degenerated tissue in neurological diseases. To fulfill that promise we have to understand the mechanisms underlying the differentiation of multipotent cells into specific types of neurons. Embryonic stem cell (ESC and embryonic neural stem cell (NSC cultures provide a valuable tool to study the processes of neural differentiation, which can be assessed using immunohistochemistry, gene expression, Ca(2+-imaging or electrophysiology. However, indirect methods such as protein and gene analysis cannot provide direct evidence of neuronal functionality. In contrast, direct methods such as electrophysiological techniques are well suited to produce direct evidence of neural functionality but are limited to the study of a few cells on a culture plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we describe a novel method for the detection of action potential-capable neurons differentiated from embryonic NSC cultures using fast voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD. We found that the use of extracellularly applied VSD resulted in a more detailed labeling of cellular processes compared to calcium indicators. In addition, VSD changes in fluorescence translated precisely to action potential kinetics as assessed by the injection of simulated slow and fast sodium currents using the dynamic clamp technique. We further demonstrate the use of a finite element model of the NSC culture cover slip for optimizing electrical stimulation parameters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our method allows for a repeatable fast and accurate stimulation of neurons derived from stem cell cultures to assess their differentiation state, which is capable of monitoring large amounts of cells without harming the overall culture.

  1. Human Rights and Cultural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Stewart Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Universal human rights and particular cultural identities, which are relativistic by nature, seem to stand in conflict with each other. It is commonly suggested that the relativistic natures of cultural identities undermine universal human rights and that human rights might compromise particular cultural identities in a globalised world. This article examines this supposed clash and suggests that it is possible to frame a human rights approach in such a way that it becomes the starting point and constraining framework for all non-deficient cultural identities. In other words, it is possible to depict human rights in a culturally sensitive way so that universal human rights can meet the demands of a moderate version of meta-ethical relativism which acknowledges a small universal core of objectively true or false moral statements and avers that, beyond that small core, all other moral statements are neither objectively true nor false.

  2. Evaluation of a Video-Based Seminar to Raise Health Care Professionals' Awareness of Culturally Sensitive End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Oliver, Dulce M; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Roegner, Michael; Yeo, Gwen

    2017-07-15

    Health care workers serve diverse communities and face challenges in delivering culturally responsive EOL care, especially when caring for Latino elders. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a newly developed telenovela, or video soap opera, on health care professionals (HCPs)' awareness of caregivers' stress and patients' cultural approaches to end-of-life (EOL) care decisions. A multicenter cross-sectional study among three communities in New York, Miami, and Missouri. Participants from a convenience sample of multidisciplinary HCPs were randomly assigned to view power point presentation with either a control video or an intervention-telenovela about caregiving as part of a one-hour audiovisual seminar and completed a pre- and post-test questionnaire to evaluate reaction and learning. Participants (N = 142) were mostly female (80%) nurses (54%) with a mean age of 44.5 ± 12.4 years and from non-Hispanic white (41%) or Hispanics (37%) ethnicity. In both control and intervention groups, post-test responses demonstrated a high level (87%) of satisfaction with seminar and an increase in openness to discuss EOL issues with culturally diverse patients (P educate HCPs on cultural sensitivity to help ethnically diverse caregivers and their patients benefit from EOL care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Examining the cross-cultural sensitivity of the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F and validation of a Dutch version.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Stes

    Full Text Available The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F is used to examine students' study approaches in higher education. The questionnaire assumes to measure two factors: a deep and a surface study approach. Analyses into the validity and reliability of the original English R-SPQ-2F yielded positive results. In this study, we examined the degree to which these positive results can also be found for the Dutch version that we developed. By comparing our results with the results of earlier studies in different cultures, we conclude cross-cultural sensitivity is an important point to be borne in mind when using the R-SPQ-2F. Our research supports the validity and reliability of our Dutch version of the R-SPQ-2F.

  4. The Role of National Culture in Advertising’s Sensitivity to Business Cycles: An Investigation Across All Continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Deleersnyder (Barbara); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict); P.S.H. Leeflang (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCutting advertising budgets has traditionally been a popular reaction by companies around the globe when faced with a slacking economy. Still, anecdotal evidence suggests the presence of considerable cross-country variability in the cyclical sensitivity of advertising expenditures. We co

  5. Analysis of the sensitivity to rainfall spatio-temporal variability of an operational urban rainfall-runoff model in a multifractal framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Lovejoy, S.

    2011-12-01

    In large urban areas, storm water management is a challenge with enlarging impervious areas. Many cities have implemented real time control (RTC) of their urban drainage system to either reduce overflow or limit urban contamination. A basic component of RTC is hydraulic/hydrologic model. In this paper we use the multifractal framework to suggest an innovative way to test the sensitivity of such a model to the spatio-temporal variability of its rainfall input. Indeed the rainfall variability is often neglected in urban context, being considered as a non-relevant issue at the scales involve. Our results show that on the contrary the rainfall variability should be taken into account. Universal multifractals (UM) rely on the concept of multiplicative cascade and are a standard tool to analyze and simulate with a reduced number of parameters geophysical processes that are extremely variable over a wide range of scales. This study is conducted on a 3 400 ha urban area located in Seine-Saint-Denis, in the North of Paris (France). We use the operational semi-distributed model that was calibrated by the local authority (Direction Eau et Assainnissement du 93) that is in charge of urban drainage. The rainfall data comes from the C-Band radar of Trappes operated by Météo-France. The rainfall event of February 9th, 2009 was used. A stochastic ensemble approach was implemented to quantify the uncertainty on discharge associated to the rainfall variability occurring at scales smaller than 1 km x 1 km x 5 min that is usually available with C-band radar networks. An analysis of the quantiles of the simulated peak flow showed that the uncertainty exceeds 20 % for upstream links. To evaluate a potential gain from a direct use of the rainfall data available at the resolution of X-band radar, we performed similar analysis of the rainfall fields of the degraded resolution of 9 km x 9 km x 20 min. The results show a clear decrease in uncertainty when the original resolution of C

  6. Sensitive method for detecting low numbers of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in mixed cultures by use of colony sweeps and polymyxin extraction of verotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, M A; Petric, M; Lim, C; Cheung, R; Arbus, G S

    1985-01-01

    High titers of Verotoxin (VT) were released from cell pellets of VT-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC; corresponding to E. coli strains producing "high" levels of Shiga-like toxin) after incubation in polymyxin B (0.1 mg/ml) for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Maximal titers of polymyxin-releasable VT occurred in cells obtained from 5-h Penassay broth cultures and were up to eightfold higher than the peak culture supernatant VT titers which occurred in 8-h cultures. Polymyxin-releasable cell extracts of 5-h broth cultures inoculated with mixtures of VT-positive (VT+) and VT-negative strains had easily detectable VT titers when the proportion of VT+ cells in the mixture was about 1.0%, but culture supernatants were negative for VT even when this proportion was 20%. The results were the same whether the initial inoculum consisted of broth culture mixtures of VT+ and VT-negative strains or colony sweeps (loopfuls of confluent bacterial growth) taken from solid plate media previously inoculated with the broth mixtures. In a clinical study, 80 stool cultures from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome and family contacts with diarrhea were tested for free fecal VT, VT in polymyxin extracts of colony sweeps (VT/PECS), and VTEC (examination of 20 separate E. coli colonies from primary media for VT production). Of the 80 samples, 40 were positive for at least one of these three tests; all 40 were positive for free fecal VT, and 20 of these were positive for VT/PECS. VTEC (as few as 1 colony out of 20) were only isolated from 14 of the 20 cultures that were positive for VT/PECS. In six cases, the VT/PECS was positive even when none of 20 colonies tested were VT+, suggesting that the procedure was able to detect a proportion of VTEC that was less than one in 20(5%). We conclude that the VT/PECS method is highly sensitive for detecting low concentrations of VTEC in stools and provides a rapid method for screening out stools that are negative for VTEC. The technique should also be of

  7. Process and Product in Cross-Cultural Treatment Research: Development of a Culturally Sensitive Women-Centered Substance Use Intervention in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrée E. Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women who inject drugs (WID are highly marginalized and stigmatized and experience ongoing discrimination in Georgia. Few opportunities exist for WID to receive publicly funded treatment for substance use disorders. The IMEDI (Investigating Methods for Enhancing Development in Individuals project was developed in response to the need for women-specific and women-centered treatment services. This paper described our approach to understanding the Georgian culture—and WID within that culture—so that we could integrate two interventions for substance use found effective in other Western and non-Western cultures and to outline how we refined and adapted our integrated intervention to yield a comprehensive women-centered intervention for substance use. Reinforcement Based Treatment (RBT and the Women’s CoOp (WC were adapted and refined based on in-depth interviews with WID (N=55 and providers of health services (N=34 to such women and focus groups [2 with WID (N=15 and 2 with health service providers (N=12]. The resulting comprehensive women-centered intervention, RBT+WC, was then pretested and further refined in a sample of 20 WID. Results indicated positive pre-post changes in urine screening results and perceived needs for both RBT+WC and a case management control condition. The approach to treatment adaptation and the revised elements of RBT+WC are presented and discussed.

  8. Culture Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    by certain representations and embedded in certain norms and values. The analytical framework is applied on a case of cultural urban branding. The case is the harbour front in Aalborg, Denmark where a number of flagship architecture projects and cultural institutions are being planned. It is shown how...

  9. Explosives: Metal-Organic Framework Templated Synthesis of Copper Azide as the Primary Explosive with Low Electrostatic Sensitivity and Excellent Initiation Ability (Adv. Mater. 28/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianyou; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Shan; Song, Naimeng; Chen, Yifa; Tong, Wenchao; Han, Yuzhen; Yang, Li; Wang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    On page 5837, L. Yang, B. Wang, and co-workers describe a metal-organic framework (MOF) templating method to synthesize copper azide uniformly anchored in a 3D interconnected carbon matrix and evenly spaced by the electron-conductive joints. This strategy sheds light on the preparation of powerful yet safe primary explosives and fulfills the need for controllable explosive systems.

  10. Comparison of Assays for Sensitive and Reproducible Detection of Cell Culture-Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, George D.; Rochelle, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the three most commonly used assays for detecting Cryptosporidium sp. infections in cell culture: immunofluorescent antibody and microscopy assay (IFA), PCR targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific DNA, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific mRNA. Monolayers of HCT-8 cells, grown in 8-well chamber slides or 96-well plates, were inoculated with a variety of viable and inactivated oocysts to assess assay performance. All assays detected infection with low doses of flow cytometry-enumerated Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, including infection with one oocyst and three oocysts. All methods also detected infection with Cryptosporidium hominis. The RT-PCR assay, IFA, and PCR assay detected infection in 23%, 25%, and 51% of monolayers inoculated with three C. parvum oocysts and 10%, 9%, and 16% of monolayers inoculated with one oocyst, respectively. The PCR assay was the most sensitive, but it had the highest frequency of false positives with mock-infected cells and inactivated oocysts. IFA was the only infection detection assay that did not produce false positives with mock-infected monolayers. IFA was also the only assay that detected infections in all experiments with spiked oocysts recovered from Envirochek capsules following filtration of 1,000 liters of treated water. Consequently, cell culture with IFA detection is the most appropriate method for routine and sensitive detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in drinking water. PMID:22038611

  11. Culturally sensitive adaptation of the concept of relational communication therapy as a support to language development: An exploratory study in collaboration with a Tanzanian orphanage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Ulrike

    2016-11-07

    Orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) who grow up in institutional care often show communication and language problems. The caregivers lack training, and there are few language didactics programmes aimed at supporting communication and language development in OVC in institutional care in Tanzania. The purpose of the study was to adapt the German concept of relational communication therapy (RCT) as a support to language development in a Tanzanian early childhood education context in a culturally sensitive way. Following the adaptation of the concept, a training programme for Tanzanian caregiver students was developed to compare their competencies in language didactics before and after training. A convergent mixed methods design was used to examine changes following training in 12 participating caregiver students in a Tanzanian orphanage. The competencies in relational language didactics were assessed by a self-developed test and video recordings before and after intervention. Based on the results, we drew conclusions regarding necessary modifications to the training modules and to the concept of RCT. The relational didactics competencies of the caregiver students improved significantly following their training. A detailed analysis of the four training modules showed that the improvement in relational didactics competencies varied depending on the topic and the teacher. The results provide essential hints for the professionalisation of caregivers and for using the concept of RCT for OVC in institutional care in Tanzania. Training programmes and concepts should not just be transferred across different cultures, disciplines and settings; they must be adapted to the specific cultural setting.

  12. Exposure to culturally sensitive sexual health information and impact on health literacy: a qualitative study among newly arrived refugee women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pia; Carlzén, Katarina; Agardh, Anette

    2016-11-29

    In Sweden, migrants have poorer sexual and reproductive health compared to the general population. Health literacy, in the form of the cognitive and social skills enabling access to health promoting activities, is often poorer among migrants, partly due to language and cultural barriers. Culturally sensitive health education provides a strategy for enhancing health literacy. Since 2012, specially trained civic and health communicators have provided sexual and reproductive health and rights information to newly arrived refugees in Skåne, Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how information on sexual and reproductive health and rights was perceived by female recipients and whether being exposed to such information contributed to enhanced sexual and reproductive health and rights literacy. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with nine women and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes emerged: (1) opening the doors to new understandings of sexual and reproductive health and rights and (2) planting the seed for engagement in sexual and reproductive health and rights issues, illustrating how cultural norms influenced perceptions, but also how information opened up opportunities for challenging these norms. Gender-separate groups may facilitate information uptake, while discussion concerning sexual health norms may benefit from taking place in mixed groups.

  13. PPO/PEO modified hollow fiber membranes improved sensitivity of 3D cultured hepatocytes to drug toxicity via suppressing drug adsorption on membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin; He, Wenjuan; Wang, Qichen; Zhang, Guoliang

    2014-11-01

    The three dimensional (3D) cell culture in polymer-based micro system has become a useful tool for in vitro drug discovery. Among those polymers, polysulfone hollow fiber membrane (PSf HFM) is commonly used to create a microenvironment for cells. However, the target drug may adsorb on the polymeric surface, and this elicits negative impacts on cell exposure due to the reduced effective drug concentration in culture medium. In order to reduce the drug adsorption, PSf membrane were modified with hydrophilic Pluronic (PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO) copolymers, L121, P123 and F127 (PEO contents increase from 10%, 30% to 70%), by physical adsorption. As a result, the hydrophilicity of HFMs increased at an order of PSfF127>P123>L121 HFMs. The three modified membrane all showed significant resistance to adsorption of acid/neutral drugs. More importantly, the adsorption of base drugs were largely reduced to an average value of 11% on the L121 HFM. The improved resistance to drug adsorption could be attributed to the synergy of hydrophobic/neutrally charged PPO and hydrophilic PEO. The L121 HFM was further assessed by evaluating the drug hepatotoxicity in 3D culture of hepatocytes. The base drugs, clozapine and doxorubicin, showed more sensitive hepatotoxicity on hepatocytes in L121 HFM than in PSf HFM, while the acid drug, salicylic acid, showed the similar hepatotoxicity to hepatocytes in both HFMs. Our finding suggests that PSf HFM modified by PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO copolymers can efficiently resist the drug adsorption onto polymer membrane, and consequently improve the accuracy and sensitivity of in vitro hepatotoxic drug screening.

  14. Microscopy, culture, and sensitive management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in adults in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivathasan, Niroshan; Rakowski, Krzysztof R

    2011-06-01

    The high prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) places a significant burden on healthcare systems. Clinicians may over-manage the issue, and there is great variability in practice, with economic- and resource- implications. Up to 40% of patients with a suspected UTI do not have an infection. Using PubMed (Medline) to shortlist relevant papers in English from the last 30 years, and further sub-selection to include only uncomplicated UTIs in adults in primary care, we reviewed the literature pertaining to uncomplicated UTIs, and how it should be managed efficiently in the primary care setting. In general practice, there is no advantage to routinely request microscopy and culture of urine samples in the presence of an appropriate history and urinalysis reagent-strip testing. If antibiotics are required, then a 3-day course shall suffice. Larger epidemiological studies focusing on more susceptible sub-populations may provide better guidance for discriminatory factors to produce an algorithm for treatment.

  15. Towards a Socio-Cultural Framework for the Analysis of Joint Student-Teacher Development over Technology-Based Mathematics Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a framework, an extension of Valsiner's "zone theory", for the analysis of joint student-teacher development over a series of technology-based mathematics lessons. The framework is suitable for developing research studies over a moderately long period of time and considers interrelated student-teacher development as…

  16. Microbially enhanced dissolution and reductive dechlorination of PCE by a mixed culture: Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjie; Abriola, Linda M.; Amos, Benjamin K.; Suchomel, Eric J.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Löffler, Frank E.; Christ, John A.

    2013-08-01

    Reductive dechlorination catalyzed by organohalide-respiring bacteria is often considered for remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones due to cost savings, ease of implementation, regulatory acceptance, and sustainability. Despite knowledge of the key dechlorinators, an understanding of the processes and factors that control NAPL dissolution rates and detoxification (i.e., ethene formation) is lacking. A recent column study demonstrated a 5-fold cumulative enhancement in tetrachloroethene (PCE) dissolution and ethene formation (Amos et al., 2009). Spatial and temporal monitoring of key geochemical and microbial (i.e., Geobacter lovleyi and Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains) parameters in the column generated a data set used herein as the basis for refinement and testing of a multiphase, compositional transport model. The refined model is capable of simulating the reactive transport of multiple chemical constituents produced and consumed by organohalide-respiring bacteria and accounts for substrate limitations and competitive inhibition. Parameter estimation techniques were used to optimize the values of sensitive microbial kinetic parameters, including maximum utilization rates, biomass yield coefficients, and endogenous decay rates. Comparison and calibration of model simulations with the experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to accurately reproduce measured effluent concentrations, while delineating trends in dechlorinator growth and reductive dechlorination kinetics along the column. Sensitivity analyses performed on the optimized model parameters indicate that the rates of PCE and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) transformation and Dehalococcoides growth govern bioenhanced dissolution, as long as electron donor (i.e., hydrogen flux) is not limiting. Dissolution enhancements were shown to be independent of cis-DCE accumulation; however, accumulation of cis-DCE, as well as column length and flow rate (i.e., column residence time

  17. Sensitivity of Direct Culture, Enrichment and PCR for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Broiler Flocks at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J D; Simpkin, E; Lee, R; Clifton-Hadley, F A; Vidal, A B

    2017-06-01

    Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp. and for C. jejuni and C. coli individually. The sample was considered positive if at least one method detected the target and this interpretation was taken to represent a 'proxy gold standard' for detection in the absence of a gold standard reference test. The sensitivity of each individual method to detect Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni and C. coli was then estimated relative to the proxy gold standard. Enrichment in adapted Exeter broth (deficient in polymyxin B) with a resuscitation step was 100% sensitive, whilst direct culture on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) was highly sensitive (97.9%). Enrichment methods using Preston broth and Bolton broth were significantly less sensitive. Enrichment in Exeter broth promoted the recovery of C. jejuni, whilst enrichment in Bolton broth favoured C. coli. A RT-PCR detection test could identify 80% of flocks that were co-colonised with both species. This study found that 76.3% (n = 127) of flocks were colonised with Campylobacter spp. The majority (95.9%) of Campylobacter-positive flocks were colonised with C. jejuni; however, approximately one-third of positive flocks were simultaneously colonised with both C. jejuni and C. coli. The findings highlight the impact of different detection methodologies on the accuracy of the estimated incidence of both C. jejuni and C. coli entering the abattoir within broiler flocks and the associated

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) Film with Improved Surface Area Developed by Using Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) for Sensitive Lipocalin (NGAL) Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskierko, Zofia; Sharma, Piyush Sindhu; Prochowicz, Daniel; Fronc, Krzysztof; D'Souza, Francis; Toczydłowska, Diana; Stefaniak, Filip; Noworyta, Krzysztof

    2016-08-10

    Electropolymerizable functional and cross-linking monomers were used to prepare conducting molecularly imprinted polymer film with improved surface area with the help of a sacrificial metal-organic framework (MOF). Subsequent dissolution of the MOF layer resulted in a surface developed MIP film. This surface enlargement increased the analyte accessibility to imprinted molecular cavities. Application of the porous MIP film as a recognition unit of an extended-gate field effect transistor (EG-FET) chemosensor effectively enhanced analytical current signals of determination of recombinant human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL).

  19. Highly efficient infectious cell culture of three HCV genotype 2b strains and sensitivity to lead protease, NS5A, and polymerase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Santseharay; Li, Yi-Ping; Brun Jensen, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    , we succeeded in generating DH8, J8, and DH10 viruses with authentic sequences in the regions targeted by lead direct acting antivirals. NS5B inhibitors Sofosbuvir, Mericitabine, and BI207127 had activity against 1a (strain TN), 2a (strains JFH1 and J6), and the 2b strains, whereas VX-222...... systems can be established by using consensus clones with defined mutations. Lead protease and NS5A inhibitors, as well as polymerase inhibitors Sofosbuvir, Mericitabine, and BI207127, show cross-activity against full-length 1a, 2a, and 2b viruses, but important sensitivity differences exist......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a genetically diverse virus with multiple genotypes exhibiting remarkable differences, particularly in drug susceptibility. Drug and vaccine development will benefit from high-titer HCV cultures mimicking the complete viral life cycle, but such systems only exist...

  20. Monocrotophos induces the expression and activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in pre-sensitized cultured human brain cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Tripathi

    Full Text Available The expression and metabolic profile of cytochrome P450s (CYPs is largely missing in human brain due to non-availability of brain tissue. We attempted to address the issue by using human brain neuronal (SH-SY5Y and glial (U373-MG cells. The expression and activity of CYP1A1, 2B6 and 2E1 were carried out in the cells exposed to CYP inducers viz., 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, cyclophosphamide (CPA, ethanol and known neurotoxicant- monocrotophos (MCP, a widely used organophosphorous pesticide. Both the cells show significant induction in the expression and CYP-specific activity against classical inducers and MCP. The induction level of CYPs was comparatively lower in MCP exposed cells than cells exposed to classical inducers. Pre-exposure (12 h of cells to classical inducers significantly added the MCP induced CYPs expression and activity. The findings were concurrent with protein ligand docking studies, which show a significant modulatory capacity of MCP by strong interaction with CYP regulators-CAR, PXR and AHR. Similarly, the known CYP inducers- 3-MC, CPA and ethanol have also shown significantly high docking scores with all the three studied CYP regulators. The expression of CYPs in neuronal and glial cells has suggested their possible association with the endogenous physiology of the brain. The findings also suggest the xenobiotic metabolizing capabilities of these cells against MCP, if received a pre-sensitization to trigger the xenobiotic metabolizing machinery. MCP induced CYP-specific activity in neuronal cells could help in explaining its effect on neurotransmission, as these CYPs are known to involve in the synthesis/transport of the neurotransmitters. The induction of CYPs in glial cells is also of significance as these cells are thought to be involved in protecting the neurons from environmental insults and safeguard them from toxicity. The data provide better understanding of the metabolizing capability of the human brain cells against

  1. Monocrotophos induces the expression and activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in pre-sensitized cultured human brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vinay K; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Abhishek K; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Jahan, Sadaf; Pandey, Ankita; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Khanna, Vinay K; Yadav, Sanjay; Lohani, Mohtshim; Pant, Aditya B

    2014-01-01

    The expression and metabolic profile of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) is largely missing in human brain due to non-availability of brain tissue. We attempted to address the issue by using human brain neuronal (SH-SY5Y) and glial (U373-MG) cells. The expression and activity of CYP1A1, 2B6 and 2E1 were carried out in the cells exposed to CYP inducers viz., 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), cyclophosphamide (CPA), ethanol and known neurotoxicant- monocrotophos (MCP), a widely used organophosphorous pesticide. Both the cells show significant induction in the expression and CYP-specific activity against classical inducers and MCP. The induction level of CYPs was comparatively lower in MCP exposed cells than cells exposed to classical inducers. Pre-exposure (12 h) of cells to classical inducers significantly added the MCP induced CYPs expression and activity. The findings were concurrent with protein ligand docking studies, which show a significant modulatory capacity of MCP by strong interaction with CYP regulators-CAR, PXR and AHR. Similarly, the known CYP inducers- 3-MC, CPA and ethanol have also shown significantly high docking scores with all the three studied CYP regulators. The expression of CYPs in neuronal and glial cells has suggested their possible association with the endogenous physiology of the brain. The findings also suggest the xenobiotic metabolizing capabilities of these cells against MCP, if received a pre-sensitization to trigger the xenobiotic metabolizing machinery. MCP induced CYP-specific activity in neuronal cells could help in explaining its effect on neurotransmission, as these CYPs are known to involve in the synthesis/transport of the neurotransmitters. The induction of CYPs in glial cells is also of significance as these cells are thought to be involved in protecting the neurons from environmental insults and safeguard them from toxicity. The data provide better understanding of the metabolizing capability of the human brain cells against xenobiotics.

  2. Creating a Culture of Success: Using the Magnet Recognition Program® as a Framework to Engage Nurses in an Australian Healthcare Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Sandra; Mitchell, Marion; Casey, Veronica

    2017-02-01

    An organizational culture that reflects distrust, fear of reprisal, reluctance to challenge the status quo, acceptance of poor practice, denial, and lack of accountability creates significant issues in healthcare in relation to employee retention, burnout, organizational commitment, and patient safety. Changing culture is one of the most challenging endeavors an organization will encounter. We highlight that the Magnet Recognition Program® can be implemented as an organizational intervention to positively impact on nursing workplace culture in an international healthcare facility.

  3. Development of a sensitive detection method for stressed E. coli O157:H7 in source and finished drinking water by culture-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Keya; L Sinclair, James; Boczek, Laura; Rice, Eugene W

    2011-03-15

    A sensitive and specific method that also demonstrates viability is of interest for detection of E. coli O157:H7 in drinking water. A combination of culture and qPCR was investigated. Two triplex qPCRs, one from a commercial source and another designed for this study were optimized from 5 different assays to be run on a single qPCR plate. The qPCR assays were specific for 33 E. coli O157:H7 strains tested and detected 500 cells spiked in a background of 10(8) nontarget bacterial cells. The qPCR detection was combined with an enrichment process using Presence Absence (P/A) broth to detect chlorine and starvation stressed cells. qPCR analysis performed post-enrichment allowed the detection of 3-4 cells/L as indicated by a sharp increase in fluorescence (lowering of Ct values) from pre-enrichment levels, demonstrating a 5-6 log increase in the number of cells. When six vulnerable untreated surface water samples were examined, only one was positive for viable E. coli O157:H7 cells. These results suggest that the culture-PCR procedure can be used for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in drinking water.

  4. Innovative hydrogels based on semi-interpenetrating p(HEMA)/PVP networks for the cleaning of water-sensitive cultural heritage artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Joana A L; Bonelli, Nicole; Giorgi, Rodorico; Fratini, Emiliano; Gorel, Florence; Baglioni, Piero

    2013-02-26

    Water-based detergent systems offer several advantages, over organic solvents, for the cleaning of cultural heritage artifacts in terms of selectivity and gentle removal of grime materials or aged varnish, which are known to alter the readability of the painting. Unfortunately, easel paintings present specific characteristics that make the usage of water-based systems invasive. The interaction of water with wood or canvas support favors mechanical stresses between the substrate and the paint layers leading to the detachment of the pictorial layer. In order to avoid painting loss and to ensure a fine control (layer by layer) of grime removal, water-based cleaning systems have been confined into innovative chemical hydrogels, specifically designed for cleaning water-sensitive cultural heritage artifacts. The synthesized hydrogels are based on semi-interpenetrating chemical poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) networks with suitable hydrophilicity, water retention properties, and required mechanical strength to avoid residues after the cleaning treatment. Three different compositions were selected. Water retention and release properties have been studied by quantifying the amount of free and bound water (from differential scanning calorimetry); mesoporosity was obtained from scanning electron microscopy; microstructure from small angle X-ray scattering. To demonstrate both the efficiency and versatility of the selected hydrogels in confining and modulating the properties of cleaning systems, a representative case study is presented.

  5. Effects of ethanol on voltage-sensitive Na-channels in cultured skeletal muscle: Up-regulation as a result of chronic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R. (Bar-Ilan Univ., Ramat-Gan (Israel))

    1990-12-01

    The effects of acute and chronic treatment with ethanol were studied on the number and activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na-channels in cultured rat skeletal muscle. The number of channels was determined by measurements of specific binding of (3H) saxitoxin (STX) in whole cell preparations. Measurements were also made of the frequency and rate of rise of spontaneously occurring action potentials, which are the physiologic expression of Na-channel density. Acute ethanol (37.5-150 mM), while causing depolarization of membrane potential and blockade of electrical activity, was without effect on specific STX binding. Neither methanol, acetaldehyde nor ethylene glycol had significant effects on these properties when given acutely in the same concentrations as ethanol. Chronic ethanol caused dose-related increases in STX binding and action potential properties with maximal levels being attained after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 150 mM. On removal of ethanol from the culture medium all properties returned to control levels after 48 hr. Both increased external K+ and tetrodotoxin, which up-regulate Na-channels by reducing cytosolic Ca++, potentiated the ethanol-induced increase in Na-channel density. The increase in STX binding was not associated with changes in affinity of the binding sites for the ligand but was completely prevented by treatment with cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The results demonstrate that ethanol interacts with the cell membrane to induce synthesis of STX-binding sites.

  6. Culturally sensitive adaptation of the concept of relational communication therapy as a support to language development: An exploratory study in collaboration with a Tanzanian orphanage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schütte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC who grow up in institutional care often show communication and language problems. The caregivers lack training, and there are few language didactics programmes aimed at supporting communication and language development in OVC in institutional care in Tanzania.Objectives: The purpose of the study was to adapt the German concept of relational communication therapy (RCT as a support to language development in a Tanzanian early childhood education context in a culturally sensitive way. Following the adaptation of the concept, a training programme for Tanzanian caregiver students was developed to compare their competencies in language didactics before and after training.Methods: A convergent mixed methods design was used to examine changes following training in 12 participating caregiver students in a Tanzanian orphanage. The competencies in relational language didactics were assessed by a self-developed test and video recordings before and after intervention. Based on the results, we drew conclusions regarding necessary modifications to the training modules and to the concept of RCT.Results: The relational didactics competencies of the caregiver students improved significantly following their training. A detailed analysis of the four training modules showed that the improvement in relational didactics competencies varied depending on the topic and the teacher.Conclusion: The results provide essential hints for the professionalisation of caregivers and for using the concept of RCT for OVC in institutional care in Tanzania. Training programmes and concepts should not just be transferred across different cultures, disciplines and settings; they must be adapted to the specific cultural setting.

  7. Excitotoxic death induced by released glutamate in depolarized primary cultures of mouse cerebellar granule cells is dependent on GABAA receptors and niflumic acid-sensitive chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babot, Zoila; Cristòfol, Rosa; Suñol, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Excitotoxic neuronal death has been linked to neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Several studies have sought to clarify the involvement of Cl(-) channels in neuronal excitotoxicity using either N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate/kainic acid agonists. In this work we induced excitotoxic death in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells by means of endogenously released glutamate. Excitotoxicity was provoked by exposure to high extracellular K(+) concentrations ([K(+)](o)) for 5 min. Under these conditions, a Ca(2+)-dependent release of glutamate was evoked. When extracellular glutamate concentration rose to between 2 and 4 microM, cell viability was significantly reduced by 30-40%. The NMDA receptor antagonists (MK-801 and D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid) prevented cell death. Exposure to high [K(+)](o) produced a (36)Cl(-) influx which was significantly reduced by picrotoxinin. In addition, the GABA(A) receptor antagonists (bicuculline, picrotoxinin and SR 95531) protected cells from high [K(+)](o)-triggered excitotoxicity and reduced extracellular glutamate concentration. The Cl(-) channel blockers niflumic acid and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid also exerted a neuroprotective effect and reduced extracellular glutamate concentration, even though they did not reduce high [K(+)](o)-induced (36)Cl(-) influx. Primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells also contain a population of GABAergic neurons that released GABA in response to high [K(+)](o). Chronic treatment of primary cultures with kainic acid abolished GABA release and rendered granule cells insensitive to high [K(+)](o) exposure, even though NMDA receptors were functional. Altogether, these results demonstrate that, under conditions of membrane depolarization, low micromolar concentrations of extracellular glutamate might induce an excitotoxic process through both NMDA and GABA(A) receptors and niflumic acid-sensitive Cl

  8. Hacia una adaptación cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities.

  9. LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology: An inclusive and systemic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Daniela G; Bobele, Monte; Coppock, Jacqueline; Peña, Ezequiel

    2015-05-01

    Positive psychologists have contributed to our understandings of how positive emotions and flexible cognition enhance resiliency. However, positive psychologists' research has been slow to address the relational resources and interactions that help nonheterosexual families overcome adversity. Addressing overlooked lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) and systemic factors in positive psychology, this article draws on family resilience literature and LGBTQ literature to theorize a systemic positive psychology framework for working with nonheterosexual families. We developed the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework that integrates positive psychology's strengths-based perspective with the systemic orientation of Walsh's (1996) family resilience framework along with the cultural considerations proposed by LGBTQ family literature. We theorize that the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework takes into consideration the sociopolitical adversities impacting nonheterosexual families and sensitizes positive psychologists, including those working in organized care settings, to the systemic interactions of same-sex loving relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Rapid, sensitive, and validated UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method for quantitative determination of vasicine in Adhatoda vasica and its in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Madhukar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhatoda vasica a perennial herb has been used in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines since last 2000 years and has been employed for the treatment of respiratory tract ailments. Objective: To develop and validate new, rapid, and highly sensitive high throughput ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method for the quantitative estimation of vasicine in the leaves and to establish in vitro cultures of Adhatoda vasica for production of vasicine. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC TM BEH C8 (100.0 × 2.1 mm; 1.7 μm column packing using isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 20 mM ammonium acetate (90:10; v/v in a multiple reactions monitoring mode using the transitions m/z 189.09 → 171.08 for vasicine. Results: The vasicine was eluted at 2.58 ± 0.05 min and established a dynamic range of linearity over the concentration range of 1-1000 ng/ml (r2 = 0.999 ± 0.0005. The lower limit of detection and quantification was 0.68 and 1.0 ng/ml, respectively. There was no significant difference observed in the content of vasicine (0.92-1.04%w/w among the eleven samples collected from different locations of India. The in vitro cultures developed showed that addition of extra 28 mM KNO 3 and 100 mM NaCl in MS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D + benzyladenine (BA + indole acetic acid (IAA (1 ppm each produces faster biomass and higher amount of quinazoline alkaloids. Conclusion: Rapid, efficient, and sensitive UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method was developed for the estimation of vasicine and an efficient protocol for development of in vitro cultures was proposed, which can be used at large scale for industrial production of vasicine using bioreactors.

  11. Double Solvent Sensing Method for Improving Sensitivity and Accuracy of Hg(II) Detection Based on Different Signal Transduction of a Tetrazine-Functionalized Pillared Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Sayed Ali Akbar; Masoomi, Mohammad Yaser; Morsali, Ali

    2017-08-21

    To design a robust, π-conjugated, low-cost, and easy to synthesize metal-organic framework (MOF) for cation sensing by the photoluminescence (PL) method, 4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid) (H2OBA) has been used in combination with 3,6-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DPT) as a tetrazine-functionalized spacer to construct [Zn(OBA)(DPT)0.5]·DMF (TMU-34(-2H)). The tetrazine motif is a π-conjugated, water-soluble/stable fluorophore with relatively weak σ-donating Lewis basic sites. These characteristics of tetrazine make TMU-34(-2H) a good candidate for cation sensing. Because of hydrogen bonding between tetrazine moieties and water molecules, TMU-34(-2H) shows different PL emissions in water and acetonitrile. Cation sensing in these two solvents revealed that TMU-34(-2H) can selectively detect Hg(2+) in water (by 243% enhancement) and in acetonitrile (by 90% quenching). The contribution of electron-donating/accepting characteristics along with solvation effects on secondary interactions of the tetrazine motifs inside the TMU-34(-2H) framework results in different signal transductions. Improved sensitivity and accuracy of detection were obtained using the double solvent sensing method (DSSM), in which different signal transductions of TMU-34(-2H) in water and acetonitrile were combined simultaneously to construct a double solvent sensing curve and formulate a sensitivity factor. Calculation of sensitivity factors for all of the tested cations demonstrated that it is possible to detect Hg(2+) by DSSM with ultrahigh sensitivity. Such a tremendous distinction in the Hg(2+) sensitivity factor is visualizable in the double solvent sensing curve. Thus, by application of DSSM instead of one-dimensional sensing, the interfering effects of other cations are completely eliminated and the sensitivity toward Hg(II) is highly improved. Strong interactions between Hg(2+) and the nitrogen atoms of the tetrazine groups along with easy accessibility of Hg(2+) to the tetrazine groups lead

  12. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Yuan, Bo; Kaise, Toshikazu; Takeichi, Makoto; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kroetz, Deanna L; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As(III)) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As(III) on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As(III) on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As(III)-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As(III) were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As(III) than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As(III) in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As(III)-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As(III) cytotoxicity between these cells.

  13. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Yuta [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yuan, Bo, E-mail: yuanbo@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Kaise, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Environmental Chemodynamics, School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Takeichi, Makoto [Yoneyama Maternity Hospital, 2-12 Shin-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kroetz, Deanna L. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Toyoda, Hiroo [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As{sup III}) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As{sup III} on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As{sup III} were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As{sup III} than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As{sup III} in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As{sup III} cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examination of effect of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion

  14. Jueming prescription and its ingredients, semen cassiae and Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, stimulate lipolysis and enhance the phosphorylation of hormone‑sensitive lipase in cultured rat white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Jiaojiao; Wen, Xiuying

    2017-08-22

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of jueming prescription (JMP) and its ingredients, semen cassiae (SC) and Rhizoma Curcumae Longae (RCL), on lipolysis, and to examine their effect on the phosphorylation of hormone‑sensitive lipase (HSL) in cultured rat white adipose tissue (WAT). Retroperitoneal WAT was aseptically excised from adult male Sprague‑Dawley rats, minced into uniform sections and subjected to ex vivo culture for 24 h. The tissue sections were then distributed into a 24‑well culture plate and treated with normal saline (vehicle), isoproterenol (ISO), JMP, SC and RCL. Non‑esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol release from the intact WAT explants were determined as a measurement of lipolysis, which were measured using NEFA and glycerol assay kits. The phosphorylation of HSL at Ser563 (P‑HSL S563) and 660 residues (P‑HSL S660) were determined using western blot analysis. The size of the adipocytes was visualized using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. It was found that JMP‑, SC‑ and RCL‑stimulated lipolysis was responsible for increasing the release of NEFAs and glycerol from the intact WAT in vitro. In addition, JMP, SC and RCL increased the levels of P‑HSL Ser563: JMP water (JW) extract, 3.52‑fold; JMP ethanol (JE) extract, 3.38‑fold; SC water (SW) extract, 4.60‑fold; SC ethanol (SE) extract, 4.20‑fold; RCL water (RW) extract, 6.98‑fold; RCL ethanol (RE) extract, 6.60‑fold. JMP, SC and RCL also increased the levels of P‑HSL Ser660: JW extract, 3.16‑fold; JE extract, 2.92‑fold; SW extract, 4.57‑fold; SE extract, 4.13‑fold; RW extract, 5.41‑fold; RE 4.96‑fold) in the WAT. The RW extract had the most marked effect. The HE staining revealed that JMP, SC and RCL reduced the size of adipocytes in the WAT. In conclusion, JMP and its ingredients, SC and RC, stimulated lipolysis and reduced the size of adipocytes, possibly via the phosphorylation of HSL in cultured rat WAT.

  15. Extraction and Quantification of Tryptophan and Kynurenine from Cultured Cells and Media Using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) System Equipped with an Ultra-Sensitive Diode Array Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeffrey; Stewart, Benjamin; Weiss, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the involvement of tryptophan and its metabolite, kynurenine, in various biological processes including cancer is constantly expanding. Analysis of cell extracts and culture media can allow for quick snapshots of the metabolic fluctuations occurring in vitro. Here, we describe a method for metabolite extraction from mammalian cells and analysis of extracted metabolites and cell culture media by HPLC with detection using an ultra-sensitive diode array detector. PMID:27213172

  16. Developing of guidelines for counselling children of divorce within Tsonga culture

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. The goals of this study were formulated in response to a need for a culturally sensitive counselling service for children of divorce within the Tsonga culture. The aim of this study was to develop guidelines to be used by counsellors in helping children of divorce within Tsonga culture. The study was undertaken within the framework of the developmental research and utilisation model. The research design integrated exploratory and descriptive methods. Qualitative methods of data gather...

  17. Fe(III)-based metal-organic framework-derived core-shell nanostructure: Sensitive electrochemical platform for high trace determination of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Ji, Hongfei; Song, Yingpan; Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Minghua; Jia, Changchang; Tian, Jia-Yue; He, Linghao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Liu, Chun-Sen

    2017-03-07

    A new core-shell nanostructured composite composed of Fe(III)-based metal-organic framework (Fe-MOF) and mesoporous Fe3O4@C nanocapsules (denoted as Fe-MOF@mFe3O4@mC) was synthesized and developed as a platform for determining trace heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. Herein, the mFe3O4@mC nanocapsules were prepared by calcining the hollow Fe3O4@C that was obtained using the SiO2 nanoparticles as the template, followed by composing the Fe-MOF. The Fe-MOF@mFe3O4@mC nanocomposite demonstrated excellent electrochemical activity, water stability and high specific surface area, consequently resulting in the strong biobinding with heavy-metal-ion-targeted aptamer strands. Furthermore, by combining the conformational transition interaction, which is caused by the formation of the G-quadruplex between a single-stranded aptamer and high adsorbed amounts of heavy metal ions, the developed aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithm of heavy metal ion (Pb(2+) and As(3+)) concentration over the broad range from 0.01 to 10.0nM. The detection limits were estimated to be 2.27 and 6.73 pM toward detecting Pb(2+) and As(3+), respectively. The proposed aptasensor showed good regenerability, excellent selectivity, and acceptable reproducibility, suggesting promising applications in environment monitoring and biomedical fields.

  18. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, user's reference manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  19. DAKOTA, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Guinta, Anthony A.; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  20. A sensitive and selective sensor for biothiols based on the turn-on fluorescence of the Fe-MIL-88 metal-organic frameworks-hydrogen peroxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng Juan; Jiang, Jun Ze; Li, Yuan Fang

    2015-12-21

    Herein, we present a novel strategy based on a "turn-on" fluorescence system made up of metal-organic frameworks Fe-MIL-88 and H2O2 for detecting biothiols in human serum. The nonfluorescent Fe-MIL-88 gives weak fluorescence in the presence of H2O2. Interestingly, it was found that biothiols such as glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine (Hcy) could induce fluorescence turn-on of the Fe-MIL-88/H2O2 system. Under optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity exhibited a good linear relationship in the range from 50 nM-10 μM for GSH (r = 0.994), 50 nM-10 μM for Cys (r = 0.990), and 50 nM-10 μM (r = 0.992) for Hcy; the detection limits of GSH, Cys and Hcy were 30 nM, 40 nM, and 40 nM respectively. Mechanism investigation reveals that biothiols could associate with Fe-MIL-88 via hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction followed by redox reaction between biothiols and Fe(3+) present in the Fe-MIL-88, Fe(3+) was thus reduced to Fe(2+), and then Fe(2+) could efficiently catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to yield ˙OH radicals through the Fenton reaction. Besides, biothiols were able to reduce H2O2 to produce ˙OH radicals directly. Thus the Fe-MIL-88 as well as biothiols could cooperatively contribute to the activation of H2O2 to generate higher amounts of ˙OH radicals, which in turn oxidize the free ligand terephthalic acid (BDC) outside or within the Fe-MIL-88 structure to strongly fluorescent hydroxylated terephthalic acid (OHBDC), thereby turning on the fluorescence.