WorldWideScience

Sample records for culturally heterogeneous groups

  1. Communication, Cooperation, and Negotiation in Culturally Heterogeneous Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.; Triandis, Harry C.

    This research program has been concerned with three major subprojects: identifying concepts and behaviors which critically affect intercultural relations; developing principles and methods for programed self-instructional cultural training to help Americans adjust to, and work more effectively in, foreign cultures, or with persons from different…

  2. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...

  3. Accelerating Mathematics Achievement Using Heterogeneous Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Carol Corbett; Heubert, Jay P.; Levin, Henry M.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of providing an accelerated mathematics curriculum in heterogeneously grouped middle school classes in a diverse suburban school district. A quasi-experimental cohort design was used to evaluate subsequent completion of advanced high school math courses as well as academic achievement. Results showed…

  4. Are Heterogeneous or Homogeneous Groups More Beneficial to Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relative benefits to the student of working in homogeneous versus heterogeneous classroom groups. Correlation analysis of 18 desirable outcomes versus 8 personality-based heterogeneity variables reveals that heterogeneity associates with advantages as well as disadvantages. Ways in which group composition might be…

  5. Change in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Sensitivity Training Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Herbert B.

    1971-01-01

    Among the findings was that the heterogeneous groups showed more change on the FIRO scale. Also, on rating scales measuring positive feeling towards group, the initial superiority of homogeneous groups was reduced by the end of the T group and that heterogeneous groups manifested more significant increases. (Author/CG)

  6. International Group Heterogeneity and Students' Business Project Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bosker, Roel J.; Xu, Xiaoyan; Rugers, Lucie; van Heugten, Petra PAM

    2015-01-01

    In business higher education, group project work plays an essential role. The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between the group heterogeneity of students' business project groups and their academic achievements at both group and individual levels. The sample consists of 536 freshmen from an International Business School…

  7. How to Group Market Participants? Heterogeneity in Hedging Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.; Irwin, S.H.; Good, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Using a generalized mixture model, we model individual heterogeneity by identifying groups of participants that respond in a similar manner to the determinants of economic behavior. The procedure emphasizes the role of theory as the determinants of behavior are used to simultaneously explain market

  8. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Hedging Behavior: Comparing & Evaluating Grouping Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.; Irwin, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Heterogeneity, i.e., the notion that individuals respond differently to economic stimuli, can have profound consequences for the interpretation of behavior and the formulation of agricultural policy. This paper compares and evaluates three grouping techniques that can be used to account for

  9. HETEROGENEOUS GROUPS TYPES OF LEARNERS IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Sazhina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the reasons for the develo pment   of   children's   typology   of   heterogeneous groups in the educational organization. The results of research devoted to this problem. Clarifying the concept  of  "typology",  "heterogeneity",  "heterog eneous group", "talent". In this article, as the heter ogeneous groups of children treated group of gifted children, children with disabilities, migrant children, children with low levels of socio-psychological adaptation. In these heterogeneous groups, homogeneous in composition, and types of subgroup allocated homogeneity.  Types endowments allocated  accor ding to two criteria: "latitude displays in various kinds of activity" and "activity and ensure its sphere of the psyche." Children with disabilities are allocated according  to  the criterion "features organic display". Migrant students are divided into two groups: bili ngual children and children inofons. The characteri stic of children with low levels of socio -psychological adaptation. These groups of children in need, especially in social rehabilitation and adaptation, and integration into society. Provides statistics of the Krasnodar Territory of children in need of social rehabilitation and adaptation.

  10. Rethinking the Cultural Context of Schooling Decisions in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: From Deviant Subculture to Cultural Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J

    2011-10-01

    The literature on neighborhood effects on schooling theorizes that neighborhood cultural context is an important mechanism generating such effects. However, explanations that rely on subcultural theories, such as oppositional culture, have met with considerable criticism on empirical grounds, and no alternative account of the cultural context of disadvantaged neighborhoods has been developed in the education literature. This study develops a new account of the cultural context of schooling decisions in disadvantaged neighborhoods based on the concept of cultural heterogeneity, defined as the presence of a wide array of competing and conflicting cultural models. It applies this concept to neighborhood effects on college enrollment. Using survey data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study shows that disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibit greater heterogeneity in college goals and that adolescents in more heterogeneous neighborhoods are less likely to act in concert with the college goals that they articulate.

  11. Educational Resources Recommendation System for a heterogeneous Student Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea RODRÍGUEZ MARÍN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a face-class, where the student group is heterogeneous, it is necessary to select the most appropriate educational resources that support learning for all. In this sense, multi-agent system (MAS can be used to simulate the features of the students in the group, including their learning style, in order to help the professor find the best resources for your class. In this paper, we present MAS to educational resources recommendation for group students, simulating their profiles and selecting resources that best fit. Obtained promising results show that proposed MAS is able to delivered educational resources for a student group.

  12. Use of diathermy for weeding heterogeneous tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R M; Penny, R

    1986-06-01

    Cultures generated from tissues consisting of multiple types of cells are often heterogeneous. Unless the cell type of interest has or can be given some selective growth advantage it may be overgrown by other cells. While developing techniques for the tissue culture of microvascular endothelial cells we evaluated an electrosurgical generator (diathermy) to selectively kill nonendothelial cells. Primary cell cultures were observed at X 100 magnification under phase contrast microscopy and a needle electrode apposed to the cell to be destroyed. A return electrode was constructed by placing a sterile clip in contact with the culture medium. The diathermy power setting controlled the area of lysis. Use of this technique allowed weeding of unwanted cells without damage to endothelial cells, which were able to grow to confluence in pure culture.

  13. Heterogeneity in business groups and the corporate diversification firm performance relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how heterogeneous features among business groups influence the corporate diversification–firm performance relationship. The study classifies heterogeneity along three dimensions: group size, group diversity, and share ownership. Using a sample of firms from India, the study

  14. Examination of heterogeneous societies: Identifying subpopulations by contrasting cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    , the infinite relational model (IRM) is a new and disruptive type of unsupervised clustering approach that has been developed recently by cognitive psychologists and computer scientists. In this article, an extended version of the IRM coined the multinominal IRM—or mIRM in short—is applied to a cross......-cultural analysis of survey data available from the World Value Survey organization. Specifically, the present work analyzes response patterns of the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ) representing Schwartz’s 10 basic values of Japanese and Swedes. The applied model exposes heterogeneous structures of the two...

  15. Measurement and analysis of calcium signaling in heterogeneous cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gillian R; Jack, Andrew D; Platts, Amy; Simpson, Peter B

    2006-01-01

    High-content imaging platforms capable of studying kinetic responses at a single-cell level have elevated kinetic recording techniques from labor-intensive low-throughput experiments to potential high-throughput screening assays. We have applied this technology to the investigation of heterogeneous cell cultures derived from primary neural tissue. The neuronal cultures mature into a coupled network and display spontaneous oscillations in intracellular calcium, which can be modified by the addition of pharmacological agents. We have developed algorithms to perform Fourier analysis and quantify both the degree of synchronization and the effects of modulators on the oscillations. Functional and phenotypic experiments can be combined using this approach. We have used post-hoc immunolabeling to identify subpopulations of cells in cocultures and to dissect the calcium responses of these cells from the population response. The combination of these techniques represents a powerful tool for drug discovery.

  16. Group cohesion: Relationships with work team culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Yurrebaso, Amaia

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between group cohesion and the perceived culture and desired culture of work teams. Two separate studies were carried out with a time interval of one year. The first study had a sample of 50 work teams belonging to different organizations and the second study had a sample of 75 work teams. We used Lindell's index of agreement to estimate the culture and cohesion variables. Multiple and hierarchical regression analysis in both studies confirmed our initial hypothesis, showing that perceived and desired culture were positively related to group cohesion, and that culture gap had a negative association with cohesion. To a lesser extent, control variables such as job tenure and gender had a positive relationship with cohesion. The implications of these results are discussed along with the importance of considering the group level as analysis.

  17. Exploring the Heterogeneity of Class in Higher Education: Social and Cultural Differentiation in Danish University Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between social background, choice of university programme and academic culture among Danish university students. Statistically and sociologically, university students are often treated as a homogeneous group, but the ever-increasing number of students in higher...... education demands a closer examination of the hidden heterogeneity in the students’ social origin and educational strategies. Using a mixed-method approach (register data and ethnographic observations and interviews) the paper focuses on the students’ class origins and on different cultural practices...

  18. Design and implementation of a mechanically heterogeneous robot group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.; Montgomery, James F.; Mataric, Maja J.

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a cooperative, heterogeneous robot group comprised of one semi-autonomous aerial robot and two autonomous ground robots. The robots are designed to perform automated surveillance and reconnaissance of an urban outdoor area using onboard sensing. The ground vehicles have GPS, sonar for obstacle detection and avoidance, and a simple color- based vision system. Navigation is performed using an optimal mixture of odometry and GPS. The helicopter is equipped with a GPS/INS system, a camera, and a framegrabber. Each robot has an embedded 486 PC/104 processor running the QNX real-time operating system. Individual robot controllers are behavior-based and decentralized. We describe a control strategy and architecture that coordinates the robots with minimal top- down planning. The overall system is controlled at high level by a single human operator using a specially designed control unit. The operator is able to task the group with a mission using a minimal amount of training. The group can re-task itself based on sensor inputs and can also be re- tasked by the operator. We describe a particular reconnaissance mission that the robots have been tested with, and lessons learned during the design and implementation. Our initial results with these experiments are encouraging given the challenging mechanics of the aerial robot. We conclude the paper with a discussion of ongoing and future work.

  19. Homogeneity and heterogeneousness in European food cultures: An exploratory analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Madsen, Tage Koed

    One type pf boundaries rarely explored in international marketing but of potentially vital importance to international marketing are the cultural boundaries dividing Europe into regions with indidvidual cultural background and different consumptui patterns. This paper explores information about...... such cultural patterns of food consumption based on information from an existing database originating from a 1989 pan-European life style suvey questioning around 20,000 people in 16 European countri divided into 79 regions. A factor analysis reduced the number of variables from 138 to 41, discovering...... the latent factor structuring the Europeans' responses to questions about t their food behaviour and preferences. On the basis of the factor variables, a cluster analysis was made in order to produce a picture of the groupings of the single regions, thus getting a picture of the pattern of European food...

  20. Work-group characteristics and performance in collectivistic and individualistic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, John J; Jung, Dong I

    2002-02-01

    The authors conducted a cross-cultural longitudinal investigation of the effects of culture (individualism-collectivism dichotomy) on group characteristics (functional heterogeneity, preference for teamwork, group potency, outcome expectation) and on performance of 83 work groups performing 2 decision-making tasks over a 15-week period. The individualists (U.S. students) reported higher levels of functional heterogeneity and group potency and attained higher levels of group performance than did the collectivists (Korean students). In addition, culture and time interacted to influence ratings of group potency and outcome expectation. The difference in ratings of group potency between individualists and collectivists increased over time. Outcome expectation was greater among the collectivists in Time 1 and among the individualists in Time 2. The authors discuss implications for future cross-cultural group research and international management.

  1. The Impact of Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Collaborative Learning Groups in Multicultural Classes on the Achievement and Attitudes of Nine Graders towards Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Ahmed O.

    2009-01-01

    The current study aims at investigating the impact of homogeneous versus heterogeneous collaborative learning grouping in multicultural classes on the students' achievements and attitudes towards learning science. In the present study, heterogeneity was unpacked through two dimensions: the cultural background, represented by the different…

  2. Working through a psychotherapy group's political cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D

    2003-10-01

    Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation.

  3. Teacher Perceptions of Heterogeneous Ability Grouping in Secondary Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Nicole Cox

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to provide the best academic opportunities for all students, many high schools create heterogeneous classes by removing existing academic tracks or by offering only 1 level of course. Research has indicated that separating students by ability often exacerbates existing academic inequity; however, mixed ability classes can also create…

  4. Heterogeneity of long-history migration explains cultural differences in reports of emotional expressivity and the functions of smiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Miyamoto, Yuri; Matsumoto, David; Hess, Ursula; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Kamble, Shanmukh; Muluk, Hamdi; Masuda, Takahiko; Niedenthal, Paula Marie

    2015-05-12

    A small number of facial expressions may be universal in that they are produced by the same basic affective states and recognized as such throughout the world. However, other aspects of emotionally expressive behavior vary widely across culture. Just why do they vary? We propose that some cultural differences in expressive behavior are determined by historical heterogeneity, or the extent to which a country's present-day population descended from migration from numerous vs. few source countries over a period of 500 y. Our reanalysis of data on cultural rules for displaying emotion from 32 countries [n = 5,340; Matsumoto D, Yoo S, Fontaine J (2008) J Cross Cult Psychol 39(1):55-74] reveals that historical heterogeneity explains substantial, unique variance in the degree to which individuals believe that emotions should be openly expressed. We also report an original study of the underlying states that people believe are signified by a smile. Cluster analysis applied to data from nine countries (n = 726), including Canada, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States, reveals that countries group into "cultures of smiling" determined by historical heterogeneity. Factor analysis shows that smiles sort into three social-functional subtypes: pleasure, affiliative, and dominance. The relative importance of these smile subtypes varies as a function of historical heterogeneity. These findings thus highlight the power of social-historical factors to explain cross-cultural variation in emotional expression and smile behavior.

  5. Heterogeneously grown tunable group-IV laser on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudait, Mantu; Clavel, M.; Lester, L.; Saladukha, D.; Ochalski, T.; Murphy-Armando, F.

    2016-02-01

    Tunable tensile-strained germanium (epsilon-Ge) thin films on GaAs and heterogeneously integrated on silicon (Si) have been demonstrated using graded III-V buffer architectures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). epsilon-Ge epilayers with tunable strain from 0% to 1.95% on GaAs and 0% to 1.11% on Si were realized utilizing MBE. The detailed structural, morphological, band alignment and optical properties of these highly tensile-strained Ge materials were characterized to establish a pathway for wavelength-tunable laser emission from 1.55 μm to 2.1 μm. High-resolution X-ray analysis confirmed pseudomorphic epsilon-Ge epitaxy in which the amount of strain varied linearly as a function of indium alloy composition in the InxGa1-xAs buffer. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopic analysis demonstrated a sharp heterointerface between the epsilon-Ge and the InxGa1-xAs layer and confirmed the strain state of the epsilon-Ge epilayer. Lowtemperature micro-photoluminescence measurements confirmed both direct and indirect bandgap radiative recombination between the Γ and L valleys of Ge to the light-hole valence band, with L-lh bandgaps of 0.68 eV and 0.65 eV demonstrated for the 0.82% and 1.11% epsilon-Ge on Si, respectively. The highly epsilon-Ge exhibited a direct bandgap, and wavelength-tunable emission was observed for all samples on both GaAs and Si. Successful heterogeneous integration of tunable epsilon-Ge quantum wells on Si paves the way for the implementation of monolithic heterogeneous devices on Si.

  6. Student Attitudes Towards Change From Ability Grouping To Heterogeneous Grouping At A University Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bahar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is ample research on student grouping at primary, middle and high school level but it is a controversial issue for universities educating the high and low achievers in the same classes, reflecting confusion about whether scholarship and tuition fee students should be taught together. This study aims to shed light on what the student population at university thinks about heterogeneous grouping after seeing effects of ability grouping, about which there is almost no evidence. Students in an undergraduate department who started the academic year at two different sections grouped according to their prior achievement took courses in mixed ability classes the following semesters. They were given a questionnaire in three intervals asking them about their expectations and opinions of grouping before and after mixing and then after one year of study. 45 students responded to any two questionnaires and 15 responded to all three questionnaires. For the repeated measures design, Friedman test was carried out to see the change of ideas from time1 to time3 and Mann-Witney U test was used to see the differences in ideas between scholarship students and tuition-fee students. MannWhitney U test was carried out to test whether there was a difference in the GPAs of scholarship and tuition-fee students between time1 and time3. Students expressed a change in their attitudes about achievement and how the other group influenced them. GPAs of high ability students increased after they started being in educated in mixed ability class, realizing the fears of low achievers.

  7. Metabolomics reveals the heterogeneous secretome of two entomopathogenic fungi to ex vivo cultured insect tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charissa de Bekker

    Full Text Available Fungal entomopathogens rely on cellular heterogeneity during the different stages of insect host infection. Their pathogenicity is exhibited through the secretion of secondary metabolites, which implies that the infection life history of this group of environmentally important fungi can be revealed using metabolomics. Here metabolomic analysis in combination with ex vivo insect tissue culturing shows that two generalist isolates of the genus Metarhizium and Beauveria, commonly used as biological pesticides, employ significantly different arrays of secondary metabolites during infectious and saprophytic growth. It also reveals that both fungi exhibit tissue specific strategies by a distinguishable metabolite secretion on the insect tissues tested in this study. In addition to showing the important heterogeneous nature of these two entomopathogens, this study also resulted in the discovery of several novel destruxins and beauverolides that have not been described before, most likely because previous surveys did not use insect tissues as a culturing system. While Beauveria secreted these cyclic depsipeptides when encountering live insect tissues, Metarhizium employed them primarily on dead tissue. This implies that, while these fungi employ comparable strategies when it comes to entomopathogenesis, there are most certainly significant differences at the molecular level that deserve to be studied.

  8. Metabolomics reveals the heterogeneous secretome of two entomopathogenic fungi to ex vivo cultured insect tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Smith, Philip B; Patterson, Andrew D; Hughes, David P

    2013-01-01

    Fungal entomopathogens rely on cellular heterogeneity during the different stages of insect host infection. Their pathogenicity is exhibited through the secretion of secondary metabolites, which implies that the infection life history of this group of environmentally important fungi can be revealed using metabolomics. Here metabolomic analysis in combination with ex vivo insect tissue culturing shows that two generalist isolates of the genus Metarhizium and Beauveria, commonly used as biological pesticides, employ significantly different arrays of secondary metabolites during infectious and saprophytic growth. It also reveals that both fungi exhibit tissue specific strategies by a distinguishable metabolite secretion on the insect tissues tested in this study. In addition to showing the important heterogeneous nature of these two entomopathogens, this study also resulted in the discovery of several novel destruxins and beauverolides that have not been described before, most likely because previous surveys did not use insect tissues as a culturing system. While Beauveria secreted these cyclic depsipeptides when encountering live insect tissues, Metarhizium employed them primarily on dead tissue. This implies that, while these fungi employ comparable strategies when it comes to entomopathogenesis, there are most certainly significant differences at the molecular level that deserve to be studied.

  9. Mobile lifestyles : Conceptualizing heterogeneity in mobile youth culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanden Abeele, M.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ characteristic understanding and use of mobile phones have led observers to speak of a “mobile youth culture.” This article explores whether we can differentiate lifestyles within mobile youth culture. We construct a user typology of Flemish adolescent mobile phone users based on mobile

  10. Mobile lifestyles : Conceptualizing heterogeneity in mobile youth culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanden Abeele, M.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ characteristic understanding and use of mobile phones have led observers to speak of a “mobile youth culture.” This article explores whether we can differentiate lifestyles within mobile youth culture. We construct a user typology of Flemish adolescent mobile phone users based on mobile

  11. A Comparison of Written Chinese Achievement among Heritage Learners in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines effects of grouping practice on written Chinese achievement among heritage learners in college Chinese classes. Subjects were two groups of heritage students, a homogeneous group and a heterogeneous group. Results suggest in college level Chinese language classes, tracking based on linguistic background can improve heritage students'…

  12. Evolution of helping and harming in heterogeneous groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, António M M; Gardner, Andy

    2013-08-01

    Social groups are often composed of individuals who differ in many respects. Theoretical studies on the evolution of helping and harming behaviors have largely focused upon genetic differences between individuals. However, nongenetic variation between group members is widespread in natural populations, and may mediate differences in individuals' social behavior. Here, we develop a framework to study how variation in individual quality mediates the evolution of unconditional and conditional social traits. We investigate the scope for the evolution of social traits that are conditional on the quality of the actor and/or recipients. We find that asymmetries in individual quality can lead to the evolution of plastic traits with different individuals expressing helping and harming traits within the same group. In this context, population viscosity can mediate the evolution of social traits, and local competition can promote both helping and harming behaviors. Furthermore, asymmetries in individual quality can lead to the evolution of competition-like traits between clonal individuals. Overall, we highlight the importance of asymmetries in individual quality, including differences in reproductive value and the ability to engage in successful social interactions, in mediating the evolution of helping and harming behaviors.

  13. Time-Preference Heterogeneity and Multiplicity of Equilibria in Two-Group Bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multilateral bargaining game in which the agents can be classified into two groups according to their instantaneous preferences. In one of these groups there is one agent with a different discount factor. We analyze how this time-preference heterogeneity may generate multiplicity of equilibria. When such an agent is sufficiently more patient than the rest, there is an equilibrium in which her group-mates make the same proposal as the members of the other group. Thus, in heterogeneous groups the presence of more patient members may reduce the utility of its members.

  14. Discrete time duration models with group-level heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Honoré, Bo; Hu, Loujia

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic discrete choice panel data models have received a great deal of attention. In those models, the dynamics is usually handled by including the lagged outcome as an explanatory variable. In this paper we consider an alternative model in which the dynamics is handled by using the duration...... in the current state as a covariate. We propose estimators that allow for group-specific effect in parametric and semiparametric versions of the model. The proposed method is illustrated by an empirical analysis of job durations allowing for firm-level effects....

  15. Homophily, Cultural Drift, and the Co-Evolution of Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centola, Damon; Gonzalez-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguiluz, Victor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2007-01-01

    Studies of cultural differentiation have shown that social mechanisms that normally lead to cultural convergence--homophily and influence--can also explain how distinct cultural groups can form. However, this emergent cultural diversity has proven to be unstable in the face of cultural drift--small errors or innovations that allow cultures to…

  16. Turnover and heterogeneity in top management networks - A demographic analysis of two Swedish business groups

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    Collin, S. & Umans, T.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A theory based on the demography of top management teams is used to explain membership turnover in two Swedish business groups, network analysis being used to define group membership. The results suggest these business groups possess a combination of financial and industrial experience as a group resource and the socialising strategy of control as a force counteracting the conflict-producing force of heterogeneity. An organisational demographic perspective focusing on opposing forces of heterogeneity and homogeneity is developed. It is shown that the perspective can be applied both to formal organisations and to informal ones such as networks.

  17. Flow cytometric methods to investigate culture heterogeneities for plant metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Vishal; Kolewe, Martin E; Roberts, Susan C

    2010-01-01

    Plant cell cultures provide an important method for production and supply of a variety of natural products, where conditions can be easily controlled, manipulated, and optimized. Development and optimization of plant cell culture processes require both bioprocess engineering and metabolic engineering approaches. Cultures are generally highly heterogeneous, with significant variability amongst cells in terms of growth, metabolism, and productivity of key metabolites. Taxus cultures produce the important anti-cancer agent Taxol((R)) (i.e., paclitaxel) and have demonstrated significant variability amongst cell populations in culture with regard to paclitaxel accumulation, cell cycle participation, and protein synthesis. To fully understand the link between cellular metabolism and culture behavior and to enable targeted metabolic engineering approaches, cultures need to be studied at a single cell level. This chapter describes the application of plant cell flow cytometric techniques to investigate culture heterogeneity at the single cell level, in order to optimize culture performance through targeted metabolic engineering. Flow cytometric analytical methods are described to study Taxus single cells, protoplasts, and nuclei suspensions with respect to secondary metabolite accumulation, DNA content, cell size, and complexity. Reproducible methods to isolate these single particle suspensions from aggregated Taxus cultures are discussed. Methods to stain both fixed and live cells for a variety of biological markers are provided to enable characterization of cell phenotypes. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) methods are also presented to facilitate isolation of certain plant cell culture populations for both analysis and propagation of superior cell lines for use in bioprocesses.

  18. Methodological Aspects of Subjective Life Expectancy: Effects of Culture-Specific Reporting Heterogeneity Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Smith, Jacqui

    2016-05-01

    Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been suggested as a predictor of mortality and mortality-related behaviors. Although critical for culturally diverse societies, these findings do not consider cross-cultural methodological comparability. Culture-specific reporting heterogeneity is a well-known phenomenon introducing biases, and research on this issue with SLE is not established. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined reporting heterogeneity in SLE focusing on item nonresponse, focal points, and reports over time for five ethnic-cultural groups: non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, non-Hispanic other races, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. On item nonresponse, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics said, "I don't know," to SLE significantly more than any other groups. Nearly half of the respondents chose 0, 50, or 100, making them focal points. However, the focal points differed: 50 for Whites, 100 for Blacks, and 0 for Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. The relationship of SLE measured at two time points was higher for Whites than minorities. Moreover, those who said "I don't know" to SLE showed higher subsequent mortality than those who gave an answer. SLE was not a significant mortality predictor for Hispanics. Overall, SLE is not free from culture-specific reporting heterogeneity. This warrants further research about its culture-relevant measurement mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Heterogenous Grouping: Is it an Effective Instructional Arrangement for All Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam

    1996-01-01

    Provides a succinct and useful overview to arguments, pro and con, concerning ability grouping for students. Briefly summarizes the research for and against heterogenous grouping, noting that most of the research is focused on very narrow and specific applications. Argues for an open-minded and flexible approach. (MJP)

  20. sp³ -linked amorphous carbon with sulfonic acid groups as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Satoshi; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kitano, Masaaki; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Hara, Michikazu

    2012-09-01

    SO₃H-bearing amorphous carbon prepared from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is studied as a heterogeneous Brønsted acid catalyst. Sulfonation of partially carbonized PVC produces amorphous carbon consisting of small SO₃H-bearing carbon sheets linked by sp³ -based aliphatic hydrocarbons. This carbon material exhibits much higher catalytic performance in the hydrolysis of cellobiose than conventional heterogeneous Brønsted acid catalysts with SO₃H groups, including SO₃H-bearing amorphous carbon derived from cellulose. This can be attributed to a high density of SO₃H groups and the fast diffusion of reactants and products enabled by a flexible carbon network.

  1. Gifted Students' Perceptions of the Academic and Social/Emotional Effects of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Byers, Jan; Whitsell, Sara Squiller; Moon, Sidney M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated student perceptions of differences in academic and social effects that occur when gifted and talented youth are grouped homogeneously (i.e., in special classes for gifted students) as contrasted with heterogeneously (i.e., in classes with many ability levels represented). Forty-four students in grades 5-11 completed…

  2. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  3. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of pro

  4. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of

  5. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of pro

  6. Cultural Capital in Context: Heterogeneous Returns to Cultural Capital Across Schooling Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2015-01-01

    This paper tests two competing explanations of differences in returns to cultural capital across schooling environments: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields a higher returns in high-achieving environments than in low-achieving ones) and cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher...... returns in low-achieving environments). Using multilevel mixture models, empirical results from analyses based on PISA data from three countries (Canada, Germany, and Sweden) show that returns to cultural capital tend to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones....... These results principally support the cultural mobility explanation and suggest that research should pay explicit attention to the institutional contexts in which cultural capital is converted into educational success....

  7. Cultural Capital in Context: Heterogeneous Returns to Cultural Capital Across Schooling Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2015-01-01

    returns in low-achieving environments). Using multilevel mixture models, empirical results from analyses based on PISA data from three countries (Canada, Germany, and Sweden) show that returns to cultural capital tend to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones......This paper tests two competing explanations of differences in returns to cultural capital across schooling environments: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields a higher returns in high-achieving environments than in low-achieving ones) and cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher....... These results principally support the cultural mobility explanation and suggest that research should pay explicit attention to the institutional contexts in which cultural capital is converted into educational success....

  8. Interrogating Surface Functional Group Heterogeneity of Activated Thermoplastics Using Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, Colleen E; Jackson, Joshua M; Shim, Sang-Hee; Soper, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel approach for characterizing surfaces utilizing super-resolution fluorescence microscopy with subdiffraction limit spatial resolution. Thermoplastic surfaces were activated by UV/O3 or O2 plasma treatment under various conditions to generate pendant surface-confined carboxylic acids (-COOH). These surface functional groups were then labeled with a photoswitchable dye and interrogated using single-molecule, localization-based, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to elucidate the surface heterogeneity of these functional groups across the activated surface. Data indicated nonuniform distributions of these functional groups for both COC and PMMA thermoplastics with the degree of heterogeneity being dose dependent. In addition, COC demonstrated relative higher surface density of functional groups compared to PMMA for both UV/O3 and O2 plasma treatment. The spatial distribution of -COOH groups secured from super-resolution imaging were used to simulate nonuniform patterns of electroosmotic flow in thermoplastic nanochannels. Simulations were compared to single-particle tracking of fluorescent nanoparticles within thermoplastic nanoslits to demonstrate the effects of surface functional group heterogeneity on the electrokinetic transport process.

  9. A Discrete Heterogeneous-Group Economic Growth Model with Endogenous Leisure Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a one-sector multigroup growth model with endogenous labor supply in discrete time. Proposing an alternative approach to behavior of households, we examine the dynamics of wealth and income distribution in a competitive economy with capital accumulation as the main engine of economic growth. We show how human capital levels, preferences, and labor force of heterogeneous households determine the national economic growth, wealth, and income distribution and time allocation of the groups. By simulation we demonstrate, for instance, that in the three-group economy when the rich group's human capital is improved, all the groups will economically benefit, and the leisure times of all the groups are reduced but when any other group's human capital is improved, the group will economically benefit, the other two groups economically lose, and the leisure times of all the groups are increased.

  10. When High Achievers and Low Achievers Work in the Same Group: The Roles of Group Heterogeneity and Processes in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing-Yi Cheng, Rebecca; Lam, Shui-Fong; Chung-Yan Chan, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Background: There has been an ongoing debate about the inconsistent effects of heterogeneous ability grouping on students in small group work such as project-based learning. Aim: The present research investigated the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. At the student level, we examined the interaction effect…

  11. Convergence to consensus in heterogeneous groups and the emergence of informal leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilets, Sergey; Auerbach, Jeremy; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-07-14

    When group cohesion is essential, groups must have efficient strategies in place for consensus decision-making. Recent theoretical work suggests that shared decision-making is often the most efficient way for dealing with both information uncertainty and individual variation in preferences. However, some animal and most human groups make collective decisions through particular individuals, leaders, that have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making. To address this discrepancy between theory and data, we study a simple, but general, model that explicitly focuses on the dynamics of consensus building in groups composed by individuals who are heterogeneous in preferences, certain personality traits (agreeability and persuasiveness), reputation, and social networks. We show that within-group heterogeneity can significantly delay democratic consensus building as well as give rise to the emergence of informal leaders, i.e. individuals with a disproportionately large impact on group decisions. Our results thus imply strong benefits of leadership particularly when groups experience time pressure and significant conflict of interest between members (due to various between-individual differences). Overall, our models shed light on why leadership and decision-making hierarchies are widespread, especially in human groups.

  12. A spatial orthogonal allocation and heterogeneous cultural hybrid algorithm for multirobot exploration mission planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A spatial orthogonal allocation method is devised for multirobot tasks allocation.A 3D space model is adopted to describe exploration mission;meanwhile spatial orthogonal tentative technology is utilized to update the attractor position for load balance.Heterogeneous interactive cultural hybrid architecture is proposed to solve a robot route planning problem;it utilizes good-point-set to initialize population spaces,redefine novel evolution model and particle evolution ability,and introduce near-neighbor lo...

  13. Work group culture, stress, and hostility. Correlations with organizational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, J A

    1996-06-01

    Understanding your organizational culture is necessary if you are to be successful in making and surviving the necessary changes in current environments. Although organizational culture frequently has been studied in the business community, there are fewer studies of organizational or work group culture in hospital settings at the nursing unit level. The existing studies have emphasized the need to understand the individual work group culture before successfully implementing innovation and educational programs, or hiring and orienting new employees on nursing units. This descriptive, correlational study describes the relationships among work group culture, work-place stress, and hostility and nursing unit outcomes, specifically absenteeism and turnover. Implications of the findings include the idea that increasing decision latitude in workers may positively impact absenteeism.

  14. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  15. Implicit Contracts Regulating Small Group Leadership: The Influence of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarripa, Perrin Orr; Krueger, Dorothy Lenk

    1983-01-01

    Examined culture variables in the negotiation of implicit rules which govern leadership behavior in small groups. American, French, and Arab students (N=42) were assigned identical decision-making tasks. Results showed monocultural groups presented homogeneous rules governing leadership prior to interaction, while intercultural groups presented…

  16. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  17. The cultural evolution of emergent group-level traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    Many of the most important properties of human groups - including properties that may give one group an evolutionary advantage over another - are properly defined only at the level of group organization. Yet at present, most work on the evolution of culture has focused solely on the transmission of individual-level traits. I propose a conceptual extension of the theory of cultural evolution, particularly related to the evolutionary competition between cultural groups. The key concept in this extension is the emergent group-level trait. This type of trait is characterized by the structured organization of differentiated individuals and constitutes a unit of selection that is qualitatively different from selection on groups as defined by traditional multilevel selection (MLS) theory. As a corollary, I argue that the traditional focus on cooperation as the defining feature of human societies has missed an essential feature of cooperative groups. Traditional models of cooperation assume that interacting with one cooperator is equivalent to interacting with any other. However, human groups involve differential roles, meaning that receiving aid from one individual is often preferred to receiving aid from another. In this target article, I discuss the emergence and evolution of group-level traits and the implications for the theory of cultural evolution, including ramifications for the evolution of human cooperation, technology, and cultural institutions, and for the equivalency of multilevel selection and inclusive fitness approaches.

  18. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  19. Societal threat as a moderator of cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Roos, Patrick; Nau, Dana; Harrington, Jesse; Mu, Yan; Jackson, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    As scholars have rushed to either prove or refute cultural group selection (CGS), the debate lacks sufficient consideration of CGS's potential moderators. We argue that pressures for CGS are particularly strong when groups face ecological and human-made threat. Field, experimental, computational, and genetic evidence are presented to substantiate this claim.

  20. The Hmong Cultural Repertoire: Explaining Cultural Variation Within an Ethnic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Hein

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 382 Hmong in Laos and the United States reveal threetypes of cultural expertise: performing spiritual-medicalhealing; conducting life cycle rituals; and creating arts andcrafts. Only 31 percent of this sample engage in one or moreof the practices in this cultural repertoire. A mere 10percent of the sample account for 54 percent of the 247cultural practices. This pattern reveals the paradoxicalrelationship between ethnicity and culture. While all ethnicgroups have a culture, there is considerable variation amongmembers in their use of the group's cultural repertoire. Thispaper uses regression analysis to explain why some Hmong havemore cultural practices than others. The results suggest thatmales have greater access to the Hmong cultural repertoiredue their positions of authority in Laos, but that maternalcultural practices promote use of the repertoire by theirchildren regardless of leadership status.

  1. Methods for calculating group cross sections for doubly heterogeneous thermal reactor systems. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelatos, M G; LaBauve, R J

    1977-02-01

    The report discusses methods used at LASL for calculating group cross sections for doubly heterogeneous HTGR systems of the General Atomic design. These cross sections have been used for the neutronic safety analysis calculations of such HTGR systems at various points in reactor lifetime (e.g., beginning-of-life, end-of-equilibrium cycle). They were also compared with supplied General Atomic cross sections generated with General Atomic codes. The overall agreement between the LASL and the GA cross sections has been satisfactory.

  2. Context-based user grouping for multi-casting in heterogeneous radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannweiler, C.; Klein, A.; Schneider, J.; Schotten, H. D.

    2011-08-01

    Along with the rise of sophisticated smartphones and smart spaces, the availability of both static and dynamic context information has steadily been increasing in recent years. Due to the popularity of social networks, these data are complemented by profile information about individual users. Making use of this information by classifying users in wireless networks enables targeted content and advertisement delivery as well as optimizing network resources, in particular bandwidth utilization, by facilitating group-based multi-casting. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a web service for advanced user classification based on user, network, and environmental context information. The service employs simple and advanced clustering algorithms for forming classes of users. Available service functionalities include group formation, context-aware adaptation, and deletion as well as the exposure of group characteristics. Moreover, the results of a performance evaluation, where the service has been integrated in a simulator modeling user behavior in heterogeneous wireless systems, are presented.

  3. Reflection group on 'Expert Culture'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2000-07-01

    As part of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, a reflection group on 'Expert Culture' was established. The objectives of the reflection group are: (1) to clarify the role of SCK-CEN experts; (2) to clarify the new role of expertise in the evolving context of risk society; (3) to confront external views and internal SCK-CEN experiences on expert culture; (4) to improve trust building of experts and credibility of SCK-CEN as a nuclear actor in society; (5) to develop a draft for a deontological code; (6) to integrate the approach in training on assertivity and communication; (7) to create an output for a topical day on the subject of expert culture. The programme, achievements and perspectives of the refection group are summarised.

  4. When high achievers and low achievers work in the same group: the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong; Chan, Joanne Chung-yan

    2008-06-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the inconsistent effects of heterogeneous ability grouping on students in small group work such as project-based learning. The present research investigated the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. At the student level, we examined the interaction effect between students' within-group achievement and group processes on their self- and collective efficacy. At the group level, we examined how group heterogeneity was associated with the average self- and collective efficacy reported by the groups. The participants were 1,921 Hong Kong secondary students in 367 project-based learning groups. Student achievement was determined by school examination marks. Group processes, self-efficacy and collective efficacy were measured by a student-report questionnaire. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyse the nested data. When individual students in each group were taken as the unit of analysis, results indicated an interaction effect of group processes and students' within-group achievement on the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy. When compared with low achievers, high achievers reported lower collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of low quality. However, both low and high achievers reported higher collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of high quality. With 367 groups taken as the unit of analysis, the results showed that group heterogeneity, group gender composition and group size were not related to the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy reported by the students. Group heterogeneity was not a determinant factor in students' learning efficacy. Instead, the quality of group processes played a pivotal role because both high and low achievers were able to benefit when group processes were of high quality.

  5. Physician group cultural dimensions and quality performance indicators: not all is equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalarz, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A group practice culture survey measured the cultural dimensions of physician groups, and their relationship to group quality performance was explored. Cultural dimensions were statistically significant in explaining variance of quality performance among the physician groups studied. However, different cultural dimensions contributed to each of the quality performance indicators measured. Thus, cultural dimensions are important factors influencing physician groups' quality performance.

  6. To Propose an Algorithm for Team Forming: Simulated Annealing K Team-Forming Algorithm for Heterogeneous Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Feng Liu, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In recent studies, some researchers were eager for the answer of how to group a perfectly dream team. There are various grouping methods, e.g. random assignment, homogeneous grouping with personality or achievement and heterogeneous grouping with personality or achievement, were proposed. Some instructors could put some students in a team better…

  7. Role of Ability and Extroversion in Concept Attainment of Individuals Trained in Heterogeneous or Homogeneous Personality Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, E. A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Subjects stratified by ability and extroversion initially achieved concept attainment in homogeneous (all introverts or all extroverts) or heterogeneous (one-half of the members extroverts) personality groups. Concepts were attained individually in a subsequent transfer stage. (Authors/JA)

  8. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  9. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Embryo density may affect embryo quality during in vitro culture in a microwell group culture dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Adam; Kaszas, Zita; Murber, Akos; Rigo, Janos; Urbancsek, Janos; Fancsovits, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Culturing embryos in groups is a common practice in mammalian embryology. Since the introduction of different microwell dishes, it is possible to identify oocytes or embryos individually. As embryo density (embryo-to-volume ratio) may affect the development and viability of the embryos, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different embryo densities on embryo quality. Data of 1337 embryos from 228 in vitro fertilization treatment cycles were retrospectively analyzed. Embryos were cultured in a 25 μl microdrop in a microwell group culture dish containing 9 microwells. Three density groups were defined: Group 1 with 2-4 (6.3-12.5 μl/embryo), Group 2 with 5-6 (4.2-5.0 μl/embryo), and Group 3 with 7-9 (2.8-3.6 μl/embryo) embryos. Proportion of good quality embryos was higher in Group 2 on both days (D2: 18.9 vs. 31.5 vs. 24.7%; p Culturing 5-6 embryos together in a culture volume of 25 μl may benefit embryo quality. As low egg number, position, and distance of the embryos may influence embryo quality, results should be interpreted with caution.

  11. Chromatin fibers are formed by heterogeneous groups of nucleosomes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Maria Aurelia; Manzo, Carlo; García-Parajo, María Filomena; Lakadamyali, Melike; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2015-03-12

    Nucleosomes help structure chromosomes by compacting DNA into fibers. To gain insight into how nucleosomes are arranged in vivo, we combined quantitative super-resolution nanoscopy with computer simulations to visualize and count nucleosomes along the chromatin fiber in single nuclei. Nucleosomes assembled in heterogeneous groups of varying sizes, here termed "clutches," and these were interspersed with nucleosome-depleted regions. The median number of nucleosomes inside clutches and their compaction defined as nucleosome density were cell-type-specific. Ground-state pluripotent stem cells had, on average, less dense clutches containing fewer nucleosomes and clutch size strongly correlated with the pluripotency potential of induced pluripotent stem cells. RNA polymerase II preferentially associated with the smallest clutches while linker histone H1 and heterochromatin were enriched in the largest ones. Our results reveal how the chromatin fiber is formed at nanoscale level and link chromatin fiber architecture to stem cell state.

  12. Cultural immersion through ethnography: the lived experience and group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sandra J; Schulze, Mary W

    2004-06-01

    A baccalaureate nursing class studying community/public health is a rich setting in which to initiate change in ethnocentric perspectives and foster an understanding of diverse cultures. This teaching strategy requires students to randomly select one of seven ethnographies to read, and then to write an analysis based on required guidelines. The results of the ethnographic analyses show that students immerse themselves within the culture of their respective texts. Ultimately, in-class learning groups are formed for each ethnography, and participants discuss their respective analyses. After exploring their commonalities and differences, students present the results to the entire class. This activity affords everyone a multicultural experience by sharing the different ethnographies and each student's perspective. This critical thinking activity serves to awaken one's ethnocentricity and paves the way to insightful changes and beliefs about diverse cultures.

  13. Cultura no grupo de brinquedo Culture in the play group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Almeida Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se o conceito de cultura em relação à microcultura do grupo de brinquedo. Concebe-se a criança como agente de criação e transmissão de cultura e o grupo de brinquedo como espaço de informação onde esses processos ocorrem. Essa concepção baseia-se no reconhecimento da espécie humana como biologicamente sócio-cultural e na pressuposição de adaptações precoces para essa especificidade. Episódios de atividade lúdica livre de crianças de 10 a 60 meses são analisados para detectar a ocorrência de criação, elaboração e transmissão de conteúdos culturais na interação criança-criança, ilustrando: (1 recuperação da cultura do ambiente social imediato e exploração de novas possibilidades de uso desses recursos; (2 criação de rituais lúdicos novos que podem tornar-se parte da microcultura do grupo; (3 aculturação, ou seja, assimilação de aspectos da microcultura do grupo. Os dados são interpretados como evidências da pré-adaptação humana para a vida sócio-cultural.This paper discusses the concept of culture in the context of playgroup microcultures. The child is viewed as an agent of culture creation and innovation, and the play group as a space of information where these processes occur. This view is based on the recognition of human species as biologically socio-cultural and on the assumption of precocious adaptations for this specificity. Episodes of free play activity among 10 to 60 month old children are analysed to detect the occurrence of creation, elaboration and transmission of cultural contents in child-child interactions, illustrating: (1 retrieval of the immediate social environment's culture and exploration of new possibilities of using these resources; (2 creation of new ludic rituals which can become part of the group's microculture; (3 aculturation, that is, assimilation of aspects of the group's microculture. Data are interpreted as evidences of the human pre-adaptation to a socio-cultural

  14. The application of heterogeneous cluster grouping to reflective writing for medical humanities literature study to enhance students' empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-09-02

    To facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration and to make connections between patients' diseases and their social/cultural contexts, the study examined whether the use of heterogeneous cluster grouping in reflective writing for medical humanities literature acquisition could have positive effects on medical university students in terms of empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing. A 15-week quasi-experimental design was conducted to investigate the learning outcomes. After conducting cluster algorithms, heterogeneous learning clusters (experimental group; n = 43) and non-heterogeneous learning clusters (control group; n = 43) were derived for a medical humanities literature study. Before and after the intervention, an Empathy Scale in Patient Care (ES-PC), a critical thinking disposition assessment (CTDA-R), and a reflective writing test were administered to both groups. The findings showed that on the empathy scale, significant differences in the "behavioral empathy," "affective empathy," and overall sections existed between the post-test mean scores of the experimental group and those of the control group, but such differences did not exist in "intelligent empathy." Regarding critical thinking, there were significant differences in "systematicity and analyticity," "skepticism and well-informed," "maturity and skepticism," and overall sections. As for reflective writing, significant differences existed in "ideas," "voice and point of view," "critical thinking and representation," "depth of reflection on personal growth," and overall sections, but not in "focus and context structure" and "language and conventions." This study outlined an alternative for using heterogeneous cluster grouping in reflective writing about medical humanities literature to facilitate interdisciplinary cooperation to provide more humanizing medical care.

  15. Evolving homogeneous neurocontrollers for a group of heterogeneous robots: coordinated motion, cooperation, and acoustic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuci, Elio; Ampatzis, Christos; Vicentini, Federico; Dorigo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simulation model in which artificial evolution is used to design homogeneous control structures and adaptive communication protocols for a group of three autonomous simulated robots. The agents are required to cooperate in order to approach a light source while avoiding collisions. The robots are morphologically different: Two of them are equipped with infrared sensors, one with light sensors. Thus, the two morphologically identical robots should take care of obstacle avoidance; the other one should take care of phototaxis. Since all of the agents can emit and perceive sound, the group's coordination of actions is based on acoustic communication. The results of this study are a proof of concept: They show that dynamic artificial neural networks can be successfully synthesized by artificial evolution to design the neural mechanisms required to underpin the behavioral strategies and adaptive communication capabilities demanded by this task. Postevaluation analyses unveil operational aspects of the best evolved behavior. Our results suggest that the building blocks and the evolutionary machinery detailed in the article should be considered in future research work dealing with the design of homogeneous controllers for groups of heterogeneous cooperating and communicating robots.

  16. Optimization of liquid overlay technique to formulate heterogenic 3D co-cultures models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elisabete C; Gaspar, Vítor M; Coutinho, Paula; Correia, Ilídio J

    2014-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models of solid tumors are currently having a tremendous impact in the in vitro screening of candidate anti-tumoral therapies. These 3D models provide more reliable results than those provided by standard 2D in vitro cell cultures. However, 3D manufacturing techniques need to be further optimized in order to increase the robustness of these models and provide data that can be properly correlated with the in vivo situation. Therefore, in the present study the parameters used for producing multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) by liquid overlay technique (LOT) were optimized in order to produce heterogeneous cellular agglomerates comprised of cancer cells and stromal cells, during long periods. Spheroids were produced under highly controlled conditions, namely: (i) agarose coatings; (ii) horizontal stirring, and (iii) a known initial cell number. The simultaneous optimization of these parameters promoted the assembly of 3D characteristic cellular organization similar to that found in the in vivo solid tumors. Such improvements in the LOT technique promoted the assembly of highly reproducible, individual 3D spheroids, with a low cost of production and that can be used for future in vitro drug screening assays.

  17. Heterogeneity in resistant fecal Bacteroides fragilis group collected from healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimani, T; Douraghi, M; Owlia, P; Rastegar, A; Esghaei, M; Nasr, B; Talebi, M

    2016-06-01

    Normal nonpathogenic flora would represent a constant lake of resistance genes potentially transferable to human pathogens. To assess the prevalence of resistance genes and genetic variability of Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) from normal flora, 177 Bacteroides isolates obtained from the fecal samples of healthy individuals. These isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolates were further tested for the presence of ermF, tetQ and bft genes by PCR. Our results indicated the presence of different clonal strains (1 common type and 57 single types) among the resistant isolates. The resistance rate for the six antibiotics in this study was between 1% and 95%. Most of the isolates (99%) were susceptible to metronidazole. ermF and tetQ were detected in all erythromycin and tetracycline resistant isolates. None of the isolates were carried bft gene. These data suggest dissemination of heterogenic clonal groups in healthy persons and resistance to 5 high commonly used antibiotics.

  18. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for a Heterogeneous Group of Treatment-Resistant Clients: A Treatment Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sue; Kingston, Jessica; Wilson, Kelly G.; Bolderston, Helen; Remington, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has been shown to have broad applicability to different diagnostic groups, and there are theoretical reasons to consider its use with clients with chronic mental health problems. We report an innovative treatment development evaluation of ACT for a heterogeneous group of "treatment-resistant clients" (N =…

  19. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for a Heterogeneous Group of Treatment-Resistant Clients: A Treatment Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sue; Kingston, Jessica; Wilson, Kelly G.; Bolderston, Helen; Remington, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has been shown to have broad applicability to different diagnostic groups, and there are theoretical reasons to consider its use with clients with chronic mental health problems. We report an innovative treatment development evaluation of ACT for a heterogeneous group of "treatment-resistant clients" (N =…

  20. Moving Toward Cultural Pluralism, Part II: "Enculturation within Group Culture-Clusters."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Jose R.

    A survey of assimilation processes of Vietnamese immigrants suggests that biculturalism enables a person to gain the benefits of economic and political enfranchisement while still receiving social and psychological nourishment from his/her native culture-cluster. The sample consisted of three groups of Vietnamese immigrants who arrived in San…

  1. Heterogeneity of the organic matter in the Guayuta group, Eastern Venezuelan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, M.; Gallango, O.; Ruggiero, A.; Jordan, N. (Intevep, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)); Lefargue, E. (I.F.P., Rueil Malmaison (France))

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the organic matter heterogeneities in the Guayuta Group as a principal hydrocarbon source rock in the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. In order to do this, thirteen wells and five work stations on outcrops of the Interior Mountain Belt were analyzed to study the regional and vertical variations in the geochemical characteristics of the organic matter. It is possible to detect significant differences in quality and quantity of the organic matter which could corroborate the regional development of two organic facies from North to South in the Maturin Subbasin. The northern organic facies show excellent characteristics as source rock. The study of vertical distribution of organic matter was carried out in a well of northern part of the Monagas state, which represents the southern organic facies. It shows an irregular input of continental organic matter, thermally immature. Besides the organic matter content was low (around 1.5%) without depth tendencies. These sediments are clastic and bioclastic in contrast with carbonates and pelagic shales of the Guayuta Group in the Interior Mountain Belt. The outcrop samples studied show a high total organic content (2-6%) despite the high maturity determined on kerogen. The systematic study of this geochemical parameter show pseudocyclic relationships with a general tendency to increase toward the bottom of the section. V, Ni, and S determinations could indicate that anoxic conditions were developing toward the North where the marine organic matter was sedimenting. The results of this study are in agreement with paleogeographic model of sedimentation during middle and late Cretaceous, with sources of sediments from South and a progressive depth of the basin toward the North.

  2. Single-cell analysis reveals gene-expression heterogeneity in syntrophic dual-culture of Desulfovibrio vulgaris with Methanosarcina barkeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhenhua; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2014-12-01

    Microbial syntrophic metabolism has been well accepted as the heart of how methanogenic and other anaerobic microbial communities function. In this work, we applied a single-cell RT-qPCR approach to reveal gene-expression heterogeneity in a model syntrophic system of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri, as compared with the D. vulgaris monoculture. Using the optimized primers and single-cell analytical protocol, we quantitatively determine gene-expression levels of 6 selected target genes in each of the 120 single cells of D. vulgaris isolated from its monoculture and dual-culture with M. barkeri. The results demonstrated very significant cell-to-cell gene-expression heterogeneity for the selected D. vulgaris genes in both the monoculture and the syntrophic dual-culture. Interestingly, no obvious increase in gene-expression heterogeneity for the selected genes was observed for the syntrophic dual-culture when compared with its monoculture, although the community structure and cell-cell interactions have become more complicated in the syntrophic dual-culture. In addition, the single-cell RT-qPCR analysis also provided further evidence that the gene cluster (DVU0148-DVU0150) may be involved syntrophic metabolism between D. vulgaris and M. barkeri. Finally, the study validated that single-cell RT-qPCR analysis could be a valuable tool in deciphering gene functions and metabolism in mixed-cultured microbial communities.

  3. Joking Culture: The Role of Repeated Humorous Interactions on Group Processes during Challenge Course Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Siharath, Kassidy; Bell, Steven; Nguyen, Kim; Baker, Carla

    2011-01-01

    When groups form, they develop their own culture from the shared meaning created from their interactions. Humor is part of every social group, and when repeatedly referenced, it forms a joking culture. The joking culture of small groups influences group processes by smoothing group interaction, forming a collective identity, separating the group…

  4. "For most of us Africans, we don't just speak": a qualitative investigation into collaborative heterogeneous PBL group learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaram, Veena S; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Stevens, Fred; Dolmans, Diana H J M

    2011-08-01

    Collaborative approaches such as Problem Based Learning (PBL) may provide the opportunity to bring together diverse students but their efficacy in practice and the complications that arise due to the mixed ethnicity needs further investigation. This study explores the key advantages and problems of heterogeneous PBL groups from the students' and teachers' opinions. Focus groups were conducted with a stratified sample of second year medical students and their PBL teachers. We found that students working in heterogeneous groupings interact with students with whom they don't normally interact with, learn a lot more from each other because of their differences in language and academic preparedness and become better prepared for their future professions in multicultural societies. On the other hand we found students segregating in the tutorials along racial lines and that status factors disempowered students and subsequently their productivity. Among the challenges was also that academic and language diversity hindered student learning. In light of these the recommendations were that teachers need special diversity training to deal with heterogeneous groups and the tensions that arise. Attention should be given to create 'the right mix' for group learning in diverse student populations. The findings demonstrate that collaborative heterogeneous learning has two sides that need to be balanced. On the positive end we have the 'ideology' behind mixing diverse students and on the negative the 'practice' behind mixing students. More research is needed to explore these variations and their efficacy in more detail.

  5. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, J.; Gleichmann, T.; Zimmermann, S.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

    2016-09-01

    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1 μm and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35 pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20 μm in size. Further, the magnification of the optical system used for cell detection was increased. Redesign of the optical path allows for collision-free addressing of any flat substrate since no compartment protrudes below the nozzle of the dispenser chip anymore. The improved system allows for deterministic isolation of individual bacterial cells. A single-cell printing efficiency of 93% was obtained as shown by printing fluorescent labeled E. coli. A 96-well plate filled with growth medium is inoculated with single bacteria cells on average within about 8 min. Finally, individual bacterial cells from a heterogeneous sample of E. coli and E. faecalis were isolated for clonal culturing directly on agar plates in user-defined array geometry.

  6. A Case Study of Markdale High School's Implementation of Heterogeneously-Grouped Classes in English, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Louis, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe Markdale High School's change from separate college preparatory and general level classes to heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies, with particular emphasis on the principal's leadership style, change process, and teacher concerns (Hall & Hord, 2006)…

  7. Group Heterogeneity and Cooperation on the Geographical Indication Regulations: The Case of the 'Prosciutto di Parma Consortium'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Menozzi, D.; Capelli, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of individual group members’ heterogeneous characteristics, resources and strategies on their level of cooperation on defining the future regulation of Geographical Indications (GIs). By following a “grounded theory” approach, this study combines qualitative evidence f

  8. Lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity in the atypical group of novel emerging Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmunt, Michel S; Jacques, Isabelle; Bernardet, Nelly; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Recently, novel Brucella strains with phenotypic characteristics that were atypical for strains belonging to the genus Brucella have been reported. Phenotypically many of these strains were initially misidentified as Ochrobactrum spp. Two novel species have been described so far for these strains, i.e., B. microti and B. inopinata, and other strains genetically related to B. inopinata may constitute other novel species as well. In this study, we analyzed the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (smooth LPS [S-LPS] and rough LPS [R-LPS]) of these atypical strains using different methods and a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against several epitopes of the Brucella O-polysaccharide (O-PS) and R-LPS. Among the most striking results, Brucella sp. strain BO2, isolated from a patient with chronic destructive pneumonia, showed a completely distinct S-LPS profile in silver stain gels that looked more similar to that of enterobacterial S-LPS. This strain also failed to react with MAbs against Brucella O-PS epitopes and showed weak reactivity with anti-R-LPS MAbs. B. inopinata reference strain BO1 displayed an M-dominant S-LPS type with some heterogeneity relative to the classical M-dominant Brucella S-LPS type. Australian wild rodent strains belonging also to the B. inopinata group showed a classical A-dominant S-LPS but lacked the O-PS common (C) epitopes, as previously reported for B. suis biovar 2 strains. Interestingly, some strains also failed to react with anti-R-LPS MAbs, such as the B. microti reference strain and B. inopinata BO1, suggesting modifications in the core-lipid A moieties of these strains. These results have several implications for serological typing and serological diagnosis and underline the need for novel tools for detection and correct identification of such novel emerging Brucella spp.

  9. Renal Cell Carcinoma Occurring in Patients With Prior Neuroblastoma: A Heterogenous Group of Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzarano, Sara M; McKenney, Jesse K; Montironi, Rodolfo; Eble, John N; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Guo, Juan; Zhou, Shengmei; Xiao, Hong; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Mehra, Rohit; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with neuroblastoma (NB) was included as a distinct entity in the 2004 World Health Organization classification of kidney tumors. A spectrum of RCC subtypes has been reported in NB survivors. We herein describe a series of 8 RCCs diagnosed in 7 patients with a history of NB. Microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemical staining for PAX8, cathepsin K, and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for TFE3 and TFEB were performed. Four distinct morphologic subtypes were identified: 3 tumors were characterized by cells with abundant oncocytoid cytoplasm and irregular nuclei; 3 showed features of microphthalmia transcription factor family translocation RCC (MiTF-RCC); 1 had features of hybrid oncocytic-chromophobe tumor; 1 had papillary RCC histology. All RCCs expressed PAX8 and retained SDHB expression. Cathepsin K was positive in 2 MiTF-RCCs, 1 was TFEB FISH positive, and the other was indeterminate. Cathepsin K was negative in a third MiTF-RCC with TFE3 rearrangement. TFE3 FISH was negative in 4 and insufficient in 1 of the other 5 RCCs. While a subset of RCCs associated with NB is characterized by cells with prominent oncocytoid cytoplasm, other RCC subtypes also occur in post-NB patients. Renal neoplasms occurring in patients with a history of NB do not represent a single entity but a heterogenous group of RCCs. SDHB mutations do not explain the subset of nontranslocation RCCs with oncocytoid features; therefore, further studies are needed to clarify whether they may represent a distinct entity with unique molecular abnormalities or may belong to other emerging RCC subtypes.

  10. Culture, perception, and artistic visualization: a comparative study of children's drawings in three Siberian cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Kirill V; Panáková, Jaroslava; Heady, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In a study of three indigenous and non-indigenous cultural groups in northwestern and northeastern Siberia, framed line tests and a landscape drawing task were used to examine the hypotheses that test-based assessments of context sensitivity and independence are correlated with the amount of contextual information contained in drawings, and with the order in which the focal and background objects are drawn. The results supported these hypotheses, and inspection of the regression relationships suggested that the intergroup variations in test performance were likely to result from differences in the attention accorded to contextual information, as revealed by the drawings. Social and environmental explanations for the group differences in context sensitivity are also discussed. The conclusions support the argument that cultural differences in artistic styles and perceptual tests reflect the same underlying perceptual tendencies, and they are consistent with the argument that these tendencies reflect corresponding differences in patterns of social and environmental interaction.

  11. International Cultural Immersion: Assessing the Influence of a Group Intervention on Intercultural Sensitivity for Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Shannonhouse, Laura; Mobley, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Scholars (e.g., Bemak & Chung, 2004) underscore the need for group workers to be culturally sensitive. One group training strategy, cultural immersion, is often employed to develop cultural sensitivity. However, no studies have utilized quasi-experimental methodologies to assess differences in cultural sensitivity between trainees that immerse…

  12. Flexible Grouping as a Means for Classroom Management in a Heterogeneous Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytivaara, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns issues of classroom management in heterogeneous classrooms. Although research in the field of learning styles has yielded mixed results, there is a call for information about how they could be used to individualize instruction, especially in primary schools. This article is part of an ethnographic study aiming to examine…

  13. In-Depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silina-Jasjukevica, Gunta; Briška, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. "The aim" of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in…

  14. Learning what to eat : Emerging cultural phenomena in group foragers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, D.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832642

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the evolution and role of cultural inheritance in animal biology is a challenge. Central questions are: How does cultural inheritance arise? How does it depend on learning mechanisms? How do cultures evolve and diversify? We address these issues by considering diet learning in ``monkey

  15. Psychology of group relations: cultural and social dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J W

    2004-07-01

    Cross-cultural psychology attempts to understand the development and expression of human behavior in relation to the cultural contexts in which it occurs. It adopts the perspective of "universalism," which assumes that all human beings share basic psychological processes, but which are then shaped by cultural influences. This perspective allows for the comparison of individuals from different cultures (based on the process commonality), but also accepts behavioral variability (based on the cultural shaping). In the case of behavior that takes place during interactions between individuals coming from two (or more) cultures, the task is more complex; we now need to understand at least two sets of culture-behavior phenomena, as well as a third set--those that arise at the intersection of their relationships. In cross-cultural psychology, we have adopted concepts and methods from sociology and political science to inform work on "ethnic relations," and from cultural anthropology we have been informed in our work on the process and outcomes of "acculturation." In the former domain are phenomena such as prejudice and discrimination; in the latter are the strategies people use when in daily contact with people from other cultures (such as assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization). These phenomena take place in cultural contexts, which need to be understood in terms of the core dimensions of cultural difference (such as diversity, equality, and conformity). During prolonged and intimate contact between persons of different cultural backgrounds, all these psychological concepts and processes, and cultural influences need to be taken into account when selecting, training, and monitoring individuals during their intercultural interactions.

  16. Generalized stochastic profiling of transcriptional regulatory heterogeneities in tissues, tumors, and cultured cells

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Single-cell variations in gene and protein expression are important during development and disease. Cell-to-cell heterogeneities can be directly inspected one cell at a time, but global methods are usually not sensitive enough to work with such a small amount of starting material. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for stochastic profiling, a method that infers single-cell regulatory heterogeneities by repeatedly sampling small collections of cells at random. Repeated stochastic sampling is...

  17. In-depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliņa-Jasjukeviča Gunta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. The aim of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in teacher education program from the perspective of encouraging multinational students to reveal common values within diverse manifestations of different cultures. The present article describes a qualitative study of multinational students’ experiences in international project related to the learning about Nordic and Baltic cultural traditions. In the conclusion of the article, the efficiency of the structure of content and the process of in-depth cultural studies are analyzed. The discussion contains problems for further research of this topic.

  18. Quality control of cultured tissues requires tools for quantitative analyses of heterogeneous features developed in manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino-Oka, Masahiro; Takezawa, Yasunori; Taya, Masahito

    2009-02-01

    Tissue engineering and related technology have attracted a great deal of medical attention as promising fields for curing defective tissues in vivo. Nowadays, many companies have been established for supplying the reconstructed grafts of cultured tissues for transplantation. The manufacturing processes generally deals with the handlings of starter cells offered by patients (or donors) as raw materials to cultured tissues as products, requiring the construction of novel ex vivo methodologies based on principles different from conventional processes for chemical and pharmaceutical productions. In addition, the raw materials have heterogeneity depending on the state of patients and location of cell harvests, and the products possess spatial cell distribution in the three dimensional structure. These features request a unique strategy in manufacturing process accompanied with the quality control for raw materials and products. This review article describes the contribution of tissue bankers and biochemical engineers to the quality control of cultured tissues during manufacturing, introducing the advances in methodologies to evaluate spatial heterogeneity of cells (or aggregates) and matrices in cultured tissues.

  19. Detecting local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region of different lipidic phases using modified fluorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K.; Zahid, N. Idayu; Khyasudeen, M. Faisal; Giera, David S.; Thimm, Julian C.; Hashim, Rauzah

    2015-01-01

    Local heterogeneity in lipid self-assembly is important for executing the cellular membrane functions. In this work, we chemically modified 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and attached a C8 alkyl chain in two different locations to probe the microscopic environment of four lipidic phases of dodecyl β-maltoside. The fluorescence change in HBO and the new probes (HBO-1 and HBO-2) shows that in all phases (micellar, hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) three HBO tautomeric species (solvated syn-enol, anionic, and closed syn-keto) are stable. The formation of multi tautomers reflects the heterogeneity of the lipidic phases. The results indicate that HBO and HBO-1 reside in a similar location within the head group region, whereas HBO-2 is slightly pushed away from the sugar-dominated area. The stability of the solvated syn-enol tautomer is due to the formation of a hydrogen bond between the OH group of the HBO moiety and an adjacent oxygen atom of a sugar unit. The detected HBO anions was proposed to be a consequence of this solvation effect where a hydrogen ion abstraction by the sugar units is enhanced. Our results point to a degree of local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region as a consequence of the sugar amphoterism. PMID:25731606

  20. Detecting local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region of different lipidic phases using modified fluorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K; Zahid, N Idayu; Khyasudeen, M Faisal; Giera, David S; Thimm, Julian C; Hashim, Rauzah

    2015-03-03

    Local heterogeneity in lipid self-assembly is important for executing the cellular membrane functions. In this work, we chemically modified 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and attached a C8 alkyl chain in two different locations to probe the microscopic environment of four lipidic phases of dodecyl β-maltoside. The fluorescence change in HBO and the new probes (HBO-1 and HBO-2) shows that in all phases (micellar, hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) three HBO tautomeric species (solvated syn-enol, anionic, and closed syn-keto) are stable. The formation of multi tautomers reflects the heterogeneity of the lipidic phases. The results indicate that HBO and HBO-1 reside in a similar location within the head group region, whereas HBO-2 is slightly pushed away from the sugar-dominated area. The stability of the solvated syn-enol tautomer is due to the formation of a hydrogen bond between the OH group of the HBO moiety and an adjacent oxygen atom of a sugar unit. The detected HBO anions was proposed to be a consequence of this solvation effect where a hydrogen ion abstraction by the sugar units is enhanced. Our results point to a degree of local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region as a consequence of the sugar amphoterism.

  1. Explaining Individual Communication Processes in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Groups through Individualism-Collectivism and Self-Construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetzel, John G.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effective decision-making theory's (EDMT) prediction that cultural individualism-collectivism, self-construal, and group composition influence turn-taking behavior and conflict behavior in small groups. Finds, for example, that independent self-construal is a predictor of the number of turns and competitive conflict tactics in…

  2. Acculturation: When Individuals and Groups of Different Cultural Backgrounds Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2010-07-01

    In cross-cultural psychology, one of the major sources of the development and display of human behavior is the contact between cultural populations. Such intercultural contact results in both cultural and psychological changes. At the cultural level, collective activities and social institutions become altered, and at the psychological level, there are changes in an individual's daily behavioral repertoire and sometimes in experienced stress. The two most common research findings at the individual level are that there are large variations in how people acculturate and in how well they adapt to this process. Variations in ways of acculturating have become known by the terms integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. Two variations in adaptation have been identified, involving psychological well-being and sociocultural competence. One important finding is that there are relationships between how individuals acculturate and how well they adapt: Often those who integrate (defined as being engaged in both their heritage culture and in the larger society) are better adapted than those who acculturate by orienting themselves to one or the other culture (by way of assimilation or separation) or to neither culture (marginalization). Implications of these findings for policy and program development and for future research are presented.

  3. Cultural evolution of cooperation : The interplay between forms of social learning and group selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Lucas; Quiñones, Andres; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of cultural group selection in the evolution of human cooperation is hotly debated. It has been argued that group selection is more effective in cultural evolution than in genetic evolution, because some forms of cultural transmission (conformism and/or the tendency to follow a leader) redu

  4. Testing the cultural group selection hypothesis in Northern Ghana and Oaxaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We examine the cultural group selection (CGS) hypothesis in light of our fieldwork in Northern Ghana and Oaxaca, highly multi-ethnic regions. Our evidence fails to corroborate two central predictions of the hypothesis: that the cultural group is the unit of evolution, and that cultural homogenization is to be expected as the outcome of a selective process.

  5. Homogeneity of mind can yield heterogeneity in behavior producing emergent collaboration in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Rick

    2014-06-01

    The evolved psychological process for producing social norms is both needed to facilitate emergent group-level traits and capable of delivering such a process. I discuss how this process can work to generate group-level traits and how specific mechanisms established to buttress social norms similarly can explain how group-level traits are supported.

  6. Efficacy of Group Art Therapy on Depressive Symptoms in Adult Heterogeneous Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Ainlay Anand, Susan; Avent, Lindsay Cherryl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential benefit of weekly group art therapy in groups of adult psychiatric outpatients at a university medical center. Eighteen patients participated in 4 successive 8-week groups of 6 to 8 patients each that met weekly and were led by 2 therapists (a board-certified art therapist and a psychiatry resident). The…

  7. Efficacy of Group Art Therapy on Depressive Symptoms in Adult Heterogeneous Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Ainlay Anand, Susan; Avent, Lindsay Cherryl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential benefit of weekly group art therapy in groups of adult psychiatric outpatients at a university medical center. Eighteen patients participated in 4 successive 8-week groups of 6 to 8 patients each that met weekly and were led by 2 therapists (a board-certified art therapist and a psychiatry resident). The…

  8. Heterogeneous conditions in dissolved oxygen affect N-glycosylation but not productivity of a monoclonal antibody in hybridoma cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, J Antonio; Palomares, Laura A; Meneses-Acosta, Angélica; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2004-10-20

    It is known that heterogeneous conditions exist in large-scale animal cell cultures. However, little is known about how heterogeneities affect cells, productivities, and product quality. To study the effect of non-constant dissolved oxygen tension (DOT), hybridomas were subjected to sinusoidal DOT oscillations in a one-compartment scale-down simulator. Oscillations were forced by manipulating the inlet oxygen partial pressure through a feedback control algorithm in a 220-mL bioreactor maintained at a constant agitation. Such temporal DOT oscillations simulate spatial DOT gradients that can occur in large scales. Different oscillation periods, in the range of 800 to 12,800 s (axis of 7% (air saturation) and amplitude of 7%), were tested and compared to constant DOT (10%) control cultures. Oscillating DOT decreased maximum cell concentrations, cell growth rates, and viability indexes. Cultures at oscillating DOT had an increased glycolytic metabolism that was evidenced by a decrease in yield of cells on glucose and an increase in lactate yield. DOT gradients, even several orders of magnitude higher than those expected under practical large-scale conditions, did not significantly affect the maximum concentration of an IgG(1) monoclonal antibody (MAb). The glycosylation profile of the MAb produced at a constant DOT of 10% was similar to that reported in the literature. However, MAb produced under oscillating culture conditions had a higher amount of triantennary and sialylated glycans, which can interfere with effector functions of the antibody. It was shown that transient excursions of hybridomas to limiting DOT, as occurs in deficiently mixed large-scale bioreactors, is important to culture performance as the oscillation period, and thus the time cells spent at low DOT, affected cell growth, metabolism, and the glycosylation pattern of MAb. Such results underline the importance of monitoring protein characteristics for the development of large-scale processes.

  9. GM-CSF Mouse Bone Marrow Cultures Comprise a Heterogeneous Population of CD11c(+)MHCII(+) Macrophages and Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helft, Julie; Böttcher, Jan; Chakravarty, Probir; Zelenay, Santiago; Huotari, Jatta; Schraml, Barbara U; Goubau, Delphine; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-06-16

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the immune system. Much of their biology has been elucidated via culture systems in which hematopoietic precursors differentiate into DCs under the aegis of cytokines. A widely used protocol involves the culture of murine bone marrow (BM) cells with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to generate BM-derived DCs (BMDCs). BMDCs express CD11c and MHC class II (MHCII) molecules and share with DCs isolated from tissues the ability to present exogenous antigens to T cells and to respond to microbial stimuli by undergoing maturation. We demonstrate that CD11c(+)MHCII(+) BMDCs are in fact a heterogeneous group of cells that comprises conventional DCs and monocyte-derived macrophages. DCs and macrophages in GM-CSF cultures both undergo maturation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide but respond differentially to the stimulus and remain separable entities. These results have important implications for the interpretation of a vast array of data obtained with DC culture systems.

  10. Drug Checking: A prevention measure for a heterogeneous group with high consumption frequency and polydrug use - evaluation of zurich's drug checking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaub Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing party culture in Zurich presents new challenges, especially regarding the consumption of alcohol and so-called party drugs. Streetwork, the youth advisory service of the city of Zurich, has provided onsite and stationary Drug Checking facilities since 2001 and 2006, respectively. Drug Checking always involves filling out an anonymous questionnaire, which allows the collection of important information about a largely unknown group of users and their consumption patterns. Methods The questionnaires assessed sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, Drug Checking experiences, information behavior and social support. The collected data were statistically analyzed by the Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction (RIPHA. Results The majority of Drug Checking service patrons were male and between 20 and 35 years old. These patrons reported high lifetime prevalences and high consumption frequencies of legal and illegal substances, and they often reported polydrug use. Aside from tobacco and alcohol, the most consumed drugs during typical party nights were ecstasy, amphetamines, cannabis and cocaine. Party drug consumers using Drug Checking services form a heterogeneous group with respect to sociodemographic characteristics and consumption patterns. Users of the onsite Drug Checking facilities were significantly younger, were less experienced with drug testing, and reported more polydrug use than users of the stationary Drug Checking service. Conclusions Drug Checking combined with a consultation appears to be an important harm reduction and prevention measure that reaches a group of consumers with high consumption frequency and polydrug use. Because of the heterogeneity of the target group, different prevention measures must be offered and embedded in an overall local concept.

  11. Multi-parameter flow cytometry and cell sorting reveal extensive physiological heterogeneity in Bacillus cereus batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want, Andrew; Hancocks, Helen; Thomas, Colin R; Stocks, Stuart M; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Hewitt, Christopher J

    2011-07-01

    Based on two staining protocols, DiOC(6)(3)/propidium iodide (PI) and RedoxSensor Green (an indicator of bacterial reductase activity)/PI, multi-parameter flow cytometry and cell sorting has identified at least four distinguishable physiological states during batch cultures of Bacillus cereus. Furthermore, dependent on the position in the growth curve, single cells gave rise to varying numbers of colonies when sorted individually onto nutrient agar plates. These growing colonies derived from a single cell had widely different lag phases, inferred from differences in colony size. This further highlights the complex population dynamics of bacterial monocultures and further demonstrates that individual bacterial cells in a culture respond in markedly dissimilar ways to the environment, resulting in a physiologically heterogenous and dynamic population.

  12. The Properties of the Heterogeneous Shakhbazyan Groups of Galaxies in the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Capozzi, D; Paolillo, M; D'Abrusco, R; Longo, G

    2009-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the sub-sample of Shakhbazyan groups (SHKs) covered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release--5 (SDSS-5). SHKs probe an environment with characteristics which are intermediate between those of loose and very compact groups. Surprisingly, we found that several groups identifying algorithms (e.g. Berlind qt al. 2006, Tago et al. 2008) miss this type of structures. Using the SDSS-5 spectroscopic data and the photometric redshifts derived in D'Abrusco et al. 2007, we identified possible group members in photometric redshift space and derived, for each group, several individual properties. We also combined pointed and stacked Rosat All Sky Survey data to investigate the X-ray luminosities of these systems. Our study confirms that the majority of groups are physical entities with richness in the range 3--13 galaxies, and properties ranging between those of loose and compact groups. We confirm that SHK groups are richer in early-type galaxies than the surrounding environment and ...

  13. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  14. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  15. Globalisation in the Lecture Room? Gender and Cultural Diversity in Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Timurs

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relationship between cultural and gender diversity and performance in groups of business students working on complex assignments. The study finds that gender diversity in student groups has a positive influence on group outcomes, while cultural diversity, irrespective of its conceptualisation, leads to…

  16. Globalisation in the Lecture Room? Gender and Cultural Diversity in Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Timurs

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relationship between cultural and gender diversity and performance in groups of business students working on complex assignments. The study finds that gender diversity in student groups has a positive influence on group outcomes, while cultural diversity, irrespective of its conceptualisation, leads to…

  17. Evaluation of the Iconic Pain Assessment Tool by a Heterogeneous Group of People in Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Lalloo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iconic Pain Assessment Tool (IPAT is a novel web-based instrument for the self-report of pain quality, intensity and location in the form of a permanent diary. Originally designed for people with central poststroke pain, the tool is being adapted for a larger, more diverse patient population. The present study aimed to collect evaluative feedback on the IPAT from a heterogeneous sample of individuals with chronic pain. The specific study aims were to evaluate participant comfort with the tool including enjoyment, ease of use and comfort with the electronic medium; to assess perceived value of the tool for communicating pain quality, intensity and location; to gauge participant intent to share their pain diaries with others and use the tool on a regular basis to track their pain over time; to assess the perceived descriptiveness of current IPAT icons and the numerical rating scale; and to identify strengths and weaknesses of the tool to refine the existing prototype.

  18. Heritage Forward: The Central Command Historical-Cultural Advisory Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    of the 4th annual meeting held in September of 2012 at the Key Bridge Marriott Hotel in Arlington, VA, see the following URL: http://cchag.org...limited to culture, information, and tourism . The opportunity to continue and develop the partnership with AIA offers the ability to offer extremely

  19. What's wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective Likert scales?: The reference-group effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Lehman, Darrin R; Peng, Kaiping; Greenholtz, Joe

    2002-06-01

    Social comparison theory maintains that people think about themselves compared with similar others. Those in one culture, then, compare themselves with different others and standards than do those in another culture, thus potentially confounding cross-cultural comparisons. A pilot study and Study 1 demonstrated the problematic nature of this reference-group effect: Whereas cultural experts agreed that East Asians are more collectivistic than North Americans, cross-cultural comparisons of trait and attitude measures failed to reveal such a pattern. Study 2 found that manipulating reference groups enhanced the expected cultural differences, and Study 3 revealed that people from different cultural backgrounds within the same country exhibited larger differences than did people from different countries. Cross-cultural comparisons using subjective Likert scales are compromised because of different reference groups. Possible solutions are discussed.

  20. Stock culture heterogeneity rather than new mutational variation complicates short-term cell physiology studies of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahku, Ranno; Peebo, Karl; Valgepea, Kaspar; Barrick, Jeffrey E; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2011-09-01

    Nutrient-limited continuous cultures in chemostats have been used to study microbial cell physiology for over 60 years. Genome instability and genetic heterogeneity are possible uncontrolled factors in continuous cultivation experiments. We investigated these issues by using high-throughput (HT) DNA sequencing to characterize samples from different phases of a glucose-limited accelerostat (A-stat) experiment with Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 and a duration regularly used in cell physiology studies (20 generations of continuous cultivation). Seven consensus mutations from the reference sequence and five subpopulations characterized by different mutations were detected in the HT-sequenced samples. This genetic heterogeneity was confirmed to result from the stock culture by Sanger sequencing. All the subpopulations in which allele frequencies increased (betA, cspG/cspH, glyA) during the experiment were also present at the end of replicate A-stats, indicating that no new subpopulations emerged during our experiments. The fact that ~31 % of the cells in our initial cultures obtained directly from a culture stock centre were mutants raises concerns that even if cultivations are started from single colonies, there is a significant chance of picking a mutant clone with an altered phenotype. Our results show that current HT DNA sequencing technology allows accurate subpopulation analysis and demonstrates that a glucose-limited E. coli K-12 MG1655 A-stat experiment with a duration of tens of generations is suitable for studying cell physiology and collecting quantitative data for metabolic modelling without interference from new mutations.

  1. Fusion of Heterogeneous Incomplete Hesitant Preference Relations in Group Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    ...) under group decision making settings. First, some simple formulae are developed to derive a priority weight vector from an incomplete hesitant fuzzy preference relation or an incomplete hesitant multiplicative preference relation based...

  2. Loneliness and life satisfaction amongst three cultural groups

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, R; Cook, O; Yung, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Studies into loneliness and life satisfaction have rarely assessed the role of culture in moderating the relationship between these variables. The present study examined the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction using data from three nonstudent samples collected from Italian, Anglo-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian populations. A total of 206 respondents completed the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980) and the Satisfaction with...

  3. An experimental public: heterogeneous groups defining embodiment in the early twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laki, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I take a look at certain forms of contemporary art as practices that allow meanings within biomedical science and medical practice to emerge in novel ways. I claim that conceptual art and biological art are two unique spaces within which the understanding of embodiment and disease comes to be shaped actively and reflexively, sometimes on the very level of the materiality of the body, sometimes through the articulation and representation of medical images and technologies. I link these developments to Paul Rabinow's notion of biosociality and argue that the molecularization and geneticization of the medical gaze, conjoined with certain social and cultural shifts, results in the formation of an experimental public of artists, scientists and lay people, all invested in actively shaping the conceptualization of bodies and diseases. This will take me to a consideration of the intertwining of art and medicine beyond the domain of the visual.

  4. Locational heterogeneity of maturation by changes in migratory behaviors of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoi, Rie; Kim, Mee-Hae; Kino-oka, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    To better characterize human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, their maturation was studied by time-lapse observation and immunostaining of the tight junction protein ZO-1. During subconfluency with active migration, the cells had an elongated shape. During cell division to reach confluency, RPE cells became small and tight, exhibiting cobblestone-like morphology. In addition, RPE maturation at the peripheral region of the culture vessel was delayed when compared with the central region, demonstrating local heterogeneity during maturation. To correlate cellular migration and maturation, we compared frequencies of migration rate and number of ZO-1-positive cells at the central and peripheral regions. Cells having migration rates less than 5.0 μm/h in the central region were 1.4-fold higher than in the peripheral region at day 5. Regardless of locational differences in the culture vessel, the frequency of cells having migration rates less than 5.0 μm/h showed 90% agreement with the frequency of ZO-1-positive cells. To inhibit cell migration, RPE cells were exposed to medium containing 50 μg/ml Rac1 inhibitor at day 5. Frequencies of ZO-1-positive cells and cells having migration rates less than 5.0 μm/h at the peripheral region were similar to those at the central region. The results show that migration is an important factor affecting maturation, and demonstrate that location heterogeneity during maturation is caused by different migratory behaviors in the culture vessel. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Importance of life domains in different cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Dov; Kantor, Jeffrey; Yaniv, Eyal; Sagie, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's (1996) multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered (i.e., associated with one's home, family, or work) from collective-centered values (i.e., associated with the religion, sports, or politics). The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.

  6. Mobility Behavior of the Elderly: an attitude-based segmentation approach for a heterogeneous target group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    determinantes including infrastructural, sociodemographic and attitudinal variables, were assessed. The most important factors, identified by five regression analyses, served as type-constituent variables in a series of cluster analyses. The final cluster solution resulted in four segments of the elderly named...... Captive Car Users, Affluent Mobiles, Self-Determined Mobiles, and Captive Public Transport Users. The groups showed distinct mobility patterns as well as significant differences in infrastructural, sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. The study provides a more comprehensive understanding...

  7. The geography and human cultural resources working group of the EROS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The functions, activities, and objectives of the Geography and Human-Cultural Resources Working Group of the EROS program are outlined. The Group's primary function is to coordinate remote sensing experiments of physical scientists and the needs of socioeconomic and culturally orientated planners, policy makers, administrators, and other user groups. Other functions of the Group include land use analysis, resource mapping, and development of an operational automatic information system receptive to land use and environmental data.

  8. The geography and human cultural resources working group of the EROS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The functions, activities, and objectives of the Geography and Human-Cultural Resources Working Group of the EROS program are outlined. The Group's primary function is to coordinate remote sensing experiments of physical scientists and the needs of socioeconomic and culturally orientated planners, policy makers, administrators, and other user groups. Other functions of the Group include land use analysis, resource mapping, and development of an operational automatic information system receptive to land use and environmental data.

  9. The Potential of a Mobile Group Blog to Support Cultural Learning among Overseas Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yinjuan; Crook, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We explored the use of mobile social software, in the form of a mobile group blog, to assist cultural learning. The potential of using this technology for cultural adaptation among overseas students was examined as those students adapted to the everyday life of studying abroad. Two pilot studies and a successful field study of a mobile group blog…

  10. Violence in Street Culture: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Youth Groups and Criminal Gangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdun, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in…

  11. Cultura no grupo de brinquedo Culture in the play group

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Almeida Carvalho; Maria Isabel Pedrosa

    2002-01-01

    Discute-se o conceito de cultura em relação à microcultura do grupo de brinquedo. Concebe-se a criança como agente de criação e transmissão de cultura e o grupo de brinquedo como espaço de informação onde esses processos ocorrem. Essa concepção baseia-se no reconhecimento da espécie humana como biologicamente sócio-cultural e na pressuposição de adaptações precoces para essa especificidade. Episódios de atividade lúdica livre de crianças de 10 a 60 meses são analisados para detectar a ocorrên...

  12. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

    1983-02-01

    The authors evaluated the interaction of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)/sub 2/D (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D). They analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. The following four patterns of interaction with (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 were observed with cells cultured from affected patients. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)/sup 2/D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.

  13. A case study of Markdale High School's implementation of heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Louis, Fred

    The purpose of this study was to describe Markdale High School's change from separate college preparatory and general level classes to heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies, with particular emphasis on the principal's leadership style, change process, and teacher concerns (Hall & Hord, 2006) experienced during this effort. The researcher used Hall and Hord's (2006) Concern-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) as a conceptual framework. Specifically, the researcher applied three elements of the CBAM model: (a) the Twelve Principles of Change, (b) the Change Facilitator Styles, and (c) the Stages of Concerns. Hall and Hord's framework served as a lens through which the researcher analyzed all data. The researcher used a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to answer the four research questions. The participants completed three instruments: (a) the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ), (b) the Principles of Change Survey, and (c) the Facilitator Style Survey. All three instruments were self-report, paper-pencil surveys. The sample included 72 faculty members who experienced the change over the past three years. Findings from the three data sources and the school principal's comments during debriefing are indicated for each research question and reported by unit of analysis. Respective to the research questions, the researcher concluded that: (1) Markdale High School accomplished the change by implementing both structural and instructional changes supporting to the change to heterogeneous grouping; (2) even though teachers had divergent opinions on the school principal's facilitation style, the principal thought of himself as an incrementalist and a practitioner of differentiated facilitation styles; (3) while half of the faculty felt that they received formal training on heterogeneous grouping, (4) half felt that they did not have a choice in the decision-making process as it occurred with college preparatory and

  14. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

    1983-02-01

    We evaluated the interaction of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)/sub 2/D (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D). We analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer containing 300 mM KCl and 10 mM sodium molybdate. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.

  15. Heterogenous Distribution of MTHFR Gene Variants among Mestizos and Diverse Amerindian Groups from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz E.; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Barajas-Olmos, Francisco; Cid, Miguel; Mendoza-Caamal, Elvia C.; Centeno-Cruz, Federico; Ortiz-Cruz, Gabriela; Jiménez-López, José Concepción; Córdova, Emilio J.; Salas-Bautista, Eva Gabriela; Saldaña-Alvarez, Yolanda; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.

    2016-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Folate deficiency has been related to several conditions, including neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, MTHFR genetic variants have been studied worldwide, particularly the C677T and A1298C. We genotyped the C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindians (MAs), from the largest sample included in a genetic study (n = 2026, from 62 ethnic groups), and in a geographically-matched Mexican Mestizo population (MEZ, n = 638). The 677T allele was most frequent in Mexican individuals, particularly in MAs. The frequency of this allele in both MAs and MEZs was clearly enriched in the South region of the country, followed by the Central East and South East regions. In contrast, the frequency of the 1298C risk allele in Mexicans was one of the lowest in the world. Both in MAs and MEZs the variants 677T and 1298C displayed opposite allele frequency gradients from southern to northern Mexico. Our findings suggest that in Mestizos the 677T allele was derived from Amerindians while the 1298C allele was a European contribution. Some subgroups showed an allele frequency distribution that highlighted their genetic diversity. Notably, the distribution of the frequency of the 677T allele was consistent with that of the high incidence of NTDs reported in MEZ. PMID:27649570

  16. Heterogenous Distribution of MTHFR Gene Variants among Mestizos and Diverse Amerindian Groups from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz E; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Barajas-Olmos, Francisco; Cid, Miguel; Mendoza-Caamal, Elvia C; Centeno-Cruz, Federico; Ortiz-Cruz, Gabriela; Jiménez-López, José Concepción; Córdova, Emilio J; Salas-Bautista, Eva Gabriela; Saldaña-Alvarez, Yolanda; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Orozco, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Folate deficiency has been related to several conditions, including neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, MTHFR genetic variants have been studied worldwide, particularly the C677T and A1298C. We genotyped the C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindians (MAs), from the largest sample included in a genetic study (n = 2026, from 62 ethnic groups), and in a geographically-matched Mexican Mestizo population (MEZ, n = 638). The 677T allele was most frequent in Mexican individuals, particularly in MAs. The frequency of this allele in both MAs and MEZs was clearly enriched in the South region of the country, followed by the Central East and South East regions. In contrast, the frequency of the 1298C risk allele in Mexicans was one of the lowest in the world. Both in MAs and MEZs the variants 677T and 1298C displayed opposite allele frequency gradients from southern to northern Mexico. Our findings suggest that in Mestizos the 677T allele was derived from Amerindians while the 1298C allele was a European contribution. Some subgroups showed an allele frequency distribution that highlighted their genetic diversity. Notably, the distribution of the frequency of the 677T allele was consistent with that of the high incidence of NTDs reported in MEZ.

  17. Enacting cultural interests: how intergroup contact reduces prejudice by sparking interest in an out-group's culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Tiffany N; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-10-01

    In the present research, we examined the hypothesis that cues of social connectedness to a member of another social group can spark interest in the group's culture, and that such interest, when freely enacted, contributes to reductions in intergroup prejudice. In two pilot studies and Experiment 1, we found that extant and desired cross-group friendships and cues of social connectedness to an out-group member predicted increased interest in the target group's culture. In Experiments 2 and 3, we manipulated cues of social connectedness between non-Latino American participants and a Latino American (i.e., Mexican American) peer and whether participants freely worked with this peer on a Mexican cultural task. This experience reduced the participants' implicit bias against Latinos, an effect that was mediated by increased cultural engagement, and, 6 months later in an unrelated context, improved intergroup outcomes (e.g., interest in interacting with Mexican Americans; Experiment 4). The Discussion section addresses the inter- and intragroup benefits of policies that encourage people to express and share diverse cultural interests in mainstream settings.

  18. Effects of cooperative incentives and heterogeneous arrangement on achievement and interaction of cooperative learning groups in a college life science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott B.; Marshall, James E.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of cooperative incentives and heterogeneous grouping as elements of cooperative learning in a college life science course. Cooperative learning may be defined as a classroom learning environment in which students work together in heterogeneous groups toward completion of some task. Cooperative incentive structures provide some type of group reward based on group products or individual learning. In heterogeneous grouping, students are arranged in order to maximize variety within groups. A 2 × 2 design was utilized in this study. The independent variables considered included (a) use of cooperative incentives in learning groups, and (b) use of heterogeneous grouping in cooperative learning groups. Dependent variables for all treatment groups were scores from a multiple-choice instrument developed for an earlier, related study, along with direct observational data on frequency of cooperative interactions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used as the data analysis procedure for the achievement portion of the study, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for analysis of the cooperative interaction portion of the study. No significant differences were found between the treatment groups.

  19. The role of cultural group selection in explaining human cooperation is a hard case to prove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Silva, Antonio S

    2016-01-01

    We believe cultural group selection is an elegant theoretical framework to study the evolution of complex human behaviours, including large-scale cooperation. However, the empirical evidence on key theoretical issues - such as levels of within- and between-group variation and effects of intergroup competition - is so far patchy, with no clear case where all the relevant assumptions and predictions of cultural group selection are met, to the exclusion of other explanations.

  20. Sociodemographic, sexual, reproductive and relationship characteristics of adolescents having an abortion in Portugal: a homogeneous or a heterogeneous group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana; Pires, Raquel; Araújo Pedrosa, Anabela; Vicente, Lisa; Bombas, Teresa; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the study were to describe the sociodemographic, sexual, reproductive and relational characteristics of adolescents having an abortion in Portugal and to explore the differences between three adolescent age groups. We recruited a nationally representative sample of 224 adolescents (<16 years, n =  18; 16-17 years, n =  103; 18-19 years, n =  103) who had an abortion. Data were collected from 16 health care services that provide abortion. The adolescents were predominantly single, were from non-nuclear families, had low-socioeconomic status and were students. Mean age at first sexual intercourse was 15 years and mean gynaecological age was 5 years. Most had had multiple sexual partners, and for most it was their first pregnancy. At conception, the majority were involved in a long-term romantic relationship, were using contraception but did not identify the contraceptive failure that led to the pregnancy. Significant age group differences were found. Compared with the younger age groups, the 18-19 year age group was more frequently married or living with a partner, had finished school, had attained a higher educational level (as had their partner), intended to go to university, and had a greater number of sexual partners. Compared with the other groups, those under 16 years of age reported earlier age at menarche and at first sexual intercourse, and had a lower gynaecological age. Our study characterises the life contexts of Portuguese adolescents who had an abortion. It highlights the need to recognise the heterogeneity of this group according to age. The findings have important implications for the development of age-appropriate guidelines to prevent unplanned pregnancy.

  1. Cytogenetic heterogeneity and their serial dynamic changes during acquisition of cytogenetic aberrations in cultured mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung-Ah [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kyong Ok; Park, Si Nae; Kwon, Ji Seok [Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Young [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Keunhee; Lee, Dong-Sup [Laboratory of Immunology and Cancer Biology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Transplantation Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Seong Who [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Mi; Lee, Gene [Lab of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang Do [Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asthma Center and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soon, E-mail: soonlee@snu.ac.kr [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We evaluated cytogenetic aberrations of MSC during culture using G-banding and FISH. • We tracked the quantitative changes of each clone among heterogeneity upon passages. • The changes of cytogenetic profile upon passages were similar to cancer stem cell. - Abstract: To minimize the risk of tumorigenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), G-banding analysis is widely used to detect chromosomal aberrations in MSCs. However, a critical limitation of G-banding is that it only reflects the status of metaphase cells, which can represent as few as 0.01% of tested cells. During routine cytogenetic testing in MSCs, we often detect chromosomal aberrations in minor cell populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether such a minority of cells can expand over time or if they ultimately disappear during MSC passaging. We passaged MSCs serially while monitoring quantitative changes for each aberrant clone among heterogeneous MSCs. To investigate the cytogenetic status of interphase cells, which represent the main population, we also performed interphase FISH analysis, in combination with G-banding and telomere length determination. In human adipose tissue-derived MSCs, 4 types of chromosomal aberrations were found during culturing, and in umbilical cord MSCs, 2 types of chromosomal aberrations were observed. Sequential dynamic changes among heterogeneous aberrant clones during passaging were similar to the dynamic changes observed in cancer stem cells during disease progression. Throughout all passages, the quantitative G-banding results were inconsistent with those of the interphase FISH analysis. Interphase FISH revealed hidden aberrations in stem cell populations with normal karyotypes by G-banding analysis. We found that telomere length gradually decreased during passaging until the point at which cytogenetic aberrations appeared. The present study demonstrates that rare aberrant clones at earlier passages can become predominant clones during

  2. Co-creating meaningful structures within long-term psychotherapy group culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Robin G

    2009-07-01

    Meaningful group structures are co-created within the long-term outpatient psychotherapy group through a hermeneutical interaction between structure and immediate experience of structure by individuals embedded in personal and collective contexts. Co-created meanings expand original group- and self-understandings and further evolve structures that are stable yet do not exist independently of the narratives and affects of the members who interact with them. Group structures do not reduce, expand, or dissolve but change in connection to the experiences and meaning attributions within the group. This intersubjective process mediates the emphasis within group theory on leader responsibility for culture building that risks overpromoting certain psychotherapeutic cultural intentions over others. Three examples of intersubjective hermeneutical interaction within long-term psychotherapy groups lend insight into global, cultural, and societal groups.

  3. Sequence heterogeneity and phylogenetic relationships between the copia retrotransposon in Drosophila species of the repleta and melanogaster groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carareto Claudia MA

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the retrotransposon copia has been studied in the melanogaster group of Drosophila species, very little is known about copia dynamism and evolution in other groups. We analyzed the occurrence and heterogeneity of the copia 5'LTR-ULR partial sequence and their phylogenetic relationships in 24 species of the repleta group of Drosophila. PCR showed that copia occurs in 18 out of the 24 species evaluated. Sequencing was possible in only eight species. The sequences showed a low nucleotide diversity, which suggests selective constraints maintaining this regulatory region over evolutionary time. On the contrary, the low nucleotide divergence and the phylogenetic relationships between the D. willistoni/Zaprionus tuberculatus/melanogaster species subgroup suggest horizontal transfer. Sixteen transcription factor binding sites were identified in the LTR-ULR repleta and melanogaster consensus sequences. However, these motifs are not homologous, neither according to their position in the LTR-ULR sequences, nor according to their sequences. Taken together, the low motif homologies, the phylogenetic relationship and the great nucleotide divergence between the melanogaster and repleta copia sequences reinforce the hypothesis that there are two copia families.

  4. Cultural aspects of healthy BRCA carriers from two ethnocultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro de Souza, Alicia; Groleau, Danielle; Loiselle, Carmen G; Foulkes, William D; Wong, Nora

    2014-05-01

    We explored the experiences of Ashkenazi Jewish and French Canadian women and meanings attributed to their hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) risk. We purposively sampled 40 BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) mutation carriers and conducted theoretically driven semistructured interviews. According to content analysis, participants from these two ethnocultural groups held divergent meanings associated with being a BRCA carrier and different views pertaining to the illness experience and risk awareness. All participants identified a genetic basis; however, the French Canadian women also expressed other causes. The French Canadian women reported not knowing other carriers in their social environment, whereas the Ashkenazi Jewish women emphasized a strong sense of community contributing to their ethnic risk awareness. Based on these findings, we suggest that French Canadian women could benefit from greater awareness of the HBOC genetic risk and that health care providers should consider ethnically related and individual-based experiences and meanings during counseling.

  5. The impact of culturally competent diabetes care interventions for improving diabetes-related outcomes in ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, P; Sandhu, H K; Cannaby, A M; Sturt, J A

    2012-10-01

    To examine the evidence on culturally competent interventions tailored to the needs of people with diabetes from ethnic minority groups. MEDLINE (NHS Evidence), CINAHL and reference lists of retrieved papers were searched from inception to September 2011; two National Health Service specialist libraries were also searched. Google, Cochrane and DARE databases were interrogated and experts consulted. Studies were included if they reported primary research on the impact of culturally competent interventions on outcome measures of any ethnic minority group with diabetes. Paper selection and appraisal were conducted independently by two reviewers. The heterogeneity of the studies required narrative analysis. A novel culturally competent assessment tool was used to systematically assess the cultural competency of each intervention. Three hundred and twenty papers were retrieved and 11 included. Study designs varied with a diverse range of service providers. Of the interventions, 64% were found to be highly culturally competent (scoring 90-100%) and 36% moderately culturally competent (70-89%). Data were collected from 2616 participants on 22 patient-reported outcome measures. A consistent finding from 10 of the studies was that any structured intervention, tailored to ethnic minority groups by integrating elements of culture, language, religion and health literacy skills, produced a positive impact on a range of patient-important outcomes. Benefits in using culturally competent interventions with ethnic minority groups with diabetes were identified. The majority of interventions described as culturally competent were confirmed as so, when assessed using the culturally competent assessment tool. Further good quality research is required to determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of culturally competent interventions to influence diabetes service commissioners. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  6. Relation of spontaneous transformation in cell culture to adaptive growth and clonal heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, A L; Yao, A; Rubin, H

    1990-01-01

    Cell transformation in culture is marked by the appearance of morphologically altered cells that continue to multiply to form discrete foci in confluent sheets when the surrounding cells are inhibited. These foci occur spontaneously in early-passage NIH 3T3 cells grown to confluency in 10% calf serum (CS) but are not seen in cultures grown to confluency in 2% CS. However, repeated passage of the cells at low density in 2% CS gives rise to an adapted population that grows to increasingly higher saturation densities and produces large numbers of foci in 2% CS. The increased saturation density of the adapted population in 2% CS is retained upon repeated passage in 10% CS, but the number and size of the foci produced in 2% CS gradually decrease under this regime. Clonal analysis confirms that the focus-forming potential of most if not all of the cells in a population increases in response to a continuously applied growth constraint, although only a small fraction of the population may actually form foci in a given assay. The acquired capacity for focus formation varies widely in clones derived from the adapted population and changes in diverse ways upon further passage of the clones. We propose that the adaptive changes result from progressive selection of successive phenotypic variations in growth capacity that occur spontaneously. The process designated progressive state selection resolves the apparent dichotomy between spontaneous mutation with selection on the one hand and induction on the other, by introducing selection among fluctuating states or metabolic patterns rather than among genetically altered cells.

  7. Rapid method for identification of group B streptococci in neonatal blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, R. L.; Harada, W A

    1981-01-01

    A rapid technique used for the identification of Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B, from the blood cultures of two neonatal infants is reported. The method utilized the Phadebact Streptococcus Test System (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Piscataway, N.J.) and the supernatant from 13- and 14-h blood cultures. Additional studies with simulated neonatal blood cultures revealed that this method was reproducible. Additional studies also revealed that some non-specific agglutination did occur, wh...

  8. Cultural Capital and Educational Strategies. Shaping Boundaries between Groups of Students with Homologous Cultural Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Marco; Porcu, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    Rather than assessing its causal effect on educational attainment, the authors of this article aim to use the concept of cultural capital to define a huge, complex and interconnected collection of educational and school strategies adopted by students and families and to examine the way that these strategies are related to school inequalities. Data…

  9. Assessing Organisational Culture in a Group Context Using the Organisational Culture Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    4 The authors searched using Google, Google scholar, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge to determine if the OCP...following search terms were used to search within papers (using Web of Knowledge ) that cited O’Reilly et al. (1991): group admin*, group context, group, and

  10. Cell-surface expression of neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (CD146) in heterogeneous cultures of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Katie C; Tucker, H Alan; Bunnell, Bruce A; Andreeff, Michael; Schober, Wendy; Gaynor, Andrew S; Strickler, Karen L; Lin, Shuwen; Lacey, Michelle R; O'Connor, Kim C

    2013-10-01

    Cellular heterogeneity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) impedes their use in regenerative medicine. The objective of this research is to identify potential biomarkers for the enrichment of progenitors from heterogeneous MSC cultures. To this end, the present study examines variation in expression of neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (CD146) on the surface of MSCs derived from human bone marrow in response to culture conditions and among cell populations. Multipotent cells isolated from heterogeneous MSC cultures exhibit a greater than three-fold increase in surface expression for NG2 and greater than two-fold increase for CD146 as compared with parental and lineage-committed MSCs. For both antigens, surface expression is downregulated by greater than or equal to six-fold when MSCs become confluent. During serial passage, maximum surface expression of NG2 and CD146 is associated with minimum doubling time. Upregulation of NG2 and CD146 during loss of adipogenic potential at early passage suggests some limits to their utility as potency markers. A potential relationship between proliferation and antigen expression was explored by sorting heterogeneous MSCs into rapidly and slowly dividing groups. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that rapidly dividing MSCs display lower scatter and 50% higher NG2 surface expression than slowly dividing cells, but CD146 expression is comparable in both groups. Heterogeneous MSCs were sorted based on scatter properties and surface expression of NG2 and CD146 into high (HI) and low (LO) groups. Sc(LO)NG2(HI) and Sc(LO)NG2(HI)CD146(HI) MSCs have the highest proliferative potential of the sorted groups, with colony-forming efficiencies that are 1.5-2.2 times the value for the parental controls. The Sc(LO) gate enriches for rapidly dividing cells. Addition of the NG2(HI) gate increases cell survival to 1.5 times the parental control. Further addition of the CD146(HI) gate does not significantly

  11. "Fools Rush In": Developing Cross-Cultural Sensitivity Using Film-Based Group Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Charles H., Jr.

    Although role playing games and self-awareness surveys are typical methods of developing cross-cultural sensitivity, this presentation advocates the use small group projects focusing on feature films such as "Fools Rush In" as an effective class or training exercise to develop sensitivity to other cultures. Despite some disadvantages…

  12. Social Justice and Cultural Responsiveness: Innovative Teaching Strategies for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a teaching strategy for group work that enhances the social justice consciousness of course participants by increasing their knowledge of their own cultural identity, worldview, acculturation, privilege, and oppression to improve their cultural responsiveness and understanding of social justice issues. The focus is on group…

  13. Cultural transfer in reading groups: From theory to practice and back

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorst, Sandra; Visser, Saskia; den Toonder, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    People who discuss books in reading groups are playing a role in transferring cultural values, norms and ideas about themes present in the literature they read. How this cultural transfer takes place, and in which ways the process can be enhanced,has to date not been examined. Therefore, the Univers

  14. High School Students and Online Commemoration of the Group's Cultural Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Hirsch, Tal Litvak

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the interaction of three equivalent issues: education, cultural trauma and the Internet. Theory suggests that the educational system plays an important role in the transmission and maintenance of the memory of a group's defining cultural trauma. However little is empirically known of the ways education influences the attitudes…

  15. Grid, Group, and Grade : Challenges in Operationalizing Cultural Theory for Cross-National Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleki, A.; Hendriks, F.

    2015-01-01

    Grid–Group Cultural Theory (CT), developed by Mary Douglas and followers, is a well-known and often-used framework for the analysis of culture in the political–administrative world. Although Douglas herself was rather wary of detailed operationalization of CT, many scholars have tried to measure Gri

  16. Cross-Cultural Group Counseling and the Use of the Sentence Completion Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandoval Aureliano

    1984-01-01

    Describes the use of the sentence completion method in multi-ethnic groups using a set of eight cross-cultural sentence items. Participants' feedback suggested that the method has been instrumental in the exploration and conceptual understanding of cultural, ethnical and lingual aspects. (JAC)

  17. High School Students and Online Commemoration of the Group's Cultural Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Hirsch, Tal Litvak

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the interaction of three equivalent issues: education, cultural trauma and the Internet. Theory suggests that the educational system plays an important role in the transmission and maintenance of the memory of a group's defining cultural trauma. However little is empirically known of the ways education influences the attitudes…

  18. Discussing group work in the EFL classroom from a Chinese cultural perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊宇; 张冬瑜

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the EFL teachers, particularly those western teachers, who are teaching in China, to obtain a better understanding of group work by exploring and discussing its use from a Chinese cultural perspective.

  19. Socioscape: Real-Time Analysis of Dynamic Heterogeneous Networks In Complex Socio-Cultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-22

    to Network and Social Media , Distinguished Lecture Series, George Mason University, Washington DC, April 19, 2013. [8] Big Data , Big Model, and...Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM 2014). Theme 2: Dynamic information clustering and group tracking, We have extends our model for dynamic...2011. Theme 3: Relationship prediction and evolution, We have worked on Link prediction from Text and Network Features. Social media services

  20. The Effect of a New Seventh-Grade Biology Curriculum on the Achievements and Attitudes of Intellectually and Culturally Heterogeneous Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabar, Naama; Kaplan, Eugene H.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated was the adequacy of a teaching-learning model for improving the level of achievement and attitudes of culturally deprived children in heterogeneous classes, while offering adequate learning opportunity to those who were not deprived. A seventh grade biology course on aquatic zoo ecology was developed for this model. (Author/HM)

  1. Culture and Work-Groups. 1: Effect on Information Presentation on Group Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and as such ought to realize nis „eeds, and goa,s of the (i„)group; ,b) socia , no™ an, du.y defined by the g.oup ^ ,Ka„ measure Seeking; (e) „efiefs...Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Johnston, W. (1991). Global work force 2000: The new world labor market . Harvard Business Review. March-April 115 - 127. WorkGroups...geometric shapes or a combination of numerals and shapes or numerals and colors. Regardless of the media ’used to convey this information about the city

  2. Fairness is not validity or cultural bias in racial-group assessment: a quantitative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Janet E

    2006-11-01

    When test scores that differ by racial groups are used for assessment purposes, resulting decisions regarding members of the lower scoring group are potentially unfair. Fairness is defined as the removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization, and it is differentiated from test-score validity and cultural bias. Two fairness models for identifying, quantifying, and removing from test scores construct-irrelevant variance attributable to racial or cultural psychological attributes are presented. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The role of motivation and cultural dialects in the in-group advantage for emotional vocalisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disa eSauter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that nonverbal emotional communication via both facial and vocal information is more accurate when expresser and perceiver are from the same cultural group. Two accounts have been put forward to explain this finding: According to the dialect theory, culture-specific learning modulates the largely cross-culturally consistent expressions of emotions. Consequently, within-group signalling benefits from a better match of the "emotion dialect" of the expresser and perceiver. However, it has been proposed that the in-group advantage in emotion recognition could instead arise from motivational differences in the perceiver, with perceivers being more motivated when decoding signals from members of their own group. Two experiments addressed predictions from these accounts. Experiment 1 tested whether perceivers' ability to accurately judge the origin of emotional signals predicts the in-group advantage. For perceived group membership to affect the perceivers' motivation, they must be able to detect whether the signal is coming from an in-group or out-group member. Although an in-group advantage was found for in-group compared to out-group vocalisations, listeners were unable to reliably infer the group membership of the vocaliser. This result indicates that improved recognition of in-group signals can occur also when the perceiver is unable to judge whether signals were produced by in- or out-group members. Experiment 2 examined the effects of expected and actual group membership of signals on emotion recognition by manipulating both orthogonally. The actual origin of the stimulus was found to significantly affect emotion recognition, but the believed origin of the stimulus did not. Together these results support the notion that the in-group advantage is caused by culture-specific modulations of nonverbal expressions of emotions, rather than motivational factors.

  4. Factors limiting deceased organ donation: focus groups' perspective from culturally diverse community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-06-01

    In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.

  5. Group counseling and psychotherapy across the cultural divide: the case of Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenEzer, Gadi

    2006-06-01

    Effective counseling across a cultural divide depends on adaptations or changes of technique to suit the particular intercultural circumstances. The concept of mutual creative space provides a guiding principle for therapists who wish to make such changes. This space is 'negotiated' between the therapist/counselor coming from the 'dominant/mainstream' group within society, and the group participants who arrive from another culture. Mutual creative space consists of the negotiation of power and a process of mutual invention, incorporating the creation, by therapist and participants, of something new that did not exist in either of their cultures of origin. A meaningful encounter and effective group counseling can take place following the negotiation of such a creative space. This is illustrated by the example of intercultural group work with Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel, including an analysis of cultural characteristics of the Ethiopian group and specific ways of negotiating mutual creative space in this case. Issues discussed include: establishing trust in the cross cultural context; the use of body language and its interpretation; the psychologist as an authority figure; active participation vs. hidden learning; and working with dreams in such groups.

  6. Cultural diversity in teachers’ group-centered beliefs and practices in early childcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, Saskia D.M.; Leseman, Paul P.M.; Huijbregts, Sanne K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study examined the relation between teachers’ cultural backgrounds, their beliefs regarding group processes, their actual support of group processes, and children's behavior in center-based childcare in the Netherlands. For this purpose, 57 teachers of native Dutch and immigrant

  7. Cultural diversity in teachers’ group-centered beliefs and practices in early childcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, Saskia D.M.; Leseman, Paul P.M.; Huijbregts, Sanne K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study examined the relation between teachers’ cultural backgrounds, their beliefs regarding group processes, their actual support of group processes, and children's behavior in center-based childcare in the Netherlands. For this purpose, 57 teachers of native Dutch and immigrant

  8. Human evolutionary history and contemporary evolutionary theory provide insight when assessing cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin; Kissel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. provide a much needed roadmap for assessing cultural group selection (CGS) theory and for applying it to understanding variation between contemporary human groups. However, the current proposal lacks connection to relevant evidence from the human evolutionary record and requires a better integration with contemporary evolutionary theory. The article also misapplies the F st statistic.

  9. Bricolage, Metissage, Hybridity, Heterogeneity, Diaspora: Concepts for Thinking Science Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing globalization leads to an increasing scattering of cultural groups into other cultural groups where they the latter continue to be affiliated with one another thereby forming diasporic identities. Diasporic identities emerge from a process of cultural bricolage that leads to cultural metissage and therefore hybridity and heterogeneity.…

  10. Business vs. Cultural Frames of Reference in Group Decision Making: Interactions among Austrian, Finnish, and Swedish Business Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Rizzi, Werner; Berry Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines ways business and cultural frames of reference affect decision making in multicultural groups. Finds students' reactions to two class activities shows how "groupthink" arose in both exercises; cultural interference paralyzed group decision making in one group; and cultural interference demonstrated the importance of a cultural…

  11. High-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas: a clinicopathologic study of a group of tumors with heterogenous morphologic and genetic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciallis, Andrew P; Bedroske, Patrick P; Schoolmeester, John K; Sukov, William R; Keeney, Gary L; Hodge, Jennelle C; Bell, Debra A

    2014-09-01

    The existence of a "high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma" category of tumors has been a controversial subject owing to, among other things, the difficulty in establishing consistent diagnostic criteria. Currently, the recommended classification for such tumors is undifferentiated uterine/endometrial sarcoma. Interest in this subject has recently increased markedly with the identification of recurrent molecular genetic abnormalities. At Mayo Clinic, a group of neoplasms has been observed that morphologically resemble, either cytologically or architecturally, classic "low-grade" endometrial stromal sarcoma but feature obvious deviations, specifically, 17 tumors with unequivocally high-grade morphology. These high-grade tumors displayed 3 morphologic themes: (1) tumors with a component that is identical to low-grade ESS that transitions abruptly into an obviously higher-grade component; (2) tumors composed exclusively of high-grade cells with uniform nuclear features but with a permeative pattern of infiltration; (3) tumors similar to the second group but with a different, yet characteristic, cytomorphology featuring enlarged round to ovoid cells (larger than those found in low-grade ESS) with smooth nuclear membranes and distinct chromatin clearing but lacking prominent nucleoli. We collected clinicopathologic data, applied immunohistochemical studies, and also tested tumors by fluorescence in situ hybridization for abnormalities in JAZF1, PHF1, YWHAE, and CCND1. Tumors from these 3 groups were found to be immunohistochemically and genetically distinct from one another. Most notable was the fact that category 3 contained all the cases that tested positive for YWHAE rearrangement, did not show any classic translocations for JAZF1, PHF1, or CCND1, often presented at a high stage, and behaved aggressively. This study demonstrates the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic heterogeneity that exists within "undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas" as

  12. CPAFFC Cultural Exchange Working Group Visits Switzerland,Germany and Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Swiss-Chinese Association (SCA) of Switzerland, the Villa Musica Foundation of Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, and the Euro-Chinese Centre for Research and Development of Greece, a Cultural Exchange Working Group led by Wang Xiuyun, director general of the Department of Cultural Exchanges of the CPAFFC, paid a visit to the three countries from February 16 to March 5. The working group met with Pascal Couchepin, president of the Swiss Confederation, Dr. Thomas Wagner, president of the Swiss-Chinese Association, Dr. Elmar Ledergerber, mayor of Zurich, Marc Wehrlin, acting deputy director of Swiss Federal Office of Culture, Olivier Francais, vice mayor of Lausanne, Hofmann Gottig, state secretary of Rheinland-Pfalz and George Patoulis, mayor of Maroussi, and had wide contact with cultural institutions and local governments, during which the two sides had in-depth discussion on issues of common interest.

  13. Loneliness of Older Immigrant Groups in Canada: Effects of Ethnic-Cultural Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants.

  14. Cross-cultural differences in relationship- and group-based trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.

  15. A Primary Exploration on the Systemization of Information of the Cultural Resources of Bulang Ethnic Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Caiwen; LIANG Rui

    2014-01-01

    heritage resources: The first is whether or not the cultural heritage resources could be “systematized”” or digitized using present tech-niques; the second is whether or not the cultural heritage has the value to be “systemematized” or digitized . For the purpose of systematizing the management of the resource and information of the ethnic cultural resources , doing a digital collection of cultural resources is the first step .Then , after making an assessment of the value of the ethnic cultural resources , we should adopt different “sys-tematized information resource management ” tech-niques with regard to the different types of re-sources. Taking the systematized management of “Bu-lang singing with playing stringed instruments tra-dition” as an example , in addition to the digitiza-tion of the melodic text of the folk song , the related cultural space , the inheritors , musical instru-ments, other objects (such as costume, other arti-cles for use ) should also be protected through digi-tization .The digitization of “Bulang ’ s singing with playing stringed instruments” should be done on several levels .The first level is the digitization of text;the second is the digitization of image;the third is the building of a three -dimensional im-age;and the fourth is making virtual products . Ethnic culture is not only a representation of the ethnic spiritual world , but is also a crystalliza-tion of material culture and spiritual culture created by the ethnic group .This discussion of the digiti-zation of the cultural resources of the Bulang , an ethnic group with a small population , can provide some experience and reference for the protection and transmission of China ’ s ethnic cultures .

  16. LGBTQ Youth and Young Adult Perspectives on a Culturally Tailored Group Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Neill Bruce; Shuh, Alanna; Wong-Francq, Katy; Dash, Darly; Abramowicz, Aneta

    2017-01-25

    The prevalence of smoking among LGBTQ youth and young adults (YYAs) is much higher than that of non-LGBTQ young people. The current study explored LGBTQ YYA perceptions of a culturally tailored group smoking cessation counselling program, along with how the intervention could be improved. We conducted focus groups (n = 24) with 204 LGBTQ YYAs in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada. Open-ended questions focused on their feelings, likes and dislikes, concerns and additional ideas for a culturally tailored group cessation counselling intervention. Focus group transcripts were coded thematically and analyzed. Overall, YYAs were ambivalent towards the concept of a culturally tailored, group cessation counselling program. Although several participants were attracted to the LGBTQ friendly and social benefits of such a program (eg, good support system), many also had concerns. Particularly, the possibility that other group members might trigger them to smoke was a frequently stated issue. Focus group members also noted lack of motivation to attend the group, and that the group program may be inaccessible depending on where and when the program was offered. Several suggestions were made as to how to ameliorate the expressed issues related to inaccessibility or lack of attractiveness. This study is among the first to gain the perspectives of LGBTQ YYAs on culturally tailored group cessation strategies in Canada. We identified components of group cessation programs that are both favored and not favored among LGBTQ YYAs, as well as suggestions as to how to make group cessation programs more appealing. This study is particularly relevant as smoking cessation programs are one of the most commonly offered and published cessation interventions for the LGBTQ community, yet little is understood in terms of preferences of LGBTQ YYA smokers. Given the disparity in the prevalence of smoking among LGBTQ young people compared to their non-LGBTQ peers, research on effective intervention strategies

  17. [On the Way to Culture-Sensitive Patient Information Materials: Results of a Focus Group Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars

    2017-09-28

    Aim This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). Method A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Conclusion Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Pathogen prevalence, group bias, and collectivism in the standard cross-cultural sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashdan, Elizabeth; Steele, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    It has been argued that people in areas with high pathogen loads will be more likely to avoid outsiders, to be biased in favor of in-groups, and to hold collectivist and conformist values. Cross-national studies have supported these predictions. In this paper we provide new pathogen codes for the 186 cultures of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and use them, together with existing pathogen and ethnographic data, to try to replicate these cross-national findings. In support of the theory, we found that cultures in high pathogen areas were more likely to socialize children toward collectivist values (obedience rather than self-reliance). There was some evidence that pathogens were associated with reduced adult dispersal. However, we found no evidence of an association between pathogens and our measures of group bias (in-group loyalty and xenophobia) or intergroup contact.

  19. The cultural construction of self-enhancement: an examination of group-serving biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, S J; Lehman, D R

    1997-06-01

    Self-serving biases, found routinely in Western samples, have not been observed in Asian samples. Yet given the orientation toward individualism and collectivism in these 2 cultures, respectively, it is imperative to examine whether parallel differences emerge when the target of evaluation is the group. It may be that Asians show a group-serving bias parallel to the Western self-serving bias. In 2 studies, group-serving biases were compared across European Canadian, Asian Canadian, and Japanese students. Study 1 revealed that Japanese students evaluated a family member less positively than did both groups of Canadian students. Study 2 replicated this pattern with students' evaluations of their universities. The data suggest that cultural differences in enhancement biases are robust, generalizing to individuals' evaluations of their groups.

  20. Is in-group bias culture-dependent? A meta-analysis across 18 societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Derham, Crysta

    2016-01-01

    We report a meta-analysis on the relationship between in-group bias and culture. Our focus is on whether broad macro-contextual variables influence the extent to which individuals favour their in-group. Data from 21,266 participants from 18 societies included in experimental and survey studies were available. Using Hofstede's (1980) and Schwartz (2006) culture-level predictors in a 3-level mixed-effects meta-analysis, we found strong support for the uncertainty-reduction hypothesis. An interaction between Autonomy and real vs artificial groups suggested that in low autonomy contexts, individuals show greater in-group bias for real groups. Implications for social identity theory and intergroup conflict are outlined.

  1. Heterogeneous Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dakka, J.; Sheldon, R.A.; Sanderson, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of GB 2309655 (A) Heterogeneous catalysts comprising one or more metal compounds selected from the group consisting of tin, molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium and selenium compounds deposited on the surface of a silicalite are provided. Preferably Sn(IV) and/or Mo(VI) are employed. The cat

  2. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in Spanish: culture-sensitive manualized treatment in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2010-08-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities.

  3. Finding Groups Using Model-Based Cluster Analysis: Heterogeneous Emotional Self-Regulatory Processes and Heavy Alcohol Use Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Eun Young; von Eye, Alexander; Bates, Marsha E.; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.

    2008-01-01

    Model-based cluster analysis is a new clustering procedure to investigate population heterogeneity utilizing finite mixture multivariate normal densities. It is an inferentially based, statistically principled procedure that allows comparison of nonnested models using the Bayesian information criterion to compare multiple models and identify the…

  4. Finding Groups Using Model-Based Cluster Analysis: Heterogeneous Emotional Self-Regulatory Processes and Heavy Alcohol Use Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Eun Young; von Eye, Alexander; Bates, Marsha E.; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.

    2008-01-01

    Model-based cluster analysis is a new clustering procedure to investigate population heterogeneity utilizing finite mixture multivariate normal densities. It is an inferentially based, statistically principled procedure that allows comparison of nonnested models using the Bayesian information criterion to compare multiple models and identify the…

  5. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  6. Political Culture, Schooling and Subaltern Groups in the Brazilian Empire (1822-1850)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Filho, Luciano Mendes; Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius

    2010-01-01

    This paper articulates the concepts of political culture, schooling and slavery in order to comprehend the process of instituting modern schools in Brazil, during the period immediately after Independence in 1822. With a view to this, it takes as its starting point the strategies and proposals of different groups disputing the direction of the…

  7. CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN RUSSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatarko, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of

  8. The CPAI-2 As a Culturally Relevant Personality Measure in Differentiating among Academic Major Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alexander; Fan, Weiqiao; Cheung, Fanny M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the Cross-Cultural (Chinese) Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), developed by the combined emic-etic approach, could provide useful information for us to understand the relations between personality and the key academic major groups in the Chinese context. Participants in this study included 989 university students…

  9. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  10. CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN RUSSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatarko, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of m

  11. Mate value and self-esteem: evidence from eight cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Marshall, Tara; Fülöp, Marta; Adonu, Joseph; Spiewak, Slawomir; Neto, Felix; Hernandez Plaza, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores self-perceived mate value (SPMV), and its association with self-esteem, in eight cultures. 1066 participants, from 8 cultural groups in 7 countries, rated themselves on 24 SPMVs and completed a measure of self-esteem. Consistent with evolutionary theory, women were more likely to emphasise their caring and passionate romantic nature. In line with previous cross-cultural research, characteristics indicating passion and romance and social attractiveness were stressed more by respondents from individualistic cultures, and those higher on self-expression (rather than survival) values; characteristics indicative of maturity and confidence were more likely to be mentioned by those from Traditional, rather than Secular, cultures. Contrary to gender role theory, societal equality had only limited interactions with sex and SPMV, with honesty of greater significance for male self-esteem in societies with unequal gender roles. These results point to the importance of cultural and environmental factors in influencing self-perceived mate qualities, and are discussed in relation to broader debates about the impact of gender role equality on sex differences in personality and mating strategies.

  12. Mate value and self-esteem: evidence from eight cultural groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available This paper explores self-perceived mate value (SPMV, and its association with self-esteem, in eight cultures. 1066 participants, from 8 cultural groups in 7 countries, rated themselves on 24 SPMVs and completed a measure of self-esteem. Consistent with evolutionary theory, women were more likely to emphasise their caring and passionate romantic nature. In line with previous cross-cultural research, characteristics indicating passion and romance and social attractiveness were stressed more by respondents from individualistic cultures, and those higher on self-expression (rather than survival values; characteristics indicative of maturity and confidence were more likely to be mentioned by those from Traditional, rather than Secular, cultures. Contrary to gender role theory, societal equality had only limited interactions with sex and SPMV, with honesty of greater significance for male self-esteem in societies with unequal gender roles. These results point to the importance of cultural and environmental factors in influencing self-perceived mate qualities, and are discussed in relation to broader debates about the impact of gender role equality on sex differences in personality and mating strategies.

  13. TRUST MATTERS: A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON OF NORTHERN GHANA AND OAXACA GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eAcedo-Carmona

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-cultural analysis of trust and cooperation networks in Northern Ghana (NGHA and Oaxaca (OAX was carried out by means of ego networks and interviews. These regions were chosen because both are inhabited by several ethnic groups, thus providing a good opportunity to test the cultural group selection hypothesis. Against the predictions of this approach, we found that in both regions cooperation is grounded in personal trust groups, and that social cohesion depends on these emotional bonds. Moreover, in agreement with Fiske's notion of evolved proclivities, we also found two distinct kinds of trust networks, one for each region, which vary in terms of the degree of ethnic interrelation. This pattern suggests that social cohesion increases when environmental resources are scarce.

  14. Trust matters: a cross-cultural comparison of Northern Ghana and Oaxaca groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    A cross-cultural analysis of trust and cooperation networks in Northern Ghana (NGHA) and Oaxaca (OAX) was carried out by means of ego networks and interviews. These regions were chosen because both are inhabited by several ethnic groups, thus providing a good opportunity to test the cultural group selection hypothesis. Against the predictions of this approach, we found that in both regions cooperation is grounded in personal trust groups, and that social cohesion depends on these emotional bonds. Moreover, in agreement with Fiske's notion of "evolved proclivities," we also found two distinct kinds of trust networks, one for each region, which vary in terms of the degree of ethnic interrelation. This pattern suggests that social cohesion increases when environmental resources are scarce.

  15. Trust matters: a cross-cultural comparison of Northern Ghana and Oaxaca groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    A cross-cultural analysis of trust and cooperation networks in Northern Ghana (NGHA) and Oaxaca (OAX) was carried out by means of ego networks and interviews. These regions were chosen because both are inhabited by several ethnic groups, thus providing a good opportunity to test the cultural group selection hypothesis. Against the predictions of this approach, we found that in both regions cooperation is grounded in personal trust groups, and that social cohesion depends on these emotional bonds. Moreover, in agreement with Fiske's notion of “evolved proclivities,” we also found two distinct kinds of trust networks, one for each region, which vary in terms of the degree of ethnic interrelation. This pattern suggests that social cohesion increases when environmental resources are scarce. PMID:26052296

  16. A personal perspective on individual and group: Comparative cultural observations with a focus on Ibn Khaldun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    George Katsiaficas

    2014-04-01

    As the Islamic world declined in the 14th century, Ibn Khaldun wrote the Muqaddimah, a massive philosophical work in which he sought scientific grounds for a universal analysis of human beings. By seeking a global history of humanity, one that was not derived from the particular history of any one group, he was able to offer insight into the importance of group solidarity, assabiyeh. In this essay, I discuss the dynamics between autonomous individuality and group identity and offer some cultural comparisons to illustrate more general insights.

  17. Screening for TB by sputum culture in high-risk groups in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sidse Graff; Wrona Olsen, Nete; Seersholm, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence on screening high-risk groups for TB by mobile X-ray in low-incidence countries is building, but knowledge on other possible screening methods is limited. In this retrospective study we report results from a community based programme screening for TB by spot sputum culture....... METHODS: On seven occasions, from September 2012 through June 2014, we offered TB screening to all persons present at 11 locations where socially marginalised people gather in Copenhagen. Spot sputum samples from participants were examined by smear microscopy and culture. Genotype, nucleic acid......-positive and seven (19.4%) were smear-positive. Twelve out of 21 (57.1%) cases tested were nucleic acid amplification test positive. Twenty-eight (77.8%) had chest X-ray suggestive of TB. All patients with TB started treatment, 30 (83.3%) had a successful outcome. DISCUSSION: Screening for TB by spot sputum culture...

  18. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  19. Recent origin and cultural reversion of a hunter-gatherer group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Oota

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary hunter-gatherer groups are often thought to serve as models of an ancient lifestyle that was typical of human populations prior to the development of agriculture. Patterns of genetic variation in hunter-gatherer groups such as the Kung and African Pygmies are consistent with this view, as they exhibit low genetic diversity coupled with high frequencies of divergent mtDNA types not found in surrounding agricultural groups, suggesting long-term isolation and small population sizes. We report here genetic evidence concerning the origins of the Mlabri, an enigmatic hunter-gatherer group from northern Thailand. The Mlabri have no mtDNA diversity, and the genetic diversity at Y-chromosome and autosomal loci are also extraordinarily reduced in the Mlabri. Genetic, linguistic, and cultural data all suggest that the Mlabri were recently founded, 500-800 y ago, from a very small number of individuals. Moreover, the Mlabri appear to have originated from an agricultural group and then adopted a hunting-gathering subsistence mode. This example of cultural reversion from agriculture to a hunting-gathering lifestyle indicates that contemporary hunter-gatherer groups do not necessarily reflect a pre-agricultural lifestyle.

  20. The (Biological or Cultural) Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu Yalcinkaya, Nur; Estrada-Villalta, Sara; Adams, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Most research links (racial) essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action) among people with dominant (White) and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino) racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  1. Interdisciplinary Service-Learning: Building Student Competencies through the Cross-Cultural Parent Groups Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Belliveau

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Changing demographics and an emphasis on competency-based social work education call for innovative approaches to the delivery of curricular content. In an effort to introduce BSW students to the socio-political issues facing the local Latino immigrant community, a service-learning project was developed in collaboration with the Spanish Language Department and a local middle school. An analysis of outcomes from social work student evaluations showed that students engaged with the community and issues in new and unexpected ways. Through their engagement in a cross-cultural group project, students developed greater cultural competency, honed their group practice skills in an unfamiliar context, provided a needed service to the community, and raised their awareness about the working conditions of new immigrants as part of a developing framework for social action. Details and implications of the project as a means to build student competencies are described.

  2. Heterogeneous profiles of a factor that renders neutrophils cytotoxic obtained from a concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cell culture in partial purification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Y.; Inoue, T.; Ito, M.; Kimura, S.; Fuyama, S.; Arai, S.; Naiki, M.; Sendo, F.

    1986-05-15

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated rat spleen cells were cultured in a serum-free conditioned medium. This culture supernatant contained a certain factor(s) that renders neutrophil cytotoxic for various tumor cells. The factor was tentatively termed neutrophil-activating factor (NAF). NAF activity was eluted in broad fractions by the ion exchange chromatography and the gel filtration. Moreover, on the Con A column, some NAF activities were bound to the column, but other activities passed through the column. These results showed the heterogeneity or polydispersity of NAF activity in both molecular size and charge-based separation properties. Monoclonal antibodies were produced by fusing BALB/c myeloma cells (P3-X63 Ag8.653) with spleen cells from syngeneic mice immunized with partially purified NAF (pNAF) obtained from the gel filtration. Absorbent beads which were linked with one monoclonal antibody (ANAF-10) partially absorbed NAF activity from supernatants of a Con A-stimulated spleen cell culture. By further purification of pNAF the NAF activity was concentrated about 10,000-fold. Heterogeneity of NAF activity, however, did not disappear in even this affinity chromatography. On the other hand, /sup 125/I-labeled material of the final product migrated to one major band corresponding with an m.w. of about 20,000 as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis, and NAF activity was detected in the same band.

  3. Genetic heterogeneity in Gaucher disease: physicokinetic and immunologic studies of the residual enzyme in cultured fibroblasts from non-neuronopathic and neuronopathic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, G A; Goldblatt, J; Dinur, T; Kruse, J; Svennerholm, L; Gatt, S; Desnick, R J

    1985-07-01

    To elucidate the genetic heterogeneity in the three major phenotypic subtypes of Gaucher disease, the residual acid beta-glucosidase in fibroblasts from patients with all three subtypes from different ethnic and demographic groups was investigated by comparative kinetic, thermostability, and immunotitration studies. The kinetic studies delineated three distinct groups (designated A, B, and C) of residual activities with characteristic responses to the enzyme modifiers, taurocholate (or phosphatidylserine), and glucosyl sphingosine (or N-hexyl glucosyl sphingosine); Group A residual enzymes responded normally to these modifiers. All neuronopathic patients (types 2 and 3) and most non-Jewish, non-neuronopathic patients (type 1) had group A residual activities and thus could not be distinguished by their kinetic properties. Group B residual enzymes had markedly abnormal responses to these modifiers. All Ashkenazi and only two non-Jewish type 1 patients had group B residual activities. Group C residual activity had an intermediate response to all modifiers and represented a single Afrikaner type 1 patient. Pedigree studies indicated that this patient was a genetic compound for the group A (type 2) and group B (type 1) mutations. Thermostability studies showed additional heterogeneity of the residual activities within the three kinetic groups. Group A (type 2) and group B (type 1) enzymes had similarly decreased thermostabilities. In contrast, group A (type 1) residual activities were heterogeneous; three classes of thermostabilities were found among these enzymes: normal, decreased, and increased. Immunotitration of equal amounts of the normal or Gaucher disease beta-glucosidase activities with monospecific IgG indicated that the enzyme proteins from most Gaucher disease patients were antigenically altered and/or that large amounts of catalytically abnormal or inactive antigen were present. A decreased amount of antigenically and catalytically normal enzyme was present

  4. Malaysian cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction: focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W Y; Wong, Y L; Zulkifli, S N; Tan, H M

    2002-12-01

    This qualitative study aimed to examine cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction (ED) utilizing focus group discussion. Six focus groups consisting of 66 men, 45-70-y-old were conducted-two Malay groups (n=18), two Chinese groups (n=25) and two Indian groups (n=23). Participants were purposely recruited from the general public on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analysis software ATLASti. The Malay and Chinese traditional remedies for preventing or treating ED are commonly recognized among all races. Many have a negative perception of someone with ED. Malay and Chinese men tended to blame their wife for their problem and thought that the problem might lead to extra-marital affairs, unlike the Indian men who attributed their condition to fate. Malays would prefer traditional medicine for the problem. The Chinese felt they would be more comfortable with a male doctor whilst this is not so with the Malays or Indians. Almost all prefer the doctor to initiate discussion on sexual issues related to their medical condition. There is a need for doctors to consider cultural perspectives in a multicultural society as a lack of understanding of this often contributes to an inadequate consultation.

  5. Culture-specific programs for children and adults from minority groups who have asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Gabrielle B; Morris, Peter S; Brown, Ngiare; Chang, Anne B

    2017-08-22

    People with asthma who come from minority groups often have poorer asthma outcomes, including more acute asthma-related doctor visits for flare-ups. Various programmes used to educate and empower people with asthma have previously been shown to improve certain asthma outcomes (e.g. adherence outcomes, asthma knowledge scores in children and parents, and cost-effectiveness). Models of care for chronic diseases in minority groups usually include a focus of the cultural context of the individual, and not just the symptoms of the disease. Therefore, questions about whether tailoring asthma education programmes that are culturally specific for people from minority groups are effective at improving asthma-related outcomes, that are feasible and cost-effective need to be answered. To determine whether culture-specific asthma education programmes, in comparison to generic asthma education programmes or usual care, improve asthma-related outcomes in children and adults with asthma who belong to minority groups. We searched the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, Embase, review articles and reference lists of relevant articles. The latest search fully incorporated into the review was performed in June 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of culture-specific asthma education programmes with generic asthma education programmes, or usual care, in adults or children from minority groups with asthma. Two review authors independently selected, extracted and assessed the data for inclusion. We contacted study authors for further information if required. In this review update, an additional three studies and 220 participants were added. A total of seven RCTs (two in adults, four in children, one in both children and adults) with 837 participants (aged from one to 63 years) with asthma from ethnic minority groups were eligible for inclusion in this review. The methodological quality of

  6. Interaction of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A with cultured cells in vitro does not reflect the two previously identified clonal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Mahesh S; Virdi, Jugsharan S

    2013-12-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A strains have been delineated into two clonal groups (A and B) based on repetitive extragenic palindrome- and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR genotyping. The present study investigated the interaction of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A strains with cultured cells in vitro by their ability to adhere, invade and survive within these cells. The response of macrophages to these strains was also studied by quantifying the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, production of nitric oxide and cytokines, and activation of NFκB. The survival rate of clonal group B strains inside macrophages was significantly higher than that of clonal group A strains. In addition, strains harbouring the fepA gene showed better survival inside macrophages. However, the production of nitric oxide and cytokines and activation of NFκB did not show any significant differences between the two clonal groups. In this study, interaction of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A with cultured cells in vitro did not reflect the previously identified clonal groups, but was more dependent on the characteristics of the individual strains. Therefore, a combination of genotype and phenotype data must be used to characterize this extremely heterogeneous organism.

  7. Recognition of group B streptococci in dip-slide cultures of urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, A M; Jokipii, L

    1979-08-01

    One hundred strains of group B streptococci isolated from human infections were tested for growth on dip-slides available for the culture of urine. All grew on CLED agar, and none grew on MacConkey agar. The colonies were barely or not at all visible to the naked eye after overnight incubation (diameter, around 0.1 mm). The colony size increased eith prolonged incubation, but not if the inoculum density exceeded 10(6)/ml. Differences were found between lots of dip-slides. Poor growth on dip-slides may explain why group B streptococci have received little attention as pathogens of the urinary tract. The dip-slide screening personnel of one laboratory were informed of the experimental findings, and they started the practice of frequent subculture and prolonged incubation. The proportion of group B streptococci in significant bacteriuria increased from 0 to about 2% of positive cultures, whereas there was no conmitant increase of group B streptococci in dip-slides screened in several other laboratories serving as controls.

  8. Revisiting the Diego Blood Group System in Amerindians: Evidence for Gene-Culture Comigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégat, Christophe; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance tests, frequency distribution was studied according to geographical, environmental, and cultural parameters. Frequencies were highest in Amazonian populations. In contrast, DI*A was undetectable in subarctic, Fuegian, Panamanian, Chaco and Yanomama populations. Closer study revealed a correlation that this unequal distribution was correlated with language, suggesting that linguistic divergence was a driving force in the expansion of DI*A among Native Americans. The absence of DI*A in circumpolar Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers was consistent with a late migratory event confined to North America. Distribution of DI*A in subtropical areas indicated that gene and culture exchanges were more intense within than between ecozones. Bolstering the utility of classical genetic markers in biological anthropology, the present study of the expansion of Diego blood group genetic polymorphism in Native Americans shows strong evidence of gene-culture comigration.

  9. Revisiting the Diego Blood Group System in Amerindians: Evidence for Gene-Culture Comigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégat, Christophe; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance tests, frequency distribution was studied according to geographical, environmental, and cultural parameters. Frequencies were highest in Amazonian populations. In contrast, DI*A was undetectable in subarctic, Fuegian, Panamanian, Chaco and Yanomama populations. Closer study revealed a correlation that this unequal distribution was correlated with language, suggesting that linguistic divergence was a driving force in the expansion of DI*A among Native Americans. The absence of DI*A in circumpolar Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers was consistent with a late migratory event confined to North America. Distribution of DI*A in subtropical areas indicated that gene and culture exchanges were more intense within than between ecozones. Bolstering the utility of classical genetic markers in biological anthropology, the present study of the expansion of Diego blood group genetic polymorphism in Native Americans shows strong evidence of gene-culture comigration. PMID:26148209

  10. [Primary health care reform and implications for the organizational culture of Health Center Groups in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Claudia; Dussault, Gilles; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2014-01-01

    The health sector's increasing complexity poses major challenges for administrators. There is considerable consensus on workforce quality as a key determinant of success for any health reform. This study aimed to explore the changes introduced by an action-training intervention in the organizational culture of the 73 executive directors of Health Center Groups (ACES) in Portugal during the primary health care reform. The study covers two periods, before and after the one-year ACES training, during which the data were collected and analyzed. The Competing Values Framework allowed observing that after the ACES action-training intervention, the perceptions of the executive directors regarding their organizational culture were more aligned with the practices and values defended by the primary health care reform. The study highlights the need to continue monitoring results over different time periods to elaborate further conclusions.

  11. Teaching engineering ethics using role-playing in a culturally diverse student group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Robert H

    2006-04-01

    The use of role-playing ("active learning") as a teaching tool has been reported in areas as diverse as social psychology, history and analytical chemistry. Its use as a tool in the teaching of engineering ethics and professionalism is also not new, but the approach develops new perspectives when used in a college class of exceptionally wide cultural diversity. York University is a large urban university (40,000 undergraduates) that draws its enrolment primarily from the Greater Toronto Area, arguably one of the most culturally diverse cities in the world, embracing the largest percentage of Canada's immigration. Among the area's five million inhabitants, 50% identify themselves as a visible minority born outside Canada, while over 100 languages and dialects are spoken daily. Although students admitted from this international pool have usually been exposed to western attitudes during secondary education and are rapidly assimilated into Canadian culture, responses to specific ethical issues are strongly influenced by their prior culture. Two and three-part scripts for case studies based on NSF or original scenarios were written to illustrate issues such as gifts, attitudes towards women and ethnic minorities, conflict of interest, whistle-blowing, sexual harassment, individual rights, privacy, environment, intellectual property, and others. Following the presentation, the actors lead group discussion based on previously specified questions. Once the initial shyness and reluctance of some cultures has been overcome through the building of rapport, students have written original scripts based on hypothetical or prior personal situations. The method is now being adopted in a short course format to assist the professional integration of foreign trained engineers.

  12. The relationship between relational models and individualism and collectivism: evidence from culturally diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodosek, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Relational models theory (Fiske, 1991 ) proposes that all thinking about social relationships is based on four elementary mental models: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Triandis and his colleagues (e.g., Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994 ) have suggested a relationship between the constructs of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism and Fiske's relational models. However, no previous research has examined this proposed relationship empirically. The objective of the current study was to test the association between the two frameworks in order to further our understanding of why members of culturally diverse groups may prefer different relational models in interactions with other group members. Findings from this study support a relationship between Triandis' constructs and Fiske's four relational models and uphold Fiske's ( 1991 ) claim that the use of the relational models is culturally dependent. As hypothesized, horizontal collectivism was associated with a preference for equality matching and communal sharing, vertical individualism was related to a preference for authority ranking, and vertical collectivism was related to a preference for authority ranking and communal sharing. However, contrary to expectations, horizontal individualism was not related to a preference for equality matching and market pricing, and vertical individualism was not associated with market pricing. By showing that there is a relationship between Triandis' and Fiske's frameworks, this study closes a gap in relational models theory, namely how culture relates to people's preferences for relational models. Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context.

  13. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percentage body fat in a heterogeneous group of adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, J D; Zimmerman, S L; Miller, W C; Hildebrandt, L; Hammer, R L; Fernhall, B

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to compare estimations of percentage body fat (%fat) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a heterogeneous (age and %fat) sample of the population. Of secondary importance was to determine whether there were differences between the two methods among lean (n = 32), average (n = 34) and overweight (n = 29) subsets of this sample. A total of 95 adults (men 27, women 68) ranging in age from 18-52 years volunteered for this study. Test-retest reliability for %fat ADP (n = 16) was 0.99 with a technical error of 0.75%fat and a coefficient of variation of 3.4%fat. Mean body density using ADP [1.048 (SD 0.016) g.ml-1] was not significantly different when compared to HW [1.049 (SD 0.017) g.ml-1], which corresponded to a non-significant difference in %fat [22.5 (SD 7.3)% ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 7.6)% HW]. Regression analysis provided the equation: %fat HW = 0.9121%fat ADP + 1.5123; r = 0.88, SEE = 3.6, which did not differ significantly from the line of identity. Data for the subsets revealed a significant overestimation of %fat ADP [16.4 (SD 4.8)%] compared to HW [14.1 (SD 3.2)%] (P = 0.001) for lean individuals while no difference was found in the average [21.9 (SD 4.4)%fat ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 3.4)%fat HW] or overweight [29.9 (SD 5.5)%fat ADP compared to 30.8 (SD 4.1)%fat HW] subsets. Measuring %fat by ADP is a highly reliable method and valid when compared to HW for a heterogeneous sample of adults. The ADP method requires little expertise to operate, is quick to perform, and may be more accommodating for certain individuals compared to HW. However, in this study ADP was less valid for lean individuals. Further investigation is warranted to determine the bias of this method for subsets of the population which may be outside the average range of %fat (men 15.4%-22.0%, women 18.4%-28.5%).

  14. Heterogenous induction of carcinoma-associated fibroblast-like differentiation in normal human prostatic fibroblasts by co-culturing with prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichiro; Mizokami, Atsushi; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Kato, Manabu; Hori, Yasuhide; Arima, Kiminobu; Namiki, Mikio; Sugimura, Yoshiki

    2011-12-01

    In the tumor microenvironment, carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are considered to play a critical role in the promotion of tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms that generate CAFs are not well elucidated. To understand how CAFs are generated during primary cancer progression, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of normal human prostate stromal cells (PrSC) co-cultured with human prostate cancer (PCa) cells in vitro. In primary cultures of human PCa-derived stromal cells (PCaSC-8 and PCaSC-9), expression of TNC, ACTA2, EGF, FGF7, and IGF1 mRNA was generally higher than PrSC but gene expression patterns were not uniform between PCaSC-8 and PCaSC-9 cells. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in both PCaSC-8 and PCaSC-9 cells were generally higher than PrSC but levels of both secreted proteins were not same. When PrSCs were co-cultured with androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells or its sublines, androgen-low-sensitive E9 cells and androgen-insensitive AIDL cells, mRNA expression of IGF1 was significantly increased in all combinations. In contrast, expression of COL1A1, TNC, and ACTA2 mRNA was significantly increased only in LNCaP + PrSC and E9 + PrSC co-cultures. Protein production of VEGF was significantly increased only in LNCaP + PrSC and E9 + PrSC co-cultures. Increase of TGFβ protein was observed only in E9 + PrSC co-cultures. These biochemical characteristics of PrSC were partially recapitulated in TGFβ-treated PrSC. We have demonstrated that normal fibroblasts co-cultured with cancer cells become activated and exhibit biochemical characteristics of CAFs in a heterogenous manner. Our results suggest that heterogenous induction of CAF-like differentiation might be strongly dependent on biochemical characteristics of adjacent cancer cells.

  15. A simple micro-culture method for the study of group B arboviruses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Madrid, Ana Teresa; Porterfield, James S.

    1969-01-01

    Thirty-nine group B arboviruses have been titrated by a simple micro-culture method. The technique uses a stable line of pig kidney cells (PS cells) in which plaques develop when cells are first infected in suspension in the wells of haemagglutination trays and are then incubated for from 3 to 10 days under an overlay containing carboxymethyl-cellulose. This method can be adapted to measure neutralizing antibodies, and the principle underlying the test is applicable to other cells and other viruses. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4183812

  16. We are on the same boat, but still I am from another culture: the lived experiences of learning in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kaire

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to learn in a group of people from different cultures? How does one encounter people from different cultures when there is no clear ‘quantitative’ domination of any culture? By asking these questions the paper represents a hermeneutic phenomenological study that explores the phenomenon of learning in a culturally diverse group. A phenomenological study is undertaken with young people (18-30 years from different EU countries who participated in learning mobility project European Voluntary Service and had long-term volunteering experience abroad. The research concentrates on the lived moments of vis-à-vis intercultural encounters during learning process in groups. Specifically, through the descriptions of lived experience and phenomenological reflection the paper describes how young people experience self and others while they are learning in culturally diverse groups. Lived experiences of young people lead them into ‘no-man’s land’ (Waldenfels, 2011 where connection and separation simultaneously exist.

  17. The experience of cross-cultural peer teaching for a group of mathematics learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey D Fox

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the post-1994 government’s efforts to put the necessary legislation in place and to work hard to reform the  education system in South Africa and improve standards, inequalities still  exist in many schools. Instead of focusing on the barriers to learning in schools, this paper, within the framework of the asset-based approach, describes the experiences of  learners involved in a cross-cultural peer teaching initiative between a privileged private  school and a township school in Port Elizabeth. The aim of the project was to explore the possible advantages of cross-cultural peer tutoring of certain sections of the new Mathematics curriculum  for both the tutors and tutees, especially to see whether the township learners’ understanding  of the learning content could be improved. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to collect the data. The results showed that the township learners’understanding of the mathematic topics dealt with during the peer teaching session was enhanced and that both groups gained from the cross-cultural peer teaching interaction.

  18. Comparison of Gen-Probe Group A streptococcus Direct Test with culture for diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, S J; Vetter, E A; Wollan, P C; Cockerill, F R

    1994-01-01

    The Group A Streptococcus Direct Test (GP-ST test; Gen-Probe, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) was compared with culture for the detection of Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs of 767 patients with pharyngitis. Swabs were tested by the GP-ST test after inoculating a 5% sheep blood agar (SBA) plate. SBA plates were incubated at 35 degrees C in room air for 72 h. SBA plates with no evidence of beta-hemolytic colonies after 18 to 24 h of incubation were subcultured by taking a swipe across the primary inoculum from the SBA plate to an agar selective for Streptococcus spp. In a low-prevalence (11.9%) population and in comparison with the number of positive cultures detected by the 72-h single-culture method (SBA plate method), the GP-ST test had a sensitivity of 88.6%, a specificity of 97.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.9%, and a negative predictive value of 98.5%. In comparison with the growth of any colonies of S. pyogenes on the 72-h SBA plates plus a subculture onto selective blood agar, the sensitivities and specificities were as follows: 72-h SBA plate method, 96.7 and 100%, respectively; GP-ST test, 85.7 and 97.8%, respectively. The GP-ST test is an easy-to-perform, reliable test for batch screening of throat swabs for S. pyogenes. PMID:8077386

  19. Comparison of transcriptional heterogeneity of eight genes between batch Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm and planktonic culture at a single-cell level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua eQi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB biofilm formed on metal surfaces can change the physicochemical properties of metals and cause metal corrosion. To enhance understanding of differential gene expression in Desulfovibrio vulgaris under planktonic and biofilm growth modes, a single-cell based RT-qPCR approach was applied to determine gene expression levels of 8 selected target genes in four sets of the 31 individual cells isolated from each growth condition (i.e., biofilm formed on a stainless steel (SS) and planktonic cultures, exponential and stationary phases. The results showed obvious gene-expression heterogeneity for the target genes among D. vulgaris single cells of both biofilm and planktonic cultures. In addition, an increased gene-expression heterogeneity in the D. vulgaris biofilm when compared with the planktonic culture was also observed for seven out of eight selected genes, which may be contributing to the increased complexity in terms of structures and morphology in the biofilm. Moreover, the results showed up-regulation of DVU0281 gene encoding exopolysaccharide biosynthesis protein, and down-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism (i.e., DVU0434 and DVU0588, stress responses (i.e., DVU2410 and response regulator (i.e., DVU3062 in the D. vulgaris biofilm cells. Finally, the gene (DVU2571 involved in iron transportation was found down-regulated, and two genes (DVU1340 and DVU1397 involved in ferric uptake repressor and iron storage were up-regulated in D. vulgaris biofilm, suggesting their possible roles in maintaining normal metabolism of the D. vulgaris biofilm under environments of high concentration of iron. This study showed that the single-cell based analysis could be a useful approach in deciphering metabolism of microbial biofilms.

  20. Views on social and cultural influence on sexuality and sexual health in groups of Ugandan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råssjö, Eva-Britta; Kiwanuka, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Sexual problems such as forced and transactional sex are common among adolescents, especially in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to describe how young people respond to their social living conditions and why they marry early, have early pregnancies, experience forced sex and involve themselves in transactional sex. Young people, 15-24 years old, participated in focus group discussions that were tape recorded, translated into English, transcribed and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Six groups were mixed, with both women and men, while two groups had only men and one group only women as participants. The two study sites were located in a slum area in Kampala and in a village in Wakiso district, near a trading centre. The following topics were discussed: Forced sex, early marriage, contraception, teenage pregnancy and transactional sex. The participants described how young people are affected by harmful cultural practices, by power imbalance, especially due to gender-based inequity, and by lack of information and life skills. This study also showed that young people perceive themselves as a resource and are prepared to help other less advantaged youth to get knowledge about reproductive health issues. Enforcement of laws that can protect children and youth was suggested. Government and community should work against harmful traditional practices and introduce sexual education in primary school.

  1. A Cross-Cultural Approach to the Negotiation of Individual and Group Identities: Parliamentary Debates and Editorial Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on interactional pragmatics and a cross-cultural approach (UK, France, Spain) to investigate the negotiation of individual and group identities in two different speech events, parliamentary debates and editorial meetings. The cross-cultural examination of the use of linguistic resources for signalling "social role,…

  2. Sharpening the Lens of Culturally Responsive Science Teaching: A Call for Liberatory Education for Oppressed Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codrington, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    Wallace and Brand's framing of culturally responsive science teaching through the lens of critical race theory honors the role of social justice in science education. In this article, I extend the discussion through reflections on the particular learning needs of students from oppressed cultural groups, specifically African Americans.…

  3. A Dialogue with Carl Rogers: Cross-Cultural Challenges of Facilitating Person-Centered Groups in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain-Hill, Alicia; Rogers, Carl R.

    1988-01-01

    Presents brainstorming dialogue with Carl Rogers which was held in January of 1987, shortly before Rogers's death. Explores basic challenges involved in a large-scale, cross-cultural application of person-centered group work in South Africa. (Author)

  4. Personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices of Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with Jewish Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Abu Kheit, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the connection between personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices among Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with the Jewish population in Israel. One hundred twenty-two Palestinian Israelis participated in the study. The participants were employed in different professional positions in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area and were recruited to the study using the snowball technique. A stronger national identification was associated with a higher preference for the security and conformity values, and a lower preference for the humility values. A stronger ethnic identification was associated with a lower preference for the security, power, and stimulation values. Group identifications mediated the connection between personal value preferences and cultural practices. A longer time working in close contact with the majority group and less frequent visits home were associated with a greater adherence to the majority group's cultural practices but not with adherence to the ethnic group's practices and not with the group identifications.

  5. Tumorigenic heterogeneity in cancer stem cells evolved from long-term cultures of telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Jorge S; Abdallah, Basem M; Guldberg, Per

    2005-01-01

    Long-term cultures of telomerase-transduced adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) may evolve spontaneous genetic changes leading to tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice (e.g., hMSC-TERT20). We wished to clarify whether this unusual phenotype reflected a rare but dominant subpopulation...... or if the stem cell origin allowed most cells to behave as cancer stem cells. Cultures of the hMSC-TERT20 strain at population doubling 440 were highly clonogenic (94%). From 110 single-cell clones expanded by 20 population doublings, 6 underwent detailed comparison. Like the parental population, each clone had...... tumorigenicity correlated with good viability plus capillary morphogenesis on serum starvation and high cyclin D1 expression. Thus, hMSC-TERT20 clones represent cancer stem cells with hierarchical tumorigenicity, providing new models to explore the stem cell hypothesis for cancer....

  6. Culture and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  7. Does Culture Affect how People Receive and Resist Persuasive Messages? Research Proposals about Resistance to Persuasion in Cultural Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kolodziej-Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though persuasion has been a widely researched topic in consumer behavior, the great majority of these studies have involved American consumers and focused on persuasion itself, with very few addressing resistance to persuasive attempts. None has addressed resistance to persuasion in a cross-cultural context. We aim to contribute to closing this gap in the literature with this paper. Specifically, we aim to expand knowledge of the persuasive process by applying the cultural dimensions of self-construal and face negotiation theories to Gopinath and Nyer’s (2009 work conducted on American consumers about the effect of public commitment on resistance to persuasion. Our research focus is on why people from different ethnic/cultural backgrounds will receive or resist persuasive messages differently. We anchor this notion in face negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 2005. This perspective addresses different types of facework behaviors that people choose in a multicultural environment, thus shedding light on processes underlying persuasion and resistance to persuasion mechanisms as influenced by culture. Understanding the effects of cultural differences on a person’s reception of, or resistance to, counter-attitudinal persuasion should be valuable to managers who make decisions about cultural adaptations and target audience changes.

  8. Studying the Relationship between Rate of Organizational Socialization and Rate of Employees Conformity (Group Stress, Kind of Character, Individualism Culture and Pluralism Culture) in Nehbandan Executive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ziaadini; Marzieh Hashemi

    2013-01-01

    This research basically aims to study the relationship between rate of organizational socialization and rate of employees’ conformity (group stress, kind of character, individualism culture and pluralism culture) in Nehbandan executive systems. Statistical society of this research includes 70 newcomer employees in Nehbandan government offices and centers and sample size was regarded equal to statistical society. Instruments of collecting data are two questionnaires of socialization and confor...

  9. Neuropsicologia transcultural: grupo indígena guarani Cross culture neuropsychology: guarany indian group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Maria Andrade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Para investigar a influência da cultura sobre o desempenho cognitivo foram estudados processos intelectuais em indivíduos de populações etnicamente diferentes. Avaliamos 12 índios e 12 pessoas não indígenas, ambos os grupos constituídos por moradores da periferia de São Paulo, pareados de acordo com idade e nível educacional. Os seguintes testes foram utilizados: Dígitos, Blocos de Corsi, Desenho com Cubos e Nomeação de Figuras. A memória verbal imediata e tardia foi avaliada por meio de estórias relacionadas ao contexto ecológico de ambos os grupos, e a memória visual, pela apresentação e recuperação de figuras. Os resultados quantitativos não demonstraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos, porém, houve uma tendência estatística dos índios mostrarem maior domínio das tarefas visuais e motoras, e os não índios das tarefas verbais. Em conclusão, é possível que o grupo indígena use a cognição de forma mais concreta e intuitiva, em função do estilo peculiar de vida, das habilidades desenvolvidas, associado à baixa escolaridade.Intellectual processes were investigated in two different populations to study the influence of culture in cognitive performance. Twelve people of an indian population of the Guarany ethnic nation were compared to 12 people ("non-indians" paired according to age and education level, both groups residing in the periphery of the city of São Paulo. The following tests were used: Digit Span; Corsi Block-Tapping Test; Block Design and Naming Figure Test. The immediate and delayed verbal memory was assessed through a short story-task with a specific ecological context and the visual memory through animal figures retrieval. No statistical differences were observed between the two groups, but a statistic tendency was observed in the sense of the indigenous group apparently encountering more facility in visual and motors tasks and the "non-indians" in verbal tasks. The results suggest

  10. Trisomy 14 as a Sole Chromosome Abnormality Is Associated with Older Age, a Heterogenous Group of Myeloid Neoplasms with Dysplasia, and a Wide Spectrum of Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trisomy 14 is a rare recurrent cytogenetic abnormality in myeloid neoplasms; however, its clinicopathologic features have not been well described. We report the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic features of 16 cases of myeloid neoplasms with isolated trisomy 14. Our results show that cases with isolated trisomy 14 encompass a heterogenous group of myeloid neoplasms including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, 44%, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (31%, and acute myeloid leukemia (25%. The patients are usually elder (median age 71 years, and there is a male predominance (82%. Multilineage dysplasia is noted in all cases. Oncogenic mutations of genes involved in cell proliferation and/or survival rarely occur. Compared with cases of MDS with diploid karyotype, patients of MDS with isolated trisomy 14 demonstrate a similar overall survival and rate of leukemia transformation.

  11. Heterogeneity of the human H blood group alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene among para-Bombay individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L C; Yang, Y H; Broadberry, R E; Chen, Y H; Lin, M

    1997-01-01

    The para-Bombay phenotype has a relatively high frequency of about 1 in 8,000 Taiwanese. Studies were carried out on eight healthy and unrelated Taiwanese with the para-Bombay phenotype to cast light on its immunogenetic basis. Blood and saliva samples were tested with standard hemagglutination techniques. Salivary ABH substances were determined by hemagglutination inhibition. PCR techniques were used to amplify the coding region of the H genes. Five different h alleles, designated as h1, h2, h3, h4 and h5, were identified in the Taiwanese with the para-Bombay phenotype. The h1 allele loses one of the three AG repeats located at the nucleotides 547-552 of the H gene, whereas two of the three T repeats located at the nucleotides 880-882 are deleted in the h2 allele. The h3 allele contains a C658 to T missense mutation, whereas two missense mutations, C35 to T and A980 to C were identified in the h4 allele. A T460 to C missense is present in the h5 allele. The h5 allele was identified in an individual whose red blood cells contain blood group A antigen but not H antigen, and thus may be considered a weak variant of the H gene. So far no biologic relevance of the H antigen has been discovered, and its deficiency does not seem to produce any deleterious effects. There may be better understanding of the evolutionary basis for the polymorphisms at these loci after systematic study of different ethnic populations.

  12. Cultural affiliation and the importance of health care attributes. Marketers can develop segmentation strategies for targeted patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, A L; Stinerock, R

    1998-01-01

    Culturally based values are known to influence consumer purchase decisions, but little is known about how those values affect health care choices. To rectify that situation and provide health care marketers with a framework for developing culturally based segmentation strategies, the authors undertook an exploratory research project in which Hispanic-, African-, and Anglo-Americans were asked to rate the importance of 16 different health care attributes. Those attributes can be grouped under five categories: quality of physician, quality of nurses and other medical staff, economic issues, access to health care, and nonmedically related experiential aspects. Survey responses identified distinct differences in the importance attached to the various attributes by the three cultural groups. The study also looks at the impact of six demographic and social characteristics on the evaluations made by each cultural group. Those characteristics are educational level, gender, age, health status, marital status, and number of people living in the household.

  13. Culture-independent genome sequencing of clinical samples reveals an unexpected heterogeneity of infections by Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Sullivan, Mitchell J; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is an important global pathogen of livestock, and it is also a significant threat to the long-term survival of Australia's koala populations. This study employed a culture-independent DNA capture approach to sequence C. pecorum genomes directly from clinical swab samples collected from koalas with chlamydial disease as well as from sheep with arthritis and conjunctivitis. Investigations into single-nucleotide polymorphisms within each of the swab samples revealed that a portion of the reads in each sample belonged to separate C. pecorum strains, suggesting that all of the clinical samples analyzed contained mixed populations of genetically distinct C. pecorum isolates. This observation was independent of the anatomical site sampled and the host species. Using the genomes of strains identified in each of these samples, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed that a clade containing a bovine and a koala isolate is distinct from other clades comprised of livestock or koala C. pecorum strains. Providing additional evidence to support exposure of koalas to Australian livestock strains, two minor strains assembled from the koala swab samples clustered with livestock strains rather than koala strains. Culture-independent probe-based genome capture and sequencing of clinical samples provides the strongest evidence yet to suggest that naturally occurring chlamydial infections are comprised of multiple genetically distinct strains.

  14. Isolation and Culture of a kind of Derived Cells from Differentiation Group Of Murine ESC-like Cell and Their Traits in Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1IntroductionInthe process of culturing ESC-like cell from murine blastula ,we find that even if no inducing factor was added, ESC-like cellmasses can differentinto many kinds of cell groups .Study onthe bi-ological traits ,culturing and change of functional genetics of thosecell groups will be of great meaningtofind outthe mechanismof dif-ferentiation and possible value of ESC-like cells . UPto now,thereare not many references and reports on this aspect .This article in-troduces a kind of derived cells iso...

  15. Communities and Cultures of Women: A Study of Neighbourhood Groups and Gated Communities in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Sakira Sahin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to tease out the factors and forces that enable women to form communities of women and the circumstances within which they act. In addition, the research aims to observe into their activities to see if there is a germination of gender consciousness even if in a nascent form. Taking off from a historical vantage point of women coming together for various kinds of social and political action, the paper tries to delve into the epistemological dilemma encountered by feminist politics, where the subject of feminist politics i.e., women, is presented as a problematic category. Gender is understood not as a sole defining category but one that exists alongside other constituents of identities intersecting with it like class, caste, race, ethnicity etc. Given such an understanding the paper is based on a micro-level qualitative study conducted in an urban set-up of Guwahati city where two different kinds of locality-based women’s communities are taken as case studies, one of which is an all-women local neighbourhood development committee and the other a women’s forum within a gated community. The interesting contrasts as well as complexities of the groups in their membership as well their cultures are analysed to raise questions on whether such groups serve patriarchal interests or whether they present themselves as potential sites through which social change towards a more gender-conscious society can be made possible.

  16. Growth performance of three pejerrey genetic groups in intensive culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aldrighi Tavares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the growth performance of Odontesthes bonariensis, O. humensis and hybrid (O. bonariensis X O. humensis in intensive culture system for a period of 180 days, using the body weight (W, total length (Lt, condition factor (CF, allometric coefficient (b, specific growth rate (SGR and estimates of body weight and maximum total length (Wmax, Ltmax as indicators. Fish were randomly selected from three genetic groups (Bonariensis, Humensis and Hybrid, divided into water recirculation system consisting of 12 tanks (50 L. 12 measurements of body weight and total length (0, 2, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180 days were taken by means of a random sample of 10 subjects per replicate. All genetic groups grew in weight and length over the period analyzed, being influenced by the genetics of each species. O. bonariensis showed the best performance in growth and hybrid fish showed intermediate growth and estimated maximum body weight exceeding the pure species. Based on these results, it would be helpful the selective breeding and formation of domesticated strains.

  17. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  18. Cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children and adolescents from ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Manus, V; Savage, E

    2010-09-01

    Both diabetes and asthma are increasingly being recognized as health problems for ethnic groups. Because of cultural differences, ethnicity is reported to be a risk factor for poorer quality in health care, disease management and disease control. Ethnic groups are at risk for poorer quality of life and increased disease complications when compared with non-ethnic counterparts living in the same country. There is little known about how culture is addressed in interventions developed for ethnic groups. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic minority groups. A total of 92 records were identified that were potentially relevant to this review following which, 61 papers were excluded. The full texts of remaining papers (n= 31) were then read independently by both authors, and agreement was reached to exclude a further 27 papers that did not meet inclusion criteria. A total of four papers were eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that despite growing concerns about health disparities between ethnic and non-ethnic groups in relation to both asthma and diabetes in childhood, there has been little effort to develop cultural specific interventions for ethnic groups. By systematically reviewing asthma and diabetes interventions we have highlighted that few interventions have been developed from a cultural perspective. There are a limited number of interventions published that add knowledge on the specific elements of intervention that is needed to effectively and sensitively educate other cultures. More work is required into identifying which strategies or components of cultural interventions are most effective in achieving positive health outcomes for children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic groups.

  19. Groups without cultured representatives dominate eukaryotic picophytoplankton in the oligotrophic South East Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li Shi

    , and also to obtain into culture strains representative of these novel groups.

  20. Culture and Embodied Cognition: Moral Discourses in Internet Support Groups for Overeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatow, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that a modified version of Bourdieu's "habitus" concept can generate insights into moral culture and the ways people use culture to make changes in their lives. If revised in light of recent findings from cognitive neuroscience, the habitus allows for the analysis of culture as embodied cognitive structures linking individuals…

  1. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.

  2. 情境教學中異質小組合作學習之實證研究 Effects of Heterogeneous Groups for Cooperative Learning in Anchored Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    無The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heterogeneous groups for cooperative learning on students' cognitive and affective performance in anchored instruction. Forty-two fifth graders participated in this study. They were divided into gender-heterogeneous combinations: two boys plus one girl vs. two girls and one boy. Four dependent variables were measured, including problem- solving strategies, learning transfer, attitudes toward mathernatics and attitudes toward cooperative...

  3. The use of heterogeneous chemistry for the characterization of functional groups at the gas/particle interface of soot and TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, A; Sauvain, J-J; Rossi, M J

    2009-08-07

    Six gases [N(CH(3))(3), NH(2)OH, CF(3)COOH, HCl, NO(2) and O(3)] were selected to probe the surface of seven different types of combustion aerosol samples (amorphous carbon, flame soot) and three types of TiO(2) nanoparticles using heterogeneous, i.e. gas-surface reactions. The gas uptake to saturation of the probes was measured under molecular flow conditions in a Knudsen flow reactor and expressed as a density of surface functional groups on a particular aerosol, namely acidic (carboxylic) and basic (conjugated oxides such as pyrone, N-heterocycle and amine) sites, carbonyl (R(1)-C(O)-R(2)) and oxidizable (olefinic, -OH) groups. The limit of detection was generally well below 1% of a formal monolayer of adsorbed probe gas. With few exceptions most investigated aerosol samples interacted with all probe gases to various extents which points to the coexistence of different functional groups on the same aerosol surface such as acidic and basic groups. Generally, the carbonaceous particles displayed significant differences in surface group density: Printex 60 amorphous carbon had the lowest density of surface functional groups throughout, whereas Diesel soot recovered from a Diesel particulate filter had the largest. The presence of basic oxides on carbonaceous aerosol particles was inferred from the ratio of uptakes of CF(3)COOH and HCl owing to the larger stability of the acetate compared to the chloride counterion in the resulting pyrylium salt. Both soots generated from a rich and a lean hexane diffusion flame had a large density of oxidizable groups similar to amorphous carbon FS 101. TiO(2) 15 had the lowest density of functional groups studied for all probe gases among the three TiO(2) nanoparticles despite the smallest size of its primary particles. The technique used enabled the measurement of the uptake probability of the probe gases on the various supported aerosol samples. The initial uptake probability, gamma(0), of the probe gas onto the supported

  4. Isolation and Culture of a kind of Derived Cells from Differentiation Group Of Murine ESC-like Cell and Their Traits in Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Shuang GAO; Ting YU; Bang-You LI; Yan-Yun HAN; Chun-Han AI; Chun-Fang WANG; Jing-Fu LV; Jian-Ying WU

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction In the process of culturing ESC-like cell from murine blastula,we find that even if no inducing factor was added, ESC-like cell masses can different into many kinds of cell groups. Study on the biological traits, culturing and change of functional genetics of those cell groups will be of great meaning to find out the mechanism of differentiation and possible value of ESC-like cells. UP to now, there are not many references and reports on this aspect. This article introduces a kind of derived cells isolated from ESC-like cell, the change of its growth, and need of culturing conditions, which may be useful in further study on ESC-like cells.

  5. Dynamics of safety performance and culture: a group model building approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Love, Peter E D; Stagbouer, Greg; Annesley, Chris

    2012-09-01

    The management of occupational health and safety (OHS) including safety culture interventions is comprised of complex problems that are often hard to scope and define. Due to the dynamic nature and complexity of OHS management, the concept of system dynamics (SD) is used to analyze accident prevention. In this paper, a system dynamics group model building (GMB) approach is used to create a causal loop diagram of the underlying factors influencing the OHS performance of a major drilling and mining contractor in Australia. While the organization has invested considerable resources into OHS their disabling injury frequency rate (DIFR) has not been decreasing. With this in mind, rich individualistic knowledge about the dynamics influencing the DIFR was acquired from experienced employees with operations, health and safety and training background using a GMB workshop. Findings derived from the workshop were used to develop a series of causal loop diagrams that includes a wide range of dynamics that can assist in better understanding the causal influences OHS performance. The causal loop diagram provides a tool for organizations to hypothesize the dynamics influencing effectiveness of OHS management, particularly the impact on DIFR. In addition the paper demonstrates that the SD GMB approach has significant potential in understanding and improving OHS management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients.

  7. Empacho in four Latino groups: a study of intra- and inter-cultural variation in beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S C; Pachter, L M; Trotter, R T; Baer, R D

    1993-04-01

    It is usually impossible to know if reported differences between cultures are due to cultural differences or due to a difference in the methods used to study the cultures. This paper describes a collaborative, multisite study using a shared methodology to study intra- and inter-cultural variation in beliefs. A series of standard interview schedules were used to study Latin American beliefs about empacho in Guatemala, Mexico, and in the United States (Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans). Results showed consistency in beliefs about empacho both within and between the four samples.

  8. Countering the influence of cultural hegemony on choosing a nursing career: a group-mentoring approach for student recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Rowsey, Pamela J; Giscombe, Cheryl; Hodges, Eric A; Fowler, Tamryn; Alexander, Rumay

    2014-05-01

    Extensive literature exists that demonstrates the influence of social cues and interpersonal interactions with influential others on student career choices. This article applies Gramsci's political views of hegemony and counterhegemony to situate student descriptions of their experiences and the goals of a group-mentoring session designed to address the culturally hegemonic symbolic cues and interpersonal interactions that can negatively influence a student's desire to select a career in nursing. Specifics around the development, implementation, and evaluation of the group-mentoring session, as part of a broader school-wide culture to promote diversity and as a larger program to increase the diversity of the nursing workforce, are described.

  9. Curricular Integration and Measurement of Cultural Competence Development in a Group of Physical Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombaro, Kerstin M.; Dole, Robin L.; Black, Jill D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Background: The link between cultural competence and effective physical therapy encounters is established. Physical therapist educational programs face the challenge of fostering the cultural competence of students in effective and meaningful ways within the curriculum. They also face the challenge of measuring the development of…

  10. Choice of Appropriate Multimedia Technology and Teaching Methods for Different Culture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratoukhina, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…

  11. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  12. Large Core Code Evaluation Working Group Benchmark Problem Four: neutronics and burnup analysis of a large heterogeneous fast reactor. Part 1. Analysis of benchmark results. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, C.L.; Protsik, R.; Lewellen, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The Large Core Code Evaluation Working Group Benchmark Problem Four was specified to provide a stringent test of the current methods which are used in the nuclear design and analyses process. The benchmark specifications provided a base for performing detailed burnup calculations over the first two irradiation cycles for a large heterogeneous fast reactor. Particular emphasis was placed on the techniques for modeling the three-dimensional benchmark geometry, and sensitivity studies were carried out to determine the performance parameter sensitivities to changes in the neutronics and burnup specifications. The results of the Benchmark Four calculations indicated that a linked RZ-XY (Hex) two-dimensional representation of the benchmark model geometry can be used to predict mass balance data, power distributions, regionwise fuel exposure data and burnup reactivities with good accuracy when compared with the results of direct three-dimensional computations. Most of the small differences in the results of the benchmark analyses by the different participants were attributed to ambiguities in carrying out the regionwise flux renormalization calculations throughout the burnup step.

  13. A Preliminary Study of an Integrated and Culturally Attuned Cognitive Behavioral Group Treatment for Chinese Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chung, Catherine Lai Ping; Wu, Janet; Tang, Joe; Lau, Patrick; Wan, Jennie Po Ching

    2015-09-01

    Chinese people may have a higher rate of gambling problems than other cultural groups. However, there are very few clinical outcome studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of clinical interventions for helping Chinese gamblers. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for helping problem gamblers to significantly reduce their gambling problems in western countries. Very few CBT clinical trials have been conducted with the Chinese populations, and the results were masked by methodological limitations. This preliminary study attempted to test the effectiveness of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a randomized control design and 38 participants were allocated randomly to the experimental condition (n = 18) and control condition (n = 20). The experimental group received 10 weekly CBT group sessions and individual counseling services while control group only received the individual counseling services. Significant decreases in gambling severity and frequencies of gambling were found in the experimental group. The findings also showed that a change in gambling cognitions predicted the changes in gambling severity and gambling urge while a change in gambling severity was also linked to a change in depression. Preliminary evidence highlights the potential benefits of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. However, a more vigorous research design with a larger sample is needed to provide solid evidence of the effectiveness of the model for Chinese problem gamblers.

  14. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, J K; Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-02-17

    To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Qualitative focus group interview study. Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Reconhecer-se como brasileiro ao conhecer a heterogeneidade linguístico-cultural hispano-americana To recognize ourselves while recognizing linguistic and cultural heterogeneity in hispanic america

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucielena Mendonça de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de discutir os conceitos relacionados com a educação intercultural aplicados ao processo de ensino/aprendizagem de espanhol como Língua estrangeira (E/LE no ensino médio brasileiro. discutem-se, ainda, as bases teórico-metodológicas do documento Orientações Curriculares para o Ensino Médio- Espanhol (MEC, 2006. apresentam-se, também, algumas sugestões de temas que podem ser trabalhados na sala de aula de E/LE para fomentar o conhecimento da heterogeneidade linguístico-cultural hispano-americana com o objetivo de reconhecer-se como cidadão brasileiro.This article aims at discussing the conceptions related to intercultural education which are applied to the learning-teaching process of Spanish as a Foreign Language (S/FL in the Brazilian secondary school. The theoretical and methodological bases of the document orientações curriculares para o ensino Médio- espanhol (MEC, 2006 are also considered. Some suggestions concerning themes that can be studied in the classroom of S/FL are presented too, and this sort of work intends to foster knowledge about the Hispanic-american linguistic and cultural heterogeneity with the aim of leading the learners to recognize themselves as Brazilian citizens.

  16. QC group activity and enterprise culture construction%QC小组活动与企业文化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷秀清

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了QC小组的形成及特点,阐述了企业文化的内涵及作用,分析了QC小组活动与企业文化建设相结合的可能性,并提出了将两者有效结合的具体措施和方法,以期指导实践,促进企业不断创新和发展。%This thesis briefly introduces the formation and features of QC group,describes the connotation and functions of enterprise culture,analyzes the possibility for combining QC group activity with enterprise culture construction,and then puts forward specific measures and methods for the combination,with a view to guide practice and to promote constant creation and development of enterprise culture.

  17. Sharpening the lens of culturally responsive science teaching: a call for liberatory education for oppressed student groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codrington, Jamila

    2014-12-01

    Wallace and Brand's framing of culturally responsive science teaching through the lens of critical race theory honors the role of social justice in science education. In this article, I extend the discussion through reflections on the particular learning needs of students from oppressed cultural groups, specifically African Americans. Understanding the political nature of education, I explore the importance of transforming science education so that it has the capacity to provide African American students with tools for their own liberation. I discuss Wallace and Brand's research findings in relation to the goal of liberatory education, and offer ideas for how science educators might push forward this agenda as they strive for culturally responsive teaching with oppressed student groups.

  18. The Relationship between Ethical Culture and Unethical Behavior in Work Groups: Testing the Corporate Ethical Virtues Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Corporate Ethical Virtues Model, which is a model for measuring the ethical culture of organizations, has not been tested on its predictive validity. This study tests the relationship between this model and observed unethical behavior in work groups. The sample consists of 301 triads

  19. Cultural group selection is plausible, but the predictions of its hypotheses should be tested with real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    The evidence compiled in the target article demonstrates that the assumptions of cultural group selection (CGS) theory are often met, and it is therefore a useful framework for generating plausible hypotheses. However, more can be said about how we can test the predictions of CGS hypotheses against competing explanations using historical, archaeological, and anthropological data.

  20. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  1. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  2. Heterogeneity in recombinant protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalén, Martin; Johanson, Ted; Lundin, Luisa;

    2012-01-01

    contribute to make a population in a fermenter heterogeneous, resulting in cell-to-cell variation in physiological parameters of the microbial culture. Our study aims at investigating how population heterogeneity and recombinant protein production is affected by environmental gradients in bioreactors...... are simulated in small bioreactors and the population heterogeneity can be visualised by analysing single cells with flow cytometry. This can give new insights to cell physiology and recombinant protein production at the industrial scale....

  3. 情境教學中異質小組合作學習之實證研究 Effects of Heterogeneous Groups for Cooperative Learning in Anchored Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-yih Shyu

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available 無The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heterogeneous groups for cooperative learning on students' cognitive and affective performance in anchored instruction. Forty-two fifth graders participated in this study. They were divided into gender-heterogeneous combinations: two boys plus one girl vs. two girls and one boy. Four dependent variables were measured, including problem- solving strategies, learning transfer, attitudes toward mathernatics and attitudes toward cooperative learning. Results from t-tests indicated there were no significant difference between two heterogeneous groups.   This study was funded under the support of National Science Council (grant number NSC86-2511-S-032-003.

  4. How Effective is Cultural Competence Training of Healthcare Providers on Improving Patient Satisfaction of Minority Groups? A Systematic Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govere, Linda; Govere, Ephraim M

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid growth of minority populations in the United States, the need to train healthcare providers to give culturally competent care has never been greater. Extensive research on cultural competence of healthcare providers has been conducted, but no systematic review specifically focused on the effect of cultural competence training on patient satisfaction of clients from minority groups. To search and critically appraise published research articles that evaluated the effectiveness of cultural competence training of healthcare providers on improving patient satisfaction of clients from minority groups. Using MeSH entry terms: Competency, Cultural; Cultural Competencies; Cultural Competence; Competence, Cultural; Satisfaction, Patient; and non-MeSh text words: Cultural Awareness, Cultural Sensitivity, Cultural Competence Training, Cultural Sensitivity Training, and Cultural Awareness Training, a comprehensive literature search of peer-reviewed articles from 2002 to 2014 in CINAHL, Cochrane, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases was conducted. Original studies that reported cultural competence training and measured its impact on patient satisfaction were included. Quality of the reviewed studies was assessed on the basis of methodological limitations related to experimental design, sample size and sampling approaches, and ethnic spread of the participants. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies revealed that cultural competence training intervention significantly increased the cultural competence level of healthcare providers. Five studies demonstrated that cultural competence training of healthcare providers was significantly associated with increased patient satisfaction. Cultural competence training is an effective intervention that enables healthcare providers to give culturally competent care that increases satisfaction of patients from minority groups. However, more research with better research designs, large sample sizes, and

  5. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: do biology, psychology, and culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. From production to consumption: cultural diversity in the collective uses of technology among low income groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barros

    2015-12-01

    as a central aspect of the observed cultural dynamics. With this intention, results about an ongoing ethnographic study were analyzed making a  counterpoint between consumption practices in Brazil and in South Africa. These practices related to television and mobile phones suggest the need to relativize the pattern of consumption for an individual consumer in order to better understand collective uses of these technologies in countries with great cultural diversity comparing those with developed countries, where such consumer goods, as well as a major part of academic theories, are produced.

  7. Blood-group-related carbohydrates are expressed in organotypic cultures of human skin and oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, B; Andersson, A; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    Cellular maturation and migration are usually associated with changes in cell-surface carbohydrates, but the relationship between these changes and cell behaviour is at present largely unknown. To investigate whether an organotypic culture system can be used as an in vitro model to study the func...

  8. Relational vs. group self-construal: Untangling the role of national culture in HRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, V.; Maldonado, H.; Brodecki, T.; Hinds, P.; Fong, T.; Dautenhahn, K.

    2008-01-01

    As robots (and other technologies) increasingly make decisions on behalf of people, it is important to understand how people from diverse cultures respond to this capability. Thus far, much design of autonomous systems takes a Western view valuing individual preferences and choice. We challenge the

  9. Recruiting and Retaining of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Groups in Special Education: Defining the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Whatley, Gloria D.

    2003-01-01

    The present article serves as an introduction to a special issue on recruiting and retaining culturally and linguistically diverse populations into the field of special education. Members of the Diversity Committee of the Teacher Education Division (TED) of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and selected guest were invited authors.…

  10. Beyond Socioeconomics: Explaining Ethnic Group Differences in Parenting through Cultural and Immigration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth; Kanatsu, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This study examined both socioeconomic and cultural factors in explaining ethnic differences in monitoring, behavioral control, and warmth--part of a series of coordinated studies presented in this special issue. Socioeconomic variables included mother's and father's educational levels, employment status, home ownership, number of siblings in the…

  11. Group Music Therapy Methods in Cross-Cultural Aged Care Practice in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2011-01-01

    When I worked as a music therapist in a Danish nursing home ten years ago there were no residents with an ethnic or cultural background other than Danish. There were 24 residents at this geronto-psychiatric unit and all had lived their lives in Denmark, most of them in the local area. It was ofte...

  12. Honor and I: Differential relationships between honor and self-esteem in three cultural groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novin, Sheida; Tatar, Betul; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Honor is often defined as one's self-esteem through one's own eyes as through the eyes of others. This definition assumes that endorsing honor values is universally related to one's self-esteem. Yet, prior work shows that the salience of honor in individuals' lives differs across cultures, which imp

  13. Cultural Competence in a Group Intervention Designed for Latino Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Although the trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically over the past 25 years, addressing the psychosocial needs of patients living with HIV/AIDS remains vital. Ensuring the effective delivery of services demands that interventions be rooted in cultural competence and aimed at vulnerable populations. This article describes a…

  14. Supporting Young Adolescent Students from Minority Cultural Groups Who Are Underachieving in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jo; Parkhill, Faye; Harris, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Establishing appropriate learning environments for culturally diverse underachieving students continues to challenge educators across a range of international contexts. A synthesis of findings from our studies in New Zealand indicated that teachers and students from Pasifika and Maori backgrounds considered that learning is facilitated by the…

  15. Honor and I: Differential relationships between honor and self-esteem in three cultural groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novin, Sheida; Tatar, Betul; Krabbendam, Lydia

    Honor is often defined as one's self-esteem through one's own eyes as through the eyes of others. This definition assumes that endorsing honor values is universally related to one's self-esteem. Yet, prior work shows that the salience of honor in individuals' lives differs across cultures, which

  16. Comparison of group B streptococci colonization in vaginal and rectal specimens by culture method and polymerase chain reaction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidgani, Shahrokh; Navidifar, Tahereh; Najafian, Mahin; Amin, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) is a colonizing microorganism in pregnant women and without causing symptoms. Colonization of GBS in the rectovaginal region in late of pregnancy is a risk factor for newborn diseases. GBS infection in newborn babies is acquired by the aspiration of infected amniotic fluid or vertical transmission during delivery through the birth canal. The aim of this study was determination of GBS prevalence among vaginal and anorectal specimens at gestation females by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture-based methods. In this study, 137 rectal and vaginal swabs were separately collected from women with gestational age 35-37 weeks from July 2013 to March 2014 at the teaching hospital of Razi, Ahvaz, Iran. All samples were enrichment in selective culture media Todd-Hewitt broth for 24 hours and recognized by standard culture using blood agar, phenotypic tests, and amplification of the CFB gene. Age range was 16-45 years (mean, 28.34 ± 0.7 years). Of rectal samples, 42 (30.7%) were positive based on culture method and 57 (41.6%) samples were positive by PCR. Of 137 vaginal samples, 38 (27.7%) were positive by culture and 60 (43.8%) samples were positive by PCR. The chance of colonization with GBS was increased in women with a history of urinary tract infection. The frequency of GBS culture from rectal samples was higher than vaginal samples. However, the detection percentage of GBS using PCR from vaginal samples was higher than rectal samples. By contrast, the culture is a time-consuming method requiring at least 48 hours for GBS fully identification but PCR is a sensitive and rapid technique in detection of GBS, with the result was acquired during 3 hours. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  17. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE PERSON’S SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING AND ETHNO AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTACTING ETHNIC GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Evgenyevna Bocharova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical and empirical investigations of relationship of ethno-cultural characteristics in the structure of personal subjective well-being of the representatives of contacting ethnic groups. An empirical research was carried out to test the hypothesis that the combination of different types of ethno and cultural (generic and specific parameters are the basis of differentiation predictors of subjective well-being of contacting ethnic groups. The paper shows that predictors of subjective well-being in a sample are Russian – «the desire for integration» and «distance in relation to power» in the selection of the Armenians – «the desire to ethnic isolation», «distance in relation to the authorities» and «acceptance of social support».

  18. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  19. Group Music Therapy Methods in Cross-Cultural Aged Care Practice in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2011-01-01

    When I worked as a music therapist in a Danish nursing home ten years ago there were no residents with an ethnic or cultural background other than Danish. There were 24 residents at this geronto-psychiatric unit and all had lived their lives in Denmark, most of them in the local area. It was often...... told that Mrs F travelled a lot. She and her husband bought a sailing boat and sailed as far as to southern European countries. She was an exception. One of the other residents once visited Rome, and a few had travelled to neighbour countries such as Norway, Sweden and Germany. At another unit....... This situation, with a nursing home population who mainly are rooted in the same local area, is very different from the situation described by Ip & Grocke’s article where an “ever-increasing diversity of ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds” in elderly Australians is seen. It has changed in Denmark as well...

  20. Characterization of Blood Culture Isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Possessing Lancefield's Group A Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Claudia M.; Haase, Gerhard; Schnitzler, Norbert; Zbinden, Reinhard; Lütticken, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    For three human blood culture isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci with Lancefield's serogroup A antigen, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes confirmed biochemical identification as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Genes encoding M or M-like proteins, which are considered to be major virulence determinants in streptococci, were detected in all of these strains. Our data clearly demonstrate that for beta-hemolytic streptococci, the species assignment should not be base...

  1. Analysis of a cultural consensus model of two good-life sub-domains--health & well-being and migration & socioeconomic milieu--in three population groups in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Lana; Malnar, Ana; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2015-07-01

    In this study the construct of a 'good life' was explored among upper secondary school senior pupils and their parents and teachers by applying cultural consensus model analysis. A total of 469 students, 474 parents and 158 teachers from four Croatian cities participated in the study, which was conducted in 2011/2012. The information collected through interviewing and free-listing during the first phase of the study was used to create a set of structured questionnaire questions as a part of the survey in the second phase of data collection. The results are reported on two good-life sub-domains: 'health & well-being' and 'migration & socioeconomic milieu'. The results indicate heterogeneity of the sample groups, incomplete inter-generational transmission of cultural values and examples of two sub-groups that resist cultural norms and do not comply with the dominant 'competence-as-sharing' paradigm. The value of testing the cultural consensus model based on the emic approach and locally significant phenomena is demonstrated for planning and conducting holistic anthropological research.

  2. Reducing health disparities through a culturally centered mentorship program for minority faculty: the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, Vanessa Lopez; Baca, Catherine; Verney, Steven P; Venner, Kamilla; Parker, Tassy; Wallerstein, Nina

    2009-08-01

    Ethnic minority faculty members are vastly underrepresented in academia. Yet, the presence of these individuals in academic institutions is crucial, particularly because their professional endeavors often target issues of health disparities. One promising way to attract and retain ethnic minority faculty is to provide them with formal mentorship. This report describes a culturally centered mentorship program, the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG, 2003-2007), at the University of New Mexico (UNM) that trained a cadre of minority researchers dedicated to reducing health disparities associated with substance abuse. The SARG was based at UNM's School of Medicine's Institute for Public Health, in partnership with the UNM's Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions. The program consisted of regular research meetings, collaboration with the Community Advisory Board, monthly symposia with renowned professionals, pilot projects, and conference support. The authors collected data on mentee research productivity as outcomes and conducted separate mentee and mentor focus-group interviews to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the SARG program. The SARG yielded positive outcomes as evidenced by mentee increase in grant submissions, publications, and professional presentations. Focus-group qualitative data highlighted program and institutional barriers as well as successes that surfaced during the program. Based on this evaluation, a Culturally Centered Mentorship Model (CCMM) emerged. The CCMM can help counter institutional challenges by valuing culture, community service, and community-based participatory research to support the recruitment and advancement of ethnic minority faculty members in academia.

  3. Shaping beside student of the special medical group of the culture sound lifestyle by means of computer technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vovk L.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Considered results of the pedagogical experiment with use computer information-diagnostic system "Passport of health" on shaping the culture sound lifestyle beside student of the special medical group. Two groups student have took part in experiment in amount 151 persons. It is proved that pedagogical experiment has positively influenced upon fortification of health, life activity, high level of the knowledges and practical skills during education in high school. It is installed that one of the main of the conditions to efficiency of the physical education, are a knowledges, which allow effective to solve the delivered problems of the physical education to personalities.

  4. Cross--Cultural Small Group Research: A Review, an Analysis, and a Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuter, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes research on cross-national small group behavior and offers a value theory of small group development. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. (MH)

  5. Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors such…

  6. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Testing Linear Combinations of Group Means under Variance Heterogeneity with Applications to Meta and Moderation Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen; Jan, Show-Li

    2015-01-01

    The general formulation of a linear combination of population means permits a wide range of research questions to be tested within the context of ANOVA. However, it has been stressed in many research areas that the homogeneous variances assumption is frequently violated. To accommodate the heterogeneity of variance structure, the…

  7. Characterization of Blood Culture Isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Possessing Lancefield's Group A Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Claudia M.; Haase, Gerhard; Schnitzler, Norbert; Zbinden, Reinhard; Lütticken, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    For three human blood culture isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci with Lancefield's serogroup A antigen, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes confirmed biochemical identification as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Genes encoding M or M-like proteins, which are considered to be major virulence determinants in streptococci, were detected in all of these strains. Our data clearly demonstrate that for beta-hemolytic streptococci, the species assignment should not be based on the results of serogrouping alone. PMID:10565964

  8. Nosocomial Transmission of Group B Streptococci Proven by Positive Environmental Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Al-Maani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neonates usually acquire Group B streptococcal infection vertically from the maternal birth canal during delivery. In January 2010, a Group B streptococcal outbreak investigation was conducted in response to an increased number of clinical specimens from our neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: Microbiology laboratory records were reviewed to identify Group B streptococcal from specimens originating from the neonatal intensive care unit during December 2009 and January 2010. Patients from whom these specimens were collected were identified and their charts reviewed. Environmental samples to screen for Group B streptococcal were collected from the unit, clinical and environmental isolates were compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Point prevalence screening was conducted twice before declaring the outbreak over. Results: Pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns of three clinical strains from six patients were indistinguishable. One environmental strain was isolated from one of the patients monitor, and had identical pulsed field gel electrophoresis pattern to that of the three clinical strains. Infection control measures were implemented in the neonatal intensive care unit and follow-up point prevalence screening identified no new cases. Conclusions: Although poor infection control practice has been implicated in previous reports of nosocomial outbreaks of Group B streptococcal infection in neonatal intensive care units, our finding provides unique evidence that the environment can act as a reservoir of Group B streptococcal and play a key role in nosocomial transmission.

  9. Are There Limits to Collectivism? Culture and Children's Reasoning About Lying to Conceal a Group Transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Monica A; Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2010-07-01

    This study explored the effects of collectivism on lying to conceal a group transgression. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old US and Chinese children (N = 374) were asked to evaluate stories in which protagonists either lied or told the truth about their group's transgression and were then asked about either the protagonist's motivations or justification for their own evaluations. Previous research suggests that children in collectivist societies such as China find lying for one's group to be more acceptable than do children from individualistic societies such as the United States. The current study provides evidence that this is not always the case: Chinese children in this study viewed lies told to conceal a group's transgressions less favourably than did US children. An examination of children's reasoning about protagonists' motivations for lying indicated that children in both countries focused on an impact to self when discussing motivations for protagonists to lie for their group. Overall, results suggest that children living in collectivist societies do not always focus on the needs of the group.

  10. Focus group findings about the influence of culture on communication preferences in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrank, William H; Kutner, Jean S; Richardson, Terri; Mularski, Richard A; Fischer, Stacy; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

    2005-08-01

    Little guidance is available for health care providers who try to communicate with patients and their families in a culturally sensitive way about end-of-life care. To explore the content and structure of end-of-life discussions that would optimize decision making by conducting focus groups with two diverse groups of patients that vary in ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Six focus groups were conducted; 3 included non-Hispanic white patients recruited from a University hospital (non-Hispanic white groups) and 3 included African-American patients recruited from a municipal hospital (African-American groups). A hypothetical scenario of a dying relative was used to explore preferences for the content and structure of communication. Thirty-six non-Hispanic white participants and 34 African-American participants. Content analysis of focus group transcripts. Non-Hispanic white participants were more exclusive when recommending family participants in end-of-life discussions while African-American participants preferred to include more family, friends and spiritual leaders. Requested content varied as non-Hispanic white participants desired more information about medical options and cost implications while African-American participants requested spiritually focused information. Underlying values also differed as non-Hispanic white participants expressed more concern with quality of life while African-American participants tended to value the protection of life at all costs. The groups differed broadly in their preferences for both the content and structure of end-of-life discussions and on the values that influence those preferences. Further research is necessary to help practitioners engage in culturally sensitive end-of-life discussions with patients and their families by considering varying preferences for the goals of end-of-life care communication.

  11. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  12. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  13. A comparison of Culture-Free Self-Esteem Scale means from different child and adolescent groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaday, M; Callahan, K; Fabre, L; Hall, C; MacDonald, N; Mundy, M A; Owens, B; Plappert, H

    1996-06-01

    The Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-2) was administered to 7 groups of children: 84 White Catholic school students from a New Orleans suburb, 78 White rural public school students from Virginia, 62 Hispanic Migrant student from Florida, 90 Aboriginal and White students from an isolated Canadian community, 199 African American students attending an inner city school, 60 Hispanic and White international students from Venezuela, and 61 Innuit students from isolated community in Labrador. The four elder groups also wrote three words to describe themselves (the Adjective Generation Technique [AGT]). Significant differences in responding between groups were found on all CFSEI-2 scales and for AGT favorability means. Although several possible reasons for these results are discussed, we conclude that the CFSEI-2 is not culture-free. Recommendations are: change the title of the test to avoid misrepresentation, limit test usage to elementary school children, develop an adolescent version with age appropriate language, and construct local norms before using the CFSEI-2 to make decisions about a child's self-esteem. To determine relevance of scores, a team of professionals and lay persons should review items from this or any test given to children who may be different from the normative or standardization group.

  14. Predicting psychological ripple effects: the role of cultural identity, in-group/out-group identification, and attributions of blame in crisis communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagondahalli, Deepa; Turner, Monique Mitchell

    2012-04-01

    Incidents of intentional food contamination can produce ripple effects in consumers such as reduced trust and increased anxiety. In their postcrisis communication, food companies often direct the blame at the perpetrator in an effort to mitigate potential losses and regain consumer trust. The attempt to placate consumers may, in itself, potentially create psychological ripple effects in message readers. This study examined the interacting influence of two message characteristics: identity of the perpetrator of the crime (in-group/out-group membership), and the attribution of blame (reason why the perpetrator committed the crime), with message receiver characteristic (cultural identity) on psychological ripple effects such as blame, trust, anxiety, and future purchase intention. Results indicated that although group membership of the perpetrator was not significant in predicting outcomes for the organization, the attribution communicated in the message was. American message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when personal dispositional attributions were made about the perpetrator. Asian message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when situational attributions were made about the perpetrator. Lowered trust in the company and increased anxiety correlated with lower purchase intent for both American and Asian message receivers. Implications for crisis message design are discussed.

  15. Cultural Ways of Constructing Knowledge: The Role of Identities in Online Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Learning scientists and the CSCL community have argued that knowledge construction is a process of collective thinking; a process that is simultaneously personal and social that requires group cognition. However, while CSCL researchers have investigated situated knowledge in the process of collective thinking, little work has been done to fully…

  16. Cultural Ways of Constructing Knowledge: The Role of Identities in Online Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Learning scientists and the CSCL community have argued that knowledge construction is a process of collective thinking; a process that is simultaneously personal and social that requires group cognition. However, while CSCL researchers have investigated situated knowledge in the process of collective thinking, little work has been done to fully…

  17. Cultural Orientations in the United States: (Re)Examining Differences among Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Heather M.; Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in individualism and collectivism between the U.S.'s four largest ethnic groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and European Americans). Surveys of Michigan college students indicated that Asian Americans and African Americans but not Hispanic Americans scored higher in collectivism that did…

  18. Experiences and Comfort with Culturally Diverse Groups in Undergraduate Pre-Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michele J.; Raheim, Salome

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 196 white students in prenursing found they had little discomfort with diverse racial/ethnic groups. They would have considerable difficulty working with lesbian, gay, or bisexual clients or patients with AIDS. Reasons for discomfort included lack of knowledge, skill, or exposure; disapproval of sexual orientation; and sympathy, pity,…

  19. Loneliness of Older Immigrant Groups in Canada: Effects of Ethnic-Cultural Background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; van der Pas, S.; Keating, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determin

  20. Cultural Differences in how an Engagement-Seeking Robot should Approach a Group of People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Michiel; Poppe, Ronald; Lohse, Manja; Evers, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In our daily life everything and everyone occupies an amount of space, simply by “being there”. Edward Hall coined the term proxemics for the studies of man’s use of this space. This paper presents a study on proxemics in Human-Robot Interaction and particularly on robot’s approaching groups of peop

  1. Cultural differences in how an engagement-seeking robot should approach a group of people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Michiel P.; Poppe, Ronald; Lohse, Manja; Evers, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In our daily life everything and everyone occupies an amount of space, simply by "being there". Edward Hall coined the term proxemics for the studies of man's use of this space. This paper presents a study on proxemics in Human-Robot Interaction and particularly on robot's approaching groups of peop

  2. Cultural differences in how an engagement-seeking robot should approach a group of people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Michiel P.; Poppe, Ronald; Lohse, Manja; Evers, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In our daily life everything and everyone occupies an amount of space, simply by "being there". Edward Hall coined the term proxemics for the studies of man's use of this space. This paper presents a study on proxemics in Human-Robot Interaction and particularly on robot's approaching groups of

  3. Cultural Differences in how an Engagement-Seeking Robot should Approach a Group of People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, M.P.; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Lohse, M.; Evers, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In our daily life everything and everyone occupies an amount of space, simply by “being there‿. Edward Hall coined the term proxemics for the studies of man’s use of this space. This paper presents a study on proxemics in Human-Robot Interaction and particularly on robot’s approaching groups of

  4. A Vygotskian Approach to Heterogeneous Communication and Multi/Cultural Literacy: Commentary on David Kellogg's "Taking Uptaking up, or, a Deconstructionist "Ontology of Difference" and a Developmental One"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, SungWon

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary, I review Kellogg's comments on a recent editorial in the journal "Mind, Culture, and Activity" (Roth, 2008). Concerning Kellogg's code-switching model for learning language, I present and exemplify a dialectic problem of multi/cultural literacy: the first articulation that crosses the boundaries of cultures and languages…

  5. Intergroup Consensus/Disagreement in Support of Group-Based Hierarchy: An Examination of Socio-Structural and Psycho-Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Pratto, Felicia; Johnson, Blair T.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis examined the extent to which socio-structural and psycho-cultural characteristics of societies correspond with how much gender and ethnic/racial groups differ on their support of group-based hierarchy. Robustly, women opposed group-based hierarchy more than men did, and members of lower power ethnic/racial groups opposed…

  6. From myth to the individual: The dynamic process of cultural integration in groups of psychodrama in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sordano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how the work methodology through the tale and psychodrama with children and adolescents focuses on the development of symbolic constructions figuratively organized which draw directly from the unconscious world of the participants and the mythic dimensions that organize their story. The psychodramatic group in childhood and adolescence may promote the social integration of people ethnically and culturally diverse through the recovery of those mythical and deep aspects that play a role in the unconscious of the individual.Keywords: Psychodrama; Adolescents; Mith

  7. Studying the Relationship between Rate of Organizational Socialization and Rate of Employees Conformity (Group Stress, Kind of Character, Individualism Culture and Pluralism Culture in Nehbandan Executive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ziaadini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research basically aims to study the relationship between rate of organizational socialization and rate of employees’ conformity (group stress, kind of character, individualism culture and pluralism culture in Nehbandan executive systems. Statistical society of this research includes 70 newcomer employees in Nehbandan government offices and centers and sample size was regarded equal to statistical society. Instruments of collecting data are two questionnaires of socialization and conformity, in which validity and reliability of socialization was considered 85% and 96% and validity and reliability of conformity questionnaire as 90% and 73% respectively. In order to describe and analyze collected data by questionnaire, several tables of frequency distribution, tables, average, Pierson correlation test, Spearman test and…. were used. All statistical analysis was done by computer and SPSS software. Analysis of data explains this fact that:There is increasing scores of being sociable which contains corporate of learning, coordination, evolution and compatibility. Increasing scores of being alike shows a direct relationship between both variables. The results show that there is a meaningful relationship between being sociable and being alike among employees in Nehbandan executive systems. Increase in being sociable will cause an increase in being alike.

  8. Somaclonal variation in tissue culture of banana cv. 'Kluai Num Wa'[Musa (ABB group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of cytokinins, 6-Benzyladenine (BA and/or coconut water (CW and pH of medium were studied for their effects on shoot formation, growth and somaclonal variation of banana tissue culture. Thecultures were carried out on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium for 30 days. The average shoot length (5.82 cm was obtained in liquid medium supplemented with 15% CW. While a high number of shoots at 3.8shoots/explant were obtained in liquid medium supplemented with 5 mg/l BA. For fresh weight, liquid medium supplemented with 5 mg/l BA in combination with 15% CW gave the best results (2.26 g/shoot. Anoptimum pH for promotion shoot length (5.67 cm was 5.6 whereas the lower value (pH 4 promoted a high number of shoot formation (3.89 shoots/explant. The highest fresh weight of 1.33 g/shoot was obtained onmedium adjusted pH to 8. After maintaining the shoots by successive subculturing (3-4 week-intervals on MS medium with 5 mg/l BA several morphological abnormalities were obtained. Among those, chloroticleaves (1.5% were firstly observed in the first subculture and increased to 3% in the second subculture. Moreover, a narrow leaf at 25.76% was also observed in this period. Further subculture, more somaclonalvariation, such as a thin long shoots, nodular shoots and bamboo-like leaf, appeared. Isozyme marker revealed a difference in zymogram patterns among those somaclonal variants.

  9. Culturally tailored diabetes prevention in the workplace: focus group interviews with Hispanic employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon A; García, Alexandra A; Steinhardt, Mary A; Guevara, Henry; Moore, Claire; Brown, Adama; Winter, Mary A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose was to conduct focus groups with Hispanic employees to obtain input into adaptation of previous DSME interventions for use as a workplace diabetes prevention program. From a list of interested Hispanic employees who attended a local health fair (n = 68), 36 were randomly selected to participate in focus groups held during supper mealtime breaks. An experienced bilingual moderator directed the sessions, using interview guidelines developed by the research team. Participants' ages ranged from 22 to 65 years (mean = 50.4, n = 36, SD = 10.7), 7 males and 29 females attended, and 53% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Employees expressed a keen interest in diabetes classes and recommended a focus on preparing healthier Hispanic foods. Primary barriers to promoting healthier lifestyles were work schedules; many employees worked 2 part-time or full-time jobs. Administrators and direct supervisors of the employees were highly supportive of a workplace diabetes prevention program. The consistent message was that a workplace program would be the ideal solution for Hispanic employees to learn about diabetes and healthy behaviors, given their busy schedules, family responsibilities, and limited resources. If found to be effective, such a workplace program would be generalizable to other service employees who have disproportionate diabetes rates. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Evaluation of routinely reported surgical site infections against microbiological culture results: a tool to identify patient groups where diagnosis and treatment may be improved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievit Job

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons may improve their decision making by assessing the extent to which their initial clinical diagnosis of a surgical site infection (SSI was supported by culture results. Aim of the present study was to evaluate routinely reported SSI by surgeons against microbiological culture results, to identify patient groups with lower agreement where decision making may be improved. Methods 701 admissions with SSI were reported by surgeons in a university medical centre in the period 1997-2005, which were retrospectively checked for microbiological culture results. Reporting a SSI was conditional on treatment being given (e.g. antibiotics and was classified by severity. To identify specific patient groups, patients were classified according to the surgery group of the first operation during admission (e.g. trauma. Results Of all reported SSI, 523 (74.6% had a positive culture result, 102 (14.6% a negative culture result and 76 (10.8% were classified as unknown culture result (due to no culture taken. Given a known culture result, reported SSI with positive culture results less often concerned trauma patients (16% versus 26%, X2 = 4.99 p = 0.03 and less severe SSI (49% versus 85%, X2 = 10.11 p Conclusion Routine reporting of SSI was mostly supported by culture results. However, this support was less often found in trauma patients and less severe SSI, thereby giving surgeons feedback that diagnosis and treatment may be improved in these cases.

  11. Tools, techniques, organisation and culture of the CADD group at Sygnature Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gallay, Steve A.; Sambrook-Smith, Colin P.

    2016-10-01

    Computer-aided drug design encompasses a wide variety of tools and techniques, and can be implemented with a range of organisational structures and focus in different organisations. Here we outline the computational chemistry skills within Sygnature Discovery, along with the software and hardware at our disposal, and briefly discuss the methods that are not employed and why. The goal of the group is to provide support for design and analysis in order to improve the quality of compounds synthesised and reduce the timelines of drug discovery projects, and we reveal how this is achieved at Sygnature. Impact on medicinal chemistry is vital to demonstrating the value of computational chemistry, and we discuss the approaches taken to influence the list of compounds for synthesis, and how we recognise success. Finally we touch on some of the areas being developed within the team in order to provide further value to the projects and clients.

  12. Tools, techniques, organisation and culture of the CADD group at Sygnature Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gallay, Steve A.; Sambrook-Smith, Colin P.

    2017-03-01

    Computer-aided drug design encompasses a wide variety of tools and techniques, and can be implemented with a range of organisational structures and focus in different organisations. Here we outline the computational chemistry skills within Sygnature Discovery, along with the software and hardware at our disposal, and briefly discuss the methods that are not employed and why. The goal of the group is to provide support for design and analysis in order to improve the quality of compounds synthesised and reduce the timelines of drug discovery projects, and we reveal how this is achieved at Sygnature. Impact on medicinal chemistry is vital to demonstrating the value of computational chemistry, and we discuss the approaches taken to influence the list of compounds for synthesis, and how we recognise success. Finally we touch on some of the areas being developed within the team in order to provide further value to the projects and clients.

  13. Tools, techniques, organisation and culture of the CADD group at Sygnature Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gallay, Steve A; Sambrook-Smith, Colin P

    2016-10-31

    Computer-aided drug design encompasses a wide variety of tools and techniques, and can be implemented with a range of organisational structures and focus in different organisations. Here we outline the computational chemistry skills within Sygnature Discovery, along with the software and hardware at our disposal, and briefly discuss the methods that are not employed and why. The goal of the group is to provide support for design and analysis in order to improve the quality of compounds synthesised and reduce the timelines of drug discovery projects, and we reveal how this is achieved at Sygnature. Impact on medicinal chemistry is vital to demonstrating the value of computational chemistry, and we discuss the approaches taken to influence the list of compounds for synthesis, and how we recognise success. Finally we touch on some of the areas being developed within the team in order to provide further value to the projects and clients.

  14. Use of an Innovative Personality-Mindset Profiling Tool to Guide Culture-Change Strategies among Different Healthcare Worker Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lindsay Grayson

    Full Text Available Important culture-change initiatives (e.g. improving hand hygiene compliance are frequently associated with variable uptake among different healthcare worker (HCW categories. Inherent personality differences between these groups may explain change uptake and help improve future intervention design.We used an innovative personality-profiling tool (ColourGrid® to assess personality differences among standard HCW categories at five large Australian hospitals using two data sources (HCW participant surveys [PS] and generic institution-wide human resource [HR] data to: a compare the relative accuracy of these two sources; b identify differences between HCW groups and c use the observed profiles to guide design strategies to improve uptake of three clinically-important initiatives (improved hand hygiene, antimicrobial stewardship and isolation procedure adherence.Results from 34,243 HCWs (HR data and 1045 survey participants (PS data suggest that HCWs were different from the general population, displaying more individualism, lower power distance, less uncertainty avoidance and greater cynicism about advertising messages. HR and PS data were highly concordant in identifying differences between the three key HCW categories (doctors, nursing/allied-health, support services and predicting appropriate implementation strategies. Among doctors, the data suggest that key messaging should differ between full-time vs part-time (visiting senior medical officers (SMO, VMO and junior hospital medical officers (HMO, with SMO messaging focused on evidence-based compliance, VMO initiatives emphasising structured mandatory controls and prestige loss for non-adherence, and for HMOs focusing on leadership opportunity and future career risk for non-adherence.Compared to current standardised approaches, targeted interventions based on personality differences between HCW categories should result in improved infection control-related culture-change uptake. Personality

  15. Hydrophilic group formation and cell culturing on polystyrene Petri-dish modified by ion-assisted reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan E-mail: hama@kist.re.kr; Cho, Jun-Sik; Choi, Doo-Jin; Koh, Seok-Keun

    2001-04-01

    Polystyrene (PS) Petri-dishes were modified by an ion-assisted reaction (IAR) to improve wettability and to supply a suitable surface for cell culturing. Low energy Ar{sup +} ions with 1000 eV were irradiated on the surface of PS in oxygen gas environment. Water contact angles of PS were not reduced much by ion irradiation without oxygen gas and had a value of 40 deg. In the case of ion irradiation with flowing oxygen gas, however, the water contact angles were dropped significantly from 73 deg. to 19 deg. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the hydrophilic groups were formed on the surface of PS by a chemical reaction between unstable chains induced by ion irradiation and the oxygen gas. Newly formed hydrophilic groups were identified as -(C-O)-, -(C=O)- and -(C=O)-O- bonds. The influence of the surface modification on growth of the rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was investigated. The IAR-treated PS surfaces showed enhanced attachment and growth in PC12 cell culture test.

  16. Differential cytotoxicity of [123I]IUdR, [125I]IUdR and [131I]IUdR to human glioma cells in monolayer or spheroid culture: effect of proliferative heterogeneity and radiation cross-fire.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Radioiodinated iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) is a novel, cycle-specific agent that has potential for the treatment of residual malignant glioma after surgery. As only cells in S-phase incorporate IUdR into DNA, a major limitation to this therapy is likely to be proliferative heterogeneity of the tumour cell population. Using a clonogenic end point, we have compared the toxicities of three radioiodoanalogues of IUdR--[123I]IUdR, [125I]IUdR and [131I]IUdR--to the human glioma cell line UVW, cultured ...

  17. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  18. [Neuroprotective effects of the effective components group of xiaoshuantongluo against oxygen-glucose deprivation in primary cultured rat cortical neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin-Mei; Pang, Xiao-Bin; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Bao-Quan; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Du, Guan-Hua

    2014-08-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of the effective components group of Xiaoshuantongluo (XECG) on neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary cortical cultures isolated from SD rat cortex at day 3 and the possible mechanism. Cells were divided into control group, OGD model group and XECG group (1, 3 and 10 mg x L(-1)). The cell viability was assessed with MTT assay and the LDH release rate was measured by enzyme label kit. The cell apoptosis was analyzed using Hoechst staining. RT-PCR was applied to detect the mRNA levels of JAK2 and STAT3. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 proteins. Results showed that XECG resulted in an obvious resistance to oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cell apoptosis and decrement of cell viability, decrease the cell LDH release rate. XECG could adjust the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins and increase Bcl-2/Bax ratio, up-regulate the expression of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3. In conclusion, XECG could protect against the neuronal injury cells exposed to OGD, which may be relevant to the promotion of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway, and impact the expression of Bax and Bcl-2.

  19. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  20. Dissociation of acetaldehyde on beta-Mo2C to yield ethylidene and oxo surface groups: a possible pathway for active site formation in heterogeneous olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaj, Mohamed; Reed, Corey; Oyama, S Ted; Scott, Susannah L; McBreen, Peter H

    2004-08-11

    The dissociative adsorption of acetaldehyde on beta-Mo2C was studied using reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. In contrast to what is observed for all metals previously studied, acetaldehyde undergoes selective carbonyl bond scission on the carbide surface. By comparison to calculated spectra, the surface product is identified as an oxo-ethylidene species. The study thus provides the first extended-range infrared spectrum of a propene metathesis initiator or propagator alkylidene. Aldehydes may be formed in the presence of olefins during the induction period of supported metal oxide olefin metathesis catalysts. Hence, the observed dissociative chemisorption of acetaldehyde suggests a possible answer to the question of how initiator sites are formed in heterogeneous olefin metathesis. This question has never been satisfactorily answered. In the proposed mechanism, aldehydes formed during the induction period subsequently react with the catalyst surface to generate alkylidene sites.

  1. Circles of Culture and Cognition: A Sociocognitive Study of Collaboration within and among Academic Groups of Teachers in a Rural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examined the roles of district and school macro-culture and teacher sub-group micro-culture in influencing the nature and extent of teachers' professional collaboration. Informed by the sociocognitive theory that learning is rooted in social relationships and develops through interpersonal discourse and activity, the…

  2. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Organizational Culture and the Performance of Staff Work Groups in Schools and the Development of an Explanatory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Chris; Connolly, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the concept of organizational culture and the relationship between the organizational culture and the performance of staff work groups in schools. The article draws upon a study of 12 schools in Wales, UK, which despite being in disadvantaged settings have high levels of pupil attainment. A model is developed linking the…

  3. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Organizational Culture and the Performance of Staff Work Groups in Schools and the Development of an Explanatory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Chris; Connolly, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the concept of organizational culture and the relationship between the organizational culture and the performance of staff work groups in schools. The article draws upon a study of 12 schools in Wales, UK, which despite being in disadvantaged settings have high levels of pupil attainment. A model is developed linking the…

  4. Immunophenotypic heterogeneity of multiple myeloma: influence on the biology and clinical course of the disease. Castellano-Leones (Spain) Cooperative Group for the Study of Monoclonal Gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, J F; González, M; Gascón, A; Moro, M J; Hernández, J M; Ortega, F; Jimenez, R; Guerras, L; Romero, M; Casanova, F

    1991-02-01

    In 112 untreated myeloma patients we have analysed the immunophenotype of plasma cells both by immunofluorescence (IF) and immunocytochemistry (APAAP). Both techniques yielded similar results pointing to an important degree of heterogeneity in antigenic expression not only between different patients but also within the same patient. The expression of CD38 and Han-PC1 antigens (Ags) was almost constant (greater than 90% positive cases), while CD9 was detected in 66% of the cases. On the other hand, less than one third of patients were positive for CD10, CD20 and HLA-DR and generally with a weak expression (less than 30% positive plasma cells). In occasional cases plasma cells were weakly positive for the myelomonocytic markers CD13 (9%), CD15 (25%) and CD14 (6%). The possibility that this heterogeneity might be the result of different stages of differentiation of the neoplastic clone is suggested both by the positive correlation in the expression of some of these antigens (CD10, CD9, CD20, HLA-DR) and by the relationship between CD10 and myeloid antigens with immature plasma cell morphology. Finally, the cALLA antigen does not seem to be of significant value in predicting survival. Moreover, none of the other markers explored showed a clear influence in the course of the disease, although the tendency towards a lower survival found for the CD20+ cases as well as the association of the expression of some antigens and advanced clinical stage, may warrant further studies in a larger series of patients.

  5. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  6. The David and Goliath principle: cultural, ideological, and attitudinal underpinnings of the normative protection of low-status groups from criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Carla H; Hornsey, Matthew J; Sutton, Robbie M; Douglas, Karen M; Bain, Paul G

    2012-08-01

    Two studies documented the "David and Goliath" rule--the tendency for people to perceive criticism of "David" groups (groups with low power and status) as less normatively permissible than criticism of "Goliath" groups (groups with high power and status). The authors confirmed the existence of the David and Goliath rule across Western and Chinese cultures (Study 1). However, the rule was endorsed more strongly in Western than in Chinese cultures, an effect mediated by cultural differences in power distance. Study 2 identified the psychological underpinnings of this rule in an Australian sample. Lower social dominance orientation (SDO) was associated with greater endorsement of the rule, an effect mediated through the differential attribution of stereotypes. Specifically, those low in SDO were more likely to attribute traits of warmth and incompetence to David versus Goliath groups, a pattern of stereotypes that was related to the protection of David groups from criticism.

  7. Are Japanese groups more competitive than Japanese individuals? A cross-cultural validation of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2007-02-01

    The interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect is the tendency for relationships between groups to be more competitive than the relationships between individuals. It has been observed robustly in studies conducted in the United States, which is a society characterized as "individualistic." In this study, it was explored whether the effect was replicable in a "collectivistic" society such as Japan. From the traditional view in cross-cultural psychology, which emphasizes the collectivistic nature of East Asian peoples, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be greater in Japan than in the United States. On the other hand, based on recent empirical findings suggesting that North Americans are no less group-oriented than East Asians, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be no greater in Japan than in the United States. One hundred and sixty Japanese university students played a 10-trial repeated prisoner's dilemma game: 26 sessions of interindividual and 18 sessions of intergroup. Following exactly the procedure of prior experiments in the US, individuals and groups were allowed face-to-face communication with their opponents before making their decisions, and participants in the intergroup condition were further allowed to converse freely with their in-group members. Results replicated previous findings in the United States; groups made more competitive choices than did individuals. In addition, neither the magnitude of the discontinuity effect, nor the frequency of competitive choices made by the groups, were larger in Japan than they were in the majority of prior studies conducted in the United States. These findings suggest cross-cultural robustness of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect. Also, interestingly, they contradict the simple distinction between individualism and collectivism. Implications for studies of culture and group processes are discussed. This research was supported by grants from the Center for the

  8. The application of heterogeneous cluster grouping to reflective writing for medical humanities literature study to enhance students' empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-01-01

    ... grouping in reflective writing for medical humanities literature acquisition could have positive effects on medical university students in terms of empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing...

  9. Involvement of recently cultured group U2 bacterium in ruminal fiber digestion revealed by coculture with Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Naoki; Koike, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuo

    2012-11-01

    In a previous study, we reported the ecological significance of uncultured bacterial group U2 in the rumen. In this study, the involvement of a recently cultured group U2 bacterium, strain R-25, in fiber digestion was tested in coculture with the fibrolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85. Dry matter (DM) digestion, growth and metabolites were examined in culture using rice straw as the carbon source. Although strain R-25 did not digest rice straw in monoculture, coculture of strain R-25 and F. succinogenes S85 showed enhanced DM digestion compared with that for F. succinogenes S85 monoculture (36.9 ± 0.6% vs. 32.8 ± 1.3%, P < 0.05). Growth of strain R-25 and production of the main metabolites, d-lactate (strain R-25) and succinate (F. succinogenes S85), were enhanced in the coculture. Enzyme assay showed increased activities of carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase in coculture of strain R-25 and F. succinogenes S85. Triculture including strain R-25, F. succinogenes S85 and Selenomonas ruminantium S137 showed a further increase in DM digestion (41.8 ± 0.8%, P < 0.05) with a concomitant increase in propionate, produced from the conversion of d-lactate and succinate. These results suggest that the positive interaction between strains R-25 and F. succinogenes S85 causes increased rice straw digestion. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of the Cultural Identity Factors on the Process of Self-Categorization of the Russian-Speaking Groups in Chisinau and Tiraspol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Zaitzev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the impact of cultural identity in the process of self-categorization with the Russian-speaking community in the Russian-speaking groups in Chisinau and Tiraspol. The main theoretical approach of the study of Russian-speaking groups is the concept of cross-border Russian language space. Analysis of the factors is conducted in the following areas: scope of the usage of the Russian language, identification with Russian culture and willingness to impart the traditions of Russian culture and language to children.

  11. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Heterogeneity of European DRG Systems and Potentials for a Common Eurodrg System; Comment on “Cholecystectomy and Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs: Patient Classification and Hospital Reimbursement in 11 European Countries”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Geissler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG systems across Europe are very heterogeneous, in particular because of different classification variables and algorithms as well as costing methodologies. But, given the challenge of increasing patient mobility within Europe, health systems are forced to incorporate a common patient classification language in order to compare and identify similar patients e.g. for reimbursement purposes. Beside the national adoption of DRGs for a wide range of purposes (measuring hospital activity vs. paying hospitals, a common DRG system can serve as an international communication basis among health administrators and can reduce the national development efforts as it is demonstrated by the NordDRG consortium.

  13. Music listening in families and peer groups: benefits for young people's social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context) in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood). Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion, respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture). Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed.

  14. Heterogeneity Living-culture Resources' Strategy and Competitive Advantage: A Case Study of Qiannian Yaozhai%异质性活文化资源战略与竞争优势——以千年瑶寨为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秋红; 单纬东

    2012-01-01

    Based on the resource-based theory and taking the particular case of Qiannian Yaozhai in Liannan County, the paper studies the heterogeneity living-culture resources' strategy and its impact on the sustainable competitive advantage of the tourism economy. The research indicates that the ethnic living-culture resources of human, materials and environment are heterogeneity re- sources. Only by creating such ethnic cultural resources can the ethnic region obtain sustainable competitive advantage in the tourism economy. The paper argues that we must recognize the characteristics of heterogeneity resources when developing ethnic cultural resources. Ethnic cul- tural resources can only retain a sustainable competitive advantage in the touri,;m economy when it keeps its unique characteristics and vitality. The conclusion of this paper will provide reference in the decision-making process for the minority regions to obtain the strategic development of cul- ture tourism.%本文以资源观理论为基础,以连南瑶族自治县南岗千年瑶寨旅游景区为案例研究对象,研究了异质性活文化资源战略对旅游经济持续竞争优势的影响。研究表明,人、物和情境综合体的民族活文化资源,是具有异质性的资源;只有打造这样的民族文化资源,民族地区才能够获取旅游经济持续的竞争优势。本文认为在进行民族文化资源的开发过程中,要认识到异质性资源自身的特点,只有民族文化资源保持原有的特色,保持其活力和生机,才可能具备可持续的旅游经济竞争优势。研究结论将为民族地区的文化旅游战略发展提供参考性建议。

  15. Cultural targeting and tailoring of shared decision making technology: a theoretical framework for improving the effectiveness of patient decision aids in culturally diverse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Schapira, Marilyn; Stiggelbout, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Patient decision aids are known to positively impact outcomes critical to shared decision making (SDM), such as gist knowledge and decision preparedness. However, research on the potential improvement of these and other important outcomes through cultural targeting and tailoring of decision aids is very limited. This is the case despite extensive evidence supporting use of cultural targeting and tailoring to improve the effectiveness of health communications. Building on prominent psychological theory, we propose a two-stage framework incorporating cultural concepts into the design process for screening and treatment decision aids. The first phase recommends use of cultural constructs, such as collectivism and individualism, to differentially target patients whose cultures are known to vary on these dimensions. Decision aid targeting is operationalized through use of symbols and values that appeal to members of the given culture. Content dimensions within decision aids that appear particularly appropriate for targeting include surface level visual characteristics, language, beliefs, attitudes and values. The second phase of the framework is based on evidence that individuals vary in terms of how strongly cultural norms influence their approach to problem solving and decision making. In particular, the framework hypothesizes that differences in terms of access to cultural mindsets (e.g., access to interdependent versus independent self) can be measured up front and used to tailor decision aids. Thus, the second phase in the framework emphasizes the importance of not only targeting decision aid content, but also tailoring the information to the individual based on measurement of how strongly he/she is connected to dominant cultural mindsets. Overall, the framework provides a theory-based guide for researchers and practitioners who are interested in using cultural targeting and tailoring to develop and test decision aids that move beyond a "one-size fits all" approach

  16. The Developmental Model of Cultural Tourism-Homestay of the Lao Vieng and Lao Song Ethnic Groups in the Central Region of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supon Chaiyatorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Lao Wieng and Lao Songe Ethnic Groups were herded from Lanchang Region to Siam Region. In recent time, they settled down in Central Thailand. The objectives of this research were to study: (1 historical background of Lao Wieng and Lao Songe Ethnic Groups, (2 their lifestyle facilitating tourism and (3 development of cultural tourism model as Home Stay of the Ethnics. Approach: the research area included Pechaburi, Nakonpatom, Saraburi, Supanburi and Kanchanaburi Provinces. The key informants were selected by Purposive Sampling including: 30 experts, 40 practitioners and 50 general villagers. The research design was Qualitative Research. Data were collected by techniques of interview, observation and focus group discussion. They were analyzed by using Triangulation technique. The findings were presented by descriptive analysis. Results: (1 Lao Wieng and Lao Songe Ethnic Groups, were herded from Vientiene City, Lao Country abut 200 years ago. They settled down in Middle Thailand by doing rice farm. For their living, they maintained their traditional culture of community since then, (2 lifestyle facilitating tourism consisted of identity including household, relatives relationship, dressing, language, religious, custom and beliefs, (3 the model of inherited local cultural tourism as Home Stay, each ethnic group should be organized as the following model: For Lao Wieng Ethnic, the conservation and inheritance of local culture should be focused using major lifestyle factor based on household, food and dressing. For Thai Songedam Ethnic Group, major lifestyle factor should be based on lifestyle and cultural factor with identity including living place, food, dressing, tradition, ritual, local item selling and play. Conclusion/Recommendations: The ethnic group identity was necessary for cultural tourism. But, the scenery, culture, custom and tradition with identity should be emphasized so that it would be prominent by focusing on

  17. Culture and Psychiatric Symptoms in Puerto Rican Children: Longitudinal Results from One Ethnic Group in Two Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Wu, Ping; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Shen, Sa; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: The development of youth psychopathology may be associated with direct and continuous contact with a different culture (acculturation) and to distress related to this process (cultural stress). We examine cultural experiences of Puerto Rican families in relation to youth psychiatric symptoms in two different contexts: one in which…

  18. Culture and Psychiatric Symptoms in Puerto Rican Children: Longitudinal Results from One Ethnic Group in Two Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Wu, Ping; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Shen, Sa; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: The development of youth psychopathology may be associated with direct and continuous contact with a different culture (acculturation) and to distress related to this process (cultural stress). We examine cultural experiences of Puerto Rican families in relation to youth psychiatric symptoms in two different contexts: one in which…

  19. In vitro cultures of Bacopa monnieri and an analysis of selected groups of biologically active metabolites in their biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Łojewski, Maciej; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Agnieszka; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Hałaszuk, Patrycja

    2016-11-01

    Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell (Scrophulariaceae) is one of the most important plants in the system of Indian medicine (Ayurveda). This paper studies the optimal growth of B. monnieri for effective accumulation of metabolites. Biomass growth of this plant could be accomplished in liquid cultures on Murashige & Skoog medium. Powdered shoots of in vitro cultures of B. monnieri were extracted by methanol for indole compounds, phenolic compounds and bacosides for RP-HPLC analysis. Fatty acid analysis was performed via gas chromatography. Anti-inflammatory effect of B. monnieri extracts was evaluated in the A549 cells. COX-2 and cPGES expression was analyzed using Western blots. l-Tryptophan and serotonin were found in biomass from in vitro cultures of B. monnieri on MS medium and in biomass from the MS mediums enriched with the different additions such as of 0.1 g/L magnesium sulphate, 0.1 g/L zinc hydroaspartate, 0.1 g/L l-tryptophan, 0.25 g/L serine, 0.5 g/L serine and 0.5 mg/L anthranilic acid. The content of l-tryptophan and serotonin compounds was significant in biomass from medium with the addition of 0.1 g/L zinc hydroaspartate (0.72 mg/g dry weight and 1.19, respectively). Phenolic compounds identified in biomass from the same variants of MS medium were chlorogenic acid (ranging from 0.20 to 0.70 mg/g dry weight), neochlorogenic acid (ranging from 0.11 to 0.40 mg/g dry weight) and caffeic acid (ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg/g dry weight). The main group of fatty acids in biomass was saturated fatty acids (53.4%). The predominant fatty acid was palmitic acid. A significant decrease of COX-2 and cPGES expression was observed in the A549 cells activated with LPS and treated with B. monnieri extracts. As far as we know, this is the first analysis of indole compounds and phenolic acids in this plant. The multi-therapeutic effect of B. monnieri is expressed by the activity of bacosides. Information about the presence of indole and phenolic compounds

  20. Genetic heterogeneity in a cyclical forest pest, the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is differentiated into east and west groups in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Natalie M; Schrey, Aaron W; Heist, Edward J; Reeve, John D

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an economically important pest species throughout the southeastern United States, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Previous research identified population structure among widely distant locations, yet failed to detect population structure among national forests in the state of Mississippi. This study uses microsatellite variation throughout the southeastern United States to compare the southern pine beetle's pattern of population structure to phylogeographic patterns in the region, and to provide information about dispersal. Bayesian clustering identified east and west genetic groups spanning multiple states. The east group had lower heterozygosity, possibly indicating greater habitat fragmentation or a more recent colonization. Significant genetic differentiation (θ(ST) = 0.01, p < 0.0001) followed an isolation-by-distance pattern (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) among samples, and a hierarchical AMOVA indicated slightly more differentiation occurred between multi-state groups. The observed population structure matches a previously identified phylogeographic pattern, division of groups along the Appalachian Mountain/Apalachicola River axis. Our results indicate that the species likely occurs as a large, stable metapopulation with considerable gene flow among subpopulations. Also, the relatively low magnitude of genetic differentiation among samples suggests that southern pine beetles may respond similarly to management across their range.

  1. Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aila, Nabil A; Tency, Inge; Claeys, Geert; Saerens, Bart; Cools, Piet; Verstraelen, Hans; Temmerman, Marleen; Verhelst, Rita; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2010-09-29

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete. We compared different sampling and culture techniques for the detection of GBS. A total of 300 swabs was taken from 100 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. For each subject, one rectovaginal, one vaginal and one rectal ESwab were collected. Plating onto Columbia CNA agar (CNA), group B streptococcus differential agar (GBSDA) (Granada Medium) and chromID Strepto B agar (CA), with and without Lim broth enrichment, were compared. The isolates were confirmed as S. agalactiae using the CAMP test on blood agar and by molecular identification with tDNA-PCR or by 16S rRNA gene sequence determination. The overall GBS colonization rate was 22%. GBS positivity for rectovaginal sampling (100%) was significantly higher than detection on the basis of vaginal sampling (50%), but not significantly higher than for rectal sampling (82%). Direct plating of the rectovaginal swab on CNA, GBSDA and CA resulted in detection of 59, 91 and 95% of the carriers, respectively, whereas subculturing of Lim broth yielded 77, 95 and 100% positivity, respectively. Lim broth enrichment enabled the detection of only one additional GBS positive subject. There was no significant difference between GBSDA and CA, whereas both were more sensitive than CNA. Direct culture onto GBSDA or CA (91 and 95%) detected more carriers than Lim broth enrichment and subculture onto CNA (77%). One false negative isolate was observed on GBSDA, and three false positives on CA. In conclusion, rectovaginal sampling increased the number GBS

  2. Beneficial effect of two culture systems with small groups of embryos on the development and quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; Silvestre, M A

    2014-02-01

    Currently, in vitro-produced embryos derived by ovum pick up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies represent approximately one-third of the embryos worldwide in cattle. Nevertheless, the culture of small groups of embryos from an individual egg donor is an issue that OPU-IVF laboratories have to face. In this work, we tested whether the development and quality of the preimplantation embryos in vitro cultured in low numbers (five embryos) could be improved by the addition of epidermal growth factor, insulin, transferrin and selenium (EGF-ITS) or by the WOW system. With this aim, immature oocytes recovered from slaughtered heifers were in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized. Presumptive zygotes were then randomly cultured in four culture conditions: one large group (LG) (50 embryos/500 μl medium) and three smaller groups [five embryos/50 μl medium without (control) or with EGF-ITS (EGF-ITS) and five embryos per microwell in the WOW system (WOW)]. Embryos cultured in LG showed a greater ability to develop to blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in smaller groups, while the blastocyst rate of WOW group was significantly higher than in control. The number of cells/blastocyst in LG was higher than control or WOW, whereas the apoptosis rate per blastocyst was lower. On the other hand, the addition of EGF-ITS significantly improved both parameters compared to the control and resulted in similar embryo quality to LG. In conclusion, the WOW system improved embryo development, while the addition of EGF-ITS improved the embryo quality when smaller groups of embryos were cultured.

  3. Within-trait heterogeneity in age group differences in personality domains and facets: implications for the development and coherence of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits.

  4. Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected versus general population in france: heterogeneity across the various groups of people living with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Tron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. METHODS: We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. RESULTS: Among the 3,019 participants aged 18-85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years, 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR: 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.07-1.32, French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.57, and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98-1.45. Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.82 than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.02 and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.01. HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups

  5. Talk about enterprise culture and the construction of team and group relationship%谈谈企业文化与班组建设的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽君

    2012-01-01

    班组建设是企业文化的一个重要组成部分。加强班组建设是构筑具有时代特色企业文化的基层工作。本文旨在探讨企业文化与班组建设的关系。%Construction of team and group is an enterprise is an important part of culture. Strengthening the team construction is to build the enterprise culture with characteristics of the times of the grass--roots work. This paper aims to explore the relationship between corporate culture and team building.

  6. Unraveling the effects of cultural diversity in teams: A meta-analysis of research on multicultural work groups

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Günter K.; Maznevski, Martha L.; Andreas Voigt; Karsten Jonsen

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the role of cultural diversity in teams is equivocal, suggesting that cultural diversity's effect on teams is mediated by specific team processes, and moderated by contextual variables. To reconcile conflicting perspectives and past results, we propose that cultural diversity affects teams through process losses and gains associated with increased divergence and decreased convergence. We examine whether the level (surface-level vs deep-level) and type (cross-national vs i...

  7. Heterogeneous Evidence Chains Based Fusion Reasoning for Multi-attribute Group Decision Making%实体异构性下证据链融合推理的多属性群决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈江; 余海燕; 徐曼

    2015-01-01

    针对多属性群决策中可解释性证据融合推理的实体异构性问题,给出了一个实体异构性下证据链融合推理的多属性群决策方法。基于证据推理理论,引入证据链关联的概念,从多数据表提供的数据矩阵中获取可区分的近邻证据集,推导了各数据表的相似度矩阵,并构建半正定矩阵的二次优化模型,共享群决策专家的经验知识。使用Dempster 正交规则,论证了异构实体之间可解释性推理中可信度融合的合理性,并使用证据融合规则集成各个数据表的近邻证据中获得的可信度,验证了调和多源异构数据中不一致信息的有效性。通过具有实体异构性的心脏病多决策数据诊断实例说明了方法的可行性与合理性。%In multi-attribute group decision making, the heterogeneity of entities causes a lot difficulties for the inter-pretable evidence fusion reasoning process, thus a novel heterogeneous evidential chains based fusion reasoning (Hefur) method is proposed for multi-attribute group decision making. Based on the theory of evidential reasoning, the concept of evidential chain association is introduced to obtain the nearest neighbor set of distinct evidences from the data matrix of multiple decision tables. Similarity matrices are derived from data tables, and positive semi-definite matrix quadratic optimization model is built to share, sharing the experience knowledge of the group decision-making experts. Using the Dempster’s quadrature rule, the rationality of the belief integrating is verified in the interpretable reasoning process with heterogeneous entities, and the combined belief is obtained from nearest neighbor evidences for each data table using the evidence fusion rules. Moreover, the validity is verified for dealing with the harmonic information inconsistence of the multi-heterogeneous data sources. Numerical experiments on the heart disease diagnosis with entity

  8. Music listening in families and peer groups: Benefits for young people's social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eBoer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood. Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture. Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed.

  9. Heterogeneity and Microeconometrics Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Carro, Jesus

    Presented at the 2005 Econometric Society World Congress Plenary Session on "Modelling Heterogeneity". We survey the treatment of heterogeneity in applied microeconometrics analyses. There are three themes. First, there is usually much more heterogeneity than empirical researchers allow for. Seco...

  10. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  11. A computer-based group discussion support tool for achieving consensus and culture change using the organisational culture assessment instrument (OCAI): an action design research study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee Mui Suan, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    Organisational culture change is a long and complex process that typically takes years to complete and has a very low success rate. This Action Design Research Study in an educational setting, addresses the problem by the proposed use of an Action Design Research Methodology to build and deploy an I

  12. Quality of mixing in a stired bioreactor used for animal cells culture: heterogeneities in a lab scale bioreactor and evolution of mixing time with scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collignon, ML.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal cells are industrially cultivated inside stirred bioreactors to produce proteinic compounds. Due to the use of mild agitation conditions in order to limit mechanical constraints, the homogeneity of the culture medium can be far from perfect. This study has therefore two objectives: the global characterization of the mixing via the mixing time and the local description of concentration fields. The mixing time is measured by conductimetry inside 20 l, 80 l, 600 l tanks. The Grenville correlation is adjusted on these experimental measurements to improve the prediction of the mixing time during the scale-up of the process. The concentration fields are visualized by the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (P.L.I.F. technique in the 20 l tank. This part of the study is focused on the time evolution of the maximum value of the tracer concentration inside measurement planes and of the numerical distribution of theses concentration fields.

  13. Ethnic Tourism: A Case Study of Language and Culture Preservation of the Bateq Indigenous Group of Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Lah Salasiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia provides ethnic tourism which is related to the more popularly known as nature or eco-tourism where an indigenous or traditional group of people who live in this environment will interact with and provide services to the tourists who would like to experience ethnic tourism. Ethnic tourism refers to travel motivated by the search for the first hand, authentic and sometimes intimate contact with people whose ethnic and/or cultural background is different from the tourists. Tourists are also driven by the desire to see some of the threatened cultures that may soon disappear through assimilation into the nation’s majority. This paper aims to explore ethnic tourism as a preservation strategy for language and culture in a selected community of Bateq Orang Asli group in Peninsular Malaysia in relation the language and cultural preservation of this community. An in-depth interview, a qualitative research technique, was selected as a method of data collection. The multimedia data was also collected including the recordings of the indigenous languages, still pictures and videotapes of the indigenous and cultural activities. The findings of this study show that the Bateq Orang Asli groups have preferences of their languages even though there is a pattern that a high number of lexical items have been borrowed from Malay. Language shift among younger speakers is also becoming a trend. In terms of the preservation of cultural heritage, the Bateq Orang Asli are still very positive about keeping their practices and lifestyles. The involvement of Bateq Orang Asli in promoting ethnic tourism in the surrounding areas near their settlements has contributed to their language and cultural preservation.

  14. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijika Timsuksai

    Full Text Available Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.

  15. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A Terry

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.

  16. Zār Spirit Possession in Iran and African Countries: Group Distress, Culture-Bound Syndrome or Cultural Concept of Distress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Mianji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zār is the term used to describe a form of spirit possession common in northern African, eastern African, and some Middle-Eastern societies. Although these regions share some cultural similarities arising from their history of slavery, in these places, zār varies in prevalence, clinical characteristics, and social context. Based on a selective review of the literature, this paper looks at the place of zār spirit possession in both DSM-IV and DSM-V; it also examines how zār is manifested in Iran and in African countries including Sudan, Ethiopia, and Egypt; and it aims to provide practical information to mental health clinicians so that they can better understand how this cultural concept is practiced by Iranians and Middle Eastern and African immigrants living near the Persian Gulf coast.

  17. Blooming Again The China Oriental Performing Arts Group is a model for the reform of China's cultural system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2011-01-01

    While Chinese cultural performances are world renowned for their high standards,the difficulties local troupes face in generating adequate revenues from these performances has long stifled the development of China's best performance artists.

  18. The influence of sick leave frequency determinants on homogeneous groups in two socio-economically comparable, but socio-culturally different regions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemsterboer, W.; Stewart, R.; Groothoff, J.; Nijhuis, F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the influence of sick leave frequency determinants on in terms of age and profession homogeneous groups in two socio-economically comparable, but socio-culturally different regions in The Netherlands, i.e., Utrecht (mean frequency 1.10 spells) and Sou

  19. Examining the Effects of Campus Climate, Ethnic Group Cohesion, and Cross-Cultural Interaction on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…

  20. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  1. Examining the Effects of Campus Climate, Ethnic Group Cohesion, and Cross-Cultural Interaction on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…

  2. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  3. Comparison of group B streptococci colonization in vaginal and rectal specimens by culture method and polymerase chain reaction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Bidgani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The frequency of GBS culture from rectal samples was higher than vaginal samples. However, the detection percentage of GBS using PCR from vaginal samples was higher than rectal samples. By contrast, the culture is a time-consuming method requiring at least 48 hours for GBS fully identification but PCR is a sensitive and rapid technique in detection of GBS, with the result was acquired during 3 hours.

  4. The effect of oppressed group behaviours on the culture of the nursing workplace: a review of the evidence and interventions for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan J O; Demarco, Rosanna; Griffin, Martha

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to review the current literature on oppressed group behaviours in nursing, with emphasis on interventions to change the behaviours, and on instruments that have been developed to measure it. Oppressed group behaviours have been described in nurses for over two decades and their presence has been related to decreased nurse self-advocacy, and other negative aspects of the nursing workplace. Systematic review of the literature on oppressed group behaviour in nursing. Oppressed group behaviours are frequently found in nurses. Interventions have been created and tested to decrease oppressed group behaviours. Oppressed group behaviours are frequently found in nurses. Interventions exist that can decrease oppressed group behaviours and the decrease is related to increased work force performance, satisfaction and retention of nurses in the workplace. Nurse Managers can improve the workplace by measuring oppressed group behaviours and utilizing interventions to break the cycle of oppression in the workplace culture. Utilizing these innovations improve the workplace culture for nursing.

  5. Using a participatory action strategic approach to enhance accessibility and participation in arts and cultural events: results of four focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Nancy Vandewiele; Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R; Grawi, Carolyn L

    2014-01-01

    Cultural events are abundant in a midwestern college town; however, individuals with disabilities have expressed concerns about their accessibility. Policymakers, business owners, and managers often ignore disability-related issues. Research shows accessibility is the main environmental barrier to participation in arts and cultural events. Individuals with disabilities are disconnected from managers of cultural organizations and city leaders. The lack of awareness about accessibility, including access to the built environment, impedes participation in cultural events in this college town. To encourage the participation of people with disabilities in cultural events in a midwestern college town, a bold strategic project was initiated to conduct a community-based needs assessment as a foundation for an action plan. Participation in arts and culture was selected as a unique focal point for exploring ways to enhance accessibility. Thirty-nine stakeholders participated in four different focus groups: individuals with disabilities, managers of cultural organizations, caregivers and health care providers, and other stakeholders including politicians. Critical problem areas identified were mapped onto the environmental factors in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Three themes emerged: 1) limited awareness about accessibility among the residents with disabilities and a lack of awareness about disability-related issues and accessibility among the managers of cultural organizations; 2) the need for a "central information clearinghouse" to share, provide, and retrieve information; 3) the need for inclusive city-level policies. Raising awareness about disabilities and accessibility, providing a clearinghouse for information sharing and implementing inclusive policies are crucial to strengthen participation in community life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Emotional Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Communication Competence: An Analysis of Group Dynamics and Interpersonal Relationships in a Diverse Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Melvin C.; Okoro, Ephraim A.; Okoro, Sussie U.

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the significance of emotional intelligence and intercultural communication competence in globally diverse classroom settings. Specifically, the research shows a correlation between degrees of emotional intelligence and human communication competence (age, gender, and culture). The dataset consists of 364 participants. Nearly…

  7. Intergroup consensus/disagreement in support of group-based hierarchy: an examination of socio-structural and psycho-cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Pratto, Felicia; Johnson, Blair T

    2011-11-01

    A meta-analysis examined the extent to which socio-structural and psycho-cultural characteristics of societies correspond with how much gender and ethnic/racial groups differ on their support of group-based hierarchy. Robustly, women opposed group-based hierarchy more than men did, and members of lower power ethnic/racial groups opposed group-based hierarchy more than members of higher power ethnic/racial groups did. As predicted by social dominance theory, gender differences were larger, more stable, and less variable from sample to sample than differences between ethnic/racial groups. Subordinate gender and ethnic/racial group members disagreed more with dominants in their views of group-based hierarchy in societies that can be considered more liberal and modern (e.g., emphasizing individualism and change from traditions), as well as in societies that enjoyed greater gender equality. The relations between gender and ethnic/racial groups are discussed, and implications are developed for social dominance theory, social role theory, biosocial theory, social identity theory, system justification theory, realistic group conflict theory, and relative deprivation theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Intergroup Consensus/Disagreement in Support of Group Based Hierarchy: An Examination of Socio-Structural and Psycho-Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Pratto, Felicia; Johnson, Blair T.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis examined the extent to which socio-structural and psycho-cultural characteristics of societies correspond with how much gender and ethnic/racial groups differ on their support of group-based hierarchy. Robustly, women opposed group-based hierarchy more than men did and members of lower-power ethnic/racial groups opposed group-based hierarchy more than members of higher-power ethnic/racial groups. As predicted by social dominance theory, gender differences were larger, more stable, and less variable from sample to sample than differences between ethnic/racial groups. Subordinate gender and ethnic/racial group members disagreed more with dominants in their views of group-based hierarchy in societies that can be considered more liberal and modern (e.g., emphasizing individualism and change from traditions), as well as in societies that enjoyed greater gender equality. The relations between gender and ethnic/racial groups are discussed and implications are developed for social dominance theory, social role theory and biosocial theory, social identity theory, system justification theory, realistic group conflict theory and relative deprivation theory. PMID:22023142

  9. Differences in the visual perception of symmetric patterns in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii and two human cultural groups: a comparative eye-tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia eMühlenbeck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Symmetric structures are of importance in relation to aesthetic preference. To investigate whether the preference for symmetric patterns is unique to humans, independent of their cultural background, we compared two human populations with distinct cultural backgrounds (Namibian hunter-gatherers and German town dwellers with one species of non-human great apes (orangutans in their viewing behavior regarding symmetric and asymmetric patterns in two levels of complexity. In addition, the human participants were asked to give their aesthetic evaluation of a subset of the presented patterns. The results showed that humans of both cultural groups fixated on symmetric patterns for a longer period of time, regardless of the pattern’s complexity. On the contrary, orangutans did not clearly differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric patterns, but were much faster in processing the presented stimuli and scanned the complete screen, while both human groups rested on the symmetric pattern after a short scanning time. The aesthetic evaluation test revealed that the fixation preference for symmetric patterns did not match with the aesthetic evaluation in the Hai//om group, whereas in the German group aesthetic evaluation was in accordance with the fixation preference in 60 percent of the cases. It can be concluded that humans prefer well-ordered structures in visual processing tasks, most likely because of a positive processing bias for symmetry, which orangutans did not show in this task, and that, in humans, an aesthetic preference does not necessarily accompany the fixation preference.

  10. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal M. Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n=34 or a control group (n=36 that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p<0.0005 and waist circumference (p=0.04 significantly as compared to the control group. Findings demonstrated that participation in a culturally tailored, lifestyle intervention program in a community setting can effectively reduce weight, waist circumference, and HbA1c among Gujarati AIs living in the US.

  11. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissenberg Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. Methods/Design We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1 and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3, N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the

  12. Some experiments of the use of the New Technologies in Artistic Education: new challenges to bridging the gap between different cultural and social groups

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    How to build constructive dialogue between different cultural and social groups may be a huge challenge. It is important to respect traditions and identities but at same time provide a level of education necessary nowadays. It is also important to engage families in the process in order to recognise the importance of formal education. The use of computer programs and other electronic equipment as creativity tools in the context of Artistic Education enable students, teachers and communities, ...

  13. Heterogeneity in isogenic populations of microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Egholm

    values for quantifiable variables are used. The reproducibility of an experiment could thus be affected by the presence of subpopulations or high levels of phenotypic variations. Ole Maaløe and colleagues did in the late 1950’ties observe that the growth rate, RNA, DNA and protein synthesis and cell...... of heterogeneity was slightly higher at intermediate inducer concentrations. Additionally, the effect of thermal stress on phenotypic heterogeneity was addressed by inflicting a heat stress to the B. subtilis GFP reporter strain. The increase in incubation temperature transient increased population heterogeneity....... Heterogeneity was investigated on a population level using a quantitative analysis of phenotypic variation in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The results obtained showed that the physiological state of the culture used for the analysis affected the phenotypic variation, as heterogeneity...

  14. Does Identity Incompatibility Lead to Disidentification? Internal Motivation to Be a Group Member Acts As Buffer for Sojourners from Independent Cultures, Whereas External Motivation Acts As Buffer for Sojourners from Interdependent Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschke, Christina; Fehr, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Most individuals possess more than one relevant social identity, but these social identities can be more or less incompatible. Research has demonstrated that incompatibility between an established social identity and a potential new social identity impedes the integration into the new group. We argue that incompatibility is a strong risk factor for disidentification, i.e., a negative self-defining relation to a relevant group. The current research investigates the impact of incompatibilities on disidentification in the acculturation context. We propose that incompatibility between one’s cultural identities increases the disidentification with the receiving society. It has, however, been shown that the motivation to be a group member serves as a buffer against negative integration experiences. Moreover, research from the intercultural domain has shown that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has specific effects for members of cultures that differ in self-construal. In a European sample of High school exchange students (Study 1, N = 378), it was found that incompatibility was positively related to disidentification, but only for less (but not more) intrinsically motivated newcomers. In an Asian sample of international university students (Study 2, N = 74), it was found that incompatibility was also positively related to disidentification, but only for less (but not more) extrinsically motivated newcomers. Thus, the findings demonstrate that the effect of incompatibility between social identities on disidentification can be buffered by motivation. The results suggest that, depending on cultural self-construal, individuals have different resources to buffer the negative effect of incompatibility on the social identity. PMID:28326055

  15. 浅析日本集团主义文化教学导入%Japanese group doctrine culture teaching introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛龙

    2016-01-01

    二战后的日本,政治制度日趋完善、社会经济迅猛增长、文化市场欣欣向荣。在此过程中,集团主义文化作为日本国民精神的原动力为其发展提供了源源不断的精神支持。随着中日两国在文化层面交流的日益频繁,在国内日语教学中,将日本集团主义文化导入课堂教学十分必要。在丰富教学内容的同时,增加师生之间互动,使学生更能体会语言背后的文化魅力。%After World War II, Japan’s political system is becoming more and more perfect, the social economy is booming, and the cultural market is flourishing. In this process, the group culture as the driving force of the Japanese national spirit, provides the spiritual support for its development. With the increasingly frequent cultural exchanges between China and Japan, in the domestic Japanese language teaching, it is necessary to import Japanese group doctrine culture into classroom teaching. In the rich content of teaching at the same time, increase the interaction between teachers and students, so that students can experience the cultural charm behind the language.

  16. Maximizing neonatal early onset group B streptococcal disease prevention with universal culture screening at 35 to 37 weeks gestation: a comparison of GBS detection rates between LIM broth and CNA culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsello, Christopher; Dommermuth, Ronald

    2003-06-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) disease is the most common cause of early onset neonatal sepsis. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends performing recto-vaginal cultures on pregnant woman to detect GBS, followed by treatment of women with positive cultures. Our facility adopted selective culture screening in 1997 using a colistin-naladixic acid (CNA) plate media instead of the more expensive LIM broth media. CNA plate cultures cost one third that of LIM broth and allow for final results in 24 hours, versus 48-72 hours with LIM broth. We hypothesized that CNA media saves time, money, and detects GBS as effectively as LIM broth. This study determined which media is superior at detecting recto-vaginal GBS. This was a case-control study involving 152 consecutive pregnant patients at 35-37 weeks from August 1 to October 1, 2001, at Naval Hospital Bremerton, Wash. We obtained two recto-vaginal swabs from each patient. One was cultured in LIM broth and the other on CNA medium. We then compared differences in the rates of positive cultures with LIM broth versus CNA medium using chi-square statistics and calculation of odds ratios (OR). LIM broth detected GBS in 35 of 145 (24.19%) women versus 21 of 145 (14.5%) using CNA. CNA failed to detect GBS in 15 cases in which LIM broth succeeded (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.03-3.4). LIM broth is superior at detecting maternal GBS colonization and is recommended over CNA plate to maximize prevention of early onset neonatal GBS disease.

  17. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...

  18. Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-11

    Nov 11, 2011 ... its ability to form aqueous gels, dispersion stabilizer. There are two main ... Protopectinases (PPases) are used as heterogeneous group of ... one day, and then maintained at 4°C. The seed culture medium contained (g/L): ...

  19. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  20. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  1. A short historical investigation into cross-cultural Australian ideas about the marine animal group Teredinidae, their socioecological consequences and some options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gardner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How are contemporary multicultural coastal Australians, Aboriginals and settlers alike, to develop wiser ideas and practices towards marine animals as well as each other? To illustrate the importance and complexity of this question, I offer a short historical investigation of some contrasting ideas and practices held by Australian Aboriginal and settler cultures about marine animals of the group Teredinidae. I present two “screenshots”: one from the period 1798-1826 and another from 1970-2012. The first period examines a negative but influential interpretation by Thomas Malthus of a cross cultural encounter featuring Australian Aboriginal consumption of local Teredinidae known as “cobra”. While this cultural tone remains largely unchanged in the second period, the biological understanding of the marine animals has developed greatly. So has awareness of the socioecology of Teredinidae: their estuarine habitats and cultural significance. Their potential role as subjects of community based monitoring is undeveloped but could serve overlapping concerns of environmental justice as well as the restoration and “future proofing” of habitats. Such a new composite of ideas and practices will rely on better integration of biology with community based social innovations. A symbolic beginning would be a change in Australian English colloquialisms for Teredinidae, from the erroneous “shipworm” or “mangrove worm” to the more accurate “burrowing clam”.

  2. 我国影视文化对社会人群影响的研究%On China's Film and Television Culture's Influence on Social Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛胜男; 胡和平; 李秋菊

    2012-01-01

    为了解影视文化对社会人群的影响,就"观影基本情况、观影元素、受众影响、我国影视文化与社会主义核心价值体系之间的关系"四方面进行研究,研究结果显示:影视文化对受众的价值观和审美观产生一定影响、其主流思想性和艺术性可相得益彰。发挥影视文化积极作用,营造健康理性的舆论环境,强化人性、价值观、民族文化、爱国主义宣传。%we find the social groups the motivation to choice the film and television's culture is recreation,watch film and TV mainly on network,politics,show,comedy and reasoning subject,and appraise it.The majority of the audience considers movie and television's culture affect to their sense of worth and aesthetic values,movie and television culture and art can bring out the best in each other.We must create a healthy and rational public opinion environment,and put forth effort to propagandize the works about human nature,values of national culture,patriotism.

  3. Comparison of illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay with Culture of Throat Swabs from Children with Sore Throats in the New Zealand School-Based Rheumatic Fever Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Arlo; Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the "gold standard" and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing.

  4. Integration of Commercial Group Culture and Art Communication%商帮文化与文艺传播的视界融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁红

    2013-01-01

    Commercial group culture has deep root in China, which not only made many businessman achieve their success, but also spread the customs, human geography of their hometown when they reached the summit of their life. Since ancient times, China had an old saying“A place will not be called as a town if there isn’t person from Hui”. Businessman of Hui is regarded as a bright pearl in the business group culture, which plays a significant role in the communication of commercial culture.%商帮文化在我国有着深厚的根基,它不仅成就了无数的商人,同时也在商人们最辉煌的时候将他们家乡的风俗习惯、人文地理传播到了全国各地。中国自古就有“无徽不成镇”的说法,徽商作为商帮中璀璨的明珠,在商帮文化的文艺传播过程中占据了重要位置。

  5. When School and Family Convey Different Cultural Messages: The Experience of Turkish Minority Group Members in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aelenei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present studies aim to compare the cultural values promoted by the French educational system and the Turkish families living in France to their youngsters. Because of their collectivist background Turkish immigrants may convey less individualistic values to their children compared to French parents and teachers. However, Turkish students may become more individualistic as they are socialized in the school system. In study 1 (N = 119, French school teachers, French parents, and Turkish-origin parents had to resolve six dilemmas by choosing either an individualistic or a collectivistic response-option. As expected, French teachers emphasized individualism more than Turkish parents, but not more than French parents. In Study 2 (N = 159, similar dilemmas were presented to French and Turkish-origin pupils. In elementary school, Turkish children were less individualistic than French-born children, but this gap was reduced in high school.

  6. The cultural narratives of Francophone and Anglophone Quebecers: using a historical perspective to explore the relationships among collective relative deprivation, in-group entitativity, and collective esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougie, Evelyne; Usborne, Esther; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Taylor, Donald M

    2011-12-01

    Responding to calls to contextualize social psychological variables in history, the present research examines the relationship between collective relative deprivation and collective esteem using a historical perspective. We hypothesized that collective relative deprivation perceived to be experienced during an important low-point in a group's history serves to define the group's current collective identity, which is in turn associated with collective esteem. In Study 1, cultural narrative interviews were conducted with Francophone and Anglophone Quebecers in order to identify key historical chapters for these groups and to examine the extent to which historical low-points were identity-defining features of their narratives. In Study 2, using the information obtained from these narratives, collective relative deprivation was explored across group members' perceived histories and related to current in-group entitativity and collective esteem. The relationship between collective relative deprivation thought to be experienced by one's group during a historical low-point and collective esteem was positive for both Anglophone and Francophone Quebecers and was mediated by in-group entitativity. Collective relative deprivation perceived to be experienced during a historical low-point serves to define one's collective identity, which is in turn associated with greater collective esteem. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and linguistic validation of age-group-specific haemophilia patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for patients and parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Mackensen, S; Campos, I G; Acquadro, C

    2013-01-01

    , important outcomes in clinical trials and clinical practice. As individuals' perception of their well-being often differs from that of their physician, it is recommended that self-report instruments are used to assess patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The way that the impact of haemophilia is perceived...... by the patient and their family can be different, so it is important to assess how parents perceive the impact on their children. A series of PRO instruments have been developed, adapted to different age groups and parents of patients with haemophilia. To allow the instruments to be used internationally......, culturally adapted and linguistically validated translations have been developed; some instruments have been translated into 61 languages. Here, we report the process used for cultural adaptation of the Haemo-QoL, Haem-A-QoL and Hemo-Sat into 28 languages. Equivalent concepts for 22 items that were difficult...

  8. An atypical Clostridium strain related to the Clostridium botulinum group III strain isolated from a human blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ruimy, Raymond; Bouchier, Christiane; Faucher, Nathalie; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R

    2014-01-01

    A nontoxigenic strain isolated from a fatal human case of bacterial sepsis was identified as a Clostridium strain from Clostridium botulinum group III, based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence, and was found to be related to the mosaic C. botulinum D/C strain according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes.

  9. Measurement Invariance and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Asian International and Euro American Cultural Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla

    2016-10-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Cultural Synergy and Organizational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Vogt, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores informal codes and rhythms of social behavior at work and their relation to organizational change and wellbeing. After a merger within a public service organization we organized 8 focus groups of 2-3 clerical or academic employees within a head office and a division office (N...... = 21). Word counts of ‘I’ and ‘we’ revealed that people sharing pre-merger organizational background (homogeneous groups) used ‘we’ more often than heterogeneous groups. Head office employees were concerned with workload and social code, whereas division office employees mainly discussed meetings......, commitment, and office space. Organizational background rather than office cultures guided these differences. We found that in a merged organization cultural synergies are possible to create if practical and social values for employees are offered. Thus, interesting new ways to transform problems...

  11. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2013-01-01

    To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

  12. Cultura organizacional, satisfação profissional e atmosfera de grupo = Organizational culture, job satisfaction and group atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Joana Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, transversal, procurou-se destacar a influência da cultura organizacional sobre a satisfação no trabalho dos colaboradores e sobre a atmosfera de grupo. Estas variáveis têm repercussões na realização pessoal dos colaboradores e na produtividade da empresa. Foi nosso objectivo, analisar a influência da percepção da cultura organizacional na satisfação profissional e na atmosfera de grupo numa amostra, de conveniência, de 210 participantes (enfermeiros; professores. Os dados, de natureza quantitativa, foram recolhidos através dum instrumento constituído por três escalas: FOCUS (First Organizational Culture Unified Search (Neves, 2000; Satisfação Profissional (Lima, Vala e Monteiro, 1994 e a Escala de Atmosfera de Grupo (Jesuíno, 1987. Foram também registadas variáveis demográficas dos inquiridos. Os resultados sugerem que a cultura é percepcionada como uma cultura de regras. A cultura organizacional apresenta um elevado valor preditivo da satisfação profissional e da atmosfera de grupo. Estas duas últimas variáveis se correlacionam significativamente

  13. Comparison of group B streptococci colonization in vaginal and rectal specimens by culture method and polymerase chain reaction technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bidgani, Shahrokh; Navidifar, Tahereh; Najafian, Mahin; Amin, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) is a colonizing microorganism in pregnant women and without causing symptoms. Colonization of GBS in the rectovaginal region in late of pregnancy is a risk factor for newborn diseases. GBS infection in newborn babies is acquired by the aspiration of infected amniotic fluid or vertical transmission during delivery through the birth canal. The aim of this study was determination of GBS prevalence among vaginal and anorectal specim...

  14. Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Verhelst Rita; Temmerman Marleen; Verstraelen Hans; Cools Piet; Saerens Bart; Claeys Geert; Tency Inge; El Aila Nabil A; Vaneechoutte Mario

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete....

  15. ETHNOGENESIS AND RE-ELABORATION OF CULTURE AMONG THE KRAHÔ-KANELA PEOPLE AND OTHER INDIGENOUS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ferri Mauro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past forty years we have seen in Brazil the intensification of the processes of ethnogenesis of indigenous groups. Populations that for a long time concealed their identities, have turned to assert their past and Indianness, fighting for recognition of their status by ethnic state officials, to ensure access to specific rights prescribed by the laws. The struggle of these groups also seeks to achieve conditions to rebuild their communities, going to live with more dignity, restoring their self-esteem, in pursuit of full citizenship. The Indian state agency, however, came to deny the "authenticity" of these various ethnic groups. For this reason, the (re construction of these identities permeates, in most cases, the development of a self-image synchronized with the stereotypical representations that Brazilian society have of the "generic Indian". This self-image is drawn in the expectation to fit the common sense representation that such communities suppose to be a requirement, particularly by the official body for recognize their indigenous status. For example, we analyze more closely the emblematic case of the Indians Krahô-Kanela, from the state of Tocantins.

  16. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupal M; Misra, Ranjita; Raj, Sudha; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs) in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n = 34) or a control group (n = 36) that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p Gujarati AIs living in the US.

  17. The use of focus groups as a basis for planning and implementing culturally appropriate health promotion among people with diabetes in the Arab community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Zamir, Diane; Badarne, Siham; Najami, Muhamed; Gan Noy, Shosh; Poraz, Irit; Shapira, Menachem; Lieberman, Nicky; Goldfracht, Margalit

    2016-03-01

    The main study objective was to identify perceived barriers to achieving glycemic control among the Arab population in Israel, by both members of the Arab community with type 2 diabetes and by primary care teams working with the Arab community. A series of six focus groups using qualitative research methodology were conducted in two phases among people with diabetes and primary care professionals treating them. The perception of the disease among people with diabetes was one of low severity. Barriers to adopting a healthy lifestyle and to self-management included awareness of the need, financial considerations regarding medication, and traditional gender roles. Food preparation in family life was identified as a strong cultural determinant. The health literacy needs for more in-depth and accessible educational programs were identified. Primary care staff viewed the needs similarly, with the exception of the need for in-depth instructional materials. The understanding of the significance of healthy lifestyles and self-management was essential for developing culturally appropriate implementation programs and policy. Consultation with, and involvement of patient groups in needs assessment and planning is essential and should be established in policy that promotes best practice and health promotion in chronic illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  19. Bricolage, métissage, hybridity, heterogeneity, diaspora: concepts for thinking science education in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-12-01

    The ongoing globalization leads to an increasing scattering of cultural groups into other cultural groups where they the latter continue to be affiliated with one another thereby forming diasporic identities. Diasporic identities emerge from a process of cultural bricolage that leads to cultural métissage and therefore hybridity and heterogeneity. To escape the hegemonies that arise from the ontology of the same—which, as I show, undergirds much of educational thought—I ground the notion of diaspora in the ontology of difference. Difference and heterogeneity are the norm, not something less than sameness and purity. This ontology allows framing bricolage, métissage, hybridity, and heterogeneity as positive concepts for theorizing the experiences of learning science and identity not only as a consequence of cross-national migrations—Mexicans in the US, Asians and Europeans in Canada, Africans in Europe—but also the experience of native speakers who, in science classrooms, find themselves (temporarily) at home away from home. My exemplary analyses show how the very fact of cultural and linguistic differences within themselves gives rise to the possibility of symbolic violence in science classrooms even to those whose ethos is or is closest to the one at the heart of science.

  20. A Clostridium Group IV Species Dominates and Suppresses a Mixed Culture Fermentation by Tolerance to Medium Chain Fatty Acids Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stephen J.; De Groof, Vicky; Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Props, Ruben; Coma, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-01-01

    A microbial community is engaged in a complex economy of cooperation and competition for carbon and energy. In engineered systems such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation, these relationships are exploited for conversion of a broad range of substrates into products, such as biogas, ethanol, and carboxylic acids. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), for example, hexanoic acid, are valuable, energy dense microbial fermentation products, however, MCFA tend to exhibit microbial toxicity to a broad range of microorganisms at low concentrations. Here, we operated continuous mixed population MCFA fermentations on biorefinery thin stillage to investigate the community response associated with the production and toxicity of MCFA. In this study, an uncultured species from the Clostridium group IV (related to Clostridium sp. BS-1) became enriched in two independent reactors that produced hexanoic acid (up to 8.1 g L−1), octanoic acid (up to 3.2 g L−1), and trace concentrations of decanoic acid. Decanoic acid is reported here for the first time as a possible product of a Clostridium group IV species. Other significant species in the community, Lactobacillus spp. and Acetobacterium sp., generate intermediates in MCFA production, and their collapse in relative abundance resulted in an overall production decrease. A strong correlation was present between the community composition and both the hexanoic acid concentration (p = 0.026) and total volatile fatty acid concentration (p = 0.003). MCFA suppressed species related to Clostridium sp. CPB-6 and Lactobacillus spp. to a greater extent than others. The proportion of the species related to Clostridium sp. BS-1 over Clostridium sp. CPB-6 had a strong correlation with the concentration of octanoic acid (p = 0.003). The dominance of this species and the increase in MCFA resulted in an overall toxic effect on the mixed community, most significantly on the Lactobacillus spp., which resulted in a decrease in total

  1. Group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 stimulates exocytosis and neurotransmitter release in pheochromocytoma-12 cells and cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, S; Ong, W Y; Thwin, M M; Fong, C W; Farooqui, A A; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Hong, W

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) may play a role in membrane fusion and fission, and may thus affect neurotransmission. The present study therefore aimed to elucidate the effects of sPLA2 on vesicle exocytosis. External application of group IIA sPLA2 (purified crotoxin subunit B or purified human synovial sPLA2) caused an immediate increase in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release in pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cells, detected by carbon fiber electrodes placed near the cells, or by changes in membrane capacitance of the cells. EGTA and a specific inhibitor of sPLA2 activity, 12-epi-scalaradial, abolished the increase in neurotransmitter release, indicating that the effect of sPLA2 was dependent on calcium and sPLA2 enzymatic activity. A similar increase in neurotransmitter release was also observed in hippocampal neurons after external application of sPLA2, as detected by changes in membrane capacitance of the neurons. In contrast to external application, internal application of sPLA2 to PC12 cells and neurons produced blockade of neurotransmitter release. Our recent studies showed high levels of sPLA2 activity in the normal rat hippocampus, medulla oblongata and cerebral neocortex. The sPLA2 activity in the hippocampus was significantly increased, after kainate-induced neuronal injury. The observed effects of sPLA2 on neurotransmitter release in this study may therefore have a physiological, as well as a pathological role.

  2. Women's knowledge about heart disease: Differences among ethnic and cultural groups in the Israeli Women's Health in Midlife Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to assess levels of knowledge about risk factors for heart disease among midlife Israeli women, and to evaluate the relationship of knowledge to personal risk factors and vulnerability to heart disease. Face-to-face interviews with women aged 45-64 years were conducted during 2004-2006 within three population groups: long-term Jewish residents (LTR), immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and Arab women. The survey instrument included six knowledge statements relating to: the risk after menopause, family history, elevated cholesterol level, diabetes, obesity, and warning signs of a heart attack. The findings showed wide disparities in knowledge by educational level and between immigrants and LTR, after taking into account personal risk factors and education. Personal risk factors were not significantly related to the knowledge items, except for personal history of cardiovascular disease, which was associated with knowledge about "warning signs of a heart attack" and "family history." Women who perceived themselves as more vulnerable to heart disease were more likely to identify several risk factors correctly. These findings stress the need to increase knowledge about heart disease, especially among less educated and minority women, and to emphasize the risk of patients' personal status by health providers.

  3. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Revathi

    2004-08-01

    reflected among the southern populations, distinguishing them from the northern groups. Our study also indicates a heterogeneous origin for Lyngayat and Iyengar owing to their genetic proximity with southern populations and northern Brahmins. The high-ranking communities, in particular, Iyengar, Lyngayat, Vanniyar and northern Brahmins might have experienced genetic admixture from East Asian and European ethnic groups.

  4. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...... is flexibility. This thesis investigates such heterogeneous network architectures and how to make them flexible. A survey of algorithms for network design is presented, and it is described how using heuristics can increase the speed. A hierarchical, MPLS based network architecture is described...... and it is discussed that it is advantageous to heterogeneous networks and illustrated by a number of examples. Modeling and simulation is a well-known way of doing performance evaluation. An approach to event-driven simulation of communication networks is presented and mixed complexity modeling, which can simplify...

  5. Social class versus cultural identity as factors in the residential segregation of ethnic groups in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver for 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis article examines the relevance of the spatial assimilation model inunderstanding residential segregation of ethnic groups in the three largestgateway cities of Canada. Using data from the census of 2001 it finds that whilethe model may have worked for the European groups they are less applicable tothe visible minorities such as the Chinese, South Asians and Blacks. Residentialsegregation reduces with generation for the European groups but not for thevisible minorities. Canadian patterns seem to be different from that seen in theUnited States. Many visible minority groups maintain their concentration levelseven in the suburbs. The findings seem to indicate that cultural preferences maybe just as important as social class in the residential choices of visible minoritygroups.FrenchCet article examine la pertinence du modèle d’assimilation spatiale dans lacompréhension de la ségrégation résidentielle des groupes ethniques dans lestrois villes « portes d’entrée les plus importantes du Canada. En s’appuyantsure les données du Recensement de 2001, cet article démontre que même si cemodèle ait pu fonctionner pour les groupes européens, il ne s’applique pasautant aux groupes tels que les Chinois, les Sud-Asiatiques et les Noirs. Laségrégation résidentielle diminue avec les générations chez les groupeseuropéens mais ceci n’est pas le cas chez les groupes de minorités visibles. Lestendances canadiennes semblent être différentes que celles observées aux États-Unis. Beaucoup de groupes de minorités visibles maintiennent leur niveau deconcentration même dans les banlieues. Les études menées semblent indiquerque la préférence culturelle pourrait jouer un rôle aussi important que la classesociale dans les choix de résidence que prennent les minorités visibles.

  6. 白裤瑶蚕丝文化的教育价值%Education Values of Silk Culture in Baiku Yao Ethnic Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭莉; 蒋立松

    2012-01-01

    白裤瑶蚕丝文化体现了日常生活中教人向"学",教人向"善",对性别角色的塑造与强化,对生命的认识与思考,孝道教育的继承与发扬等教育价值。这种具有生命力的本土化教育是民族教育的旨归所在。%The silk culture in Baiku Yao ethnic group is a representation of such education values as teaching people to be studious and kind,molding and intensifying the sexual roles,recognition of and reflection on life,inheriting and carrying on the filial duty,etc.Such localized education with vitality should be the ultimate goal of ethnic education.

  7. Bioactive Steroids with Methyl Ester Group in the Side Chain from a Reef Soft Coral Sinularia brassica Cultured in a Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Yao Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A continuing chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract of a reef soft coral Sinularia brassica, which was cultured in a tank, afforded four new steroids with methyl ester groups, sinubrasones A–D (1–4 for the first time. In particular, 1 possesses a β-D-xylopyranose. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxicities of compounds 1–4 against the proliferation of a limited panel of cancer cell lines were assayed. The anti-inflammatory activities of these new compounds 1–4 were also evaluated by measuring their ability to suppress superoxide anion generation and elastase release in N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB-induced human neutrophils. Compounds 2 and 3 were shown to exhibit significant cytotoxicity, and compounds 3 and 4 were also found to display attracting anti-inflammatory activities.

  8. Expression of blood group I and i active carbohydrate sequences on cultured human and animal cell lines assessed by radioimmunoassays with monoclonal cold agglutinins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, R.A.; Kapadia, A.; Feizi, T. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (UK))

    1980-05-01

    Human monoclonal anti-I und anti-i antibodies, reactive with known carbohydrate sequences, have been used as reagents to quantitate (by radioimmunoassay) and visualize (by immunofluorscence) the expression of the various blood group I and i antigenic determinants in a variety of cultured cell lines commonly used in laboratory investigations. It has been shown that the antigens they recognize are widely distributed on the surface of human and animal cell lines, expressed in varying amounts in different cell lines and on individual cells within a given cell line. In two cell lines, a transformation-associated increase in the expression of I antigen was observed. Because of their precise specificity for defined carbohydrate chain domains, these autoantibodies have become valuable reagents in biological chemistry.

  9. Expression of blood group I and I active carbohydrate sequences on cultured human and animal cell lines assessed by radioimmunoassays with monoclonal cold agglutinins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, R.A.; Kapadia, A.; Feizi, T.

    1980-05-01

    Human monoclonal anti-I and anti-i, reactive with known carbohydrate sequences, have been used as reagents to quantitate (by radioimmunoassay) and visualize (by immunofluorescence) the expression of the various blood group I and i antigenic determinants in a variety of cultured cell lines commonly used in laboratory investigations. It has been shown that the antigens they recognize are widely distributed on the surface of human and animal cell lines, expressed in varying amounts in different cell lines and on individual cells within a given cell line. In two cell lines, a transformation-associated increase in the expression of I antigen was observed. Because of their precise specificity for defined carbohydrate chain domains, these autoantibodies have become valuable reagents in biological chemistry.

  10. Percutaneous injection of autologous, culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cells into carpometacarpal hand joints: a case series with an untreated comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Christopher J; Freeman, Michael D

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, we describe six patients who received autologous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for symptomatic carpometacarpal (CMC) joint and hand osteoarthritis (OA). Six patients who received injections of adult autologous culture expanded MSCs in their thumb CMC joints were followed for 1 year posttreatment, and matched with four procedure candidates who remained untreated. We observed positive outcomes in the treatment group for both symptoms and function related to the OA, compared with a reported worsening among the untreated controls. While these results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of treated subjects and lack of placebo control and randomization, we find sufficient evidence for further investigation of MSC therapy as an alternative to more invasive surgery in patients with OA of the hand.

  11. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  12. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  13. Activation of the ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway during the Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on Substrates Modified with Various Chemical Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the influence of culture substrates modified with the functional groups –OH, –COOH, –NH2, and –CH3 using SAMs technology, in conjunction with TAAB control, on the osteogenic differentiation of rabbit BMSCs. The CCK-8 assay revealed that BMSCs exhibited substrate-dependent cell viability. The cells plated on –NH2- and –OH-modified substrates were well spread and homogeneous, but those on the –COOH- and –CH3-modified substrates showed more rounded phenotype. The mRNA expression of BMSCs revealed that –NH2-modified substrate promoted the mRNA expression and osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs. The contribution of ERK1/2 signaling pathway to the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs cultured on the –NH2-modified substrate was investigated in vitro. The –NH2-modified substrate promoted the expression of integrins; the activation of FAK and ERK1/2. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of the ERK signaling pathway, blocked ERK1/2 activation in a dose-dependent manner, as revealed for expression of Cbfα-1 and ALP. Blockade of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in BMSCs by PD98059 suppressed osteogenic differentiation on chemical surfaces. These findings indicate a potential role for ERK in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs on surfaces modified by specific chemical functional groups, indicating that the microenvironment affects the differentiation of BMSCs. This observation has important implications for bone tissue engineering.

  14. Manifestations of Differential Cultural Capital in a University Classroom: Views from Classroom Observations and Focus Group Discussions in a South African University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmore Mutekwe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based predominantly on Pierre Bourdieu’s social and cultural reproduction theory, particularly his notions of cultural capital and symbolic violence, this paper explores how first year post graduate Diploma in Higher Education (PGDHE university students from diverse socio-linguistic backgrounds differ in the levels at which they understand and express themselves in classroom activities. The paper’s thesis is that the diverse nature of South African classrooms presents a number of challenges not only for students but also for educators in terms of the use of English as a medium of instruction or the language for learning and teaching (LOLT. Owing to the fact that the South African Language in Education Policy (LiEP of 1997 empowers both learners and educators in schools to use any of the eleven South African official languages as a LOLT wherever that is reasonably possible, students whose English backgrounds were deficient in enculturating them in the use of English as a learning tool often encounter challenges in expressing their ideas in the classroom, whether in writing or in oral presentations. The discussion is anchored in the data elicited through two data collection methods, lesson observations in a Diploma in Higher Education, Research class composed of students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and through focus group discussion sessions with 40 multi-ethnic Diploma in Higher Education students from the same classroom. The data management and analysis for this study was done thematically, with views emerging from the observations and focus group discussions being clustered into superordinate themes for convenience of the discussion of the findings. The findings of this study were that students from affluent socio-economic backgrounds who enter university with a rich and relevant English linguistic capital, values and attitudes enjoy an enormous advantage compared to their counterparts whose social class and linguistic

  15. Adapting research to local contexts based on the model of Campinha-Bacote for cultural competence: a case scenario of 3 ethnic groups in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejman, M; Forouzan, A S; Ekblad, S

    2012-11-01

    This article examines the issue of cultural competence in qualitative cross-cultural mental health research. Conducting qualitative research on mental health and illness requires the researchers to acquire sensitivity to different cultures and develop the skills of cultural competence. We outline the main aims and steps of implementation when incorporating concepts of cultural competence into a qualitative research study. We present a case scenario from studies on women's depression in 3 ethnic groups (Fars, Kurd and Turk) in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The article presents a brief overview of the Campinha-Bacote model and addresses the 5 major constructs of cultural competence as they were applied in the 3 phases of the research process.

  16. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  17. A polynomial analytical method for one-group slab-geometry discrete ordinates heterogeneous problems; Metodo analitico de aproximacao polinomial para problemas de ordenadas discretas em geometria Cartesiana unidimensional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Andre Luiz do Carmo

    2008-07-01

    In this work we evaluate polynomial approximations to obtain the transfer functions that appear in SGF auxiliary equations (Green's Functions) for monoenergetic linearly anisotropic scattering SN equations in one-dimensional Cartesian geometry. For this task we use Lagrange Polynomials in order to compare the numerical results with the ones generated by the standard SGF method applied to SN problems in heterogeneous domains. This work is a preliminary investigation of a new proposal for handling the transverse leakage terms that appear in the transverse-integrated one-dimensional SN equations when we use the SGF - exponential nodal method (SGF-ExpN) in multidimensional rectangular geometry. (author)

  18. A stochastic model for tumor heterogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Simone, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype variations define heterogeneity of biological and molecular systems, which play a crucial role in several mechanisms. Heterogeneity has been demonstrated in tumor cells. Here, samples from blood of patients affected from colon tumor were analyzed and fished with a microfluidic assay based on galactose active moieties, and incubated, for culturing, in SCID mice. Following the experimental investigation, a model based on Markov theory was implemented and discussed to explain the equilibrium existing between phenotypes of subpopulations of cells sorted using the microfluidic assay. The model in combination with the experimental results had many implications for tumor heterogeneity. It displayed interconversion of phenotypes, as observed after experiments. The interconversion generates of metastatic cells and implies that targeting the CTCs will be not an efficient method to prevent tumor recurrence. Most importantly, understanding the transitions between cell phenotypes in cell population can boost the...

  19. Metabolic heterogeneity in human lung tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher T.; Faubert, Brandon; Yuan, Qing; Lev-Cohain, Naama; Jin, Eunsook; Kim, Jiyeon; Jiang, Lei; Ko, Bookyung; Skelton, Rachael; Loudat, Laurin; Wodzak, Michelle; Klimko, Claire; McMillan, Elizabeth; Butt, Yasmeen; Ni, Min; Oliver, Dwight; Torrealba, Jose; Malloy, Craig R.; Kernstine, Kemp; Lenkinski, Robert E.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in the genetic and environmental parameters that influence cell metabolism in culture. Here, we assessed the impact of these factors on human NSCLC metabolism in vivo using intra-operative 13C-glucose infusions in nine NSCLC patients to compare metabolism between tumors and benign lung. While enhanced glycolysis and glucose oxidation were common among these tumors, we observed evidence for oxidation of multiple nutrients in each of them, including lactate as a potential carbon source. Moreover, metabolically heterogeneous regions were identified within and between tumors, and surprisingly, our data suggested potential contributions of non-glucose nutrients in well-perfused tumor areas. Our findings not only demonstrate the heterogeneity in tumor metabolism in vivo but also highlight the strong influence of the microenvironment on this feature. PMID:26853473

  20. Emerging heterogeneities in Italian customs

    CERN Document Server

    Agliari, Elena; Galluzzi, Andrea; Javarone, Marco Alberto; Pizzoferrato, Andrea; Tantari, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Since its unification, more than a century ago, Italy has experienced strong social and economical diversities between its southern and northern regions. In the last decades, Italy has undergone a severe economical and political crisis reflecting corruption at various levels of social stratification as well as a poor involvement of its population in the number of elections that occurred. This might be explained by a lack of confidence, or interest in the country as a whole, as if the primary social and political focus of its citizens could still lay at smaller regional scales, possibly evidencing the persistence of different cultural heritages. In order to shed lights on the possible existence of such heterogeneities, we perform a statistical-mechanics-driven analysis focusing on key social quantifiers, namely the evolution of autochthonous marriages (as family still plays as a fundamental brick in the edification of social aggregates) and of mixed marriages, namely those involving a foreign-born and a native...

  1. Can We Foster a Culture of Peer Support and Promote Mental Health in Adolescence Using a Web-Based App? A Control Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohleber, Laura; Crameri, Aureliano; Eich-Stierli, Brigitte; Telesko, Rainer; von Wyl, Agnes

    2016-09-23

    Adolescence with its many transitions is a vulnerable period for the development of mental illnesses. Establishing effective mental health promotion programs for this age group is a challenge crucial to societal health. Programs must account for the specific developmental tasks that adolescents face. Considering peer influence and fostering adolescent autonomy strivings is essential. Participation in a program should be compelling to young people, and their affinity to new technologies offers unprecedented opportunities in this respect. The Companion App was developed as a Web-based app giving adolescents access to a peer mentoring system and interactive, health-relevant content to foster a positive peer culture among adolescents and thereby strengthen social support and reduce stress. In a control group study design, a group of employed (n=546) and unemployed (n=73) adolescents had access to the Companion App during a 10-month period. The intervention was evaluated using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze changes in chronic stress levels and perception of social support. Monthly feedback on the app and qualitative interviews at the end of the study allowed for an in-depth exploration of the adolescents' perception of the intervention. Adolescents in the intervention group did not use the Companion App consistently. The intervention had no significant effect on chronic stress levels or the perception of social support. Adolescents reported endorsing the concept of the app and the implementation of a peer mentoring system in particular. However, technical difficulties and insufficiently obvious benefits of using the app impeded more frequent usage. The Companion Project implemented a theory-driven and innovative approach to mental health promotion in adolescence, taking into account the specifics of this developmental phase. Particularities of the implementation context, technical aspects of the

  2. Can We Foster a Culture of Peer Support and Promote Mental Health in Adolescence Using a Web-Based App? A Control Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Aureliano; Eich-Stierli, Brigitte; Telesko, Rainer; von Wyl, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence with its many transitions is a vulnerable period for the development of mental illnesses. Establishing effective mental health promotion programs for this age group is a challenge crucial to societal health. Programs must account for the specific developmental tasks that adolescents face. Considering peer influence and fostering adolescent autonomy strivings is essential. Participation in a program should be compelling to young people, and their affinity to new technologies offers unprecedented opportunities in this respect. Objective The Companion App was developed as a Web-based app giving adolescents access to a peer mentoring system and interactive, health-relevant content to foster a positive peer culture among adolescents and thereby strengthen social support and reduce stress. Methods In a control group study design, a group of employed (n=546) and unemployed (n=73) adolescents had access to the Companion App during a 10-month period. The intervention was evaluated using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze changes in chronic stress levels and perception of social support. Monthly feedback on the app and qualitative interviews at the end of the study allowed for an in-depth exploration of the adolescents’ perception of the intervention. Results Adolescents in the intervention group did not use the Companion App consistently. The intervention had no significant effect on chronic stress levels or the perception of social support. Adolescents reported endorsing the concept of the app and the implementation of a peer mentoring system in particular. However, technical difficulties and insufficiently obvious benefits of using the app impeded more frequent usage. Conclusions The Companion Project implemented a theory-driven and innovative approach to mental health promotion in adolescence, taking into account the specifics of this developmental phase. Particularities of

  3. Thesaurus-based search in large heterogeneous collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielemaker, J.; Hildebrand, M.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van; Schreiber, G.; Sheth, A.; et al, not CWI

    2008-01-01

    In cultural heritage, large virtual collections are coming into existence. Such collections contain heterogeneous sets of metadata and vocabulary concepts, originating from multiple sources. In the context of the E-Culture demonstrator we have shown earlier that such virtual collections can be e

  4. Thesaurus-based search in large heterogeneous collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielemaker, J.; Hildebrand, M.; van Ossenbruggen, J.; Schreiber, G.

    2008-01-01

    In cultural heritage, large virtual collections are coming into existence. Such collections contain heterogeneous sets of metadata and vocabulary concepts, originating from multiple sources. In the context of the E-Culture demonstrator we have shown earlier that such virtual collections can be effec

  5. Heterogeneity in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Kornelia

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. There is a high degree of diversity between and within tumors as well as among cancer-bearing individuals, and all of these factors together determine the risk of disease progression and therapeutic resistance. Advances in technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and functional viability screens now allow us to analyze tumors at unprecedented depths. However, translating this increasing knowledge into clinical practice remains a challenge in part due to tumor evolution driven by the diversity of cancer cell populations and their microenvironment. The articles in this Review series discuss recent advances in our understanding of breast tumor heterogeneity, therapies tailored based on this knowledge, and future ways of assessing and treating heterogeneous tumors.

  6. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  7. Relationship of Tree Stand Heterogeneity and Forest Naturalness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARTHA, Dénes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate if compositional (tree species richness andstructural (vertical structure, age-structure, patterns of canopy closure heterogeneity of the canopylayer is related to individual naturalness criteria and to overall forest naturalness at the stand scale. Thenaturalness values of the assessed criteria (tree species composition, tree stand structure, speciescomposition and structure of shrub layer and forest floor vegetation, dead wood, effects of game, sitecharacteristics showed similar behaviour when groups of stands with different heterogeneity werecompared, regardless of the studied aspect of canopy heterogeneity. The greatest difference was foundfor criteria describing the canopy layer. Composition and structure of canopy layer, dead wood andtotal naturalness of the stand differed significantly among the stand groups showing consistentlyhigher values from homogeneous to the most heterogeneous group. Naturalness of the compositionand structure of the shrub layer is slightly but significantly higher in stands with heterogeneous canopylayer. Regarding other criteria, significant differences were found only between the homogeneous andthe most heterogeneous groups, while groups with intermediate level of heterogeneity did not differsignificantly from one extreme. However, the criterion describing effects of game got lowernaturalness values in more heterogeneous stands. Naturalness of site characteristics did not differsignificantly among the groups except for when stands were grouped based on pattern of canopyclosure. From the practical viewpoint it is shown that purposeful forestry operations affecting thecanopy layer cause changes in compositional and structural characteristics of other layers as well as inoverall stand scale forest naturalness.

  8. Cultural Change and Social Development of Ethnic Groups with Small Populations Based on the Theory of Acculturation-Taking the Bulang People in Yunnan Province as a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Chunai

    2014-01-01

    Human beings are always in a process of dynamic development , and the social process in dynamic development is a process of so-cial change .The process of social change is actu-ally a process of cultural adaptation . In this process, various cultural phenomena change , sep-arate, aggregate, and regenerate; social relations are reorganized , social groups evolve , social life turns directions , and the structure and function of social institutions are changed , etc.This process of change is the process of acculturation . The process of the formation and development of the Bulang is a process of adaptation and search for survival opportunities in the process of natural and social changes .In order to survive , they have formed their own means of livelihood which can a-dapt to the natural environment;in order to devel-op, they assimilated compatible the cultural traits from the Dai, Han and Yi.They have shifted from a hunting and gathering society to a farming socie-ty, from a mountainous region to urban areas .In this process , they constantly adjust their own cul-ture so that it could develop in the course of con-stant adaptation . The acculturation of the Bulang is being nego-tiated in the process of adjustment to nature , as well as to the process of mutual interaction , learn-ing, influence and adoption with other surrounding ethnic groups .Following social change and adjust-ment, the local culture of Bulang will lose some of its original features , and get some new traits . And, it is just in the cycle of “change -adjust-ment-change” that the Bulang community gradu-ally changes its local culture and moves forward . Following the high-speed development of the human society , the speed of cultural change has also become faster and faster .Under such a back-ground, the developing countries , especially those minority nationalities in the developing countries , are facing a much more serious challenge .Accul-turation is the only way that can handle the chal

  9. Heterogeneity of the intrahepatic biliary epithelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon Glaser; Heather Francis; Sharon DeMorrow; Gene LeSage; Giammarco Fava; Marco Marzioni; Julie Venter; Gianfranco Alpini

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to outline the recent findings related to the morphological heterogeneity of the biliary epithelium and the heterogeneous pathophysiological responses of different sized bile ducts to liver gastrointestinal hormones and peptides and liver injury/toxins with changes in apoptotic, proliferative and secretory activities. The knowledge of biliary function is rapidly increasing because of the recognition that biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) are the targets of human cholangiopathies, which are characterized by proliferation/damage of bile ducts within a small range of sizes. The unique anatomy, morphology, innervation and vascularization of the biliary epithelium are consistent with function of cholangiocytes within different regions of the biliary tree. The in vivo models [e.g., bile duct ligation (BDL), partial hepatectomy, feeding of bile acids,carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)] and the in vivo experimental tools [e.g., freshly isolated small and large cholangiocytes or intrahepatic bile duct units (IBDU) and primary cultures of small and large murine cholangiocytes] have allowed us to demonstrate the morphological and functional heterogeneity of the intrahepatic biliary epithelium.These models demonstrated the differential secretory activities and the heterogeneous apoptotic and proliferative responses of different sized ducts. Similar to animal models of cholangiocyte proliferation/injury restricted to specific sized ducts, in human liver diseases bile duct damage predominates specific sized bile ducts.Future studies related to the functional heterogeneity of the intrahepatic biliary epithelium may disclose new pathophysiological treatments for patients with cholangiopathies.

  10. Understanding cancer stem cell heterogeneity and plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dean G Tang

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity is an omnipresent feature of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo.It has been recently realized that even mouse and human embryonic stem cells under the best culture conditions are heterogeneous containing pluripotent as well as partially committed cells.Somatic stem cells in adult organs are also heterogeneous,containing many subpopulations of self-renewing cells with distinct regenerative capacity.The differentiated progeny of adult stem cells also retain significant developmental plasticity that can be induced by a wide variety of experimental approaches.Like normal stem cells,recent data suggest that cancer stem cells(CSCs)similarly display significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity,and that the CSC progeny can manifest diverse plasticity.Here,I discuss CSC heterogeneity and plasticity in the context of tumor development and progression,and by comparing with normal stem cell development.Appreciation of cancer cell plasticity entails a revision to the earlier concept that only the tumorigenic subset in the tumor needs to be targeted.By understanding the interrelationship between CSCs and their differentiated progeny,we can hope to develop better therapeutic regimens that can prevent the emergence of tumor cell variants that are able to found a new tumor and distant metastases.

  11. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  12. 普通高校篮球课异质分组合作教学评价方法实验研究%The Experimental Study on the Teaching Evaluation Method of Heterogeneous Grouping Cooperation Organization in College Basketball Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东

    2012-01-01

    运用文献法、调查法、教学实验法和数理统计法,在普通高校篮球专项教学中进行了异质分组合作教学组织形式和常规教学组织形式的实验研究,将每班学生分成若干个异质学习小组,充分利用合作学习的优势。实验结果表明在异质分组合作教学组织形式下,采用修改因子法进行过程性评价,将过程性评价与终结性评价结合可以促进高校篮球教学效果的提高,学生获得较强的内部动机水平。%The methods of the literature review,questionnaire,experimental method and mathematical statistics are applied in this study to research the heterogeneous grouping cooperation form and the conventional cooperation form.The students were divided into several heterogeneous study groups to take the advatange of group cooperation.The results show that under the heterogeneous grouping cooperation organization,the process evaluation was conducted by revising factors,and the process evaluation and performance evaluation were combined to improve the learning effect of basketball teaching in universities and enhance the interior motivation of students.

  13. The Racial, Cultural and Social Makeup of Hispanics as a potential Profile Risk for Intensifying the Need for Including this Ethnic Group in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Candales, Angel; Aponte Rodríguez, Jaime; Harris, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension not only is the most frequently listed cause of death worldwide; but also a well-recognized major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Based on the latest published statistics published by the American Heart Association, hypertension is very prevalent and found in one of every 3 US adults. Furthermore, data from NHANES 2007 to 2010 claims that almost 6% of US adults have undiagnosed hypertension. Despite this staggering statistic, previous US guidelines for the prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 7 [JNC 7]), released in 2003, stated that; "unfortunately, sufficient numbers of Mexican Americans and other Hispanic Americans... have not been included in most of the major clinical trials to allow reaching strong conclusions about their responses to individual antihypertensive therapies." However, the recently published JNC 8 offers no comment regarding recommendations or guideline treatment suggestions on Hispanics. The purpose of this article not only is to raise awareness of the lack of epidemiological data and treatment options regarding high blood pressure in the US Hispanic population; but also to make a case of the racial, cultural and social makeup of this ethnic group that places them at risk of cardiovascular complications related to hypertension.

  14. 中、越、老、泰等国壮泰族群的饮食文化%Diet Culture of Zhuang and Dai Ethnic Group in China, Vietnam, Laos and Thai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宏贵

    2012-01-01

    壮泰族群包括中、越、老、泰、缅、印6个国家的27个同根同源民族,从中国迁徙到不同的国家后,既有不同的文化,也保持了他们原来的共生文化。%Zhuang and Dai ethnic group includes 27 homologous nationalities in 6 countries: China, Vietnam, Laos, Thai, Burma and India, where they remain their own symbiotic cultures and obtain new different cultures when migrant to different countries. This thesis studies 3 kinds of unique food in diet culture.

  15. A sexualidade como uma construção cultural: reflexões sobre preconceitos e mitos inerentes a um grupo de mulheres rurais La sexualidad como una construcción cultural: reflexiones sobre prejuicios y mitos inherentes a un grupo de mujeres rurales Sexuality as a cultural construction: reflexions on inherent prejudice and myths on a group of women in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Beatriz Ressel

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a sexualidade como uma construção cultural. Para fundamentar tal assertiva, é relatada uma pesquisa realizada com um grupo de onze mulheres de uma comunidade rural, no interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e as narrativas foram analisadas qualitativamente, buscando, via ótica cultural, o significado dos depoimentos. A sexualidade é, aqui, contemplada a partir das vivências individuais, dos valores, das crenças, dos mitos e dos preconceitos, construídos ao longo da socialização de cada colaboradora. No final do texto, foram acrescentadas algumas reflexões que salientam a importância de tal interpretação cultural sobre os eventos, especialmente sobre a sexualidade para as enfermeiras.Este artículo enfoca la sexualidad como una construcción cultural. Para fundamentar tal aseveración, se relata la búsqueda realizada con un grupo de once mujeres de una comunidad rural, en el interior de Rio Grande do Sul. Los datos fueron recolectados através de entrevistas semi-estructuradas y las narrativas analizadas cualitativamente, buscando, vía óptica cultural, el significado de los relatos. La sexualidad, aquí, es contemplada a partir de las vivencias individuales, de los valores, de las superstición, de los mitos y de los prejuicios, construídos a lo largo de la socialización de cada colaboradora. Al final del texto, fueron agregadas algunas reflexiones que resaltan la importancia de tal interpretación cultural sobre los eventos, especialmente sobre la sexualidad para las enfermeras.The present work focuses on sexuality as a cultural construct. To support this idea, a study was carried out with a group of eleven women from a rural community, in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and the narratives were analyzed qualitatively, seeking to extract meaning from the inquiries by viewing

  16. Culture-lovers and Culture-leavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan

    2005-01-01

    Who are the people in the Netherlands with an active interest in cultural heritage and the performing arts, and who prefer to leave these forms of culture alone? Have the size and composition of the groups of 'culture-lovers' and 'culture-leavers' changed since the end of the 1970s? These are the ce

  17. Grouping and Achievement in Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, John

    2003-01-01

    Colleges typically group students homogeneously in classes by means of both admission requirements and course prerequisites, but when professors form cooperative learning groups within classes they generally use heterogeneous grouping. Authors compared heterogeneously and homogeneously grouped cooperative learning groups in six paired classes,…

  18. Attitudes towards 12-step groups and referral practices in a 12-step naive treatment culture; a survey of addiction professionals in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudet Alexandre

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addressing substance use disorders effectively requires a long-term approach. Substance abuse treatment is typically of short duration; referring patients to Twelve Step based self-help groups (TSGs – e.g. Narcotics Anonymous, represents a promising complementary recovery resource. Clinicians' attitudes and referral practices towards the TSGs have mainly been studied in countries with high integration of the 12-step philosophy in their substance abuse services and where the TSGs are widely available, such as the US. In Norway, there are currently 294 weekly TSG meetings (6 per 100,000 inhabitants. This study describes clinicians' attitudes and referral practices to TSGs in Norway where health authorities seek to promote self-help participation, but where the treatment culture is unfamiliar with 12-step fellowships. Methods Data collected by a self-administered questionnaire, adapted from established US and UK instruments. Information covered the attitudes, knowledge and referral practices towards TSGs among addiction treatment professionals in Norway in mid 2008. Results The return rate was 79.7% (n = 291. Participants had moderately positive attitude scores towards TSGs, but referral to these groups among Norwegian addiction professionals was low, as was the level of knowledge about TSGs. More than six out of ten did not refer any patients to TSGs in the previous week. Local variation with more referrals to TSGs in the county with the one established 12-step treatment facility was observed. Respondents' integration of the 12-steps in their own treatment work, higher self-efficacy for making a successful referral, and greater TSG knowledge were associated with referring patients. Conclusion Low referral rates to TSGs point to the need for education and training to raise the awareness and knowledge about it among addiction professionals unfamiliar with these 12-step fellowships. Training should focus on the usefulness of

  19. Heterogeneous Uncertainty Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-08

    probabilistic ( HTP ) agents, the concept of probabilistic version of XML and RDF, and probabilistic methods to reason about collections of moving objects. S...heterogeneous temporal probabilistic ( HTP ) agents, the concept of probabilistic version of XML and RDF, and probabilistic methods to reason about...temporal probabilistic ( HTP ) agent. HTP agents can build temporal probabilistic reasoning capabilities on top of multiple databases and software

  20. Heterogeneous Computing in Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziubinski, M.P.; Grassi, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the potential of heterogeneous computing in solving dynamic equilibrium models in economics. We illustrate the power and simplicity of C++ Accelerated Massive Parallelism (C++ AMP) recently introduced by Microsoft. Starting from the same exercise as Aldrich et al. (J Econ Dyn...

  1. Heterogeneity of Intellectual Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus; Valentin, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with methodological issues of assessing the composition and level ofheterogeneity of firms' intellectual assets. It develops an original metric - referred to asthe H-index - for measuring heterogeneity using data extracted from patent documents.The main purpose is to improve...

  2. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based silica-c

  3. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital and the...

  4. Heterogeneity of Dutch rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rainfall data for the Netherlands have been used in this study to investigate aspects of heterogeneity of rainfall, in particular local differences in rainfall levels, time trends in rainfall, and local differences in rainfall trend. The possible effect of urbanization and industrialization on the

  5. Receiver Heterogeneity Helps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Erika R.; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity amongst devices and desired service are commonly seen as a source of additional challenges for setting up an efficient multi-layer multicast service. In particular, devices requiring only the base layer can become a key bottleneck to the performance for other devices. This paper...

  6. Heterogeneity in Ethnoecological Knowledge and Management of Medicinal Plants in the Himalayas of Nepal: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance accorded to ethnoecological knowledge for suggesting new paths in scientific research, understanding ecological processes, and designing sustainable management of natural resources has grown in recent years. However, variation in knowledge and practices, both within and across cultures, has not been given much attention in resource management nor in developing scientific understanding of the ecological status of key resources. In this paper, we discuss the heterogeneity and complexity of local ecological knowledge in relation to its practical and institutional context with respect to management of Himalayan medicinal plants. We show factors affecting this variation, and discuss how knowledge is put into action. We assessed variation in knowledge relating to the diversity of medicinal plant species, their distribution, medicinal uses, biological traits, ecology, and management within and between two culturally different social groups living in villages located in the Shey-Phoksundo National Park and its buffer zone in northwestern Nepal. Heterogeneity in levels of knowledge and in practices both within and between these groups corresponds to differences in level of specialization in relation to medicinal plants, to socio-cultural and institutional contexts, and to extra-local factors that govern people's activities. We argue that understanding the heterogeneity of knowledge and practices within a given area is crucial to design management practices that build on the intricate links between knowledge, practices, and institutional context. It is also important to develop ecological studies that will best inform management.

  7. An Action Design Research on development and deployment of a computer-based group discussion support tool for achieving consensus and culture change at an educational institution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee Mui Suan, Jaclyn; Hillegersberg, van Jos; Kumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Organisational culture change is a long and complex process that typically takes years to complete and has a very low success rate. This project addresses the problem by the proposed use of an Action Design Research Methodology to build and deploy an IT artifact named Organisational Culture Assessme

  8. Conhecimento e significado cultural da menopausa para um grupo de mulheres Conocimiento y significado cultural de la menopausia para un grupo de mujeres Menopause knowledge and experience for a group of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Maria C Costa

    2008-03-01

    understanding a group of women's knowledge about menopause and how they experience it. The methods used for data collection were participant observation, recorded interviews and previously produced drawings. Data were analyzed based on a theoretical framework using both the ethnographic method and biographic interpretativism. From the narratives the authors obtained the cultural categories and themes. Thus it was possible to conclude that menopause is understood as a result of a unique construction integrated to a network of meanings built by the group that condition knowledge and experience within certain cultural patterns, among them the fact that menopause means leaving womanhood behind.

  9. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Nielsen, Lene; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2010-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during the years 2004-2008. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene ( SADH) followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme Ban I, using C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. orthopsilosis ATCC 96139 and C. metapsilosis ATCC 96144 as controls. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from C. parapsilosis were characterized by sequence analysis of the ITS1-ITS2, 26S rRNA (D1/D2) and SADH regions. Restriction patterns for the 3 species with each of 610 restriction enzymes were predicted in silico using 12 available sequences. By PCR-RFLP of the SADH gene alone, four isolates (5.1 %) had a pattern identical to the C. orthopsilosis reference strain. Sequence analysis of SADH and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions identified two of these isolates as C. metapsilosis. These results were confirmed by creating a phylogenetic tree based on concatenated sequences of SADH, ITS and 26S rRNA gene sequence regions. Optimal differentiation between C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis was predicted using digestion with NlaIII, producing discriminatory band sizes of: 131 and 505 bp; 74, 288 and 348 bp; and 131, 217 and 288 bp, respectively. This was confirmed using the reference strains and 79 clinical isolates. In conclusion, reliable discrimination was obtained by PCR-RFLP profile analysis of the SADH gene after digestion with NlaIII but not with BanI. C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Denmark.

  10. On Mass Culture Group Construction in Luyang District under the New Normal%试论新常态下庐阳区的群众文化团队建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄铮

    2015-01-01

    当前我国经济社会发展已进入速度变化、结构变化、动力转换的新常态,经济发展需要转型升级,公共文化服务体系建设也需要转型升级,群众文化团队作为公共文化服务体系的重要组成部分同样需要转型升级。本文着眼于新常态下庐阳区的群众文化团队发展,着重提出对群众文化团队建设转型升级的几点探索。%Currently, China's economic and social development has entered a new normal with speed change, structure change and motive transformation. Economic development needs trans-formation and upgrading, so does the construction of public cul-ture service system. So mass culture group, as an important com-ponent of public culture service system, also needs transformation and upgrading. Focusing on the development of mass culture group in Luyang District under the new normal, this paper mainly proposes several explorations on the transformation and upgrad-ing of mass culture group cnstruction.

  11. CULTURE, CULTURE LEARNING AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES: TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Levy

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple). Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and th...

  12. Heterogeneous Voter Models

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Naoki; Redner, S

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the heterogeneous voter model (HVM), in which each agent has its own intrinsic rate to change state, reflective of the heterogeneity of real people, and the partisan voter model (PVM), in which each agent has an innate and fixed preference for one of two possible opinion states. For the HVM, the time until consensus is reached is much longer than in the classic voter model. For the PVM in the mean-field limit, a population evolves to a "selfish" state, where each agent tends to be aligned with its internal preference. For finite populations, discrete fluctuations ultimately lead to consensus being reached in a time that scales exponentially with population size.

  13. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...

  14. Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Gaza-Bulseco, Georgeen; Faldu, Dinesh; Chumsae, Chris; Sun, Joanne

    2008-07-01

    Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies is common due to the various modifications introduced over the lifespan of the molecules from the point of synthesis to the point of complete clearance from the subjects. The vast number of modifications presents great challenge to the thorough characterization of the molecules. This article reviews the current knowledge of enzymatic and nonenzymatic modifications of monoclonal antibodies including the common ones such as incomplete disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, N-terminal pyroglutamine cyclization, C-terminal lysine processing, deamidation, isomerization, and oxidation, and less common ones such as modification of the N-terminal amino acids by maleuric acid and amidation of the C-terminal amino acid. In addition, noncovalent associations with other molecules, conformational diversity and aggregation of monoclonal antibodies are also discussed. Through a complete understanding of the heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies, strategies can be employed to better identify the potential modifications and thoroughly characterize the molecules.

  15. Teaching Chinese in heterogeneous classrooms: strategies and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous nature of the Chinese classroom is a reality in the teaching of Chinese in France, both in secondary and higher education. This heterogeneity is due to several reasons: different levels of language knowledge, different origins and backgrounds of the students, different teaching/learning objectives, different cultural and family background, and social factors. Our research has been conducted in  a final-year LIE college class (langue inter-établissement; in a French secondary school. In our study, the following questions have been posed: How to best adapt the teaching of Chinese to fit the needs of all students? Would differentiated instruction be a solution? What would be the best strategies and practices, in view of the CEFR requirements related to teaching content, to tasks and to assessment? Taking into account a detailed analysis of the class in question in terms of the type of students, the differences in their knowledge of language, and their learning goals, , we adopt  the theory of differentiated instruction –  its main ideas strategies, its overall methodology and practical techniques to address the difficulties ensuing from classroom heterogeneity. The differentiation is implemented at the level of content, task selection, course structure and evaluation. Are there any limitations to differentiated instruction? Strong discrepancies in the levels of students’ knowledge is potentially a problem, and differences in their work pace as well as the teachers’ increased workload can also present difficulties. New ways of organizing language classes such as grouping students on the basis of their various language skills could help solve these issues.

  16. Micromechanics of heterogeneous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Buryachenko, Valeriy

    2007-01-01

    Here is an accurate and timely account of micromechanics, which spans materials science, mechanical engineering, applied mathematics, technical physics, geophysics, and biology. The book features rigorous and unified theoretical methods of applied mathematics and statistical physics in the material science of microheterogeneous media. Uniquely, it offers a useful demonstration of the systematic and fundamental research of the microstructure of the wide class of heterogeneous materials of natural and synthetic nature.

  17. Electrokinetics of heterogeneous interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembala, Maria

    2004-12-31

    The influence of surface heterogeneity of various types on electrokinetic parameters is reviewed. The scope of the paper covers classical electrokinetic phenomena characterized by linear dependence of electrokinetic parameters vs. related driving forces. Neither non-linear effects nor the effects of non-equilibrium electric double layer are considered. A historical description of hydrodynamic aspect of electrokinetic phenomena exploiting the slip plane idea is briefly outlined. Attempts to estimate the slip plane location by comparing the diffuse layer and zeta potential values for some model systems are presented. The surface heterogeneity was divided into three categories. Heterogeneity of the first type was related to geometrical morphology of an interfacial region characterized by a considerable surface development producing a three-dimensional interfacial region. The effects of solid roughness, hairy surface, dense polymer layers and gel-like layers are discussed here. The very high surface conductivity detected for such interfaces seems to be a good indicator of the presence of structured layers of this type. Heterogeneous interfaces of the second class cover systems exhibiting non-uniform distribution of surface charge. The non-uniform surface charge distribution can be either of a molecular (discrete charges) or of a microscale (two-dimensional micropatches or three-dimensional structures formed by polyelectrolyte multilayers). The last class of systems examined includes interfaces composed of charged substrate covered by charged bulky objects (particles). In comparison to the homogeneous surfaces, adsorbed charged particles modify both hydrodynamic flow and the electrostatic field significantly altering the electrokinetic parameters. The new description of electrokinetics of composed interfaces presented here takes into account both hydrodynamic and electric field modification and is free of the previously assumed slip plane shift caused by adsorbed

  18. Dynamic heterogeneity in life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Uli; Orzack, Steven Hecht

    2009-01-01

    generate dynamic heterogeneity: life-history differences produced by stochastic stratum dynamics. We characterize dynamic heterogeneity in a range of species across taxa by properties of the Markov chain: the entropy, which describes the extent of heterogeneity, and the subdominant eigenvalue, which...... distributions of lifetime reproductive success. Dynamic heterogeneity contrasts with fixed heterogeneity: unobserved differences that generate variation between life histories. We show by an example that observed distributions of lifetime reproductive success are often consistent with the claim that little...... or no fixed heterogeneity influences this trait. We propose that dynamic heterogeneity provides a 'neutral' model for assessing the possible role of unobserved 'quality' differences between individuals. We discuss fitness for dynamic life histories, and the implications of dynamic heterogeneity...

  19. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture; La realizacion de grupos de discuion en un proceso combinado de evaluacion interna de cultura de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  20. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hui; Gross, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that heterogeneity can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. Here, we point out that for real world applications, this result should not be regarded independently of the intra-individual heterogeneity between people. Our results show that, if heterogeneity among people is taken into account, networks that are more heterogeneous in connectivity can be more resistant to epidemic spreading. We study a susceptible-infected-susceptible model with adaptive disease avoidance. Results from this model suggest that this reversal of the effect of network heterogeneity is likely to occur in populations in which the individuals are aware of t...

  1. Heterogeneous genetic cows of three genetic groups in feedlot system in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil=Comportamento de vacas Girolando de três grupos genéticos em sistema de confinamento no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena de Albuquerque Brasil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of 15 Girolando cows from three genetic groups (1/2, 5/8 and 3/4 HG in feedlots was evaluated. Experimental design was completely randomized with 3 treatment (genetic groups and 5 replicates. The animals were evaluated by the variables: food, rumination, rest, locomotion, water intake, demand and time in the shade, and other activities. Group 5/8 HG spent more time feeding (267.88 min. than groups 3/4 HG (245.55 min. and 1/2 HG (259.55 min.. Idle standing time was higher (204.66 min. for 3/4 HG when compared to the other groups. There was no statistical difference for the duration of rest in the shade. Solar radiation and THI were the factors which most influenced the animals’ behavior. Results show that the genetic groups 5/8 and 3/4 HG had a higher sensitivity to heat than 1/2 HG.Avaliou-se o comportamento de 15 vacas da raça Girolando, de três grupos genéticos (1/2, 5/8 e 3/4 HG em confinamento. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo 3 tratamentos (grupo genético com 5 repetições. Os animais foram avaliados pelas variáveis: alimentação, ruminação, ócio, locomoção, ingestão de água, procura e permanência na sombra, e outras atividades. O grupo 5/8 HG apresentou maior tempo de alimentação (267,88 min. que os grupos 3/4 HG (245,55 min. e 1/2 HG (259,55 min.. O tempo de ócio em pé foi maior (204,66 min. para os animais 3/4 HG em relação aos demais grupos. Não houve diferença estatística para o tempo de permanência na sombra. A radiação solar e o ITU foram os elementos que mais influenciaram o comportamento dos animais. Os animais dos grupos genéticos 5/8 e 3/4 HG apresentaram maior sensibilidade ao calor que o 1/2 HG.

  2. 异质文化背景下奈保尔作品中的东方元素——以《自由国度》为例%Oriental Elements in Naipaul' s Works in the Context of Heterogeneous Cultures --In the Case of In a Free State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丽芹; 付磊

    2012-01-01

    Naipaul is an immigrant novelist with a dual identity. His literary works display colorful pictures. One of his masterpieces, In a Free State, is full of confrontations of heterogeneous cultures and effects of different ideologies. By analyzing the different ideolo- gies in this novel, this paper intends to discuss the heterogeneity in this work and analyzes the ubiquitous oriental elements in his ori- ental writing.%奈保尔是一位双重身份的移民作家,他的作品呈现出一幅幅异质文化交汇的画卷。他的代表作之一——小说集《自由国度》(InAFreeState),充满了各种异质文化力量的交锋和东西方不同意识形态的浸染。以奈保尔这部小说集为例,从异质文化研究的视角来研究该作品中的异质性,并分析作者东方书写中无处不在的东方元素。

  3. Robotic art, culture and cultural imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years there has been an ongoing debate about the notion and (possible) function of robotic culture; with the development of the new generation of drones, as well as the advancement in social and health robotics, questions about robot culture seem to open a variety of discussions...... – beginning with the inquiry of how can we grasp the notion of culture, as an umbrella term for the range of habitual and technological practices, in relation to equally heterogeneous field of robotics. This article aims to accentuate the importance of cultural imagination of robots in situating the robotic...... research, observing it 'as a mixed register of fantasy and an actual practice' (Kakoudaki, 2007). The emphasis will be put on the robotic art which, I argue, is in the fluid state of exchange with other areas of robotic research, equally benefiting from the larger context of cultural imagination of robots...

  4. Heterogeneity of Intellectual Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus; Valentin, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with methodological issues of assessing the composition and level ofheterogeneity of firms' intellectual assets. It develops an original metric - referred to asthe H-index - for measuring heterogeneity using data extracted from patent documents.The main purpose is to improve...... the characterisation of research activities within firmsin the biotechnology sector. Although the H-index grew out of research on biotechfirms, the metric carries broader relevance for all patent-intensive industries. Themeasurement and calculation of the H-index is illustrated using some empiricalexamples from our...

  5. Creation and Practices on Safety Culture of Huaibei Coal Mining Group%淮北矿业集团安全文化的创新与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚光

    2012-01-01

    结合煤矿实际,从安全宣传教育、安全文化、安全生产体系3个方面,论述了淮北矿业集团在安全文化建设上的系统谋划、理论创新与具体实践。%In combination with the coal mine actual conditions,from the safety propaganda and education,safety culture and safety production system,the paper stated the systematic scheme,theoretical creation and practices on the safety cultural building in Huaibei Coal Mining Group.

  6. Cultural and Religious/Spiritual Beliefs and the Impact on Health that Fear to Death has on Gender and Age, Among a Romani Minority Group from Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Madero, Eugenio; Trianes-Torres, María Victoria; Muñoz-García, Antonio; Alarcón, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The Romani cultural minority living in Spain has cultural values and beliefs, religious/spiritual expressions and a particular vision of death. The relationship between these aspects and health is unknown. A sample of 150 people responded to a socio-demographic questionnaire and well-being measures of religious/spiritual experience, paranormal beliefs and fear of death. Age, a negative sense of life, fear of the death of others, being a woman and having low paranormal beliefs have a negative impact on health. Results allow for extending the relationships found in the general population to the Romani population as well. The novelty is that, in the latter, paranormal beliefs protect against disease. Additionally, fear of the death of others damages health more than fear of one's own death. These results make sense in the context of the Romani culture and religion.

  7. "En el grupo tomas conciencia (in group you become aware)": Latino immigrants' satisfaction with a culturally informed intervention for men who batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocío; Holtrop, Kendal; Carpenter, Georgia; Guzmán, Ricardo; Hernández, Dolores; Zamudio, Efraín; González Ramírez, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 Latino immigrant men who participated in a culturally informed batterer intervention. The objectives of this investigation were twofold. First, to identify the treatment components that facilitated the participants' willingness to engage in a process of change aimed at terminating their abusive behaviors. Second, to describe the treatment components that led to their satisfaction with the intervention. Research findings confirm that the Spanish version of the Duluth curriculum can be beneficial for Latino immigrant batterers. Results also demonstrate the critical role of culture as it refers to content of the intervention and method of delivery.

  8. Heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Alexander W.; Fish, Gregory; Hall, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) have been dichotomized into circuits with high passive content (silica and silicon PLCs) and high active content (InP tunable lasers and transceivers) due to the trade-off in material characteristics used within these two classes. This has led to restrictions in the adoption of PICs to systems in which only one of the two classes of circuits are required to be made on a singular chip. Much work has been done to create convergence in these two classes by either engineering the materials to achieve the functionality of both device types on a single platform, or in epitaxial growth techniques to transfer one material to the next, but have yet to demonstrate performance equal to that of components fabricated in their native substrates. Advances in waferbonding techniques have led to a new class of heterogeneously integrated photonic circuits that allow for the concurrent use of active and passive materials within a photonic circuit, realizing components on a transferred substrate that have equivalent performance as their native substrate. In this talk, we review and compare advances made in heterogeneous integration along with demonstrations of components and circuits enabled by this technology.

  9. Effect of pH Heterogeneity in Large-scale Bioreactor on Fed-batch Culture Process of CHO cells%大型反应器内pH不均一性对CHO细胞流加培养过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金涛; 王星懿; 范里; 邓献存; 刘旭平; 谭文松

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of pH heterogeneity in large-scale bioreactor on cell culture process of CHO cells, we established a scale down model consistent of stirred tank reactor and plug flow reactor to simulate the pH heterogeneity of large-scale bioreactor based on the mixing characteristic. The results showed that the scale down process with 30 s residence time has no statically difference with the control process. However, significant effect on cell growth, cell metabolism and protein production were found when increased the residence time of PFR. Cell growth rate decreased accompanied by tremendously increase of ammonia and lactate when increased the pH heterogeneity. In addition, the titer, sialic acid content and bioactivity of antibody fusion protein were also decreased when increased the pH heterogeneity.%为了研究大型反应器中pH不均一性对CHO细胞流加培养过程的影响,并将培养过程顺利地放大到生产规模,根据大型反应器的混合特性,构建了搅拌式反应器与平推流反应器串联的规模缩小装置用于模拟大型反应器中的pH不均一性。结果表明停留时间为30 s时,整个培养过程和对照相比并无显著的差异,这表明此时补碱所导致的pH不均一性并未对流加培养工艺造成影响。而随着停留时间的延长,反应器内pH不均一的程度越大,细胞生长和产物表达受到抑制越明显;与此同时,乳酸和氨的累积显著增加,而关键质量属性唾液酸和生物学活性也随之降低。

  10. Culturally Competent Research with American Indians and Alaska Natives: Findings and Recommendations of the First Symposium of the Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Joyce Y.; Davis, Jamie D.; Du Bois, Barbara; Echo-Hawk, Holly; Erickson, Jill Shepard; Goins, R. Turner; Hill, Calvin; Hillabrant, Walter; Johnson, Sharon R.; Kendall, Elizabeth; Keemer, Kelly; Manson, Spero M.; Marshall, Catherine A.; Running Wolf, Paulette; Santiago, Rolando L.; Schacht, Robert; Stone, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the collective experience of a multidisciplinary network of researchers, practitioners, and program evaluators who support appropriate research and evaluation methods in working with Native peoples. Our experience underlines the critical importance of culture in understanding and conducting research with the diverse…

  11. Crafts and Craft Education as Expressions of Cultural Heritage: Individual Experiences and Collective Values among an International Group of Women University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores relationships between crafts, craft education and cultural heritage as reflected in the individual experiences and collective values of fifteen female university students of different nationalities. The students (all trainee teachers) were following a course in crafts and craft education as part of an International Study…

  12. Negotiation of "How To" at the Cross-Section of Cultural Capital and Habitus: Young Children's Procedural Practices in a Student-Led Literacy Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2008-01-01

    In order to become productive members of an academic community, it is important for students to master its procedural practices. By adapting Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital, habitus, and field, we examined procedural practices of first-graders from minority and low-socioeconomic-status backgrounds in the context of student-led literacy…

  13. Towards a Custom-Made Whistleblowing Policy. Using Grid-Group Cultural Theory to Match Policy Measures to Different Styles of Peer Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, whistleblowing policies should be adapted to the organisational culture. They need to be custom-made and not follow a one-size-fits-all logic, specifically when they are installed to stimulate responsible peer reporting, a highly sensitive and value-laden type of whistleblowing. Thi

  14. Migrant Adaptation - A Cross-Cultural Problem. A Review of Research on Migration, Minority Groups and Cultural Differences, with Special Regard to Children. Educational and Psychological Interactions, No. 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, L. H.

    Research pertinent to the adaptation of immigrant children is reviewed in a cross-cultural perspective. The report focuses on research that has yielded empirical data, although a number of other papers of basic importance have been included in the review. The first chapter discusses definitions and implications of various types of cross-cultural…

  15. Disordered hyperuniform heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-10-01

    Disordered hyperuniform many-body systems are distinguishable states of matter that lie between a crystal and liquid: they are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These systems play a vital role in a number of fundamental and applied problems: glass formation, jamming, rigidity, photonic and electronic band structure, localization of waves and excitations, self-organization, fluid dynamics, quantum systems, and pure mathematics. Much of what we know theoretically about disordered hyperuniform states of matter involves many-particle systems. In this paper, we derive new rigorous criteria that disordered hyperuniform two-phase heterogeneous materials must obey and explore their consequences. Two-phase heterogeneous media are ubiquitous; examples include composites and porous media, biological media, foams, polymer blends, granular media, cellular solids, and colloids. We begin by obtaining some results that apply to hyperuniform two-phase media in which one phase is a sphere packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Among other results, we rigorously establish the requirements for packings of spheres of different sizes to be ‘multihyperuniform’. We then consider hyperuniformity for general two-phase media in {{{R}}d} . Here we apply realizability conditions for an autocovariance function and its associated spectral density of a two-phase medium, and then incorporate hyperuniformity as a constraint in order to derive new conditions. We show that some functional forms can immediately be eliminated from consideration and identify other forms that are allowable. Specific examples and counterexamples are described. Contact is made with well-known microstructural models (e.g. overlapping spheres and checkerboards) as well as irregular phase-separation and Turing-type patterns. We also ascertain a family of

  16. Heterogenous networks and services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Su-En

    the existing generation of technology and presents new technological performance breakthroughs. It is difficult to predict which radical technologies or innovations will result in a market disruption early on in their life cycles. Based on Clayton Christensen’s (Christensen 1997) definition of a disruptive...... of the market. If mainstream technology firms do not address the disruption, it is likely they will fail and the new disruptive firm will grow in size and importance in the industry. As we move to 3G (3rd Generation Mobile Services) and beyond 3G, one of the biggest challenges is to bridge network heterogeneity...... products and services. Schumpeter described the motor of development as the innovation itself. However, business and financial aspects must also be considered as they provide the bottom line for firms in the industry. Standardisation is increasingly required due to the number of different technologies...

  17. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...

  18. Noise and Neuronal Heterogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We consider signal transaction in a simple neuronal model featuring intrinsic noise. The presence of noise limits the precision of neural responses and impacts the quality of neural signal transduction. We assess the signal transduction quality in relation to the level of noise, and show it to be maximized by a non-zero level of noise, analogous to the stochastic resonance effect. The quality enhancement occurs for a finite range of stimuli to a single neuron; we show how to construct networks of neurons that extend the range. The range increases more rapidly with network size when we make use of heterogeneous populations of neurons with a variety of thresholds, rather than homogeneous populations of neurons all with the same threshold. The limited precision of neural responses thus can have a direct effect on the optimal network structure, with diverse functional properties of the constituent neurons supporting an economical information processing strategy that reduces the metabolic costs of handling a broad...

  19. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  20. Plant tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  1. Intrapartum PCR assay versus antepartum culture for assessment of vaginal carriage of group B streptococci in a Danish cohort at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, Mohammad; Uldbjerg, Niels; Thorsen, Poul Bak

    2017-01-01

    (NPV) of 98%, and Likelihood ratio (LH+) of 9.2. The PCR-strategy showed corresponding values as sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 97%, PPV of 78%, NPV of 98%, and LH+ of 27.5. We conclude that in a Danish population with a low rate of early-onset neonatal infection with GBS, the intrapartum PCR assay...... performs better than the antepartum culture for identification of GBS vaginal carriers during labor....

  2. The Impact of Social and Cultural Engagement and Dieting on Well-Being and Resilience in a Group of Residents in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rapacciuolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation and exclusion are associated with poor health status and premature death. A number of related isolation factors, inadequate transportation system and restrictions in individuals’ life space, have been associated with malnutrition in older adults. Since eating is a social event, isolation can have a negative effect on nutrition. Cultural involvement and participation in interactive activities are essential tools to fight social isolation, and they can counteract the detrimental effects of social isolation on health. To provide data supporting the hypothesis that encouraging participation might represent an innovative preventive and health promoting strategy for healthy living and aging, we developed an ad hoc questionnaire to investigate the relationship between cultural participation, well-being, and resilience in a sample of residents in the metropolitan area of Naples. The questionnaire includes a question on adherence to diet or to a special nutritional regimen; in addition, the participants are asked to mention their height and weight. We investigated the relationship between BMI, adherence to diet, and perceived well-being (PWB and resilience in a sample of 571 subjects over 60 years of age. Here, we present evidence that engagement into social and cultural activities is associated with higher well-being and resilience, in particular in females over 60 years of age.

  3. a Cultural Market Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    HerdaǦDELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  4. A Cultural Market Model

    CERN Document Server

    Herdagdelen, Amac

    2008-01-01

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  5. Space Qualified Heterogeneous Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to develop a radiation hardened, monolithic, heterogeneous processor for space imaging and radar systems. High performance processors are needed...

  6. Cellular compatibility of improved scaffold material with deproteinized heterogeneous bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; PEI Fu-xing; ZHOU Zong-ke; LI Qi-hong

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study cellular compatibility of improved scaffold material with deproteinized heterogeneous bone and provide experimental basis on choosing the scaffold material in bone tissue engineering.Methods: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) were co-cultured with heterogeneous deproteinized bone in vitro. The contrast phase microscope, scanning electron microscope, MTT assay, flow cytometry were performed and the BGP content and ALP activities were detected in order to observe the cell growth, adhesion in the material, cell cycle and cell viability.Results: The scaffold material of deproteinized heterogeneous bone had no inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation, differentiation and secretion function of BMSCs.Conclusions: The established heterogeneous deproteinized bone has good biocompatibility with BMSCs and is a potentially ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Construction of Hong-dae cultural district : cultural place, cultural policy and cultural politics

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Mihye

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the process of creating the "Hong-dae cultural district" in Seoul has involved the mobilisation of various social groups and triggered the (re)institutionalisation of the meaning of "the cultural". It seeks to explicate how a cultural policy project can stimulate the emergence of social groups, which challenge existing policy provisions and laws and lead to the (re)institutionalisation of "Hong-dae culture". In so doing, the author will be able to simultaneously...

  8. 博物馆群体对安阳历史文化传承的思考%Reflections on the Inheritance of Anyang History and Culture by the Museum Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双庆

    2014-01-01

    博物馆,尤其是博物馆群体,对城市历史文化的传承与创新发挥着其他机构无可替代的作用,拥有一定规模博物馆的城市必须注重博物馆群体的建设,使博物馆做到资源共享与优势互补并形成合力,为城市历史文化的传承和发展贡献力量。安阳地区的博物馆群体必须加强分工与合作,才能真正为安阳的历史文化传承发挥更大的作用。%The museum, especially the museum group, plays an irreplaceable role in the inheritance and innovation of urban his-tory and culture, so a city with a museum of certain scale must pay attention to the construction of the museum group, so as to make museums share their resources and cooperate with one an-other based on their advantages, thus making a contribution to the inheritance and development of urban history and culture. The museum group in Anyang Area must strengthen the division of labor and cooperation, in order to play a more important role in the inheritance of Anyang history and culture.

  9. Heterogeneity of Hemolysin Expression during Neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae Sepsis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sigge, Anja; Schmid, Manuel; Mauerer, Stefanie; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The β-hemolysin of Streptococcus agalactiae is a major virulence factor; consequently, nonhemolytic strains rarely cause infections. We report on a case of neonatal sepsis caused by a strain displaying heterogeneous hemolysin expression. It was detected by the simultaneous isolation of hemolytic and nonhemolytic colonies from cultures of the infant's blood.

  10. Cleavage of group 1 coronavirus spike proteins: how furin cleavage is traded off against heparan sulfate binding upon cell culture adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de C.A.M.; Haijema, B.J.; Schellen, P.; Wichgers Schreur, P.J.; Lintelo, te E.; Vennema, H.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A longstanding enigmatic feature of the group 1 coronaviruses is the uncleaved phenotype of their spike protein, an exceptional property among class I fusion proteins. Here, however, we show that some group 1 coronavirus spike proteins carry a furin enzyme recognition motif and can actually be cleav

  11. Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekada, Asmahan; Arauna, Lara R; Deba, Tahria; Calafell, Francesc; Benhamamouch, Soraya; Comas, David

    2015-01-01

    The demographic history of human populations in North Africa has been characterized by complex processes of admixture and isolation that have modeled its current gene pool. Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. In this complex genetic landscape, Algeria, the largest country in Africa, has been poorly covered, with most of the studies using a single Algerian sample. In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions. Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

  12. Efeitos da Heterogeneidade de Variância Residual entre Grupos de Contemporâneos na Avaliação Genética de Bovinos de Corte Effects of Heterogeneity of Residual Variance among Contemporary Groups on Genetic Evaluation of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carvalheiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar, por meio de dados simulados, o efeito da heterogeneidade de variância residual entre grupos de contemporâneos (GC sobre as avaliações genéticas de bovinos de corte, e comparar o uso de uma avaliação genética ponderada (R¹Isigmae² em relação à avaliação que pressupõe homogeneidade de variância (R=Isigmae². A característica estudada foi ganho de peso pós-desmame corrigido para 345 dias, sendo esta simulada com variância fenotípica de 300 kg² e herdabilidade igual a 0,4. A estrutura de um conjunto real de dados foi utilizada para fornecer os GC e os pais referentes às observações de cada animal. Cinco níveis de heterogeneidade de variância residual foram considerados de forma que os componentes de variância fossem, na média, iguais aos da situação de homogeneidade de variância. Na medida em que níveis mais acentuados de heterogeneidade de variância residual foram considerados, os animais foram selecionados dos GC com maior variabilidade, especialmente com pressão de seleção intensa. Em relação à consistência de predição, os produtos e as vacas tiveram seus valores genéticos preditos mais afetados pela heterogeneidade de variância residual do que os touros. O fator de ponderação utilizado reduziu, mas não eliminou o efeito da heterogeneidade de variância. As avaliações genéticas ponderadas apresentaram resultados iguais ou superiores àqueles obtidos pelas avaliações que assumiram homogeneidade de variância. Mesmo quando não necessário, o uso de avaliações ponderadas produziu resultados não inferiores às avaliações que assumiram homogeneidade de variância.The objective of this study was to investigate, via simulated data, the effect of heterogeneity of residual variance among contemporary groups (CG on genetic evaluation of beef cattle, and to compare a weighted genetic evaluation procedure (R¹Isigmae² with one that assumes homogeneity of

  13. Linguistic capital and development capital in a network of cultural producers: Mutually valuing peer groups in the ‘interactive fiction’ retrogaming scene

    OpenAIRE

    Allington, D.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-methods study of the cultural valuing of ‘interactive fiction’ or ‘text adventure games’: a formerly commercial videogame genre sometimes associated with electronic literature but here argued to be best understood in context of the under-researched phenomenon of ‘retrogaming’ or ‘old school gaming’. It is argued that a model for the study of retrogaming scenes is provided in Lena and Peterson’s account of ‘traditionalist’ musical genres, and that these in turn ...

  14. Query Expansion Using Heterogeneous Thesauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Rila; Tokunaga, Takenobu; Tanaka, Hozumi

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a method to improve the performance of information retrieval systems by expanding queries using heterogeneous thesauri. Experiments show that using heterogeneous thesauri with an appropriate weighting method results in better retrieval performance than using only one type of thesaurus. (Author/LRW)

  15. Fiscal Consolidations and Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes; J. Lustenhouwer; K. Mavromatis

    2015-01-01

    We analyze fiscal consolidations using a New Keynesian model where agents have heterogeneous expectations and are uncertain about the composition of consoidations. Heterogeneity in expectations may amplify expansions, stabilizing thus the debt-to-GDP ratio faster under tax based consolidations, in t

  16. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    This paper develops and extends a dynamic, discrete time, job to worker matching model in which jobs are heterogeneous in equilibrium. The key assumptions of this economic environment are (i) matching is directed and (ii) coordination frictions lead to heterogeneous local labor markets. We de- rive...

  17. Query Expansion Using Heterogeneous Thesauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Rila; Tokunaga, Takenobu; Tanaka, Hozumi

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a method to improve the performance of information retrieval systems by expanding queries using heterogeneous thesauri. Experiments show that using heterogeneous thesauri with an appropriate weighting method results in better retrieval performance than using only one type of thesaurus. (Author/LRW)

  18. Research on the Lack of Food Culture in Catering for Tourist Groups%旅游团餐中饮食文化缺失的问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙天胜; 杨莹

    2015-01-01

    Food culture is the reflection of regional culture in food .However , problems exist in the catering service for tourist groups such as lack of local specialties ,unjustified price ,low quality,and unsatisfactory vari-ety and so on,which have caused lots of tourists’complaints.From the respect of culture,the paper proposes some suggestions on how to improve the situation .Tourists should have an active and sober awareness of partici-pation,and tourist destinations should have the sense of spreading its food culture .In addition,travel agencies should provide different kinds of catering services for tourist group .Thus,the local food may play a primary role in catering services for tourist groups .%饮食文化是地域文化在饮食上的体现,作为地方民俗文化的表现形式之一。纵观当下旅游团队餐,基本上不涉及地方名吃,并且存在价格低、质量差、品种单一等问题,令游客怨声载道。从文化的角度出发,文章认为游客应有主动清醒的参与意识,旅游地应树立弘扬食文化的意识,旅行社的旅游团餐最好能不拘一格,让地方美食在团餐中占有主导地位。

  19. Culture Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This year, June 10 marked China's first Cultural Heritage Day. The designation by the Chinese Government aims to raise awareness of the need to protect and understand the value of the nation's abundant cultural treasures. In future the second Saturday in June each year will be set aside for this purpose. Recently, the State Council published the sixth group of major relics under state protection. On the list are 1,080 historic relics such as the Grand Canal from Beijing to Hangzhou and the

  20. Heterogeneity: multilingualism and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Krumm

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic diversity and multilingualism on the part of individuals are aprerequisite and a constitutive condition of enabling people to live togetherin a world of growing heterogeneity. Foreign language teaching plays animportant part in democratic education because it can be seen as a trainingin respecting otherness and developing an intercultural, non-ethnocentricperception and attitude. This is all the more important because of the neces-sity of integrating children from migrant families into school life.My article argues that language education policy has to take this per-spective into account, i.e., of establishing a planned diversification so thatpupils (and their parents will not feel satisfied with learning English only,but also become motivated to learn languages of their own neighbourhood,such as migrant and minority languages. However, in order to make use ofthe linguistic resources in the classroom, relating it to the democratic impetusof foreign language education, it is necessary to revise existing languagepolicies and to develop a multilingual perspective for all educational institutions.