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Sample records for culturally adapted psychotherapy

  1. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Multilevel Model, Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Culturally adapted psychotherapy has potential to improve psychotherapy outcomes for ethnic and racial minorities and solve a decades-long conundrum that alteration of specific ingredients does not improve psychotherapy outcomes. Adaptation of the cultural explanation of illness, known as the anthropological Myth in universal healing practices…

  2. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Direct-Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.; Quintana, Stephen; Wampold, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a culturally encapsulated healing practice that is created from and dedicated to specific cultural contexts (Frank & Frank, 1993; Wampold, 2007; Wrenn, 1962). Consequently, conventional psychotherapy is a practice most suitable for dominant cultural groups within North America and Western Europe but may be culturally incongruent…

  3. [Psychotherapy as cultural discourse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space.

  4. Culture and demoralization in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. Copyright

  5. Culture analysis and metaphor psychotherapy with Arab-Muslim clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2009-02-01

    Attempting to reveal unconscious content and promoting self-actualization may be counterproductive for clients who come from collectivistic cultures. Such treatment goals may expose clients to harsh confrontations with the family. Clients with dependency traits, low ego-strength, and strict families may be helped through metaphor psychotherapy or culture analysis. Metaphor therapy makes it possible to deal symbolically and indirectly with unconscious content; culture analysis can pave the way to reveal unconscious needs and enable clients to establish a new order within their belief systems and within their families. The present article describes these two therapy methods and illustrates their clinical use with an Arab-Muslim suffering from depression. Through such therapy anchored in his own culture and religion, the client altered his beliefs, became satisfied with himself, and found successful ways to adapt to his family.

  6. Psychotherapy: Adaptation or Walking Together? (A Roadside Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bychkova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns psychotherapeutic work in the perspective of existential approach. Two trends are discerned in modern psychotherapy regardless of the known division into different schools – the adaptation therapy, and the one viewing a person in the context of his Personal being in the world. Therapy here is understood as the Way of mutual personal growth of both the therapist and the client. Distinction is singled out as one of the central points in forming the meanings, essential for both the normal development of a child and in psychotherapy, and remaining significant for spiritual growth in adults. 

  7. Adapting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Older Adults at Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J.; Talbot, Nancy L.; King, Deborah A.; Tu, Xin M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To pilot a psychological intervention adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide. Design A focused, uncontrolled, pre-to-post-treatment psychotherapy trial. All eligible participants were offered the study intervention. Setting Outpatient mental healthcare provided in the psychiatry department of an academic medical center in a mid-sized Canadian city. Participants Seventeen English-speaking adults 60 years or older, at- risk for suicide by virtue of current suicide ideation, death ideation, and/or recent self-injury. Intervention A 16-session course of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide who were receiving medication and/or other standard psychiatric treatment for underlying mood disorders. Measurements Participants completed a demographics form, screens for cognitive impairment and alcohol misuse, a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and measures of primary (suicide ideation and death ideation), and secondary study outcomes (depressive symptom severity; social adjustment and support; psychological well-being), and psychotherapy process measures. Results Participants experienced significant reductions in suicide ideation, death ideation, and depressive symptom severity, and significant improvement in perceived meaning in life, social adjustment, perceived social support, and other psychological well-being variables. Conclusions Study participants experienced enhanced psychological well-being and reduced symptoms of depression and suicide ideation over the course of IPT adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide. Larger, controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of this novel intervention and to test methods for translating and integrating focused interventions into standard clinical care with at-risk older adults. PMID:24840611

  8. Psychotherapy as cultural discourse [Psychoterapia jako dyskurs kulturowy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józefik, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years` history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic “reality”. These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists` perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists` ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space.

  9. On the advantages of cross-culture psychotherapy: the minority therapist/mainstream patient dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L Y; Lo, H T

    1991-11-01

    The personal quality of the therapist is a key element in therapy. In the case of the minority therapist, the difference in language and cultural background offers the patient unique benefits. Value orientations amongst cultures are similar enough for the minority therapist to acculturate. Through acculturation, the therapist becomes aware of a new set of value orientations. This cultural objectivity better enables the therapist to help the mainstream patient to see alternatives in coping with stresses of life, and to fortify the patient's adaptive skills. Because Western psychiatry and psychotherapy are culture-bound, mainstream therapists may easily be "culturally addicted," whereas a minority therapist can maintain cultural neutrality. Advantages discussed include language independence, culture independence, positive transference and analogous experiences.

  10. Working through a psychotherapy group's political cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D

    2003-10-01

    Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation.

  11. Hidden points of view in cross-cultural psychotherapy and ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Inga-Britt

    2006-06-01

    This article examines the challenges posed by cross-cultural psychotherapy in a creolized world, and the way this intersects with issues faced by the ethnographer. It proposes 'the relational subject,' implicit in systemic psychotherapy and social anthropology, as a framework for an understanding of communication. In cross-cultural psychotherapy, this assumption is central to non-discriminatory and equitable treatment. Drawing on Bateson's ethnographic work, the article connects 'the relational subject' to what Bateson, following Whitehead, called 'the fallacy of misplaced concreteness' and later referred to as 'context.' The article examines the choices of 'context' first in ethnography and systemic psychotherapy and then in Bateson's own analysis of the Naven ritual. It is suggested that cross-cultural psychotherapy is psychotherapy in which the therapist keeps in mind, both her own and her client's contexts. This means an assessment of process (performative aspects) as well as content (semiotic aspects) and attention to 'moments' rather than longer sequences in the therapy.

  12. Adapting Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy in Advanced Cancer for the Chinese Immigrant Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jennifer; Lui, Florence; Chen, Angela; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Breitbart, William; Gany, Francesca

    2017-04-28

    The Chinese immigrant community faces multiple barriers to quality cancer care and cancer survivorship. Meaning-centered psychotherapy (MCP) is an empirically-based treatment shown to significantly reduce psychological distress while increasing spiritual well-being and a sense of meaning and purpose in life in advanced cancer patients. However, it has not yet been adapted for racial and ethnic minority populations for whom the concept of "meaning" may likely differ from that of westernized White populations. In this study, we conducted a community needs assessment to inform the cultural adaptation of MCP for Chinese patients with advanced cancer, in accordance with Bernal et al. ecological validity model and the cultural adaptation process model of Domenech-Rodriquez and Weiling. We conducted interviews until saturation with 11 key Chinese-serving community leaders and health professionals with a range of areas of expertise (i.e. oncology, psychology, palliative care, cancer support services), to examine community needs, priorities, and preferences within the context of the MCP intervention. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed. The research team analyzed the transcripts using Atlas.ti. Six frequently occurring themes were identified. Interviewees described the role of the family, traditional Chinese values, cancer stigma, and social norms (e.g. saving face) in adapting MCP. Researchers and clinicians should consider the role of the family in treatment, as well as specific social and cultural values and beliefs in adapting and delivering MCP for Chinese patients with advanced cancer.

  13. [Adaptation of psychodrama in psychotherapy of patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article was an attempt to present selected theoretical motifs and moreover self experience in the adaptation of elements of psychodrama by Moreno in psychodynamic psychotherapy (individual and group psychotherapy) in a group of people with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Psychodrama through own creativity, spontaneity and taking action on the "here and now" stage helps to attain and intensify therapeutic aims which concern the consciousness of inner conflict of persons with anorexia and bulimia nervosa, which is translocated on their body.

  14. Cuento Therapy. Folktales as a Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapy for Puerto Rican Children. Monograph No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    A seven-year project developing and testing cuento therapy, a form of child psychotherapy in which Puerto Rican mothers recount to their children folktales taken from Puerto Rican culture, is described and evaluated in this monograph. Chapter 1 explains how the research presented in later chapters fits into substantially broader patterns of…

  15. Co-creating meaningful structures within long-term psychotherapy group culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Robin G

    2009-07-01

    Meaningful group structures are co-created within the long-term outpatient psychotherapy group through a hermeneutical interaction between structure and immediate experience of structure by individuals embedded in personal and collective contexts. Co-created meanings expand original group- and self-understandings and further evolve structures that are stable yet do not exist independently of the narratives and affects of the members who interact with them. Group structures do not reduce, expand, or dissolve but change in connection to the experiences and meaning attributions within the group. This intersubjective process mediates the emphasis within group theory on leader responsibility for culture building that risks overpromoting certain psychotherapeutic cultural intentions over others. Three examples of intersubjective hermeneutical interaction within long-term psychotherapy groups lend insight into global, cultural, and societal groups.

  16. Cross-Cultural Counseling and Cross-Cultural Meanings: An Exploration of Morita Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Jane L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes theoretical framework and techniques of Morita psychotherapy. Western research indicates that Asian American clients prefer active-directive, logical, rational, and structured approaches. Suggests that ethnocentric counseling approaches may be imposed upon clients of Asian origin because meanings attached to terms describing counseling…

  17. The effect of interpersonal psychotherapy on marriage adaptive and postpartum depression in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hajiheidari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of this research confirm marriage interpersonal psychotherapy on the depression recovery and the increasing marriage satisfaction of women suffering from postpartum depression.

  18. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with a Parenting Enhancement Adapted for In-Home Delivery in Early Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, Linda S.; Schwartz, Todd A.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia; Matsuda, Yui

    2014-01-01

    Formidable barriers prevent low-income mothers from accessing evidence-based treatment for depressive symptoms that compromise their ability to provide sensitive, responsive parenting for their infant or toddler. interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), an evidence-based psychotherapy for depression, was tailored for in-home delivery to mothers…

  19. Adaptation and creativity in cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora M. Cohen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is the fit between the individual and the environment. The dynamic interplay between person, culture, and environment is one of the most important issues in analyzing creativity. Adaptation is defined as the fit or adjustment of the individual to external conditions, but adaptation can also mean moving from one environment to another more suitable, or even forcing the environment to adapt in response to creative efforts. Culture impacts creativity in limiting acceptable boundaries, yet providing the artifacts used in creating. Culture is impacted and changed by creative efforts. Tight conformity to confining environments or cultures can stifle. The creator must be aware of cultural values and not overstep these boundaries for work to be accepted. A developmental continuum of adaptive, creative behaviors suggests a shift from individual adaptation to the environment to adaptation by the world to the individual.

  20. [Psychodiagnosis and psychotherapy in medico-social adaptation of patients with hemorrhagic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanov, V A; Pozhilenko, N S

    1990-03-01

    The investigations were conducted in 264 patients with hemorrhagic diseases. Based on the clinical and psychological analysis most of the patients were found to have borderline psychic disorders. Psychotherapy has promoted diminution of psychic disorders, and in patients with hemorrhagic thrombocytopathy it has resulted in decreased hemorrhage and improved platelet function.

  1. An Example of a Hakomi Technique Adapted for Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a model of therapy that lends itself to integration with other therapy models. This paper aims to provide an example to assist others in assimilating techniques from other forms of therapy into FAP. A technique from the Hakomi Method is outlined and modified for FAP. As, on the whole, psychotherapy…

  2. International Students' Culture Learning and Cultural Adaptation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ran; Chiang, Shiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This article examines international students' cultural adaptation at a major national university in China. A survey was designed to measure international students' adaptation to the Chinese sociocultural and educational environments in terms of five dimensions: (1) cultural empathy, (2) open-mindedness, (3) emotional stability, (4) social…

  3. Brand Identity, Adaptation, and Media Franchise Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marazi Katerina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the noticeable practices within the field of Adaptation, Adaptation theory seems to be lagging behind whilst perpetuating various fallacies. Geoffrey Wagner’s types of Adaptation and Kamilla Elliott’s proposed concepts for examining adaptations have proved useful but due to their general applicability they seem to perpetuate the fallacies existing within the field of Adaptation. This article will propose a context-specific concept pertaining to Media Franchise Culture for the purpose of examining Adaptations and re-assessing long-held debates concerning the Original, the Content/Form debate and Fidelity issues that cater to the twelve fallacies discussed by Thomas Leitch.

  4. Psychotherapies: An Integration of Eastern Cultural Thoughts and Western Therapeutic Skills in the Chinese Practice%心理治疗在中国:西方治疗技术与东方文化思想的结合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季建林

    2001-01-01

    Psychotherapies were introduced into China and developed quite well in the past two decades.The author suggests that the development of psychotherapies for the Chinese should be integrated the traditional cultural issues with the different schools of Western psychotherapies. This article reviews the traditional cultures,which deeply influenced the people's mind and behavioral patterns; and the common kinds of modern psychotherapies practiced in China now.Particularly, the author suggests that the therapeutic skills to learn and experiments to collect, as well as cultural issues to concern will be focused on more by the Chinese therapists.

  5. Adaptation of Individual Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy for Chinese Immigrant Cancer Patients | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study is to modify a type of counseling called "Individual Meaning Centered Psychotherapy" to meet the needs of Chinese cancer patients. Many cancer patients use counseling or other resources to help cope with the emotional burden of their illnesses. Counseling often helps them cope with cancer by giving them a place to express their feelings. "Meaning-Centered" counseling aims to teach cancer patients how to maintain or even increase a sense of meaning and purpose in their lives, despite cancer. |

  6. Group counseling and psychotherapy across the cultural divide: the case of Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenEzer, Gadi

    2006-06-01

    Effective counseling across a cultural divide depends on adaptations or changes of technique to suit the particular intercultural circumstances. The concept of mutual creative space provides a guiding principle for therapists who wish to make such changes. This space is 'negotiated' between the therapist/counselor coming from the 'dominant/mainstream' group within society, and the group participants who arrive from another culture. Mutual creative space consists of the negotiation of power and a process of mutual invention, incorporating the creation, by therapist and participants, of something new that did not exist in either of their cultures of origin. A meaningful encounter and effective group counseling can take place following the negotiation of such a creative space. This is illustrated by the example of intercultural group work with Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel, including an analysis of cultural characteristics of the Ethiopian group and specific ways of negotiating mutual creative space in this case. Issues discussed include: establishing trust in the cross cultural context; the use of body language and its interpretation; the psychologist as an authority figure; active participation vs. hidden learning; and working with dreams in such groups.

  7. EMOTION REGULA TION AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: ADAPTATION AND ELA BORATION OF AN APPLICATION MANUAL OF THE OBSERVER MEASURE OF AFFECT REGULA TION (O-MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Almeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to adapt and develop a Portuguese manual for the Observer Measure of Affect Regulation (O-MAR; Watson & Prosser, 2006, an observational measure of clients’ emotion regulation in psychotherapy. Since the scale has not yet been adapted to Portuguese, initially a translation was performed. Then, to elaborate the manual, the middle 20 minutes of 20 therapy sessions were observed and classified and 2 illustrative excerpts were selected by consensus for each level of analysis of the various domains of the scale. All these videotaped sessions were collected in a randomized clinical trial carried out in Portugal for the treatment of depression, comparing 2 empirically supported models for the treatment of this disorder – cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion-focused therapy. All the participants were initially evaluated and diagnosed with mild or moderate major depressive disorder, and they attended 16 sessions of psychotherapy.

  8. Forensic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the role forensic psychotherapy has in the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offender patients, and its role in the supervision of individual therapists, staff groups or whole organisations which contain and manage this patient population. Forensic psychotherapy has a valuable role to play in the management of mentally disordered forensic patients. As forensic services continue to develop in Australia and New Zealand and interest in this field continues to grow, then the future of forensic psychotherapy looks bright.

  9. [EMDR and adaptive information processing. Psychotherapy as a stimulation of the self-reparative psychological processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isabel; Giovannozzi, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of traumatic event, the model of the adaptive information processing is described to illustrate how EMDR is applied to reprocess the trauma and resolve post-traumatic psychopathology. The eight phases of the EMDR treatment are presented together with the way an EMDR session is conducted and the contribution and innovation that EMDR represents in the field of therapy of post-traumatic states and its applicability in other symptomatic conditions.

  10. Dubbing: adapting cultures in the global communication era

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Canu

    2012-01-01

    Adapting translation for dubbing is not a mere linguistic fact: it is mainly the adaptation of cultures. In fact, audiovisual translation and adaptation implicitly takes into account the importance of the historical background behind the multiplicity of languages and cultures, and by doing so, it becomes a means of cultural diffusion. That peculiarity enables what we can describe as the “socio-anthropological function” of the adaptation of translation for dubbing, which is the obj...

  11. Social, occupational and cultural adaptation in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel; Bishop, Sheryl; Weiss, Karine; Gaudino, Marvin

    2016-07-01

    Life in isolated and confined environments (ICEs, e.g., polar stations, submarine or space missions), is subject to important constraints which can generate psychosociological impaired outcomes. This study investigated psychological, social, occupational and cultural variables which are among the most important determinants in adaptation to a one-year wintering in Antarctica with 13 international participants. Our findings confirm and give further insight into the role of social (Cohesiveness, Social Support) and occupational (Implementation / Preparedness, Counterproductive Activity, Decision Latitude and Psychological Job Demands) dimensions of adaptation to ICE environments. Relationships between various social and occupational dimensions studies reflected detrimental effects ranging from decrements in cohesiveness, social support and work performance which differed across professional status and multicultural factors. These psychosocial issues have important implications for pre-mission selection and training, monitoring and support of crews during the mission and post-mission readaptation. Operational recommendations are suggested to improve adaptation, success and well-being for long-term ICE missions, e.g., to Mars and beyond.

  12. The Culture Shock and Adaptation in Crocodile Dundee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉

    2014-01-01

    Culture shock is a common phenomenon,which has historical cause,symptoms,and cure.Usualy adaptation to a new culture has folowing steps:hostility,honeymoon,recovery,and adjustment.This essay is mainly about the culture shock and adaptation in film Crocodile Dundee.

  13. Adaptive image segmentation applied to plant reproduction by tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Rueda, Martin G.; Hahn, Federico; Zapata, Jose L.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents that experimental results obtained on indoor tissue culture using the adaptive image segmentation system. The performance of the adaptive technique is contrasted with different non-adaptive techniques commonly used in the computer vision field to demonstrate the improvement provided by the adaptive image segmentation system.

  14. Language, culture, and adaptation in immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Collins, Brian A

    2010-10-01

    In this article the authors discuss first why it is crucial, from a clinical and public health perspective, to better understand the development as well as risk and protection processes for the mental health of immigrant children. The authors then shift focus to the main tenet of this article, namely, that specific aspects of the dual language development of immigrant children are highly relevant to their mental health and adaptation. This argument is illustrated with empirical studies on Latino immigrant children, as they represent the majority of immigrant children in America and as a way of exemplifying the risks and circumstances that are potentially shared by other immigrant groups. Finally, the authors conceptually differentiate dual language development and its mental health impact from the dual-culture (bicultural) development and circumstance of immigrant children and their mental health impact.

  15. Religious and cultural aspects of psychotherapy in Muslim patients from tradition-oriented societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilhan, Jan Ilhan

    2014-06-01

    Patients from collective cultures with a tradition-bound Islamic cultural background (e.g. people from the Middle East and some Far-East countries such Pakistan and Indonesia), have a different perception of disease and different conceptions of healing, which up till now have not been sufficiently appreciated in modern multimodal therapeutic approaches and health management. Taking patients' value systems into consideration in a culture-sensitive way, with reference to their notions of magic, healing ceremonies and religious rituals and especially patterns of relations and experience in the treatment of psychological diseases in medical psychotherapeutic work, with due regard to scientific psychotherapeutic standards, can be used as an intercultural resource and lead to establishing partnership-like relationships between patients and therapists.

  16. Clinical algorithms as a tool for psychotherapy with Latino clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoleas, Peter; Garcia, Betty

    2003-04-01

    Clinical algorithms have the advantage of being able to integrate clinical, cultural, and environmental factors into a unified method of planning and implementing treatment. A model for practice is proposed that uses 3 algorithms as guides for conducting psychotherapy with Latino clients, the uses of which are illustrated in a single, ongoing case vignette. The algorithm format has the additional advantage of easily adapting itself for data gathering for research purposes.

  17. Soldiers Working Internationally: Impacts of Masculinity, Military Culture, and Operational Stress on Cross-Cultural Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Patrice A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ramifications of masculinized military culture and operational stress on cross-cultural adaptation. The author examines how characteristics of military culture may obstruct effective cross-cultural adaptation by promoting a hypermasculinity that tends to oppose effective management of trauma, and thereby suppresses skills…

  18. CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF CZECH CITIZENS IN THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article relates to the process of adaptation of Czech citizens to Turkish culture. The article explores the perception of Turkish culture by Czech citizens, problems they encounter in the Turkish society and the ways of their adjustment to the host culture. The empirical research on 10 Czech citizens was conducted using the method of semi-structured interviews. The article addresses the most important issues connected with the process of cultural adaptation.

  19. Transpersonal psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorstein, S

    2000-01-01

    The history, theory, and practice of Transpersonal (or Spiritual) Psychotherapy are presented. The author describes his own evolution from a traditional psychoanalyst to a psychotherapist who uses the tools and wisdom from spiritual traditions to enhance traditional psychotherapy while, at the same time, improving the self system of the therapist. Dangers as well as benefits of the spiritual approach are outlined. The creation and holding of a spiritual or transpersonal context is described and ways to ascertain, in the clinical situation, the appropriateness of such an approach are explained. The use of bibliotherapy to help transform and expand the worldview of the patient is outlined. Prayer and meditational systems also have a healing role in this approach. To illustrate the uses of Transpersonal Psychotherapy in practice, four cases are presented: 1) a paranoid schizophrenic man, 2) a well-functioning borderline person, 3) a very poorly functioning borderline person, and 4) a high-functioning neurotic man who had been in psychoanalysis.

  20. [General psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymetal, J

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays a theoretical psychotherapeutical thinking develops from the eclectic practice and uses particularly the research of the effective factors of the therapy. Best they can be characterized as differentiate, synthetic, integrative and exceeding other approaches. The development in question goes on with attempts of creating a general model of the psychotherapy that could be a basis for models of special psychotherapies. The aim of such a model is to describe all that is present as important factor for inducing a desirable change of a human in all psychotherapeutical approaches. Among general models we can mention the generic model of D. E. Orlinski and K. I. Howard, Grawe's cube (the author is K. Grawe) and the equation of the psychotherapy.

  1. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  2. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  3. Cultural Adaptation of Interventions in Real Practice Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of some common challenges and opportunities related to cultural adaptation of behavioral interventions. Cultural adaptation is presented as a necessary action to ponder when considering the adoption of an evidence-based intervention with ethnic and other minority groups. It proposes a roadmap to choose existing…

  4. Cultural Adaptation of Interventions in Real Practice Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of some common challenges and opportunities related to cultural adaptation of behavioral interventions. Cultural adaptation is presented as a necessary action to ponder when considering the adoption of an evidence-based intervention with ethnic and other minority groups. It proposes a roadmap to choose existing…

  5. Positive Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  6. Big ideas for psychotherapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, James; Gates, Sarah; Vinca, Maria Ann; Boles, Shawna; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2007-12-01

    Research indicates that traditional psychotherapy training practices are ineffective in durably improving the effectiveness of psychotherapists. In addition, the quantity and quality of psychotherapy training research has also been limited in several ways. Thus, based on extant scholarship and personal experience, we offer several suggestions for improving on this state of affairs. Specifically, we propose that future psychotherapy trainings focus on a few "big ideas," target psychotherapist meta-cognitive skills, and attend more closely to the organizational/treatment context in which the training takes place. In terms of future training research, we recommend that researchers include a wider range of intermediate outcomes in their studies, examine the nature of trainee skill development, and investigate the role that organizational/treatment culture plays in terms of the retention of changes elicited by psychotherapy training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Writing the reflexive self: an autoethnography of alcoholism and the impact of psychotherapy culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A

    2010-09-01

    Experimental ethnography enables the use of fictionalized accounts that celebrate partial truths and challenge realist and positivist ethnographic authority. Literary devices drawn from fiction arguably allow social researchers to better portray real events. Fiction, which should not be regarded as synonymous with falsehood, enables the telling of tales in dramatic and enjoyable ways. In this account - an autoethnography of alcoholism and the impact of therapy culture - the author's intention is not to make claims for a final word or closure on the topics raised, and juxtaposed with appropriate social theory. It is rather hoped that the text will trigger further meaning creation on the part of the reader and, in terms of praxis, contribute towards creating a kinder and more humane mental health nursing and therapy practice and in the 'off duty' world.

  8. Sacred Psychotherapy in the “Age of Authenticity”: Healing and Cultural Revivalism in Contemporary Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Wilce

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Like other European countries, contemporary Finland has witnessed an explosion of healing modalities designatable as “New Age” (though not without profound controversy, [1]. This paper focuses on Finnish courses in lament (wept song, tuneful weeping with words that combine healing conceived along psychotherapeutic lines and lessons from the lament tradition of rural Karelia, a region some Finns regard as their cultural heartland. A primary goal of the paper is to explicate a concept of “authenticity” emerging in lament courses, in which disclosing the depths of one’s feelings is supported not only by invoking “psy-“ discourses of self-help, but also by construing the genuine emotional self-disclosure that characterizes neolamentation as a sacred activity and a vital contribution to the welfare of the Finnish people.

  9. Advances in Psychotherapy for Depressed Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Patrick J; McGovern, Amanda R; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Sirey, Jo Anne

    2017-09-01

    We review recent advances in psychotherapies for depressed older adults, in particular those developed for special populations characterized by chronic medical illness, acute medical illness, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk factors. We review adaptations for psychotherapy to overcome barriers to its accessibility in non-specialty settings such as primary care, homebound or hard-to-reach older adults, and social service settings. Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapies that target late-life depression in the context of specific comorbid conditions including COPD, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other acute conditions, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk. Growing evidence supports the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of psychotherapy modified for a variety of health care and social service settings. Research supports the benefits of selecting the type of psychotherapy based on a comprehensive assessment of the older adult's psychiatric, medical, functional, and cognitive status, and tailoring psychotherapy to the settings in which older depressed adults are most likely to present.

  10. Feasibility of Providing Culturally Relevant, Brief Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Antenatal Depression in an Obstetrics Clinic: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Swartz, Holly A.; Frank, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To minimize barriers to care, ameliorate antenatal depression, and prevent postpartum depression, we conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of providing brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B) to depressed, pregnant patients on low incomes in an obstetrics and gynecological (OB/GYN) clinic. Method: Twelve pregnant,…

  11. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  12. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy Taking Care of Yourself Questions About ...

  13. Cultural Transduction and Adaptation Studies: The Concept of Cultural Proximity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick Cattrysse

    2017-01-01

    ...). [...]it expands the analytical scope. The author bases his claims on the observation that, in spite of cultural imperialist trends, audiences may prefer audiovisual programs from or about their own or a nearby culture...

  14. Examination of Cultural Shock, Inter-Cultural Sensitivity and Willingness to Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clare; Singaraju, Stephen; Halimi, Tariq; Sillivan Mort, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify themes on international experiences that impact culture and how these findings will intervene in understanding cross-cultural training programs. Thereby an attempt is made to: evaluate cross-cultural insensitivity influences on cross-cultural shock and willingness to adapt, identify cultural…

  15. Adapting Intangible Cultural Heritage to Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan; Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Regarding the relationship between intangible cultural heritage and intellectual property rights (IPRs), China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed Dr. Jur. Wei Zhi, associate professor at Peking University Law School.

  16. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  17. The current status of psychotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is as old as human culture'. However, the latter is now ... evolved to three main types as a result of these influ- .... tive by demonstrating a mean effect size for psychotherapy of 0.85 (that ... therapy that makes a difference changes brain function.

  18. Chinese engineering students' cross-cultural adaptation in graduate school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinquan

    This study explores cross-cultural adaptation experience of Chinese engineering students in the U.S. I interact with 10 Chinese doctoral students in engineering from a public research university through in-depth interviews to describe (1) their perceptions of and responses to key challenges they encountered in graduate school, (2) their perspectives on the challenges that stem from cross-cultural differences, and (3) their conceptualization of cross-cultural adaptation in the context of graduate school. My findings reveal that the major challenges participants encounter during graduate school are academic issues related to cultural differences and difficulties of crossing cultural boundaries and integrating into the university community. These challenges include finding motivation for doctoral study, becoming an independent learner, building a close relationship with faculty, interacting and forming relationships with American people, and gaining social recognition and support. The engineering students in this study believe they are less successful in their social integration than they are in accomplishing academic goals, mainly because of their preoccupation with academics, language barriers and cultural differences. The presence of a large Chinese student community on campus has provided a sense of community and social support for these students, but it also contributes to diminishing their willingness and opportunities to interact with people of different cultural backgrounds. Depending on their needs and purposes, they have different insights into the meaning of cross-cultural adaptation and therefore, and choose different paths to establish themselves in a new environment. Overall, they agree that cross-cultural adaptation involves a process of re-establishing themselves in new academic, social, and cultural communities, and adaptation is necessary for their personal and professional advancement in the U.S. They also acknowledge that encountering and adjusting

  19. Developing Culture-Adaptive Competency Through Experiences with Expressive Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverglate, Daniel S.; Sims, Edward M.; Glover, Gerald; Friedman, Harris

    2012-01-01

    Modern Warfighters often find themselves in a variety of non-combat roles such as negotiator, peacekeeper, reconstruction, and disaster relief. They are expected to perform these roles within a culture alien to their own. Each individual they encounter brings their own set of values to the interaction that must be understood and reconciled. To navigate the human terrain of these complex interactions, the Warfighter must not only consider the specifics of the target culture, but also identify the stakeholders, recognize the influencing cultural dimensions, and adapt to the situation to achieve the best possible outcome. Vcom3D is using game-based scenarios to develop culturally adaptive competency. The avatars that represent the stakeholders must be able to portray culturally accurate behavior, display complex emotion, and communicate through verbal and non-verbal cues. This paper will discuss the use of emerging game technologies to better simulate human behavior in cross-cultural dilemmas. Nomenclature: culture, adaptive, values, cultural values dimensions, dilemmas, virtual humans, non-verbal communications

  20. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  1. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M

    2011-02-12

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity.

  2. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity. PMID:21199844

  3. Dubbing: adapting cultures in the global communication era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Canu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adapting translation for dubbing is not a mere linguistic fact: it is mainly the adaptation of cultures. In fact, audiovisual translation and adaptation implicitly takes into account the importance of the historical background behind the multiplicity of languages and cultures, and by doing so, it becomes a means of cultural diffusion. That peculiarity enables what we can describe as the “socio-anthropological function” of the adaptation of translation for dubbing, which is the object of the following paper. Through an analysis of some important landmarks that intersected the history of some Western countries in the last two centuries, it was possible to trace a lack of reciprocity in the usage of dubbing in the two biggest film markets: North America and Europe. Clearly, that helps cultural supremacy to penetrate into our lives in a very subtle way. As a result, the paper attempts to demonstrate how dubbing spreads all cultures in order to have an effectively global communication. 

  4. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  5. Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy with Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Bob G.; Satre, Derek

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy is readily adaptable to use with older adults. This review integrates discussion of cognitive and behavioral intervention techniques with recent research and clinical observations in the field of gerontology. Cognitive changes with aging, personality and emotional development, cohort effects, and the social environment of older adults are discussed in relation to psychotherapy. Applications of cognitive behaivor therapy to specific late life problems such as...

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Lerner, D.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), measuring task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior, was developed in The Netherlands. OBJECTIVES: To cross-culturally adapt the IWPQ from the Dutch to the American-English language, and assess the

  7. Russians in treatment: the evidence base supporting cultural adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcik, Tomas; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Solopieieva-Jurcikova, Ielyzaveta; Ryder, Andrew G

    2013-07-01

    Despite large waves of westward migration, little is known about how to adapt services to assist Russian-speaking immigrants. In an attempt to bridge the scientist-practitioner gap, the current review synthesizes diverse literatures regarding what is known about immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. Relevant empirical studies and reviews from cross-cultural and cultural psychology, sociology, psychiatric epidemiology, mental health, management, linguistics, history, and anthropology literature were synthesized into three broad topics: culture of origin issues, common psychosocial challenges, and clinical recommendations. Russian speakers probably differ in their form of collectivism, gender relations, emotion norms, social support, and parenting styles from what many clinicians are familiar with and exhibit an apparent paradoxical mix of modern and traditional values. While some immigrant groups from the Former Soviet Union are adjusting well, others have shown elevated levels of depression, somatization, and alcoholism, which can inform cultural adaptations. Testable assessment and therapy adaptations for Russians were outlined based on integrating clinical and cultural psychology perspectives. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Adapting the Medium: Dynamics of Intermedial Adaptation in Contemporary Japanese Popular Visual Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusztai Beáta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With respect to adaptation studies, contemporary Japanese popular culture signifies a unique case, as different types of media (be those textual, auditive, visual or audio-visual are tightly intertwined through the “recycling” of successful characters and stories. As a result, a neatly woven net of intermedial adaptations has been formed - the core of this complex system being the manga-anime-live-action film “adaptational triangle.” On the one hand, the paper addresses the interplay of the various factors by which the very existence of this network is made possible, such as the distinctive cultural attitude to “originality,” the structure of the comics, animation and film industries, and finally, the role of fictitious genealogies of both traditional and contemporary media in the negotiation of national identity. On the other hand, the essay also considers some of the most significant thematic, narrative, and stylistic effects this close interconnectedness has on the individual medium. Special attention is being paid to the nascent trend of merging the adaptive medium with that of the original story (viewing adaptation as integration, apparent in contemporary manga-based live- action comedies, as the extreme case of intermedial adaptation. That is, when the aim of the adaptational process is no longer the transposition of the story but the adaptation (i.e. the incorporation of the medium itself- elevating certain medium-specific devices into transmedial phenomena.

  9. Psychotherapy and distributive justice: a Rawlsian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    In this paper I outline an approach to the distribution of resources between psychotherapy modalities in the context of the UK's health care system, using recent discussions of Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapy as a way of highlighting resourcing issues. My main goal is to offer an approach that is just, and that accommodates the diversity of different schools of psychotherapy. In order to do this I draw extensively on the theories of Justice and of Political Liberalism developed by the late John Rawls, and adapt these to the particular requirements of psychotherapy resourcing. I explore some of the implications of this particular analysis, and consider how the principles of Rawlsian justice might translate into ground rules for deliberation and decision-making.

  10. General mechanism and cultural diversity in psychotherapy:A comment%心理治疗的普遍性机制与文化多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭东; 钱捷

    2015-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a sort of arts based on science following the general principles of social science and natural science.Meanwhile,the content of psychotherapy,the process of the practice,and the relationship be-tween the help-seekers and the helpers reflect substantial humanistic connotation and are bound up with cultural and subcultural transmission and reality context.This paper is a commentary on the article written by an Indonesian fel-low T.Citraningtyas discussing the mother's role in the matriarchal society and its modern meanings.We discussed that the phenomenon of being "cultural extinction"also presents in China.Although the main stream in Chinese cul-ture is still patriarchic familism,the remainder of matriarchal society still exists in the basic emotional models of parent-child relationship.The deprivation and frustration related with filial piety and kinship may cause the conse-quence of "cultural extinction"in the individual level.Referring the theory of Wen-Shing Tseng on the mechanisms of the cultural influence on psychopathology,from the perspective of understanding psychology,we emphasized the importance of cultural empathy and recommended the systemic clinical thinking way of "empathic considering and contextualizing."Last but not least,we discussed the second case of the overseas migrant workers and their "left-at-home children"in this article within Chinese context.Moreover,besides the 61 million left-at-home children in rural areas,there are a large amount of substitute-raised children by their grandparents who might be also in the risk of being impaired physically and psychologically.This problematic phenomenon may relate to the living stress and the cultural encouragement as well.By providing a critique discussion with the related theories of correlation of the in-secure attachment with psychological disorders in childhood and adulthood,this commentary encouraged humble learning from our Indonesian fellows and appealed for greater

  11. Should psychotherapy consider reincarnation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Julio F P

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the need to take into account the cultural environment and belief systems of psychotherapy patients because these values reflect basic assumptions about man's nature and the cognitive references used to cope with psychological difficulties. Currently accepted psychotherapeutic approaches take no account of the belief in life after death held by most of the world's population. The World Values Survey (http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org) showed that there are large numbers of reincarnationists around the world, and whatever the reasons for believing in reincarnation, psychotherapeutic approaches should not ignore this significant group of people. Respect for patient opinions and subjective realities is a therapeutic need and an ethical duty, even though therapists may not share the same beliefs. Guidelines are suggested for professionals to develop collaborative models that help patients mobilize their intrinsic intelligence to find solutions to their complaints.

  12. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based practice utilizing an iterative stakeholder process and theoretical framework: problem solving therapy for Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Joyce P; Huynh, Loanie; Areán, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Main objectives were to familiarize the reader with a theoretical framework for modifying evidence-based interventions for cultural groups, and to provide an example of one method, Formative Method for Adapting Psychotherapies (FMAP), in the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for a cultural group notorious for refusing mental health treatment. Provider and client stakeholder input combined with an iterative testing process within the FMAP framework was utilized to create the Problem Solving Therapy--Chinese Older Adult (PST-COA) manual for depression. Data from pilot-testing the intervention with a clinically depressed Chinese elderly woman are reported. PST-COA is categorized as a 'culturally-adapted' treatment, where core mediating mechanisms of PST were preserved, but cultural themes of measurement methodology, stigma, hierarchical provider-client relationship expectations, and acculturation enhanced core components to make PST more understandable and relevant for Chinese elderly. Modifications also encompassed therapeutic framework and peripheral elements affecting engagement and retention. PST-COA applied with a depressed Chinese older adult indicated remission of clinical depression and improvement in mood. Fidelity with and acceptability of the treatment was sufficient as the client completed and reported high satisfaction with PST-COA. PST, as a non-emotion-focused, evidence-based intervention, is a good fit for depressed Chinese elderly. Through an iterative stakeholder process of cultural adaptation, several culturally-specific modifications were applied to PST to create the PST-COA manual. PST-COA preserves core therapeutic PST elements but includes cultural adaptations in therapeutic framework and key administration and content areas that ensure greater applicability and effectiveness for the Chinese elderly community. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Prakash B; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P

    2013-01-01

    The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of "traditional mental health promoting practices" was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a "mind control" as referred by Caraka, is achieved through "spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.

  14. Toward a conceptual understanding of acute cultural adaptation: A preliminary examination of ACA in female swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Haapanen, Saara; Mosek, Shwiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a novel approach to researching adaptation in transnational athletes. The first part introduces a conceptualisation of acute cultural adaptation (ACA), which extends the current literature in sport psychology by offering original insights into mechanisms underpinning adaptive...

  15. The Process of Cross-cultural Adaptation:An Analysis of Outsourced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莹

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs Kim’s (2001)‘Process of Cross-cultural Adaptation theory’to analyze the film—Outsourced, which talking about cross-cultural boundaries and how the protagonist Todd adapting to the Indian culture. Stress, adaptation and growth are three crucial phrases in the process of cross-cultural adaptation, which are correlated to each other and perform in a cyclic and continual way of‘draw-back-to-leap’. In this paper, each phrase is analyzed via employing theories and illustrating examples that Todd has experienced and encountered in India to highlight Todd's process of cross-cultural adaptation. More⁃over, implications will be explored by the paper and suggestions will be offered to the sojourners for their better adaptation in the host country. In addition, the paper presents the differences between American culture and Indian culture, which are to some ex⁃tent, the obstacles affecting successful cross-cultural adaptation.

  16. The Cultural Historical Complexity of Human Personality Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E. Wynn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on implicit intelligence has conceptualized students’ beliefs about the nature of intelligence as either fixed or malleable. This research has largely not included African American adolescents, a group for whom beliefs about intelligence have a cultural historical complexity related to both scientific racism and master narratives of race and intelligence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of implicit theories of intelligence for 63 African American adolescents who are seventh and eighth graders in a public charter school. The two-way ANOVA revealed that these adolescents held a malleable view of intelligence, which did not vary by gender or grade. Exploratory correlation analysis showed some consistent relationships with achievement motivation variables found in other studies. These findings may be explained by African American cultural values and the personality characteristic adaptations that they make living within a racialized society.

  17. Safety Culture in Indian Hospitals: A Cultural Adaptation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saharsh; Wu, Albert W

    2016-06-01

    Patient safety is increasingly recognized as a global health concern because of a staggering number of health care-related injuries and deaths. Although many hospitals are attempting to promote a patient safety agenda, there are relatively few options to track progress. The aims of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) into Gujarati and to provide evidence for its reliability and validity in hospitals in Gujarat, India. We also present preliminary data on the safety culture in these organizations. The first phase was the cultural adaptation and translation of the SAQ into Gujarati. The second phase was a cross-sectional survey of safety attitudes in 4 private hospitals. The survey was distributed to 424 health care workers and elicited an overall response rate of 79%. The questionnaire showed acceptable reliability and preliminary evidence for construct validity among health care workers in 4 private hospitals of varying size. The initial culture score results showed outcomes similar to international standards, with two-thirds of the respondents describing teamwork climate positively and more than half of the respondents describing safety climate positively. This study reveals promising initial results for patient safety culture in India, but further study is needed. The development and validation of the SAQ-Gujarati allow additional hospitals to evaluate their patient safety culture. As the first rendition of the SAQ to an Indian setting, the tool could help to initiate safety discourse and improve the potential for institutions to provide feedback to their staff members.

  18. American Indians’ Cultures: How CBPR Illuminated Inter-Tribal Cultural Elements Fundamental to an Adaptation Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper-Reeves, Leslie; Dustman, Patricia Allen; Harthun, Mary L.; Kulis, Stephen; Brown, Ed

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing numbers of ethnic minority populations in the United States seeking social services suggests that a “multicultural paradigm shift” is underway and gaining speed. This shift will increasingly demand that prevention programs and interventions be more culturally responsive. Interventions that are not aligned with prospective participants’ world views and experiences are only minimally effective. Existing models for conducting culturally grounded program adaptations emphasize identifying distinct levels of cultural influences while preserving core elements of the original intervention. An effective adaptation requires competent language translation as well as trained translations of program concepts and principles that will be meaningful to the targeted group, without compromising program fidelity. This article describes how a university research team and curriculum developers worked with American Indian youth and adults in a large southwestern city using a CBPR process to identify cultural elements that became foundational to the adaptation of a prevention curriculum that is a national model program, with the objective of increasing its applicability for urban native youth. PMID:23412946

  19. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  20. Psychotherapy for Delinquents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ian; Sullivan, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of a psychotherapy consultation service for delinquents (n=47). Based on data obtained from this program and a review of relevant literature, a working model of individual psychotherapy related to attachment theory as it applies to this population is presented. Discusses difficulties that warrant resolution. (JPS)

  1. On the nature of cultural transmission networks: evidence from Fijian villages for adaptive learning biases

    OpenAIRE

    Henrich, Joseph; Broesch, James

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other animals, humans are heavily dependent on cumulative bodies of culturally learned information. Selective processes operating on this socially learned information can produce complex, functionally integrated, behavioural repertoires—cultural adaptations. To understand such non-genetic adaptations, evolutionary theorists propose that (i) natural selection has favoured the emergence of psychological biases for learning from those individuals most likely to possess adaptive informatio...

  2. A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

  3. Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2002-08-01

    Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work.

  4. The Virtues of Cultural Resonance, Competence, and Relational Collaboration with Native American Indian Communities: A Synthesis of the Counseling and Psychotherapy Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    The article extends the scholarship, observations, and recommendations provided in Joseph Gone's article, "Psychotherapy and Traditional Healing for American Indians: Prospects for Therapeutic Integration" (2010 [this issue]). The overarching thesis is that for many Indian and Native clients, interpersonal and interethnic problems can emerge when…

  5. Cultural adaptation, compounding vulnerabilities and conjunctures in Norse Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugmore, Andrew J.; McGovern, Thomas H.; Vésteinsson, Orri; Arneborg, Jette; Streeter, Richard; Keller, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Norse Greenland has been seen as a classic case of maladaptation by an inflexible temperate zone society extending into the arctic and collapse driven by climate change. This paper, however, recognizes the successful arctic adaptation achieved in Norse Greenland and argues that, although climate change had impacts, the end of Norse settlement can only be truly understood as a complex socioenvironmental system that includes local and interregional interactions operating at different geographic and temporal scales and recognizes the cultural limits to adaptation of traditional ecological knowledge. This paper is not focused on a single discovery and its implications, an approach that can encourage monocausal and environmentally deterministic emphasis to explanation, but it is the product of sustained international interdisciplinary investigations in Greenland and the rest of the North Atlantic. It is based on data acquisitions, reinterpretation of established knowledge, and a somewhat different philosophical approach to the question of collapse. We argue that the Norse Greenlanders created a flexible and successful subsistence system that responded effectively to major environmental challenges but probably fell victim to a combination of conjunctures of large-scale historic processes and vulnerabilities created by their successful prior response to climate change. Their failure was an inability to anticipate an unknowable future, an inability to broaden their traditional ecological knowledge base, and a case of being too specialized, too small, and too isolated to be able to capitalize on and compete in the new protoworld system extending into the North Atlantic in the early 15th century. PMID:22371594

  6. Cultural adaptation, compounding vulnerabilities and conjunctures in Norse Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugmore, Andrew J; McGovern, Thomas H; Vésteinsson, Orri; Arneborg, Jette; Streeter, Richard; Keller, Christian

    2012-03-06

    Norse Greenland has been seen as a classic case of maladaptation by an inflexible temperate zone society extending into the arctic and collapse driven by climate change. This paper, however, recognizes the successful arctic adaptation achieved in Norse Greenland and argues that, although climate change had impacts, the end of Norse settlement can only be truly understood as a complex socioenvironmental system that includes local and interregional interactions operating at different geographic and temporal scales and recognizes the cultural limits to adaptation of traditional ecological knowledge. This paper is not focused on a single discovery and its implications, an approach that can encourage monocausal and environmentally deterministic emphasis to explanation, but it is the product of sustained international interdisciplinary investigations in Greenland and the rest of the North Atlantic. It is based on data acquisitions, reinterpretation of established knowledge, and a somewhat different philosophical approach to the question of collapse. We argue that the Norse Greenlanders created a flexible and successful subsistence system that responded effectively to major environmental challenges but probably fell victim to a combination of conjunctures of large-scale historic processes and vulnerabilities created by their successful prior response to climate change. Their failure was an inability to anticipate an unknowable future, an inability to broaden their traditional ecological knowledge base, and a case of being too specialized, too small, and too isolated to be able to capitalize on and compete in the new protoworld system extending into the North Atlantic in the early 15th century.

  7. A Tentative Study of Cultural Translation from the Perspective of Memetic-adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-jin

    2013-01-01

    Memetics is the study about cultural evolution, meme is the basic unit of culture, with language as its main medium, when meme was transmitted across language and culture obstacles, the adaptation theory from pragmatics provides the mechanism and selection criteria for the successfully transmitted meme via the means of translation, thus a memetic-adaptation paradigm for translation studies will be proposed based on memetics and adaptation theory.

  8. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD include: ... than acting out these emotions impulsively. Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT) This type of therapy focuses on reframing “ ...

  9. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychotherapy (TFP) This form of therapy is rooted in the patient’s confused and contradictory sense of identity ... person to another person, such as the therapist. In that moment, the therapist talks with the patient ...

  10. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD ... STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of ...

  11. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people learn tools, exercises, and concrete things they can do to manage their emotions when certain challenging ... treatment (such as medications or individual psychotherapy), STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve ...

  12. Values in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  13. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... identify and verbally express their emotions, describe their interactions with other people, and talk about themselves and ... stress (particularly the stress of rejection or disappointing interactions with other people). Supportive Psychotherapy A form of ...

  14. Introduction: Psychotherapy for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Beginning with Paul Federn--a contemporary of Sigmund Freud--every generation of psychotherapists for the past hundred years has included a small number of determined clinicians who have worked psychotherapeutically with psychotic patients, and written about their work. This special issue of the American Journal of Psychotherapy contains seven papers by clinicians in this generation who are using psychotherapy in the treatment of psychosis.

  15. PSYCHOTHERAPY SUPPORT ON SCIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Widyawati Suhendro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacologica...

  16. Cultural adaptation of preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum for Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Ayesha; Tariq, Pervaiz N; Zaman, Sahira

    2015-06-01

    Cultural adaptation of evidence-based programmes has gained importance primarily owing to its perceived impact on the established effectiveness of a programme. To date, many researchers have proposed different frameworks for systematic adaptation process. This article presents the cultural adaptation of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum for Pakistani children using the heuristic framework of adaptation (Barrera & Castro, 2006). The study was completed in four steps: information gathering, preliminary adaptation design, preliminary adaptation test and adaptation refinement. Feedbacks on programme content suggested universality of the core programme components. Suggested changes were mostly surface structure: language, presentation of materials, conceptual equivalence of concepts, training needs of implementation staff and frequency of programme delivery. In-depth analysis was done to acquire cultural equivalence. Pilot testing of the outcome measures showed strong internal consistency. The results were further discussed with reference to similar work undertaken in other cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. The Cultural Adaptation Process during a Short-Term Study Abroad Experience in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Nathan W.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2015-01-01

    Globalization continuously shapes our world and influences post-secondary education. This study explored the cultural adaptation process of participants during a short-term study abroad program. Participants experienced stages which included initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and career growth,…

  18. Adapting rice anther culture to gene transformation and RNA interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Caiyan; XIAO Han; ZHANG Wenli; WANG Aiju; XIA Zhihui; LI Xiaobing; ZHAI Wenxue; CHENG Zhukuan; ZHU Lihuang

    2006-01-01

    Anther culture offers a rapid method of generating homozygous lines for breeding program and genetic analysis. To produce homozygous transgenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in one step, we developed an efficient protocol of anther-callus-based transformation mediated by Agrobacterium after optimizing several factors influencing efficient transformation, including callus induction and Agrobacterium density for co-cultivation. Using this protocol, we obtained 145 independent green transformants from five cultivars of japonica rice by transformation with a binary vector pCXK1301 bearing the rice gene, Xa21 for resistance to bacterial blight, of which 140 were further confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis, including haploids (32.1%), diploids (62.1%)and mixoploids (7.5%). Fifteen diploids were found to be doubled haploids, which accounted for 10.7% of the total positive lines. Finally, by including 28 from colchicine induced or spontaneous diploidization of haploids later after transformation, a total of 43 doubled haploids (30.7%) of Xa21transgenic lines were obtained. We also generated two RNAi transgenic haploids of the rice OsMADS2 gene, a putative redundant gene of OsMADS4 based on their sequence similarity, to investigate its possible roles in rice flower development by this method. Flowers from the two OsMADS2RNAi transgenic haploids displayed obvious homeotic alternations, in which lodicules were transformed into palea/lemma-like tissues, whereas identities of other floral organs were maintained. The phenotypic alternations were proved to result from specific transcriptional suppression of OsMADS2gene by the introduced RNAi transgene. The results confirmed that OsMADS2 is involved in lodicule development of rice flower and functionally redundant with OsMADS4 gene. Our results demonstrated that rice anther culture could be adapted to gene transformation and RNAi analysis in rice.

  19. An Analysis of Ralph's Fate in Typical American from the Perspective of Cultural Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2016-01-01

    Ralph, the hero of Typical American written by Gish Jen, is originally a Chinese man who goes to America for PhD but finally becomes a typical American after a series of cultural crisis and adaptation. This paper is intended to analyze the fate of Ralph from the perspective of Lysgaard's U-curve cultural adaptation theory.

  20. Making the Tacit Explicit: Rethinking Culturally Inclusive Pedagogy in International Student Academic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes an approach, broadly inspired by culturally inclusive pedagogy, to facilitate international student academic adaptation based on rendering tacit aspects of local learning cultures explicit to international full degree students, rather than adapting them. Preliminary findings are presented from a focus group-based exploratory…

  1. Cultural adaptation and validation of a German version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS2).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) 2 in primary care patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. METHOD: The AIMS2 was translated into German and culturally adapted. The questionnaire then was administered to

  2. Organisational Culture and Values and the Adaptation of Academic Units in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zilwa, Deanna

    2007-01-01

    This study explores connections between the organisational culture and values of academic units in Australian universities and their efforts to adapt to external environmental pressures. It integrates empirical findings from case studies with theories of organisational culture and values and adaptation. It identifies seven dimensions of academic…

  3. Comparative evaluation of cell culture-adapted and chicken embryo-adapted fowl pox vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, M K; Oberoi, M S

    1999-01-01

    Two types of vaccines, chicken embryo adapted (VacCE) and cell culture adapted (VacCC), were tested for their efficacy to elicite the immune response in birds vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk of age. The cell-mediated immune response studied by blastogenesis assay showed that birds vaccinated at the second week of age by both VacCE and VacCC vaccines had significant increase in T-lymphocyte count at 21 days postvaccination (PV) and 7 days postchallenge (PC), whereas in birds vaccinated at 8 wk of age, a significant increase was seen at 21 days PV and 7 days PC with the VacCC vaccine. The rise in passive hemagglutination titers was observed up to 21 days PV and 7 days PC in birds vaccinated at 2 wk of age. However, only the birds vaccinated with VacCC at 8 wk of age showed rise in titers at days 21 PV and 7 PC. Birds were challenged 90 days PV by scarification on the thigh region, and the birds vaccinated with VacCC showed 90% and 70% protection when vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk, respectively. The birds vaccinated with VacCE showed only 60% and 20% protection at the corresponding levels, respectively.

  4. Baring the soul: Paul Bindrim, Abraham Maslow and 'nude psychotherapy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Nude psychotherapy is one of the most flamboyant therapeutic techniques ever developed in American psychology. Largely forgotten today, the therapy was an academic and popular sensation upon its introduction in 1967. Developed by psychologist Paul Bindrim, the therapy promised to guide clients to their authentic selves through the systematic removal of clothing. This paper explores the intellectual, cultural and ethical context of nude therapy and its significance as a form of unchurched spirituality. Although nude therapy has an indisputable tabloid character, it is also rooted in a long-standing academic search for authenticity and ultimate meaning through science. Bindrim's career demonstrates the historically long-standing interweaving of spirituality and science within American psychology while simultaneously highlighting the field's extraordinary capacity for adaptive reinvention.

  5. Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types No. 86; updated February 2017 Psychotherapy ... Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in ...

  6. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground

  7. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  8. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  9. Psychotherapy: A 40-Year Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Sol L.

    1981-01-01

    Appraises selected issues and developments in the field of psychotherapy since 1940. Discusses increased participation of clinical psychologists in the area of psychotherapy, increased popularity of psychotherapy, declining influence of psychoanalysis and related views, emergence of behavioral and cognitive therapies, and recent emphasis on…

  10. A longitudinal test of the effects of Facebook use on cultural adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Croucher, Stephen; Rahmani, Diyako

    2015-01-01

    The present study is a longitudinal examination of the role of Facebook on the cultural adaptation of Muslim immigrants to the United States (n = 379). Immigrants’ use of Facebook affects interactions with the dominant culture and with the ingroup. Respondents were asked about their use of Facebook, motivation to culturally adapt, and perceptions of the US at two different points in a 6-year period. Analysis revealed the following. Muslim immigrants to the US from 2006 to 2012 ...

  11. A longitudinal test of the effects of Facebook use on cultural adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Croucher, Stephen; Rahmani, Diyako

    2015-01-01

    The present study is a longitudinal examination of the role of Facebook on the cultural adaptation of Muslim immigrants to the United States (n = 379). Immigrants’ use of Facebook affects interactions with the dominant culture and with the ingroup. Respondents were asked about their use of Facebook, motivation to culturally adapt, and perceptions of the US at two different points in a 6-year period. Analysis revealed the following. Muslim immigrants to the US from 2006 to 2012 ...

  12. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  13. Gratitude in cognitive psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Moyano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gratitude is a cognitive-affective state caused by the recognition that one has received a benefit from an external agent, due to the good intentions of this agent. Despite the evidence that associate gratitude with subjective well being, psychological well being, physical health and copping with stressful events, it is not enough taken in consideration in an academic level and in its interaction with psychotherapy instruments as well. In this article, the central concepts and information provided by the research are revised, intending to analyze possible ways to include gratitude into Cognitive Psychotherapy

  14. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  15. Social Importance Dynamics: A Model for Culturally-Adaptive Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascarenhas, S.; Prada, R.; Paiva, A.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The unwritten rules of human cultures greatly affect social behaviour and as such should be considered in the development of socially intelligent agents. So far, there has been a large focus on modeling cultural aspects related to non-verbal behaviour such as gaze or body posture. However, culture a

  16. [Spanish adaptation and factor structure of the Denison Organizational Culture Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavia, Tomás; Prado Gasco, Vicente J; Barberá Tomás, David

    2009-11-01

    This article presents a Spanish adaptation of the Denison Organizational Culture Survey, a questionnaire designed to evaluate organizational culture. This survey consists of 60 items, grouped in 12 subscales, which identify 4 cultural dimensions. These dimensions have been widely studied and their influence in organizational effectiveness has been accepted. This adaptation was applied to 488 participants, and analysed with confirmatory factor analysis. Results show adequate psychometric properties, so it can be concluded that the Spanish adaptation almost completely replicates the structure of the original version in English.

  17. Psychotherapy for Suicidal Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews various systems of psychotherapy for suitability for suicidal clients. Discusses psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, primal therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, person-centered therapy, existential analysis, and Jungian analysis in light of available treatment options. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when people with BPD realize others understand their experience and treatment options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) ... self-image – possibly brought on by negative childhood experiences – that affects how people react to their environment, ...

  19. Personality Theory and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Joen; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…

  20. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  1. Psychotherapy, Postmodernism, and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwood, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a postmodern ethics based on mutual respect and trust, derived from psychotherapy, and recognizing the primacy of individual subjectivity. Develops the concept of free attention to one another creating moral space. Stresses affect over reason and practice over theory. Sees moral space as fundamental to the social fabric. (CH)

  2. Piaget and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, T L

    1978-04-01

    It is difficult to apply Piaget's theory to psychotherapy because the place of affect in it is ambiguous. When the alternatives are considered, it seems most consistent with Piaget's ideas to regard both cognitive and affective phenomena as problem-solving organizations. Piaget's remarkable discoveries in the cognitive sphere are a consequence of the easy access in that sphere to the kind of problems that need solving, and the phasic development of solutions. But the nature of the problems to be solved or the values to be guarded by a patient in psychotherapy are not knowable independently of the patient's actual behavior. In one respect all that is left from Piaget's approach for psychotherapy generally is the truism that therapy fosters differentiation and integration. However, even if we cannot frame a peculiarly Piagetian paradigm of psychotherapy, Piaget is valuable in posing a subsidiary question, namely, what in therapy fosters problem-solving activity. A reading of Piaget suggests that a patient learns by acting on his therapist and tacitly interpreting the results of his actions, that difficulties in therapy are the material from which therapy proceeds, and that in order to grasp the situation of the patient, the therapist himself may need to act on him and not just think about him. An implied lesson for training would be that supervision should instill a professional identity that is reinforced rather than challenged by therapy difficulties, and does not rely solely on theoretical categorizing.

  3. Medikamentengabe und Psychotherapie

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Psychopharmakotherapie ist ein möglicher Baustein in der multimodalen Behandlung kinder- und jugendpsychiatrischer Störungsbilder. Diese simple Aussage ist unumstritten. Dennoch haben im klinischen Alltag sowohl Eltern als auch Psychotherapeuten häufig erhebliche Bedenken, einem Kind ein Psychopharmakon zu verabreichen. Neben angemessenen Bedenken zu potenziellen Wechselwirkungen zwischen psychopharmakotherapie und Psychotherapie oder Unsicherheiten zu Wirkungen und Nebenwirkungen eines Psych...

  4. Cultural Adaptation, Parenting and Child Mental Health Among English Speaking Asian American Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2016-09-09

    Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.

  5. Cross-Culture Adaptation in Business Context:the Implication of Adap-tation Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱玲; 石美

    2014-01-01

    Translating in business context involves considerable factors like culture, idioms besides language itself. This paper em-ploys adaptation theory and posed several examples commonly-seen in product, trademark and advertisement translating to show the essentials of translating in business context.

  6. Cultural adaptations to augment health and mental health services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Priscilla; Stager, Megan L; Woodmass, Kyler; Dettlaff, Alan J; Vergara, Andrew; Janke, Robert; Wells, Susan J

    2017-01-05

    Membership in diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural groups is often associated with inequitable health and mental health outcomes for diverse populations. Yet, little is known about how cultural adaptations of standard services affect health and mental health outcomes for service recipients. This systematic review identified extant themes in the research regarding cultural adaptations across a broad range of health and mental health services and synthesized the most rigorous experimental research available to isolate and evaluate potential efficacy gains of cultural adaptations to service delivery. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, and grey literature sources were searched for English-language studies published between January 1955 and January 2015. Cultural adaptations to any aspect of a service delivery were considered. Outcomes of interest included changes in service provider behavior or changes in the behavioral, medical, or self-reported experience of recipients. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently tested adaptation occurred in preventive services and consisted of modifying the content of materials or services delivered. None of the included studies focused on making changes in the provider's behavior. Many different populations were studied but most research was concerned with the experiences and outcomes of African Americans. Seventeen of the 31 retained studies observed at least one significant effect in favor of a culturally adapted service. However there were also findings that favored the control group or showed no difference. Researchers did not find consistent evidence supporting implementation of any specific type of adaptation nor increased efficacy with any particular cultural group. Conceptual frameworks to classify cultural adaptations and their resultant health/mental health outcomes were developed and applied in a variety of ways. This review synthesizes the most rigorous research in the field and identifies

  7. Strategies for Cultural Adaptation towards Solutions in Childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The Role of Culture in Designing Child Care Facilities—Creating Culturally ... helps reduce annual maintenance to high use areas. ... learnt and practiced rather like the playing of sport or musical instrument. .... But the most upsetting part was the notice that all .... On some projects, Children's focus groups could be done.

  8. The evolution of cultural adaptations: Fijian food taboos protect against dangerous marine toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie

    2010-12-22

    The application of evolutionary theory to understanding the origins of our species' capacities for social learning has generated key insights into cultural evolution. By focusing on how our psychology has evolved to adaptively extract beliefs and practices by observing others, theorists have hypothesized how social learning can, over generations, give rise to culturally evolved adaptations. While much field research documents the subtle ways in which culturally transmitted beliefs and practices adapt people to their local environments, and much experimental work reveals the predicted patterns of social learning, little research connects real-world adaptive cultural traits to the patterns of transmission predicted by these theories. Addressing this gap, we show how food taboos for pregnant and lactating women in Fiji selectively target the most toxic marine species, effectively reducing a woman's chances of fish poisoning by 30 per cent during pregnancy and 60 per cent during breastfeeding. We further analyse how these taboos are transmitted, showing support for cultural evolutionary models that combine familial transmission with selective learning from locally prestigious individuals. In addition, we explore how particular aspects of human cognitive processes increase the frequency of some non-adaptive taboos. This case demonstrates how evolutionary theory can be deployed to explain both adaptive and non-adaptive behavioural patterns.

  9. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  10. A systematic review of depression psychotherapies among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Anahí; Lim, Aaron C; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    For decades, the literature has reported persistent treatment disparities among depressed Latinos. Fortunately, treatment development and evaluation in this underserved population has expanded in recent years. This review summarizes outcomes across 36 unique depression treatment studies that reported treatment outcomes for Latinos. Results indicated that there was significant variability in the quality of RCT and type/number of cultural adaptations. The review suggested that there might a relation between cultural adaptations with treatment outcomes; future studies are warranted to confirm this association. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was the most evaluated treatment (CBT; n=18, 50% of all evaluations), followed by Problem Solving Therapy (PST; n=4), Interpersonal Therapy (IPT; n=4), and Behavioral Activation (BA; n=3). CBT seems to fare better when compared to usual care, but not when compared to a contact-time matched control condition or active treatment. There is growing support for PST and IPT as efficacious depression interventions among Latinos. IPT shows particularly positive results for perinatal depression. BA warrants additional examination in RCT. Although scarce, telephone and in-home counseling have shown efficacy in reducing depression and increasing retention. Promotora-assisted trials require formal assessment. Limitations and future directions of the depression psychotherapy research among Latinos are discussed.

  11. Pattern matching and adaptive image segmentation applied to plant reproduction by tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Rueda, Martin G.; Hahn, Federico

    1999-03-01

    This paper shows the results obtained in a system vision applied to plant reproduction by tissue culture using adaptive image segmentation and pattern matching algorithms, this analysis improves the number of tissue obtained and minimize errors, the image features of tissue are considered join to statistical analysis to determine the best match and results. Tests make on potato plants are used to present comparative results with original images processed with adaptive segmentation algorithm and non adaptive algorithms and pattern matching.

  12. HELPFUL ASPECTS OF THE THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP IN INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Urška Modic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a qualitative study of helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship in Integrative Psychotherapy. Participants of the study were sixteen clients who were in the process of Integrative Psychotherapy for at least a year. Participants were interviewed with the adapted version of the Change Interview (Elliott, 1999, which involves a semi-structured empathic exploration of the client's experience in therapy. The analysis of the clients’ experience of Integrative Psychotherapy revealed six categories of helpful aspects of therapeutic relationship: the therapist’s empathic attunement, the therapist’s acceptance, the match between the client and the therapist, feelings of trust and safety, feeling of connection, and experience of a new relational experience. Based on results of the research, we developed a model of the healing relationship in integrative psychotherapy. This model describes the interrelatedness of these six helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship. The categories of empathic attunement and acceptance proved to be the most important categories relating to the therapist’s contribution to the healing therapeutic relationship. Clients described that the therapist’s empathic attunement and acceptance influenced the development of safety and trust, feelings of connection and promotion of new relational experiences. The results of this study are discussed in relation to the theories of Integrative Psychotherapy and research regarding the therapeutic relationship in psychotherapy.

  13. Psychotherapy with physically disabled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui Aragao; Milliner, Eric K; Page, Richard

    2004-01-01

    With the last decades, health care interventions have been more productively attuned to actualizing the potential for optimal recuperation of every patient. Unique and important contributions of psychotherapy to this effort include: 1) A formulation which synthesizes an understanding of clinical behaviors, reality-based physical limitations and risks with an appreciation of the patient's mechanisms of defense, ego strengths and weaknesses, and transference expectations which impact the treatment process; 2) The utilization of individual psychotherapy (focused on "insight") in combination with supportive individual and group experiences. For children and adolescents struggling with age-appropriate physical-developmental and social issues or learning disabilities, psychoeducational approach for disabled youngsters has proven very beneficial. 3) Occasional crises occur which involve the spouse or relatives more than the index patient. Working to provide supportive Couple or Family System intervention is sometimes as essential as caring for the disabled individual. 4) Numerous Group Therapy approaches have proven efficacious. Treatment in a group setting is attractive to those who are concerned about cost-containment. Unfortunately, groups for disabled are often "didactic" and utilize a format that provides factual information about disabilities, medical procedures, and sometimes an intellectual discussion of "emotional answers" for certain types of problems or conditions. Groups that facilitate self-disclosure and emotional interactions among the members accomplish more meaningful results. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the importance of developing rigorous scientific research in the area of disabilities which will match the excellence of clinical work already being done in the field. Gaining an accurate and more thorough understanding of the psychological reality of a disabled person's internal world may be a key to facilitating his or her self-esteem and

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and Chinese students in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This contribution goes into the experiences of Chinese students studying at universities abroad. In the host societies they find themselves having to deal with major cultural confusion, which frustrates their education. Individualism and independence are characteristics strongly embedded in modern

  15. What Tension between Fidelity and Cultural Adaptation? A Reaction to Marsiglia and Booth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, McClain; Torres, Luis R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a reaction to Marsiglia and Booths' paper, "Cultural Adaptation of Interventions in Real Practice Settings." In their paper, Marsiglia and Booth present the difficulty of implementing and replicating evidence-supported treatments, such as randomized clinical trials, among culturally diverse clients. Practitioners working in…

  16. Cultural Adaptation and Translation of Outreach Materials on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinker, Roy R.; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Ahmann, Chloe; Beidas, Rinad S.; Lagman, Adrienne; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to connect with families and influence treatment trajectories, outreach materials should address cultural perceptions of the condition, its causes, and post-diagnostic care. This paper describes the cultural adaptation and translation of the Autism Speaks First 100 Days Kit into Korean for the purpose of improving autism spectrum disorder…

  17. Effects of a Culturally Adapted Social-Emotional Learning Intervention Program on Students' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kristine M.; Castro-Olivo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Student self-reports of resiliency and social-emotional internalizing problems were examined to determine intervention effects of a culturally adapted social and emotional learning (SEL) program. Data were analyzed from 20 culturally and linguistically diverse high school students who participated in a school-based 12-lesson SEL intervention and…

  18. Effects of a Culture-Adaptive Forgiveness Intervention for Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mingxia; Hui, Eadaoin; Fu, Hong; Watkins, David; Tao, Linjin; Lo, Sing Kai

    2016-01-01

    The understanding and application of forgiveness varies across cultures. The current study aimed to examine the effect of a culture-adaptive Forgiveness Intervention on forgiveness attitude, self-esteem, empathy and anxiety of Mainland Chinese college students. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated to either experimental groups or a…

  19. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  20. Quantum change and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Thomas H

    2004-05-01

    Deep change in psychotherapy more typically comes slowly rather than suddenly, but this difference between therapeutic change and quantum change may be one of perspective rather than substance. Psychotherapy may be understood as a kind of mindfulness practice similar to working with koans in that the client presents a life dilemma incapable of rational solution. While quantum change cannot be engineered, the psychotherapist can create an environment conducive to such transformation by producing true presence and modeling calm, concerned, sustained attention to the dilemma that precipitated treatment. Psychotherapists who also maintain a sense of their work as a high art and a way of being, and who in consequence cultivate their own emotional and spiritual development, may be more likely to create such an environment.

  1. Mind, brain and psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheth Hitesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be. However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients.

  2. Constructivism and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J; Granvold, Donald K

    2005-06-01

    Constructivism is a metatheoretical perspective that embraces diverse traditions in medicine, philosophy, psychology, and spiritual wisdom. Constructive psychotherapy emphasizes complex cycles in the natural ordering and reorganizing processes that characterize all development in living systems. Individuals are encouraged to view themselves as active participants in their lives. Within rich contexts of human relationship and symbol systems, people make new meanings as they develop. Techniques from many different traditions can help people find and refine their sense of balance as they develop.

  3. Cultural Challenges in Adapting Lesson Study to a Philippines Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    Promising improved student and teacher learning, Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators to try to implement it in their own contexts. However, a simple transference model of implementation is likely to meet difficulties. Key determinants of any adaptation will be differences between existing conventions of pedagogy and of…

  4. Culture adaptation alters transcriptional hierarchies among single human embryonic stem cells reflecting altered patterns of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Paul J; Au-Young, Janice K; Dadi, SriVidya; Keys, David N; Harrison, Neil J; Jones, Mark; Soneji, Shamit; Enver, Tariq; Sherlock, Jon K; Andrews, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    We have used single cell transcriptome analysis to re-examine the substates of early passage, karyotypically Normal, and late passage, karyotypically Abnormal ('Culture Adapted') human embryonic stem cells characterized by differential expression of the cell surface marker antigen, SSEA3. The results confirmed that culture adaptation is associated with alterations to the dynamics of the SSEA3(+) and SSEA3(-) substates of these cells, with SSEA3(-) Adapted cells remaining within the stem cell compartment whereas the SSEA3(-) Normal cells appear to have differentiated. However, the single cell data reveal that these substates are characterized by further heterogeneity that changes on culture adaptation. Notably the Adapted population includes cells with a transcriptome substate suggestive of a shift to a more naïve-like phenotype in contrast to the cells of the Normal population. Further, a subset of the Normal SSEA3(+) cells expresses genes typical of endoderm differentiation, despite also expressing the undifferentiated stem cell genes, POU5F1 (OCT4) and NANOG, whereas such apparently lineage-primed cells are absent from the Adapted population. These results suggest that the selective growth advantage gained by genetically variant, culture adapted human embryonic stem cells may derive in part from a changed substate structure that influences their propensity for differentiation.

  5. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP STYLE: KEY FACTORS IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Vrdoljak Raguž

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to theorize about how the specific leadership style affects the organizational adaptation in terms of its external environment through fostering the desired organizational culture. Adaptation success, the dimensions of organizational culture and the executive leadership role in fostering the desired corporate culture conducive to the organizational adaptation process are discussed in this paper. The objective of this paper is to highlight the top executive managers’ crucial role and their leadership style in creating such an internal climate within an organization that, in turn, encourages and strengthens the implementation of changes and adaptation to its environment. The limitations of this paper lie in the consideration that this subject matter is discussed only at a theoretical level and that its validity should be proved through practical application.

  6. Cross-Cultural Adaptations of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background According to general ethical and legal principles, valid consent must be obtained before starting any procedure. Objectives Due to the lack of a standard tool for assessing patients’ capacity to consent to medical treatment in Iran, the present study was carried out aiming to devise a Persian version of a cross-cultural adaptation of the MacArthur competence assessment tool. Patients and Methods By reviewing different methods of cultural translation and adaptation for assessment tools, and due to the lack of consensus on its processes, we selected Wild’s model as one of the most comprehensive methods in this regard. Wild’s (2005 10-stage model includes preparation, forward translation, reconciliation of the forward translation, back translation of reconciliation, back translation review, cognitive debriefing and cognitive review, and finalization, proofreading and final reporting. Using this model, we translated the MacArthur assessment tool and made it adaptable to Iranian patients. Results The MacArthur assessment tool is not dependent on any specific culture and language. As a result, if translation and its scientific adaptation are done based on an integrated and detailed model, the tool can be used for every culture and language. In other words, this tool is not culture-specific; so, it is applicable in cases where a translation is needed, and it can be culturally adapted to suit different societies. Conclusions In the present study, we are able to focus on and prove the efficacy and benefits of this measurement tool.

  7. Culture adaptation of malaria parasites selects for convergent loss-of-function mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Affara, Muna; Assefa, Samuel A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Conway, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Cultured human pathogens may differ significantly from source populations. To investigate the genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in malaria parasites, clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates were sampled from patients and cultured in vitro for up to three months. Genome sequence analysis was performed on multiple culture time point samples from six monoclonal isolates, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants emerging over time were detected. Out of a total of five positively selected SNPs, four represented nonsense mutations resulting in stop codons, three of these in a single ApiAP2 transcription factor gene, and one in SRPK1. To survey further for nonsense mutants associated with culture, genome sequences of eleven long-term laboratory-adapted parasite strains were examined, revealing four independently acquired nonsense mutations in two other ApiAP2 genes, and five in Epac. No mutants of these genes exist in a large database of parasite sequences from uncultured clinical samples. This implicates putative master regulator genes in which multiple independent stop codon mutations have convergently led to culture adaptation, affecting most laboratory lines of P. falciparum. Understanding the adaptive processes should guide development of experimental models, which could include targeted gene disruption to adapt fastidious malaria parasite species to culture. PMID:28117431

  8. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Jones Dependency Tool to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Marchesan de Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methodological study to translate and culturally adapt the Jones Dependency Tool (JDT to Portuguese. The translation and cultural adaptation method had four stages. First stage: translation of the original instrument from English to Portuguese. Second stage: content, cultural, semantic and conceptual equivalence in relation to the original instrument. Third stage: back-translation. Fourth stage: comparison of the translated and back-translated versions by a committee of specialists, resulting in the final version. In the Communication Domain, the original JDT measured pain using high, intermediate and low ranges, but the committee suggested replacing it with a visual analog scale. The translation and cultural adaptation of the JDT to Portuguese produced an instrument applicable to our reality. Studies need to be conducted to test the validity and reliability of the JDT in Brazilian Emergency Services. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i4.22345.

  9. Cultural Differences and User Instructions: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Manual Structure on Western and Chinese Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Qian; Jong, de Menno D.T.; Karreman, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Research shows that Western and Chinese technical communicators structure their documents in different ways. The research reported in this article is a first attempt to systematically explore the effects cultural adaptations of user instructions have on users. Specifically, we investigate w

  10. Social enhancement can create adaptive, arbitrary and maladaptive cultural traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Mathias; Matthews, Luke J.

    2010-01-01

    Many animals are known to learn socially, i.e. they are able to acquire new behaviours by using information from other individuals. Researchers distinguish between a number of different social-learning mechanisms such as imitation and social enhancement. Social enhancement is a simple form of social learning that is among the most widespread in animals. However, unlike imitation, it is debated whether social enhancement can create cultural traditions. Based on a recent study on capuchin monkeys, we developed an agent-based model to test the hypotheses that (i) social enhancement can create and maintain stable traditions and (ii) social enhancement can create cultural conformity. Our results supported both hypotheses. A key factor that led to the creation of cultural conformity and traditions was the repeated interaction of individual reinforcement and social enhancement learning. This result emphasizes that the emergence of cultural conformity does not necessarily require cognitively complex mechanisms such as ‘copying the majority’ or group norms. In addition, we observed that social enhancement can create learning dynamics similar to a ‘copy when uncertain’ learning strategy. Results from additional analyses also point to situations that should favour the evolution of learning mechanisms more sophisticated than social enhancement. PMID:20547762

  11. Cognitive Adaptation to the Experience of Social and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is a defining characteristic of modern society, yet there remains considerable debate over the benefits that it brings. The authors argue that positive psychological and behavioral outcomes will be observed only when social and cultural diversity is experienced in a way that challenges stereotypical expectations and that when this…

  12. Cognitive Adaptation to the Experience of Social and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is a defining characteristic of modern society, yet there remains considerable debate over the benefits that it brings. The authors argue that positive psychological and behavioral outcomes will be observed only when social and cultural diversity is experienced in a way that challenges stereotypical expectations and that when this…

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation and Chinese students in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This contribution goes into the experiences of Chinese students studying at universities abroad. In the host societies they find themselves having to deal with major cultural confusion, which frustrates their education. Individualism and independence are characteristics strongly embedded in modern W

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and Chinese students in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This contribution goes into the experiences of Chinese students studying at universities abroad. In the host societies they find themselves having to deal with major cultural confusion, which frustrates their education. Individualism and independence are characteristics strongly embedded in modern W

  15. Interconnection of socio-cultural adaptation and identity in the socialization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Y Rakhmanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the socio-cultural adaptation of an individual on his personality and identity structure; analyzes the processes of primary and secondary socialization in comparison with subsequent adaptation processes, as well as the possibility of a compromise between the unchanging, rigid identity and the ability to adapt flexibly to the changing context. The author identifies positive and negative aspects of adaptation in the contemporary society while testing the hypothesis that if the adaptation is successful and proceeds within the normal range, it helps to preserve the stability of social structures, but does not contribute to their development for the maladaptive behavior of individuals and groups stimulates social transformations. In the second part of the article, the author shows the relationship of the socio-cultural identity and the individual status in various social communities and tries to answer the question whether the existence and functioning of the social community as a pure ‘form’ without individuals (its members is possible. The author describes the identity phenomenon in the context of the opposition of the universal and unique, similarities and differences. The article also introduces the concept of the involvement in the socio-cultural context as one of the indicators of the completeness and depth of individual socio-cultural adaptation to a certain environment, which is quite important for the internal hierarchy of individual identity.

  16. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the CHAMPS Questionnaire in French Canadians with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Susanne; Soicher, Judith E; Mayo, Nancy E; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Bourbeau, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is difficult to measure in individuals with COPD. The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire demonstrated strong clinometric properties when used with the elderly and with those affected by chronic disease. Study objectives were to translate, culturally adapt the CHAMPS into French, and reexamine its test-retest reliability and construct validity in French and English Canadians with COPD. This paper presents the cross-cultural adaptation of the CHAMPS; results of its clinometric testing will be described in another article. The CHAMPS examines the degree of physical activity performed in a typical week through two summary scales, caloric expenditure and activity frequency. The CHAMPS was only in English; thus, a cross-cultural adaptation was needed to translate the CHAMPS into French for use in French Canadians with COPD. Cross-cultural adaptation consisted of forward and back translation, with expert review at each stage of translation: minor inconsistencies were uncovered and rectified. Five French participants with COPD completed the finalized Canadian French CHAMPS and participated in cognitive debriefing; no problematic items were identified. A structured and stepwise, cross-cultural adaptation process produced the Canadian French CHAMPS, with items of equivalent meaning to the English version, for use in French Canadians with COPD.

  17. On the nature of cultural transmission networks: evidence from Fijian villages for adaptive learning biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Joseph; Broesch, James

    2011-04-12

    Unlike other animals, humans are heavily dependent on cumulative bodies of culturally learned information. Selective processes operating on this socially learned information can produce complex, functionally integrated, behavioural repertoires-cultural adaptations. To understand such non-genetic adaptations, evolutionary theorists propose that (i) natural selection has favoured the emergence of psychological biases for learning from those individuals most likely to possess adaptive information, and (ii) when these psychological learning biases operate in populations, over generations, they can generate cultural adaptations. Many laboratory experiments now provide evidence for these psychological biases. Here, we bridge from the laboratory to the field by examining if and how these biases emerge in a small-scale society. Data from three cultural domains-fishing, growing yams and using medicinal plants-show that Fijian villagers (ages 10 and up) are biased to learn from others perceived as more successful/knowledgeable, both within and across domains (prestige effects). We also find biases for sex and age, as well as proximity effects. These selective and centralized oblique transmission networks set up the conditions for adaptive cultural evolution.

  18. Adapting CBT for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority patients: examples from culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Rivera, Edwin I; Hofmann, Stefan G; Barlow, David H; Otto, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we illustrate how cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be adapted for the treatment of PTSD among traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations, providing examples from our treatment, culturally adapted CBT, or CA-CBT. CA-CBT has a unique approach to exposure (typical exposure is poorly tolerated in these groups), emphasizes the treatment of somatic sensations (a particularly salient part of the presentation of PTSD in these groups), and addresses comorbid anxiety disorders and anger. To accomplish these treatment goals, CA-CBT emphasizes emotion exposure and emotion regulation techniques such as meditation and aims to promote emotional and psychological flexibility. We describe 12 key aspects of adapting CA-CBT that make it a culturally sensitive treatment of traumatized refugee and ethnic minority populations. We discuss three models that guide our treatment and that can be used to design culturally sensitive treatments: (a) the panic attack-PTSD model to illustrate the many processes that generate PTSD in these populations, highlighting the role of arousal and somatic symptoms; (b) the arousal triad to demonstrate how somatic symptoms are produced and the importance of targeting comorbid anxiety conditions and psychopathological processes; and (c) the multisystem network (MSN) model of emotional state to reveal how some of our therapeutic techniques (e.g., body-focused techniques: bodily stretching paired with self-statements) bring about psychological flexibility and improvement.

  19. Power Politics of Family Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Carl A.

    It is postulated that the standard framework for psychotherapy, a cooperative transference neurosis, does not validly carry over to the successful psychotherapy of a two-generation family group. In many disturbed families, the necessary and sufficient dynamics for change must be initiated, controlled, and augmented by a group dynamic power-play,…

  20. Identifying and training adaptive cross-cultural management skills: The crucial role of cultural metacognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Mor (Shira); M.W. Morris (Michael); J. Joh (Johann)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFor managers, intercultural effectiveness requires forging close working relationships with people from different cultural backgrounds (Black, Mendenhall, and Oddou, 1991). Recent research with executives has found that higher cultural metacognition is associated with affective closeness

  1. Identifying and training adaptive cross-cultural management skills: The crucial role of cultural metacognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Mor (Shira); M.W. Morris (Michael); J. Joh (Johann)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFor managers, intercultural effectiveness requires forging close working relationships with people from different cultural backgrounds (Black, Mendenhall, and Oddou, 1991). Recent research with executives has found that higher cultural metacognition is associated with affective closeness

  2. Mechanism of Cell Culture Adaptation of an Enteric Calicivirus, the Porcine Sapovirus Cowden Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyan; Yokoyama, Masaru; Chen, Ning; Oka, Tomoichiro; Jung, Kwonil; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Annamalai, Thavamathi; Wang, Qiuhong; Saif, Linda J

    2015-11-18

    The porcine sapovirus (SaV) (PoSaV) Cowden strain is one of only a few culturable enteric caliciviruses. Compared to the wild-type (WT) PoSaV Cowden strain, tissue culture-adapted (TC) PoSaV has two conserved amino acid substitutions in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and six in the capsid protein (VP1). By using the reverse-genetics system, we identified that 4 amino acid substitutions in VP1 (residues 178, 289, 324, and 328), but not the substitutions in the RdRp region, were critical for the cell culture adaptation of the PoSaV Cowden strain. The other two substitutions in VP1 (residues 291 and 295) reduced virus replication in vitro. Three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of VP1 showed that residue 178 was located near the dimer-dimer interface, which may affect VP1 assembly and oligomerization; residues 289, 291, 324, and 328 were located at protruding subdomain 2 (P2) of VP1, which may influence virus binding to cellular receptors; and residue 295 was located at the interface of two monomeric VP1 proteins, which may influence VP1 dimerization. Although reversion of the mutation at residue 291 or 295 from that of the TC strain to that of the WT reduced virus replication in vitro, it enhanced virus replication in vivo, and the revertants induced higher-level serum and mucosal antibody responses than those induced by the TC PoSaV Cowden strain. Our findings reveal the molecular basis for PoSaV adaptation to cell culture. These findings may provide new, critical information for the cell culture adaptation of other PoSaV strains and human SaVs or noroviruses. The tissue culture-adapted porcine sapovirus Cowden strain is one of only a few culturable enteric caliciviruses. We discovered that 4 amino acid substitutions in VP1 (residues 178, 289, 324, and 328) were critical for its adaptation to LLC-PK cells. Two substitutions in VP1 (residues 291 and 295) reduced virus replication in vitro but enhanced virus replication and induced higher-level serum and

  3. Cultural adaptation of the scale Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia – PAINAD to Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gallego Valera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To translate and culturally adapt to Brazil the scale Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia(PAINAD.Method: The cultural adaptation process followed the methodology of a theorical reference, in five steps: translation to Brazilian Portuguese, consensual version of translations, back-translation to the original language, revision by a committee of specialists in the field and a equivalency pre-test. The instrument was assessed and applied by 27 health professionals in the last step. Results: The Escala de Avaliação de Dor em Demência Avançada was culturally adapted to Brazil and presented semantic equivalency to the original, besides clarity, applicability and easy comprehension of the instrument items. Conclusion: This process secured the psychometric properties as the reliability and content validity of the referred scale.

  4. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Cristina Paez; Maria Lucia Tiellet Nunes; Vânia Naomi Hirakata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive a...

  5. Culture Independent Genomic Comparisons Reveal Environmental Adaptations for Altiarchaeales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jordan T; Baker, Brett J; Probst, Alexander J; Podar, Mircea; Lloyd, Karen G

    2016-01-01

    The recently proposed candidatus order Altiarchaeales remains an uncultured archaeal lineage composed of genetically diverse, globally widespread organisms frequently observed in anoxic subsurface environments. In spite of 15 years of studies on the psychrophilic biofilm-producing Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum and its close relatives, very little is known about the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the widespread free-living marine members of this taxon. From methanogenic sediments in the White Oak River Estuary, NC, USA, we sequenced a single cell amplified genome (SAG), WOR_SM1_SCG, and used it to identify and refine two high-quality genomes from metagenomes, WOR_SM1_79 and WOR_SM1_86-2, from the same site. These three genomic reconstructions form a monophyletic group, which also includes three previously published genomes from metagenomes from terrestrial springs and a SAG from Sakinaw Lake in a group previously designated as pMC2A384. A synapomorphic mutation in the Altiarchaeales tRNA synthetase β subunit, pheT, caused the protein to be encoded as two subunits at non-adjacent loci. Consistent with the terrestrial spring clades, our estuarine genomes contained a near-complete autotrophic metabolism, H2 or CO as potential electron donors, a reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation, and methylotroph-like NADP(H)-dependent dehydrogenase. Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA genes and concatenated conserved proteins identified two distinct sub-clades of Altiarchaeales, Alti-1 populated by organisms from actively flowing springs, and Alti-2 which was more widespread, diverse, and not associated with visible mats. The core Alti-1 genome suggested Alti-1 is adapted for the stream environment with lipopolysaccharide production capacity and extracellular hami structures. The core Alti-2 genome suggested members of this clade are free-living with distinct mechanisms for energy maintenance, motility, osmoregulation, and sulfur redox reactions. These data

  6. Culture independent genomic comparisons reveal environmental adaptations for Altiarchaeales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan T Bird

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recently proposed candidatus order Altiarchaeales remains an uncultured archaeal lineage composed of genetically diverse, globally widespread organisms frequently observed in anoxic subsurface environments. In spite of 15 years of studies on the psychrophilic biofilm-producing Candidatus (Ca. Altiarchaeum hamiconexum and its close relatives, very little is known about the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the widespread free-living marine members of this taxon. From methanogenic sediments in the White Oak River Estuary, NC, we sequenced a single cell amplified genome (SAG, WOR_SCG_SM1, and used it to identify and refine two high-quality genomes from metagenomes, WOR_79 and WOR_86-2, from the same site in a different year. These three genomic reconstructions form a monophyletic group which also includes three previously published genomes from metagenomes from terrestrial springs and a SAG from Sakinaw Lake in a group previously designated as pMC2A384. A synapomorphic mutation in the Altiarchaeales tRNA synthetase β subunit, pheT, causes the protein to be encoded as two subunits at distant loci. Consistent with the terrestrial spring clades, our estuarine genomes contain a near-complete autotrophic metabolism, H2 or CO as potential electron donors, a reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation, and methylotroph-like NADP(H-dependent dehydrogenase. Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA genes and concatenated conserved proteins identify two distinct sub-clades of Altiarchaeales, Alti-1 populated by organisms from actively flowing springs, and Alti-2 which is more widespread, diverse, and not associated with visible mats. The core Alti-1 genome supports Alti-1 as adapted for the stream environment, with lipopolysaccharide production capacity, extracellular hami structures. The core Alti-2 genome members of this clade are free-living, with distinct mechanisms for energy maintenance, motility, osmoregulation, and sulfur redox reactions. These

  7. 2000 years of cultural adaptation to climate change in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinman, Eric

    2008-11-01

    Modern concerns with climate change often overlook the extensive history of both climate change and human adaptation over the millennia. While questions of human-climate system causation are important, especially to the extent that our current behavior is driving environmental change, human societies have experienced multiple climate changes in the past, independent of causation. The histories of cultural adaptation to those changes can help us understand the dynamic interaction between climate and society, expanding the possibilities for "proactive adaptation" that may be available to us today. The underlying principles of cultural adaptation are generally independent of the source of the climate change, and the lessons of the past can suggest social and economic paths that can lead toward sustainability and away from collapse.

  8. Competition between Plasmodium falciparum strains in clinical infections during in vitro culture adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kexuan; Sun, Ling; Lin, Yingxue; Fan, Qi; Zhao, Zhenjun; Hao, Mingming; Feng, Guohua; Wu, Yanrui; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the dynamics of parasite populations during in vitro culture adaptation in 15 mixed Plasmodium falciparum infections, which were collected from a hypoendemic area near the China-Myanmar border. Allele types at the msp1 block 2 in the initial clinical samples and during subsequent culture were quantified weekly using a quantitative PCR method. All mixed infections carried two allele types based on the msp1 genotyping result. We also genotyped several polymorphic sites in the dhfr, dhps and mdr1 genes on day 0 and day 28, which showed that most of the common sites analyzed were monomorphic. Two of the three clinical samples mixed at dhps 581 remained stable while one changed to wild-type during the culture. During in vitro culture, we observed a gradual loss of parasite populations with 10 of the 15 mixed infections becoming monoclonal by day 28 based on the msp1 allele type. In most cases, the more abundant msp1 allele types in the clinical blood samples at the beginning of culture became the sole or predominant allele types on day 28. These results suggest that some parasites may have growth advantages and the loss of parasite populations during culture adaptation of mixed infections may lead to biased results when comparing the phenotypes such as drug sensitivity of the culture-adapted parasites.

  9. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  10. Spanish cultural adaptation of the questionnaire Early Arthritis for Psoriatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gavín, J; Pérez-Pérez, L; Tinazzi, I; Vidal, D; McGonagle, D

    2017-08-10

    The Early Arthritis for Psoriatic patients (EARP) questionnaire is a screening tool for psoriatic arthritis with good measuring properties in its original Italian version but has not been culturally adapted to Spanish. This article presents the adaptation for Spanish population, prior to validation step. Application of the methodology recommended by the International Society Pharmacoeconomic and Outcome Research for cultural adaptations of measures focused on the patient and comprising the steps of: preparation, translation, reconciliation, back translation and review, harmonization, cognitive debriefing and review, proofreading. In preparing, the permission of the authors of the original questionnaire for cultural adaptation was obtained and they worked as a consultant during the process. The translation of the original questionnaire into Spanish was made by native translators who made minor modifications accepted by the authors of the original version. The back-translation into Italian was performed, obtaining an equivalent to the original EARP version. The Spanish version of the back-translation was answered by 35 patients in a cognitive debriefing. They answered all items without making additional contributions. The cultural adaptation of the questionnaire EARP for Spanish population is the first step for later use in routine clinical practice. The standardized methodology ensures the equivalence between the EARP in Spanish and the original one. In a second step, validation will take place in Spanish population. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Learning to bridge the gap between adaptive management and organisational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Stirzaker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is the problem-solving approach of choice proposed for complex and multistakeholder environments, which are, at best, only partly predictable. We discuss the implications of this approach as applicable to scientists, who have to overcome certain entrained behaviour patterns in order to participate effectively in an adaptive management process. The challenge does not end there. Scientists and managers soon discover that an adaptive management approach does not only challenge conventional scientific and management behaviour but also clashes with contemporary organisational culture. We explore the shortcomings and requirements of organisations with regard to enabling adaptive management. Our overall conclusion relates to whether organisations are learning-centred or not. Do we continue to filter out unfamiliar information which does not fit our world view and avoid situations where we might fail, or do we use new and challenging situations to reframe the question and prepare ourselves for continued learning? Conservation implications: For an organisation to effectively embrace adaptive management, its mangers and scientists may first have to adapt their own beliefs regarding their respective roles. Instead of seeking certainty for guiding decisions, managers and scientists should acknowledge a degree of uncertainty inherent to complex social and ecological systems and seek to learn from the patterns emerging from every decision and action. The required organisational culture is one of ongoing and purposeful learning with all relevant stakeholders. Such a learning culture is often talked about but rarely practised in the organisational environment.

  12. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratali, Raphael R; Smith, Justin S; Motta, Rodrigo L N; Martins, Samuel M; Motta, Marcel M; Rocha, Ricardo D; Herrero, Carlos Fernando P S

    2017-02-01

    To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese) performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  13. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratali, Raphael R.; Smith, Justin S.; Motta, Rodrigo L.N.; Martins, Samuel M.; Motta, Marcel M.; Rocha, Ricardo D.; Herrero, Carlos Fernando P.S.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. METHODS: The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. RESULTS: Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese) performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. CONCLUSION: To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  14. Adapting Axelrod's cultural dissemination model for simulating peer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Christian; Lechner, Gernot; Brudermann, Thomas; Füllsack, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    We present a generic method for considering incomplete but gradually expandable sociological data in agent-based modeling based on the classic model of cultural dissemination by Axelrod. Our method extension was inspired by research on the diffusion of citizen photovoltaic initiatives, i.e. by initiatives in which citizens collectively invest in photovoltaic plants and share the profits. Owing to the absence of empirical interaction parameters, the Axelrod model was used as basis for considering peer effects with contrived interaction data that can be updated from empirical surveys later on. The Axelrod model was extended to cover the following additional features: •Consideration of empirical social science data for concrete social interaction.•Development of a variable and fine-tunable interaction function for agents.•Deployment of a generic procedure for modeling peer effects in agent-based models.

  15. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support for Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is a surge of interest in the use of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to measure perceived social support across cultures. The objective of this study was to translate and make the cultural adaptation of the Greek version of the MSPSS. The study counted with a sample of 10 patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. The process involved the following steps of translation back translation and semantic evaluation. The former revealed good acceptance...

  16. Of God and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T Byram

    2015-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an instrument for remediation of psychological deficits and conflict resolution, as well as an instrument for growth and self-cultivation. In fact, psychotherapy is the finest form of life education. All of this is done without psychotherapists' playing a teacher, a minister, a priest, a rabbi, an imam, or a Buddhist monk, but by being familiar with what they know and more. That "more" is about understanding "the attributes" of gods and religions as they serve the all-too-human needs of believing and belonging. It is about the distillation of common psychological, sociological, moral, and philosophical attributes of religions, and the recognition that the attributes themselves are faith and God. Attributes that serve the affiliative needs define faith, for example, belonging is faith; attributes that serve the divine needs define God, for example, compassion is God. Those who have recovered from their primitive innocence need to formulate their ideas of God and religion, regardless of their affiliation with a religious community. One may need to resonate emotionally with the God of his or her religion, but intellectually need to transcend all its dogma and cultivate a personal concept of divinity free from any theological structure. Such an enlightened person achieves enduring equanimity by striving to own the attributes of Gods--to be godly. This is equally true for psychotherapists as it is for their patients.

  17. The cross-cultural process of adapting observational tools for pediatric pain assessment: the case of the Dental Discomfort Questionnaire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daher, Anelise; Versloot, Judith; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2014-01-01

    A rigorous cross-cultural adaptation process of an existing instrument could be the best option for measuring health in different cultures, instead of developing a new tool, and prior to psychometric...

  18. (Re)placing Multiculturalism in Counselling and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Roy

    2007-01-01

    Since multiculturalism is not fully theorised it has created much confusion in counselling and psychotherapy. It has been criticised for ignoring questions of power relations, and for emphasising the cultural differences of ethnic minority groups rather than focus on their similar predicaments of racism, sexism, misogyny, homophobia and economic…

  19. Socio-Cultural Adaptation, Academic Adaptation and Satisfaction of International Higher Degree Research Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baohua; Wright, Ewan

    2016-01-01

    The number of international higher degree research students has grown at a significant rate in recent years, with Australia becoming a hub for attracting such students from around the world. However, research has identified that international higher degree research students often encounter a wide range of academic and socio-cultural challenges in…

  20. Effects of culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation on learning satisfaction of mainland China students studying in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the national impact of low fertility, the enrollment of higher education in Taiwan is facing a dilemma. To cope with such a problem, the government has actively promoted Mainland China students to study in Taiwan. In addition to enhancing the international competitiveness of domestic universities, cross-strait education, and real academic exchange, it is expected to solve the enrollment shortage of colleges. However, the situations and pressures of Culture Shock, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Learning Satisfaction are critical for Mainland China students. Taking Mainland China students who study in Taiwan for more than four months (about a semester as the research participants, a total of 250 questionnaires were distributed and 167 valid ones were retrieved, with a retrieval rate of 67%. The research findings show significant correlations between Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Culture Shock, Culture Shock and Learning Satisfaction, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Learning Satisfaction.Debido al impacto de la baja fertilidad en el país, Taiwán afronta un dilema en relación con la inscripción en la enseñanza superior. Para enfrentarse al problema el gobierno ha promovido activamente que estudiantes de la China continental estudien en Taiwán. Además de incrementar la competitividad internacional de las universidades taiwanesas, la formación a ambos lados del estrecho y un verdadero intercambio académico, se espera que ello solucione la escasez de inscripciones en las facultades. Sin embargo, las situaciones y las presiones que generan el choque cultural, la adaptación multicultural y la satisfacción con el aprendizaje resultan críticas para los estudiantes de la China continental. Tomando como muestra de investigación a estudiantes de la China continental que estudian en Taiwán durante más de cuatro meses (aproximadamente un semestre, se distribuyó un total de 250 cuestionarios, de los cuales 167 fueron válidos, con una tasa

  1. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian culture of a questionnaire to measure perceptions of dental aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Eugênio de Sousa Furtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct the translation to Portuguese and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian culture of a questionnaire to evaluate the aesthetic concerns of 12-yr-old children and their parents. Methods: The original questionnaire, which investigates the level of the child´s distress, worry, and smile avoidance in the last two months, was not validated to any other languages but the ones it was originally developed for (English and Spanish. This report had the following design: translation, back-translation, validation by a panel of experts and testing of the final version with 50 pairs of parents/children, using self-report or interview. Results: No relevant discrepancy amongst versions was found; only minor adjustments were made to adapt the questionnaire to the target population´s diverse educational background, and no item from the original questionnaire has been removed. Simple vocabulary and short phrases were used in order to facilitate the application to children and adults in a location in the Northeast and another in Southeastern Brazil. In the pre-testing, Brazilians easily understood the questions. When the questionnaire was self-applied, there was difficult in reading by children, non-response from parents and unanswered items by both groups. Conclusion: The Child’s and Parent’s Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was adequately translated into Brazilian Portuguese and adapted to the cultural context of both locations, and it is suggested using it as an interview.

  2. An Integrative Psychotherapy of Postpartum Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merle-Fishman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a mother is a time of transition, transformation and sometimes trauma. The immediacy of meeting the needs of an infant, combined with the immediacy of becoming a mother, often collide to produce depression, anxiety and stress. Shame, confusion, isolation and cultural expectations often prevent women from seeking the postpartum support they need, which may result in long lasting depression, anxiety and unresolved trauma. Integrative Psychotherapy, Transactional Analysis and Attachment Theory offer ways to understand postpartum adjustment as well as methodologies for addressing this unique developmental event in the life of women.

  3. Placebo psychotherapy: synonym or oxymoron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2005-07-01

    Contrary to some recent claims, the placebo effect is real and in some cases very substantial. Placebo effects can be produced or enhanced by classical conditioning, but consistent with virtually all contemporary conditioning theories, these effects are generally mediated by expectancy. Expectancy can also produce placebo effects that are inconsistent with conditioning history. Although expectancy also plays an important role in psychotherapy outcome, the logic of placebo-controlled trials does not map well onto psychotherapy research. The idea of evaluating the efficacy of psychotherapy by controlling for nonspecific or placebo factors is based on a flawed analogy and should be abandoned.

  4. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  5. [Adaptation of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSPSC) tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre-Busto, C; Torijano-Casalengua, M L; Olivera-Cañadas, G; Astier-Peña, M P; Maderuelo-Fernández, J A; Rubio-Aguado, E A

    2015-01-01

    To adapt the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSPSC) Excel(®) tool for its use by Primary Care Teams of the Spanish National Public Health System. The process of translation and adaptation of MOSPSC from the Agency for Healthcare and Research in Quality (AHRQ) was performed in five steps: Original version translation, Conceptual equivalence evaluation, Acceptability and viability assessment, Content validity and Questionnaire test and response analysis, and psychometric properties assessment. After confirming MOSPSC as a valid, reliable, consistent and useful tool for assessing patient safety culture in our setting, an Excel(®) worksheet was translated and adapted in the same way. It was decided to develop a tool to analyze the "Spanish survey" and to keep it linked to the "Original version" tool. The "Spanish survey" comparison data are those obtained in a 2011 nationwide Spanish survey, while the "Original version" comparison data are those provided by the AHRQ in 2012. The translated and adapted tool and the analysis of the results from a 2011 nationwide Spanish survey are available on the website of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. It allows the questions which are decisive in the different dimensions to be determined, and it provides a comparison of the results with graphical representation. Translation and adaptation of this tool enables a patient safety culture in Primary Care in Spain to be more effectively applied. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  7. Adaptation of Collective Moral Disengagement Scale into Turkish Culture for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapan, Bahtiyar Eraslan; Bakioglu, Fuad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, reliability and validity are assessed for a Turkish culture adaptation of the Collective Moral Disengagement Scale for Adolescents. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, translation, exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency coefficients, and test-retest method were performed; in the second stage,…

  8. Social Adaptation of New Immigrant Students: Cultural Scripts, Roles, and Symbolic Interactionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukasoanya, Grace

    2014-01-01

    It is important that counselors understand the socio-cultural dimensions of social adaptation among immigrant students. While many psychological theories could provide suitable frameworks for examining these, in this article, I argue that symbolic interactionism could provide an additional valuable framework for (a) exploring the intersections of…

  9. A Review of Cultural Adaptations of Screening Tools for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra; Linas, Keri; Jacobstein, Diane; Biel, Matthew; Migdal, Talia; Anthony, Bruno J.

    2015-01-01

    Screening children to determine risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders has become more common, although some question the advisability of such a strategy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify autism screening tools that have been adapted for use in cultures different from that in which they were developed, evaluate the cultural…

  10. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Developmental Criteria for Young Children: A Preliminary Psychometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Faridah

    2014-01-01

    Authentic assessment approach applies naturalistic observation method to gather and analyse data about children's development that are socio-culturally appropriate to plan for individual teaching and learning needs. This article discusses the process of adapting an authentic developmental instrument for children of 3-6 years old. The instrument…

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a Bengali version of the modified fibromyalgia impact questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muquith, Mohammed A.; Islam, Nazrul; Haq, Syed A.; Klooster, ten Peter M.; Rasker, Johannes J.; Yunus, Muhammad B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, no validated instruments are available to measure the health status of Bangladeshi patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Bengali (B-FIQ) and to test its validity and reli

  12. Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education and Cultural Adaptations: Challenges and Implications for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Lam, Yeana

    2017-01-01

    Many issues arise in the discussion of the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement and implementation science in special education and specific educational practices for students with severe disabilities. Yet cultural adaptations of EBPs, which have emerged as an area of research in other fields, are being left out as a focus of EBP discourse. The…

  13. Ways and Means of Adapting Culture and Structure: Case Studies. Support Document 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The resource in this support document is a set of small case studies, offering insights into how a range of organisations have gone about adapting their organisational structure and/or culture to enhance their capability. Key elements of each case are presented with a particular emphasis on: (1) the principles that have underpinned each approach…

  14. Japanese English Education and Learning: A History of Adapting Foreign Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    This essay is a history that relates the Japanese tradition of accepting and adapting aspects of foreign culture, especially as it applies to the learning of foreign languages. In particular, the essay describes the history of English education in Japan by investigating its developments after the Meiji era. The author addresses the issues from the…

  15. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  16. Cellular Adaptation: Culture conditions of R. opacus and bioflotation of apatite and quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gutiérrez Merma

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that the culture conditions of microorganisms may affect their surface properties, zeta potential and hydrophobicity via the modification of the cell wall functional groups or metabolic products. The R. opacus bacteria strain was separately adapted to the presence of apatite and quartz, after which a cellular adaptation procedure was developed by repeated sub-culturing with a successive increase in the mineral content. Zeta potential, surface tension, FTIR and microflotation studies were used to evaluate the behavior of the cells that were developed under defined culture conditions. The cellular adaptation induced a modification of the bacterial surface charge. The FTIR results showed a modification of its functional groups. The surface tension results suggested that longer growing time promoted a higher production of metabolites. The use of mineral-adapted cells promoted an improvement in the flotability of both minerals, but it was more significant for apatite flotation. Additionally, the mineral flotability remained unchanged when the cells developed under a longer culture time. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the surface tension.

  17. Cultural adaptation process for international dissemination of the strengthening families program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Pinyuchon, Methinin; Teixeira de Melo, Ana; Whiteside, Henry O

    2008-06-01

    The Strengthening Families Program (SFP) is an evidence-based family skills training intervention developed and found efficacious for substance abuse prevention by U.S researchers in the 1980s. In the 1990s, a cultural adaptation process was developed to transport SFP for effectiveness trials with diverse populations (African, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, and Native American). Since 2003, SFP has been culturally adapted for use in 17 countries. This article reviews the SFP theory and research and a recommended cultural adaptation process. Challenges in international dissemination of evidence-based programs (EBPs) are discussed based on the results of U.N. and U.S. governmental initiatives to transport EBP family interventions to developing countries. The technology transfer and quality assurance system are described, including the language translation and cultural adaptation process for materials development, staff training, and on-site and online Web-based supervision and technical assistance and evaluation services to assure quality implementation and process evaluation feedback for improvements.

  18. Cultural Adaptation of a Nutrition Education Curriculum for Latino Families to Promote Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Shelia L.; Brennan, Jesse J.; Burke, Kari Herzog; Kozo, Justine; Taras, Howard L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this GEM is to describe how an existing nutrition education program--Nutrition Education Aimed at Toddlers, was adapted for Latino Families to achieve a good fit by considering several components--both surface and deep structure characteristics of culture, and report indicators of its acceptability. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Grundprinzipien der existenziellen Psychotherapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Längle A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Die existenzielle Psychotherapie hat mit der humanistischen Psychotherapie zentrale Themen gemeinsam: personale Freiheit, Verantwortung, Sinnsuche, Authentizität. Die therapeutische Vorgangsweise ist primär phänomenologisch, d. h. auf den Einzelnen und die Einmaligkeit der Situation ausgerichtet. Begegnung der Person und Interesse an dem, was sie bewegt, steht vor der Anwendung von allgemeinen Techniken. Damit kommt die Person mit ihrer zentralen Fähigkeit, das für sie Wesentliche zu erfassen und der Entscheidung zuzuführen, in den Mittelpunkt des Geschehens. Das Auffinden der inneren Zustimmung zu dem, was man tut oder unterlässt, gilt als zentral in der Vorgangsweise der existenziellen Psychotherapie. So liegt das Interesse weniger in der Symptomfreiheit als im Erreichen persönlicher Erfüllung im Leben. Die Therapie beginnt darum meist mit der Arbeit an der Annahme, am Verstehen und an der Stellungnahme zu den Problemen und Erfahrungen, die das Leid verursachen. Diese dialogische Haltung ist auch bei chronischen Krankheiten von grundlegender Bedeutung. Psychische Störungen bzw. Krankheiten wirken sich hemmend auf den Vollzug dieser Fähigkeiten der authentischen Person aus, mit Auswirkungen vor allem auf die Qualität des (inneren und äußeren Dialogs. Dadurch entsteht neben dem spezifischen Leiden, das Bezug auf die jeweils gestörte existenzielle Struktur nimmt, ein Mangel an innerer Erfüllung im Leben, der als existenzielles Hauptsymptom gilt. Dem erfüllenden Dialog geht eine Offenheit des Menschen voraus, in der er sich vom Leben und von der Lebenssituation befragen lässt hinsichtlich dessen, was seine geeignete Antwort auf die Situation wäre. Nicht ausreichend gelebte Pflege und Sorge um die Grundstrukturen der Existenz wirken sich hemmend auf die Voraussetzungen für erfüllendes Leben aus: auf die personalen Fähigkeiten der Wahrnehmung, des Fühlens, Entscheidens und sich mit den Kontexten Abstimmens. Ein verminderter

  20. Prevention of: self harm in British South Asian women: study protocol of an exploratory RCT of culturally adapted manual assisted Problem Solving Training (C- MAP

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    Nagaraj Diwaker

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. In the UK suicide is the second most common cause of death in people aged 15-24 years. Self harm is one of the commonest reasons for medical admission in the UK. In the year following a suicide attempt the risk of a repeat attempt or death by suicide may be up to 100 times greater than in people who have never attempted suicide. Research evidence shows increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide among British South Asian women. There are concerns about the current service provision and its appropriateness for this community due to the low numbers that get involved with the services. Both problem solving and interpersonal forms of psychotherapy are beneficial in the treatment of patients who self harm and could potentially be helpful in this ethnic group. The paper describes the trial protocol of adapting and evaluating a culturally appropriate psychological treatment for the adult British South Asian women who self harm. Methods We plan to test a culturally adapted Problem Solving Therapy (C- MAP in British South Asian women who self harm. Eight sessions of problem solving each lasting approximately 50 minutes will be delivered over 3 months. The intervention will be assessed using a prospective rater blind randomized controlled design comparing with treatment as usual (TAU. Outcome assessments will be carried out at 3 and 6 months. A sub group of the participants will be invited for qualitative interviews. Discussion This study will test the feasibility and acceptability of the C- MAP in British South Asian women. We will be informed on whether a culturally adapted brief psychological intervention compared with treatment as usual for self-harm results in decreased hopelessness and suicidal ideation. This will also enable us to collect necessary information on recruitment, effect size, the optimal delivery method and acceptability of the intervention in preparation for a

  1. Translation, cross-culturally adaptation and validation of the Danish version of Oxford Hip Score (OHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    with the ISPOR Task Force guidelines. We tested the Danish language version on clinimetric quality on 1992 patients in a cohort from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR). Results: Response rate in our Danish language version of Oxford Hip Score measured 87.4 %. We found 0.0 % floor effect but 19......Objective: The Oxford Hip Score is a patient reported outcome questionnaire designed to assess pain and function in patients undergoing total hip arthroplaty (THA). The Oxford Hip Score is valid, reliable and consistent, and different language versions have been developed. Since...... there was no properly translated, adapted and validated Danish language version available, a translation to Danish, cross-culturally adaptation and validation of the Danish Oxford Hip Score was warranted. Material and Methods: We translated and cross-culturally adapted the Oxford Hip Score into Danish, in accordance...

  2. Cultural adaptation, content validity and inter-rater reliability of the "STAR Skin Tear Classification System"

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    Kelly Cristina Strazzieri-Pulido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: to perform the cultural adaptation of the STAR Skin Tear Classification System into the Portuguese language and to test the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the adapted version.METHODS: methodological study with a quantitative approach. The cultural adaptation was developed in three phases: translation, evaluation by a committee of judges and back-translation. The instrument was tested regarding content validity and inter-rater reliability.RESULTS: the adapted version obtained a regular level of concordance when it was applied by nurses using photographs of friction injuries. Regarding its application in clinical practice, the adapted version obtained a moderate and statistically significant level of concordance.CONCLUSION: the study tested the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the version adapted into the Portuguese language. Its inclusion in clinical practice will enable the correct identification of this type of injury, as well as the implementation of protocols for the prevention and treatment of friction injuries.

  3. Coevolution of adaptive technology, maladaptive culture and population size in a producer-scrounger game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Laurent; Feldman, Marcus W

    2009-11-07

    Technology (i.e. tools, methods of cultivation and domestication, systems of construction and appropriation, machines) has increased the vital rates of humans, and is one of the defining features of the transition from Malthusian ecological stagnation to a potentially perpetual rising population growth. Maladaptations, on the other hand, encompass behaviours, customs and practices that decrease the vital rates of individuals. Technology and maladaptations are part of the total stock of culture carried by the individuals in a population. Here, we develop a quantitative model for the coevolution of cumulative adaptive technology and maladaptive culture in a 'producer-scrounger' game, which can also usefully be interpreted as an 'individual-social' learner interaction. Producers (individual learners) are assumed to invent new adaptations and maladaptations by trial-and-error learning, insight or deduction, and they pay the cost of innovation. Scroungers (social learners) are assumed to copy or imitate (cultural transmission) both the adaptations and maladaptations generated by producers. We show that the coevolutionary dynamics of producers and scroungers in the presence of cultural transmission can have a variety of effects on population carrying capacity. From stable polymorphism, where scroungers bring an advantage to the population (increase in carrying capacity), to periodic cycling, where scroungers decrease carrying capacity, we find that selection-driven cultural innovation and transmission may send a population on the path of indefinite growth or to extinction.

  4. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  5. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  6. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  7. Trends in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed the views of both clinical and counseling psychologists regarding current trends in counseling and psychotherapy. Found psychoanalysis to be declining in popularity, while cognitive-behavioral options represented one of the strongest theoretical emphases today. (Author/GC)

  8. Trends in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed the views of both clinical and counseling psychologists regarding current trends in counseling and psychotherapy. Found psychoanalysis to be declining in popularity, while cognitive-behavioral options represented one of the strongest theoretical emphases today. (Author/GC)

  9. [Cross-cultural adaptation of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) for use in the Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Lívia Maria; Luz, Laércio Lima; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Gobbens, Robbert J J

    2012-09-01

    The current study aimed to adapt the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI), used to assess frailty in the elderly, to the Brazilian population. Conceptual, item, and semantic equivalences were analyzed and the summary version was pre-tested. In the evaluation of conceptual equivalence, the construct for frailty adopted in Brazil demonstrated the same conceptualization as in other cultures where this condition has been investigated. All items included in the original version also showed similarity in the two cultures. High semantic equivalence was observed in the analysis of the items' referential and general meanings. The pre-test showed a high percentage of understanding of items and good acceptance of items by elderly individuals. The results suggest that the TFI version adapted to the Brazilian culture can be a useful tool for assessing health conditions in older Brazilians.

  10. Nonverbal communication in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Gretchen N; Gentile, Julie P

    2010-06-01

    The mental status examination is the objective portion of any comprehensive psychiatric assessment and has key diagnostic and treatment implications. This includes elements such as a patient's baseline general appearance and behavior, affect, eye contact, and psychomotor functioning. Changes in these parameters from session to session allow the psychiatrist to gather important information about the patient. In psychiatry, much emphasis is placed on not only listening to what patients communicate verbally but also observing their interactions with the environment and the psychiatrist. In a complimentary fashion, psychiatrists must be aware of their own nonverbal behaviors and communication, as these can serve to either facilitate or hinder the patient-physician interaction. In this article, clinical vignettes will be used to illustrate various aspects of nonverbal communication that may occur within the setting of psychotherapy. Being aware of these unspoken subtleties can offer a psychiatrist valuable information that a patient may be unwilling or unable to put into words.

  11. PSYCHOTHERAPY SUPPORT ON SCIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Suhendro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacological actions in order to increase the level of maximum healing. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. [The various facets of psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing importance in the field of psychiatric treatment. Notably, disorder-specific and evidence-based psychotherapeutic strategies now dominate the field as compared to traditional schools of psychotherapy. It should not be neglected that patients, besides being offered a specifically tailored psychological therapy for their disorder, are also in need of reliable moral support and help. Therapeutic creativity frequently is an important skill to gain access to patients.

  13. The (dramatic) process of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeig, Jeffrey K

    2008-07-01

    Psychotherapy can be conceived as a symbolic drama in which patients can experientially realize their capacity to change. Methods derived from hypnosis can empower therapy without the use of formal trance. A case conducted by Milton Erickson is presented and deconstructed in order to illuminate Erickson's therapeutic patterns. A model is offered for adding drama to therapy, and the model is placed into a larger model of choice points in psychotherapy.

  14. Cultural Adaptation of Minimally Guided Interventions for Common Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Eva; Chowdhary, Neerja; Maercker, Andreas; Albanese, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultural adaptation of mental health care interventions is key, particularly when there is little or no therapist interaction. There is little published information on the methods of adaptation of bibliotherapy and e-mental health interventions. Objective To systematically search for evidence of the effectiveness of minimally guided interventions for the treatment of common mental disorders among culturally diverse people with common mental disorders; to analyze the extent and effects of cultural adaptation of minimally guided interventions for the treatment of common mental disorders. Methods We searched Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO for randomized controlled trials that tested the efficacy of minimally guided or self-help interventions for depression or anxiety among culturally diverse populations. We calculated pooled standardized mean differences using a random-effects model. In addition, we administered a questionnaire to the authors of primary studies to assess the cultural adaptation methods used in the included primary studies. We entered this information into a meta-regression to investigate effects of the extent of adaptation on intervention efficacy. Results We included eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of the 4911 potentially eligible records identified by the search: four on e-mental health and four on bibliotherapy. The extent of cultural adaptation varied across the studies, with language translation and use of metaphors being the most frequently applied elements of adaptation. The pooled standardized mean difference for primary outcome measures of depression and anxiety was -0.81 (95% CI -0.10 to -0.62). Higher cultural adaptation scores were significantly associated with greater effect sizes (P=.04). Conclusions Our results support the results of previous systematic reviews on the cultural adaptation of face-to-face interventions: the extent of cultural adaptation has an effect on intervention efficacy

  15. Acting Bicultural versus Feeling Bicultural: Cultural Adaptation and School-Related Attitudes among U.S. Latina/o Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio D.; Quirk, Kelley M.; Cousineau, Jennifer R.; Saxena, Suchita R.; Gerhart, James I.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether incorporating a multidimensional perspective to the study of the relation between cultural adaptation and academic attitudes among Latinas/os in the United States can clarify this relation. Hypotheses about the relation between cultural adaptation and academic attitudes were examined using data provided by U.S. Latina/o…

  16. Cultural adaptation of visual attention: calibration of the oculomotor control system in accordance with cultural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Komiya, Asuka

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Westerners are more likely than East Asians to attend to central objects (i.e., analytic attention), whereas East Asians are more likely than Westerners to focus on background objects or context (i.e., holistic attention). Recently, it has been proposed that the physical environment of a given culture influences the cultural form of scene cognition, although the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. This study examined whether the physical environment influences oculomotor control. Participants saw culturally neutral stimuli (e.g., a dog in a park) as a baseline, followed by Japanese or United States scenes, and finally culturally neutral stimuli again. The results showed that participants primed with Japanese scenes were more likely to move their eyes within a broader area and they were less likely to fixate on central objects compared with the baseline, whereas there were no significant differences in the eye movements of participants primed with American scenes. These results suggest that culturally specific patterns in eye movements are partly caused by the physical environment.

  17. Cultural adaptation of visual attention: calibration of the oculomotor control system in accordance with cultural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ueda

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that Westerners are more likely than East Asians to attend to central objects (i.e., analytic attention, whereas East Asians are more likely than Westerners to focus on background objects or context (i.e., holistic attention. Recently, it has been proposed that the physical environment of a given culture influences the cultural form of scene cognition, although the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. This study examined whether the physical environment influences oculomotor control. Participants saw culturally neutral stimuli (e.g., a dog in a park as a baseline, followed by Japanese or United States scenes, and finally culturally neutral stimuli again. The results showed that participants primed with Japanese scenes were more likely to move their eyes within a broader area and they were less likely to fixate on central objects compared with the baseline, whereas there were no significant differences in the eye movements of participants primed with American scenes. These results suggest that culturally specific patterns in eye movements are partly caused by the physical environment.

  18. Identifying innovation in laboratory studies of cultural evolution: rates of retention and measures of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Christine A; Cornish, Hannah; Kandler, Anne

    2016-03-19

    In recent years, laboratory studies of cultural evolution have become increasingly prevalent as a means of identifying and understanding the effects of cultural transmission on the form and functionality of transmitted material. The datasets generated by these studies may provide insights into the conditions encouraging, or inhibiting, high rates of innovation, as well as the effect that this has on measures of adaptive cultural change. Here we review recent experimental studies of cultural evolution with a view to elucidating the role of innovation in generating observed trends. We first consider how tasks are presented to participants, and how the corresponding conceptualization of task success is likely to influence the degree of intent underlying any deviations from perfect reproduction. We then consider the measures of interest used by the researchers to track the changes that occur as a result of transmission, and how these are likely to be affected by differing rates of retention. We conclude that considering studies of cultural evolution from the perspective of innovation provides us with valuable insights that help to clarify important differences in research designs, which have implications for the likely effects of variation in retention rates on measures of cultural adaptation.

  19. Identifying innovation in laboratory studies of cultural evolution: rates of retention and measures of adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Christine A.; Cornish, Hannah; Kandler, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, laboratory studies of cultural evolution have become increasingly prevalent as a means of identifying and understanding the effects of cultural transmission on the form and functionality of transmitted material. The datasets generated by these studies may provide insights into the conditions encouraging, or inhibiting, high rates of innovation, as well as the effect that this has on measures of adaptive cultural change. Here we review recent experimental studies of cultural evolution with a view to elucidating the role of innovation in generating observed trends. We first consider how tasks are presented to participants, and how the corresponding conceptualization of task success is likely to influence the degree of intent underlying any deviations from perfect reproduction. We then consider the measures of interest used by the researchers to track the changes that occur as a result of transmission, and how these are likely to be affected by differing rates of retention. We conclude that considering studies of cultural evolution from the perspective of innovation provides us with valuable insights that help to clarify important differences in research designs, which have implications for the likely effects of variation in retention rates on measures of cultural adaptation. PMID:26926283

  20. The dynamic interplay among EFL learners’ ambiguity tolerance, adaptability, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Alahdadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement as manifestations of the above competencies within a single model. The participants comprised one hundred eighty BA and MA Iranian university students studying English language teaching and translation. The instruments used in this study consisted of the translated versions of four questionnaires: second language tolerance of ambiguity scale, adaptability taken from emotional intelligence inventory, cultural intelligence (CQ inventory, and the revised study process questionnaire measuring surface and deep learning. The results estimated via structural equation modeling (SEM revealed that the proposed model containing the variables under study had a good fit with the data. It was found that all the variables except adaptability directly influenced language achievement with deep approach having the highest impact and ambiguity tolerance having the lowest influence. In addition, ambiguity tolerance was a positive and significant predictor of deep approach. CQ was found to be under the influence of both ambiguity tolerance and adaptability. The findings were discussed in the light of the yielded results.

  1. Low-Dose UVA Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongrong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the mechanism of the adaptive response induced by low-dose ultraviolet A (UVA radiation. Methods. Cultured dermal fibroblasts were irradiated by a lethal dose of UVA (86.4 J/cm2 with preirradiation of single or repetitive low dose of UVA (7.2 J/cm2. Alterations of cellular morphology were observed by light microscope and electron microscope. Cell cycle and cellular apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometer. The extent of DNA damage was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE. Results. The cultured dermal fibroblasts, with pretreatment of single or repetitive irradiation of 7.2 J/cm2 UVA relieved toxic reaction of cellular morphology and arrest of cell cycle, decreased apoptosis ratio, reduced DNA chain breakage, and accelerated DNA repair caused by subsequent 86.4 J/cm2 UVA irradiation. Compared with nonpretreatment groups, all those differences were significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Conclusions. The adaptation reaction might depend on the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA irradiation. Low-dose UVA radiation might induce adaptive response that may protect cultured dermal fibroblasts from the subsequent challenged dose of UVA damage. The duration and protective capability of the adaptive reaction might be related to the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA Irradiation.

  2. Leicester Cough Questionnaire: translation to Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisbino, Manuela Brisot; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Gonçalves-Tavares, Michelle; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    To translate the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) to Portuguese and adapt it for use in Brazil. Cross-cultural adaptation of a quality of life questionnaire requires a translated version that is conceptually equivalent to the original version and culturally acceptable in the target country. The protocol used consisted of the translation of the LCQ to Portuguese by three Brazilian translators who were fluent in English and its back-translation to English by another translator who was a native speaker of English and fluent in Portuguese. The back-translated version was evaluated by one of the authors of the original questionnaire in order to verify its equivalence. Later in the process, a provisional Portuguese-language version was thoroughly reviewed by an expert committee. In 10 patients with chronic cough, cognitive debriefing was carried out in order to test the understandability, clarity, and acceptability of the translated questionnaire in the target population. On that basis, the final Portuguese-language version of the LCQ was produced and approved by the committee. Few items were questioned by the source author and revised by the committee of experts. During the cognitive debriefing phase, the Portuguese-language version of the LCQ proved to be well accepted and understood by all of the respondents, which demonstrates the robustness of the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation. The final version of the LCQ adapted for use in Brazil was found to be easy to understand and easily applied.

  3. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT to American English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mondrzak

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT - originally, Escala para Avaliação de Contratransferência (EACT - is a self-administered instrument comprising questions that assess 23 feelings (divided into three blocs, closeness, distance, and indifference that access conscious countertransferential emotions and sentiments. This paper describes the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the RSCT into American English. Methods: This study employed the guidelines proposed by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation which define 10 steps for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of self-report instruments. Additionally, semantic equivalence tools were employed to select the final versions of terms used. The author of the RSCT gave permission for translation and took part in the process. The instrument is available for use free of charge. Results: Analysis of the back-translation showed that just seven of the 23 terms needed to be adjusted to arrive at the final version in American English. Conclusions: This study applied rigorous standards to construct a version of the RSCT in American English. This version of the RSCT translated and adapted into American English should be of great use for accessing and researching countertransferential feelings that are part of psychodynamic treatment.

  4. Adaptation of problem-solving treatment for prevention of depression among low-income, culturally diverse mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Emily; Stein, Rachel; Diaz-Linhart, Yaminette; Egbert, Lucia; Beardslee, William; Hegel, Mark T; Silverstein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Adapting evidence-based interventions to be more accessible and culturally sensitive to the needs of diverse populations is a potential strategy to address disparities in mental health care. We adapted an evidence-based depression-treatment strategy, Problem-Solving Treatment, to prevent depression among low-income mothers with vulnerable children. Intervention adaptations spanned 3 domains: (1) the intervention's new prevention focus, (2) conducting a parent-focused intervention in venues oriented to children; and (3) cultural competency. The feasibility of adaptations was assessed through 2 pilot-randomized trials (n = 93), which demonstrated high participant adherence, satisfaction, and retention, demonstrating the feasibility of our adaptations.

  5. Significance of Cultural-Historical Theory of Psychological Development of L.S. Vygotsky for the Development of Modern Models of Social Cognition and Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholmogorova A.B.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article acknowledges the situation of methodical crisis in modern research of social cognition related to the domination of reductive approaches that ignore the uniqueness of human psyche. Heuristicity of concepts of cultural-historical theory of psychological development of L.S. Vygotsky, which serves to overcome the apparent inconsistencies is substantiated. Models of social cognition based on the principles of cultural-historical psychology are described, those being the model of social cognition within phylogenesis of M. Tomasello, and the model of social cognition within ontogenesis of C. Fernyhough. Current situation in the area of mental health is reviewed from the standpoint of cultural-historical psychology, its specifics reflected in the increased burden on reflexive functions, that is, skills lying within the sphere of social cognition is substantiated. Modern psychotherapeutic apparatus directed to compensate social cognition deficits due to various psychiatric disorders is reviewed. The assumption that adolescense is sensitive period for the development of higher forms of social cognition is made, and a summary of researches supporting this assertion is presented. Main contradictions of modern-day maturing are enunciated. To conclude the presented theoretical analysis, a comprehensive multiple-factor model of social cognition is presented based on concepts of cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky.

  6. Culturally-Adapted versus Standard Exposure Treatment for Phobic Asian Americans: Treatment Efficacy, Moderators, and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, David; Huey, Stanley J.; Hernandez, Dominica

    2011-01-01

    This study is a 6-month follow-up of a randomized pilot evaluation of standard one-session treatment (OST-S) versus culturally-adapted OST (OST-CA) with phobic Asian Americans. OST-CA included seven cultural adaptations drawn from prior research with East Asians and Asian Americans. Results from 1-week and 6-month follow-up show that both OST-S and OST-CA were effective at reducing phobic symptoms compared to self-help control. Moreover, OST-CA was superior to OST-S for several outcomes. For catastrophic thinking and general fear, moderator analyses indicated that low-acculturation Asian Americans benefitted more from OST-CA than OST-S, whereas both treatments were equally effective for high-acculturation participants. Although cultural process factors (e.g., facilitating emotional control, exploiting the vertical therapist-client relationship) and working alliance were predictive of positive outcomes, they did not mediate treatment effects. This study offers a potential model for evaluating cultural adaptation effects, as well as the mechanisms that account for such effects. PMID:21341893

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and clinical validation of the Neonatal Skin Condition Score to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Machado Schardosim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation and clinical validation of the Neonatal Skin Condition Score.METHODS: this methodological cross-cultural adaptation study included five steps: initial translation, synthesis of the initial translation, back translation, review by an Committee of Specialists and testing of the pre-final version, and an observational cross-sectional study with analysis of the psychometric properties using the Adjusted Kappa, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, and Bland-Altman Method statistical tests. A total of 38 professionals were randomly recruited to review the clarity of the adapted instrument, and 47 newborns hospitalized in the Neonatology Unit of the Clinical Hospital of Porto Alegre were selected by convenience for the clinical validation of the instrument.RESULTS: the adapted scale showed approximately 85% clarity. The statistical tests showed moderate to strong intra and interobserver item to item reliability and from strong to very strong in the total score, with a variation of less than 2 points among the scores assigned by the nurses to the patients.CONCLUSIONS: the scale was adapted and validated to Brazilian Portuguese. The psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Neonatal Skin Condition Score instrument were similar to the validation results of the original scale.

  8. A Systematic Review of the Combined Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychotherapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Shawn M.; Brandon, Anna R.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, after acute phase treatment and initial remission, relapse rates are significant. Strategies to prolong remission include continuation phase ECT, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or their combinations. This systematic review synthesizes extant data regarding the combined use of psychotherapy with ECT for the treatment of patients with severe MDD and offers the hypothesis that augmenting ECT with depression-specific psychotherapy represents a promising strategy for future investigation. Methods The authors performed two independent searches in PsychInfo (1806 – 2009) and MEDLINE (1948 – 2009) using combinations of the following search terms: Electroconvulsive Therapy (including ECT, ECT therapy, electroshock therapy, EST, shock therapy) and Psychotherapy (including cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, group, psychodynamic, psychoanalytic, individual, eclectic, and supportive). We included in this review a total of six articles (English language) that mentioned ECT and psychotherapy in the abstract, and provided a case report, series, or clinical trial. We examined the articles for data related to ECT and psychotherapy treatment characteristics, cohort characteristics, and therapeutic outcome. Results Although research over the past seven decades documenting the combined use of ECT and psychotherapy is limited, the available evidence suggests that testing this combination has promise and may confer additional, positive functional outcomes. Conclusions Significant methodological variability in ECT and psychotherapy procedures, heterogeneous patient cohorts, and inconsistent outcome measures prevent strong conclusions; however, existing research supports the need for future investigations of combined ECT and psychotherapy in well-designed, controlled clinical studies. Depression-specific psychotherapy approaches may need special

  9. Learning how to ask in ethnography and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Inga-Britt

    2003-01-01

    To social anthropologists an affinity with psychotherapy lies in the view that this discipline is a social science. Increasingly, social anthropologists offer comments and analyse their own data using psychotherapeutic or psychoanalytic frames of reference. At the same time, a methodological crisis has developed in ethnography. This is a crisis of how to carry out an ethnographic enquiry in a disciplined manner without either claiming to be a detached observer on the one hand or explaining away the subjective experiences of informants or clients with too much interpretation on the other. The aim of this paper is to address this crisis and to suggest ways in which ethnographers can use techniques from one type of psychotherapy, namely systemic or family psychotherapy in order to access social and psychological aspects of the lives of their informants. The paper achieves this by describing systemic psychotherapy and its theoretical foundations in the ethnographic work of Gregory Bateson. It then reviews the mainly medical anthropology literature in which the connection between psychotherapy and anthro pology has been discussed. While this literature has suggested a narrative and a performative approach to ethnographic data and, therefore, to informants, it has not extended the analytic frame to include the ethnographer him/herself within these frames. Clinical case material is presented to demonstrate how such an inclusion is central to the practice of systemic psychotherapy and to show that this type of material is ethnographic. The techniques of double description, hypothesising and circular questioning are described and demonstrated, and it is argued that adapting these to an ethnographic enquiry will enhance the validity of the anthropological project.

  10. Investigating organizational culture adaptability of broadcasting firm in response to environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Salehi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to study the present status of organizational adaptability in Iranian broadcasting system against environmental changes and present possible suggestions to empower the organization to cope with future changes. The study uses the method developed by Denison (1990 [Denison, D. R. (1990. Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. John Wiley & Sons.] to study the organizational changes. Using a sample of 354 randomly selected employees who worked for this organization, the study has determined that the level of organizational adaptability was less than desirable level and the firm needs to make necessary actions to better cope with environmental change.

  11. Translation to Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of a questionnaire addressing high-alert medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Ariane Cristina Barboza; Gabriel, Carmen Silvia; Bernardes, Andrea; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira

    2016-10-24

    To describe the translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of a Questionnaire addressing High-Alert Medications to the Brazilian context. Methodological study comprising the translation from Chinese to Brazilian Portuguese, synthesis of translations, back translation, panel of experts, and pretest to obtain the final version of the questionnaire. Portuguese version presented semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalence, though 50% of the items required adjustment. Thirty nurses from a teaching hospital participated in the pretest and considered the items to be understandable. Satisfactory semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalence was obtained between the versions. The Portuguese version was also considered to be relevant to the Brazilian culture and easily understood. Nevertheless, its psychometric properties need to be assessed before making it available.

  12. Advanced Psychotherapy Training: Psychotherapy Scholars' Track, and the Apprenticeship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E.; Yager, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and…

  13. [Psychotherapy: Legally recognized in Quebec].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Jean-Bernard; Desjardins, Pierre; Dion, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, Quebec was the first to have regulated the practice of psychotherapy through law adopted in 2009. The law emerged following 30 years of efforts and inter-professional discussions that led to a consensus by an expert committee presided by Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau in 2005. In this essay, Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau, general practitioner, and two psychiatrist and psychologist colleagues, who have participated to the expert committee or have been involved more recently in the implementation of law no 21 in Quebec, relate the main landmarks and moments in the regulation of the practice in psychotherapy following this inter-professional consensus that was translated in the law 21. They relate particularly the last ten years that have led to the adoption of law 21 in 2009, following two parliamentary commission after the Trudeau report. They underline how the practice of psychotherapy is integrated in the professional system and submitted to strict regulation. It includes regulations for obtaining the license of psychotherapist and for maintaining competence. Guidelines emerging from continuous inter-professional discussions for the application of the law and of its regulation in the public and private sectors are produced by the Quebec Professions Office. The definition of psychotherapy that was reached by consensus is not limited to the treatment of mental disorders and is distinguished from other intervention in the area of human relations. Continuous training is mandatory and is implemented on one hand by the Order of the psychologists for the psychologists and other professionals practicing psychotherapy and on the other hand the College of physicians for physician practicing psychotherapy. The authors finally described the interdisciplinary advisory council for the practice of psychotherapy that the legislator has foreseen as an external mechanism to insure the conformity of regulation with the spirit of the law and to give opinions to the various

  14. Assessing migration and adaptation from two or more points of view: Cultural-historical theory and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Portes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study validates a new tool for assessing differences in cultural adaptation for both majority and less dominant minority/immigrant adults in college in general. The Cultural Adaptation and Development Inventory (CADI is a self-report measure validated across multi-ethnic groups. The reliability and validity of a four factor model are adequate based several replication studies. Overall, the CADI provided evidence for a culturally valid measurement that shows both convergent and discriminant validity. Predicted ethnic group and gender differences were replicated with new groups of respondents for factors measuring Inter-Cultural Stress, Helplessness/Optimism, Positive Inter-cultural Adaptation and Inter-cultural Insensitivity. The study’s socio-cultural and usual types of validity is discussed in relation Berry’s (2003, Portes (1999 and Vygotski’s (1978 views regarding sociogenesis.

  15. Total quality management: Strengths and barriers to implementation and cultural adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.; Glenn, Michael; Hamilton, Louise

    1992-01-01

    NASA/Langley Research Center (LaRC) is in the process of implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) throughout the organization in order to improve productivity and make the Center an even better place to work. The purpose of this project was to determine strengths and barriers to TQM being implemented and becoming a part of the organizational culture of the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) at Langley. The target population for this project was both supervisory and nonsupervisory staff of the HMRD. In order to generate data on strengths and barriers to TQM implementation and cultural adaptation, a modified nominal group technique was used.

  16. Total quality management: Strengths and barriers to implementation and cultural adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.; Glenn, Michael; Hamilton, Louise

    1992-09-01

    NASA/Langley Research Center (LaRC) is in the process of implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) throughout the organization in order to improve productivity and make the Center an even better place to work. The purpose of this project was to determine strengths and barriers to TQM being implemented and becoming a part of the organizational culture of the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) at Langley. The target population for this project was both supervisory and nonsupervisory staff of the HMRD. In order to generate data on strengths and barriers to TQM implementation and cultural adaptation, a modified nominal group technique was used.

  17. Culturally specific adaptation of a prevention intervention: an international collaborative research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouk, Tatiana; Thompson, Elaine A; Herting, Jerald R; Walsh, Elaine; Randell, Brooke

    2007-08-01

    This study adapted a U.S. drug use prevention program for use with Russian at-risk adolescents, and explored directions for further development of programs addressing prevention of substance abuse and other health risk behaviors including risk of HIV infection. The adaptation process was conducted in phases, initially carried out in Seattle with 23 bilingual (English-Russian) youth and then further adapted in two Moscow schools with 44 "typical" youth. In the final phase, program adaptation for the Russian at-risk adolescents was achieved by conducting a pilot test of the adapted program lessons with Moscow at-risk adolescents (n=10), who met criteria of poor school performance and/or truancy. Observations and experience were used throughout to adapt and refine the program for at-risk youth. Modifications were made to represent more accurately colloquial Russian and to capture teen experiences common to Russian culture. Both U.S. and Russian youth characterized the lessons as engaging and valuable. They also expressed a need to learn about sexuality, drug use, and health; peer and romantic relationships; and problem-solving strategies.

  18. Monitoring and robust adaptive control of fed-batch cultures of microorganisms exhibiting overflow metabolism [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vande Wouwer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overflow metabolism characterizes cells strains that are likely to produce inhibiting by-products resulting from an excess of substrate feeding and a saturated respiratory capacity. The critical substrate level separating the two different metabolic pathways is generally not well defined. Monitoring of this kind of cultures, going from model identification to state estimation, is first discussed. Then, a review of control techniques which all aim at maximizing the cell productivity of fed-batch fermentations is presented. Two main adaptive control strategies, one using an estimation of the critical substrate level as set-point and another regulating the by-product concentration, are proposed. Finally, experimental investigations of an adaptive RST control scheme using the observer polynomial for the regulation of the ethanol concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultures ranging from laboratory to industrial scales, are also presented.

  19. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction in Danish High Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea; Cozart, Stacey Marie; Lyneborg Lund, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    the interaction with their teachers. The QTI has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument in all the different language versions in which it was adapted. The QTI with the 64-item version has not yet received a validation in Denmark. The present study tested the translation process – after the translation...... the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the QTI in its 64-item version. The article is descriptive and stress the importance of the awareness of the cultural differences when translating and incorporating a questionnaire from one country’s educational setting to another. Results on the approach...... to translation and cultural adaption showed the importance of the dialogical process with informants to make sure the questions are sound and understood in correlation to the MITB model....

  20. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-04-01

    International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries.

  1. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Hansen, Sabrina S.; Hansen, Line S.;

    2015-01-01

    Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). Larsen CM1,2; Hansen SS2; Hansen LH2; Bruun P1; Juul-Kristensen B1,3. 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark. 2Health Sciences Research...... Centre, University College Lillebaelt, Denmark. 3Institute of Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy and Radiography, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway Introduction The Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess shoulder pain in wheelchair users...... in detecting shoulder pain and function in wheelchair users. Aims To translate and cross-culturally adapt WUSPI from the original English version into a Danish version, and to test face validity of the Danish version. Materials and methods An internationally recognized procedure was applied; Forward...

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Behçet's disease quality of life questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menassa Jeanine

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is one Behçet's disease (BD specific self reporting questionnaire developed and published in the literature, The Leeds BD-quality of life (QoL. We conducted a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the Leeds BD-QoL Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 41 consecutive patients attending rheumatology clinics at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between June and December 2007. The BD-QoL questionnaire, the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL and the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL questionnaires were co-administered during the same visit, and severity scores were calculated. Cross-cultural adaptation of BD-QoL was performed using forward and backward translations of the original questionnaire. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the final version were determined. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA was used to assess the dimensionality of the scale items. External construct validity was examined by correlating Arabic BD-QoL with the severity score, ADL and IADL. Results The 30 items of the adapted Arabic BD-QoL showed a high internal consistency (KR-20 coefficient 0.89 and test-retest reliability (Spearman's test 0.91. The convergence of all 30 items suggests that the 30-item adapted Arabic BD-QoL scale is unidimensional. BD-QoL did not correlate with any of the patients' demographics. Still, it was positively correlated with patient severity score (r 0.4, p 0.02, and IADL (but not ADL. Conclusions This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Arabic BD-QoL questionnaire that is now available for use in clinical settings and in research studies, among Arabic speaking patients.

  3. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey (KiKS) to Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Anaya, Evelin; Wright Nunes, Julie; Mayta Tristán, Percy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction—Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 50 million people globally. Several studies show the importance of implementing interventions that enhance patients' knowledge about their disease. In 2011, the Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey (KiKS) was developed, a questionnaire that assesses the specific knowledge about CKD in pre-dialysis patients. Objective—To translate to Spanish, culturally adapt and validate the questionnaire KiKS in a population of patients with pre-dia...

  4. Cultural differences and process adaptation in international R&D project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing; Li, J. Z.

    2009-01-01

    process can be effectively tuned to align with local cultural environment through a new generation stage-gate process model. The overseas company's branch has recognized the need to make its process both faster and more effective for telecommunication software development, and has gained remarkable...... project success. At the same time, lessons and recommendations on the adaptability to Chinese style business and management interactions will be drawn from the case study for international companies that locate R&D projects in China....

  5. Alliance in individual psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Adam O; Del Re, A C; Flückiger, Christoph; Symonds, Dianne

    2011-03-01

    This article reports on a research synthesis of the relation between alliance and the outcomes of individual psychotherapy. Included were over 200 research reports based on 190 independent data sources, covering more than 14,000 treatments. Research involving 5 or more adult participants receiving genuine (as opposed to analogue) treatments, where the author(s) referred to one of the independent variables as "alliance," "therapeutic alliance," "helping alliance," or "working alliance" were the inclusion criteria. All analyses were done using the assumptions of a random model. The overall aggregate relation between the alliance and treatment outcome (adjusted for sample size and non independence of outcome measures) was r = .275 (k = 190); the 95% confidence interval for this value was .25-.30. The statistical probability associated with the aggregated relation between alliance and outcome is p < .0001. The data collected for this meta-analysis were quite variable (heterogeneous). Potential variables such as assessment perspectives (client, therapist, observer), publication source, types of assessment methods and time of assessment were explored.

  6. Cultural adaptation and health literacy refinement of a brief depression intervention for Latinos in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Zorangelí; Alegría, Margarita

    2014-04-01

    Few studies addressing the mental health needs of Latinos describe how interventions are tailored or culturally adapted to address the needs of their target population. Without reference to this process, efforts to replicate results and provide working models of the adaptation process for other researchers are thwarted. The purpose of this article is to describe the process of a cultural adaptation that included accommodations for health literacy of a brief telephone cognitive-behavioral depression intervention for Latinos in low-resource settings. We followed a five-stage approach (i.e., information gathering, preliminary adaptation, preliminary testing, adaptation, and refinement) as described by Barrera, Castro, Strycker, and Toobert (2013) to structure our process. Cultural adaptations included condensation of the sessions, review, and modifications of materials presented to participants including the addition of visual aids, culturally relevant metaphors, values, and proverbs. Feedback from key stakeholders, including clinician and study participants, was fundamental to the adaptation process. Areas for further inquiry and adaptation identified in our process include revisions to the presentation of "cognitive restructuring" to participants and the inclusion of participant beliefs about the cause of their depression. Cultural adaptation is a dynamic process, requiring numerous refinements to ensure that an intervention is tailored and relevant to the target population.

  7. Metacognitive mastery dysfunctions in personality disorder psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Pedone, Roberto; Popolo, Raffaele; Conti, Laura; Fiore, Donatella; Procacci, Michele; Semerari, Antonio; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2011-11-30

    Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) have difficulties in modulating mental states and in coping with interpersonal problems according to a mentalistic formulation of the problem. In this article we analyzed the first 16 psychotherapy sessions of 14 PD patients in order to explore whether their abilities to master distress and interpersonal problems were actually impaired and how they changed during the early therapy phase. We used the Mastery Section of the Metacognition Assessment Scale, which assesses the use of mentalistic knowledge to solve problems and promote adaptation. We explored the hypotheses that a) PD patients had problems in using their mentalistic knowledge to master distress and solve social problems; b) the impairments were partially stable and only a minimal improvement could be observed during the analyzed period; c) patients' mastery preferences differed from one another; d) at the beginning of treatment the more effective strategies were those involving minimal knowledge about mental states. Results seemed to support the hypotheses; the patients examined had significant difficulties in mastery abilities, and these difficulties persisted after 16 sessions. Moreover, the attitudes towards problem-solving were not homogenous across the patients. Lastly, we discuss implications for assessment and treatment of metacognitive disorders in psychotherapy.

  8. Adapting school-based substance use prevention curriculum through cultural grounding: a review and exemplar of adaptation processes for rural schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Margaret; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L; Syvertsen, Amy K; Graham, John W; Pettigrew, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    A central challenge facing twenty-first century community-based researchers and prevention scientists is curriculum adaptation processes. While early prevention efforts sought to develop effective programs, taking programs to scale implies that they will be adapted, especially as programs are implemented with populations other than those with whom they were developed or tested. The principle of cultural grounding, which argues that health message adaptation should be informed by knowledge of the target population and by cultural insiders, provides a theoretical rational for cultural regrounding and presents an illustrative case of methods used to reground the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum for a rural adolescent population. We argue that adaptation processes like those presented should be incorporated into the design and dissemination of prevention interventions.

  9. [Translation and cultural adaptation of the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Initial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Paglione, Heloisa Barbosa; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Pereira, Maria Odete; de Vargas, Divane

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Initial instrument, and calculate its content validity index. This is a methodological study designed for the cultural adaptation of the instrument. The instrument was translated into Portuguese in two versions that originated the synthesis of the translations, which were then submitted to the evaluation of four judges, experts in the field of alcohol and other drugs. After the suggested changes were made, the instrument was back-translated and resubmitted to the judges and authors of the original instrument, resulting in the final version of the instrument, Avaliação Global das Necessidades Individuais - Inicial. The content validity index of the instrument was 0.91, considered valid according to the literature. The instrument Avaliação Global das Necessidades Individuais - Inicial was culturally adapted to the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil; however, it was not submitted to tests with the target population, which suggests further studies should be performed to test its reliability and validity.

  10. Promoting health, preserving culture: adapting RARE in the Maasai context of Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, L K; Powell, C D; Thomas, A D; Medard, E; Roggeveen, Y; Hatfield, J M

    2011-05-01

    HIV/AIDS prevention strategies often neglect traditions and cultural practices relevant to the spread of HIV. The role of women in the HIV/AIDS context has typically been relegated to high-risk female groups such as sex workers, or those engaged in transactional sex for survival. Consequently, these perceptions are born out in the escalation of HIV/AIDS among communities, and female populations in particular where prevention frameworks remain culturally intolerant. We have attempted to address these issues by using an adapted Rapid Assessment Response and Evaluation (RARE) model to examine the impact of HIV/AIDS in the Maasai community of Ngorongoro. Our adapted RARE model used community engagement venues such as stockholder workshops, key informant interviews, and focus groups. Direct observations and geomapping were also done. Throughout our analysis, a gender and a pastoralist-centered approach provided methodological guidance, and served as value added contributions to out adaptation. Based in the unique context of a rural pastoralist community, we made recommendations appropriate to the cultural setting and the RARE considerations.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury - Version III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Alencar Mendes Reis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To translate and culturally adapt to Portuguese the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury - Version III and characterize the sample in relation to sociodemographic and clinical aspects. METHOD A methodological study with view to cross-cultural adaptation, following the particular steps of this method: initial translation, translation synthesis, back-translation (translation back to the original language, review by a committee of judges and pretest of the final version. The pretest was carried out with 30 patients with spinal cord injury. RESULTS An index of 74 items divided into two parts (satisfaction/importance was obtained. The criteria of semantic equivalence were evaluated as very adequate translation, higher than 87%, and vocabulary and were grammar higher than 86%. Idiomatic equivalence was higher than 74%, experimental greater than 78% and conceptual was greater than 70%. CONCLUSION After cross-cultural adaptation, the instrument proved semantic, idiomatic, experimental and conceptual adequacy, in addition to helping the evaluation of the quality of life of people with spinal cord injury.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of the STRATIFY tool in detecting and predicting risk of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez de Luna-Rodríguez, Margarita; Aranda-Gallardo, Marta; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Vazquez-Blanco, M José; Moya-Suárez, Ana Belén; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel

    To adapt to Spanish language the STRATIFY tool for clinical use in the Spanish-speaking World. A multicenter, 2 care settings cross-sectional study cultural adaptation study in acute care hospitals and nursing homes was performed in Andalusia during 2014. The adaptation process was divided into 4 stages: translation, back-translation, equivalence between the 2 back-translations and piloting of the Spanish version, thus obtaining the final version. The validity of appearance, content validity and the time required to complete the scale were taken into account. For analysis, the median, central tendency and dispersion of scores, the interquartile range, and the interquartile deviation for the possible variability in responses it was calculated. Content validity measured by content validity index reached a profit of 1. For the validity aspect the clarity and comprehensibility of the questions were taken into account. Of the 5 questions of the instrument, 2 had a small disagreement solved with the introduction of an explanatory phrase to achieve conceptual equivalence. Median both questions were equal or superior to 5. The average time for completion of the scale was less than 3 minutes. The process of adaptation to Spanish of STRATIFY has led to a semantic version and culturally equivalent to the original for easy filling and understanding for use in the Spanish-speaking world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Helping Clients Feel Welcome: Principles of Adapting Treatment Cross-Culturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Kamilla L; Feldstein, Sarah W; Tafoya, Nadine

    2008-01-01

    Empirically supported interventions (ESIs) for treating substance problems have seldom been made available to or tested with minority populations. Dissemination of ESIs may help reduce the disproportionate health disparities that exist. However, ESIs may require some adaptation to be effective with minority populations. One ESI, motivational interviewing (MI), appears to be particularly culturally congruent for Native American communities. We worked with Native American community members and treatment providers to adapt MI for Native communities. Reflecting their feedback and suggested amendments, we created and disseminated an intervention manual to improve the accessibility of MI within Native communities. To help guide practitioners working with Native American clients, we used focus-group methodology to explore communication patterns for negotiating change. Native American treatment providers expressed comfort with and enthusiasm for integrating MI into their current practices. Recommendations for adaptations ranged from simple to complex changes. The unique value and challenges of collaboration between academic and community members are presented from each author's perspective. This culturally adapted MI manual will likely improve the accessibility and adoption of MI practices as well as encourage controlled, clinical trials with Native communities.

  14. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ) into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Clara de Oliveira; Rocha, Gibsi Possapp; Marques, Tiago Reis; Howes, Oliver; Smith, Shubulade; Monteiro, Ricardo Tavares; Zorzetti, Roberta; Spanemberg, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with psychotic illness. This article describes the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ) into Brazilian Portuguese. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation followed the guidelines for adapting self-report instruments proposed by the Task Force of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Briefly, ISPOR steps include: preparation, forward translation, reconciliation, back-translation, back-translation review, harmonization, cognitive debriefing, review of cognitive debriefing and finalization, before proofreading and final version. The original authors authorized the translation and participated in the study. There was good agreement between translations and between the back-translation and the original English version of the SFQ. The final version was prepared with certificated evaluators in the original language and in Portuguese. Few changes were necessary to the new version in Portuguese. The translated and adapted Brazilian Portuguese version of the SFQ is reliable and semantically equivalent to the original version. Studies on psychotropic-related sexual dysfunction may now test the validity of the instrument and can investigate sexual dysfunction in Portuguese-speaking patients.

  15. Helping Clients Feel Welcome: Principles of Adapting Treatment Cross-Culturally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Kamilla L.; Feldstein, Sarah W.; Tafoya, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Empirically supported interventions (ESIs) for treating substance problems have seldom been made available to or tested with minority populations. Dissemination of ESIs may help reduce the disproportionate health disparities that exist. However, ESIs may require some adaptation to be effective with minority populations. One ESI, motivational interviewing (MI), appears to be particularly culturally congruent for Native American communities. We worked with Native American community members and treatment providers to adapt MI for Native communities. Reflecting their feedback and suggested amendments, we created and disseminated an intervention manual to improve the accessibility of MI within Native communities. To help guide practitioners working with Native American clients, we used focus-group methodology to explore communication patterns for negotiating change. Native American treatment providers expressed comfort with and enthusiasm for integrating MI into their current practices. Recommendations for adaptations ranged from simple to complex changes. The unique value and challenges of collaboration between academic and community members are presented from each author's perspective. This culturally adapted MI manual will likely improve the accessibility and adoption of MI practices as well as encourage controlled, clinical trials with Native communities. PMID:20671813

  16. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  17. Whole genome characterization of non-tissue culture adapted HRSV strains in severely infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaria Rajni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is the most important virus causing lower respiratory infection in young children. The complete genetic characterization of RSV clinical strains is a prerequisite for understanding HRSV infection in the clinical context. Current information about the genetic structure of the HRSV genome has largely been obtained using tissue culture adapted viruses. During tissue culture adaptation genetic changes can be introduced into the virus genome, which may obscure subtle variations in the genetic structure of different RSV strains. Methods In this study we describe a novel Sanger sequencing strategy which allowed the complete genetic characterisation of 14 clinical HRSV strains. The viruses were sequenced directly in the nasal washes of severely hospitalized children, and without prior passage of the viruses in tissue culture. Results The analysis of nucleotide sequences suggested that vRNA length is a variable factor among primary strains, while the phylogenetic analysis suggests selective pressure for change. The G gene showed the greatest sequence variation (2-6.4%, while small hydrophobic protein and matrix genes were completely conserved across all clinical strains studied. A number of sequence changes in the F, L, M2-1 and M2-2 genes were observed that have not been described in laboratory isolates. The gene junction regions showed more sequence variability, and in particular the intergenic regions showed a highest level of sequence variation. Although the clinical strains grew slower than the HRSVA2 virus isolate in tissue culture, the HRSVA2 isolate and clinical strains formed similar virus structures such as virus filaments and inclusion bodies in infected cells; supporting the clinical relevance of these virus structures. Conclusion This is the first report to describe the complete genetic characterization of HRSV clinical strains that have been sequenced directly from clinical

  18. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.

  19. The role of hope in psychotherapy with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, L; Walsh, S

    2005-01-01

    The positive impact of psychotherapy upon the mental health problems of older people is increasingly accepted. However little attention has been paid to the role of hope in working therapeutically with older adults. Three relevant bodies of literature, namely adult psychotherapy, hope in older adulthood, and coping with chronic and terminal illness, provide a starting point for examining the therapeutic uses of hope. However, it is argued that these literatures cannot provide a sufficiently comprehensive conceptualisation of hope in psychotherapy with elders. Firstly, it is considered that hope in therapy is directly affected by key experiences of ageing, namely: facing physical and/or cognitive deterioration and facing death. Also, these three bodies of literature have tended to dichotomise hope as either beneficial and adaptive or dysfunctional and maladaptive. A developmental perspective is used to critique this dichotomy and a clinical framework is provided which examines the role and utility of hope in older adult psychotherapy from a more integrated viewpoint embedded in the client's life history. The framework is comprised of three types of 'hope work': 'facilitating realistic hope,' 'the work of despair' and 'surviving not thriving'. Suggestions are made about how this work may be carried out and with whom.

  20. Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support for Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilou, Paraskevi

    2015-04-13

    Recently, there is a surge of interest in the use of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to measure perceived social support across cultures. The objective of this study was to translate and make the cultural adaptation of the Greek version of the MSPSS. The study counted with a sample of 10 patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. The process involved the following steps of translation back translation and semantic evaluation. The former revealed good acceptance of the translated version of the instrument, which participants considered having items of easy understanding. After completing the process of validation in the country, the instrument will become available to Greek researchers to measure social support, as well as to compare results from Greece to that of other cultures in which the instrument has already been validated.

  1. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients attending Psychotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena Al-Sharbati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. Results: The majority of referrals were females (59%, aged 18–34 years, employed (38%, had ≤12 years of formal education (51%, and were single (54%. A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder, while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn, contemptuous envy (Hassad, evil eye (Ain and sorcery (Sihr which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Conclusion: Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.

  2. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients attending Psychotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharbati, Zena; Hallas, Claire; Al-Zadjali, Hazar; Al-Sharbati, Marwan

    2012-02-01

    There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. The majority of referrals were females (59%), aged 18-34 years, employed (38%), had ≤12 years of formal education (51%), and were single (54%). A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder), while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn), contemptuous envy (Hassad), evil eye (Ain) and sorcery (Sihr) which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.

  3. Psychotherapy patient transfer: secondhand rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederer, L

    1975-10-01

    The author uses the analogy of the marketplace to examine the dynamics of the transfer of psychotherapy patients in university clinic settings. The outgoing therapist is the seller, the prospective therapist the buyer, and the patient the commodity--the secondhand Rose. Marketing techniques that are used in this buyers' market allow no active patient participation and are therefore antithetical to the tenets of psychotherapy. The author suggests early clarification of therapeutic goals, assignment of therapists on the basis of patient choice, and explanation of time frames and limits as means for ameliorating the problems he describes.

  4. Modular Psychotherapy for Youth with Internalizing Problems: Implementation with Therapists in School-Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the training and consultation procedures implemented to adapt and pilot modular psychotherapy for use by therapists treating youth with depression and anxiety in school-based health centers (SBHCs). Module selection and adaptation decisions were data driven and intended to increase compatibility with the school context.…

  5. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Peter J; Nelson-Wong, Erika J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a self-report-based outcome measure used to quantify the extent of disability related to low back pain (LBP), a substantial contributor to workplace absenteeism. The ODI tool has been adapted for use by patients in several non-English speaking nations. It is unclear, however, if these adapted versions of the ODI are as credible as the original ODI developed for English-speaking nations. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to identify culturally adapted versions of the ODI and to report on the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of these ODIs. Following a pragmatic review process, data were extracted from each study with regard to these four outcomes. While most studies applied adaptation processes in accordance with best-practice guidelines, there were some deviations. However, all studies reported high-quality psychometric properties: group mean construct validity was 0.734 ± 0.094 (indicated via a correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability was 0.937 ± 0.032 (indicated via an intraclass correlation coefficient) and internal consistency was 0.876 ± 0.047 (indicated via Cronbach's alpha). Researchers can be confident when using any of these culturally adapted ODIs, or when comparing and contrasting results between cultures where these versions were employed. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain is the second leading cause of disability in the world, behind only cancer. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has been developed as a self-report outcome measure of low back pain for administration to patients. An understanding of the various cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI is important for more concerted multi-national research efforts. This review examines 16 cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI and should inform the work of health care and rehabilitation professionals.

  7. The Influence of U.S. Strategic Culture on Innovation and Adaptation in the U.S. Army

    OpenAIRE

    Kamara, Hassan M.

    2015-01-01

    Culture is an abstract phenomenon that influences its environment. According to culture theorist Edgar Schein, “culture is an abstraction, yet the forces that are created in social and organizational situations that derive from culture are powerful. If we don’t understand the operation of these forces, we become victim to them.” As a subset of culture, the strategic culture of the United States requires study so we can understand its influences on innovation and adaptation in the U.S. Army, a...

  8. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  9. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  10. Climate knowledge cultures: Stakeholder perspectives on change and adaptation in Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Bohensky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective climate adaptation requires engagement (awareness, motivation, and capacity to act at relevant scales, from individuals to global institutions. In many parts of the world, research attention has focused on the engagement of the general public. We suggest that studies also need to focus on key stakeholders in the government and non-governmental sectors who participate in adaptation planning processes, so that a better understanding may be achieved of the distinct knowledge cultures that influence their engagement with climate change. Indonesia is a key actor in climate adaptation because of the potentially dire consequences for its population’s livelihoods and well-being. In this paper we consider whether ‘climate knowledge cultures’ exist amongst stakeholders at multiple organisational levels in Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB Province, Eastern Indonesia. Surveys were conducted with 124 stakeholders from differing levels at the beginning of four multi-stakeholder climate adaptation workshops. Questions elicited perceptions of their region’s challenges, observation and awareness of climate change, feelings they associated with climate change, beliefs regarding causes, risks and preparedness for climate change, and timeframes they associated with the future. Across all levels, climate change ranked highest as the first challenge participants identified, followed by food security, but well-being ranked highest when the top three challenges were combined. Most participants believed climate change was happening, but those working at higher organisational levels were more likely to attribute climate change to human factors whereas those at lower levels were more likely to think it was a natural phenomenon. Women were in greater agreement and more optimistic than men about current government policies to cope with climate change. Perceptions differed between sub-districts, reflecting NTB’s climatic diversity. We note that although climate

  11. Pilot outcome results of culturally adapted evidence-based substance use disorder treatment with a Southwest Tribe

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    Kamilla L. Venner

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Results suggest that culturally adapted EBTs yield significant improvements in alcohol use, psychological distress, and legal problems among AI/ANs. Future research using RCT methodology is needed to examine efficacy and effectiveness.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the disease specific questionnaire OQLQ in Serbian patients with malocclusions

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    Vucic Ljiljana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentofacial disorders may potentially significantly affect the quality of life. Objectives of this study were to validate translated and culturally adapted Orthognatic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ on a cohort of Serbian patients with malocclusions.

  13. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to sustain the patient through periods of crisis and encourage small gains over time. This approach encourages the transformation from acting out to verbalizing psychological conflicts and developing adaptive outlets for emotions. X ...

  14. The Role of Culture in Adaptation and Vulnerability to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J. O.; Sandholt, I.; Mertz, O.; Mbow, C.

    2008-12-01

    AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) aims to improve our ability to forecast weather and climate in the West African region as well as understanding the impacts and adaptive responses of people and environment. While the complexity and unpredictability of the West African monsoon systems provide an intriguing challenge for science, it is potentially devastating for the many West African people affected by it. Across the region from Senegal to Niger people are trying to deal with and negotiate the consequences of this complexity and unpredictability. The objective of the AMMA Word Package 3.2 is to understand and map how they do this and to attempt to single out the importance of climate factors for local land use and livelihood strategies, decision-making and social relations. Researchers from Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria and Denmark developed a common questionnaire and interview guide that was implemented at 16 field sites in 5 countries. The sites were selected to represent the region and were located along north- south and east-west transects, and included both agricultural and pastoral locations. Moreover, in depth studies took place in several sites. In one of these, located in Northern Burkina Faso, there was a specific focus on how adaptation to climate change is related to ethnicity and the issue of values and culture in adaptation and vulnerability to climate change was raised. Strategies of two ethnic groups, Rimaiibe and Fulbe, were compared and it was shown that despite their presence in the same physical environment and their shared experience of climate change, the two groups have adapted very different strategies due to cultural values and historical relations. This has had profound impacts on the relations between the two ethnic groups. The former masters, Fulbe, have been much less successful with their strategies than their former slaves, Rimaiibe, and today the latter group is the dominant one within the village. It is

  15. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese

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    Elaine Aparecida Rocha Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to adapt the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese and to measure its psychometric properties: reliability and validity. Method: the cultural adaptation was undertaken following the stages of translation, synthesis of the translations, back translation, committee of specialists, pre-test and focus group. A total of 200 patients participated in the study. These were recruited in Primary Care Centers, Family Health Strategy Centers, in a philanthropic hospital and in a teaching hospital. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and stability. Validity was ascertained through the correlation of the instrument's values with those of the domains of the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index - Wound Version and with the quality of life score of the visual analog scale. Results: the instrument presented adequate internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86 and high stability in the test and retest (0.93. The validity presented correlations of moderate and significant magnitude (-0.24 to -0.48, p<0.0001. Conclusion: the results indicated that the adapted version presented reliable and valid psychometric measurements for the population with chronic wounds in the Brazilian culture.

  16. Economic pressure, cultural adaptation stress, and marital quality among Mexican-origin couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Heather M; Supple, Andrew J; Su, Jinni; Rodriguez, Yuliana; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Hengstebeck, Natalie D

    2014-02-01

    Based on data from a sample of 120 first-generation Mexican immigrant couples collected at the start of the Great Recession in the United States, this study tested an actor-partner interdependence mediation model (APIMeM) in which spouses' perceptions of stress related to economic pressure and cultural adaptation were linked to their own and their partners' reports of marital satisfaction through spouses' depressive symptoms and marital negativity. As hypothesized, results supported indirect links between economic and cultural adaptation stressors and spouses' marital negativity and satisfaction: (1) contextual stress was associated with depressive symptoms, (2) depressive symptoms were positively associated with marital negativity for both husbands and wives and negatively associated with marital satisfaction for wives only, and (3) marital negativity was inversely associated with marital satisfaction for both spouses. Two partner effects emerged: (a) husbands' depressive symptoms were positively associated with wives' reports of marital negativity and (b) husbands' marital negativity was inversely related to wives' marital satisfaction. From these findings, we can infer that the psychological distress that arises for Mexican-origin spouses as they respond to the challenges of making ends meet during difficult economic times while they simultaneously navigate adapting to life in a new country is evidenced in their marital quality. Specifically, this study found that contextual stress external to the marital relationship was transmitted via spouses' psychological distress and negative marital exchanges to spouses' marital satisfaction. Wives' marital satisfaction was shown to be uniquely vulnerable to their own and their husbands' depressive symptoms and marital negativity.

  17. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Thangavel, K; Lalitha, N; Malmarugan, S; Sukumar, Kuppannan

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC) system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18(th)(final) passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.

  18. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the Children's Communication Checklist-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vanessa Barbosa Soares da; Harsányi, Estefânia; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Kummer, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    To translate the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) into Brazilian-Portuguese, to make its cross-cultural adaptation and to assess its internal reliability. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation followed the recommendations of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The test was administered to 20 parents or caregivers of individuals with autism in order to investigate the level of understandability of the object under study. After implementing the necessary adjustments, the final version of the Brazilian-Portuguese CCC-2 was achieved. Parents and/or caregivers did not make any suggestion for its adaptation. The final version was certified by the author of the original instrument and by the publisher responsible for marketing the CCC-2. Reliability of the instrument is acceptable, with values of internal consistency of its subscales ranging from 0.75 to 0.90. The instrument can be used in the clinical evaluation of children with autism and developmental language disorder. However, further studies are needed to assess the reliability and validity of the instrument in Brazil.

  19. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivam Visnuvinayagam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18th(final passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation of the English version of the Senior Fitness Test to Spanish

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    Marlene Edith Ochoa-González

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The physical condition of the elderly is related to health and functional independence. One specific and scientifically valid instrument measuring this parameter is the Senior Fitness Test, of which the original version is in English. Objective. To identify the face validity of the test for use in Spanish language based on the cultural adaptation of the English version. Materials and methods. Descriptive study, for which cross-cultural adaptation to Spanish was performed. This involved translation, evaluation of conceptual equivalence by three bilingual experts, synthesis of observations, calculation of values for the index of agreement and applicability. Results. The overall agreement rate is 0.9485. No disagreements arose between the judges for any of the items, and intelligibility is of 85.2%, according to subjects of different ages and levels of schooling. Conclusions. A version of the Senior Fitness Test adapted to Spanish was obtained. The test is backed up by face validity and comprehensibility, and conserves semantic, idiomatic, and conceptual equivalence to the original version.

  1. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Pagano, Adriana Silvina; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737), while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv) for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the validation tests proved

  2. Cultural and Linguistic Adaptation of a Multimedia Colorectal Cancer Screening Decision Aid for Spanish Speaking Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K.; Reuland, Daniel; Jolles, Monica; Clay, Rebecca; Pignone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    As the United States becomes more linguistically and culturally diverse, there is a need for effective health communication interventions that target diverse and most vulnerable populations. Latinos also have the lowest colorectal (CRC) screening rates of any ethnic group in the U.S. To address such disparities, health communication interventionists are often faced with the challenge to adapt existing interventions from English into Spanish in a way that retains essential elements of the original intervention while also addressing the linguistic needs and cultural perspectives of the target population. We describe the conceptual framework, context, rationale, methods, and findings of a formative research process used in creating a Spanish language version of an evidenced-based (English language) multimedia CRC screening decision aid. Our multi-step process included identification of essential elements of the existing intervention, literature review, assessment of the regional context and engagement of key stakeholders, and solicitation of direct input from target population. We integrated these findings in the creation of the new adapted intervention. We describe how we used this process to identify and integrate socio-cultural themes such as personalism (personalismo), familism (familismo), fear (miedo), embarrassment (verguenza), power distance (respeto), machismo, and trust (confianza) into the Spanish language decision aid. PMID:24328496

  3. Biological adaptations for functional features of language in the face of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Morten H; Reali, Florencia; Chater, Nick

    2011-04-01

    Although there may be no true language universals, it is nonetheless possible to discern several family resemblance patterns across the languages of the world. Recent work on the cultural evolution of language indicates the source of these patterns is unlikely to be an innate universal grammar evolved through biological adaptations for arbitrary linguistic features. Instead, it has been suggested that the patterns of resemblance emerge because language has been shaped by the brain, with individual languages representing different but partially overlapping solutions to the same set of nonlinguistic constraints. Here, we use computational simulations to investigate whether biological adaptation for functional features of language, deriving from cognitive and communicative constraints, may nonetheless be possible alongside rapid cultural evolution. Specifically, we focus on the Baldwin effect as an evolutionary mechanism by which previously learned linguistic features might become innate through natural selection across many generations of language users. The results indicate that cultural evolution of language does not necessarily prevent functional features of language from becoming genetically fixed, thus potentially providing a particularly informative source of constraints on cross-linguistic resemblance patterns.

  4. Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Puig, Marieva; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Morales, Marangelie; Asencio, Gloria; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Castro, Eida; Velez Santori, Carmen; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated its psychometric properties. After conducting a factor analysis, a 17-item scale, the HIV Felt-Stigma Scale (HFSS), resulted. Participants completed the Puerto Rico Comprehensive Center for the Study of Health Disparities Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the HFSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Sexual Abuse dimension of the History of Abuse Questionnaire; the case managers completed the Case Manager Stigma Guide with subjects. The HFSS measures four dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. The alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients (0.91 and 0.68, respectively) indicated satisfactory validity and reliability; the scale suggested adequate convergent validity. The HFSS is a culturally sensitive instrument that fills the existing gap in the measurement of felt stigma in Spanish-speaking PLWHA.

  5. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Brief Michigan Hand Questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos Henrique; Neto, Jorge Raduan; Meirelles, Lia Miyamoto; Pereira, Carina Nascimento Mastrocinque; Dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes; Faloppa, Flavio

    2014-09-01

    The use of patient-reported outcome questionnaires is recommended in orthopedic studies. However, validated tools are necessary to ensure the comparability of results across different studies, centers, and countries. The Brief Michigan Hand Questionnaire (BMHQ) can be used for outcome measures in self-evaluation after carpal tunnel release. This study aimed to translate the BMHQ to Portuguese to permit cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilians patients. We translated the Brief Michigan Hand Questionnaire from the original version (English) to Brazilian Portuguese. The translation and cultural adaptation of the content of this tool consisted of six stages, according to the methodology proposed by medical literature: (1) initial translation of the questionnaire by two independent translators; (2) synthesis of translations and reconciliation; (3) back-translation to English of the reconciled version; (4) verification of the cultural equivalence process by an expert committee; (5) pre-testing in a sample of patients to verify understanding of the items; and (6) development of a final version of the BMHQ. The pre-final version of the tool was applied to 43 patients to verify its understanding. Pre-testing showed that the questions and options were satisfactorily understood. The number of items from the original English version was maintained in the Brazilian Portuguese version of BMHQ. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the BMHQ is easily understood by patients and will be useful to clinicians and researchers.

  6. Outcomes of a type 2 diabetes education program adapted to the cultural contexts of Saudi women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bannay, Hana R.; Jongbloed, Lyn E.; Jarus, Tal; Alabdulwahab, Sami S.; Khoja, Tawfik A.; Dean, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the outcomes of a pilot intervention of a type 2 diabetes (T2D) education program, based on international standards, and adapted to the cultural and religious contexts of Saudi women. Methods: This study is an experiment of a pilot intervention carried out between August 2011 and January 2012 at the primary health clinics in Dammam. Women at risk of or diagnosed with T2D (N=35 including dropouts) were assigned to one of 2 groups; an intervention group participated in a pilot intervention of T2D education program, based on international standards and tailored to their cultural and religious contexts; and a usual care group received the usual care for diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Outcomes included blood glucose, body composition, 6-minute walk distance, life satisfaction, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge. The intervention group participated in a focus group of their program experience. Data analysis was based on mixed methods. Results: Based on 95% confidence interval comparisons, improvements were noted in blood sugar, 6-minute walk distance, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge in participants of the intervention group. They also reported improvements in lifestyle-related health behaviors after the education program. Conclusion: Saudi women may benefit from a T2D education program based on international standards and adapted to their cultural and religious contexts. PMID:26108595

  7. Adaptation of the genetically tractable malaria pathogen Plasmodium knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Robert

    2012-12-24

    Research into the aetiological agent of the most widespread form of severe malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has benefitted enormously from the ability to culture and genetically manipulate blood-stage forms of the parasite in vitro. However, most malaria outside Africa is caused by a distinct Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, and it has become increasingly apparent that zoonotic infection by the closely related simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a frequent cause of life-threatening malaria in regions of southeast Asia. Neither of these important malarial species can be cultured in human cells in vitro, requiring access to primates with the associated ethical and practical constraints. We report the successful adaptation of P. knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes. Human-adapted P. knowlesi clones maintain their capacity to replicate in monkey erythrocytes and can be genetically modified with unprecedented efficiency, providing an important and unique model for studying conserved aspects of malarial biology as well as species-specific features of an emerging pathogen.

  8. Psychotherapy via Videoconferencing: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Research into the use of videoconferencing for clinical purposes, in particular psychotherapy, is gradually expanding. A number of case studies and case series have suggested that videoconferencing can be clinically effective and acceptable to patients. Nevertheless, there is a lack of methodologically rigorous studies with adequate sample sizes…

  9. Palmistry, tarot cards, and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Nicholas G

    2008-01-01

    The author summarizes his experience with palm and Tarot card readers in New Orleans. The history, practice, and psychodynamics of palmistry and Tarot are explored. It's postulated that these practices are forms of archaic psychotherapy, which employ supportive treatment and placebo. These tactics are used to elicit hope for its clients.

  10. Beyond Psychobabble: Careers in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    Describes the five largest psychotherapy occupations (psychiatrist, clinical/counseling psychologist, clinical social worker, marriage and family therapist, clinical mental health counselor) and looks at training requirements, types of practices, trends, and related occupations. Lists professional associations and references for further…

  11. Chinese Students' Adaptation of Social Intercourse Influenced by Different Cultural Contexts of China and America in American Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于乐群

    2012-01-01

    1 Statement of the Purpose (1) Statement of the purpose The purpose of the research isto study Chinese studends' adaptation of social intercourse influenced by different cultural contexts of China and America in American universities.And the study will also try to find out the exact problems and obstacles during Chinese students' adapting period in American universities.

  12. Sequence adaptations during growth of rescued classical swine fever viruses in cell culture and within infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne; Friis, Martin Barfred; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    RNA could be detected. However, the animals inoculated with these mutant viruses seroconverted against CSFV. Thus, these mutant viruses were highly attenuated in vivo. All 4 rescued viruses were also passaged up to 20 times in cell culture. Using full genome sequencing, the same two adaptations within...... adaptation and to identify key determinants of viral replication efficiency in cells and within host animals....

  13. Effectiveness of Cultural Adaptations of Interventions Aimed at Smoking Cessation, Diet, and/or Physical Activity in Ethnic Minorities. A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierkens, Vera; Hartman, Marieke A.; Nicolaou, Mary; Vissenberg, Charlotte; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Hosper, Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. Aim To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. Methods Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997–2009). Inclusion criteria: a) effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b) interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c) primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. Results Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. Conclusion This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a higher intensity of the

  14. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire for burn victims in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noélle de Oliveira Freitas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This methodological study aimed to describe the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the Perceived stigmatization Questionnaire (PSQ and analyze the internal consistency of the items in the step of pre-testing. The PSQ was developed to evaluate the perception of stigmatizing behaviors of burn victims. The adaptation process was carried out from August 2012 to February 2013, comprising the steps outlined in the literature. As part of this process, the pre-test with 30 adult burn victims was held. All participants at this step reported to understand the instrument items and the scale of responses. There were no suggestions or changes in the tested version. The value of Cronbach’s alpha at pre-test was 0.87. The contribution of this study is to describe the operation of each of the steps of this methodological process and show the internal consistency of the items in the pre-test.

  15. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Hip Outcome Score to the Portuguese language,

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    Liszt Palmeira de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to translate the Hip Outcome Score clinical evaluation questionnaire into Portuguese and culturally adapt it for Brazil.METHODS: the Hip Outcome Score questionnaire was translated into Portuguese following the methodology consisting of the steps of translation, back-translation, pretesting and final translation.RESULTS: the pretesting was applied to 30 patients with hip pain without arthrosis. In the domain relating to activities of daily living, there were no difficulties in comprehending the translated questionnaire. In presenting the final translation of the questionnaire, all the questions were understood by more than 85% of the individuals.CONCLUSION: the Hip Outcome Score questionnaire was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language and can be used in clinical evaluation on the hip. Additional studies are underway with the objective of evaluating the reproducibility and validity of the Brazilian translation.

  16. The McGill Illness Narrative Interview - MINI: translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Erotildes Maria; Souza, Alicia Navarro de; Serpa, Octavio Domont de; Oliveira, Iraneide Castro de; Dahl, Catarina Magalhães; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Salem, Samantha; Groleau, Danielle

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the process of translation and cultural adaptation into Portuguese of the McGill Illness Narrative Interview - MINI, an interview protocol that is used to research meanings and modes of narrating illness experiences, tested, in the Brazilian context, for psychiatric and cancer-related problems. Two translations and their respective back-translations were developed. In addition, semantic equivalence was evaluated, a synthesis version and a final version were prepared, and two pre-tests were administered to the target populations (people with auditory verbal hallucinations or breast cancer). A high degree of semantic equivalence was found between the original instrument and the translation/back-translation pairs, and also in the perspective of referential and general meanings. The semantic and operational equivalence of the proposed modifications was confirmed in the pre-tests. Therefore, the first adaptation of an interview protocol that elicits the production of narratives about illness experiences has been provided for the Brazilian context.

  17. “Queremos Aprender”: Latino Immigrants’ Call to Integrate Cultural Adaptation with Best Practice Knowledge in a Parenting Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Cardona, José; Holtrop, Kendal; Córdova, David; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Horsford, Sheena; Tams, Lisa; Villarruel, Francisco A.; Villalobos, Graciela; Dates, Brian; Anthony, James C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the unique and challenging circumstances confronting Latino immigrant families, debate still exists as to the need to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions for dissemination with this population. Following the grounded theory approach, the current qualitative investigation utilized focus group interviews with 83 Latino immigrant parents to explore the relevance of culturally adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention to be disseminated within this population. Findings from this study indicate that Latino immigrant parents want to participate in a culturally adapted parenting intervention as long as it is culturally relevant, respectful, and responsive to their life experiences. Research results also suggest that the parenting skills participants seek to enhance are among those commonly targeted by evidence-based parenting interventions. This study contributes to the cultural adaptation/fidelity balance debate by highlighting the necessity of exploring ways to develop culturally adapted interventions characterized by high cultural relevance, as well as high fidelity to the core components that have established efficacy for evidence-based parenting interventions. PMID:19579906

  18. "Queremos aprender": Latino immigrants' call to integrate cultural adaptation with best practice knowledge in a parenting intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, José Parra; Holtrop, Kendal; Córdova, David; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Horsford, Sheena; Tams, Lisa; Villarruel, Francisco A; Villalobos, Graciela; Dates, Brian; Anthony, James C; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2009-06-01

    Despite the unique and challenging circumstances confronting Latino immigrant families, debate still exists as to the need to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions for dissemination with this population. Following the grounded theory approach, the current qualitative investigation utilized focus group interviews with 83 Latino immigrant parents to explore the relevance of culturally adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention to be disseminated within this population. Findings from this study indicate that Latino immigrant parents want to participate in a culturally adapted parenting intervention as long as it is culturally relevant, respectful, and responsive to their life experiences. Research results also suggest that the parenting skills participants seek to enhance are among those commonly targeted by evidence-based parenting interventions. This study contributes to the cultural adaptation/fidelity balance debate by highlighting the necessity of exploring ways to develop culturally adapted interventions characterized by high cultural relevance, as well as high fidelity to the core components that have established efficacy for evidence-based parenting interventions.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Persian Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasanvand, Sahar; Fakhari, Zahra; Kordi, Ramin; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina

    2016-04-01

    To cross-culturally adapt the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) to Persian language and to preliminary evaluate the reliability and validity of a Persian ATRS. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study was conducted to translate and cross-culturally adapt the ATRS to Persian language (ATRS-Persian) following steps described in guidelines. Thirty patients with total Achilles tendon rupture and 30 healthy subjects participated in this study. Psychometric properties of floor/ceiling effects (responsiveness), internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), construct validity, and discriminant validity were tested. Factor analysis was performed to determine the ATRS-Persian structure. There were no floor or ceiling effects that indicate the content and responsiveness of ATRS-Persian. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α 0.95). Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standard of 0.3 for the all items (0.58-0.95). The test-retest reliability was excellent [(ICC)agreement 0.98]. SEM and SDC were 3.57 and 9.9, respectively. Construct validity was supported by a significant correlation between the ATRS-Persian total score and the Persian Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (PFAOS) total score and PFAOS subscales (r = 0.55-0.83). The ATRS-Persian significantly discriminated between patients and healthy subjects. Explanatory factor analysis revealed 1 component. The ATRS was cross-culturally adapted to Persian and demonstrated to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure functional outcomes in Persian patients with Achilles tendon rupture. II.

  20. Cultural adaptation and validation of an instrument on barriers for the use of research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Felix, Márcia Marques Dos Santos; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2017-03-02

    to culturally adapt The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale and to analyze the metric validity and reliability properties of its Brazilian Portuguese version. methodological research conducted by means of the cultural adaptation process (translation and back-translation), face and content validity, construct validity (dimensionality and known groups) and reliability analysis (internal consistency and test-retest). The sample consisted of 335 nurses, of whom 43 participated in the retest phase. the validity of the adapted version of the instrument was confirmed. The scale investigates the barriers for the use of the research results in clinical practice. Confirmatory factorial analysis demonstrated that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument is adequately adjusted to the dimensional structure the scale authors originally proposed. Statistically significant differences were observed among the nurses holding a Master's or Doctoral degree, with characteristics favorable to Evidence-Based Practice, and working at an institution with an organizational cultural that targets this approach. The reliability showed a strong correlation (r ranging between 0.77 and 0.84, pcultura organizacional dirigida hacia tal aproximación. La fiabilidad presentó correlación fuerte (r variando entre 0,77 y 0,84, pcultura organizacional direcionada para tal abordagem. A confiabilidade apresentou correlação forte (r variando entre 0,77e 0,84, p<0,001) e a consistência interna foi adequada (alfa de Cronbach variando entre 0,77 e 0,82) . a versão para o português brasileiro do instrumento The Barriers Scale demonstrou-se válida e confiável no grupo estudado.

  1. STOP-Bang questionnaire: translation to Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Barbosa de Moraes Fonseca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender (STOP-Bang questionnaire so that it can be used as a screening tool for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in Brazil. Methods: Based on the principles of good practice for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of such instruments, the protocol included the following steps: acquisition of authorization from the lead author of the original questionnaire; translation of the instrument to Brazilian Portuguese, carried out by two translators; reconciliation; back-translation to English, carried out by two English teachers who are fluent in Portuguese; review of the back-translation; harmonization; review and approval of the questionnaire by the original author; cognitive debriefing involving 14 patients who completed the questionnaire; analysis of the results; and review and preparation of the final version of the instrument approved by the review committee. Results: The final version of the STOP-Bang questionnaire for use in Brazil showed a clarity score > 9 (on a scale of 1-10 for all of the questions. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.62, demonstrating the internal consistency of the instrument. The means and standard deviations of the age, body mass index, and neck circumference of the patients studied were 46.8 ± 11.2 years, 43.7 ± 8.5 kg/m2, and 41.3 ± 3.6 cm, respectively. Conclusions: The STOP-Bang questionnaire proved to be understandable, clear, and applicable. The original instrument and the translated version, cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, were consistently equivalent. Therefore, it can become a widely used screening tool for patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea.

  2. Introduction: Science, Sexuality, and Psychotherapy: Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Armand R

    2017-08-01

    This introduction presents an overview of the current issue (73, 8) of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session. This issue features a series of articles, with clinical cases, each presented to illustrate the challenges faced by individuals and couples whose sexual and gender identities and expressions do not comport with traditional and cultural norms. These articles also document the challenges to the therapists who treat them. Considered individually, each article underscores the need to recognize the importance of evidence in guiding psychotherapy in cases involving sexuality. The discussions in each article offer recommendations meant to help and guide psychotherapists. Considered collectively, they raise important questions and considerations about shifting paradigms of human sexuality. Implications for assessment and treatment of cases involving sexuality and gender identity are discussed and recommended. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Relation of spontaneous transformation in cell culture to adaptive growth and clonal heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, A L; Yao, A; Rubin, H

    1990-01-01

    Cell transformation in culture is marked by the appearance of morphologically altered cells that continue to multiply to form discrete foci in confluent sheets when the surrounding cells are inhibited. These foci occur spontaneously in early-passage NIH 3T3 cells grown to confluency in 10% calf serum (CS) but are not seen in cultures grown to confluency in 2% CS. However, repeated passage of the cells at low density in 2% CS gives rise to an adapted population that grows to increasingly higher saturation densities and produces large numbers of foci in 2% CS. The increased saturation density of the adapted population in 2% CS is retained upon repeated passage in 10% CS, but the number and size of the foci produced in 2% CS gradually decrease under this regime. Clonal analysis confirms that the focus-forming potential of most if not all of the cells in a population increases in response to a continuously applied growth constraint, although only a small fraction of the population may actually form foci in a given assay. The acquired capacity for focus formation varies widely in clones derived from the adapted population and changes in diverse ways upon further passage of the clones. We propose that the adaptive changes result from progressive selection of successive phenotypic variations in growth capacity that occur spontaneously. The process designated progressive state selection resolves the apparent dichotomy between spontaneous mutation with selection on the one hand and induction on the other, by introducing selection among fluctuating states or metabolic patterns rather than among genetically altered cells.

  4. Description of children as subjects of adaptive physical culture training in social rehabilitation centres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashna O.P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of rehabilitation centres' research and the peculiarities 162 of children with physical disabilities, as subjects of adaptive physical culture (APC. We have investigated the parents' opinion considering the process of children rehabilitation by means of APC. The research resulted in singling out groups typical of children for two centres, studying their physical abilities and qualities as well as their socialization level. It is proved that absence of the systematic reading with children with the lacks of development is designated on efficiency of leadthrough not only to athletic-sporting but also to the physical rehabilitation.

  5. German translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Sandra; Osborne, Richard H.; Dwinger, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ), developed in Australia in 2012 using a 'validitydriven' approach, has been rapidly adopted and is being applied in many countries and languages. It is a multidimensional measure comprising nine distinct domains that may be used for surveys, needs assessment......, evaluation and outcomes assessment as well as for informing service improvement and the development of interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the German translation of the HLQ and to present the results of the validation of the culturally adapted version. The HLQ comprises 44 items, which were...

  6. CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND VALIDATION FOR PORTUGUESE OF THE SPINAL APPEARANCE QUESTIONNAIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Guerra de Albuquerque Rosendo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Make the cultural adaptation of the spinal appearance questionnaire (SAQ. Method: Twenty patients and their accompanying relatives responded to SAC and were asked about possible improvements. Results: Eighteen girls (90% and two boys (10%, average age 14.8 years; Cronbach's alpha values of 0.79 and 0.75 were found for patients and parents respectively. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the spinal appearance questionnaire presented in this paper proves to be a valid tool for their purposes in its pre-trial phase.

  7. A culturally adapted depression intervention for African American adults experiencing depression: Oh Happy Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Earlise C; Brown, Roger L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe development of a culturally adapted depression intervention (Oh Happy Day Class, OHDC) designed for African American adults experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). This project included 2 pilot studies testing the feasibility and acceptability of the OHDC and examining short-term effects of the OHDC in reducing symptoms of MDD. The OHDC is a 2.5-hr weekly, culturally specific, cognitive behavioral, group counseling intervention for 12 weeks. Cultural adaptations of the OHDC are based on the ecological validity and culturally sensitive framework, along with an Afrocentric paradigm. Fifty African American participants with MDD were enrolled (15 in Pilot I and 35 in Pilot II). All participants in Pilots I and II received the 12-week intervention and completed assessments at baseline, mid-intervention, end-intervention, and 3 months postintervention. General linear mixed modeling for assessment of pre-post longitudinal data analysis was conducted. Results for Pilot I showed 73% of participants completed the full OHDC, a statistically significant decline in depression symptoms from pre- to postintervention, and a 0.38 effect size. Participants were very satisfied with the OHDC. In Pilot II, 66% of participants completed the full OHDC, and there was a significant pre-post intervention decrease in depression symptoms. For men, the OHDC showed a 1.01 effect size and for women, a 0.41 effect size. Both men and women were very satisfied with the OHDC based on the satisfaction measure. These promising findings are discussed with a focus on future plans for examining efficacy of the OHDC in a large-scale, randomized, control trial.

  8. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Nonarthritic Hip Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Nunes Carreras Del Castillo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS is a clinical evaluation questionnaire that was developed in the English language to evaluate hip function in young and physically active patients. The aims of this study were to translate this questionnaire into the Brazilian Portuguese language, to adapt it to Brazilian culture and to validate it. DESIGN AND SETTING Cohort study conducted between 2008 and 2010, at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. METHODS Questions about physical activities and household chores were modified to better fit Brazilian culture. Reproducibility, internal consistency and validity (correlations with the Algofunctional Lequesne Index and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC] were tested. The NAHS-Brazil, Lequesne and WOMAC questionnaires were applied to 64 young and physically active patients (mean age, 40.9 years; 31 women. RESULTS The intraclass correlation coefficient (which measures reproducibility was 0.837 (P < 0.001. Bland-Altman plots revealed a mean error in the difference between the two measurements of 0.42. The internal consistency was confirmed through a Cronbach alpha of 0.944. The validity between NAHS-Brazil and Lequesne and between NAHS-Brazil and WOMAC showed high correlations, r = 0.7340 and r = 0.9073, respectively. NAHS-Brazil showed good validity with no floor or ceiling effects. CONCLUSION The NAHS was translated into the Brazilian Portuguese language and was cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian culture. It was shown to be a useful tool in clinical practice for assessing the quality of life of young and physically active patients with hip pain.

  9. The role of culture in moderating the links between early ecological risk and young children's adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effects of risk on infant development within cultural contexts, 141 dual-earner Israeli and Palestinian couples and their first-born child were observed at 5 months and again at 34 months. Eight ecological determinants were examined as potential risk factors, including the infant's observed and parent-reported difficult temperament; the mother's depressive symptoms, work-family interference, and experience of childbirth; the parents' marital satisfaction and social support; and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity. Symbolic play and behavior problems were assessed at 34 months. Culture-specific effects of risk and protective factors were found. Parent sensitivity facilitated symbolic competence to a greater extent in the Israeli group. Culture moderated the effects of maternal depression and family social support on toddlers' behavior problems. Maternal depressive symptoms had a negative impact on the behavior adaptation of Israeli children and social support buffered against behavior problems in the Arab group. Implications for research on risk and resilience and the role of culture in moderating the effects of ecological risk are discussed.

  10. Adapting the SRQ for Ethiopian populations: a culturally-sensitive psychiatric screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngmann, Rafael; Zilber, Nelly; Workneh, Fikre; Giel, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive psychiatric screening instrument valid for Ethiopians in Ethiopia and Israel. The study sample was composed of 356 Amharic-speaking Ethiopians from Ethiopia and Israel, aged 18-55, divided into three groups: i) general population; ii) people in non-psychiatric treatment; iii) people in psychiatric treatment. They were interviewed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ), modified to include 10 culturally specific items, and the Brief Psychiatric Research Scale (BPRS) as a criterion of psychopathology. Physicians also completed an encounter form about the presence of mental health symptoms in participants. To make the questions more culturespecific, the translation of 12 items on the SRQ was changed. The content, construct, and criterion validity of each question were also examined, leading to the deletion of five items. The validity of the revised instrument (SRQ-F) was superior to that of the original instrument (SRQ). This study demonstrates the need for psychiatric screening instruments to be adapted to different cultures by incorporating meaningful translations and adding culturally specific items.

  11. Cultural adaptation in measuring common client characteristics with an urban Mainland Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxia; Anderson, Timothy; Beutler, Larry E; Sun, Shijin; Wu, Guohong; Kimpara, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a culturally adapted version of the Systematic Treatment Selection-Innerlife (STS) in China. A total of 300 nonclinical participants collected from Mainland China and 240 nonclinical US participants were drawn from archival data. A Chinese version of the STS was developed, using translation and back-translation procedures. After confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the original STS sub scales failed on both samples, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was then used to access whether a simple structure would emerge on these STS treatment items. Parallel analysis and minimum average partial were used to determine the number of factor to retain. Three cross-cultural factors were found in this study, Internalized Distress, Externalized Distress and interpersonal relations. This supported that regardless of whether one is in presumably different cultural contexts of the USA or China, psychological distress is expressed in a few basic channels of internalized distress, externalized distress, and interpersonal relations, from which different manifestations in different culture were also discussed.

  12. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Giordana de Cássia Pinheiro da; Schardosim, Juliana Machado; Cunha, Maria Luzia Chollopetz da

    2015-09-01

    The Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), initially developed in Canada, has been previously used but not adequately adapted and validated for use in Brazil. The goal of the present study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation and clinical validation of the NIPS for use in the Brazilian population. The instrument was adapted based on the method outlined by Beaton et al., including the production and combination of translated versions, back-translation, committee review, and pilot testing. The psychometric properties of the adapted instrument, including its validity, reliability, and internal consistency, were tested in a clinical validation study. The sample comprised 60 at-term newborns who were evaluated by six nurses as they experienced vaccination. Psychometric properties were evaluated using Student's t-tests, prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa scores, the Bland-Altman method, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The Brazilian version of the NIPS (Escala de Dor no Recém-Nascido [NIPS-Brazil]) demonstrated excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Total NIPS-Brazil scores yielded prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa scores of 0.93, whereas the Bland-Altman method revealed interobserver and intraobserver reliability values of 95% and 90%, respectively. The NIPS-Brazil had adequate internal consistency, as evidenced by a Cronbach's alpha of 0.762. The NIPS was successfully adapted for use in Brazil and is now available for use in the assessment of acute pain in at-term newborns in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Counselling and Psychotherapy Profession in Canada: Regulatory Processes and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lorna; Turcotte, Michel; Matte, Laurent; Shepard, Blythe

    2013-01-01

    Like the Canadian landscape and culture, the status of professional regulation for counselling and psychotherapy is a mosaic reflecting the unique cultural, linguistic and contextual realities of Canada. Statutory regulation in Canada is constitutionally a provincial/territorial matter. In the past five years, a major movement towards professional…

  14. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico-Ferreira, Maria Manuela; Camarneiro, Ana Paula Forte; Loureiro, Cândida Rosalinda Exposto da Costa; Ventura, Maria Clara Amado Apóstolo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to perform the cultural adaptation to Portuguese of the Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire (NCFQ), which was designed by the Centre for Learning and Teaching at the University of Technology of Sydney, and to validate this instrument. Methods: this methodological study involved the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire by using translation, back-translation, semantic comparison, idiomatic and conceptual equivalence, and validation through validity and reliability analyses and used a sample of 767 students in their second year of the Nursing Program. Results: construct validity had a two-factor solution according to the varimax rotation method. In addition, there was a high overall internal consistency for the questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha of 0.977) and for the factors found (0.966 and 0.952, respectively). Conclusion: the Portuguese version has good psychometric characteristics; therefore, it is adequate to obtain reliable information on the perception of nursing students concerning the type of supervision that is provided in clinical practice, and this version is adequate to improve teaching practices. PMID:27533275

  15. Validation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the Physicians' Reactions to Uncertainty scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joest Katharina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty scales (PRU in primary care physicians. Methods In a structured process, the original questionnaire was translated, culturally adapted and assessed after administering it to 93 GPs. Test-retest reliability was tested by sending the questionnaire to the GPs again after two weeks. Results The principal factor analysis confirmed the postulated four-factor structure underlying the 15 items. In contrast to the original version, item 5 achieved a higher loading on the 'concern about bad outcomes' scale. Consequently, we rearranged the scales. Good item-scale correlations were obtained, with Pearson's correlation coefficient ranging from 0.56–0.84. As regards the item-discriminant validity between the scales 'anxiety due to uncertainty' and 'concern about bad outcomes', partially high correlations (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.02–0.69; p Conclusion Dealing with uncertainty is an important issue in daily practice. The psychometric properties of the rearranged German version of the PRU are satisfying. The revealed floor effects do not limit the significance of the questionnaire. Thus, the German version of the PRU could contribute to the further evaluation of the impact of uncertainty in primary care physicians.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the voice handicap index into Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helidoni, Meropi E; Murry, Thomas; Moschandreas, Joanna; Lionis, Christos; Printza, Athanasia; Velegrakis, George A

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to culturally adapt and validate the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) to the Greek language. The study design used was a psychometric analysis. The VHI was translated into Greek with cultural adaptations to accommodate certain words. The translated version was then completed by 67 subjects with various voice disorders and by a control group of 79 subjects. All the participants also completed a self-rating scale regarding the severity of their voice disorder. Statistical analyses demonstrated high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability both for the overall VHI score and for the functional, physical, and emotional domains of the VHI. A moderate correlation was found between the VHI and the self-rating severity scale. The subjects in the control group had lower scores compared to the subjects with voice disorders for the overall VHI score and for the three domains. Based on the internal consistency values and the test-retest reliability, the Greek version of VHI is a valid and reliable measure for use by Greek subjects with voice disorders.

  17. Rising to the Challenge: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Adapted German Version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy for Students (JSPE-S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusche, Ingrid; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of students' attitudes towards physicians' empathy is essential in medical education and in practice because empathy is vital in physician-patient communication. To cross-culturally adapt the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (S-version, JSPE-S) into a German version, examine its psychometric properties in comparison to the…

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation of Preschool Language Assessment Instrument: Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Tâmara Andrade; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, formal tools for the evaluation of spoken language are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to translate and adapt to Brazilian Portuguese the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument: Second Edition (PLAI-2). The process of translation and adaptation of this instrument was conducted in two stages - Stage 1: (1a) translation of the original version to Brazilian Portuguese, (1b) comparison of the translated versions and synthesis into a single Portuguese version, (1c) back-translation, (1d) revision of the translated version; and Step 2: (2a) application of the Portuguese version in a pilot project with 30 subjects, and (2b) statistical comparison of three age groups. In the Brazilian version, all items of the original version were kept. However, it was necessary to modify the application order of one item, and the change of one picture was suggested in another. The results obtained after application indicated that the Brazilian version of the PLAI-2 allows us to distinguish the performance of participants belonging to different age groups, and that the raw score tends to increase with age. Semantic and syntactic adjustments were required and made to ensure that PLAI-2 would be used with the same methodological rigor of the original instrument. The adaptation process observed the theoretical, semantic, and cultural equivalences.

  19. Cross-Cultural adaptation of an instrument to computer accessibility evaluation for students with cerebral palsy

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    Gerusa Ferreira Lourenço

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The specific literature indicates that the successful education of children with cerebral palsy may require the implementation of appropriate assistive technology resources, allowing students to improve their performance and complete everyday tasks more efficiently and independently. To this end, these resources must be selected properly, emphasizing the importance of an appropriate initial assessment of the child and the possibilities of the resources available. The present study aimed to translate and adapt theoretically an American instrument that evaluates computer accessibility for people with cerebral palsy, in order to contextualize it for applicability to Brazilian students with cerebral palsy. The methodology involved the steps of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of this instrument, as well as the construction of a supplementary script for additional use of that instrument in the educational context. Translation procedures, theoretical and technical adaptation of the American instrument and theoretical analysis (content and semantics were carried out with the participation of professional experts of the special education area as adjudicators. The results pointed to the relevance of the proposal of the translated instrument in conjunction with the script built to the reality of professionals involved with the education of children with cerebral palsy, such as occupational therapists and special educators.

  20. A systematic approach to cross-cultural adaptation of survey tools.

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    Costa FA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Involving patients in health care is increasingly acknowledged as the best way to empower patients to manage their illness. Whilst the involvement of patients is laudable and widely recognised, how much they want to be involved needs to be ascertained. Research has shown that inappropriate provision of information to patients can increase their anxieties towards illness and alter perceptions of medicines’ usefulness, consequently impacting on medicines’ taking behaviour. Tools have been validated in the UK to identify information desires, perceived usefulness of medicines and anxiety felt about illness. There is a need to adapt validated tools for use in other settings and countries. This paper is the first of a series describing the processes involved in the adaptation and validation of these. Aim: to review and adapt the processes established to translate and back translate scales and tools in practice. Methods: The survey tool was translated and back-translated according to published guidelines, subsequently tested in a sample of medical patients and further refined by seeking health care professionals’ perceptions and input from lay people. Results: Data demonstrates the importance of including various perspectives in this process, through which sequential modifications were made to the original scales. Issues relating to religious beliefs, educational and health literacy differences between countries highlight the relevance of taking cultural values into account. Some led to significant modifications, discussed in this first paper, and tested for validity and reliability in a second paper.

  1. German translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Richard H.; Dwinger, Sarah; Elsworth, Gerald R.; Conrad, Melanie L.; Rose, Matthias; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M.

    2017-01-01

    The Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ), developed in Australia in 2012 using a ‘validity-driven’ approach, has been rapidly adopted and is being applied in many countries and languages. It is a multidimensional measure comprising nine distinct domains that may be used for surveys, needs assessment, evaluation and outcomes assessment as well as for informing service improvement and the development of interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the German translation of the HLQ and to present the results of the validation of the culturally adapted version. The HLQ comprises 44 items, which were translated and culturally adapted to the German context. This study uses data collected from a sample of 1,058 persons with chronic conditions. Statistical analyses include descriptive and confirmatory factor analyses. In one-factor congeneric models, all scales demonstrated good fit after few model adjustments. In a single, highly restrictive nine-factor model (no cross-loadings, no correlated errors) replication of the original English-language version was achieved with fit indices and psychometric properties similar to the original HLQ. Reliability for all scales was excellent, with a Cronbach’s Alpha of at least 0.77. High to very high correlations between some HLQ factors were observed, suggesting that higher order factors may be present. Our rigorous development and validation protocol, as well as strict adaptation processes, have generated a remarkable reproduction of the HLQ in German. The results of this validation provide evidence that the HLQ is robust and can be recommended for use in German-speaking populations. Trial Registration: German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS00000584. Registered 23 March 2011. PMID:28234987

  2. Cultural adaptation of a brief motivational intervention for heavy drinking among Hispanics in a medical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Craig A; Cabriales, José Alonso; Woolard, Robert H; Tyroch, Alan H; Caetano, Raul; Castro, Yessenia

    2015-07-30

    Hispanics, particularly men of Mexican origin, are more likely to engage in heavy drinking and experience alcohol-related problems, but less likely to obtain treatment for alcohol problems than non-Hispanic men. Our previous research indicates that heavy-drinking Hispanics who received a brief motivational intervention (BMI) were significantly more likely than Hispanics receiving standard care to reduce subsequent alcohol use. Among Hispanics who drink heavily the BMI effectively reduced alcohol use but did not impact alcohol-related problems or treatment utilization. We hypothesized that an adapted BMI that integrates cultural values and addresses acculturative stress among Hispanics would be more effective. We describe here the protocol for the design and implementation of a randomized (approximately 300 patients per condition) controlled trial evaluating the comparative effectiveness of a culturally adapted (CA) BMI in contrast to a non-adapted BMI (NA-BMI) in a community hospital setting among men of Mexican origin. Study participants will include men who were hospitalized due to an alcohol related injury or screened positive for heavy drinking. By accounting for risk and protective factors of heavy drinking among Hispanics, we hypothesize that CA-BMI will significantly decrease alcohol use and alcohol problems, and increase help-seeking and treatment utilization. This is likely the first study to directly address alcohol related health disparities among non-treatment seeking men of Mexican origin by comparing the benefits of a CA-BMI to a NA-BMI. This study stands to not only inform interventions used in medical settings to reduce alcohol-related health disparities, but may also help reduce the public health burden of heavy alcohol use in the United States. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02429401; Registration date: April 28, 2015.

  3. Integrating self-help books into psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Smith, Thomas P

    2003-02-01

    This article describes a systematic and integral method of incorporating self-help books into psychotherapy as a collaborative function. We address the distinctions between self-help and bibliotherapy, consider bibliotherapy as adjunctive or integrative to psychotherapy, and outline the multiple uses of bibliotherapy for clinical purposes. How to apply self-help books in psychotherapy and ways to select books are illustrated by a case example. Indications and contraindications for bibliotherapy in therapy are outlined.

  4. Sign-language interpretation in psychotherapy with deaf patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, A

    1999-01-01

    Sporadic encounters with deaf patients seeking psychotherapy present a challenge to general clinicians outside of specialized services for the deaf. Skills for working with people who do not share one's own language mode and culture are not routinely taught in most training programs, so clinicians may be unprepared when they first encounter a deaf patient. While it would be ideal to be able to match deaf patients with therapists fluent in their preferred language mode, this is often not feasible in smaller centers. Working with a trained professional sign-language interpreter can be a productive alternative, as long as patient, therapist, and interpreter understand and are comfortable with the process. Peer-reviewed literature on sign language interpretation in psychotherapy is sparse, but some practical guidelines can be gleaned from it and supplemented by information provided by the deaf community through the Internet. This paper arose from one psychiatric resident's first experience of psychotherapy working with a sign-language interpreter, and summarizes the literature search that resulted from a quest for understanding of deaf culture and experience, of the unique characteristics of sign language, and of the effects on the therapeutic relationship of the presence of the interpreter.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Eating Assessment Tool - EAT-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maria Inês Rebelo; Remaili, Carla Bogossian; Behlau, Mara

    2013-12-16

    The Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) was conceptually developed in the United States from data collected from 482 patients, for use as a self-administered survey regarding risk identification of dysphagia and symptoms related to clinical response to treatment. The purpose of this study is to present the cultural equivalence of the Brazilian version of the EAT-10. The process followed the Scientific Advisory Committee of Medical Outcome Trust (SACMOT). The questionnaire was translated by two Brazilian bilingual speech-language pathologists, aware of the purpose of this study. A back translation was performed by a third Brazilian speech-language pathologist, bilingual and English teacher that had not participated in the previous stage. After comparing both translations, a final version of the questionnaire was produced and called Instrumento de Autoavaliação da Alimentação (EAT-10). It was administered to 107 adult inpatients of the Hospital São Paulo, cwith request for bedside clinical evaluation of swallow. During the process of translation and cultural adaptation, no item was modified and/or suppressed. The EAT-10 maintained the same structure as the original American English version with ten questions, of which three of functional domain, three of emotional domain and four of physical symptoms domain. The cultural equivalence of the Brazilian version of the EAT-10 was demonstrated, being a score of three points or above it the cutoff for dysphagia risk, also for the Brazilian population.

  7. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: Cultural adaptations and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. Methods This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Results Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62% and 50% respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 kg and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 kg/m2 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Discussion This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. PMID:22460538

  8. Psychotherapy of the dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedeford, A

    1979-07-01

    The psychotherapeutic aspects of the care of the 49 terminally ill patients described in the preceeding paper are discussed. Their differing ways of coping with the stress of dying and the range of psychotherapeutic strategies used in treatment are described. The work suggests that the therapist's use of psychological insights can improve his understanding of the emotional pain of terminal illness, and well-aimed psychotherapy can contribute to its relief.

  9. [Problems of bilinguism in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, S; Müller, C

    1978-01-01

    The authors have attempted an introductory study of problems which are inherent to psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and psychoanalysis conducted in the second language of a bilingual therapist. This situation seems to be more complex than is usually admitted in current literature. The main problem encountered by the authors in their personal practice stems from the fact that the process of identification becomes complex when the therapist is confronted with regressive and/or progressive shifts in the course of the treatment.

  10. Emotional Control in Psychotherapy Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Mardi

    2016-01-01

    Emotional control may be observed to be (1) too excessive as in avoidant behaviors during psychotherapy, (2) suitable to a frank expression of feelings, or (3) lacking in regulation causing too intense affective experiences. This article offers a theory that may help clinicians make observations about this range of possible states, formulate the patient's defensive processes, and choose if, how, and when to act. The observations and formulations presented focus on specific and present moment situations rather than habitual defense mechanisms.

  11. Videoconferencing psychotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Autumn; Agha, Zia; Maglione, Melissa L; Repp, Andrea; Ross, Bridgett; Zuest, Danielle; Rice-Thorp, Natalie M; Lohr, James; Thorp, Steven R

    2012-05-01

    Individuals with mental health problems may face barriers to accessing effective psychotherapies. Videoconferencing technology, which allows audio and video information to be shared concurrently across geographical distances, offers an alternative that may improve access. We conducted a systematic literature review of the use of videoconferencing psychotherapy (VCP), designed to address 10 specific questions, including therapeutic types/formats that have been implemented, the populations with which VCP is being used, the number and types of publications related to VCP, and available satisfaction, feasibility, and outcome data related to VCP. After electronic searches and reviews of reference lists, 821 potential articles were identified, and 65 were selected for inclusion. The results indicate that VCP is feasible, has been used in a variety of therapeutic formats and with diverse populations, is generally associated with good user satisfaction, and is found to have similar clinical outcomes to traditional face-to-face psychotherapy. Although the number of articles being published on VCP has increased in recent years, there remains a need for additional large-scale clinical trials to further assess the efficacy and effectiveness of VCP.

  12. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathology is mental illness that has often suffered by human being. There are several factors that causes this illness, some of which are modern life characterized by materialistic, hedonistic and egoistic lives. In Islam, psychopathology which is described as a form of deviation from norms or moral values, spiritual and religion. Psychopathology is divided into three parts, namely those associated with faith, humanity and psychopathology which is associated with combination of faith and human being.Meanwhile psychotherapy is an effort to cure mental and psychiatric disorders suffered by individuals. Psychotherapy is a solution to cure various problems of mental disorders. Al-Qur’an, as the principles of Islamic teachings, contain information about psychotherapy for those who suffer from mental disorders. Religious approach is completely needed for therapy and it helps the psychopath recover from his/her mental disorders.TheQur’an could be used as a treatment as well as a preventive step, so that all human being will not suffer from mental disorders, and religious approach can bring the psychopaths closer to God, theAlmighty.

  13. [Psychotherapy with the unwilling patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madert, K K

    1984-05-01

    By means of the residential motivation therapy of addicts we discuss ways of dealing with the specific problems, that arise in psychotherapy of character disordered, who are not suffering psychically. The - in the view of the addict patient - often unvoluntary referral to the hospital provokes the patient's refusal of cooperation. The greatest therapeutic challenge is the ego-syntonicity of the character disorder and the rigid defense structure of overcompensation, projection and denial, covered up by rationalizations. This defense system serves to avoid closeness and contact with the original emotions. In our group setting we use mini-contracts, reality-oriented confrontation of behavioral issues in order to make the addict aware of his desperation and lack of fullfilment in life, and offer attractive models of living and the experience of warmth and bondedness in the group. Our main techniques are non-verbal. Body experience and full-body-expression of emotions mediate self-experience which is then integrated verbally. The goal of this psychoanalytically based psychotherapy is to bring about by working through resistances, the attitudes which are a precondition for continuing with a personality-changing psychotherapy.

  14. [Brief psychotherapy in clinical medicine patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, M

    1992-01-01

    The criteria that "illness is biographical crisis od the individual" and that the only medicine is "personal medicine" is stressed. Clinical medicine, which covers medicine in its entirety, demands conceptual and doctrinal reaffirmations so that gradually the patient can come to be dealt with as a human being fron a holistic point of view, which commences with his complaint and consultation, continues with the interview and semiology, to finish with the diagnosis and therapy which, although in some cases it may be surgical, is still medical and integral. All the steps mentioned are bio-socio-cultural thus, whether in the practice of general clinical medicine or in the most specialized and technologically sophisticated clinical medicine, the animist component is not lacking and demands a minimum degree of "psychosomatic" Knowledge. The use of a psychotherapeutic technique is proposed which, while based on the psychoanalysis theory, is distanced technically from it as a "psychotherapy on limited time and goals", which abbreviates the disease, and is projected not as the "focus" of therapeutic work, but as a re-evaluation of the "life style" of each individual, and tends to help to develop a "project for life" suited to the possible personal, familiar and social well-being of the "patient". Technically speaking, this modality of brief psychotherapy is based on the nonuse of transferential interpretations, on impeding the regression od the patient, on facilitating a cognitice-affective development of his conflicts and thus obtain an internal object mutation which allows the transformation of the "past" into true history, and the "present" into vital perspectives. This technique is within reach of every health professional.

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation of the EMIC Stigma Scale for people with leprosy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Silveira, Erika Maria Kopp Xavier da; Sales, Anna Maria; Nascimento, Lilian Pinheiro Rodrigues do; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Oliveira, Aldair J; Illarramendi, Ximena

    2017-09-04

    Describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the "Explanatory Model Interview Catalog - Stigma Scale" for people affected by leprosy in Brazil. After being authorized by the author of the scale to use it in the national context, we initiated the five steps process of cross-cultural adaptation: (1) translation, (2) synthesis meeting, (3) back-translation, (4) committee of experts and (5) pre-test. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 15 items of the scale's original version were translated into Brazilian Portuguese. The adapted scale showed evidence of a good understanding of its content, attested both by experts and members of the target population. Its internal consistency was 0.64. The adapted instrument shows satisfactory internal consistency. It may be useful in future studies that intend to provide broad situational analysis that supports solid public health programs with a focus on effective stigma reduction. In a later study, the construct's validity, criterion, and reproducibility will be evaluated. Descrever o processo de adaptação transcultural da "Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue - Stigma Scale" para pessoas afetadas por hanseníase no Brasil. Após a autorização do autor da escala para seu uso no contexto nacional, deu-se início aos cinco passos do processo de adaptação transcultural: (1) tradução, (2) reunião de síntese, (3) retrotradução, (4) comitê de peritos e (5) pré-teste. A consistência interna da escala foi avaliada utilizando o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Os 15 itens da versão original da escala foram traduzidos para a língua portuguesa do Brasil. A escala adaptada apresentou evidência de boa compreensão de seu conteúdo, atestada tanto por peritos como por membros da população alvo. Sua consistência interna foi de 0,64. O instrumento adaptado apresenta consistência interna satisfatória. Pode ser útil em estudos futuros que intencionem viabilizar

  16. Reliability and Validity of Culturally Adapted Executive Function Performance Test for Koreans with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee; Lee, Yu-Na; Jo, Eun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Young

    2017-05-01

    Executive Function Performance Test was unusable in Asia because of cultural differences, although evaluating the effect that executive function has on real life is essential to people with stroke. The aims of this study were to report the development and standardization of culturally appropriate Executive Function Performance Test for Koreans (EFPT-K) and to verify its reliability and validity in the stroke population. EFPT-K was developed by going through the process of translation, back-translation, and an expert committee's conference on cultural adaptation. Inter-rater reliability was examined and 34 people with stroke were recruited to test the internal consistency and criterion validity of EFPT-K. To verify the criterion validity, EFPT-K scores were compared with those of the Trail-Making Test, the Korean Color-Word Stroop Test, the Digit Span Test, and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Inter-rater reliability and internal consistency of the total score of EFPT-K supported high levels of reliability. In the criterion validity of EFPT-K, all neuropsychological tests but digits backward showed a correlation with the total score of EFPT-K, and AMPS components of initiation, notice/response, and termination showed a moderate correlation with the EFPT-K score. EFPT-K is a useful tool to evaluate the executive functioning of patients with stroke in real-life tasks and could be used as a sample in other Asian cultures where thorough evaluation of executive function in the performance of daily life is needed. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [The translation and cultural adaptation of the Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale - MAVAS - for nurses in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcos Hirata; de Vargas, Divane

    2013-08-01

    This study translated and culturally adapted the Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale - MAVAS - for use in Brazil (BR). The methodology followed the international guidelines for the cultural adaptation of psychometric scales: conceptual equivalence, semantic equivalence, items equivalence, and operational equivalence. A group of judges performed a content validity analysis that resulted in a 23-item scale divided into four factors with satisfactory content validity coefficients (CVCs) for the following parameters: clarity of language (CL; 0.88), practical relevance (PR; 0.91), and theoretical relevance (TR; 0.92). The data were collected in Londrina, state of Paraná, BR in 2011. The MAVAS was translated and culturally adapted for use in BR, and the MAVAS-BR exhibited satisfactory content validity. Future studies concerning the MAVAS-BR are suggested, including the evaluation of psychometric qualities, such as its construct validity and reliability.

  18. [Cross-cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliboni, Carolina Marques; Galletta, Marco Aurelio Knippel; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Alvarenga, Marle dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    To present the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese language of the Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale. This scale was developed in order to verify whether attitude toward thinness affects weight gain during pregnancy and contains statements that express different attitudes of pregnant women regarding their own weight gain. The procedures were: translation, back translation, comprehension evaluation, preparation of a final version, application of the scale to 180 pregnant women (mean age=29.6, gestational age=25.7 weeks) and psychometric analysis. Satisfactory equivalence between the versions and satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.7) were detected. The exploratory factor analysis suggested four subscales with 51.4% total variance explained. The scale proved to be valid and can be used in studies with pregnant women in Brazil to assess attitudes toward weight gain and to detect and prevent dysfunctional behaviors during pregnancy.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the episodic autobiographic memory interview for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Rodrigues

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory enables the storage of personal events with specific temporal and spatial details, and their retrieval through a sensory experience, usually visual, which is called autonoetic consciousness. While, in Brazil, several scales for the evaluation of anterograde episodic memory have been validated, there is not yet an instrument to assess the episodic autobiographical memory. The aim of this study is thus to make a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Episodic Autobiographic Memory Interview (EAMI for Brazilian Portuguese. Altogether, 11 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and 10 healthy controls (CTs were evaluated. EAMI scores for AD patients were lower than those of CTs, and these scores also correlated positively with the Remember-Know coefficient. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated a good inter-rater reliability. The Portuguese version of EAMI showed a good reliability and validity, which suggests that it is a useful tool for evaluation of autobiographical memory in Brazilian patients.

  20. 12 item Allodynia Symptom Checklist/Brasil: cross-cultural adaptation, internal consistency and reproducibility

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    Lidiane Lima Florencio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since there was no Portuguese questionnaire to evaluate cutaneous allodynia, which has been pointed out as a risk factor of migraine, we aimed to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the 12 item Allodynia Symptom Checklist for the Brazilian population and to test its measurement properties. It consisted in six stages: translation, synthesis, back translation, revision by a specialist committee, pretest and submission the documents to the committee. In the pretest stage, the questionnaire was applied to 30 migraineurs of both sexes, who had some difficulty in understanding it. Thus, a second version was applied to 30 additional subjects, with no difficulties being reported. The mean filling out time was 3'36", and the internal consistency was 0.76. To test reproducibility, 15 other subjects filled out the questionnaire at two different times, it was classified as moderate (weighted kappa=0.58. We made available to Brazilian population an easy, quick and reliable questionnaire.

  1. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Hansen, Sabrina S.; Hansen, Line S.

    2015-01-01

    Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). Larsen CM1,2; Hansen SS2; Hansen LH2; Bruun P1; Juul-Kristensen B1,3. 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark. 2Health Sciences Research...... Centre, University College Lillebaelt, Denmark. 3Institute of Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy and Radiography, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway Introduction The Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess shoulder pain in wheelchair users...... during daily functional activities. The WUSPI contains 15 items, scaled 0-10 on a visual analog scale (10 = worst pain ever experienced). The WUSPI has been shown to be both reliable and valid for wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI). This tool may be useful to both clinicians and researchers...

  2. AN INTEGRATIVE GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN. THE WIZARDING SCHOOL

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    Oana Maria Popescu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tendencies in child psychotherapy is the integration of various psychotherapeutic approaches and technical interventions belonging to different orientations. Based on the Harry Potter stories, the „Wizarding School” structured group therapy program is a 12-step integratively oriented program applicable in personal development, individual and group therapy for children aged 6 to 13 (at present being adapted for adult psychotherapy. The program takes place within a fairy tale, being therefore a type of informal hypnotic trance. The interventions are drawn from the lessons described in Harry Potter’s story at Hogwarts, based on the fundamental principles of child psychotherapy and including elements of play therapy, art therapy, hypnotherapy, cognitive- behavioural therapy, transactional analysis, supportive therapy, family therapy and person centred therapy. From a theoretical point of view the program is based on elements from a number of psychotherapeutic approaches, the main concept being that we need to create a therapeutic myth that is acceptable to a child. The program is not suitable for children with structural deficits, who have difficulties in making the difference between fantasy and reality.

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire into Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, F; Iacona, E; Sykopetrites, V; Schindler, A; Mozzanica, F

    2016-08-01

    The NCIQ is a quantifiable self-assessment health-related quality of life instrument specific for cochlear implant users. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt the NCIQ into Italian (I-NCIQ). A prospective instrument validation study was conducted. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation were accomplished. Cronbach α was used to test internal consistency in 51 CI users and in a control group composed by 38 post-lingual deaf adult on a waiting list for a CI. ICC test was used for test-retest reliability analysis. Kruskal-Wallis test with Mann-Whitney post hoc were used to compare the I-NCIQ scores in CI users before and after the cochlear implantation and in control patients. I-NCIQ scores obtained in CI users were compared with the results of Italian version of disyllabic testing without lip-reading and without masking. Good internal consistency and good test-retest reliability were found. I-NCIQ scores obtained in the 51 CI users after implantation were consistently higher than those obtained before implantation and in the control group. Moreover, no differences were found in the results of I-NCIQ obtained in the group of 51 CI users before implantation and in the group of control patients on post hoc Mann-Whitney analysis. Positive correlations between I-NCIQ scores and the results of disyllabic testing without lip-reading and without masking were found. The I-NCIQ is a reliable, valid, self-administered questionnaire for the measurement of QOL in CI users; its application is recommended.

  4. The chinese version of achilles tendon total rupture score: cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Jia, Zhenyu; Zhi, Xin; Li, Xiaoqun; Zhai, Xiao; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lin; Chen, Xiao; Su, Jiacan

    2017-01-05

    The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), which is originally developed in 2007 in Swedish, is the only patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for specific outcome assessment of an Achilles tendon rupture.Purpose of this study is to translate and cross-culturally adapt Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) into simplified Chinese, and primarily evaluate the responsiveness, reliability and validity. International recognized guideline which was designed by Beaton was followed to make the translation of ATRS from English into simplified Chinese version (CH-ATRS). A prospective cohort study was carried out for the cross-cultural adaptation. There were 112 participants included into the study. Psychometric properties including floor and ceiling effects, Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, effect size, standard response mean, and construct validity were tested. The mean scores of CH-ATRS are 57.42 ± 13.70. No sign of floor or ceiling effect was found of CH-ATRS. High level of internal consistency was supported by the value of Cronbach's alpha (0.893). ICC (0.979, 95%CI: 0.984-0.993) was high to indicate the high test-retest reliability. Great responsive ness was proved with the high absolute value of ES and SRM (0.84 and 8.98, respectively). The total CH-ATRS score had very good correlation with physical function and body pain subscales of SF-36 (r = -0.758 and r = -0.694, respectively, p Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (CH-ATRS) can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for Achilles tendon rupture assessing in Chinese-speaking population. Level of evidence II.

  5. Translation, cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil

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    Aline Chiari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To translate, to perform a cultural adaptation of and to test the reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil. METHODS: First, the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was translated into Portuguese and was then back-translated into French. These translations were reviewed by a committee to establish a Brazilian version of the questionnaire to be tested. The validity and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was evaluated. Patients of both sexes, who were aged 18 to 60 years and presented with rheumatoid arthritis affecting their hands, were interviewed. The patients were initially interviewed by two observers and were later interviewed by a single rater. First, the Visual Analogue Scale for hand pain, the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Disability questionnaire and the Health Assessment Questionnaire were administered. The third administration of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was performed fifteen days after the first administration. Ninety patients were assessed in the present study. RESULTS: Two questions were modified as a result of the assessment of cultural equivalence. The Cronbach's alpha value for this assessment was 0.93. The intraclass intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients were 0.76 and 0.96, respectively. The Spearman's coefficient indicated that there was a low level of correlation between the Cochin Hand Functional Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (0.46 and that there was a moderate level of correlation of the Cochin Scale with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (0.66 and with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (0.63. The average administration time for the Cochin Scale was three minutes. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was successfully translated and adapted, and this version exhibited good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity.

  6. Brazilian cross-cultural adaptation of “Return-to-work self-efficacy” questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, João Silvestre; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the translation and early stages of cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire Verwachtingen over werken (or “Return-to-work self-efficacy”) for workers in sick leave due to mental disorders, from the original in Dutch to the Brazilian Portuguese language. METHODS A panel gathering experts was formed to determine the questionnaire conceptual and item equivalence. For semantic equivalence, the Dutch-Portuguese Brazilian translations were consolidated and consensus meetings were held to structure versions of the instrument. Each version was back-translated from Brazilian Portuguese to Dutch and evaluated by one of the authors of the original version. The final version was submitted to two pre-tests for operational equivalence. RESULTS The original questionnaire in Dutch was translated twice to Brazilian Portuguese. During the process, four consensus meetings of the experts’ panel were performed to create the versions. Each version was back-translated to Dutch. One of the authors of the original questionnaire performed an evaluation on the first three versions until the definition of the final one, which was titled Expectativas sobre o trabalho (Expectations about work). Pre-tests’ participants did not reported problems to fill the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese cross-culturally adapted version maintains the original meaning of the questionnaire, while including characteristics peculiar to the Brazilian reality. Measurement and functional equivalence of this version must still be evaluated before its application can be recommended for workers who have been absent from work due to mental disorders. PMID:28273232

  7. Pilot study of a culturally adapted psychoeducation (CaPE) intervention for bipolar disorder in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Muhammad Ishrat; Chaudhry, Imran B; Rahman, Raza R; Hamirani, Munir M; Mehmood, Nasir; Haddad, Peter M; Hodsoll, John; Young, Allan H; Naeem, Farooq; Husain, Nusrat

    2017-12-01

    Despite the use of maintenance medication, recurrence rates in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) are high. To date, there are no clinical trials that have investigated the use of psychological interventions in bipolar disorder in Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally adapted bipolar psychoeducation programme (CaPE) in Pakistan. Thirty-four euthymic bipolar I and II outpatients were randomized to either 12 weekly sessions of individual psychoeducation plus Treatment As Usual (Intervention) or Treatment As Usual (TAU) (Control). Outcomes were assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), EuroQoL (EQ-5D), Bipolar Knowledge and Attitudes and Questionnaire (BKAQ), and a self-reported measure of medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 items, MMAS-4). Effect sizes were derived from baseline adjusted standardized regression coefficients. Retention in the study was good, 80% of patients in the TAU follow-up assessment and 100% of patients in the CaPE group attended all 12 sessions. Patient satisfaction was higher in the CaPE group relative to control (ES = 1.41). Further, there were large effect sizes shown for CaPE versus TAU for medication adherence (MMAS-4: ES = 0.81), knowledge and attitudes towards bipolar (BKAQ: ES = 0.68), mania (YMRS: ES = 1.18), depression (BDI: ES = 1.17) and quality of life measures (EQ-5D: ES ⇒ 0.88). Culturally adapted psychoeducation intervention is acceptable and feasible, and can be effective in improving mood symptoms and knowledge and attitudes to BPAD when compared with TAU. Larger scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02210390.

  8. Sequence analysis of VP4 genes of wild type and culture adapted human rotavirus G1P[8] strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ritu Arora; Ganesh S Dhale; Pooja R Patil; Shobha D Chitambar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a comparative analysis of the VP4gene sequences of Indian wild type (06361,0613158, 061060and0715880) and cell culture adapted (06361-CA, 0613158-CA, 061060-CAand0715880-CA) G1P[8] rotavirus strains.Methods: Full-length VP4 genes of each of the four wild type G1P[8] rotavirus strains and their cell culture adapted counterparts displaying consistent cytopathic effect were subjected toRT-PCRamplification and nucleotide sequencing. Results: All four cell culture adaptedG1P[8]rotavirus strains showed nucleotide and amino acid substitutions in theVP4 gene as compared to their wild type strains. The number of substitutions however, varied from1-64and 1-13 respectively. The substitutions were distributed in both VP5*andVP8* subunits ofVP4gene respectively of permeabilization and hemagglutinating activity. The presence of unique amino acid substitutions was identified in two of the four wild type (V377G, S387N in 061060and I644Lin0715880) and all four cell culture adapted (A46Vin0613158-CA, T60R in06361-CA, L237V, G389V andQ480H in061060-CA andS615G andT625Pin0715880-CA) strains for the first time in theVP4 gene ofP[8]specificity. Amino acid substitutions generated increase in the hydrophilicity in the cell culture adapted rotavirus strains as compared to their corresponding wild type strains.Conclusions: Amino acid substitutions detected in the VP4 genes ofG1P[8]rotavirus strains from this study together with those from other studies highlight occurrence of only strain and/or host specific substitutions during cell culture adaptation. Further evaluation of such substitutions for their role in attenuation, immunogenicity and conformation is needed for the development of newer rotavirus vaccines.

  9. New method for selection of hydrogen peroxide adapted bifidobacteria cells using continuous culture and immobilized cell technology

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    Meile Leo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress can severely compromise viability of bifidobacteria. Exposure of Bifidobacterium cells to oxygen causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species, mainly hydrogen peroxide, leading to cell death. In this study, we tested the suitability of continuous culture under increasing selective pressure combined with immobilized cell technology for the selection of hydrogen peroxide adapted Bifidobacterium cells. Cells of B. longum NCC2705 were immobilized in gellan-xanthan gum gel beads and used to continuously ferment MRS medium containing increasing concentration of H2O2 from 0 to 130 ppm. Results At the beginning of the culture, high cell density of 1013 CFU per litre of reactor was tested. The continuous culture gradually adapted to increasing H2O2 concentrations. However, after increasing the H2O2 concentration to 130 ppm the OD of the culture decreased to 0. Full wash out was prevented by the immobilization of the cells in gel matrix. Hence after stopping the stress, it was possible to re-grow the cells that survived the highest lethal dose of H2O2 and to select two adapted colonies (HPR1 and HPR2 after plating of the culture effluent. In contrast to HPR1, HPR2 showed stable characteristics over at least 70 generations and exhibited also higher tolerance to O2 than non adapted wild type cells. Preliminary characterization of HPR2 was carried out by global genome expression profile analysis. Two genes coding for a protein with unknown function and possessing trans-membrane domains and an ABC-type transporter protein were overexpressed in HPR2 cells compared to wild type cells. Conclusions Our study showed that continuous culture with cell immobilization is a valid approach for selecting cells adapted to hydrogen peroxide. Elucidation of H2O2 adaptation mechanisms in HPR2 could be helpful to develop oxygen resistant bifidobacteria.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale

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    Mariana Charantola Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach’s alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. RESULTS We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the “participation in the team” factor and the “team goals” factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. CONCLUSIONS The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Charantola; Peduzzi, Marina; Sangaleti, Carine Teles; da Silva, Dirceu; Agreli, Heloise Fernandes; West, Michael A; Anderson, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest) and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach’s alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. RESULTS We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the “participation in the team” factor and the “team goals” factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. CONCLUSIONS The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork. PMID:27556966

  12. Project Salud: Using community-based participatory research to culturally adapt an HIV prevention intervention in the Latino migrant worker community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Serna, Claudia A; de La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Despite the unique and challenging circumstances confronting Latino migrant worker communities in the U.S., debate still exists as to the need to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions for dissemination with this population. Project Salud adopted a community-based participatory research model and utilized focus group methodology with 83 Latino migrant workers to explore the relevance of culturally adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention to be disseminated within this population. Findings from this study indicate that, despite early reservations, Latino migrant workers wanted to participate in the cultural adaptation that would result in an intervention that was culturally relevant, respectful, responsive to their life experiences, and aligned with their needs. This study contributes to the cultural adaptation/fidelity debate by highlighting the necessity of exploring ways to develop culturally adapted interventions characterized by high cultural relevance without sacrificing high fidelity to the core components that have established efficacy for evidence-based HIV prevention interventions.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese

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    Fernanda Gonçalves da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The internet has proven to be a valuable resource for self-care, allowing access to information and promoting interaction between professionals, caregivers, users of health care services and people interested in health information. However, recurring searches are often related to excessive health anxiety and a phenomenon known as cyberchondria can have impacts on physical and mental health. Within this background, a Cyberchondria Severity Scale has been developed to differentiate healthy and unhealthy behavior in internet searches for health information, based on the following criteria: compulsion, distress, excesses, and trust and distrust of health professionals. Objective: To conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese, because of the lack of an appropriate instrument for Brazil. Methods: This study was authorized by the original author of the scale. The process was divided into the following four steps: 1 initial translation, 2 back-translation, 3 development of a synthesized version, and 4 experimental application. Results: Translation into Brazilian Portuguese required some idiomatic expressions to be adapted. In some cases, words were not literally translated from English into Portuguese. Only items 7, 8, 12, 23 and 27 were altered, as a means of both conforming to proper grammar conventions and achieving easy comprehension. The items were rewritten without loss of the original content. Conclusion: This paper presents a translated version of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale that has been semantically adapted for the Brazilian population, providing a basis for future studies in this area, which should in turn contribute to improved understanding of the cyberchondria phenomenon in this population.

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda Gonçalves da; Andrade, Renata; Silva, Isabor; Cardoso, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The internet has proven to be a valuable resource for self-care, allowing access to information and promoting interaction between professionals, caregivers, users of health care services and people interested in health information. However, recurring searches are often related to excessive health anxiety and a phenomenon known as cyberchondria can have impacts on physical and mental health. Within this background, a Cyberchondria Severity Scale has been developed to differentiate healthy and unhealthy behavior in internet searches for health information, based on the following criteria: compulsion, distress, excesses, and trust and distrust of health professionals. To conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese, because of the lack of an appropriate instrument for Brazil. This study was authorized by the original author of the scale. The process was divided into the following four steps: 1) initial translation, 2) back-translation, 3) development of a synthesized version, and 4) experimental application. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese required some idiomatic expressions to be adapted. In some cases, words were not literally translated from English into Portuguese. Only items 7, 8, 12, 23 and 27 were altered, as a means of both conforming to proper grammar conventions and achieving easy comprehension. The items were rewritten without loss of the original content. This paper presents a translated version of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale that has been semantically adapted for the Brazilian population, providing a basis for future studies in this area, which should in turn contribute to improved understanding of the cyberchondria phenomenon in this population.

  15. Individual psychotherapy as an adjunct to group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranto, E A; Bender, S S

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a form of combined psychotherapy in which the individual sessions are used as an adjunct to group therapy. Each group member is seen regularly in individual sessions to focus primarily on the member's ongoing group work. The individual sessions are scheduled on a rotating basis. Typically, each group member is seen in an individual session once every four weeks. Additional individual sessions are available only when immediate attention is appropriate and necessary. The group is viewed as the primary therapeutic component. A cost-effective therapeutic approach that uses both individual and group methods, this modality lends itself well to a clinic and to a private practice setting.

  16. A Functional Analytic Approach to Group Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…

  17. Consequences of Psychotherapy Clients' Mental Health Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Len; Kirsch, Irving

    Current theoretical approaches to understanding emotional difficulties are dominated by the medical model of mental illness, which assumes that emotional dysfunction can be viewed the same way as physical dysfunction. To examine the relationship between psychotherapy clients' beliefs about the medical model of psychotherapy and their behavior…

  18. Patterns of Symptomatic Recovery in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopta, Stephen Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used psychotherapy dosage model in which effect was probability of recovery to compare treatment response rates for psychological symptoms. Administered symptom checklists to 854 psychotherapy outpatients at intake and during treatment. Chronic distress symptoms demonstrated fastest average response rate, whereas characterological symptoms…

  19. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  20. Practice Parameter for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…

  1. Culturally Authentic Scaling Approach: A Multi-Step Method for Culturally Adapting Measures for Use with Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Youths

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    Guerda Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing ethnic and racial diversity of youths in the U.S., researchers must be conscious of how youth are being recruited, retained, and assessed in research programs. In this article, we describe an efficient and replicable methodology, the Culturally Authentic Scaling Approach (CASA, which can be implemented to culturally adapt measures for use with ethnic minority and immigrant youths. Specifically, the steps involved in the CASA method are described, including developing community partnership, evaluating the theoretical equivalence, adjusting the selection and administration of measures. Engaging in an on-going dialogue with the community to increase cultural validity and build community relationships is also discussed. Addressing the cultural validity of measures used with ethnic and immigrant youths enhances the probability that the information obtained will be reflective of the cultural background of the participants and an accurate assessment of their experiences

  2. Daily chicken: the cultural transmission of bourgeois family values in adaptations of literary classics for children, 1850-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, Sanne

    2011-01-01

    Literature is a significant agent in the transmission of culture. Through literature expected behavior and patterns of life are passed on from generation to generation. The anticipated power of children's literature is even stronger. Socializing the target audience has always been one of its main aims. Consequently, books for children are governed by dominant social, cultural, and educational norms. This article explores the reciprocity between cultural transmission and the transmission of literature. It examines adaptations of international literary classics in their capacity of cultural intermediaries between old masterpieces and young audiences. Focusing on ways of transmitting family ideologies to children, the repository of Dutch adaptations of "Reynard the Fox," "Till Eulenspiegel," "Robinson Crusoe," and "Gulliver's Travels" serves as a case study.

  3. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire into Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certal, Victor; de Lima, Filipa Flor; Winck, João C; Azevedo, Inês; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro

    2015-02-01

    The need for culturally appropriate and linguistically accessible instruments for assessing sleep quality among children has expanded. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) is a validated tool for sleep disordered breathing among children. Our aim was to cross-culturally translate and adapt the PSQ into Portuguese language for use in clinical and research settings. The PSQ was translated into Portuguese language in accordance with the stages recommended by International Guidelines and reviewed by a panel of experts. The caregivers of 180 children (aged from 4 to 12 years) answered the Portuguese version of PSQ. The reliability of the translated questionnaire was measured by Cronbach α, Pearson correlation and Kappa statistics. Reliability analysis yielded an overall Cronbach α of 0.781, confirming the survey's consistency. The Cronbach α of the Portuguese PSQ domains ranged between 0.61 and 0.7. Test-retest reliability for all items was robust with correctness of >90.0% in all items, and the Kappa statistic ranged between 0.5 and 0.8. The Portuguese version of PSQ has sufficient reliability and validity to measure sleep disordered breathing outcomes, and showed to be linguistically accurate and acceptable for use by children in Portugal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence of fastidious Campylobacter spp. in fresh meat and poultry using an adapted cultural protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Orla A; Cagney, Claire; McDowell, David A; Duffy, Geraldine

    2011-11-01

    This study used an adapted cultural protocol for the recovery of fastidious species of Campylobacter, to gain a more accurate understanding of the diversity of Campylobacter populations in fresh meats. Chicken (n=185), pork (n=179) and beef (n=186) were collected from supermarkets and butchers throughout the Republic of Ireland. Samples were enriched in Campylobacter enrichment broth for 24h under an atmosphere of 2.5% O(2), 7% H(2), 10% CO(2), and 80.5% N(2). The enriched samples were then filtered onto non-selective Anaerobe Basal Agar supplemented with lysed horse blood using mixed ester filter membranes. Isolates were identified by both genus and species-specific PCR assays and biochemical testing. The incidence of campylobacters on beef (36%) was significantly higher than on pork (22%) or chicken (16%), and far exceeds previously reported prevalence levels. The method was successful in recovering 7 species of Campylobacter, including the fastidious spp. C. concisus and C. mucosalis, from chicken meat, and 10 species, including C. concisus, C. curvus, C. mucosalis, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis, from minced beef. The isolation of C. concisus and C. upsaliensis from meat in this study is of particular significance, due to their emerging clinical relevance. The results of this study confirm that the diversity of Campylobacter species on fresh meats is greater than previously reported and highlights the bias of cultural methods towards the recovery of C. jejuni.

  5. Science cafés. Cross-cultural adaptation and educational applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norton

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tokyo Institute of Technology (TokyoTech has been developing a number of methodologies to teach graduate students the theory and practice of science communication since 2005. One of the tools used is the science café, where students are taught about the background based primarily on theoretical models developed in the UK. They then apply that knowledge and adapt it the Japanese cultural context and plan, execute and review outcomes as part of their course. In this paper we review 4 years of experience in using science cafés in this educational context; we review the background to the students’ decision-making and consensus-building process towards deciding on the style and subject to be used, and the value this has in illuminating the cultural influences on the science café design and implementation. We also review the value of the science café as an educational tool and conclude that it has contributed to a number of teaching goals related to both knowledge and the personal skills required to function effectively in an international environment.

  6. Exploring Panarchy in Alpine Grasslands: an Application of Adaptive Cycle Concepts to the Conservation of a Cultural Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Soane, Ian D.; Rocco Scolozzi; Alessandro Gretter; Klaus Hubacek

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores approaches of applying the panarchy perspective to a case study of natural resource management in the cultural landscape of upland alpine pastures in northern Italy. The close interaction within the cultural landscape between alpine pasture ecology and the management regimes offers a strong fit with the concept of social-ecological systems and provides insights to appropriate and adaptive management of sites of conservation interest. We examine the limited literature avail...

  7. : NAZCA POLITICO-CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND TRANSFORMATION: THE NAZCA DURING THE MIDDLE HORIZON AND LATE INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

    OpenAIRE

    Llanos Jacinto, Oscar Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The traditional interpretation of the disappearance of Nazca is understood to have taken place during the Middle Horizon, specifically through the expansion of the Hauri/Tiahuanaco Culture. Nevertheless, the material culture recovered from archaeological excavation and prospection gainsays this assumption. In effect, the Nazca area maintained its population during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period. Yet there was a gradual re-adaptation by Nazca to changing ideologies. The focus ...

  8. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data.

  9. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Pagano, Adriana Silvina; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2017-03-23

    To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. Assessment of the instrument's conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee's assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes - Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494- 0.737), while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv) for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the validation tests proved to be a reliable, safe and innovative method. Traduzir

  10. Sterbenlassen. Vom Ende einer Psychotherapie

    OpenAIRE

    Ranefeld, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Reflexionen zum Ende einer psychoanalytischen Psychotherapie; ein Ende, an das es sich nur zögernd und ausweichend annähern läßt. Sterben ist letztendlich ein einsames Geschäft, wir halten den Tod für ansteckend und verfahren nach der Regel: "Man darf nicht zulassen, daß er einem ins Gesicht atmet" (Michael Connelly 1996, The Poet). Dennoch wird ver­sucht, beschreibend ein Konzept der Annäherungen zu skizzieren.

  11. Psychiatric evaluation and psychotherapy in the patient's second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo, M A

    1996-06-01

    Use of a patient's second language in psychiatric evaluation and treatment has a variety of effects. Patients frequently undergo psychiatric evaluation in their second language, yet competence in a second language varies depending on the phase of illness. Evaluation of bilingual patients should ideally be done in both their languages, preferably by a bilingual clinician or by a monolingual clinician with the help of an interpreter trained in mental health issues. Cultural nuances may be encoded in language in ways that are not readily conveyed in translation, even when the patient uses equivalent words in the second language. The monolingual clinician may clarify these nuances through consultation with a clinician who shares the patient's first language and culture or with an interpreter. In psychotherapy, patients may use a second language as a form of resistance, to avoid intense affect. Therapists may use language switching to overcome this resistance and to decrease emotional intensity, if necessary. Psychotherapy can also be affected by the attitudes toward speaking that are part of the patient's culture. Discussions with bilingual and bicultural consultants can elucidate these effects for the therapist who is unfamiliar with the patient's culture.

  12. Cultural Adaptations of Prolonged Exposure Therapy for Treatment and Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnica T. Williams

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a highly disabling disorder, afflicting African Americans at disproportionately higher rates than the general population. When receiving treatment, African Americans may feel differently towards a European American clinician due to cultural mistrust. Furthermore, racism and discrimination experienced before or during the traumatic event may compound posttrauma reactions, impacting the severity of symptoms. Failure to adapt treatment approaches to encompass cultural differences and racism-related traumas may decrease treatment success for African American clients. Cognitive behavioral treatment approaches are highly effective, and Prolonged Exposure (PE in particular has the most empirical support for the treatment of PTSD. This article discusses culturally-informed adaptations of PE that incorporates race-related trauma themes specific to the Black experience. These include adding more sessions at the front end to better establish rapport, asking directly about race-related themes during the assessment process, and deliberately bringing to the forefront race-related experiences and discrimination during treatment when indicated. Guidelines for assessment and the development of appropriate exposures are provided. Case examples are presented demonstrating adaptation of PE for a survivor of race-related trauma and for a woman who developed internalized racism following a sexual assault. Both individuals experienced improvement in their posttrauma reactions using culturally-informed adaptations to PE.

  13. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Nielsen, Kent Jacob;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to (i) cross-culturally adapt a Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and (ii) evaluate its psychometric properties in terms of agreement, reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability among patients...

  15. The Cultural Adaptation of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Research Version for Latino Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Ligia M.; Matias-Carrelo, Leida; Barrio, Concepcion; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed the Spanish translation of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Research Version (YQOL-R) and culturally adapted the measure with Puerto Rican and Mexican American children and adolescents. The YQOL-R is a self-reported measure that includes four domains: Sense of Self, Social Relationships, Environment, and General Quality of Life. A…

  16. Danish version of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator - translation, cross-cultural adaption and validity pretest by cognitive interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jane; Sørensen, Erik E; Gobbens, Robbert J J;

    2014-01-01

    was to translate and culturally adapt the TFI to a Danish context, and to test face validity of the Danish version by cognitive interviewing. An internationally recognized procedure was applied as a basis for the translation process. The primary tasks were forward translation, reconciliation, back translation...

  17. Acceptance and Mindfulness Techniques as Applied to Refugee and Ethnic Minority Populations with PTSD: Examples from "Culturally Adapted CBT"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E.; Pich, Vuth; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Otto, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on psychological…

  18. Translation, Cross-cultural Adaptation, and Psychometric Properties of the German Version of the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasimann, A.; Dauphinee, S.W.; Staal, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Objectives To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) from English into German, and to study its psychometric properties in patients after hip surgery. Background There is no specific hip questionnaire in Germ

  19. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the French version of the Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, Aurelie; Maillefert, Jean Francis; Gossec, Laure

    2010-01-01

    The Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS) was recently developed to evaluate functional disability and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients suffering from lower limb symptoms. The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the RAOS into French and to assess its...

  1. Promoting Social-Emotional Learning in Adolescent Latino ELLs: A Study of the Culturally Adapted "Strong Teens" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted "Jóvenes Fuertes" ("Strong Teens") Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's…

  2. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings.

  3. Vida PURA: A Cultural Adaptation of Screening and Brief Intervention to Reduce Unhealthy Drinking Among Latino Day Laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, India J; Allen, Claire; Vaughan, Catalina; Williams, Emily C; Negi, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Brief intervention is known to reduce drinking in primary care; however, because health care access is limited for Latino immigrants, traditional brief interventions are unlikely to reach this population. Using Barrera and Castro's framework, our study aims to culturally adapt a screening and brief intervention program to reduce unhealthy alcohol use among Latino day laborers, a particularly vulnerable group of Latino immigrant men. We conducted 18 interviews with Latino day laborers and 13 interviews with mental health and substance use providers that serve Latino immigrant men. Interviews were conducted until saturation of themes was reached. Themes from interviews were used to identify sources of mismatch between traditional screening and brief intervention in our target population. Unhealthy alcohol use was common, culturally accepted, and helped relieve immigration-related stressors. Men had limited knowledge about how to change their behavior. Men preferred to receive information from trusted providers in Spanish. Men faced significant barriers to accessing health and social services but were open to receiving brief interventions in community settings. Findings were used to design Vida PURA, a preliminary adaptation design of brief intervention for Latino day laborers. Key adaptations include brief intervention at a day labor worker center provided by promotores trained to incorporate the social and cultural context of drinking for Latino immigrant men. Culturally adapted brief intervention may help reduce unhealthy drinking in this underserved population.

  4. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ’07 for the population of Polish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Agata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this article is to present the cultural adaptation of the DCDQ’07 (Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire as one of the popular and most frequently-used diagnostic instruments for diagnosing DCD in school-age children.

  6. INFECTIOUS DISEASES ARE SLEEPING MONSTERS: Conventional and culturally adapted new metaphors in a corpus of abstracts on immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hidalgo Downing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the role played by metaphor in a corpus of sixty abstracts on immunology from Scientific American. We focus on the distinction between conventional metaphors and culturally adapted new metaphors and discuss the role played by metaphor choice in the communicative purposes of the abstracts and their register features. We argue that one of the main strategies used to attract the reader‘s attention is the combination of highly conventionalized metaphors, which occur more frequently in the corpus, together with what we call “culturally adapted new metaphors”, which display different degrees of creativity and are less frequent in the corpus. Conventional metaphors typically reinforce the world view shared by the scientific community and introduce basic ideas on the subject of immunology. Culturally adapted new metaphors include a cline from slightly new perspectives of conventional models, to highly creative uses of metaphor. Culturally adapted new metaphors appeal primarily to a general readership and not to the scientific community, as they tap human emotions and mythic constructions. These play a crucial role in the abstracts, as they contribute to persuasive and didactic communicative functions in the text.

  7. The modified patient enablement instrument: a Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation, validity and reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remelhe, Mafalda; Teixeira, Pedro M; Lopes, Irene; Silva, Luís; Correia de Sousa, Jaime

    2017-01-12

    Enabling patients with asthma to obtain the knowledge, confidence and skills they need in order to assume a major role in the management of their disease is cost effective. It should be an integral part of any plan for long-term control of asthma. The modified Patient Enablement Instrument (mPEI) is an easily administered questionnaire that was adapted in the United Kingdom to measure patient enablement in asthma, but its applicability in Portugal is not known. Validity and reliability of questionnaires should be tested before use in settings different from those of the original version. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the mPEI to Portuguese asthma patients after translation and cross-cultural adaptation, and to verify the structural validity, internal consistency and reproducibility of the instrument. The mPEI was translated to Portuguese and back translated to English. Its content validity was assessed by a debriefing interview with 10 asthma patients. The translated instrument was then administered to a random sample of 142 patients with persistent asthma. Structural validity and internal consistency were assessed. For reproducibility analysis, 86 patients completed the instrument again 7 days later. Item-scale correlations and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess structural validity. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal consistency, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of reproducibility. All items of the Portuguese version of the mPEI were found to be equivalent to the original English version. There were strong item-scale correlations that confirmed construct validity, with a one component structure and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.8) as well as high test-retest reliability (ICC=0.85). The mPEI showed sound psychometric properties for the evaluation of enablement in patients with asthma making it a reliable instrument for use in research and clinical practice in

  8. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese, cultural adaptation and validation of the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Conrad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quality of life has been one of the main issues for patients with a chronic condition.OBJECTIVE: To translate, adapt and validate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ.METHODS: The questionnaire was translated into Portuguese, back translated into English, and cross-culturally adapted to the Brazilian Population. Sixty-five transtibial unilateral amputees were recruited. The sample comprised 45 men and 20 women with a mean age of 44 years, 47 with traumatic amputations, 14 with vascular dysfunction and 4 with other reasons for amputation, and all of them fitted with prostheses. Patients were interviewed twice, at baseline and again after 15 days. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SF-36 (a generic Quality of Life outcome measure and the FIM (a Functional Independence Measure were also administered.RESULTS: The internal consistency of the nine PEQ scales was tested by computing Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (0.65 - 0.89: high values. Student's t test coefficients were used for interobserver evaluation (0.35 to 084: reliable values with one exception- the Residual Limb Health scale, and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC, which ranged from 0.65 to 0.92: reliable values. Student's t test coefficients and ICCs were also used for intraobserver evaluation (0.42 to 0.83, except the Residual Limb Health scale and 0.80 to 0.94, respectively: reliable values. Correlations between PEQ, SF-36 and FIM were tested using Pearson's correlation coefficients, which were not statistically significant (p > 0, 01.CONCLUSION: The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the PEQ has high internal consistency and is a reliable quality of life measure for use in amputee patients, but is not associated with the SF-36 or FIM.

  9. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monira Samaan Kallás

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale to the Portuguese language. Material and Methods: A synthesis of two independent translations done by bilingual translators whose mother tongue was the Portuguese language began the process of translation. From the synthesis of the translated version and totally blind to the original version, two different non-native English language teachers without dental knowledge translated the questionnaire back to English. The pre-final version was done by an Expert committee: the researchers, two other non-native English language teachers and one native English language speaker. The new questionnaire was then piloted among 8 patients from the target setting that were interviewed to probe it on their perceived meaning of each question. The Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale (MOPDS thus translated was called Brasil-MOPDS and was validated in 50 patients with Orofacial pain from TMJ and Occlusion clinic ambulatory of São Paulo University School of Dentistry. The Brasil-MOPDS was administered twice by an interviewer (15 - 20 day interval and once by a second independent interviewer. The Brazilian version of the short form oral health impact profile (OHIP-14 questionnaire and the visual analogue pain scale (VAS were applied on the same day. Results: Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.9, inter-observer (ICC = 0.92 and intra-observer (ICC = 0.98 correlations presented high scores. Validity of Brasil-MOPDS compared to OHIP-14 (r = 0.85 and VAS (r = 0.75 shown high correlations. Conclusions: Brasil-MOPDS was successfully translated and adapted to be applied to Brazilian patients, with satisfactory internal and external reliability.

  10. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the manchester orofacial pain disability scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallás, Monira Samaan; Crosato, Edgard Michel; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Aggarwal, Vishal R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale to the Portuguese language. A synthesis of two independent translations done by bilingual translators whose mother tongue was the Portuguese language began the process of translation. From the synthesis of the translated version and totally blind to the original version, two different non-native English language teachers without dental knowledge translated the questionnaire back to English. The pre-final version was done by an Expert committee: the researchers, two other non-native English language teachers and one native English language speaker. The new questionnaire was then piloted among 8 patients from the target setting that were interviewed to probe it on their perceived meaning of each question. The Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale (MOPDS) thus translated was called Brasil-MOPDS and was validated in 50 patients with Orofacial pain from TMJ and Occlusion clinic ambulatory of São Paulo University School of Dentistry. The Brasil-MOPDS was administered twice by an interviewer (15 - 20 day interval) and once by a second independent interviewer. The Brazilian version of the short form oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire and the visual analogue pain scale (VAS) were applied on the same day. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.9), inter-observer (ICC = 0.92) and intra-observer (ICC = 0.98) correlations presented high scores. Validity of Brasil-MOPDS compared to OHIP-14 (r = 0.85) and VAS (r = 0.75) shown high correlations. Brasil-MOPDS was successfully translated and adapted to be applied to Brazilian patients, with satisfactory internal and external reliability.

  11. Synchrony in Dyadic Psychotherapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    Synchrony is a multi-faceted concept used in diverse domains such as physics, biology, and the social sciences. This chapter reviews some of the evidence of nonverbal synchrony in human communication, with a main focus on the role of synchrony in the psychotherapeutic setting. Nonverbal synchrony describes coordinated behavior of patient and therapist. Its association with empathy, rapport and the therapeutic relationship has been pointed out repeatedly, yet close evaluation of empirical studies suggests that the evidence remains inconclusive. Particularly in naturalistic studies, research with quantitative measures of synchrony is still lacking. We introduce a new empirical approach for the study of synchrony in psychotherapies under field conditions: Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This is a video-based algorithm that quantifies the amount of movement in freely definable regions of interest. Our statistical analysis detects synchrony on a global level, irrespective of the specific body parts moving. Synchrony thus defined can be considered as a general measure of movement coordination between interacting individuals. Data from a sequence of N = 21 therapy sessions taken from one psychotherapy dyad shows a high positive relationship between synchrony and the therapeutic bond. Nonverbal synchrony can thus be considered a promising concept for research on the therapeutic alliance. Further areas of application are discussed.

  12. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  13. The future orientation of constructive memory: an evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    We explore a new distinction between the future, prospective memory system being investigated in current neuroscience and the past, retrospective memory system, which was the original theoretical foundation of therapeutic hypnosis, classical psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy. We then generalize a current evolutionary theory of sleep and dreaming, which focuses on the future, prospective memory system, to conceptualize a new evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy. The implication of current neuroscience research is that activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity are the psychobiological basis of adaptive behavior, consciousness, and creativity in everyday life as well as psychotherapy. We summarize a case illustrating how this evolutionary perspective can be used to quickly resolve problems with past obstructive procrastination in school to facilitate current and future academic success.

  14. [Body-centered psychotherapy IKP (Institute of Body-Centered Psychotherapy): holistic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Groeli, Y

    1996-03-01

    Body centered Psychotherapy IKP is treated in this article under the aspect of a holistic approach. First the theory and the system of science are summarised and shown as to which amount they are changing concerning knowledge of details and wholeness. It is pointed out that the actual paradigma "to the depth" has to be completed by that of "wideness". The way of holistic-multirelational thinking, stating a diagnosis and doing therapy is demonstrated along a case study going on at the background of a therapeutic encounter-relationship which is emotionally warm (Gestalt-approach).

  15. [Cross-cultural adaptation to the European Portuguese of the questionnaire "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón Rubio, Joaquín; Iglésias-Ferreira, Paula; García Delgado, Pilar; Mateus-Santos, Henrique; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation from Spanish to European Portuguese of a questionnaire to measure the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES). A method based on six steps was applied: 1. Translation into Portuguese, 2. Elaboration of the first consensus version in Portuguese; 3.Back-translation into Spanish; 4. Elaboration of the second consensus version (cultural equivalency); 5. Conducting the pre-test; 6. Evaluation of the overall results. A cross-culturally adapted questionnaire in European Portuguese that measures the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" is proposed. The pre-test confirmation obtained 100% agreement with the corrected version of the second consensus version after pre-testing. The methodology selected made it possible to cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the CPM-ES-ES questionnaire to the Portuguese version. Further studies should demonstrate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translation into Portuguese with the original version.

  16. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa M. Lamarão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  17. Italian translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the "American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society's (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scale".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigheb, Massimiliano; Janicka, Paulina; Andorno, Silvano; Marcuzzi, Augusto; Magnani, Corrado; Grassi, Federico

    2016-05-06

    Background and Aim of the workAnkle and hindfoot injuries are common and may lead to functional impairment, disability, exclusion from occupational and daily activities. It's necessary a standardized method for assessing treatment outcomes in people with same condition and disease.American-Orthopaedics-Foot-and-Ankle-Society's-Ankle-Hindfoot-Evaluation-Scale (AOFAS-AHES) is specific to estimate clinical problems of the ankle-hindfoot.Outcome evaluation scales should be translated and culturally adapted into the language of the investigated patient.Our purpose was to translate and culturally adapt into Italian AOFAS-AHES, and to check its reproducibility and validity.MethodsAn Italian translation of the AOFAS-scale was retranslated into English by a native English and compared to the original to define a second correct Italian-version, that was submitted to 50 randomized patients operated at their ankle or hindfoot with a minimum follow-up of 6 months for cultural adaptation, and to 10 healthcare professionals to check comprehension of the medical part.To check intra and inter-observer reproducibility each patient underwent 2 interviews by interviewer-A and 1 by B. ShortForm(SF)-36-questionnaire for quality of life and Visual-Analogue-Scale (VAS) for pain were also compared for validation. The Pearson's-Correlation-Coefficient and the Intra-Class-Correlation coefficient were calculated to check inter and intra-observer reproducibility for validation.ResultsCultural adaptation revealed to be good. We obtained a good correlation of the inter and intra-observer reproducibility. Further validation of the Italian-AOFAS-AHES was obtained comparing AOFAS results to SF-36.ConclusionsItalian translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the AOFAS-AHES has been performed successfully and could be useful to improve assistance quality in care practice.

  18. Psychotherapy and Traditional Healing for American Indians: Exploring the Prospects for Therapeutic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural advocates within professional psychology routinely call for "culturally competent" counseling interventions. Such advocates frequently cite and celebrate traditional healing practices as an important resource for developing novel integrative forms of psychotherapy that are distinctively tailored for diverse populations. Despite this…

  19. A new cultural adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; Doty, Richard L; Santos, Clayson Alan dos; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Voegels, Richard Louis

    2013-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, a test of olfactory function that is widely used by otolaryngologists, geriatricians, and neurologists, has been translated into more than a dozen languages. In some instances, cultural and socioeconomic factors have necessitated changes in the odorant items or the response alternatives to make the test scores congruent with North American norms. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of Brazilian subjects on a new Portuguese language version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test with their performance on an earlier Portuguese language version of the test, as well as to assess the influences of gender, age, ethnicity, and economic status on the test scores. Based on pilot data, several response alternatives of the earlier Portuguese language version of the test were altered in an effort to improve test performance. Forty-nine healthy Brazilian volunteers, who represented several economic classes, were tested. The test scores of the study cohort who received the newer version of the test were compared with those of a group of 25 subjects who received the earlier version of the test. The mean score for the new version [35 (2.1)] was significantly (p = 0.002) higher than that for the earlier version [32.5 (3.5)]. Although no apparent influence of socioeconomic status was observed, the female participants outperformed the male participants in the current subject cohort. The changes made in the new cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test were effective in increasing the average test scores of the participants. Overall, the female subjects outperformed the male subjects on the test.

  20. Identification of a novel cell culture adaptation site on the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

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    Chamberlain, Kyle; Fowler, Veronica L; Barnett, Paul V; Gold, Sarah; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J; Jackson, Terry

    2015-09-01

    Vaccination remains the most effective tool for control of foot-and-mouth disease both in endemic countries and as an emergency preparedness for new outbreaks. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines are chemically inactivated virus preparations and the production of new vaccines is critically dependent upon cell culture adaptation of field viruses, which can prove problematic. A major driver of cell culture adaptation is receptor availability. Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) use RGD-dependent integrins as receptors, whereas cell culture adaptation often selects for variants with altered receptor preferences. Previously, two independent sites on the capsid have been identified where mutations are associated with improved cell culture growth. One is a shallow depression formed by the three major structural proteins (VP1-VP3) where mutations create a heparan sulphate (HS)-binding site (the canonical HS-binding site). The other involves residues of VP1 and is located at the fivefold symmetry axis. For some viruses, changes at this site result in HS binding; for others, the receptors are unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel site on VP2 where mutations resulted in an expanded cell tropism of a vaccine variant of A/IRN/87 (called A - ). Furthermore, we show that introducing the same mutations into a different type A field virus (A/TUR/2/2006) resulted in the same expanded cell culture tropism as the A/IRN/87 A -  vaccine variant. These observations add to the evidence for multiple cell attachment mechanisms for FMDV and may be useful for vaccine manufacture when cell culture adaptation proves difficult.

  1. A manifesto of community-focused psychotherapy for the social participation: Does individual and group psychotherapy still meet the care needs of the society?

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    Simone Bruschetta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical, on a social-political level, of development of psychotherapy, seen as the health discipline, especially in that part of the world called West, scientifically established itself through the evaluation of the effectiveness of its two most common types of setting: Individual and Group- Psychotherapy. Through a social-anthropological interpretation of mental processes which it underpins, and a group analytical analysis of organizational and institutional dynamics that led to its evolution, the authors highlight the significant impasse in which psychotherapy finds itself today compared to new and more pervasive forms of mental suffering. Following on of the latest scientific research on the functioning of the mind and of new policy proposals from the World Health Organization, it is suggested so a form of basic psychotherapy, focused on the quality of the mental health of human contexts, defined Community-Focused Psychotherapy. This new form of psychotherapy is wrong simply understood as a new setting, alongside the classic individual, group, or family setting, but as a political-cultural background and a theoretical-methodological framework, so for different psychotherapeutic treatment (individual, group , family put in place in cases of specific psychopathological symptoms, as for a number of other clinical and social programs, carried out by professionals, workers and (formerly users, who support the empowerment of people, with serious psychological disorders or severe mental illness, in their own social contexts of belonging, and in their own recovery, through the active participation of all those therapeutic processes that support their care. 

  2. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

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    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases.

  3. Spanish version of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire for sport: Cultural adaptation and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J J

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, p<0.01, CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.045, SRMR = 0.055). It also demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity. While the internal reliability was lower than in previous studies, it revealed acceptable levels. Specifically the overall 27 item Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation of the CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard questionnaire into Portuguese

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    Patrícia Coelho de Soárez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: Despite the progress in the implementation of health promotion programs in the workplace, there are no questionnaires in Brazil to assess the scope of health promotion interventions adopted and their scientific basis. This study aimed to translate into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapt the CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard (HSC questionnaire. Method: The HSC has 100 questions grouped into twelve domains. The steps are as follows: translation, reconciliation, back-translation, review by expert panel, pretesting, and final revision. The convenience sample included 27 individuals from health insurance providers and companies of various sizes, types and industries in São Paulo. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The average age of the sample was 38 years, most of the subjects were female (21 of 27, and were responsible for programs to promote health in these workplaces. Most questions were above the minimum value of understanding set at 90%. The participants found the questionnaire very useful to determine the extent of existing health promotion programs and to pinpoint areas that could be developed. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the HSC questionnaire may be a valid measure and useful to assess the degree of implementation of health promotion interventions based on evidence in local health organizations.

  5. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

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    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  6. [Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scale (HTAS) in Portuguese].

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    Koritar, Priscila; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Alvarenga, Marle dos Santos; Santos, Bernardo dos

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this study was to show the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scale in Portuguese. The methodology included translation of the scale; evaluation of conceptual, operational and item-based equivalence by 14 experts and 51 female undergraduates; semantic equivalence and measurement assessment by 12 bilingual women by the paired t-test, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the coefficient intraclass correlation; internal consistency and test-retest reliability by Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively, after application on 216 female undergraduates; assessment of discriminant and concurrent validity via the t-test and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively, in addition to Confirmatory Factor and Exploratory Factor Analysis. The scale was considered adequate and easily understood by the experts and university students and presented good internal consistency and reliability (µ 0.86, ICC 0.84). The results show that the scale is valid and can be used in studies with women to better understand attitudes related to taste.

  7. [Linguistic and cultural adaptation of two tools for the detecting suspected elder abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rojo, Gema; Izal, María; Sancho, María Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This work is the natural continuation of the project conducted by the Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society (SEGG) and the Institute for the Elderly and Social Services (IMSERSO) and under the auspices of the World Health Organisation and Geneva University, called "Global response to abuse and neglect of the elderly: Building Primary Health Care Services capacity to deal with a worldwide problem". The carrying out of this work has been made possible due to funding by the Institute for the Elderly and Social Services (IMSERSO) in the framework of the National Plan for Scientific Research, Development and Technological Innovation 2004-2007. The general aim of this project was the validation of the tool for detecting suspected elder abuse, called (Elder Abuse Suspicion Index, EASI) as well as the Social Worker Evaluation Form (FETS) which is used for the confirmation of suspected abuse cases. After obtaining the results, the questionnaires obtained as a result of the linguistic and cultural adaptation of EASI and FETS are presented. Copyright © 2009 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Romanian Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the SarQol Questionnaire

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    Ildiko Gasparik Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, or age-related muscle loss is emerging as a major public health concern. A reduced quality of life (QoL due to impaired physical performance associated with this disease has been evidenced in these individuals. Generic instruments, such as Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36, do not accurately assess the impact of sarcopenia on QoL. SarQol (Sarcopenia Quality of Life questionnaire, was the first disease-specific questionnaire addressing quality of life in patients with sarcopenia and has been recently designed for providing a global picture on quality of life in community-dwelling elderly subjects aged 65 years and older. Our aim was the translation and cultural adaptation of the original SarQol, to finally obtain a highly reliable instrument for the assessment of the quality of life of Romanian patients, affected by sarcopenia. We followed the recommended process, the international protocol of translation. The pretest process involved 20 subjects (10 sarcopenic and 10 non sarcopenic with different educational and socioeconomic backgrounds who were asked to complete the questionnaire. Feedbacks were requested from all subjects regarding the clearness of questions, difficulties in completing the test or understanding the meaning of questions. Using the recommended best practice protocol for translation, the pre-final version is comparable with the original instrument in terms of content and accuracy. After the validation of psychometric properties, it should be a useful tool to assess Quality of Life and sarcopenia among elderly romanian patients.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Voice Handicap Index into Croatian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Ana; Bonetti, Luka

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary results of cultural adaptation and validation of the Croatian version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The translated version was completed by 38 subjects with voice disorders and 30 subjects without voice complaints. Compared with the subjects in the control group, subjects with voice disorders had significantly higher average total VHI score and scores in each of the three VHI domains (functional, physical, and emotional). Cronbach alpha for total VHI was .94, and coefficients obtained for the three VHI subscales were as follows: α = .87 for functional, α = .88 for physical, and α = .85 for emotional subscales. Intraclass correlation coefficient estimation was also high, for both total VHI (0.92) and subscales (0.85 for functional subscale, 0.87 for physical subscale, and 0.81 for emotional subscale). The overall VHI score positively correlated with auditory perceived grade of dysphonia. In the group with voice disorders, age was not correlated to the total VHI or the subscales. Also, there was no significant difference between male and female voice subjects in total VHI or the subscales. Preliminary findings of this research indicate that the Croatian VHI could provide a reliable and clinically valid measure of patient's current perception of voice problem and its reflection on the quality of life.

  10. Adapting the South Oaks Gambling Screen for use in the Slovenian cultural environment

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    Andreja Cvenkelj

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur in Blume, 1987 is the most frequently used for screening of pathological gambling. The main purpose of this study was to adapt the SOGS for application in the Slovenian cultural environment and to assess its metric characteristics.The study involved 121 subjects, 21 of which were diagnosed as pathological gamblers. Comparison group was composed of 100 subjects. Factor analysis resulted in a one-dimensional solution accounting for 66% of the total variance. Statistically significant differences in the scores show that the SOGS is able to discriminate between the comparison group and pathological gamblers. Item analysis shows that all of them appropriately discriminate between pathological gamblers and comparison group. The internal consistency of the 20-item scale was .971. The criterion validity of the Slovenian version of the SOGS was investigated by cross-comparing the patients' actual diagnoses of pathological gambling with the same diagnoses based on the SOGS scores. The score of 5 points was used as a cut-off point, since it discriminates the most. There was a perfect agreement between diagnoses of pathological gambling and diagnoses based on the SOGS scores.

  11. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Serbian Version of the ICS SF Male Questionnaire

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    Uros Babic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The objective of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate ICS male SF questionnaire to Serbian language. Materials and Methods. This study included 91 male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and 24 men with similar age and with confirmed absence of LUTS. ICS male SF questionnaire was translated from English to Serbian language and then back-translated to English. Results. Internal consistency was high in both dimensions, voiding (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.916 and incontinence (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.763. Comparison of the average scores between patients and controls revealed significant differences in both dimensions: voiding (med = 8 versus med = 0; P<0.001 and incontinence (med = 3 versus med = 0; P<0.001. Interclass correlation revealed high testretest validity in both dimensions, voiding ICC = 0.992 P<0.001 and incontinece ICC = 0.989 P<0.001. Correlation analysis revealed high agreement between ICS male SF voiding dimension and IPSS questionnaire (ρ=0.943; P<0.001. Conclusion. The Serbian version of male ICS SF questionnaire showed acceptable reliability and validity. The ICS male SF questionnaire could be used in routine practice as an easy and comprehensive tool for assessment of LUTS.

  12. Adaptation of a mixed culture of acidophiles for a tank biooxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing a high concentration of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeongsik; Silva, Rene A; Park, Jeonghyun; Lee, Eunseong; Park, Jayhyun; Kim, Hyunjung

    2016-05-01

    We adapted a mixed culture of acidophiles to high arsenic concentrations to confirm the possibility of achieving more than 70% biooxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing high arsenic (As) concentration. The biooxidation process was applied to refractory gold concentrates containing approximately 139.67 g/kg of total As in a stirred tank reactor using an adapted mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The percentage of the biooxidation process was analyzed based on the total As removal efficiency. The As removal was monitored by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, conducted every 24 h. The results obtained with the adapted culture were compared with the percentage of biooxidation obtained with a non-adapted mixed culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans, and with their respective pure cultures. The percentages of biooxidation obtained during 358 h of reaction were 72.20%, 38.20%, 27.70%, and 11.45% for adapted culture, non-adapted culture, and pure cultures of A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans, respectively. The adapted culture showed a peak maximum percentage of biooxidation of 77% at 120 h of reaction, confirming that it is possible to obtain biooxidation percentages over 70% in gold concentrates containing high As concentrations.

  13. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Clinical Competence Questionnaire for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkoski, Danielle Ritter; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima; Pereira, Evani Marques; Bortolato-Major, Carina; Mattei, Ângela Taís; Peres, Aida Maris

    2017-06-05

    translating and transculturally adapting the Clinical Competence Questionnaire to Brazilian senior undergraduate Nursing students, as well as measuring psychometric properties of the questionnaire. a methodological study carried out in six steps: translation of the Clinical Competence Questionnaire instrument, consensus of the translations, back-translation, analysis by an expert committee, pre-testing and then presentation of the cross-cultural adaptation process to the developers. Psychometric properties were measured using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient and content validity index. the instrument was translated, transculturally adapted and its final version consisted of 48 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90, and the agreement index of the items was 99% for students and 98% for evaluators. the Clinical Competence Questionnaire was translated and adapted to Brazilian students, and the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the questionnaire presented satisfactory internal consistency regarding the studied sample. traduzir e adaptar transculturalmente o Clinical Competence Questionnaire aos estudantes brasileiros concluintes da graduação em enfermagem, bem como mensurar as propriedades psicométricas do questionário. estudo metodológico realizado em seis etapas: tradução do instrumento Clinical Competence Questionnaire, consenso das traduções, retrotradução, análise pelo comitê de especialistas, pré-teste e apresentação do processo de adaptação transcultural para os desenvolvedores. As propriedades psicométricas foram mensuradas utilizando-se o alfa de Cronbach, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e índice de validade de conteúdo. o instrumento foi traduzido, adaptado transculturalmente e sua versão final foi constituída de 48 itens. O coeficiente alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,90, e o índice de concordância dos itens foi de 99% para os estudantes e de 98% para os avaliadores. o Clinical Competence

  14. Treating Haitian patients: key cultural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Astrid; St Fleurose, Sheila

    2002-01-01

    The Haitian community in the United States is growing steadily. They make up a significant portion of many cities. As a group, Haitian immigrants are a challenge to mental health professionals. Their view and concepts of the world are unique. Non-Haitian clinicians need to be knowledgeable of the culture in order to provide competent care. The goal of this article is to help clinicians understand aspects of Haitian culture that will facilitate mental health treatment. A historical perspective is offered since the history of Haiti has shaped society, families and therefore individuals. The role of the supernatural is addressed to provide a better understanding of the Haitian psyche. The political and economic climate in Haiti has led to a significant increase in the number of Haitians migrating to the United States. Haitians are faced with the challenge of adapting to a new culture; they experience stress and become vulnerable to mental illness. As a result, there is increasing demand for mental health services. This article highlights aspects of Haitian culture relevant to mental health clinicians. It provides an overview of Haitians' attitudes toward mental health and the utilization of psychotherapy. Concepts relevant to Voodoo beliefs and practices are discussed since these beliefs can shape attitudes, and compliance with treatment. Recommendations for engaging and maintaining Haitian clients in psychotherapy are made. Case vignettes are provided for illustration.

  15. Cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr scale of pain assessment

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    Edna Aparecida Bussotti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to perform the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr scale, with children under 18 years old, affected by cerebral palsy, presenting or not cognitive impairment and unable to report their pain.Method: methodological development study of translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. After approval by the ethics committee, the process aimed at translation and back-translation, evaluation of translation and back-translation using the Delphi technique and assessment of cultural equivalence. The process included the five categories of the scale and the four application instructions, considering levels of agreement equal to or greater than 80%.Results: it was necessary three rounds of the Delphi technique to achieve consensus among experts. The agreement achieved for the five categories was: Face 95.5%, Legs 90%, Activity 94.4%, Cry 94.4% and Consolability 99.4%. The four instructions achieved the following consensus levels: 1st 99.1%, 2nd 99.2%, 3rd 99.1% and 4th 98.3%.Conclusion: the method enabled the translation and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. This is a study able to expand the knowledge of Brazilian professionals on pain assessment in children with CP

  16. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico-Ferreira, Maria Manuela; Camarneiro, Ana Paula Forte; Loureiro, Cândida Rosalinda Exposto da Costa; Ventura, Maria Clara Amado Apóstolo

    2016-08-15

    to perform the cultural adaptation to Portuguese of the Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire (NCFQ), which was designed by the Centre for Learning and Teaching at the University of Technology of Sydney, and to validate this instrument. this methodological study involved the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire by using translation, back-translation, semantic comparison, idiomatic and conceptual equivalence, and validation through validity and reliability analyses and used a sample of 767 students in their second year of the Nursing Program. construct validity had a two-factor solution according to the varimax rotation method. In addition, there was a high overall internal consistency for the questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha of 0.977) and for the factors found (0.966 and 0.952, respectively). the Portuguese version has good psychometric characteristics; therefore, it is adequate to obtain reliable information on the perception of nursing students concerning the type of supervision that is provided in clinical practice, and this version is adequate to improve teaching practices. realizar a adaptação cultural para a língua portuguesa do Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire (NCFQ) concebido pelo Centre for Learning and Teaching, University of Technology de Sydney e proceder à validação do instrumento. estudo metodológico de adaptação cultural do questionário através de tradução, retroversão, comparação semântica, idiomática e equivalência conceitual, seguido de validação em uma amostra de 767 estudantes do 2º ano do Curso de Licenciatura em Enfermagem, por meio de análise da validade e confiabilidade. a validade de constructo apresenta uma solução bifatorial após rotação varimax. A consistência interna global do questionário é elevada (alfa de Cronbach 0,977), assim como dos fatores encontrados (respectivamente, 0,966 e 0,952). a versão portuguesa apresenta boas características psicométricas, sendo um instrumento v

  17. Adapting to a US Medical Curriculum in Malaysia: A Qualitative Study on Cultural Dissonance in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilkofski, Nicole; Shields, Ryan Y

    2016-08-16

    Minimal research has examined the recent exportation of medical curricula to international settings. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, USA partnered with Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and implemented the same curriculum currently used at Johns Hopkins University to teach medical students at Perdana University. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of first-year medical students at Perdana University, focusing on issues of cultural dissonance during adaptation to a US curriculum. In-depth semi-structured interviews with the inaugural class of first-year students (n=24) were conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Two reviewers independently coded and analyzed the qualitative data for major themes. The most prominent themes identified were the transition from a "passive" to an "active" learning environment and the friendliness and openness of the professors. Students noted that "[Perdana University] is a whole new, different culture and now we are adapting to the culture." Being vocal during classes and taking exams based on conceptual understanding and knowledge application/integration proved to be more challenging for students than having classes taught entirely in English or the amount of material covered. This study reinforced many cultural education theories as it revealed the major issues of Malaysian graduate students adapting to a US-style medical curriculum. Despite coming from a collectivistic, Confucian-based cultural learning background, the Malaysian students at Perdana University adopted and adapted to, and subsequently supported, the US learning expectations.

  18. Single strain isolation method for cell culture-adapted hepatitis C virus by end-point dilution and infection.

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    Nao Sugiyama

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV culture system has enabled us to clarify the HCV life cycle and essential host factors for propagation. However, the virus production level of wild-type JFH-1 (JFH-1/wt is limited, and this leads to difficulties in performing experiments that require higher viral concentrations. As the cell culture-adapted JFH-1 has been reported to have robust virus production, some mutations in the viral genome may play a role in the efficiency of virus production. In this study, we obtained cell culture-adapted virus by passage of full-length JFH-1 RNA-transfected Huh-7.5.1 cells. The obtained virus produced 3 log-fold more progeny viruses as compared with JFH-1/wt. Several mutations were identified as being responsible for robust virus production, but, on reverse-genetics analysis, the production levels of JFH-1 with these mutations did not reach the level of cell culture-adapted virus. By using the single strain isolation method by end-point dilution and infection, we isolated two strains with additional mutations, and found that these strains have the ability to produce more progeny viruses. On reverse-genetics analysis, the strains with these additional mutations were able to produce robust progeny viruses at comparable levels as cell culture-adapted JFH-1 virus. The strategy used in this study will be useful for identifying strains with unique characteristics, such as robust virus production, from a diverse population, and for determining the responsible mutations for these characteristics.

  19. A cross-cultural comparison of adaptation to chronic pain among Anglo-Americans and native Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M S; Rankin-Hill, L; Sanchez-Ayendez, M; Mendez-Bryan, R

    1995-02-01

    Using quantitative and qualitative data from studies in New England and Puerto Rico, we compare the chronic pain experiences of Anglo-Americans and native Puerto Ricans. We also compare adaptation to chronic pain between and within these two groups. Positive adaptation is defined as the process of adjustment in behavior and attitudes which facilitates resumption and continuation of a life defined by the subject as meaningful and worthwhile. Our case studies and quantitative analyses demonstrate that successful adaptation is associated with a reduction in depression, tension, and worry; and the realistic continuation of family, social, and work roles. Our analyses also demonstrate that the factors most often associated with adaptation are cultural (meanings and standards), psychosocial (social support, age, socioeconomic status, psychological coping style), the cultural context of care (providers' world views), and the political and economic circumstances under which compensation and rehabilitation are sought. Our quantitative analyses show significant inter- and intra-cultural group differences in pain intensity and emotional responses to the pain. However, despite higher pain intensity and more emotional responses among Puerto Ricans, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding interference in daily activities. The two groups simply appear to experience chronic pain differently. We propose that the difference is not positive or negative in itself--it is simply a different reality which should be evaluated from an emic perspective and not through the cultural lens of the outside provider or researcher. Intra-group analyses are essential because they provide insight into the standards, norms, and variations within specific cultural groups.

  20. An Integrative Theory of Psychotherapy: Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Seymour; Epstein, Martha L

    2016-06-01

    A dual-process personality theory and supporting research are presented. The dual processes comprise an experiential system and a rational system. The experiential system is an adaptive, associative learning system that humans share with other higher-order animals. The rational system is a uniquely human, primarily verbal, reasoning system. It is assumed that when humans developed language they did not abandon their previous ways of adapting, they simply added language to their experiential system. The two systems are assumed to operate in parallel and are bi-directionally interactive. The validity of these assumptions is supported by extensive research. Of particular relevance for psychotherapy, the experiential system, which is compatible with evolutionary theory, replaces the Freudian maladaptive unconscious system that is indefensible from an evolutionary perspective, as sub-human animals would then have only a single system that is maladaptive. The aim of psychotherapy is to produce constructive changes in the experiential system. Changes in the rational system are useful only to the extent that they contribute to constructive changes in the experiential system.

  1. Psychotherapy: from exorcism to cognitive theories

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    Durval Mazzei Nogueira Filho

    Full Text Available The author discusses aspects of psychotherapeutic action. He defends the rationality of the procedure, comments on the splintering of the field of psychotherapy and discusses the usefulness of applying the scientific methodology to this field of knowledge.

  2. PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH THE PARENT EGO STATE

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    Maruša Zaletel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In their article, the authors present the findings of the study in which they conceptualized the method of psychotherapy with the Parent ego state. Their aim was to explore whether this method could be divided into individual, content-wise separate chronological phases which can be observed with the majority of clients. By using a modified method of content analysis of five psychotherapy transcripts and a video recording of a psychotherapy session, nine chronological phases were identified. In order to illustrate the individual phases, excerpts from the transcripts and the video recording of psychotherapy have been included. The article proposes under what conditions can this method be used, and presents some of its limitations.

  3. John Bowlby and couple psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    The centenary of John Bowlby's birth provides a context for considering the policy, research and practice legacies that he left for practitioners working in many different fields supporting couples and families. Part historical, and part forwardlooking, this paper considers the links between attachment in the infant-parent dyad that was at the heart of Bowlby's concern and the nature of the affective ties that bind couples together in adult romantic relationships. An overview of the influence of his theory on family policy and adult attachment research is followed by an appreciation of its significance for the practice of couple psychotherapy. The paper concludes with a comment on the implications of current neuroscience knowledge for therapeutic technique.

  4. Psychotherapy - insights from bhagavad gita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M S

    2012-01-01

    Spoken and written commentary on Bhagavad Gita, the distilled spiritual essence of Vedas and Upanishads, is aplenty. Mahatma Gandhi was quoted as saying that whenever he had a problem Bhagavad Gita offered an answer and the solution. For a student of psychology Bhagavad Gita offers a valuable case study for lessons in psychotherapy - resolution of conflict and successful resumption of action from a state of acute anxiety and guilt laden depression that precipitated inaction. This presentation makes a humble attempt to discuss the therapy process involved in Bhagavad Gita in which Lord Krishna helped the grief-stricken Arjuna through dialogue and discussion. The focus would be on the conflict and diagnosis of patient, the background setting of the situation, personality of patient, technique of therapy, underlying psychological concepts/ principles/theories, the Guru - Sishya concept, etc.

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  6. Cultural adaptation of the Family Management Measure among families of children and adolescents with chronic diseases 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Carolliny Rossi de Faria; Bousso, Regina Szylit; Misko, Maira Deguer; Mendes-Castillo, Ana Marcia Chiaradia; Bianchi, Estela Regina Ferraz; Damião, Elaine Buchhorn Cintra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to perform the cultural adaptation of the Family Management Measure into the Brazilian Portuguese language. Method the method complied with international recommendations for this type of study and was composed of the following steps: translation of the instrument into the Portuguese language; reaching consensus over the translated versions; assessment by an expert committee; back translation; and pretest. Results these stages enabled us to obtain conceptual, by-item, semantic, idiomatic, and operational equivalences, in addition to content validation. Conclusion the Family Management Measure is adapted to the Brazilian Portuguese language and that version is named Instrumento de Medida de Manejo Familiar. PMID:24553711

  7. Psychotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... persistent irritability, or a sense of discouragement or hopelessness that won’t go away. A health professional may suspect or have diagnosed a condition such as depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress or other disorder ...

  8. The modified patient enablement instrument: a Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation, validity and reliability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remelhe, Mafalda; Teixeira, Pedro M; Lopes, Irene; Silva, Luís; Correia de Sousa, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Enabling patients with asthma to obtain the knowledge, confidence and skills they need in order to assume a major role in the management of their disease is cost effective. It should be an integral part of any plan for long-term control of asthma. The modified Patient Enablement Instrument (mPEI) is an easily administered questionnaire that was adapted in the United Kingdom to measure patient enablement in asthma, but its applicability in Portugal is not known. Validity and reliability of questionnaires should be tested before use in settings different from those of the original version. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the mPEI to Portuguese asthma patients after translation and cross-cultural adaptation, and to verify the structural validity, internal consistency and reproducibility of the instrument. The mPEI was translated to Portuguese and back translated to English. Its content validity was assessed by a debriefing interview with 10 asthma patients. The translated instrument was then administered to a random sample of 142 patients with persistent asthma. Structural validity and internal consistency were assessed. For reproducibility analysis, 86 patients completed the instrument again 7 days later. Item-scale correlations and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess structural validity. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test internal consistency, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of reproducibility. All items of the Portuguese version of the mPEI were found to be equivalent to the original English version. There were strong item-scale correlations that confirmed construct validity, with a one component structure and good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha >0.8) as well as high test–retest reliability (ICC=0.85). The mPEI showed sound psychometric properties for the evaluation of enablement in patients with asthma making it a reliable instrument for use in research and clinical practice

  9. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: toward an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T B

    1982-09-01

    The author reviews historical trends, hypotheses, and problems in the application of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy and uses research findings to develop an integrative model. He portrays a chronology of models over three decades; an "additive" relationship represents the decade of 1970 to 1980. He presents factors that must be considered in determining the effects of pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy and recommends refinement of these variables in future research.

  10. Interpretive psychotherapy with chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, R

    1983-12-01

    Patients for whom medical and surgical management has failed to relieve chronic pain were treated in a multimodal programme which included interpretive psychotherapy. Dynamic conflicts were identified in all cases and utilized in the psychotherapy and programme design. Examined in the light of ego functioning, pain that was previously considered intractible, yielded to psychological treatment. Further research is planned to identify the parts played by the different modalities and to study outcome.

  11. NONVERBAL STORIES: THE BODY IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

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    Richard G. Erskine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a relational psychotherapy.

  12. Adaptation of Cholesterol Requiring NS0 Cells to Serum Free Culture Conditions

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    Junaid Muneer Raja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. The answers to such life threatening diseases and cancers are monoclonal antibodies (MAb's which are widely used as therapeutic agents. World demand for currently approved MAb's is on the order of a few kilograms per year. However, new therapeutic MAb's are under development and require doses of several hundred milligrams to a gram over the course of therapy. Very often to cater for the special requirements for the growth of mammalian cells, serum is added to the cell culture medium. However, removal of serum from the cell culture medium is often carried out, especially if the end product is to be used for human consumption, in order to eliminate various disadvantages such as high physiological variability, high batch to batch variability, risk of contamination and high cost, and challenges posed in the downstream processing of the product. In this paper, the adaptation of cholesterol requiring NS0 cells to commercially available serum free media is presented. ABSTRAK: Kanser kolorektum merupakan kanser ketiga paling umum dan kini berada di tempat kedua penyebab kematian berkaitan kanser di negara Barat. Jawapan kepada penyakit yang mengancam nyawa dan penyakit kanser adalah antibodi monoklon (monoclonal antibodies ((MAb's yang digunakan sebagai agen terapeutik. Permintaan dunia terhadap MAb's yang diluluskan adalah dalam bilangan beberapa kilogram setahun. Namun, terapeutik MAb's yang baru adalah di bawah penyelidikan dan memerlukan beberapa ratus dos milligram hingga satu gram dalam satu peringkat terapi. Sering kali untuk memenuhi permintaan terhadap tumbesaran sel mamalia, serum dicampurkan dengan sel kultur perantara. Walaupun begitu, pemindahan serum dari sel kultur perantara sering dilakukan, terutamanya jika produk akhir digunakan untuk kegunaan manusia; untuk

  13. Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Issues and Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    Emphasis on identifying evidence-based therapies (EBTs) has increased markedly. Lists of EBTs are the rationale for recommendations for how psychotherapy provider training programs should be evaluated, professional competence assessed, and licensure and reimbursement policies structured. There are however methodological concerns that limit the external validity of EBTs. Among the most salient is the circularity inherent in randomized control trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy that constrains the manner in which the psychological problems are defined, psychotherapy can be practiced, and change evaluated. RCT studies favor therapies that focus of specific symptoms and can be described in a manual, administered reliably across patients, completed in relatively few sessions, and involve short-term evaluations of outcome. The epistemological assumptions of a natural science approach to psychotherapy research limit how studies are conducted and assessed in ways that that advantage symptom-focused approaches and disadvantage those approaches that seek to bring broad recovery-based changes. Research methods that are not limited to RCTs and include methodology to minimize the effects of "therapist allegiance" are necessary for valid evaluations of therapeutic approaches that seek to facilitate changes that are broader than symptom reduction. Recent proposals to adopt policies that dictate training, credentialing, and reimbursement based on lists of EBTs unduly limit how psychotherapy can be conceptualized and practiced, and are not in the best interests of the profession or of individuals seeking psychotherapy services.

  14. Effects of culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation on learning satisfaction of mainland China students studying in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2014-01-01

    With the national impact of low fertility, the enrollment of higher education in Taiwan is facing a dilemma. To cope with such a problem, the government has actively promoted Mainland China students to study in Taiwan. In addition to enhancing the international competitiveness of domestic universities, cross-strait education, and real academic exchange, it is expected to solve the enrollment shortage of colleges. However, the situations and pressures of Culture Shock, Cross-Cultural Adaptatio...

  15. Promoting social-emotional learning in adolescent Latino ELLs: a study of the culturally adapted Strong Teens program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted Jóvenes Fuertes (Strong Teens) Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's effects on students' knowledge of SEL and resiliency. A sample of 102 Spanish-dominant Latino ELLs enrolled in middle or high school participated in this study. The results indicated significant intervention effects on SEL knowledge and social-emotional resiliency. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive, culturally responsive SEL programs in school settings.

  16. Television Format As a Site of Cultural Negotiation: Studying the Structures, Agencies and Practices of Format Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Keinonen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing number of publications on television formats, specific theorisations regarding formats and format adaptation, in particular, are still rare. In this article, I introduce a synthesizing approach for studying format appropriation. Drawing on format study, media industry research and structuration theory, I suggest that television formats should be understood and studied as a process of cultural negotiation in which global influences and local elements amalgamate on various levels of television culture (i.e., production, text, and reception; every level includes several sites of symbolic or actual negotiation. These sites emerge in the duality of structure and human agency.

  17. Cross-Cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family

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    Thiago Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family, a subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, for the Brazilian population. METHODS The General Functioning Scale of the Family was translated into Portuguese and administered to 500 guardians of children in the second grade of elementary school in public schools of Sao Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The types of equivalences investigated were: conceptual and of items, semantic, operational, and measurement. The study involved discussions with experts, translations and back-translations of the instrument, and psychometric assessment. Reliability and validity studies were carried out by internal consistency testing (Cronbach’s alpha, Guttman split-half correlation model, Pearson correlation coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between General Functioning of the Family and variables theoretically associated with the theme (father’s or mother’s drunkenness and violence between parents were estimated by odds ratio. RESULTS Semantic equivalence was between 90.0% and 100%. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.79 to 0.81, indicating good internal consistency of the instrument. Pearson correlation coefficient ranged between 0.303 and 0.549. Statistical association was found between the general functioning of the family score and the theoretically related variables, as well as good fit quality of the confirmatory analysis model. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate the feasibility of administering the instrument to the Brazilian population, as it is easy to understand and a good measurement of the construct of interest.

  18. Cross cultural adaptation of the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score with reliability, validity and responsiveness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmont, Michael R; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina; Mei-Dan, Omer; Karlsson, Jon; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) was developed because of the need for a reliable, valid and sensitive instrument to evaluate symptoms and their effects on physical activity in patients following either conservative or surgical management of an Achilles tendon rupture. Prior to using the score in larger randomized trial in an English-speaking population, we decided to perform reliability, validity and responsiveness evaluations of the English version of the ATRS. Even though the score was published in English, the actual English version has not be validated and compared to the results of the Swedish version. From 2009 to 2010, all patients who received treatment for Achilles tendon rupture were followed up using the English version of the ATRS. Patients were asked to complete the score at 3, 6 and 12 months following treatment for Achilles tendon rupture. The ATRS was completed on arrival in the outpatient clinic and again following consultation. The outcomes of 49 (13 female and 36 male) patients were assessed. The mean (SD) age was 49 (12) years, and 27 patients had treatment for a left-sided rupture, 22 the right. All patients received treatment for ruptured Achilles tendons: 38 acute percutaneous repair, 1 open repair, 5 an Achilles tendon reconstruction using a Peroneus Brevis tendon transfer for delayed presentation, 1 gracilis augmented repair for re-rupture and 4 non-operative treatment for mid-portion rupture. The English version of ATRS was shown to have overall excellent reliability (ICC = 0.986). There was no significant difference between the results with the English version and the Swedish version when compared at the 6-month- or 12-month (n.s.) follow-up appointments. The effect size was 0.93. The minimal detectable change was 6.75 points. The ATRS was culturally adapted to English and shown to be a reliable, valid and responsive method of testing functional outcome following an Achilles tendon rupture.

  19. Translation, cultural adaptation and content re-validation of the observational teamwork assessment for surgery tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya Arias, Ana Carolina; Barajas, Rocío; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H; Wheelock, Ana; Gaitán Duarte, Hernando; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Background. Poor teamwork and nontechnical skill performance are increasingly recognized as important contributing factors to errors and adverse events in the operating room. Assessment of these safety critical skills is important to facilitate improvement, however there are no tools available to assess these safety skills in Latin America. This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and content validate the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool for use in Latin America. Methods. A multi-phase, multi-method study was conducted: Phase 1: translation and back-translation; Phase 2: content validity assessed via expert consensus; Phase 3: inter-rater reliability assessed via real-time observation in 98 general surgical procedures using OTAS-S. Results. The first change in OTAS-S, was to distinguish between the surgical nurses and scrub technicians (both OR team members are captured in the nursing sub-team in the original OTAS). OTAS-S consists of 168 exemplar behaviors: 60/114 identical to the exemplars listed in the original OTAS tool, 48/114 original exemplars underwent minor modifications, 13 were duplicated (to account for the additional sub-team distinguished in OTAS-S), 6 original exemplars were removed, and 47 new exemplar behaviors were added. Inter-observer agreement was substantial (KW = 0.602; IC: 0.581-0.620). The calculated KW by phase, behaviors and teams were between 0.534 and 0.678. Conclusions. The study provides a content validated teamwork assessment tool for use within Colombian operating rooms and potentially Latin-American. OTAS-S can be used to assess the quality of teamwork in ORs, facilitate structured debriefing and thus improve patient safety and reduce team-related errors.

  20. German Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the STarT Back Screening Tool.

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    Bernhard Aebischer

    Full Text Available Although evidence based treatment approaches for acute low back pain are available, the prevention of persistent disabling symptoms remains a challenge. Subgroup targeted treatment using adequate screening tools may be a key component for the development of new treatment concepts and is demonstrating promising early evidence. The Keele STarT Back Screening Tool is a practical instrument, developed to stratify patients with back pain according to their risk of persistent disabling symptoms. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the STarT tool into German (STarT-G and to investigate its psychometric properties.The translation was performed according to internationally accepted guidelines and pretested to assess face validity among patients. Psychometric testing was then performed within a cross-sectional cohort of adult patients attending physiotherapy practices for back pain. Patients completed a booklet containing STarT-G and 5 reference standard questionnaires. Measurement properties of the STarT-G were explored including construct validity, floor and ceiling effects, and discriminative abilities.The pretests (n=25 showed good face validity including strong comprehension and acceptability of the STarT-G with only item 5 (fear avoidance manifesting some ambiguities. The questionnaires were sent to 74 and completed by 50 patients (68% of whom mean age was 46 (SD 14.5 years and 52% were male. Spearman's rank correlations for construct validity ranged from 0.35 to 0.56. AUCs for discriminative ability ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. Neither floor nor ceiling effects were observed. There were 28 (57% participants defined as low risk, 17 (35% as medium risk, and 4 (8% as high risk.STarT-G is linguistically valid for German speaking countries. For the selected population, the correlations indicate acceptable validity and AUC showed satisfying discrimination. Data for psychometric properties have to be confirmed in a large scale

  1. STOP-Bang questionnaire: translation to Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Lorena Barbosa de Moraes; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Lima, Nathalia Meireles; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2016-01-01

    To translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender (STOP-Bang) questionnaire so that it can be used as a screening tool for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in Brazil. Based on the principles of good practice for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of such instruments, the protocol included the following steps: acquisition of authorization from the lead author of the original questionnaire; translation of the instrument to Brazilian Portuguese, carried out by two translators; reconciliation; back-translation to English, carried out by two English teachers who are fluent in Portuguese; review of the back-translation; harmonization; review and approval of the questionnaire by the original author; cognitive debriefing involving 14 patients who completed the questionnaire; analysis of the results; and review and preparation of the final version of the instrument approved by the review committee. The final version of the STOP-Bang questionnaire for use in Brazil showed a clarity score > 9 (on a scale of 1-10) for all of the questions. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.62, demonstrating the internal consistency of the instrument. The means and standard deviations of the age, body mass index, and neck circumference of the patients studied were 46.8 ± 11.2 years, 43.7 ± 8.5 kg/m2, and 41.3 ± 3.6 cm, respectively. The STOP-Bang questionnaire proved to be understandable, clear, and applicable. The original instrument and the translated version, cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, were consistently equivalent. Therefore, it can become a widely used screening tool for patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea. Realizar a tradução e adaptação transcultural do questionário Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender (STOP-Bang) para a língua portuguesa

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rochelly do Nascimento Mota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment CRA for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of dependent elderly METHOD A methodological study, of five steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, retro-translation, evaluation by a judge committee and a pre-test, with 30 informal caregivers of older persons in Fortaleza, Brazil. Content validity was assessed by five experts in gerontology and geriatrics. The cross-cultural adaptation was rigorously conducted, allowing for inferring credibility. RESULTS The Brazilian version of the CRA had a simple and fast application (ten minutes, easily understood by the target audience. It is semantically, idiomatically, experimentally and conceptually equivalent to the original version, with valid content to assess the burden of informal caregivers for the elderly (Content Validity Index = 0.883. CONCLUSION It is necessary that other psychometric properties of validity and reliability are tested before using in care practice and research.

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the VISA-A questionnaire for German-speaking Achilles tendinopathy patients

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    Nauck Tanja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achilles tendinopathy is the predominant overuse injury in runners. To further investigate this overload injury in transverse and longitudinal studies a valid, responsive and reliable outcome measure is demanded. Most questionnaires have been developed for English-speaking populations. This is also true for the VISA-A score, so far representing the only valid, reliable, and disease specific questionnaire for Achilles tendinopathy. To internationally compare research results, to perform multinational studies or to exclude bias originating from subpopulations speaking different languages within one country an equivalent instrument is demanded in different languages. The aim of this study was therefore to cross-cultural adapt and validate the VISA-A questionnaire for German-speaking Achilles tendinopathy patients. Methods According to the "guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures" the VISA-A score was cross-culturally adapted into German (VISA-A-G using six steps: Translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee review, pretesting (n = 77, and appraisal of the adaptation process by an advisory committee determining the adequacy of the cross-cultural adaptation. The resulting VISA-A-G was then subjected to an analysis of reliability, validity, and internal consistency in 30 Achilles tendinopathy patients and 79 asymptomatic people. Concurrent validity was tested against a generic tendon grading system (Percy and Conochie and against a classification system for the effect of pain on athletic performance (Curwin and Stanish. Results The "advisory committee" determined the VISA-A-G questionnaire as been translated "acceptable". The VISA-A-G questionnaire showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.60 to 0.97. Concurrent validity showed good coherence when correlated with the grading system of Curwin and Stanish (rho = -0.95 and for the Percy and Conochie grade of

  4. Exploring Panarchy in Alpine Grasslands: an Application of Adaptive Cycle Concepts to the Conservation of a Cultural Landscape

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    Ian D. Soane

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores approaches of applying the panarchy perspective to a case study of natural resource management in the cultural landscape of upland alpine pastures in northern Italy. The close interaction within the cultural landscape between alpine pasture ecology and the management regimes offers a strong fit with the concept of social-ecological systems and provides insights to appropriate and adaptive management of sites of conservation interest. We examine the limited literature available that offers a resilience understanding of such landscapes and address apparent gaps in the application through our interpretation and use of adaptive cycles and panarchy. We draft conceptual models of adaptive cycles considering ecological and socioeconomic information as acting in separate but interacting domains. Notwithstanding the difficulties in defining and measuring quantitative state variables, we found that a panarchy model can offer a powerful metaphor with practical implications for the maintenance of such alpine cultural landscapes. In effect, our panarchy interpretation of interacting adaptive cycles provides new insights into the description of and the future options for land use in our case study area. Some issues are only partly developed. We hypothesized measurable parameters that could be related to system resilience, such as alternative states, shifting thresholds, and regime stability, which are all dependent on adaptive processes; but we found quantification difficult even at a conceptual level. Nevertheless, we found it helpful to use nature conservation evaluation as a useful surrogate for measures of capital in adaptive cycles of vegetation. However, care is needed to distinguish between the descriptive metaphor using selective surrogate measures and real ecological behavior. Additionally we recognize the need to integrate this ecological understanding with cycles in socioeconomic domains and consider that interactions between

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Turkish version of the pain catastrophizing scale among patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    ?l?in, Nursen; G?rp?nar, Bar??; BAYRAKTAR, Deniz; Savc?, Sema; ?etin, P?nar; Sar?, ?smail; Akko?, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study describes the cultural adaptation, validation, and reliability of the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. [Methods] The validity of the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was assessed by evaluating data quality (missing data and floor and ceiling effects), principal components analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach?s alpha), and construct validity (Spearman?s rho). Reproducibility analyses included st...

  6. Resilience and Adaptation of Cultural Heritage to Climate Change; International Workshop in Ravello (Italy) 18-19 May 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Roger-Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Impacts of Climate Change on Cultural Heritage thanks to important projects funded by the European Commission among them: Noah's Ark (2003-2007) and Climate for Culture (2009-2014). The time is arrived focusing on the Resilience and Adaptation of Cultural Heritage to Climate Change. Italy and France already have National Adaptation Plan to Climate Change where Cultural Heritage is taken into account. Other national and international bodies are involved in this field, including European Commission (Horizon 2020 Programme, JPI Cultural Heritage), Council of Europe, UNESCO, ICOMOS… The organisation in Ravello in 2017 of the 2nd International Workshop on "Resilience and Adaptation of Cultural Heritage to Climate Change" should be an opportunity to give the word to scientists, teachers, curators, conservators, restorers, politicians, decision-makers and stake-holders…for reviewing the current state of this urgent problematic and of this scarcely explored area of research (www.univeur.org ).

  7. Situational variations in ethnic identity across immigration generations: Implications for acculturative change and cross-cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noels, Kimberly A; Clément, Richard

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether the acculturation of ethnic identity is first evident in more public situations with greater opportunity for intercultural interaction and eventually penetrates more intimate situations. It also investigated whether situational variations in identity are associated with cross-cultural adaptation. First-generation (G1), second-generation (G2) and mixed-parentage second-generation (G2.5) young adult Canadians (n = 137, n = 169, and n = 91, respectively) completed a questionnaire assessing their heritage and Canadian identities across four situational domains (family, friends, university and community), global heritage identity and cross-cultural adaptation. Consistent with the acculturation penetration hypothesis, the results showed Canadian identity was stronger than heritage identity in public domains, but the converse was true in the family domain; moreover, the difference between the identities in the family domain was attenuated in later generations. Situational variability indicated better adaptation for the G1 cohort, but poorer adaptation for the G2.5 cohort. For the G2 cohort, facets of global identity moderated the relation, such that those with a weaker global identity experienced greater difficulties and hassles with greater identity variability but those with a stronger identity did not. These results are interpreted in light of potential interpersonal issues implied by situational variation for each generation cohort.

  8. Effects of age and cognition on a cross-cultural paediatric adaptation of the Sniffin' Sticks Identification Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Orrico Donnabella Bastos

    Full Text Available To study the effects of age and cognition on the performance of children aged 3 to 18 years on a culturally adapted version of the 16 item smell identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS16.A series of pilots were conducted on 29 children aged 3 to 18 years old and 23 adults to produce an adapted version of the SS16 suitable for Brazilian children (SS16-Child. A final version was applied to 51 children alongside a picture identification test (PIT-SS16-Child to access cognitive abilities involved in the smell identification task. In addition 20 adults performed the same tasks as a comparison group.The final adapted SS16-Child was applied to 51 children with a mean age of 9.9 years (range 3-18 years, SD=4.25 years, of which 68.3% were girls. There was an independent effect of age (p<0.05 and PIT-SS16-Child (p<0.001 on the performance on the SS16-Child, and older children reached the ceiling for scoring in the cognitive and olfactory test. Pre-school children had difficulties identifying items of the test.A cross-culturally adapted version of the SS16 can be used to test olfaction in children but interpretation of the results must take age and cognitive abilities into consideration.

  9. Literacy and cultural adaptations for cognitive behavioral therapy in a rural pain population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, Melissa C; Thorn, Beverly E; Gaskins, Susan W; Day, Melissa A; Cabbil, Chalanda M

    2011-06-01

    Low literacy and chronic pain have been identified as significant problems in the rural USA. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a widely used efficacious psychosocial treatment for chronic pain; adaptations for low-literacy rural populations are lacking. This paper reports on preparatory steps implemented to address this deficit. Adapting an existing group, CBT patient workbook for rural adults with low literacy is described, and adaptations to reduce cognitive demand inherent in CBT are explained via cognitive load theory. Adhering to health literacy guidelines, the patient workbook readability was lowered to the fifth grade. Two key informant interviews and four focus groups provided the impetus for structural and procedural adaptations. Using health literacy guidelines and participant feedback, the patient workbook and treatment approach were adapted for implementation in low-literacy rural adult chronic pain populations, setting the stage for proceeding with a larger trial using the adapted materials.

  10. Substance Use Prevention for Urban American Indian Youth: A Efficacy Trial of the Culturally Adapted Living in 2 Worlds Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S; Ayers, Stephanie L; Harthun, Mary L

    2017-04-01

    This article describes a small efficacy trial of the Living in 2 Worlds (L2W) substance use prevention curriculum, a culturally adapted version of keepin' it REAL (kiR) redesigned for urban American Indian (AI) middle school students. Focused on strengthening resiliency and AI cultural engagement, L2W teaches drug resistance skills, decision making, and culturally grounded prevention messages. Using cluster random assignment, the research team randomized three urban middle schools with enrichment classes for AI students. AI teachers of these classes delivered the L2W curriculum in two schools; the remaining school implemented kiR, unadapted, and became the comparison group. AI students (N = 107) completed a pretest questionnaire before they received the manualized curriculum lessons, and a posttest (85% completion) 1 month after the final lesson. We assessed the adapted L2W intervention, compared to kiR, with paired t tests, baseline adjusted general linear models, and effect size estimates (Cohen's d). Differences between the L2W and kiR groups reached statistically significant thresholds for four outcomes. Youth receiving L2W, compared to kiR, reported less growth in cigarette use from pretest to posttest, less frequent use of the Leave drug resistance strategy, and less loss of connections to AI spirituality and cultural traditions. For other substance use behaviors and antecedents, the direction of the non-significant effects in small sample tests was toward more positive outcomes in L2W and small to medium effect sizes. Results suggest that evidence-based substance use prevention programs that are culturally adapted for urban AI adolescents, like L2W, can be a foundation for prevention approaches to help delay initiation and slow increases in substance use. In addition to study limitations, we discuss implementation challenges in delivering school-based interventions for urban AI populations.

  11. A Framework Approach to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Public Engagement Strategies for Radioactive Waste Management - 13430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Laura [Potomac Communications Group, 1133 20th St NW Washington DC 20035 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The complex interplay of politics, economics and culture undermines attempts to define universal best practices for public engagement in the management of nuclear materials. In the international context, communicators must rely on careful adaptation and creative execution to make standard communication techniques succeed in their local communities. Nuclear professionals need an approach to assess and adapt culturally specific public engagement strategies to meet the demands of their particular political, economic and social structures. Using participant interviews and public sources, the Potomac Communications Group reviewed country-specific examples of nuclear-related communication efforts to provide insight into a proposed approach. The review considered a spectrum of cultural dimensions related to diversity, authority, conformity, proximity and time. Comparisons help to identify cross-cultural influences of various public engagement tactics and to inform a framework for communicators. While not prescriptive in its application, the framework offers a way for communicators to assess the salience of outreach tactics in specific situations. The approach can guide communicators to evaluate and tailor engagement strategies to achieve localized public outreach goals. (authors)

  12. Effects of bonding with parents and home culture on intercultural adaptations and the moderating role of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Desiree Y; Meaney, Michael J; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Lau, Ivy Y M; Hong, Ying-Yi

    2017-05-15

    In the current age of globalization, living abroad is becoming an increasingly common and highly sought after experience. Sojourners' ability to adjust to a new culture can be affected by their existing attachments, internalized as intrapsychic environment, as well as their biological sensitivity to environment. This sensitivity can be partly attributed to one's genomic endowments. As such, this prospective study sought to examine the differential effects of early experiences with parents and affection for home culture on young adults' ability to adapt to a foreign culture (n=305, students who studied overseas for a semester) - specifically, the difficulties they experience - moderated by genetic susceptibility. An additional 258 students who did not travel overseas were included as a comparison group to demonstrate the uniqueness of intercultural adaptation. Current findings suggest that the maternal, paternal and cultural bondings or affections affect different aspects of intercultural adjustment. Maternal bonding affected sojourners' relationships with host nationals, while paternal bonding affected sojourners' adjustment to a new physical environment. Moreover, individuals' genetic predispositions significantly moderate these main effects regarding how much difficulty the sojourners experienced overseas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Integrated psychotherapy for eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, O

    1995-01-01

    The various psychotherapeutic strategies for eating disorders (EDs) include psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioral, family oriented, arts therapy and others. In this paper, the psychodynamism of EDs and their therapy are reexamined and considered holistically from "the separate aspects of eating" point of view. That is the separation of eating regulated by biological appetite and the eating or not eating deriving from the patient's mind, unrelated to appetite. A new therapeutic technique called "formalization", which clarifies the separation of aspects of eating are invented. For integrated psychotherapy of EDs, it is necessary to combine the formalization technique of which clarifies and promotes patients' conflicts, and the integrated psychodynamic therapies that treat the promoted conflicts. The psychodynamism of EDs is the subject of much argument by many therapist. Although these arguments differ, they are similar in two points. Firstly, all of them consider EDs as distinctly separate from biological appetites. Secondly, the behavior of patients with EDs are taken as "false solution" or "substitution" of their essential problem. It is impossible to completely separate the physical action of eating mentally, however there may be a second meaning of eating separate from appetite. Seen in this light, psychotherapies are classified into two groups. One supports and sympathizes with these conflicts and the other is an educational one, telling the patients that a false solution is invalid. The former approach is employed by almost all psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, family oriented therapy, arts therapy, self-help groups and the like. These therapies treat patients' conflicts with a non-judgemental approach, transform the psychodynamism, and consequently improve the eating behavior. The latter is applied by behavior therapy. Under strict operant conditioning, adequate behavior is reinforced by reward and inadequate behavior is eliminated by punishment

  14. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-07-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the first six months of 2004 (January 1, 2004-June 30, 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Azotea Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Azote Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico.

  15. Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurvey conducted among 257 managers in Austria and Slovenia,the findings suggest that strategic issue interpretations of the economiccrisis as well as country differences influence whether firms are usingexternally versus internally-directed strategic responses, and pro-activeversus retrenchment strategies. The differences in strategy deploymentbetween the two countries, however, could not be consistently tracedto differences in the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance, thussuggesting that other country-specific factors like institutional or socialdifferences also play an important role.

  16. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-01-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the second six months (July 1, 2003-December 31, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico.

  17. Cultural persistence or experiential adaptation? A review of research examining the roots of social trust based on immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2016-01-01

    Studying social trust of immigrants and descendants of immigrants provides leverage for testing key theories of the foundations of trust; specifically, whether trust is primarily a persistent cultural trait or, rather, a trait formed and updated by contemporary experiences. The analytical leverage...... comes from the fact that immigrants were born in (or, in the case of descendants, have ties with) one country, while residing in another country. If trust is a cultural trait, immigrants’ trust should continue to reflect trust in their ancestral country, whereas their trust should be aligned with trust...... in the US primarily pointing towards cultural influence, while studies from other destination countries suggesting the primacy of experiential adaptation. Second, we critically discuss these previous studies and pinpoint a number of theoretical, methodological and substantive shortcomings as well as avenues...

  18. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  19. Quick adaptation of Ralstonia Solanacearum to copper stress to recover culturability and growth in water and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Daniel Moreira Ascarrunz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cells of Ralstonia solanacearum were exposed to Cu in distilled water, and the resulting Cu-stressed non-culturable cells were inoculated to natural (non-pasteurized and pasteurized soils in order to examine their culturability and recovery. Exposing the cells to 20 µM CuSO4 produced transitory non-culturable cells, which exhibited a remarkable recovery in culturability after incubation in the solution for 36 h, reaching a density near the initial level by 108 h. To determine whether such non-culturable cells actually "resuscitated" or multiplied after adapting to Cu toxicity, growth curves were constructed in order to contrast the rates of increase in culturable cell numbers between Cu-stressed or non-stressed inocula. Additionally, fresh non-stressed cells were exposed to CuSO4 in the presence of nalidixic acid by adding the antibiotic at different times after the onset of Cu stress to verify any cell multiplication during the population increase. The results revealed that the non-culturable cells surviving Cu toxicity adapted very quickly to Cu and began multiplying within 12 h, because only the Cu-stressed cells that were increasing in the exponential growth phase, but not those in the stationary phase, were killed by the antibiotic. Such cells exhibited an apparent tolerance to this metal when inoculated to a freshly prepared solution of CuSO4, and also detoxified the ion in the solution in which they grew. The presence of nutrients greatly counteracted the effect of Cu in water microcosms, since culturable cells were detected and increased in number even when exposed to 40 µM CuSO4. In contrast, when inoculated to non-pasteurized soil, Cu-stressed cells showed no such recoveries. However, when the soil was pasteurized before inoculation or added with nutrients, culturable cells were recovered and increased in number. This indicates that increased nutrient availability in soil allows Cu-stressed cells to quickly overcome the stress and

  20. PERSONALITY THEORY IN INTEGRATIVE PERSONALITY-ORIENTED RECONSTRUCTIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kurpatov

    2010-01-01

    approaches. V.N. Myasishchev's theory of personality relations in association with its universality, as well as pathogenetic psychotherapy may be the basis for the integration of other methods of psychotherapy

  1. Use of Psychotherapy for Depression in Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Wenhui; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Olfson, Mark; Walkup, James T; Crystal, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examine national patterns in psychotherapy for older adults with a diagnosis of depression and analyze correlates of psychotherapy use that is consistent with Agency for Health Care...

  2. Beware batch culture: Seasonality and niche construction predicted to favor bacterial adaptive diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocabert, Charles; Knibbe, Carole; Consuegra, Jessika; Schneider, Dominique; Beslon, Guillaume

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic cross-feeding interactions between microbial strains are common in nature, and emerge during evolution experiments in the laboratory, even in homogeneous environments providing a single carbon source. In sympatry, when the environment is well-mixed, the reasons why emerging cross-feeding interactions may sometimes become stable and lead to monophyletic genotypic clusters occupying specific niches, named ecotypes, remain unclear. As an alternative to evolution experiments in the laboratory, we developed Evo2Sim, a multi-scale model of in silico experimental evolution, equipped with the whole tool case of experimental setups, competition assays, phylogenetic analysis, and, most importantly, allowing for evolvable ecological interactions. Digital organisms with an evolvable genome structure encoding an evolvable metabolic network evolved for tens of thousands of generations in environments mimicking the dynamics of real controlled environments, including chemostat or batch culture providing a single limiting resource. We show here that the evolution of stable cross-feeding interactions requires seasonal batch conditions. In this case, adaptive diversification events result in two stably co-existing ecotypes, with one feeding on the primary resource and the other on by-products. We show that the regularity of serial transfers is essential for the maintenance of the polymorphism, as it allows for at least two stable seasons and thus two temporal niches. A first season is externally generated by the transfer into fresh medium, while a second one is internally generated by niche construction as the provided nutrient is replaced by secreted by-products derived from bacterial growth. In chemostat conditions, even if cross-feeding interactions emerge, they are not stable on the long-term because fitter mutants eventually invade the whole population. We also show that the long-term evolution of the two stable ecotypes leads to character displacement, at the level of

  3. Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) for Brazilian Patients: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and

  4. The Canadian minimum dataset for chronic low back pain research: a cross-cultural adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Task Force Research Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Anaïs; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Parent, Alexandre J.; Noushi, Nioushah; Odenigbo, Chúk; Pagé, Gabrielle; Beaudet, Nicolas; Choinière, Manon; Stone, Laura S.; Ware, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To better standardize clinical and epidemiological studies about the prevalence, risk factors, prognosis, impact and treatment of chronic low back pain, a minimum data set was developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain. The aim of the present study was to develop a culturally adapted questionnaire that could be used for chronic low back pain research among French-speaking populations in Canada. Methods: The adaptation of the French Canadian version of the minimum data set was achieved according to guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-reported measures (double forward-backward translation, expert committee, pretest among 35 patients with pain in the low back region). Minor cultural adaptations were also incorporated into the English version by the expert committee (e.g., items about race/ethnicity, education level). Results: This cross-cultural adaptation provides an equivalent French-Canadian version of the minimal data set questionnaire and a culturally adapted English-Canadian version. Modifications made to the original NIH minimum data set were minimized to facilitate comparison between the Canadian and American versions. Interpretation: The present study is a first step toward the use of a culturally adapted instrument for phenotyping French- and English-speaking low back pain patients in Canada. Clinicians and researchers will recognize the importance of this standardized tool and are encouraged to incorporate it into future research studies on chronic low back pain. PMID:28401140

  5. Brazilian version of the foot health status questionnaire (FHSQ-BR: cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of measurement properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. B. Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese and to assess its measurement properties. INTRODUCTION: This instrument is an outcome measure with 10 domains with scores ranging from 0-100, worst to best, respectively. The translated instrument will improve the examinations and foot care of rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS: The questions were translated, back-translated, evaluated by a multidisciplinary committee and pre-tested (n = 40 rheumatoid arthritis subjects. The new version was submitted to a field test (n = 65 to evaluate measurement properties such as test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. The Health Assessment Questionnaire, Numeric Rating Scale for foot pain and Sharp/van der Heijde scores for foot X-rays were used to test the construct validity. RESULTS: The cross-cultural adaptation was completed with minor wording adaptations from the original instrument. The evaluation of measurement properties showed high reliability with low variation coefficients between interviews. The a-Cronbach coefficients varied from 0.468 to 0.855, while correlation to the Health Assessment Questionnaire and Numeric Rating Scale was statistically significant for five out of eight domains. DISCUSSION: Intra- and inter-observer correlations showed high reliability. Internal consistency coefficients were high for all domains, revealing higher values for less subjective domains. As for construct validity, each domain revealed correlations with a specific group of parameters according to what the domains intended to measure. CONCLUSION: The FHSQ was cross-culturally adapted, generating a reliable, consistent, and valid instrument that is useful for evaluating foot health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Improved Biodegradation of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene by Adapted Microorganisms in Agricultural Soil and in Soil Suspension Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yang; WANG Fang; F. O. KENGARA; BIAN Yong-Rong; YANG Xing-Lun; LIU Cui-Ying; JIANG Xin

    2011-01-01

    Inoculating soil with an adapted microbial community is a more effective bioaugrnentation approach than inoculation with pure strains in bioremediation.However,information on the potential of different inocula from sites with varying contamination levels and pollution histories in soil remediation is lacking.The objective of the study was to investigate the potential of adapted microorganisms in soil inocula,with different contamination levels and pollution histories,to degrade 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB).Three different soils from chlorobenzene-contaminated sites were inoculated into agricultural soils and soil suspension cultures spiked with 1,2,4-TCB.The results showed that 36.52% of the initially applied 1,2,4-TCB was present in the non-inoculated soil,whereas about 19.00% of 1,2,4-TCB was present in the agricultural soils inoculated with contaminated soils after 28 days of incubation.The soils inoculated with adapted microbial biomass (in the soil inocula) showed higher respiration and lower 1,2,4-TCB volatilization than the non-inoculated soils,suggesting the existence of 1,2,4-TCB adapted degraders in the contaminated soils used for inoculation.It was further confirmed in the contaminated soil suspension cultures that the concentration of inorganic chloride ions increased continuously over the entire experimental period.Higher contamination of the inocula led not only to higher degradation potential but also to higher residue formation.However,even inocula of low-level contamination were effective in enhancing the degradation of 1,2,4-TCB.Therefore,applying adapted microorganisms in the form of soil inocula,especially with lower contamination levels,could be an effective and environment-friendly strategy for soil remediation.

  7. Psychotherapies for adult depression: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned from the 400 randomized trials on psychotherapies for adult depression that have been conducted, but much is also still unknown. In this study some recent attempts to further reduce the disease burden of depression through psychotherapies are reviewed. In the past, many new psychotherapies have promised to be more effective than existing treatments, usually without success. We describe recent research on two new therapies, acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive bias modification, and conclude that both have also not shown to be more effective than existing therapies. A growing number of studies have also focused on therapies that may be successful in further reducing the disease burden, such as treatments for chronic depression and relapse prevention. Other studies are aimed at scaling up psychological services, such as the training of lay health counselors in low-income and middle-income countries, telephone-based, and internet-based therapies. Psychotherapies are essential tools in the treatment of adult depression. Randomized trials have shown that these treatments are effective, and by focusing on key issues, such as chronic depression, relapse, and scaling them up, psychotherapies contribute more and more to the reduction of the disease burden of depression.

  8. The real relationship in psychotherapy supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2011-01-01

    While the real relationship has long been addressed in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, the matter of the real relationship in psychotherapy supervision has yet to receive any attention. Ample supervisory focus has indeed been given to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration (including parallel processes), but after a century of psychotherapy supervision, any mention whatsoever of real relationship phenomena is absent. In this paper, the following hypotheses are proposed: The real relationship (1) is a crucial component of the supervision relationship that has transtheoretical implications; (2) exists from the moment supervision begins until its end; (3) is the forever silent yet forever substantive contributor to supervisory process and outcome; (4) exerts a significant impact on (a) the development and establishment of the supervisory working alliance and (b) the unfolding and eventual utilization of the transference-countertransference experience in the supervisory situation; (5) consists of at least two dimensions in supervision--realism and genuineness--that vary along valence and magnitude continua (building on the works of Greenson and Gelso), and (6) deserves a place of eminence equal to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration if supervision theory, practice, and research are to be most fully informed. The possibility of using recent real relationship research in psychotherapy as a prototype to inform future research in supervision is presented, and two case examples are provided to illustrate the seeming power of real relationship phenomena in psychotherapy supervision.

  9. [Summary: Scientific evaluation of EMDR psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haour, F; de Beaurepaire, C

    2016-06-01

    The evaluation of psychotherapy methods is made difficult by their practical and theoretical diversities as well as the increasing number of available therapies. Evaluation based on scientific criteria in randomized control trials is providing the highest level of proof and recognition by Health Agencies. A recently described integrative psychotherapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), developed by F. Shapiro since 1989, has been confronted with the validation procedure used in pharmacological treatment. It was of interest to review the scientific validation steps carried out for this EMDR psychotherapy and for its mechanisms of action. The practical and methodological protocol of the EMDR psychotherapy for trauma integration is reviewed as well as clinical results and mechanisms. This EMDR therapy, focused on the resolutions of traumas, was started by treating patients with post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). The integrative EMDR protocol obtained the highest level of efficiency, for PTSD treatment, twenty years after its first publication. The efficiency of the protocol is now under study and scientific evaluation for troubles in which the trauma experiences are triggers or factors of maintenance of the troubles: anxiety, depression, phobia, sexual troubles, schizophrenia, etc. This new integrative psychotherapy follows the pathways and the timing observed for the evaluation and the validation of other therapies. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Obstacles to early career psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A; Plakun, Eric M; Lazar, Susan G; Mellman, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Though psychiatric residents are expected to be competent psychotherapists on graduation, further growth in skill and versatility requires continued experience in their ongoing career. Maturity as a psychotherapist is essential because a psychiatrist is the only mental health provider who, as a physician, can assume full responsibility for biopsychosocial patient care and roles as supervisor, consultant, and team leader. Graduating residents face an environment in which surveys show a steady and alarming decline in practice of psychotherapy by psychiatrists, along with a decline in job satisfaction. High educational debts, practice structures, intrusive management, and reimbursement policies that devalue psychotherapy discourage early career psychiatrists from a practice style that enables providing it. For the early-career psychiatrist there is thus the serious risk of being unable to develop a critical mass of experience or a secure identity as a psychiatric psychotherapist. Implementation of parity laws and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect the situation in unpredictable ways that call for vigilance and active response. Additional service and administrative demands may result from the ACA, creating ethical dilemmas about meeting urgent patient needs versus biopsychosocial standards of care. The authors recommend 1) vigorous advocacy for better payment levels for psychotherapy and freedom from disruptive management; 2) aggressive action against violations of the parity act, 3) active preparation of psychiatric residents for dealing with career choices and the environment for providing psychotherapy in their practice, and 4) post-graduate training in psychotherapy through supervision/consultation, continuing education courses, computer instruction, and distance learning.

  11. From medicine to psychotherapy: the placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    If placebos have been squeezed out of medicine to the point where their official place in in clinical trials designed to identify their own confounding effect, the placebo effect nevertheless thrives in psychotherapy. Not only does psychotherapy dispose of placebo effects that are less available to medicine as it becomes increasingly technological and preoccupied with body parts, but factors of the sort inhibiting the use of placebos in medicine have no equivalent in psychology. Medicine today is disturbed by the placebo effect in a way psychotherapy is not. Psychotherapy does not have to grapple with such a disconcerting paradox as successful sham surgery, and unlike those physicians who once pretended to treat the patient's body while actually attempting to treat the mind, the psychotherapist can treat the mind in all frankness. Perhaps it is because psychotherapy is less burdened by doubts about the placebo effect that it was able to come to its aid when it was orphaned by medicine. It is vain to expect something with so long a history as the placebo effect to disappear from the practices of healing.

  12. Effects of Psychotherapy Training and Intervention Use on Session Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Wasserman, Rachel H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was an investigation of the relationships among therapist training variables, psychotherapy process, and session outcome in a psychotherapy training clinic. The aims were to assess the relationship between "training as usual" and intervention use in individual psychotherapy, to investigate the relationship between therapist…

  13. The Sociology of Regulation: The Case of Psychotherapy and Counselling and the Experience of the Arts Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Diane; Guthrie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on insights from the sociology of professions to explore the regulatory debate in the psychotherapy and counselling field contrasted with the regulation of arts therapists (art, drama and music therapists). A partial explanation is offered, illustrating the applicability of theory to these groups, but with adaptations to reflect…

  14. The Sociology of Regulation: The Case of Psychotherapy and Counselling and the Experience of the Arts Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Diane; Guthrie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on insights from the sociology of professions to explore the regulatory debate in the psychotherapy and counselling field contrasted with the regulation of arts therapists (art, drama and music therapists). A partial explanation is offered, illustrating the applicability of theory to these groups, but with adaptations to reflect…

  15. The compensatory health beliefs scale: psychometric properties of a cross-culturally adapted scale for use in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nooijer, Jascha; Puijk-Hekman, Saskia; van Assema, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    This study assesses the psychometric properties of a measuring scale for compensatory health beliefs (CHBs), culturally adapted for use in the Dutch context. CHBs refer to the idea that people can compensate for unhealthy (mostly pleasant) behaviours with healthy behaviours, e.g. 'It is OK to eat a chocolate bar, because I am going to the gym tonight'. We are critical towards such beliefs as they may also be an excuse to justify unhealthy behaviours. Before such effects can be studied, an appropriate tool to measure CHBs must be developed. We adapted a Canadian scale, consisting of four factors relating to beliefs about substance use, eating/sleeping habits, stress and weight regulation, translating it according to guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation and testing it among 145 Dutch students. Factor analysis showed that the structure was not entirely identical in the Dutch context, and the internal consistency of the four subscales was also low. The overall scale showed a high internal consistency (alpha = 0.78), indicating the existence of an underlying construct, and a high Pearson correlation between the first and second measurements (r = 0.82), showing good stability. We recommend using the overall scale and further studying its reliability among other subgroups as well as its validity.

  16. In Vitro Culturing and Live Imaging of Drosophila Egg Chambers: A History and Adaptable Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nathaniel C; Berg, Celeste A

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Drosophila egg chamber encompasses a myriad of diverse germline and somatic events, and as such, the egg chamber has become a widely used and influential developmental model. Advantages of this system include physical accessibility, genetic tractability, and amenability to microscopy and live culturing, the last of which is the focus of this chapter. To provide adequate context, we summarize the structure of the Drosophila ovary and egg chamber, the morphogenetic events of oogenesis, the history of egg-chamber live culturing, and many of the important discoveries that this culturing has afforded. Subsequently, we discuss various culturing methods that have facilitated analyses of different stages of egg-chamber development and different types of cells within the egg chamber, and we present an optimized protocol for live culturing Drosophila egg chambers.We designed this protocol for culturing late-stage Drosophila egg chambers and live imaging epithelial tube morphogenesis, but with appropriate modifications, it can be used to culture egg chambers of any stage. The protocol employs a liquid-permeable, weighted "blanket" to gently hold egg chambers against the coverslip in a glass-bottomed culture dish so the egg chambers can be imaged on an inverted microscope. This setup provides a more buffered, stable, culturing environment than previously published methods by using a larger volume of culture media, but the setup is also compatible with small volumes. This chapter should aid researchers in their efforts to culture and live-image Drosophila egg chambers, further augmenting the impressive power of this model system.

  17. Věc dobra a zla v psychoterapii (Matter of Good and Evil in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Růžička

    2009-03-01

    us debts psychotherapy has toward cultural and spiritual traditions of Christianity from which he grows and also its good draws.

  18. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Intervention for Urban American Indians on Parenting Skills and Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S; Ayers, Stephanie L; Harthun, Mary L; Jager, Justin

    2016-08-01

    Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10-17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen's d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs.

  19. Objectively-assessed outcome measures: a translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure applied to the Chedoke McMaster Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA) procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCCA procedure for objectively-assessed outcome (OAO) measures exists. Furthermore, no official German version of the Canadian Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) is available. Methods An eight-step for TCCA procedure for OAO was developed (TCCA-OAO) based on...

  20. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The influence of psychotherapy on marriage typology

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    Staniszewski Mirosław

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the influence of psychotherapeutic group work on matrimonial relations. Such questions are put up in the research as if participating of one of the married couples in a group psychotherapy could indirectly influence the other partner, and also if the type of matrimony could change under the influence of psychotherapy, for example from hierarchical to the partner’s. The article generalizes the classification of marriage types and pays special attention on the types that can be subject to the positive changes as a result of psychotherapeutic influence. Actuality and value of this research lay in estimation of the ability of psychotherapy to influence the matrimony on the whole in case when only one of the partners takes part in the therapy.

  2. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels

    2013-01-01

    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications...

  3. Developing Intercultural Adaptability in the Warfighter: A Workshop on Cultural Training and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    military ethics , and the historical value of landscapes. There is a power relationship behind all of this. Government uses culture to promote its goals...cultural relativism relate to performance and how much is appropriate? The group discussed this briefing, including how to assess application, which

  4. On International Students' Culture Adaption%来华留学生文化适应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳芳; 张永怡

    2016-01-01

    As the development of China, more and more International student choose to study in China. But during their stay in China, they face a lot of challenge in the culture adaption, including climate, food,culture etc, which is not good to help im-prove our country's image in the world. So it is urgent to solve this problem, to help the international students adapt the culture of China.%随着中国综合国力的稳步提升,来华留学生群体的规模逐渐扩大。在此期间来华留学生群体在中国的文化方面遇到了各种各样的障碍,对我们的和谐社会产生了严重影响,同时也间接不利于维护我国良好的国际形象,提升中国国际影响力。留学生文化适应方面的问题亟需得到重视。

  5. Evaluation of a positive psychotherapy group intervention for people with psychosis: pilot randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Third-wave psychological interventions have gained relevance in mental health service provision but their application to people with psychosis is in its infancy and interventions targeting wellbeing in psychosis are scarce. This study tested the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of positive psychotherapy adapted for people with psychosis (WELLFOCUS PPT) to improve wellbeing. Methods. WELLFOCUS PPT was tested as an 11-week group intervention in a convenience sample of people w...

  6. New parity, same old attitude towards psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-03-01

    Full parity of health insurance benefits for treatment of mental illness, including substance use disorders, is a major achievement. However, the newly-published regulations implementing the legislation strongly endorse aggressive managed care as a way of containing costs for the new equality of coverage. Reductions in "very long episodes of out-patient care," hospitalization, and provider fees, along with increased utilization, are singled out as achievements of managed care. Medical appropriateness as defined by expert medical panels is to be the basis of authorizing care, though clinicians are familiar with a history of insurance companies' application of "medical necessity" to their own advantage. The regulations do not single out psychotherapy for attention, but long-term psychotherapy geared to the needs of each patient appears to be at risk. The author recommends that the mental health professions strongly advocate for the growing evidence base for psychotherapy including long-term therapy for complex mental disorders; respect for the structure and process of psychotherapy individualized to patients' needs; awareness of the costs of aggressive managed care in terms of money, time, administrative burden, and interference with the therapy; and recognition of the extensive training and experience required to provide psychotherapy as well as the stresses and demands of the work. Parity in out-of-network benefits could lead to aggressive management of care given by non-network practitioners. Since a large percentage of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals stay out of networks, implementation of parity for out-of-network providers will have to be done in a way that respects the conditions under which they would be willing and able to provide services, especially psychotherapy, to insured patients. The shortage of psychiatrists makes this an important access issue for the insured population in need of care.

  7. An engineered approach to stem cell culture: automating the decision process for real-time adaptive subculture of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Weiss, Lee E; Junkers, Silvina N; Chen, Mei; Yin, Zhaozheng; Sandbothe, Michael F; Huh, Seung-il; Eom, Sungeun; Bise, Ryoma; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; Kanade, Takeo; Campbell, Phil G

    2011-01-01

    Current cell culture practices are dependent upon human operators and remain laborious and highly subjective, resulting in large variations and inconsistent outcomes, especially when using visual assessments of cell confluency to determine the appropriate time to subculture cells. Although efforts to automate cell culture with robotic systems are underway, the majority of such systems still require human intervention to determine when to subculture. Thus, it is necessary to accurately and objectively determine the appropriate time for cell passaging. Optimal stem cell culturing that maintains cell pluripotency while maximizing cell yields will be especially important for efficient, cost-effective stem cell-based therapies. Toward this goal we developed a real-time computer vision-based system that monitors the degree of cell confluency with a precision of 0.791±0.031 and recall of 0.559±0.043. The system consists of an automated phase-contrast time-lapse microscope and a server. Multiple dishes are sequentially imaged and the data is uploaded to the server that performs computer vision processing, predicts when cells will exceed a pre-defined threshold for optimal cell confluency, and provides a Web-based interface for remote cell culture monitoring. Human operators are also notified via text messaging and e-mail 4 hours prior to reaching this threshold and immediately upon reaching this threshold. This system was successfully used to direct the expansion of a paradigm stem cell population, C2C12 cells. Computer-directed and human-directed control subcultures required 3 serial cultures to achieve the theoretical target cell yield of 50 million C2C12 cells and showed no difference for myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. This automated vision-based system has potential as a tool toward adaptive real-time control of subculturing, cell culture optimization and quality assurance/quality control, and it could be integrated with current and developing robotic cell

  8. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Cristiano; Heggeset, T. M. B.; Le, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs), able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitable...

  9. Cross-Cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Thiago; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires

    2016-06-27

    To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family, a subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, for the Brazilian population. The General Functioning Scale of the Family was translated into Portuguese and administered to 500 guardians of children in the second grade of elementary school in public schools of Sao Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The types of equivalences investigated were: conceptual and of items, semantic, operational, and measurement. The study involved discussions with experts, translations and back-translations of the instrument, and psychometric assessment. Reliability and validity studies were carried out by internal consistency testing (Cronbach's alpha), Guttman split-half correlation model, Pearson correlation coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between General Functioning of the Family and variables theoretically associated with the theme (father's or mother's drunkenness and violence between parents) were estimated by odds ratio. Semantic equivalence was between 90.0% and 100%. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.79 to 0.81, indicating good internal consistency of the instrument. Pearson correlation coefficient ranged between 0.303 and 0.549. Statistical association was found between the general functioning of the family score and the theoretically related variables, as well as good fit quality of the confirmatory analysis model. The results indicate the feasibility of administering the instrument to the Brazilian population, as it is easy to understand and a good measurement of the construct of interest. Descrever o processo de adaptação transcultural da escala de Funcionamento Geral da Família, subescala da McMaster Family Assessment Device, para a população brasileira. A escala de Funcionamento Geral da Família, original no idioma inglês, foi traduzida para o português e aplicada a 500 responsáveis de crianças do segundo ano do ensino

  10. Psychotherapies in Acute and Transient Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel González de Chávez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From a comprehensive and global view -psychological, biological and social - acute and transient psychoses could be considered identity breakdowns with fragmentation of its structure, paranoid mechanism and cognitive regression. Psychotherapies favour evolution of psychotic identity through disorder awareness and knowledge of aspects of patients that make them more vulnerable to psychotic experiences. We underline the key role of group psychotherapy to improve therapeutic relationships and best use of patient’s coping strategies in the chronology of therapeutic interventions and recovery process of these patients.

  11. Teaching focus in psychotherapy: a training essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Richard F; Xuan, Yan; Tavakoli, Donald N

    2013-03-01

    Practical application of psychodynamic therapy technique requires that the therapist focus the treatment. The authors review the current evidence about focus in psychotherapy, which suggests that it has a beneficial impact on outcome and patient satisfaction. The core psychodynamic problem is proposed as a valuable conceptual model for providing focus for patient, psychotherapist, and supervisor. The authors narrate a case history from the perspective of both the psychotherapist and the supervisor to demonstrate the opportunities and challenges in using this concept. Finally, the authors suggest that a focus on focus is desirable in residency psychotherapy training programs, and they make suggestions for educational methods that enhance resident training in this area.

  12. Intensive psychotherapy for the psychiatrist's family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    1977-10-01

    A series of intensive psychotherapy cases of wives and children of psychiatrists reveals that the special problems they present may be divided into those at the onset of treatment, those in the process of the treatment, and special countertransference problems. Paradoxically, early recognition and acceptance of psychotherapy are a foremost problem involving the psychiatrist as father or spouse. During therapy, narcissistic injuries to the psychiatrist father or spouse and loyalty problems in the patient emerge as special problems. Countertransference revolves around peer relationships and "psychopolitics," as well as referrals of other patients.

  13. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessye Almeida Cantini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fear of driving has been recognized as a complex diagnostic entity. For this reason, the use of psychometric instruments is fundamental to advancing research in this area. Psychometric instruments are also necessary for clinical care, as they can help conceptualize the disorder and plan adequate treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS. Methods: The process consisted of: 1 two translations and back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; 2 development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health; 3 experimental application; and 4 investigation of operational equivalence. RESULTS: The adaptation process is described and a final Brazilian version of the DBS is presented. CONCLUSION: A new instrument is now available to assess the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, facilitating research in this field.

  14. Self-confidence for emergency intervention: adaptation and cultural validation of the Self-confidence Scale in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Amado Martins

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: develop the cultural adaptation and validation of a Portuguese version of the Self-confidence Scale.Method: descriptive and exploratory methodological research for the adaptation and validation of a measuring instrument. The translation, synthesis, back-translation, revision, pretest and semantic evaluation phases were accomplished. The evaluation involving 178 students from a Teaching Diploma Program in Nursing. The ethical principles were complied with.Results: the internal consistency analysis of the scale reveals good Alpha coefficients (0.92 for the global scale and superior to 0.83 for the different dimensions. The factor analysis presents a three-factor solution with rational meaning.Conclusion: The scale is easy to answer and understand. Based on the obtained results, it can be affirmed that the scale reveals good psychometric properties, with great potential to be used in future research.

  15. Adapting the distress thermometer for cross-cultural research: a method enhanced by Mexican American undergraduate research assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jo Nell; Dietz, Tracy J

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans (MAs) need representation in cancer research studies to provide an empirical base for developing culturally relevant health care interventions. One factor that limits research with MAs is the lack of Spanish language measurement tools. Bilingual, bicultural student research assistants (RAs), working with faculty researchers and translation consultants, adapted the English version Distress Thermometer and Problem List (DT-PL) tool into the Spanish language. Additionally, RAs assessed tool feasibility with five MA women to determine its usefulness for a later study. The translation process resulted in a distress assessment instrument suitable for use in a low-literacy, Spanish-speaking population. RAs can enhance a process of adapting a measurement tool for use in research. Health care researchers should now pilot the Spanish DT-PL tool to assess its reliability and validity.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ for Brazil: validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Meireles

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic disease that causes joint damage. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate the general health status of these patients but few have specifically evaluated the hands. The objective of this study was to translate, perform cultural adaptation and assess the validity of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire for Brazil.DESIGN AND SETTING: Validation study conducted at a university hospital in Curitiba, Brazil.METHODS: Firstly, the questionnaire was translated into Brazilian Portuguese and back-translated into English. The Portuguese version was tested on 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and proved to be understandable and culturally adapted. After that, 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were evaluated three times. On the first occasion, two evaluators applied the questionnaire to check inter-rater reproducibility. After 15 days, one of the evaluators reassessed the patients to verify intra rater reproducibility. To check the construct validity at the first assessment, one of the evaluators also applied other similar instruments.RESULTS: There were strong inter and intra rater correlations in all the domains of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was higher than 0.90 for all the domains of the questionnaire, thus indicating excellent internal validity. Almost all domains of the questionnaire presented moderate or strong correlation with other instruments, thereby showing good construct validity.CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted successfully, and it showed excellent internal consistency, reproducibility and construct validity.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and patients' judgments of a Question Prompt List for Italian-speaking cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Question Prompt Lists (QPLs have proven very effective in encouraging cancer patients to ask questions, allowing them to take up a more active role during visits with the oncologist. As no such tool has yet been validated for Italian-speaking users, we carried out the cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of an existing Australian Question Prompt List. Methods Cross-cultural adaptation was performed in accordance with the five steps described by Guillemin and Beaton. Forward and back translations of the original tool were carried out, and the products discussed by an Expert Committee who agreed on a prefinal version of the Italian QPL, which was submitted to 30 volunteer patients for evaluation. They rated each question's adequacy of content, clarity of wording, usefulness, and generated anxiety, on a 3-point Likert scale. Based on the analysis of patient ratings, the final version of the Italian QPL was produced. Results Few discrepancies between the two back translations and the original version of the instrument were noted, indicating that the Italian translation (synthesis of the 2 forward translations was substantially accurate. Most volunteer patients felt that the questionnaire was adequate, easy to understand and useful. Only a few minor criticisms were expressed. Certain questions on diagnosis and prognosis generated the highest level of anxiety. Patient comments and ratings on clarity highlighted the need to clarify common health care terms which are not widely used by the public (i.e. guideline, multidisciplinary team and clinical trial Conclusions This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Italian Question Prompt List that is now available for multi-center international studies and can be safely used with Italian-speaking cancer patients.

  18. Cultural adaptation into Spanish of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7 scale as a screening tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Páramo María

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a prevalent mental health condition which is underestimated worldwide. This study carried out the cultural adaptation into Spanish of the 7-item self-administered GAD-7 scale, which is used to identify probable patients with GAD. Methods The adaptation was performed by an expert panel using a conceptual equivalence process, including forward and backward translations in duplicate. Content validity was assessed by interrater agreement. Criteria validity was explored using ROC curve analysis, and sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value and negative value for different cut-off values were determined. Concurrent validity was also explored using the HAM-A, HADS, and WHO-DAS-II scales. Results The study sample consisted of 212 subjects (106 patients with GAD with a mean age of 50.38 years (SD = 16.76. Average completion time was 2'30''. No items of the scale were left blank. Floor and ceiling effects were negligible. No patients with GAD had to be assisted to fill in the questionnaire. The scale was shown to be one-dimensional through factor analysis (explained variance = 72%. A cut-off point of 10 showed adequate values of sensitivity (86.8% and specificity (93.4%, with AUC being statistically significant [AUC = 0.957-0.985; p 0.001. Limitations Elderly people, particularly those very old, may need some help to complete the scale. Conclusion After the cultural adaptation process, a Spanish version of the GAD-7 scale was obtained. The validity of its content and the relevance and adequacy of items in the Spanish cultural context were confirmed.

  19. [Practical aspects for minimizing errors in the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of quality of life questionnaires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, A; Solé, L; Bernstein, S; Lopes, M H; Francisconi, C F

    2013-01-01

    The development and validation of questionnaires for evaluating quality of life (QoL) has become an important area of research. However, there is a proliferation of non-validated measuring instruments in the health setting that do not contribute to advances in scientific knowledge. To present, through the analysis of available validated questionnaires, a checklist of the practical aspects of how to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of QoL questionnaires (generic, or disease-specific) so that no step is overlooked in the evaluation process, and thus help prevent the elaboration of insufficient or incomplete validations. We have consulted basic textbooks and Pubmed databases using the following keywords quality of life, questionnaires, and gastroenterology, confined to «validation studies» in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, and with no time limit, for the purpose of analyzing the translation and validation of the questionnaires available through the Mapi Institute and PROQOLID websites. A checklist is presented to aid in the planning and carrying out of the cross-cultural adaptation of QoL questionnaires, in conjunction with a glossary of key terms in the area of knowledge. The acronym DSTAC was used, which refers to each of the 5 stages involved in the recommended procedure. In addition, we provide a table of the QoL instruments that have been validated into Spanish. This article provides information on how to adapt QoL questionnaires from a cross-cultural perspective, as well as to minimize common errors. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal K. Nath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0 and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution, whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.