... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Rochester Museum & Science Center, Rochester, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Rochester Museum... Rochester Museum & Science Center. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Rochester Museum & Science Center... to repatriate one cultural item in the possession of the Rochester Museum & Science Center, Rochester... of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural item. The National...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Rochester Museum & Science Center... to repatriate one cultural item in the possession of the Rochester Museum & Science Center, Rochester... of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural item. The National...
... meet the definition of both sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony and repatriation to the... the definition of both sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Rochester Museum & Science Center...
... meet the definition of both sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony and repatriation to the... the definition of both sacred objects and ] objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Rochester Museum & Science Center...
..., NY, that meet the definitions of ``sacred objects'' and ``objects of cultural patrimony'' under 25 U... of cultural patrimony. Officials of the Rochester Museum & Science Center have determined, that... that can be reasonably traced between the sacred objects/objects of cultural patrimony and the...
... of cultural patrimony. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian... definition of a sacred object and an object of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is... Item(s) The one sacred object and object of cultural patrimony is a Chilkat blanket (27.92.1/AE 580...
... acquired two large wooden medicine faces from Alvin Dewey, Rochester, NY (AE 2870/D 8363/29.259.17 and AE 2872/D 8364/29.259.19). The Dewey catalog card states: ``Onondaga Indians. From the John Kilham...
..., NY, that meet the definitions of ``sacred objects'' and ``objects of cultural patrimony'' under 25 U... reasonably traced between the sacred objects/objects of cultural patrimony and the Tonawanda Band of Seneca... culturally affiliated with the sacred objects/objects of cultural patrimony should contact Adele DeRosa...
....33) was by Harrison Ground, Tonawanda Reservation, and has brass eyes made by Cephas Hill, Tonawanda...) are made of elkhorn. The fourth (AE 4710/36.389.62) is made of cow bone. On February 1, 1940, the...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center... Archaeology Center, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items... affiliated with the cultural items may contact the Stanford University Archaeology Center. DATES...
... the cultural items meet the definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony, and... objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published as part of the National Park... items. These objects are regarded as sacred objects and as objects of cultural patrimony, which are used...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest Service...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated ] with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest Service...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: New York State Museum, Albany, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The New York State Museum, in... to be culturally affiliated with the cultural items may contact the New York State Museum. DATES...
The report describes the implementation process and the early impacts of the Rochester Community Transit Service demonstration in four suburbs of Rochester, New York. The demonstration project is an outgrowth of an earlier one which ended in October ...
van Vlimmeren, Eva; Moors, Guy B D; Gelissen, John P T M
Survey data are often used to map cultural diversity by aggregating scores of attitude and value items across countries. However, this procedure only makes sense if the same concept is measured in all countries. In this study we argue that when (co)variances among sets of items are similar across countries, these countries share a common way of assigning meaning to the items. Clusters of cultures can then be observed by doing a cluster analysis on the (co)variance matrices of sets of related items. This study focuses on family values and gender role attitudes. We find four clusters of cultures that assign a distinct meaning to these items, especially in the case of gender roles. Some of these differences reflect response style behavior in the form of acquiescence. Adjusting for this style effect impacts on country comparisons hence demonstrating the usefulness of investigating the patterns of meaning given to sets of items prior to aggregating scores into cultural characteristics.
... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Western Reserve Historical Society... to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland... 1867, the Western Reserve Historical Society was founded. Starting in 1894, book numbers were assigned...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of... intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona... determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Field Museum, in consultation with the... these cultural items should submit a written request to the Field Museum. If no additional claimants...
... the cultural items should contact Mary Collins, Director of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Washington...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of... intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology, University of... variety of archeological materials was purchased by the University of Michigan from Rev. L.P. Rowland of...
... cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of objects of cultural patrimony. Lineal... definition of objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published as part of the... Monterey Museum of Art on November 20, 1978. The 193 objects of cultural patrimony are 42 harpoon or...
... originally collected by an old trading post family in the area of Farmington, NM. The 29 cultural items are 4... cultural importance central to the Native American group or culture itself, rather than property owned by... 25 U.S.C. 3001 (2), there is a relationship of shared group identity that can be reasonably traced...
... Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe, NM AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, has determined...
van Vlimmeren, E.; Moors, G.B.D.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.
Survey data are often used to map cultural diversity by aggregating scores of attitude and value items across countries. However, this procedure only makes sense if the same concept is measured in all countries. In this study we argue that when (co)variances among sets of items are similar across
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan, Museum of... determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has... County, MI. In 1924, these items were sold to the University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, by Rev...
Hulbæk, Mette; Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Primdahl, Jette
Danish Translation and Cultural Adaption of the 9-Item Shared Decision Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9) patient version.......Danish Translation and Cultural Adaption of the 9-Item Shared Decision Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9) patient version....
... cm high. The eighth cultural item is a tobacco pipe (NA6862) carved with a representation of a spirit...'akdeintaan Clan of Hoonah, AK. Based on consultation, museum documentation, anthropological literature, and...
..., 1924, the Rochester Museum & Science Center (then Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences) purchased the... on the box as an old style Tlingit design probably dating to the late 1700s. This documentary...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural item. The National...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Benton County Historical Society and... Historical Society and Museum, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the... Historical Society and Museum. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural...
Rochester, New York, is globally competitive in optics manufacturing because of cooperative, strategic use of community resources: (1) collaboration of the University of Rochester and industry in the Center for Optics Manufacturing; (2) business cooperation in reform of the schools system; and (3) emphasis on total quality. (SK)
... and objects of cultural patrimony. Transfer of control of the items in this correction notice has... sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. In the Federal Register (72 FR... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History...
..., associated and unassociated funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony that were... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA... consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of...
..., and objects of cultural patrimony that were collected from Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Basketmaker... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA... consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The State Historical Society... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural item may contact the State Historical Society...
Öztemel, Figen; Kurt, Mustafa
This article aims at demonstrating which translation strategies are preferred in order to deal with the translation of culture-specific items in Latife Tekin's Sevgili Arsiz Ölüm (1983) and its English translation entitled "Dear Shameless Death" (2001). To achieve this primary aim, a comparative analysis is carried out between Sevgili…
...-665] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology... Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, that meet the definition... recognition, officials of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology have determined that there is a...
... Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, that meet the definitions of ``sacred objects... and Ethnology have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (3)(C), the 10 cultural items described...
... with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, has determined that the cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization not identified in this notice that wish to...
... with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of... and Museum of Anthropology (DUMA), that meet the definition of sacred objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001... American religions by their present-day adherents. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship...
... cultural items in the possession of the High Desert Museum, Bend, OR, that meet the definition of... the definition of ``unassociated funerary objects'' or ``sacred objects.'' The three unassociated... practice of traditional Native American religions by their present-day adherents. Lastly, officials of the...
Grigg, Kaine; Manderson, Lenore
Racism and associated discrimination are pervasive and persistent challenges with multiple cumulative deleterious effects contributing to inequities in various health outcomes. Globally, research over the past decade has shown consistent associations between racism and negative health concerns. Such research confirms that race endures as one of the strongest predictors of poor health. Due to the lack of validated Australian measures of racist attitudes, RACES (Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale) was developed. Here, we examine RACES' psychometric properties, including the latent structure, utilising Item Response Theory (IRT). Unidimensional and Multidimensional Rating Scale Model (RSM) Rasch analyses were utilised with 296 Victorian primary school students and 182 adolescents and 220 adults from the Australian community. RACES was demonstrated to be a robust 24-item three-dimensional scale of Accepting Attitudes (12 items), Racist Attitudes (8 items), and Ethnocentric Attitudes (4 items). RSM Rasch analyses provide strong support for the instrument as a robust measure of racist attitudes in the Australian context, and for the overall factorial and construct validity of RACES across primary school children, adolescents, and adults. RACES provides a reliable and valid measure that can be utilised across the lifespan to evaluate attitudes towards all racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups. A core function of RACES is to assess the effectiveness of interventions to reduce community levels of racism and in turn inequities in health outcomes within Australia.
Denton, Ellen-ge; Chaplin, William F.; Wall, Melanie
The present study addresses teacher burnout and in particular cultural differences and similarities in burnout. We used the Maslach Burnout Inventory Education Survey (MBI-ES) as the starting point for developing a latent model of burnout in two cultures; Jamaica W.I. teachers (N= 150) and New York City teachers (N= 150). We confirm a latent 3 factor structure, using a subset of the items from the MBI-ES that adequately fit both samples. We tested different degrees of measurement invariance (model fit statistics, scale reliabilities, residual variances, item thresholds, and total variance) to describe and compare cultural differences. Results indicate some differences between the samples at the structure and item levels. We found that factor variances were slightly higher in the New York City teacher sample. Emotional Exhaustion (EE) was a more informative construct for differentiating among teachers at moderate levels of burnout, as opposed to extreme high or low levels of burnout, in both cultures. In contrast, Depersonalization in the Workplace (DW) was more informative at the more extreme levels of burnout among both teacher samples. By studying the influence of culture on the experience of burnout we can further our understanding of burnout and potentially discover factors that might prevent burnout among primary and secondary school teachers. PMID:25729572
Yang, Lixia; Li, Juan; Spaniol, Julia; Hasher, Lynn; Wilkinson, Andrea J; Yu, Jing; Niu, Yanan
Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older) and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older). All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age.
Full Text Available Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older. All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age.
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, in.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items located at the Natural History Museum of Utah and...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, in.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Natural History Museum of Los...
... consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of... Anthropology, University ] of Idaho (UI), Moscow, ID, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects... Cultural Items In 1964, a Washington State University (WSU) team excavated sites 10NP1 (near Captain John...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts... to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, VA.... 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Kingman Museum, Inc., Battle Creek, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Kingman Museum, Inc., in... cultural item may contact the Kingman Museum, Inc. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes...
...-1100-665] Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of... cultural items in possession of the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, that meet the... Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico, has determined...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the...
... Laboratory of Anthropology have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(B), the five cultural items... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Idaho, Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is...
Cathleen Jo Faruque
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate one of the newest refugee groups to the Midwestern United States, the Hmong refugees from Laos, China, Vietnam and Thailand. This study broadly examines how multigenerational Hmong families are adjusting and adapting to life in Rochester, Minnesota. The following questions guided this study: (1 What effect does non-voluntary migration have on the acculturation levels as measured by cultural awareness and ethnic loyalty of the Hmong in Rochester, Minnesota? (2 How do the Hmong perceive their host Anglo culture? (3 How do the Hmong adjust to their host social system in the United States? (4 How much do Hmong learn about their new environment? (5 How do the Hmong retain traditions within in the United States?Qualitative interviewing through in-depth individual interviews and participant observation was the method of data collection. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling, volunteering, and snowball sampling techniques. Criteria for inclusion in this study were: 1 Being Hmong; 2 Residing in Rochester, Minnesota, and; 3 Being at least 13 years of age or older. Grounded theory methodology was the primary tool of data analysis.The findings clearly demonstrated that the Hmong subjects interviewed for this study showed a high degree of discrepancy between the acculturation levels based on age and country of origin from point of migration. This discrepancy has created an acculturation gap, which is related to the younger Hmong’s increased identification with the American culture and their decreased identification with their family’s culture of origin. This shift has created family difficulties and communication gaps between the generations.
... that the cultural items meet the definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony and... of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001 and 43 CFR 10.2 (d)(2)(ii), (d)(3), or (d)(4). Through the... consultation and ethnographic research, the sacred object and object of cultural patrimony is 1 clay pipe...
... that the cultural items meet the definition of objects of cultural patrimony and repatriation to the... objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published as part of the National Park... cultural patrimony under NAGPRA. The objects were examined on March 20, 2012, by representatives of the...
... human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony discovered on Federal..., funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony (``cultural items'' under NAGPRA) not... responsibility to care for human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony, the...
...The San Diego Museum of Man, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that a cultural item meets the definition of unassociated funerary object and repatriation to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if no additional claimants come forward. Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural item may contact the San Diego Museum of Man.
... cultural patrimony. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian... cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's... items have been identified as Native American sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony through...
... and object of cultural patrimony and repatriation to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no... and object of ] cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published as part of the... bag and contents. Item 16 (dance staff) is both a sacred object and an object of cultural patrimony...
... item under the control of the Field Museum of Natural History that meets the definition of sacred... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Field Museum of Natural History... Field Museum of Natural History has corrected a Notice of Intent to Repatriate published in the Federal...
... Superintendent, Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument. History and Description of the Cultural Items The... noted Sundance Priest and leading headman in the Northern Cheyenne Crazy Dog Society. Alex Brady, who...
In international large-scale assessments of educational outcomes, student achievement is often represented by unidimensional constructs. This approach allows for drawing general conclusions about country rankings with respect to the given achievement measure, but it typically does not provide specific diagnostic information which is necessary for systematic comparisons and improvements of educational systems. Useful information could be obtained by exploring the differences in national profiles of student achievement between low-achieving and high-achieving countries. In this study, we aimed to identify the relative weaknesses and strengths of eighth graders' physics achievement in Bosnia and Herzegovina in comparison to the achievement of their peers from Slovenia. For this purpose, we ran a secondary analysis of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 data. The student sample consisted of 4,220 students from Bosnia and Herzegovina and 4,043 students from Slovenia. After analysing the cognitive demands of TIMSS 2007 physics items, the correspondent differential item functioning (DIF)/differential group functioning contrasts were estimated. Approximately 40% of items exhibited large DIF contrasts, indicating significant differences between cultures of physics education in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia. The relative strength of students from Bosnia and Herzegovina showed to be mainly associated with the topic area 'Electricity and magnetism'. Classes of items which required the knowledge of experimental method, counterintuitive thinking, proportional reasoning and/or the use of complex knowledge structures proved to be differentially easier for students from Slovenia. In the light of the presented results, the common practice of ranking countries with respect to universally established cognitive categories seems to be potentially misleading.
Full Text Available The subject of the investigation is the translation of neologism and culture-bound items based on the first chapter of the third book of The Witcher Saga, entitled Baptism of Fire. The analyzed fragment abounds in neologisms and nomenclature; therefore, the processes of word formation are briefly described. Furthermore, some of Hejwowski’s ( 2009, pp. 76–83 procedures are cited to present methods of dealing with the creativity resulting from word formation processes. It is shown that a translator, when translating culture-bound items, is not always able to find an equivalent in the target language and may try either to describe a certain phenomenon or to use a literal translation. The way in which neologisms are coined in a fictional novel may differ from the coinage of words in the standard language; nevertheless, the word formation processes are the same as in Standard English or Standard Polish. Moreover, there is still little evidence of what makes a borrowed word catch on in the standard language.
Osterlind, Steven J.; Miao, Danmin; Sheng, Yanyan; Chia, Rosina C.
This study investigated the interaction between different cultural groups and item type, and the ensuing effect on construct validity for a psychological inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, Form G). The authors analyzed 94 items from 2 Chinese-translated versions of the MBTI (Form G) for factorial differences among groups of…
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Arizona State Museum, University of... Museum, University of Arizona, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian... the Arizona State Museum. If no additional claimants come forward, transfer of control of the cultural...
Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Sturkie, Charlee M; Rochester, Nina M; Liu, Xiaodong; Gutchess, Angela H
After viewing a scene, individuals differ in what they prioritise and remember. Culture may be one factor that influences scene memory, as Westerners have been shown to be more item-focused than Easterners (see Masuda, T., & Nisbett, R. E. (2001). Attending holistically versus analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 922-934). However, cultures may differ in their sensitivity to scene incongruences and emotion processing, which may account for cross-cultural differences in scene memory. The current study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine scene memory while controlling for scene congruency and the perceived emotional intensity of the images. American and East Asian participants encoded pictures that included a positive, negative, or neutral item placed on a neutral background. After a 20-min delay, participants were shown the item and background separately along with similar and new items and backgrounds to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that even when congruency and emotional intensity were controlled, there was evidence that Americans had better item memory than East Asians. Incongruent scenes were better remembered than congruent scenes. However, this effect did not differ by culture. This suggests that Americans' item focus may result in memory changes that are robust despite variations in scene congruency and perceived emotion.
... ``receptacle on the top of a totem pole containing the bones and ashes of a cremated body.'' No human remains... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Peabody Museum of Natural History... Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, has...
..., under a sub-contract with the Historic Preservation Program of the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma, which was under contract with Stephen F. Austin State University. In 1957, 15 cultural items were removed from a..., three ceramic vessels were removed from a single shovel test at site 41SY83 (unnamed site), in Shelby...
Eskildsen, Anita; Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Nielsen, Kent Jacob
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to (i) cross-culturally adapt a Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and (ii) evaluate its psychometric properties in terms of agreement, reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability among patients...
... Archaeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA, in consultation with the... these cultural items should submit a written request to the Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology. If...
... Park, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, has determined that the cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization not identified...
... tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, has determined that the cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization not identified in this notice that wish to claim these...
... of Natural History that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... Resources, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024...
... Museum of Natural History that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History... Museum of Natural History, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the...
.... Officials of the American Museum of Natural History and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.... Officials of the American Museum of Natural History and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, San Juan National Forest, in... National Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice. History and Description of...
... consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of... Service, LIBI, Crow Agency, MT that meet the definition of sacred objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This... Native American religious leaders for the practice of traditional Native American religions by their...
... that the cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of sacred objects. Lineal descendants... the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Teton National Park, Moose, WY, that meet the definition of... Native American religions by their present-day adherents. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C 3001 (2) there is a...
... with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that a cultural item meets the definition of sacred... Anthropology (DUMA), that meets the definition of sacred object under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published... American religions by their present-day adherents. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship...
... Hawaiian organizations, has determined that a cultural item listed in this notice meets the definition of... meet the definition of sacred objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published as part of the... practice of traditional Native American religions by their present-day adherents. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C...
..., has determined that a cultural item meets the definition of sacred object and repatriation to the... that meets the definition of sacred object under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published as part of... the practice of traditional Native American religions by their present-day adherents. Pursuant to 25 U...
..., has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of sacred objects and repatriation to the..., MT that meet the definition of sacred objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published as part... Native American religious leaders for the practice of traditional Native American religions by their...
..., has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of sacred objects and repatriation to the..., MT, that meet the definition of sacred objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published as part... the practice of traditional Native American religions by their present-day adherents. Pursuant to 25 U...
Daghoughi, Shekoufeh; Hashemian, Mahmood
Due to differences across languages, meanings and concepts vary across different languages, too. The most obvious points of difference between languages appear in their literature and their culture-specific items (CSIs), which lead to complexities when transferring meanings and concepts from one language into another. To overcome the complexities…
... Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of unassociated funerary... U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Washington, DC, that meet the definition... American individual. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship of shared group identity that...
... consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, has determined that the cultural item meets the definition of... meets the definition of an unassociated funerary object under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published... U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship of shared group identity that can be reasonably traced...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... University of Denver. In consultation with Santa Rosa Indian Community of the Santa Rosa Rancheria...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National Forest, Silver City, NM; Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ... control of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National Forest, Silver City, NM, and...
..., National Park Service, Natchez Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Natchez Trace Parkway, in... with the cultural item may contact Natchez Trace Parkway. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe...
..., National Park Service, Natchez Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Natchez Trace Parkway, in... with the cultural items may contact Natchez Trace Parkway. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe...
..., Honolulu, HI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI..., Kohala,'' is in the possession of the Hamilton Library, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI. The...
de Jong, M.G.; Pieters, R.; Stremersch, S.
Answers to sensitive questions are prone to social desirability bias. If not properly addressed, the validity of the research can be suspect. This article presents multigroup item randomized response theory (MIRRT) to measure self-reported sensitive topics across cultures. The method was
.... History and Description of the Cultural Items In 1949, the University of New Mexico (UNM) conducted an..., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... 1050, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, telephone (505) 277-9229. SUPPLEMENTARY...
Lee, Sunghee; Liu, Mingnan; Hu, Mengyao
Time orientation is an unconscious yet fundamental cognitive process that provides a framework for organizing personal experiences in temporal categories of past, present and future, reflecting the relative emphasis given to these categories. Culture lies central to individuals’ time orientation, leading to cultural variations in time orientation. For example, people from future-oriented cultures tend to emphasize the future and store information relevant for the future more than those from present- or past-oriented cultures. For survey questions that ask respondents to report expected probabilities of future events, this may translate into culture-specific question difficulties, manifested through systematically varying “I don’t know” item nonresponse rates. This study drew on the time orientation theory and examined culture-specific nonresponse patterns on subjective probability questions using methodologically comparable population-based surveys from multiple countries. The results supported our hypothesis. Item nonresponse rates on these questions varied significantly in the way that future-orientation at the group as well as individual level was associated with lower nonresponse rates. This pattern did not apply to non-probability questions. Our study also suggested potential nonresponse bias. Examining culture-specific constructs, such as time orientation, as a framework for measurement mechanisms may contribute to improving cross-cultural research. PMID:28781381
... shells and small round black glass beads; 1 ceremonial bow; and 1 associated arrow. All of the items are... collected by Doctor Hill during a period of sixty years from all parts of the earth regardless of expense...
Marangoni,Bruna E.M.; Karina Pavan; Charles Peter Tilbery
Gait impairment is reported by 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as main complaint. In 2003, Hobart et al. developed a scale for walking known as The 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12), which combines the perspectives of patients with psychometric methods. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population with MS. METHODS: This study included 116 individuals diagnosed with MS, in accordance with McDonald's cr...
... this notice meet the definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony. Lineal descendants... definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published... objects of cultural patrimony and sacred objects. The review of available documentation, in addition to...
... linguistic heritage, overlapping trade networks, battle alliances, shared resource protection, cooperative... items should submit a written request with information in support of the claim to the Washington State... (360) 902- 0939, email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in...
Wang, Yungang; Hopke, Philip K; Rattigan, Oliver V
In ambient particle source apportionment studies, data for holidays such as July 4 (US Independence Day) are normally removed because of the high concentrations of chemical species and unusually high particle mass concentrations that are due to fireworks. Many cultures celebrate events with fireworks. A near real-time measurement that could indicate fireworks would be useful in indicating their impact on air quality. Commonly monitored ambient pollutants include PM(2.5), CO, SO(2), O(3), 10-500-nm particle number, and black carbon (BC). Using a two-wavelength aethalometer, another parameter, delta-C (UVBC(370 nm)-BC(880 nm), aethalometer), can be calculated. These variables were continuously monitored during July 1-7, 2005-2010, in Rochester, New York. High delta-C values are normally associated with biomass combustion particles. However, statistically higher delta-C values were observed on Independence Day compared to the other period. Back trajectory analysis showed transport of local fireworks smoke to the sampling site on the night of July 4. An enhanced correlation between delta-C and BC during the fireworks episodes suggests changes from the usual BC sources. Fireworks emissions changed the ambient carbonaceous particulate species during these intervals. The delta-C value was found to be a readily measured indicator of fireworks emissions during periods when wood combustion was not likely to be present and provides a tool for monitoring such emissions where they might be more common such as amusement parks.
Full Text Available This article aims at demonstrating which translation strategies are preferred in order to deal with the translation of culture-specific items in Latife Tekin’s Sevgili Arsız Ölüm (1983 and its English translation entitled Dear Shameless Death (2001. To achieve this primary aim, a comparative analysis is carried out between Sevgili Arsız Ölüm and Dear Shameless Death, translated into English by Saliha Paker and Mel Kenne, and a sample set consisting of 100 conspicuous examples for culture-specific items is created. Subsequently, the culture-specific items in the sample set is classified according to Newmark’s (1988 categorization of culture-specific items. These culture-specific items are assessed according to Venuti’s (1995 domestication and foreignization methods in broad sense. Finally, a common strategy group is created based on Eirlys E. Davies (2003 and Javier Franco Aixelá’s (1996 taxonomies proposed for translation of culture-specific items and the samples are analyzed according to these taxonomies. When the sample group of 100 culture-specific items are analyzed, it has been seen that the translators used both foreignization strategies such as addition, preservation, orthographic adaptation and domestication strategies such as omission, globalization and localization in order to deal with translation of various culture-specific items. The most frequently used strategy among others has been determined to be globalization strategy. In this article, 28 of 100 culture-specific items will be exemplified in order to provide an insight into the study.
.... ADDRESSES: Lisa Anderson, NAGPRA Coordinator, New York State Museum, 3122 Cultural Education Center, Albany... time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony and are believed, by a preponderance of... State Museum, 3122 Cultural Education Center, Albany, NY 12230, telephone (518) 486-2020, by July 17...
... the southern end. This area falls within the Southern Lushootseed language group of Salish cultures... Lake Washington south of the mouth of the Sammamish River. This area falls within the Southern Lushootseed language group of Salish cultures. The Sammamish people primarily occupied this area (Ruby and...
... Aqua Hedionda area and inland along the San Felipe Creek (just south of Borrego Springs). Bound to the... culture of Cahuilla or Kumeyaay in the region of Anza Borrego Desert State Park. In this region, pipes...
Pandey, R; Mandal, M K; Taylor, G J; Parker, J D
The possibility that alexithymia may be a culture-bound construct was evaluated by developing a Hindi version of the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale and assessing its psychometric properties in a sample of 285 normal young adults in India. The Hindi version of the scale (TAS-20-H) showed excellent cross-language equivalence with the English version. In addition, the TAS-20-H demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, and a three-factor structure consistent with the three-factor model of the original scale.
Sibley, Chris G; Houkamau, Carla A
We argue that there is a need for culture-specific measures of identity that delineate the factors that most make sense for specific cultural groups. One such measure, recently developed specifically for Māori peoples, is the Multi-Dimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. The MMM-ICE is a 6-factor measure that assesses the following aspects of identity and cultural engagement as Māori: (a) group membership evaluation, (b) socio-political consciousness, (c) cultural efficacy and active identity engagement, (d) spirituality, (e) interdependent self-concept, and (f) authenticity beliefs. This article examines the scale properties of the MMM-ICE using item response theory (IRT) analysis in a sample of 492 Māori. The MMM-ICE subscales showed reasonably even levels of measurement precision across the latent trait range. Analysis of age (cohort) effects further indicated that most aspects of Māori identification tended to be higher among older Māori, and these cohort effects were similar for both men and women. This study provides novel support for the reliability and measurement precision of the MMM-ICE. The study also provides a first step in exploring change and stability in Māori identity across the life span. A copy of the scale, along with recommendations for scale scoring, is included.
Lauridsen, Line Skjødt; Willert, Morten Vejs; Eskildsen, Anita; Christiansen, David Høyrup
The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10) is a brief instrument measuring resilience in adults. The scale has shown sound psychometric properties in different populations and cultures. Our objectives were to cross-culturally adapt the CD-RISC 10 into Danish and to establish the psychometric properties of the Danish version in terms of internal consistency, construct validity and longitudinal validity. The CD-RISC 10 was translated using established guidelines. Employees ( N=272) at hospitals in the Central Denmark Region completed questionnaires at baseline and three months follow-up. Questionnaires included the translated Danish version of the CD-RISC 10 and the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and construct and longitudinal validity by correlating CD-RISC 10 and PSS-10 baseline scores and change scores from baseline to follow-up. The Danish CD-RISC 10 provides acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). Analysis of construct validity revealed a negative correlation with the PSS-10 at baseline ( r=-.63 [95%CI: -.70; -.55], pDanish-speaking population.
... delta area. Historical and anthropological sources (Amoss 1978, Mooney 1896, Spier 1936, Swanton 1952...-3849, email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance with the... in style with Native American Coast Salish historic material culture. Linguistically, Native American...
Huang, Xiaoting; Wilson, Mark; Wang, Lei
In recent years, large-scale international assessments have been increasingly used to evaluate and compare the quality of education across regions and countries. However, measurement variance between different versions of these assessments often posts threats to the validity of such cross-cultural comparisons. In this study, we investigated the…
... present in the collections. In December 1950, the Gila Pueblo Foundation closed and the collections were... material culture are consistent with the Hohokam archeological tradition and indicate occupation between... Pueblo Foundation closed and the collections were donated to the Arizona State Museum. The one...
... Recreation, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The California Department of Parks and Recreation, in consultation with the appropriate tribes, has determined that the... Parks and Recreation. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural...
... practices, and oral ] traditions. The descendants of the O'odham peoples of the areas described above are... Tanque Verde phase of the Classic period of the Hohokam Archeological tradition, dating to approximately.... They also identify themselves with the Hohokam Archeological tradition. Cultural continuity between the...
Bruijn, Rolf; Burlini, Luigi; Misra, Santanu
Phyllosilicates are one of the major components of the crust, responsible for strength weakening during deformation. High pressure and temperature experiments of natural samples rich in phyllosilicates are needed to test the relevance of proposed weakening mechanisms induced by phyllosilicates, derived from lab experiments on single phase and synthetic polyphase rocks and single crystals. Here, we present the preliminary results of a series of high temperature triaxial tests performed on the illite-rich Rochester Shale (USA - New York) using a Paterson type gas-medium HPT testing machine. Cylindrical samples with homogeneous microstructure and 12-14% porosity were fabricated by cold and hot-isostatically pressing, hot-pressed samples were deformed up to a total shortening of 7.5 to 13%. To study the significance of mica dehydration, iron or copper jackets were used in combination with non-porous or porous spacers. Water content was measured before and after experiments using Karl Fischer Titration (KFT). All experiments show, after yielding at 0.6% strain, rapid hardening in nearly linear fashion until about 4-5% strain, from where stress increases at reducing rates to values at 10% strain, between 400 and 675 MPa, depending on experimental conditions. Neither failure nor steady state however, is achieved within the maximum strain of 13%. Experiments performed under 500 °C and 300 MPa confining pressure show weak strain rate dependence. In addition, iron-jacketed samples appear harder than copper-jacketed ones. At 700 °C samples are 17 to 37% weaker and more sensitive to strain rate than during 500 °C experiments. Although, iron-jacketed samples behave stronger than copper-jacketed ones. By visual inspection, samples appear homogeneously shortened. Preliminary analysis suggests that deformation is mostly accommodated by pore collapse. Although, with finite strain, pore collapse becomes less significant. A temperature, strain rate and jacket material dependent
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG96-33A Walsh, GJ�and Falta, CK, 1996, Digital bedrock geologic map of the Rochester quadrangle, Vermont: USGS Open-File Report 96-33-A, 2 plates,...
Kanun, Clara; Podratz, Rosalyn
A survey of registered nurses in the Rochester area was conducted to identify needs of potentially reemployable nurses in response to the prevailing opinion that uncongenial working conditions were the primary cause for the shortage of nurses. Data were collected from 20 percent random sample of registered nurses who completed either a survey form…
..., buckskin bags, and two arrowheads; and a buffalo fur hat lined with cotton print fabric. The items belonged... and his wife traded or gifted the two items to Dr. Thomas B. Marquis, a physician on the Tongue River...
Olesya A. Suleymanova
Full Text Available The article represents the study of the meanings and functions of family items when moving to a new place among the residents of the Kola North. The change of residence is always connected with the interruption of established lifestyle and placement of items. It revealed that while moving, the items environment of the family was reorganized and transformed completely or partially. It means the accelerated change of meaning and status of the moved family items.
Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria
OBJECTIVE: To describe semen quality and reproductive hormone concentrations of young men living in Rochester, New York, and to compare these with published data from similar European and Japanese populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University and college campuses in the Rochester......, New York, area. PATIENT(S): Unselected young college students (n = 222). INTERVENTION(S): A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a brief questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Semen parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels. RESULT(S): Subjects were aged 18-22 years.......8% of men had a sperm concentration below 20 × 10(6)/mL and 15 × 10(6)/mL, respectively. Few men had serum hormones falling outside clinically normal ranges. Median sperm concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were comparable to those seen in young men in Denmark, Finland, and Japan. CONCLUSION...
The Eighth Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics was held on the campus of the University of Rochester during the period June 13-16,2001. This volume contains the proceedings of the meeting. The meeting was preceded by an affiliated conference, the International Conference on Quantum Information, with some overlapping sessions on June 13. The proceedings of the affiliated conference will be published separately by the Optical Society of America. A few papers that were presented in common plenary sessions of the two conferences will be published in both proceedings volumes. More than 268 scientists from 28 countries participated in the week long discussions and presentations. This Conference differed from the previous seven in the CQO series in several ways, the most important of which was the absence of Leonard Mandel. Professor Mandel died a few months before the conference. A special memorial symposium in his honor was held at the end of the conference. The presentations from that sym...
Full Text Available This study is inserted within the Multimedia Translation or Audiovisual Translation (AVT area and it takes up from where Espindola (2005 has left off. It is aimed at analyzing the same translational product from two different perspectives: Official Subtitles (OS, rendered by Drei Marc Company in Brazil, and Non-Official Subtitles (NS, rendered by the Internet group 9th Wonders. This study analyzes the Culture-Specific Items (CSIs and the treatment given to them in the light of the concepts of Domestication and Foreignization. The analyzed episode presented 42 CSIs that were identified and categorized. The OS presented 33 foreignized items, 07 domesticated items, and 02 omissions, whereas the NS presented 32 foreignized items, 08 domesticated items, and 02 omissions. During the translational process for subtitling Heroes, the subtitler was faced with cultural diversity and had to deal with such a diversity posed. The few moments where domestication was used, the strategy applied was that of adjustment, diminishing the strangeness towards the cultural elements. When the opposite occurred, the implication was that, by foreignizing, a feeling of strangeness or foreignness was created, impacting the processing or acceptance towards these elements.
Oberguggenberger Anne S
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Within an ongoing project of the EORTC Quality of Life Group, we are developing computerized adaptive test (CAT measures for the QLQ-C30 scales. These new CAT measures are conceptualised to reflect the same constructs as the QLQ-C30 scales. Accordingly, the Fatigue-CAT is intended to capture physical and general fatigue. Methods The EORTC approach to CAT development comprises four phases (literature search, operationalisation, pre-testing, and field testing. Phases I-III are described in detail in this paper. A literature search for fatigue items was performed in major medical databases. After refinement through several expert panels, the remaining items were used as the basis for adapting items and/or formulating new items fitting the EORTC item style. To obtain feedback from patients with cancer, these English items were translated into Danish, French, German, and Spanish and tested in the respective countries. Results Based on the literature search a list containing 588 items was generated. After a comprehensive item selection procedure focusing on content, redundancy, item clarity and item difficulty a list of 44 fatigue items was generated. Patient interviews (n = 52 resulted in 12 revisions of wording and translations. Discussion The item list developed in phases I-III will be further investigated within a field-testing phase (IV to examine psychometric characteristics and to fit an item response theory model. The Fatigue CAT based on this item bank will provide scores that are backward-compatible to the original QLQ-C30 fatigue scale.
Bruna E. M. Marangoni
Full Text Available Gait impairment is reported by 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS as main complaint. In 2003, Hobart et al. developed a scale for walking known as The 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12, which combines the perspectives of patients with psychometric methods. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population with MS. METHODS: This study included 116 individuals diagnosed with MS, in accordance with McDonald's criteria. The steps of the adaptation process included translation, back-translation, review by an expert committee and pretesting. A test and retest of MSWS-12/BR was made for validation, with comparison with another scale (MSIS-29/BR and another test (T25FW. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of MSWS-12/BR was shown to be similar to the original. The results indicate that MSWS-12/BR is a reliable and reproducible scale. CONCLUSIONS: MSWS-12/BR has been adapted and validated, and it is a reliable tool for the Brazilian population.
Castro, Natália Fontes Caputo de; Rezende, Carlos Henrique Alves de; Mendonça, Tânia Maria da Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Pinto, Rogério de Melo Costa
The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS), structured in Itens Banks, provides a new tool for evaluating results that apply to various chronic diseases through advanced statistical techniques (TRI) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The aim of this study was to culturally adapt the Items Banks of Anxiety and Depression of PROMIS to the Portuguese language. The process followed the recommendations of PROMIS through the advanced translation, reconciliation, back-translation, FACIT review, independent review, finalization, pre-test, and incorporation of the results from the pre-test. The translated version was pre-tested in ten patients, and items 3, 46, and 53 of the Bank of Anxiety and item 46 of the bank of Depression had to be changed. Changes affected equivalence of meaning, and the final version was consistent with the Brazilian population's linguistic and cultural skills. In conclusion, for the Brazilian population the translated version proved semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original.
Full Text Available Culture-specific items (CSIs are difficult to translate since they are related to cultural knowledge and cultural background of the given culture. The distance and differences between two different cultures determine the extent of the gain or loss that will be exprienced by the CSIs as they are translated. The purposes of this research were to identify the translation procedures applied in translating CSIs which caused loss and gained in the translation process and to identify how the translator compensated the loss in translating CSIs. The method used was qualitative descriptive method. The result shows that loss is more prevalent than gain although the translator has enough knowledge on the source text culture as he has spent some years doing some researches in Banyumas society. There are two kinds of losses found in this study; inevitable and avertable losses. Translation procedures used which result in loss in translation are translation by a more general word (subordinate, translation by a more neutral/less expressive word and translation by cultural substitution. Gain was realized mostly through the creativity of the translator when they are able to explain the culture-specific items for effective communication. In order to compensate the loss that might have occurred, translator uses some translation procedures. They are translation by loan word with explanation, translation by paraphrase using related word, and translation by paraphrase using unrelated word. In short, gain in translation for better communication is not easy to achieve especially in the case of translating CSIs.
... shell ear pin; a deer metapodial bone; approximately 18,444 glass beads of varying size and color; and...; animal bone fragments; one bone comb; one pottery sherd; approximately 10,748 glass beads of various... items comprised of ``C'' bracelets, 28 buttons, and a neck collar ornament; iron items comprised of two...
Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using item banks while providing useful information to those who are considering implementing an item banking project in their school district. The primary advantage of item banking is in test development. Also describes start-up activities in implementing item banking. (SLD)
Sinars, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report describes the next stage goals and resource needs for the joint Sandia and University of Rochester ARPA-E project. A key portion of this project is Technology Transfer and Outreach, with the goal being to help ensure that this project develops a credible method or tool that the magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) research community can use to broaden the advocacy base, to pursue a viable path to commercial fusion energy, and to develop other commercial opportunities for the associated technology. This report describes an analysis of next stage goals and resource needs as requested by Milestone 5.1.1.
... Walla, WA, and in the physical custody of the Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology (WSU... unassociated funerary items are: 3 lots of glass beads, 1 lot of fabric, and 1 lot of metal fragments and chain...
... definitions of ``sacred object'' and ``object of cultural patrimony'' under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is... leaders, as well as being objects of cultural patrimony that have ongoing historical, traditional, and... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with this sacred object/object of cultural patrimony should...
... cultural patrimony and the Osage Nation, Oklahoma. Representatives of any other Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the objects of cultural patrimony should contact Dr. Duane H.... Repatriation of the objects of cultural patrimony to the Osage Nation, Oklahoma, will proceed after that date...
... of cultural patrimony, and repatriation to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no additional... both a sacred object and an object of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published... staff, and identified the headdress as a sacred object and an object of cultural patrimony eligible for...
..., ] Tucson, AZ, that meets the definition of sacred object and object of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C... the sacred object/object of cultural patrimony and the Navajo Nation of Arizona, New Mexico and Utah.../object of cultural patrimony should contact John McClelland, NAGPRA Coordinator, Arizona State Museum...
... and/or objects of cultural patrimony and repatriation to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if... objects and/or objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is published as part of the... of cultural patrimony and five sacred objects are subject to repatriation to the Assiniboine and...
... objects of cultural patrimony and repatriation to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no additional... unassociated funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This... objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001 and 43 CFR 10.2 (d)(2)(ii), (d)(3), or (d)(4). Through...
... item meets the definition of sacred object and repatriation to the Indian tribe stated below may occur... Binghamton University that meets the definition of sacred object under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is... Native American religious leaders for the practice of traditional Native American religions by their...
Genberg, Victor; Ellis, Jonathan D.
The University of Rochester is well known for the Institute of Optics as well as a strong Mechanical Engineering program. In recent years, there has been collaboration between the two departments on a variety of topics, including a new joint faculty position. There are new cross-listed courses in Optomechanics and Precision Engineering (Spring 2012), which are described in this paper. As yet, there is no formal specialization in Optomechanics, but many students create their own program from available courses combining optics and mechanics with other disciplines. Students have the opportunity to participate in the several research areas which cross discipline boundaries. For example, a student design team is building a 16" telescope which they hope can become the basis of an intercollegiate design contest. In addition to full semester courses, there is a summer program of short courses available to working engineers as both refresher courses or as introductory courses on new topics.
Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Loureiro, Sonia Regina
The objective of the present study was to carry out the cross- cultural validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Social Phobia Inventory, an instrument for the evaluation of fear, avoidance and physiological symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. The process of translation and adaptation involved four bilingual professionals, appreciation and approval of the back- translation by the authors of the original scale, a pilot study with 30 Brazilian university students, and appreciation by raters who confirmed the face validity of the Portuguese version, which was named ' Inventário de Fobia Social' . As part of the psychometric study of the Social Phobia Inventory, analysis of the items and evaluation of the internal consistency of the instrument were performed in a study conducted on 2314 university students. The results demonstrated that item 11, related to the fear of public speaking, was the most frequently scored item. The correlation of the items with the total score was quite adequate, ranging from 0.44 to 0.71, as was the internal consistency, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. The authors conclude that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory proved to be adequate regarding the psychometric properties initially studied, with qualities quite close to those of the original study. Studies that will evaluate the remaining indicators of validity of the Social Phobia Inventory in clinical and non-clinical samples are considered to be opportune and necessary.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Company CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) and Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh...
... ``Hopi Footprints.'' This migration history is complex and detailed, and includes traditions relating specific clans to the Mogollon region. Hopi cultural advisors have also identified medicinal and culinary...
... of family or Clan, as the Clan thought it was lost or stolen, since there was no explanation of where..., or cultural importance central to the Native American group or culture itself, rather than property owned by an individual. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship of shared group identity...
Cruz, Eduardo B; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Sousa, Sandra; Aguiar, Renata; Sepriano, Alexandre; Manica, Santiago Rodrigues; Kiltz, Uta; Branco, Jaime C; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando M
There is a lack of outcome measures to assess the impact of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) on health, function and quality of life. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) group developed the ASAS Health Index (ASAS-HI) and the ASAS Environmental Factors Item Set (ASAS-EF) to measure functioning and health across all aspects of health that are typically affected and relevant for patients with axSpA, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The aim of this paper was to describe the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of both questionnaires into European Portuguese among patients with radiographic and non-radiographic axial SpA (nr-axSpA) and test the conceptual equivalence of the translated version in the Portuguese context. The ASAS-HI and ASAS-EF were firstly translated into European Portuguese and then back-translated into English, following forward-backward procedure. After the review of the Portuguese version by an expert committee, the field test with cognitive debriefing involved a sample of 10 axSpA patients with different gender, age, disease duration, and educational background. Minor difficulties arose from the translation process of the ASAS-HI. The EF Item Set offered more difficulties indicating that concepts underlying the contextual factors may be more culture-dependent. A total of 10 patients with axSpA [8 males, mean age of 41.4 (±13.7)] participated in the field test. Cognitive debriefing showed that items of the ASAS-HI and EF Item Set of the Portuguese version are clear, relevant, understandable and easy to complete. As a result of cognitive debriefing, the wording of four items had to be changed to avoid misunderstandings or unintended interpretations, and a new response option "not applicable" was added to two items of the ASAS-HI to improve appropriateness. The resulting Portuguese version of the ASAS-HI and ASAS-EF showed acceptable linguistic validity and has
Eduardo B. Cruz
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of outcome measures to assess the impact of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA on health, function and quality of life. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS group developed the ASAS Health Index (ASAS-HI and the ASAS Environmental Factors Item Set (ASAS-EF to measure functioning and health across all aspects of health that are typically affected and relevant for patients with axSpA, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. The aim of this paper was to describe the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of both questionnaires into European Portuguese among patients with radiographic and non-radiographic axial SpA (nr-axSpA and test the conceptual equivalence of the translated version in the Portuguese context. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ASAS-HI and ASAS-EF were firstly translated into European Portuguese and then back-translated into English, following forward-backward procedure. After the review of the Portuguese version by an expert committee, the field test with cognitive debriefing involved a sample of 10 axSpA patients with different gender, age, disease duration, and educational background. RESULTS: Minor difficulties arose from the translation process of the ASAS-HI. The EF Item Set offered more difficulties indicating that concepts underlying the contextual factors may be more culture-dependent. A total of 10 patients with axSpA [8 males, mean age of 41.4 (±13.7] participated in the field test. Cognitive debriefing showed that items of the ASAS-HI and EF Item Set of the Portuguese version are clear, relevant, understandable and easy to complete. As a result of cognitive debriefing, the wording of four items had to be changed to avoid misunderstandings or unintended interpretations, and a new response option “not applicable” was added to two items of the ASAS-HI to improve appropriateness. CONCLUSIONS: The resulting Portuguese version of
... speeches about the ways of his fellow Haida people. When the Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine... group identity that can be reasonably traced between the object of cultural patrimony and the Organized...
... bound to the front and back of each with multicolored yarn wrappings. Also tied to them with yarn is a... Native American group or culture itself, rather than property owned by an individual. Pursuant to 25 U.S...
Czachowski, Sławomir; Terluin, Berend; Izdebski, Adam; Izdebski, Paweł
The original Dutch Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), which measures distress, depression, anxiety and somatization, has been translated into Polish with the aim of providing primary health care with a good screening instrument for the detection of the most prevalent mental health problems (anxiety, somatization, depression and distress). To check if the Polish version is cross-culturally valid so that the scores of Polish subjects can be compared with the scores of Dutch subjects and the Dutch cut-off points can be used in Polish subjects. 4DSQ data were collected from a mixed sample of students and primary care attendees. The Polish data were compared with the 4DSQ data of a matched sample of Dutch students and primary care attendees. Two methods of differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, ordinal logistic regression and generalized Mantel-Haenszel, were used to detect items with DIF, and linear regression analysis was used to estimate the scale-level impact of DIF. Four items showing DIF were detected in the distress scale, one in the somatization scale and one in the anxiety scale. The DIF in distress caused Polish subjects with moderate scores to score circa 1 point less than their Dutch counterparts. The results of the DIF analyses suggest that the Polish 4DSQ measures the same constructs as the Dutch 4DSQ and that the Dutch norms can be used for the Polish subjects, except for distress: the first cut-off point should be one point lower.
Hulbæk, Mette; Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Primdahl, Jette
for a particular disease and can be implemented for purposes of evaluation and quality improvement in health care. It has been translated into 17 languages, thus it can be suitable for comparing results internationally. The aim was to translate and cultural adapt a Danish translation of the SDM-Q-9 patient version...... was translated from German and cultural adapted into a Danish context following WHO’s four phased recommended process; (1) Forward translation (2) Expert panel discussion – Back translation (3) Pre-testing and cognitive interviewing and (4) Final version and documentation. A brief summary of results to support...
Terluin, Berend; Unalan, Pemra C; Turfaner Sipahioğlu, Nurver; Arslan Özkul, Seda; van Marwijk, Harm W J
The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is originally a Dutch 50 item questionnaire developed in primary care to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization. We aimed to develop and validate a Turkish translation of the 4DSQ. The questionnaire was translated using forward and backward translation, and pilot testing. Turkish 4DSQ-data were collected in 352 consecutive adult primary care patients. For comparison, gender and age matched Dutch reference data were drawn from a larger existing dataset. We used differential item and test functioning (DIF and DTF) analysis to validate the Turkish translation to the original Dutch questionnaire. Through additional inquiry we tried to obtain more insight in the background of DIF in some items. Twenty-one items displayed DIF but this impacted only the distress and depression scores. Inquiry among Turkish people revealed that the reason for DTF in the distress scale was probably related to unfavourable socio-economic circumstances. On the other hand, the likely explanation for DTF in the depression scale appeared to be grounded in culturally and religiously determined optimistic beliefs. Raising the distress cut-offs by 2 points and lowering the depression cut-offs by 1 point ensures that individual Turkish 4DSQ scores be correctly interpreted. The Turkish translation of the 4DSQ (named: "Dört-Boyutlu Yakınma Listesi", 4BYL) measures the same constructs as the original Dutch questionnaire. Turkish anxiety and somatization scores can be interpreted in the same way as Dutch scores. However, when interpreting Turkish distress and depression scores, DTF should be taken into account.
Rapson, Valerie; Almeyda, T.; Freeman, M.; Lena, D.; Principe, D.; Punzi, K.; Sargent, B. A.; Vaddi, S.; Vazquez, B.; Vorobiev, D.
The Imagine RIT Innovation and Creativity Festival is an annual free event held each year on the campus of the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). The purpose of the festival is to showcase the work and research conducted by students and faculty at RIT, and get the public excited about science and technology. For the past three years, graduate students, post-docs and faculty in the Astrophysical Sciences and Technology graduate program at RIT have participated in the festival by showcasing their astronomy research in a fun, interactive and hands on way. We have presented work conducted with various telescopes in the fields of star formation and galaxy evolution. Here, we present our three unique exhibits and the public’s reception to each exhibit. We found that interactive games such as astro-trivia, and hands on activities such as building a scale model of the Hubble Space Telescope were the most exciting for visitors. Interactive pieces of the exhibit in general acquired the most attention, whereas posters and videos, despite their pictorial nature, were not as well received. The most successful piece of our exhibit each year has been solar observing through eclipse glasses and telescopes. Most people who observed the sun at our exhibit were left awe-struck because this was their first experience viewing an astronomical object through a telescope. We plan to improve upon our exhibit by introducing more hands-on activities that will engage the public in current astronomy research at RIT.
... Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice. History and Description of the Cultural... behind by the ancestors as ``Hopi Footprints.'' This migration history is complex and detailed, and... identified medicinal and culinary plants at archeological sites in the region. Their knowledge about these...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is published as part of the National Park Service's administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25.... Based on material culture, architecture and site organization, the small cliff dwelling at Hidden House...
The aim of our contribution is that of analysing the possible linguistic and cross-cultural contexts where the hendiadys true and fair was born, and exploring the meaning implications of the same ‘formula’ during the centuries. We start from the hypothesis that true and fair is a hendiadys, to show that the two terms take strength and completeness one from the other, so as to generate an only complex meaning, whose original usage was, last but not least, a literary and poetical one. The analysis of the hendiadys moves from the non-legal to the legal context, following steps of the etymological and lexical research methodology.
Full Text Available This article asserts that the Japanese wide-scope mo ‘even’ in simple sentences are bipolar items (BPIs antilicensed or forbidden by negation and licensed in a non-monotonic (NM environment. BPIs share the features of negative polarity items (NPIs as well as positive polarity items (PPIs. The Dutch ooit ‘ever’, the Serbo-Croatian i-series ‘and/even’, and the Hungarian is-series ‘and/even’ are antilicensed by clausemate negation and licensed by extraclausal negation (van der Wouden, 1997; Progovac, 1994; Szabolcsi, 2002 or non-monotonic negative (and positive, for Serbo-Croatian emotive predicates. Adding an NPI rescues BPIs in uncomfortable clausemate negation.
Aline Mansueto Mourao
Full Text Available Objective To translate and to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the “Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items” (MG-QOL15. Method The original English version of the questionnaire was translated into Portuguese. This version was revised and translated back into English. Later, both English versions were compared and the divergences were corrected in the Portuguese text. At a second stage, ten patients with MG followed at the Neuromuscular Diseases Clinic from the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais answered the questionnaire. The authors analyzed the difficulties and misunderstandings in the application of the questionnaire. Results The questions 8, 13 and 15 were considered difficult to understand and were modified in the final Portuguese version. Most patients (70% had a total score above 25, and the statements 3, 8 and 9 showed the highest scores. Conclusion The Brazilian version of the questionnaire MG-QOL15 seems to be a promising tool for the assessment of Brazilian patients with MG.
Birnbaum, Simone; Ghout, Idir; Demeret, Sophie; Bolgert, Francis; Eymard, Bruno; Sharshar, Tarek; Portero, Pierre; Hogrel, Jean-Yves
Evaluation of quality of life (QOL) has become essential in healthcare. Currently no MG-specific QOL measure exists in French. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the 15-Item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale (MG-QOL15) scale for French myasthenia patients. Translation and cross-cultural adaption of the MG-QOL15 was performed, followed by reliability and validity evaluations. One hundred and twenty-five patients were included. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach α = 0.92) as was test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.96). Concurrent validity was good for both clinical scores (myasthenic muscle score: ρ = -0.52, P < 0.001; Myasthenia Gravis-Activities of Daily Living scale score: ρ = 0.62, P < 0.001). Correlations were strongest for overall QOL (ρ = 0.62, P < 0.001) and physical health (ρ = 0.67, P < 0.001) on the World Health Organization Quality of Life short score (WHO-QOL BREF). The French version of the MG-QOL15 is valid and reliable and is now available for use with French-speaking patients. Muscle Nerve, 2016 Muscle Nerve 55: 639-645, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mahmood, Muhammad Asif; Rehman, Khaleeq Ur; Khan, M Amanullah; Sultan, Tipu
Patients suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED) feel shy to discuss this issue with their physician. Self-report questionnaires are a key instrument to break this barrier. Most of these questionnaires are in English, and their validated translations in Urdu, the official language of Pakistan, are not available. The aim of our study is to translate, cross-culturally adapt, and perform psychometric validation of an Urdu translation of the 5-item international index of erectile function (IIEF-5). The translation of IIEF-5 was done in Urdu and was refined through reverse translation and expert committee reviews. It was then pretested on 20 bilingual men and reviewed again to develop a final Urdu version of the questionnaire. We selected 47 patients who had been in a stable sexual relationship over the past 6 months and asked them to fill out the IIEF-5 questionnaire in both languages (Urdu and English), followed by evaluation of ED by a clinician, who was blinded to the responses of the patient to the questionnaire. The self-report to questionnaire and independent clinical assessment were compared. Patients refilled out the questionnaire again at the end of the interview to assess test-retest consistency. These data were now analyzed statistically using descriptive statistics, Cohen's kappa, and Cronbach's alpha analysis. The Cohen's kappa showed a very high degree of agreement between the two versions (P Urdu version of IIEF-5 is a valid instrument for use in the literate population of Pakistan. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Mendiola, Jaime; Stahlhut, Richard W; Jørgensen, Niels
measures of AGD [from the anus to the posterior base of the scrotum (AGD(AS)) and to the cephalad insertion of the penis (AGD(AP))] in 126 volunteers in Rochester, New York. RESULTS: AGD(AS), but not AGD(AP), was associated with sperm concentration, motility, morphology, total sperm count, and total motile...
... high speed intercity passenger rail connection between the Twin Cities and Chicago. The Minnesota... Plan for high-speed rail development. Significant growth in Rochester and Olmsted County has occurred... studies for the proposed Corridor have supported its independent utility to support high speed intercity...
ROCHESTER, MINNESOTA HESGED , S STAGE 4-BEAR CREEK CHEC KED,..V. PLAN AND PROFILE DRWN KB/a SDESIGNED: FWG/OAC STATION 60+00 TO 69+00 - CHECKED: SVD...338, Wind and Snow Loads (February 1983). g. EM 1110-2-2002, Evaluation and Repair of Concrete Structures (July 1986). h. EM 1110-2-2000, Standard
Full Text Available Die klischeehafte Verbindung von Weiblichkeit und Mode wird am Beispiel der Weimarer Republik einer kulturwissenschaftlichen Relektüre unterworfen. Dabei zeigt sich an bislang wenig bekanntem Quellenmaterial aus Modejournalismus, Konfektionsfilm und Angestelltenroman, dass im Modebereich engagierte Frauen nicht nur als massenmediale Objekte dienten, sondern selbst im Bereich der modernen Weimarer Attraktionskultur aktiv waren.Using the example of the Weimar Republic, the book re-reads the stereotypical connection between femininity and fashion from the perspective of cultural studies. Little-known source material from fashion journalism, ready-to-wear film (Konfektionsfilm, and the white-collar novel (Angestelltenroman is used show that in the area of fashion, engaged women served not only as mass-media objects, but also were themselves active in the modern Weimar culture of attractions.
Ten students participated in the 1991 summer high school student research program at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The participants spent 8 weeks working and learning at LLE. They spent most of their time working on individual research projects. Each student was assigned a project, upon which he/she worked under the direct supervision of one of the staff members of the laboratory. The students, their high schools, and their projects are listed in Table 1. The program culminated in oral and written reports describing their work. The oral reports were presented at a symposium on 23 August 1991, at which the student`s parents and teachers and members of the LLE staff were present. The written reports are collected in this volume. The titles of the works are UV alignment table; neutron yields can be measured by using the relative gain of a photomultiplier tube; scattering in isotropic and anisotropic media; a better approximation of the diffusion equation; use of the SLAC code to produce a photoemissive electrostatic electron gun; spatial resolution deteriorates with increasing film exposure; analysis of refractive image distortion; making of pinholes for x-ray pinhole cameras; does perturbation theory accurately describe multiphoton ionization? and wave front analysis using shearing interferometry.
Decco, M L; Wendland, B I; O'Connell, E J
To reassess airborne pollen counts and to study spore counts by volumetric collection in Rochester, Minnesota. Samples of pollen and spores were collected from the top of a six-story building in downtown Rochester by use of a rotational rod sampler, which was activated for 30 seconds every 10 minutes for 24 hours a day, 5 days a week, from mid-April to mid-October 1992 through 1995. Particles were stained with Calberla's fluid and viewed microscopically by transmitted light. Identifications were substantiated by comparison with field-collected "known" materials and standard reference guides. Data were expressed as "particles retained/cubic meter of air sampled." Because the methods of collection varied, only qualitative comparisons could be made with a study done in Rochester more than 3 1/2 decades earlier. For tree pollens, a similar progression of appearance and seasonal duration were noted for most species. Alder (Alnus), willow (Salix), and hickory-pecan (Carya), however, were found to have distinctly longer seasons, and walnut (Julgans) was detected 2 weeks earlier in the season. The most frequently detected tree pollen had changed from oak (Quercus) to apple and crab apple (Malus), which was not reported at all previously. Ragweed (Ambrosia) was still found to peak at the end of August and had a similar duration. Study of grass and nettle pollen as well as the Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae complex yielded findings similar to those in the prior investigation. Fungal spores were detected from April through October and represented a substantial percentage of the airborne allergens; Cladosporium, ascospores, and basidiospores were the most common. Volumetric assessment of airborne pollen and spore levels in Rochester, Minnesota, yielded useful information for clinicians in southern Minnesota that could help direct skin test selection.
Professor Rochester has died aged 93. He discovered a new sub-atomic particle known as the Kaon, an acheivement that resulted in a period of rapid development in the scientific understanding of the composition of matter.
..., that meets the definition of sacred object and object of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This.../object of cultural patrimony and the Navajo Nation of Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. Representatives of... of cultural patrimony should contact Garry Cantley, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Western Regional Office...
Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.
After vigorous review, editing, and trial testing, this item bank was compiled to help secondary school teachers construct objective tests in the social sciences. Anthropology, economics, ethnic and cultural studies, geography, history, legal studies, politics, and sociology are among the topics represented. The bank consists of multiple choice…
Guerra, M.F., E-mail: email@example.com [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France and UMR 8220 CNRS, Palais du Louvre – 14, Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tissot, I., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Archeofactu, Rua do Cerrado das Oliveiras n°14, 2°Dto., 2610-035 Alfragide (Portugal)
This work gives an overview of the main questions raised by gold and silver items kept in museum collections and of the role of nuclear microprobes in their study and conservation. The different approached questions are illustrated by examples; analytical data is given and discussed; and the advantages of IBA are considered: spatial resolution, penetration depth, limits of detection, mapping, etc.
... or 1150. Continuities of mortuary practices, ethnographic materials, and technology indicate... cultural affiliation study, submitted by the Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian...
This quarterly progress report gives an overview of the University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project for April 1, 1950 thru June 30, 1950. Sections included are entitled (1) Biological Effects of External Radiation (X-rays and gamma rays), (2) Biological Effects of External Radiation (Infra-red and ultraviolet), (3) Biological effects of radioactive materials (polonium, radon, thoron, and miscellaneous project materials), (4) Uranium, (5) Beryllium, (7) thorium, (8) fluoride, (9) zirconium, (10) special materials, (11) Isotopes, (12) Outside services, (12) Project health, (13) Health physics, (14) Special Clinical Service, and (15) Instrumentation (Spectroscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray and nuclear radiation detectors, x-ray diffraction, and electronics).
Stocking, Martha L.; And Others
This paper presents a new heuristic approach to interactive test assembly that is called the successive item replacement algorithm. This approach builds on the work of W. J. van der Linden (1987) and W. J. van der Linden and E. Boekkooi-Timminga (1989) in which methods of mathematical optimization are combined with item response theory to…
Superconductivity in d- and f- band metals
The occurrence of superconductivity among the d- and f-band metals remains one of the unsolved problems of physics. The first Rochester conference on this subject in October 1971 brought together approximately 100 experimentalists and theorists, and that conference was considered successful; the published proceedings well-represented the current research at that time and has served as a "handbook" to many. In the four and one half years since the first conference, impressive progress has been made in many areas (although Berndt Matthias would be one of the first to point out that raising the m"aximum transition temperature by a significant amount was not one of them). For a variety of reasons, I decided that it was time for a Second Rochester Conference on Superconductivity in d- and f-Band Metals and it was held on April 30 and May 1, 1976. It would appear that this conference was even more successful judging from the quality of the talks and various comments made to me. I believe that this was due...
..., Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Museum of the Plains Indian, Browning, MT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Interior, Indian Arts and Crafts Board..., Indian Arts and Crafts Board. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural...
During 1974-1975, first generation laser implosion experiments have been performed at the KMSF, Livermore, Los Alamos, and University of Rochester Laboratories. Several significant results were achieved in these experiments. The fuel underwent large entropy changes during implosion and did not reach high densities. Consequently, the sensitivity to fluid and plasma instabilities was greatly reduced. A summary of these implosion experiments is presented.
... in the construction of a proposed 345-kilovolt (kV) transmission line and associated infrastructure... the proposed project, which, in addition to the 345-kV transmission line and associated infrastructure, includes 161-kV transmission lines in the vicinity of Rochester, Minnesota; construction of two new and...
... construction of a proposed 345-kilovolt (kV) transmission line and associated infrastructure between Hampton... line and associated infrastructure, includes 161-kV transmission lines in the vicinity of Rochester, Minnesota; construction of two new and expansion of three substations, with a total transmission line length...
CERN Video Productions
Interview to Carl Hagen, theoretical physicist, Rochester University, about the latest results at CERN on the Higgs boson searches. Prof. Hagen expresses his feelings upon learning about the results and explains his role in the formulation of the theory of the Higgs field.
Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Kuholski, Kate
Environmental hazards in the home can contribute significantly to disease. These hazards disproportionately affect low income, urban, and minority children. Childhood lead poisoning and asthma are prime examples of health concerns to which poor housing conditions may contribute significantly. A community-academic partnership in Rochester, New York created a model Healthy Home, an interactive museum in a typical city home, to help residents, property owners, contractors, and community groups reduce environmental hazards. The Healthy Home project educates visitors about home environmental health hazards, demonstrates low-cost methods for reducing home hazards, and helps visitors develop individualized strategies for action. In its first year of operation, over 700 people visited the Healthy Home. Evaluation surveys indicate that the Healthy Home experience motivated visitors to take action to reduce environmental hazards in their homes. Follow-up phone interviews indicate that most visitors took some action to reduce home environmental hazards. The Healthy Home has established a diverse Advisory Council to share its messages more broadly, invite input into future directions, and recruit visitors. This paper presents experiences from the Healthy Home's first year, highlighting the partnership principles that guided its development and lessons learned from the process.
Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Chapman, Benjamin; Partridge, Gregory
Patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) may improve the quality of primary care while reducing costs and utilization. Early evidence on the effectiveness of PCMH has been mixed. We analyze the impact of a PCMH intervention in Rochester NY on costs, utilization, and quality of care. A propensity score-matched difference-in-differences analysis of the effect of the PCMH intervention relative to a comparison group of practices. Qualitative interviews with PCMH practice managers on their experiences and challenges with PCMH practice transformation. Seven pilot practices and 61 comparison practices (average of 36,531 and 30,192 attributed member months per practice, respectively). Interviews with practice leaders at all pilot sites. Individual HEDIS quality measures of preventive care, diabetes care, and care for coronary artery disease. Utilization measures of hospital use, office visits, imaging and laboratory tests, and prescription drug use. Cost measures are inpatient, prescription drug, and total spending. After 3 years, PCMH practices reported decreased ambulatory care sensitive emergency room visits and use of imaging tests, and increased primary care visits and laboratory tests. Utilization of prescription drugs increased but drug spending decreased. PCMH practices reported increased rates of breast cancer screening and low-density lipid screening for diabetes patients, and decreased rates of any prevention quality indicator. The PCMH model leads to significant changes in patient care, with reductions in some services and increases in others. This study joins a growing body of work that finds no effect of PCMH transformation on total health care spending.
Lukishova, Svetlana G.; Bigelow, Nicholas P.; D'Alessandris, Paul D.
Supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation educational grant, a coherent educational program at the University of Rochester (UR) in nanoscience and nanoengineering, based on the Institute of Optics and Intergrated Nanosystems Center resources was created. The main achievements of this program are (1) developing curriculum and offering the Certificate for Nanoscience and Nanoengineering program (15 students were awarded the Certificate and approximately 10 other students are working in this direction), (2) creating a reproducible model of collaboration in nanotechnology between a university with state-of-the-art, expensive experimental facilities, and a nearby, two-year community college (CC) with participation of a local Monroe Community College (MCC). 52 MCC students carried out two labs at the UR on the atomic force microscopy and a photolithography at a clean room; (3) developing reproducible hand-on experiments on nanophotonics ("mini-labs"), learning materials and pedagogical methods to educate students with diverse backgrounds, including freshmen and non-STEM-major CC students. These minilabs on nanophotonics were also introduced in some Institute of Optics classes. For the Certificate program UR students must take three courses: Nanometrology Laboratory (a new course) and two other selective courses from the list of several. Students also should carry out a one-semester research or a design project in the field of nanoscience and nanoengineering.
Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Kuholski, Kate
In several cities, researchers have found that a discrete number of properties owned by a small number of owners house multiple lead poisoned children over time. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not a small number of properties were implicated in the poisoning of multiple children in Rochester, New York, between 1993 and 2004. We analyzed the patterns of ownership and repeated positive environmental investigations (i.e., documented lead hazards) in homes of lead poisoned children using county health department data during a 12-year period. A small percentage (14.8%) of properties in which the health department found a lead hazard had previously documented lead hazards. When a second positive investigation occurred, the average elapsed time between investigations was a little less than three years. Only four property owners owned more than two properties that had multiple positive investigations. In some cities, a small number of properties or property owners provide housing for a large percentage of lead poisoned children. However, this situation is not universal. In Rochester, a relatively small percentage of homes that housed a child with an elevated blood lead level have a history of housing lead poisoned children. In cities like Rochester, lead hazard reduction resources should focus on high-risk housing stock determined by factors such as age, value, and condition, rather than on those with a prior record of housing lead poisoned children.
Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.
In some areas of measurement item parameters should not be modeled as fixed but as random. Examples of such areas are: item sampling, computerized item generation, measurement with substantial estimation error in the item parameter estimates, and grouping of items under a common stimulus or in a
Smith, Timothy B.; Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez; Bernal, Guillermo
This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele...
The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.
Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) are words or expressions that exhibit a restricted distribution to certain negative contexts only. For example, yet is an NPI and must appear in the scope of a negation: Mary has *(not) finished yet. The existence of NPIs such as yet gives rise to a learnability
Ligtvoet, Rudy; van der Ark, L. Andries; te Marvelde, Janneke M.; Sijtsma, Klaas
This article discusses the concept of an invariant item ordering (IIO) for polytomously scored items and proposes methods for investigating an IIO in real test data. Method manifest IIO is proposed for assessing whether item response functions intersect. Coefficient H[superscript T] is defined for polytomously scored items. Given that an IIO…
Il n’est sans doute pas de notion aussi vaste et aussi polysémique en sciences sociales que la notion de culture, qui renvoie alternativement à l’ensemble des symboles, des significations, des valeurs et des manières de faire propres à un groupe et au domaine spécialisé des activités expressives, savantes et populaires. La notion de culture est ainsi tout autant mobilisée dans l’exploration des grandes thématiques de la sociologie (stratification, inégalités, institutions, mouvements sociaux)...
Wilbur F. LaPage
A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...
MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon
An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…
Hoffman, K I; Solinas, J; Marshall, G J
Student-written items were compared with teacher-written items on an objective examination given to first year medical students. While student scores were higher on the student-written items than on teacher-written items, there was a positive correlation between the scores. Student items did not differ from teacher items in the course, according to student ratings of emphasis. As a by-product of this study, correlations were found which suggest that student scores on an item often reflect the degree of teaching emphasis given the content area of the item rather than the inherent difficulty of the content. It is suggested that further research is needed to determine whether students learn through the process of writing examination items. Therefore, if the process proves to be educational, this study indicates that it will be feasible to incorporate the student-constructed items in examinations.
The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.
Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.
Duffy, Brian; George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.
The United States and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. The lowest reach of the Genesee River and the Rochester Embayment on Lake Ontario between Bogus Point and Nine Mile Point, including Braddock Bay, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to effects of contaminated sediments and physical disturbance on several beneficial uses. Following sediment remedial efforts and with conditions improving in the AOC, the present study was conducted to reevaluate the status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and 10-day Chironomus dilutus bioassays were used to test the hypotheses that sediments within the AOC were no more toxic than sediments from surrounding reference areas. The study was separated into three discrete systems (Genesee River, Lake Ontario, and Braddock Bay) and non-parametric analyses determined that a multimetric index of benthic macroinvertebrate community integrity was significantly higher at AOC sites compared to reference sites on the Genesee River and in Braddock Bay while AOC and reference sites on Lake Ontario did not differ significantly. Survival and growth of C. dilutus were also similar between AOC and reference sites for each system with the exception of significantly higher growth at reference sites on Lake Ontario. Results generally indicated that the condition of benthos and toxicity of sediment of the Rochester Embayment AOC are similar to or better than that in the surrounding area.
Le découpage des spécialités sociologiques hésite habituellement entre une répartition thématique par domaines empiriquement distingués et un partage conceptuel reposant sur des orientations de recherche. La sociologie de la culture n'échappe pas à cette oscillation. De prime abord, elle couvre un secteur plus ou moins clairement délimité, qui englobe la sociologie de l'art et ce qui est socialement désigné comme relevant de la « vie culturelle ». Elle regroupe alors un ensemble de subdivisio...
Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt
Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by…
L’un des objets de l’enquête anthropologique, pour laquelle des éléments peuvent être obtenus par l’étude des sociétés existantes, est l’inter-dépendance des phénomènes culturels. Alors que dans l’étude des processus de diffusion et de développement parallèle les caractères et la distribution de traits singuliers sont communément les objets de l’analyse, nous sommes conduits, ici, à considérer la culture, dans toutes ses manifestations, comme un tout. Les inventions, la vie économique, la str...
Full Text Available Computerized classification tests (CCTs often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of three different methods for controlling maximum item exposure rates in CCTs are compared. Specifically, the Sympson-Hetter, restricted, and item eligibility methods are examined in two studies realistically simulating different types of CCTs and are evaluated based upon criteria including classification accuracy, the number of items exceeding the desired maximum exposure rate, and test overlap. The pros and cons of each method are discussed from a practical perspective.
Hardesty, David E; Maraganore, Demetrius M; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Louis, Elan D
In one cross-sectional study of a community in northern Manhattan, women with essential tremor (ET) were more likely to have head tremor than were men. In that study, patients were seen at one point in time, rather than followed longitudinally. Head tremor often develops after arm tremor, and its appearance in patients with ET may therefore be a function of duration of follow-up. In a second epidemiological study utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project, in which ET subjects were followed from disease diagnosis to death, we determined whether there was an association between female gender and head tremor. We utilized the records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify ET cases. Records were reviewed and clinical data abstracted by a neurologist specializing in movement disorders. A second neurologist reviewed a subsample of records. There were 107 ET cases (69 women, 38 men) followed for 10.1 +/- 9.1 years from ET diagnosis to death. Head tremor was present in 37 (53.6%) women and 5 (13.2%) men (odds ratio [OR] = 7.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7-21.9, P tremor (OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 2.2-19.0, P = 0.001) independent of disease duration. We found in this longitudinal epidemiological study that women with ET were six times more likely to develop head tremor over the course of their illness than were men. The reason for the association between gender and head tremor, which has now been demonstrated in several studies, is not known, but it could reflect gender differences in the distribution of disease pathology within the brain. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society
Wayne C. Zipperer; Susan M. Sisinni; Jerry Bond; Chris Luley; Andrew G. Pleninger
Rochester, New York, U.S., were reviewed to evaluate the city's storm related removal protocol and how maintenance varied by damage classes. Maintenance codes assigned in 1991 were used to identify ice-storm damage classes based on percentage of crown loss. We evaluated seven species Noway maple (Acer platanoides), silver maple (A. saccharinum), sugar maple (A....
Gideon P. De Bruin
Full Text Available The factor analysis of items often produces spurious results in the sense that unidimensional scales appear multidimensional. This may be ascribed to failure in meeting the assumptions of linearity and normality on which factor analysis is based. Item response theory is explicitly designed for the modelling of the non-linear relations between ordinal variables and provides a strong alternative to the factor analysis of items. Items may also be combined in parcels that are more likely to satisfy the assumptions of factor analysis than do the items. The use of the Rasch rating scale model and the factor analysis of parcels is illustrated with data obtained with the Locus of Control Inventory. The results of these analyses are compared with the results obtained through the factor analysis of items. It is shown that the Rasch rating scale model and the factoring of parcels produce superior results to the factor analysis of items. Recommendations for the analysis of scales are made. Opsomming Die faktorontleding van items lewer dikwels misleidende resultate op, veral in die opsig dat eendimensionele skale as meerdimensioneel voorkom. Hierdie resultate kan dikwels daaraan toegeskryf word dat daar nie aan die aannames van lineariteit en normaliteit waarop faktorontleding berus, voldoen word nie. Itemresponsteorie, wat eksplisiet vir die modellering van die nie-liniêre verbande tussen ordinale items ontwerp is, bied ’n aantreklike alternatief vir die faktorontleding van items. Items kan ook in pakkies gegroepeer word wat meer waarskynlik aan die aannames van faktorontleding voldoen as individuele items. Die gebruik van die Rasch beoordelingskaalmodel en die faktorontleding van pakkies word aan die hand van data wat met die Lokus van Beheervraelys verkry is, gedemonstreer. Die resultate van hierdie ontledings word vergelyk met die resultate wat deur ‘n faktorontleding van die individuele items verkry is. Die resultate dui daarop dat die Rasch
The results showed a significant difference between the difficulty levels of test items in WAEC and NECO mathematics objective test instruments, with NECO having more difficulty level in their instruments, as reflected in the item characteristic curves. Thus, the NECO examination mathematics objective test was more difficult ...
Grigoriev, Alexander; van Loon, Joyce; Sviridenko, Maxim; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vredeveld, Tjark; Arge, L.; Hoffmann, M.; Welzl, E.
We consider a revenue maximization problem where we are selling a set of items, each available in a certain quantity, to a set of bidders. Each bidder is interested in one or several bundles of items. We assume the bidders’ valuations for each of these bundles to be known. Whenever bundle prices are
Zumbo, Bruno D.; Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Shear, Benjamin R.; Olvera Astivia, Oscar L.; Ark, Tavinder K.
Methods for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) and item bias are typically used in the process of item analysis when developing new measures; adapting existing measures for different populations, languages, or cultures; or more generally validating test score inferences. In 2007 in "Language Assessment Quarterly," Zumbo…
Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.
To increase the number of items available for adaptive testing and reduce the cost of item writing, the use of techniques of item cloning has been proposed. An important consequence of item cloning is possible variability between the item parameters. To deal with this variability, a multilevel item
Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl
The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…
Baker, Clayton J; Shaw, Margie Hodges; Mooney, Christopher J; Daiss, Susan Dodge-Peters; Clark, Stephanie Brown
Qualitative and quantitative research on the impact of medical and health humanities teaching in baccalaureate education is sparse. This paper reviews recent studies of the impact of medical and health humanities coursework in pre-health professions education and describes a pilot study of baccalaureate students who completed semester-long medical humanities courses in the Division of Medical Humanities & Bioethics at the University of Rochester. The study format was an email survey. All participants were current or former baccalaureate students who had taken one or more courses in literature and narrative in medicine, bioethics, history of medicine, and/or visual arts and healthcare during the past four years. The survey gathered numerical data in several areas: demographic information, career plans, self-reported influence of coursework on educational and career plans, and self-reported influence of coursework on intellectual skills and abilities. It also gathered narrative commentary that elaborated on students' responses to the numerically-based questions. Notable findings from preliminary analysis of the data include higher scores of self-reported impact of the coursework on specific habits of mind and on preparedness for intended career rather than on gaining admission to future educational programs. Discussion of the results focuses on several potential future directions this type of study might take, including multi-center, longitudinal, and sequential approaches.
Meyerhofer, David D.
Ten students participated in the 1991 summer high school student research program at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The participants spent 8 weeks working and learning at LLE. They spent most of their time working on individual research projects. Each student was assigned a project, upon which he/she worked under the direct supervision of one of the staff members of the laboratory. The students, their high schools, and their projects are listed in Table 1. The program culminated in oral and written reports describing their work. The oral reports were presented at a symposium on 23 August 1991, at which the student's parents and teachers and members of the LLE staff were present. The written reports are collected in this volume. The titles of the works are UV alignment table; neutron yields can be measured by using the relative gain of a photomultiplier tube; scattering in isotropic and anisotropic media; a better approximation of the diffusion equation; use of the SLAC code to produce a photoemissive electrostatic electron gun; spatial resolution deteriorates with increasing film exposure; analysis of refractive image distortion; making of pinholes for x-ray pinhole cameras; does perturbation theory accurately describe multiphoton ionization and wave front analysis using shearing interferometry.
Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.
oak-B202--During the summer of 1999, 12 students from Rochester-area high schools participated in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' Summer High School Research Program. The goal of this program is to excite a group of high school students about careers in the areas of science and technology by exposing them to research in a state-of-the-art environment. Too often, students are exposed to ''research'' only through classroom laboratories that have prescribed procedures and predictable results. In LLE's summer program, the students experience all of the trials, tribulations, and rewards of scientific research. By participating in research in a real environment, the students often become more enthusiastic about careers in science and technology. In addition, LLE gains from the contributions of the many highly talented students who are attracted to the program. The students spent most of their time working on their individual research projects with members of LLE's technical staff. The projects were related to current research activities at LLE and covered a broad range of areas of interest including laser modeling, diagnostic development, chemistry, liquid crystal devices, and opacity data visualization. The students, their high schools, their LLE supervisors and their project titles are listed in the table. Their written reports are collected in this volume. The students attended weekly seminars on technical topics associated with LLE's research. Topics this year included lasers, fusion, holography, optical materials, global warming, measurement errors, and scientific ethics. The students also received safety training, learned how to give scientific presentations, and were introduced to LLE's resources, especially the computational facilities. The program culminated with the High School Student Summer Research Symposium on 25 August at which the students presented the results of their research to an audience that
Halterman, Jill S; Tajon, Reynaldo; Tremblay, Paul; Fagnano, Maria; Butz, Arlene; Perry, Tamara T; McConnochie, Kenneth M
In the spirit of Dr. Haggerty's teachings, we present an overview of our work to improve care for children with asthma in the context of 3 lessons learned: 1) the importance of providing integrated services across disciplinary boundaries for children with chronic illness, 2) the need to move from a care model focused only on the individual child to a model focused on the child, family, and community, and 3) the need to expand beyond the local community and take a broad perspective on improving health on a national level. The goal of our program is to develop sustainable models to overcome the multiple obstacles to effective preventive care for urban children with asthma. The primary intervention for our original School-Based Asthma Therapy program was directly observed administration of preventive asthma medications in school (with dose adjustments on the basis of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines). We found that children who received preventive medications in school through directly observed therapy had improved outcomes across multiple outcome measures. Our subsequent asthma programs have focused on dissemination and sustainability, with the incorporation of communication technology to enhance the system of care. We are currently testing the 'School-Based Telemedicine Enhanced Asthma Management' program, including 400 children with persistent asthma from the Rochester City School District. This program includes directly observed administration of preventive asthma medication at school, and school-based telemedicine to assure appropriate evaluation, preventive medication prescription, and follow-up care. It is designed to implement and sustain guideline-based asthma care through existing community infrastructure, and could serve as a model for the integration of services in rural as well as urban communities. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lukishova, Svetlana G.; Zavestovskaya, Irina N.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Aleshchenko, Yury A.; Konov, Vitaly I.
A collaboration in education between the oldest and one of the most comprehensive Optics schools in U.S., the Institute of Optics (IO), University of Rochester (UR), and one of the most recognized Russian university, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) was started in 2015 by signing an agreement on a double-Master's degree program in optics. It was based on earlier collaboration between research groups in both universities. In summer of 2016, nine UR Optics undergraduate students participated with MEPhI students at the International School on Optics and Laser Physics in MEPhI. During five days they were immersed into the world of cutting edge research, technologies and ideas that Russian, European and U.S. scientists offered them. This School also included tours of MEPhI Nanotechnologies and Lasers Centers and Nano-bioengineering Laboratory as well as of scientific laboratories of the leading institutes in optics, photonics and laser physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In December of 2015, one MEPhI Master student visited IO UR for one month for a research project with results presented later at a MEPhI conference. Samples prepared by MEPhI researchers are used in IO students teaching laboratories. One Master student from MEPhI is working now towards the Master's degree at the IO UR. In this paper benefits and pitfalls of a cross-border collaboration are discussed as well as different directions of such a collaboration to provide a high-quality specialization for the students of the 21 century which includes international cooperation.
Vincent, Ann; Lahr, Brian D; Wolfe, Frederick; Clauw, Daniel J; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Barton, Debra L; St Sauver, Jennifer
Objective Our objective was to estimate and compare the prevalence of fibromyalgia by two different methods, in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Methods The first method was a retrospective review of medical records of potential cases of fibromyalgia in Olmsted County using Rochester Epidemiology Project (from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009) to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia in clinical practice. The second method was a random survey of adults in Olmsted County using the fibromyalgia research survey criteria to estimate the percentage of responders who met fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Results Of the 3,410 potential patients identified by the first method, 1,115 had a fibromyalgia diagnosis documented in the medical record by a health care provider. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia by this method was 1.1%. By the second method, of the 2,994 people who received the survey by mail, 830 (27.6%) responded and 44 (5.3%) met fibromyalgia research survey criteria. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population of Olmsted County by this method was estimated at 6.4%. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the rate at which fibromyalgia is being diagnosed in a community. This is also the first report of prevalence as assessed by the fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Our results suggest that patients, particularly men, who meet the fibromyalgia research survey criteria are unlikely to have been given a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. PMID:23203795
Burns, Daniel J.; Martens, Nicholas J.; Bertoni, Alicia A.; Sweeney, Emily J.; Lividini, Michelle D.
In a repeated testing paradigm, list items receiving item-specific processing are more likely to be recovered across successive tests (item gains), whereas items receiving relational processing are likely to be forgotten progressively less on successive tests. Moreover, analysis of cumulative-recall curves has shown that item-specific processing…
Bonnie R Rush; David C Rankin; Brad J White
.... This study evaluated faculty-authored examinations to determine the impact of item-writing flaws and item complexity on the difficulty and discrimination value of examination items used to assess...
Chaffee, B.W.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Gansky, S.A.; Cheng, J.; Zhan, L.
Caries risk assessment (CRA) is widely recommended for dental caries management. Little is known regarding how practitioners use individual CRA items to determine risk and which individual items independently predict clinical outcomes in children younger than 6 y. The objective of this study was to assess the relative importance of pediatric CRA items in dental providers’ decision making regarding patient risk and in association with clinically evident caries, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. CRA information was abstracted retrospectively from electronic patient records of children initially aged 6 to 72 mo at a university pediatric dentistry clinic (n = 3,810 baseline; n = 1,315 with follow-up). The 17-item CRA form included caries risk indicators, caries protective items, and clinical indicators. Conditional random forests classification trees were implemented to identify and assign variable importance to CRA items independently associated with baseline high-risk designation, baseline evident tooth decay, and follow-up evident decay. Thirteen individual CRA items, including all clinical indicators and all but 1 risk indicator, were independently and statistically significantly associated with student/resident providers’ caries risk designation. Provider-assigned baseline risk category was strongly associated with follow-up decay, which increased from low (20.4%) to moderate (30.6%) to high/extreme risk patients (68.7%). Of baseline CRA items, before adjustment, 12 were associated with baseline decay and 7 with decay at follow-up; however, in the conditional random forests models, only the clinical indicators (evident decay, dental plaque, and recent restoration placement) and 1 risk indicator (frequent snacking) were independently and statistically significantly associated with future disease, for which baseline evident decay was the strongest predictor. In this predominantly high-risk population under caries-preventive care, more individual CRA items
Full Text Available Translation of culture-bound terms is of special importance in translation theory and practice. The present study is an attempt to examine the procedures used in translating these terms in the English translations of the Holy Qurâan. As such, English equivalents of terms related to Practical laws of religion (FurÅ« al-DÄ«n in five English versions of the Qur'an are identified and the translation procedures used in them in addition to the frequency of occurrence of each procedure have been examined. The study reveals that literal translation is not only the most frequently used procedure but also the most appropriate one in translating such terms.
Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa’s unique cultural diversity provides a constant challenge about the fair and unbiased use of psychological measures in respect of their cross-cultural application.Research purpose: This study assesses the Differential Item Functioning (DIF of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17 for different South African cultural groups in a South African company.Motivation for the study: Organisations are using the UWES-17 more and more in South Africa to assess work engagement. Therefore, research evidence from psychologists or assessment practitioners on its DIF across different cultural groups is necessary.Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted a Secondary Data Analysis (SDA on the UWES-17 sample (n = 2429 that they obtained from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in a South African Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector company (n = 24 134. Quantitative item data on the UWES-17 scale enabled the authors to address the research question.Main findings: The researchers found uniform and/or non-uniform DIF on five of the vigour items, four of the dedication items and two of the absorption items. This also showed possible Differential Test Functioning (DTF on the vigour and dedication dimensions.Practical/managerial implications: Based on the DIF, the researchers suggested that organisations should not use the UWES-17 comparatively for different cultural groups or employment decisions in South Africa.Contribution/value add: The study provides evidence on DIF and possible DTF for the UWES-17. However, it also raises questions about possible interaction effects that need further investigation.
Marié De Beer
Full Text Available When differential item functioning (DIF item analysis procedures based on item response theory (IRT are used during test construction, it is possible to draw item characteristic curves for the same item for different subgroups. These curves indicate how each item functions at various ability levels for different subgroups. DIF is indicated by the area between the curves. In the construction of the Learning Potential Computerised Adaptive Test (LPCAT, this method was used to identify items that indicated bias in terms of gender, culture, language or level of education. Items that exceeded a predetermined amount of DIF were discarded from the final item bank, irrespective of which subgroup was being advantaged or disadvantaged. The process and results of the DIF analysis are discussed.Opsomming Waar differensiële itemfunksioneringsprosedures (DIF-prosedures vir itemontleding gebaseer op itemresponsteorie (IRT tydens toetskonstruksie gebruik word, is dit moontlik om itemkarakteristiekekrommes vir dieselfde item vir verskillende subgroepe voor te stel. Hierdie krommes dui aan hoe elke item vir die verskillende subgroepe op verskillende vermoënsvlakke te funksioneer. DIF word aangetoon deur die area tussen die krommes. DIF is in die konstruksie van die 'Learning Potential Computerised Adaptive test (LPCAT' gebruik om die items te identifiseer wat sydigheid ten opsigte van geslag, kultuur, taal of opleidingspeil geopenbaar het. Items wat ’n voorafbepaalde vlak van DIF oorskry het, is uit die finale itembank weggelaat, ongeag die subgroep wat bevoordeel of benadeel is. Die proses en resultate van die DIF-ontleding word bespreek.
Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.
Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a
This article considers potential problems that can arise in estimating a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model when some test items are multidimensional (i.e., show a complex factorial structure). More specifically, this study examines (1) the consequences of model misfit on IRT item parameter estimates due to unintended minor item-level…
Baylor, Carolyn; McAuliffe, Megan J; Hughes, Louise E; Yorkston, Kathryn; Anderson, Tim; Kim, Jiseon; Amtmann, Dagmar
To examine the cross-cultural applicability of the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) through a comparison of respondents with Parkinson's disease (PD) from the United States and New Zealand. A total of 428 respondents-218 from the United States and 210 from New Zealand-completed the self-report CPIB and a series of demographic questions. Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were conducted to examine whether response bias was present across the 2 groups. No items were identified as having statistically significant DIF across the U.S. and N.Z. cohorts. The current CPIB items and scoring parameters are also suitable for use with respondents from New Zealand.
Rush, Bonnie R; Rankin, David C; White, Brad J
Failure to adhere to standard item-writing guidelines may render examination questions easier or more difficult than intended. Item complexity describes the cognitive skill level required to obtain a correct answer. Higher cognitive examination items promote critical thinking and are recommended to prepare students for clinical training. This study evaluated faculty-authored examinations to determine the impact of item-writing flaws and item complexity on the difficulty and discrimination value of examination items used to assess third year veterinary students. The impact of item-writing flaws and item complexity (cognitive level I-V) on examination item difficulty and discrimination value was evaluated on 1925 examination items prepared by clinical faculty for third year veterinary students. The mean (± SE) percent correct (83.3 % ± 17.5) was consistent with target values in professional education, and the mean discrimination index (0.18 ± 0.17) was slightly lower than recommended (0.20). More than one item-writing flaw was identified in 37.3 % of questions. The most common item-writing flaws were awkward stem structure, implausible distractors, longest response is correct, and responses are series of true-false statements. Higher cognitive skills (complexity level III-IV) were required to correctly answer 38.4 % of examination items. As item complexity increased, item difficulty and discrimination values increased. The probability of writing discriminating, difficult examination items decreased when implausible distractors and all of the above were used, and increased if the distractors were comprised of a series of true/false statements. Items with four distractors were not more difficult or discriminating than items with three distractors. Preparation of examination questions targeting higher cognitive levels will increase the likelihood of constructing discriminating items. Use of implausible distractors to complete a five-option multiple choice
Eutalia Aparecida Candido de Araujo
Full Text Available A preocupação com medidas de traços psicológicos é antiga, sendo que muitos estudos e propostas de métodos foram desenvolvidos no sentido de alcançar este objetivo. Entre os trabalhos propostos, destaca-se a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI que, a princípio, veio completar limitações da Teoria Clássica de Medidas, empregada em larga escala até hoje na medida de traços psicológicos. O ponto principal da TRI é que ela leva em consideração o item particularmente, sem relevar os escores totais; portanto, as conclusões não dependem apenas do teste ou questionário, mas de cada item que o compõe. Este artigo propõe-se a apresentar esta Teoria que revolucionou a teoria de medidas.La preocupación con las medidas de los rasgos psicológicos es antigua y muchos estudios y propuestas de métodos fueron desarrollados para lograr este objetivo. Entre estas propuestas de trabajo se incluye la Teoría de la Respuesta al Ítem (TRI que, en principio, vino a completar las limitaciones de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests, ampliamente utilizada hasta hoy en la medida de los rasgos psicológicos. El punto principal de la TRI es que se tiene en cuenta el punto concreto, sin relevar las puntuaciones totales; por lo tanto, los resultados no sólo dependen de la prueba o cuestionario, sino que de cada ítem que lo compone. En este artículo se propone presentar la Teoría que revolucionó la teoría de medidas.The concern with measures of psychological traits is old and many studies and proposals of methods were developed to achieve this goal. Among these proposed methods highlights the Item Response Theory (IRT that, in principle, came to complete limitations of the Classical Test Theory, which is widely used until nowadays in the measurement of psychological traits. The main point of IRT is that it takes into account the item in particular, not relieving the total scores; therefore, the findings do not only depend on the test or questionnaire
Cross- cultural validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN: study of the items and internal consistency Validação transcultural da versão para o português do Brasil do Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN: estudo dos itens e da consistência interna
Flávia de Lima Osório
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to carry out the cross- cultural validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Social Phobia Inventory, an instrument for the evaluation of fear, avoidance and physiological symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. METHOD: The process of translation and adaptation involved four bilingual professionals, appreciation and approval of the back- translation by the authors of the original scale, a pilot study with 30 Brazilian university students, and appreciation by raters who confirmed the face validity of the Portuguese version, which was named " Inventário de Fobia Social" . As part of the psychometric study of the Social Phobia Inventory, analysis of the items and evaluation of the internal consistency of the instrument were performed in a study conducted on 2314 university students. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that item 11, related to the fear of public speaking, was the most frequently scored item. The correlation of the items with the total score was quite adequate, ranging from 0.44 to 0.71, as was the internal consistency, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory proved to be adequate regarding the psychometric properties initially studied, with qualities quite close to those of the original study. Studies that will evaluate the remaining indicators of validity of the Social Phobia Inventory in clinical and non-clinical samples are considered to be opportune and necessary.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a validação transcultural para o português do Brasil do Social Phobia Inventory, um instrumento para avaliação e mensuração dos sintomas de medo, evitação e sintomas fisiológicos associados ao transtorno de ansiedade social. MÉTODO: O processo de tradução e adaptação envolveu quatro profissionais bilingües, apreciação e aprovação da back
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé
are network connectivity problems when an existing (possibly inefficient) network must be maintained. We axiomatize a family cost ratios based on simple liability indices, one for each agent and for each item, measuring the relative worth of this item across agents, and generating cost allocation rules......We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...... additive in costs....
Young, William R.
Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, and tsunami, are becoming a greater problem as climate change impacts our environment. Disasters, whether natural or man made, destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. In our modern world, the need for electricity has become a necessity. Modern building codes and new disaster resistant building practices are reducing the damage to homes and businesses. Emergency gasoline and diesel generators are becoming common place for power outages. Generators need fuel, which may not be available after a disaster, but Photovoltaic (solar-electric) systems supply electricity without petroleum fuel as they are powered by the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide electrical power for a home or business. PV systems can operate as utility interactive or stand-alone with battery backup. Determining your critical load items and sizing the photovoltaic system for those critical items, guarantees their operation in a disaster.
Yefremova, Yelena; Opuni, Kwabena F. M.; Danquah, Bright D.; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen; Glocker, Michael O.
Intact transition epitope mapping (ITEM) enables rapid and accurate determination of protein antigen-derived epitopes by either epitope extraction or epitope excision. Upon formation of the antigen peptide-containing immune complex in solution, the entire mixture is electrosprayed to translate all constituents as protonated ions into the gas phase. There, ions from antibody-peptide complexes are separated from unbound peptide ions according to their masses, charges, and shapes either by ion mobility drift or by quadrupole ion filtering. Subsequently, immune complexes are dissociated by collision induced fragmentation and the ion signals of the "complex-released peptides," which in effect are the epitope peptides, are recorded in the time-of-flight analyzer of the mass spectrometer. Mixing of an antibody solution with a solution in which antigens or antigen-derived peptides are dissolved is, together with antigen proteolysis, the only required in-solution handling step. Simplicity of sample handling and speed of analysis together with very low sample consumption makes ITEM faster and easier to perform than other experimental epitope mapping methods.
Martijn A H Oude Voshaar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To calibrate the Dutch-Flemish version of the PROMIS physical function (PF item bank in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to evaluate cross-cultural measurement equivalence with US general population and RA data. METHODS: Data were collected from RA patients enrolled in the Dutch DREAM registry. An incomplete longitudinal anchored design was used where patients completed all 121 items of the item bank over the course of three waves of data collection. Item responses were fit to a generalized partial credit model adapted for longitudinal data and the item parameters were examined for differential item functioning (DIF across country, age, and sex. RESULTS: In total, 690 patients participated in the study at time point 1 (T2, N = 489; T3, N = 311. The item bank could be successfully fitted to a generalized partial credit model, with the number of misfitting items falling within acceptable limits. Seven items demonstrated DIF for sex, while 5 items showed DIF for age in the Dutch RA sample. Twenty-five (20% items were flagged for cross-cultural DIF compared to the US general population. However, the impact of observed DIF on total physical function estimates was negligible. DISCUSSION: The results of this study showed that the PROMIS PF item bank adequately fit a unidimensional IRT model which provides support for applications that require invariant estimates of physical function, such as computer adaptive testing and targeted short forms. More studies are needed to further investigate the cross-cultural applicability of the US-based PROMIS calibration and standardized metric.
Beisenov Arman Z.
Full Text Available The article considers the findings of items in ancient burials which were intentionally spoiled prior to deposition in graves. This tradition was widely spread both in terms of chronology and geography, and therefore cannot be attributed to any individual cultures or regions. The authors present new information on the ritual obtained during an investigation of Borsyk burial mound of the Middle Sarmatian period located in West Kazakhstan. The central grave of barrow 6 contained a heavily damaged bronze cauldron. The grave was looted in antiquity. Individual scattered bones of a human skeleton and minor gold foil adornments from the ceremonial dress of a nobleman were discovered in the grave. The authors suggest that the cauldron was intentionally deformed by the participants of an ancient mortuary and memorial ritual. According to the principal hypothesis concerning the essence of this ritual, spoilage of the items was related to the idea of assign the items with “different” and “transcendent” properties, which resulted from the necessity of burying the owner. Cauldrons played an important role in the life of steppe leaders. The authors assume a sacral nature of the use of cauldrons in the culture of steppe peoples associated with feasts, battles, and sacred hunting. Perhaps, there was a tradition of burying cauldrons together with their owners after spoiling the items in view of the concept of the other world and the role of a heroic leader therein.
molasses. Both were placed in a revolving sieve, and the molasses was driven out as the sieve spun at 2000 revolutions per minute (DeBow 1851:89). This...Conseil de la vie Francaise en Amerique, Quebec. ’ Barber, Edwin Atlee 1902 Pottery and Porcelain of the United States. G.P. Putnam, New York. Baugher
site from elsewhere (Iroquois 1982a:88-90). Industrial ceramics included two sherds of transparent glazed semi- porcelain , possibly insulator , from the...sanitary porcelain , and insulator fragments. The majority of the glass collected derived from bottles, and most of the glass was clear (Table 13...uncovered exhibit no further research potential. The sheds , warehouses and machinery supported by these wharves have been destroyed or removed. Further
Tinari, Frank D.
Computerized analysis of multiple choice test items is explained. Examples of item analysis applications in the introductory economics course are discussed with respect to three objectives: to evaluate learning; to improve test items; and to help improve classroom instruction. Problems, costs and benefits of the procedures are identified. (JMD)
Rikers, Jos H.A.N.
The process of writing test items is analyzed, and a blueprint is presented for an authoring system for test item writing to reduce invalidity and to structure the process of item writing. The developmental methodology is introduced, and the first steps in the process are reported. A historical
Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt
The literature in modern test theory on procedures for identifying items with differential item functioning (DIF) among two groups of persons includes the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure. Generally, it is not recognized explicitly that if there is real DIF in some items which favor one group, then as an artifact of this procedure, artificial DIF…
LUNNEBORG, CLIFFORD E.; LUNNEBORG, PATRICIA W.
FACTOR ANALYSES WERE PERFORMED UPON FOUR MASCULINITY-FEMINITY (MF) SCALES AND UPON THE 136-ITEMS COMPRISING THESE SCALES. RESULTS OF THE FIRST ANALYSIS ILLUSTRATED THE DIFFICULTY OF INTERPRETING FACTORS BASED ON HETEROGENEOUS SCALES. THE ITEM FACTORING REVEALED THE MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF MF. CERTAIN ITEM FACTORS WERE UNCORRELATED WITH SEX STATUS…
J. van Hoof PhD
Full Text Available Introduction: Losing items is a time-consuming occurrence in nursing homes that is ill described. An explorative study was conducted to investigate which items got lost by nursing home residents, and how this affects the residents and family caregivers. Method: Semi-structured interviews and card sorting tasks were conducted with 12 residents with early-stage dementia and 12 family caregivers. Thematic analysis was applied to the outcomes of the sessions. Results: The participants stated that numerous personal items and assistive devices get lost in the nursing home environment, which had various emotional, practical, and financial implications. Significant amounts of time are spent on trying to find items, varying from 1 hr up to a couple of weeks. Numerous potential solutions were identified by the interviewees. Discussion: Losing items often goes together with limitations to the participation of residents. Many family caregivers are reluctant to replace lost items, as these items may get lost again.
Tay, L.; Vermunt, J.K.; Wang, C.
We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform
Frederickx, Sofie; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul; Magis, David
In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is assumed for the item difficulties such that the…
West, Colin P; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Satele, Daniel V; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D
Burnout is a common problem among physicians and physicians-in-training. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is the gold standard for burnout assessment, but the length of this well-validated 22-item instrument can limit its feasibility for survey research. To evaluate the concurrent validity of two questions relative to the full MBI for measuring the association of burnout with published outcomes. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND MAIN MEASURES: The single questions "I feel burned out from my work" and "I have become more callous toward people since I took this job," representing the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout, respectively, were evaluated in published studies of medical students, internal medicine residents, and practicing surgeons. We compared predictive models for the association of each question, versus the full MBI, using longitudinal data on burnout and suicidality from 2006 and 2007 for 858 medical students at five United States medical schools, cross-sectional data on burnout and serious thoughts of dropping out of medical school from 2007 for 2222 medical students at seven United States medical schools, and cross-sectional data on burnout and unprofessional attitudes and behaviors from 2009 for 2566 medical students at seven United States medical schools. We also assessed results for longitudinal data on burnout and perceived major medical errors from 2003 to 2009 for 321 Mayo Clinic Rochester internal medicine residents and cross-sectional data on burnout and both perceived major medical errors and suicidality from 2008 for 7,905 respondents to a national survey of members of the American College of Surgeons. Point estimates of effect for models based on the single-item measures were uniformly consistent with those reported for models based on the full MBI. The single-item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization exhibited strong associations with each published outcome (all p ≤ 0.008). No conclusion regarding
Bierwisch, M; Schreuder, R
In this paper we address the question how in language production conceptual structures are mapped onto lexical items. First we describe the lexical system in a fairly abstract way. Such a system consists of, among other things, a fixed set of basic lexical entries characterized by four groups of information: phonetic form, grammatical features, argument structure, and semantic form. A crucial assumption of the paper is that the meaning in a lexical entry has a complex internal structure composed of more primitive elements (decomposition). Some aspects of argument structure and semantic form and their interaction are discussed with respect to the issue of synonymy. We propose two different mappings involved in lexical access. One maps conceptual structures to semantic forms, and the other maps semantic forms to conceptual structures. Both mappings are context dependent and are many-to-many mappings. We present an elaboration of Levelt's (1989) model in which these processes interact with the grammatical encoder and the mental lexicon. Then we address the consequences of decomposition for processing models, especially the nature of the input of lexical access and the time course. Processing models that use the activation metaphor may have difficulties accounting for certain phenomena where a certain lemma triggers not one, but two or more word forms that have to be produced with other word forms in between.
Bücker, J.J.L.E.; Furrer, O.F.G.; Peeters Weem, T.J.T.
- PURPOSE - The purpose of this paper is to assess the cross-cultural equivalence of the four-dimensional 20-item Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) and the two-dimensional 12-item cultural intelligence (CQ) short scale. Furthermore, the study elaborates on the results by discussing the differences
Elosua, Paula; Lopez-Jauregui, Alicia
This report shows a classification of differential item functioning (DIF) sources that have an effect on the adaptation of tests. This classification is based on linguistic and cultural criteria. Four general DIF sources are distinguished: cultural relevance, translation problems, morph syntactical differences, and semantic differences. The…
North, Lione J; Olfman, Darlene; Caldera, Daniel R; Munoz, Emily; Light, Leah L
We examined young and older adults' ability to flexibly adapt response criterion on a recognition test when the probability that a test item had been studied was cued by test color. One word color signaled that the probability of the test item being old was 70% and a second color signaled that the probability of the test item being new was 70%. Young and older adults demonstrated similar levels of criterion shifting in response to color cues. Moreover, although both young and older adults were slowed when test-item color incorrectly predicted test-item status, the extent of slowing did not differ across age group. Putative measures of cognitive control predicted recognition accuracy but not the degree to which criterion changed with test-item color. These results suggest that adaptive criterion shifting does not tax cognitive control or, if it does require effort, may be no more onerous for older than for young adults.
Pollard, Beth; Johnston, Marie; Dixon, Diane
The SF-36 is a very commonly used generic measure of health outcome in osteoarthritis (OA). An important, but frequently overlooked, aspect of validating health outcome measures is to establish if items work in the same way across subgroup of a population. That is, if respondents have the same 'true' level of outcome, does the item give the same score in different subgroups or is it biased towards one subgroup or another. Differential item functioning (DIF) can identify items that may be biased for one group or another and has been applied to measuring patient reported outcomes. Items may show DIF for different conditions and between cultures, however the SF-36 has not been specifically examined in an osteoarthritis population nor in a UK population. Hence, the aim of the study was to apply the DIF method to the SF-36 for a UK OA population. The sample comprised a community sample of 763 people with OA who participated in the Somerset and Avon Survey of Health. The SF-36 was explored for DIF with respect to demographic, social, clinical and psychological factors. Well developed ordinal regression models were used to identify DIF items. DIF items were found by age (6 items), employment status (6 items), social class (2 items), mood (2 items), hip v knee (2 items), social deprivation (1 item) and body mass index (1 item). Although the impact of the DIF items rarely had a significant effect on the conclusions of group comparisons, in most cases there was a significant change in effect size. Overall, the SF-36 performed well with only a small number of DIF items identified, a reassuring finding in view of the frequent use of the SF-36 in OA. Nevertheless, where DIF items were identified it would be advisable to analyse data taking account of DIF items, especially when age effects are the focus of interest.
Shou, Yiyun; Sellbom, Martin; Xu, Jing
There is cumulative evidence for the cross-cultural validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010) among non-Western populations. Recent studies using correlational and regression analyses show promising construct validity of the TriPM in Chinese samples. However, little is known about the efficiency of items in TriPM in assessing the proposed latent traits. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese TriPM at the item level using item response theory analyses. It also examined the measurement invariance of the TriPM between the Chinese and the U.S. student samples by applying differential item functioning analyses under the item response theory framework. The results supported the unidimensional nature of the Disinhibition and Meanness scales. Both scales had a greater level of precision in the respective underlying constructs at the positive ends. The two scales, however, had several items that were weakly associated with their respective latent traits in the Chinese student sample. Boldness, on the other hand, was found to be multidimensional, and reflected a more normally distributed range of variation. The examination of measurement bias via differential item functioning analyses revealed that a number of items of the TriPM were not equivalent across the Chinese and the U.S. Some modification and adaptation of items might be considered for improving the precision of the TriPM for Chinese participants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Yau, David T W; Wong, May C M; Lam, K F; McGrath, Colman
Four-factor structure of the two 8-item short forms of Child Perceptions Questionnaire CPQ11-14 (RSF:8 and ISF:8) has been confirmed. However, the sum scores are typically reported in practice as a proxy of Oral health-related Quality of Life (OHRQoL), which implied a unidimensional structure. This study first assessed the unidimensionality of 8-item short forms of CPQ11-14. Item response theory (IRT) was employed to offer an alternative and complementary approach of validation and to overcome the limitations of classical test theory assumptions. A random sample of 649 12-year-old school children in Hong Kong was analyzed. Unidimensionality of the scale was tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), principle component analysis (PCA) and local dependency (LD) statistic. Graded response model was fitted to the data. Contribution of each item to the scale was assessed by item information function (IIF). Reliability of the scale was assessed by test information function (TIF). Differential item functioning (DIF) across gender was identified by Wald test and expected score functions. Both CPQ11-14 RSF:8 and ISF:8 did not deviate much from the unidimensionality assumption. Results from CFA indicated acceptable fit of the one-factor model. PCA indicated that the first principle component explained >30 % of the total variation with high factor loadings for both RSF:8 and ISF:8. Almost all LD statistic dependency. Flat and low IIFs were observed in the oral symptoms items suggesting little contribution of information to the scale and item removal caused little practical impact. Comparing the TIFs, RSF:8 showed slightly better information than ISF:8. In addition to oral symptoms items, the item "Concerned with what other people think" demonstrated a uniform DIF (p < 0.001). The expected score functions were not much different between boys and girls. Items related to oral symptoms were not informative to OHRQoL and deletion of these items is suggested. The impact of
Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Molenaar, Ivo W.
Three methods for the estimation of the reliability of single dichotomous items are discussed. All methods are based on the assumptions of nondecreasing and nonintersecting item response functions and the Mokken model of double monotonicity. Based on analytical and Monte Carlo studies, it is
Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.
Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost of...
L. Rutledge (Lloyd); N. Stash; Y. Wang (Yanjing); L. Aroyo
textabstractThis paper discusses accuracy in processing ratings of and recommendations for item features. Such processing facilitates featurebased user navigation in recommender system interfaces. Item features, often in the form of tags, categories or meta-data, are becoming important hypertext
This dissertation deals with the evaluation of model assumptions in the context of item response theory. Item response theory, also known as modern test theory, provides a statistical framework for the measurement of psychological constructs that cannot by observed directly, such as intelligence or
de Vries, R.E.
Up until now, no really short instrument that measures the six personality dimensions of the HEXACO model has been available. In two studies, I report the construction of the Brief HEXACO Inventory (BHI), which represents the 24 HEXACO facets with 1 item per facet (i.e., 4 items per domain) and
Tijmstra, Jesper; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas
A new observable consequence of the property of invariant item ordering is presented, which holds under Mokken's double monotonicity model for dichotomous data. The observable consequence is an invariant ordering of the item-total regressions. Kendall's measure of concordance "W" and a weighted version of this measure are proposed as measures for…
Di Paolo, Marianna
Study of East and West Texans' (N=62) use of double modals as single lexical items and their syntactic and semantic characteristics found that neither Aux nor subcategorization analysis could account for both single-modal and double-modal dialects. Double modals, however, could conceivably be analyzed as two-word lexical items such as idioms or…
Murre, J.M.J.; Atkins, P.W.B.
When gradient-descent models with hidden units are retrained on a portion of a previously learned set of items, performance on both the relearned and unrelearned items improves. Previous explanations of this phenomenon have not adequately distinguished recovery, which is dependent on original
Murre, J.M.J.; Atkins, P.W.B.
When gradient-descent models with hidden units are retrained on a portion of a previously learned set of items, performance on both the relearned and unrelearned items improves. Previous explanations of this phenomenon have not adequately distinguished recovery, which is dependent on original
Messinger, H B; Messinger, M I
Recently in this journal Peters and Murphy challenged the validity of factor analyses done on bimodal handedness data, suggesting instead that right- and left-handers be studied separately. But bimodality may be avoidable if attention is paid to Oldfield's questionnaire format and instructions for the subjects. Two characteristics appear crucial: a two-column LEFT-RIGHT format for the body of the instrument and what we call Oldfield's Admonition: not to indicate strong preference for handedness item, such as write, unless "... the preference is so strong that you would never try to use the other hand unless absolutely forced to...". Attaining unimodality of an item distribution would seem to overcome the objections of Peters and Murphy. In a 1984 survey in Boston we used Oldfield's ten-item questionnaire exactly as published. This produced unimodal item distributions. With reflection of the five-point item scale and a logarithmic transformation, we achieved a degree of normalization for the items. Two surveys elsewhere based on Oldfield's 20-item list but with changes in the questionnaire format and the instructions, yielded markedly different item distributions with peaks at each extreme and sometimes in the middle as well.
Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo
In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...
Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Xu, Gongjun; Ying, Zhiliang
Large-scale assessments are supported by a large item pool. An important task in test development is to assign items into scales that measure different characteristics of individuals, and a popular approach is cluster analysis of items. Classical methods in cluster analysis, such as the hierarchical clustering, K-means method, and latent-class analysis, often induce a high computational overhead and have difficulty handling missing data, especially in the presence of high-dimensional responses. In this article, the authors propose a spectral clustering algorithm for exploratory item cluster analysis. The method is computationally efficient, effective for data with missing or incomplete responses, easy to implement, and often outperforms traditional clustering algorithms in the context of high dimensionality. The spectral clustering algorithm is based on graph theory, a branch of mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The algorithm first constructs a graph of items, characterizing the similarity structure among items. It then extracts item clusters based on the graphical structure, grouping similar items together. The proposed method is evaluated through simulations and an application to the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.
Takahiro Tsuchiya; Yoko Hirai
... `applies/does not apply' responses to each item. Because this inconsistency, which we refer to as the underreporting effect, often disturbs proper item count estimates, the causes of this effect are explored in this paper...
Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees A; Vermeulen, Marinus; De Haan, Rob J
There is not a single universally accepted activity of daily living (ADL) instrument available to compare disability assessments across different patient groups. We developed a generic item bank of ADL items using item response theory, the Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Scale (ALDS). When comparing outcomes of the ALDS between patients groups, item characteristics of the ALDS should be comparable across groups. The aim of the study was to assess the differential item functioning (DIF) in a group of patients with various disorders to investigate the comparability across these groups. Cross-sectional, multicenter study including 1,283 in- and outpatients with a variety of disorders and disability levels. The sample was divided in two groups: (1) mainly neurological patients (n=497; vascular medicine, Parkinson's disease and neuromuscular disorders) and (2) patients from internal medicine (n=786; pulmonary diseases, chronic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and geriatric patients). Eighteen of 72 ALDS items showed statistically significant DIF (P<0.01). However, the DIF could effectively be modeled by the introduction of disease-specific parameters. In the subgroups studied, DIF could be modeled in such a way that the ensemble of the items comprised a scale applicable in both groups.
Kılıç, Aslı; Hoyer, William J; Howard, Marc W
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Older adults exhibit an age-related deficit in item memory as a function of the length of the retention interval, but older adults and young adults usually show roughly equivalent benefits due to the spacing of item repetitions in continuous memory tasks. The current experiment investigates the seemingly paradoxical effects of retention interval and spacing in young and older adults using a continuous recognition memory procedure. Fifty young adults and 52 older adults gave memory confidence ratings to words that were presented once (P1), twice (P2), or three times (P3), and the effects of the lag length and retention interval were assessed at P2 and at P3, respectively. Response times at P2 were disproportionately longer for older adults than for younger adults as a function of the number of items occurring between P1 and P2, suggestive of age-related loss in item memory. Ratings of confidence in memory responses revealed that older adults remembered fewer items at P2 with a high degree of certainty. Confidence ratings given at P3 suggested that young and older adults derived equivalent benefits from the spacing between P1 and P2. Findings of this study support theoretical accounts that suggest that recursive reminding and/or item retrieval difficulty promote item retention in older adults.
Nunes, Sandra; Oliveira, Teresa; Oliveira, Amílcar
The Item Response Theory (IRT) has become one of the most popular scoring frameworks for measurement data, frequently used in computerized adaptive testing, cognitively diagnostic assessment and test equating. According to Andrade et al. (2000), IRT can be defined as a set of mathematical models (Item Response Models - IRM) constructed to represent the probability of an individual giving the right answer to an item of a particular test. The number of Item Responsible Models available to measurement analysis has increased considerably in the last fifteen years due to increasing computer power and due to a demand for accuracy and more meaningful inferences grounded in complex data. The developments in modeling with Item Response Theory were related with developments in estimation theory, most remarkably Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms (Patz & Junker, 1999). The popularity of Item Response Theory has also implied numerous overviews in books and journals, and many connections between IRT and other statistical estimation procedures, such as factor analysis and structural equation modeling, have been made repeatedly (Van der Lindem & Hambleton, 1997). As stated before the Item Response Theory covers a variety of measurement models, ranging from basic one-dimensional models for dichotomously and polytomously scored items and their multidimensional analogues to models that incorporate information about cognitive sub-processes which influence the overall item response process. The aim of this work is to introduce the main concepts associated with one-dimensional models of Item Response Theory, to specify the logistic models with one, two and three parameters, to discuss some properties of these models and to present the main estimation procedures.
Full Text Available Orientation: A multicultural country like South Africa needs fair cross-cultural psychometric instruments.Research purpose: This article reports on the process of identifying items for, and provides a quantitative evaluation of, the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI items.Motivation for the study: The study intended to develop an indigenous and psychometrically sound personality instrument that adheres to the requirements of South African legislation and excludes cultural bias.Research design, approach and method: The authors used a cross-sectional design. They measured the nine SAPI clusters identified in the qualitative stage of the SAPI project in 11 separate quantitative studies. Convenience sampling yielded 6735 participants. Statistical analysis focused on the construct validity and reliability of items. The authors eliminated items that showed poor performance, based on common psychometric criteria, and selected the best performing items to form part of the final version of the SAPI.Main findings: The authors developed 2573 items from the nine SAPI clusters. Of these, 2268 items were valid and reliable representations of the SAPI facets.Practical/managerial implications: The authors developed a large item pool. It measures personality in South Africa. Researchers can refine it for the SAPI. Furthermore, the project illustrates an approach that researchers can use in projects that aim to develop culturally-informed psychological measures.Contribution/value-add: Personality assessment is important for recruiting, selecting and developing employees. This study contributes to the current knowledge about the early processes researchers follow when they develop a personality instrument that measures personality fairly in different cultural groups, as the SAPI does.
... to a class of items with the same form, fit, function, and interface. Parent item means the item..., and parts embedded within delivered items as specified in Attachment Number __. (2) The unique item... item identifier is used). (10) Government's unit acquisition cost. (11) Unit of measure. (e) For...
DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.
The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…
Current CAT applications consist of predominantly dichotomous items, and CATs with polytomously scored items are limited. To ascertain the best approach to polytomous CAT, a significant amount of research has been conducted on item selection, ability estimation, and impact of termination rules based on polytomous IRT models. Few studies…
Aybek, Eren Can; Demirtasli, R. Nukhet
This article aims to provide a theoretical framework for computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and item response theory models for polytomous items. Besides that, it aims to introduce the simulation and live CAT software to the related researchers. Computerized adaptive test algorithm, assumptions of item response theory models, nominal response…
HOIJTINK, H; MOLENAAR, [No Value
In this paper an item response model (the PARELLA model) designed specifically for the measurement of attitudes and preferences will be introduced. In contrast with the item response models currently used (e.g. the Rasch model and, the two and three parameter logistic model) the item characteristic
This paper introduces the generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM), which represents the item-solving process as a series of dichotomous operations or steps. The GLLIRM assumes that the probability function of the item response is a logistic function of a linear composite of basic parameters which describe the operations, and the…
Hathaway, Walter; And Others
This report describes the development, operation, maintenance, and future prospects of the item banks pioneered by the Portland (Oregon) School District. At the time of this report, there were 3,500 mathematics, 2,200 reading, and 2,300 language usage items calibrated under the fixed parameter model of item response theory (IRT) for Grades 3-8.…
... when using BILOG-MG V3.0. Five items fitted 2-parameter models in IRTPRO. It was recommended that the use of more than one IRT software programme offers more useful information for the choice of model that fit the data. KEYWORDS: Item Level, Diagnostics, Statistics, Model - Data Fit, Item Response Theory (IRT).
Linn, Robert L.; Harnisch, Delwyn L.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the interaction of item content and group membership on achievement test items. Estimates of the parameters of the three parameter logistic model were obtained on the 46 item math test for the sample of eighth grade students (N = 2055) participating in the Illinois Inventory of Educational Progress,…
Frederickx, S.; Tuerlinckx, T.; de Boeck, P.; Magis, D.
In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is
Olson, Scott A.
From August 28 to 29, 2011, Tropical Storm Irene delivered rainfall ranging from about 4 inches to more than 7 inches in the White River Basin. The rainfall resulted in severe flooding throughout the basin and significant damage along the White River and Tweed River. In response to the flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, conducted a new flood study to aid in the flood recovery and restoration. This flood study includes a 20.7-mile reach of the White River from the downstream end at about 2,000 feet downstream from the State Route 107 bridge in the Village of Bethel, Vermont, to the upstream end at about 1,000 feet upstream from the River Brook Drive bridge in the Village of Rochester, Vt., and a 7.9-mile reach of the Tweed River from its mouth in Stockbridge, Vt., to the confluence of the West and South Branches of the Tweed River and continuing upstream on the South Branch Tweed River to the Pittsfield, Vt., town line.
Pathak, Jyotishman; Murphy, Sean P.; Willaert, Brian N.; Kremers, Hilal M.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Rocca, Walter A.; Chute, Christopher G.
RxNorm and NDF-RT published by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and Veterans Affairs (VA), respectively, are two publicly available federal medication terminologies. In this study, we evaluate the applicability of RxNorm and National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) for extraction and classification of medication data retrieved using structured querying and natural language processing techniques from electronic health records at two different medical centers within the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP). Specifically, we explore how mappings between RxNorm concept codes and NDF-RT drug classes can be leveraged for hierarchical organization and grouping of REP medication data, identify gaps and coverage issues, and analyze the recently released NLM’s NDF-RT Web service API. Our study concludes that RxNorm and NDF-RT can be applied together for classification of medication extracted from multiple EHR systems, although several issues and challenges remain to be addressed. We further conclude that the Web service APIs developed by the NLM provide useful functionalities for such activities. PMID:22195170
Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P
In Olmsted County, Minn., USA, reliable, population-based epidemiologic research studies can be performed because of a unique medical records linkage system, the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP). Our objective was to summarize the epidemiologic data describing the prevalence of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the REP and to compare the findings with those from other studies worldwide. Retrospectively, we reviewed the results of population-based REP studies reporting the prevalence of skin and skin-related diseases over more than 4 decades and compared them to other published prevalences globally. Prevalences from the REP reported per 100,000 persons were as follows: hidradenitis suppurativa, 130.0; psoriasis, 700.0; psoriatic arthritis in 1992, 100.0, and in 2000, 160.0; Behçet disease, 5.2; scleroderma, 13.8; dermatomyositis, 21.42; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), from 30.5 to 122.0 suspected SLE, 32.8; combined SLE, 41.8; discoid lupus erythematosus, 27.6, and cutaneous lupus erythematosus, 70.4 and 73.2 (from 2 studies). Many of the population-based prevalences of specific skin and skin-related diseases derived from the REP are different from those estimated globally. Suggested reasons for disparity in the prevalences globally may include differences in the type of reported prevalence, study methodology, geographic areas, ethnic groups, age distribution, and socioeconomic status. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Brewer, Jerry D; Shanafelt, Tait D; Khezri, Farzaneh; Sosa Seda, Ivette M; Zubair, Adeel S; Baum, Christian L; Arpey, Christopher J; Cerhan, James R; Call, Timothy G; Roenigk, Randall K; Smith, Carin Y; Weaver, Amy L; Otley, Clark C
Cutaneous malignancy is associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We sought to identify the incidence and recurrence rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). NMSC incidence was calculated and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations with risk of recurrence for patients with NHL between 1976 and 2005 who were in the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure. We identified 282 patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma and 435 with non-CLL NHL. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma was 1829.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1306.7-2491.1) and 2224.9 (95% CI 1645.9-2941.6), respectively, in patients with CLL. The cumulative recurrence rate at 8 years after treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery was 8.3% (95% CI 0.0%-22.7%) for basal cell carcinoma and 13.4% (95% CI 0.0%-25.5%) for squamous cell carcinoma in patients with CLL. This was a retrospective cohort study. After Mohs micrographic surgery and standard excision of NMSC, patients with NHL had a skin cancer recurrence rate that was higher than expected. Careful treatment and monitoring of patients with NHL and NMSC are warranted. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Frances M; Kao, Solon T
Item response theory (IRT) is an important method of assessing the validity of measurement scales that is underutilized in the field of psychiatry. IRT describes the relationship between a latent trait (e.g., the construct that the scale proposes to assess), the properties of the items in the scale, and respondents' answers to the individual items. This paper introduces the basic premise, assumptions, and methods of IRT. To help explain these concepts we generate a hypothetical scale using three items from a modified, binary (yes/no) response version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale that was administered to 19,399 respondents. We first conducted a factor analysis to confirm the unidimensionality of the three items and then proceeded with Mplus software to construct the 2-Parameter Logic (2-PL) IRT model of the data, a method which allows for estimates of both item discrimination and item difficulty. The utility of this information both for clinical purposes and for scale construction purposes is discussed.
Lee, Young-Jin; Palazzo, David J.; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.
We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT) to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics course. We show that after tutoring a shifted logistic item response function with lower discrimination fits the students’ second responses to an item previously answered incorrectly. Student skill decreased by 1.0 standard deviation when students used no tutoring between their (incorrect) first and second attempts, which we attribute to “item-wrong bias.” On average, using hints or feedback increased students’ skill by 0.8 standard deviation. A skill increase of 1.9 standard deviation was observed when hints were requested after viewing, but prior to attempting to answer, a particular item. The skill changes measured in this way will enable the use of IRT to assess students based on their second attempt in a tutoring environment.
Baylor, Carolyn; McAuliffe, Megan J.; Hughes, Louise E.; Yorkston, Kathryn; Anderson, Tim; Jiseon, Kim; Amtmann, Dagmar
Purpose: To examine the cross-cultural applicability of the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) through a comparison of respondents with Parkinson's disease (PD) from the United States and New Zealand. Method: A total of 428 respondents--218 from the United States and 210 from New Zealand-completed the self-report CPIB and a series of…
Peel, Trisha N.; Dylla, Brenda L.; Hughes, John G.; Lynch, David T.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Cheng, Allen C.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.
ABSTRACT Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs) is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM) in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014) at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32%) met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively); this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003). The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster. PMID:26733067
Full Text Available The item count technique, used often to investigate illegal or socially undesirable behaviours, requires respondents to indicate merely the number of applicable items from among a list. However, the number of applicable items indicated via the item count question tends to be smaller than when it is calculated from the direct `applies/does not apply' responses to each item. Because this inconsistency, which we refer to as the underreporting effect, often disturbs proper item count estimates, the causes of this effect are explored in this paper. Web survey results revealed that the order of the response alternatives is irrelevant to the underreporting effect, and that the underreporting effect is caused by the response format in which the item count question requests merely the number of applicable items and not the number of non-applicable items. It is also shown that the magnitude of the underreporting effect decreases when the respondents are asked to indicate the numbers of both applicable and non-applicable items, which we refer to as elaborate item count questioning.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...
Full Text Available Item response theory (IRT becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing “big data” gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.
Babiar, Tasha Calvert
Traditionally, women and minorities have not been fully represented in science and engineering. Numerous studies have attributed these differences to gaps in science achievement as measured by various standardized tests. Rather than describe mean group differences in science achievement across multiple cultures, this study focused on an in-depth item-level analysis across two countries: Spain and the United States. This study investigated eighth-grade gender differences on science items across the two countries. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore the nature of gender differences using the many-faceted Rasch Model as a way to estimate gender DIF. A secondary analysis of data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was used to address three questions: 1) Does gender DIF in science achievement exist? 2) Is there a relationship between gender DIF and characteristics of the science items? 3) Do the relationships between item characteristics and gender DIF in science items replicate across countries. Participants included 7,087 eight grade students from the United States and 3,855 students from Spain who participated in TIMSS. The Facets program (Linacre and Wright, 1992) was used to estimate gender DIF. The results of the analysis indicate that the content of the item seemed to be related to gender DIF. The analysis also suggests that there is a relationship between gender DIF and item format. No pattern of gender DIF related to cognitive demand was found. The general pattern of gender DIF was similar across the two countries used in the analysis. The strength of item-level analysis as opposed to group mean difference analysis is that gender differences can be detected at the item level, even when no mean differences can be detected at the group level.
Yoon Soo ePark
Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effect on item parameters and examinee ability.
Terwee, C B; Roorda, L D; de Vet, H C W; Dekker, J; Westhovens, R; van Leeuwen, J; Cella, D; Correia, H; Arnold, B; Perez, B; Boers, M
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) is a new, state-of-the-art assessment system for measuring patient-reported health and well-being of adults and children that has the potential to be more valid, reliable and responsive than existing PROMs. The PROMIS items can be administered in short forms or, more efficiently, through computerized adaptive testing. This paper describes the translation of 563 items from 17 PROMIS item banks (domains) for adults from the English source into Dutch-Flemish. The translation was performed by FACITtrans using standardized methodology and approved by the PROMIS Statistical Center. The translation included four forward translations, two back-translations, three to five independent reviews (at least two Dutch, one Flemish) and pre-testing in 70 adults (age range 20-77) from the Netherlands and Flanders. A small number of items required separate translations for Dutch and Flemish: physical function (five items), pain behaviour (two items), pain interference (one item), social isolation (one item) and global health (one item). Challenges faced in the translation process included: scarcity or overabundance of possible translations, unclear item descriptions, constructs broader/smaller in the target language, difficulties in rank ordering items, differences in unit of measurement, irrelevant items or differences in performance of activities. By addressing these challenges, acceptable translations were obtained for all items. The methodology used and experience gained in this study can be used as an example for researchers in other countries interested in translating PROMIS. The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS items are linguistically equivalent. Short forms will soon be available for use and entire item banks are ready for cross-cultural validation in the Netherlands and Flanders.
Shu, Zhan; Henson, Robert; Luecht, Richard
The Deterministic, Gated Item Response Theory Model (DGM, Shu, Unpublished Dissertation. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2010) is proposed to identify cheaters who obtain significant score gain on tests due to item exposure/compromise by conditioning on the item status (exposed or unexposed items). A "gated" function is introduced to decompose the observed examinees' performance into two distributions (the true ability distribution determined by examinees' true ability and the cheating distribution determined by examinees' cheating ability). Test cheaters who have score gain due to item exposure are identified through the comparison of the two distributions. Hierarchical Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used as the model's estimation framework. Finally, the model is applied in a real data set to illustrate how the model can be used to identify examinees having pre-knowledge on the exposed items.
Thin, Neil; Biswas-Diener, Robert
Although the most visible elements of culture are dress, cuisine and architecture, culture is a highly psychological phenomenon. Culture is a pattern of meaning for understanding how the world works. This knowledge is shared among a group of people and passed from one generation to the next. This module defines culture, addresses methodological issues, and introduces the idea that culture is a process. Understanding cultural processes can help people get along better with others and be more s...
Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.
Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item
A loglinear item response theory (IRT) model is proposed that relates polytomously scored item responses to a multidimensional latent space. Each item may have a different response function where each item response may be explained by one or more latent traits. Item response functions may follow a
Fine, Marlene G.; And Others
Federal employees (N=242) completed 102-item questionnaire on work environment, job satisfaction, and career development. Results suggest that men, women, and people of color do not share a common organizational culture. Instead, each group defines and organizes its experience in different ways. Viewing gender and race as cultures provides a basis…
Full Text Available Guessing and item omission may be regarded as risk-taking or risk-avoidance strategies – sex specific adaptations to testing situations. In this article, these phenomena were analysed by (a percentage of omissions by sex, (b negative binomial regression to asses sex differences in the number of omissions, (c c-DIF analysis using IRT-LR test and (d linear regression using item attributes, to assess whether the c-parameter is sex differentiated by the percentage of omits (controlling item difficulty. The data set analysed were from the 2012–2014 Polish lower-secondary schools final exams, comprising tests in maths, language, science and humanities. Contrary to the vast body of literature, boys omitted items slightly more frequently than girls. Possible explanations of this finding – specific to the Polish examination system – were provided. The hypothesis of a higher c-parameter for boys did not find strong support from this study. It was shown that the c-parameter should not only be interpreted as resulting from item non-omission. This supports the modern concept of the c-parameter as a consequence not only of random guessing, but also problem solving, creative guessing or cheating.
Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Liu, Yang
Researchers who evaluate the fit of psychometric models to binary or multinomial items often look at univariate and bivariate residuals to determine how a poorly fitting model can be improved. There is a class of z statistics and also a class of generalized X₂ statistics that can be used for examining these marginal fits. We describe these statistics and compare them with regard to the control of Type I error and statistical power. We show how the class of z statistics can be extended to accommodate items with multinomial response options. We provide guidelines for the use of these statistics, including how to control for multiple testing, and present 2 detailed examples. Using the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) for discrete data to adjudge fit, the examples illustrate how the use of these methods can dramatically improve the fit of item response theory models to widely used measures in personality and clinical psychology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Bruce, Bonnie; Fries, James; Lingala, Bharathi; Hussain, Yusra Nazar; Krishnan, Eswar
Disability and Physical Function (PF) outcome assessment has had limited ability to measure functional status at the floor (very poor functional abilities) or the ceiling (very high functional abilities). We sought to identify, develop and evaluate new floor and ceiling items to enable broader and more precise assessment of PF outcomes for the NIH Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). We conducted two cross-sectional studies using NIH PROMIS item improvement protocols with expert review, participant survey and focus group methods. In Study 1, respondents with low PF abilities evaluated new floor items, and those with high PF abilities evaluated new ceiling items for clarity, importance and relevance. In Study 2, we compared difficulty ratings of new floor items by low functioning respondents and ceiling items by high functioning respondents to reference PROMIS PF-10 items. We used frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations to analyze the data. In Study 1, low (n = 84) and high (n = 90) functioning respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and disability scores of 0.62 and 0.30. More than 90% of the 31 new floor and 31 new ceiling items were rated as clear, important and relevant, leaving 26 ceiling and 30 floor items for Study 2. Low (n = 246) and high (n = 637) functioning Study 2 respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores of 1.62 and 0.003. Compared to difficulty ratings of reference items, ceiling items were rated to be 10% more to greater than 40% more difficult to do, and floor items were rated to be about 12% to nearly 90% less difficult to do. These new floor and ceiling items considerably extend the measurable range of physical function at either extreme. They will help improve instrument performance in populations with broad functional ranges and those concentrated at one or the other extreme ends of
charts. Conclusion: The control charts have the advantage for classifying items as acceptable or unacceptable based on item difficulty criteria. Key words: Item difficulty, quality control, statistical process control, variable control charts ...
Mitchell, Alex J; Smith, Adam B; Al-salihy, Zerak; Rahim, Twana A; Mahmud, Mahmud Q; Muhyaldin, Asma S
We aimed to redefine the optimal self-report symptoms of depression suitable for creation of an item bank that could be used in computer adaptive testing or to develop a simplified screening tool for DSM-V. Four hundred subjects (200 patients with primary depression and 200 non-depressed subjects), living in Iraqi Kurdistan were interviewed. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to define the presence of major depression (DSM-IV criteria). We examined symptoms of depression using four well-known scales delivered in Kurdish. The Partial Credit Model was applied to each instrument. Common-item equating was subsequently used to create an item bank and differential item functioning (DIF) explored for known subgroups. A symptom level Rasch analysis reduced the original 45 items to 24 items of the original after the exclusion of 21 misfitting items. A further six items (CESD13 and CESD17, HADS-D4, HADS-D5 and HADS-D7, and CDSS3 and CDSS4) were removed due to misfit as the items were added together to form the item bank, and two items were subsequently removed following the DIF analysis by diagnosis (CESD20 and CDSS9, both of which were harder to endorse for women). Therefore the remaining optimal item bank consisted of 17 items and produced an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.987. Using a bank restricted to the optimal nine items revealed only minor loss of accuracy (AUC = 0.989, sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%). Finally, when restricted to only four items accuracy was still high (AUC was still 0.976; sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%). An item bank of 17 items may be useful in computer adaptive testing and nine or even four items may be used to develop a simplified screening tool for DSM-V major depressive disorder (MDD). Further examination of this item bank should be conducted in different cultural settings.
van der Linden, Willem J.; Adema, Jos J.
Two optimalization models for the construction of tests with a maximal value of coefficient alpha are given. Both models have a linear form and can be solved by using a branch-and-bound algorithm. The first model assumes an item bank calibrated under the Rasch model and can be used, for instance, when classical test theory has to serve as an interface between the item bank system and a user not familiar with modern test theory. Maximization of alpha was obtained by inserting a special constra...
Cypher, B.L.; Spencer, K.A.; Scrivner, J.H.
Food item use by coyotes was compared between sexes and among age classes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California. Item use did not differ significantly between males and females. Although leporid was the item most frequently used by all age classes, item use differed significantly between pups (< 1 year), yearlings (1 year), and adults (> 1 year), probably due to differential use of secondary items. Variation in item use among age classes could potentially bias results of coyote food habit studies.
Chua, Hannah Faye; Chen, Wenfeng; Park, Denise C
The present study investigates the possibility that culture affects age differences in context memory. There is evidence that East-Asians process scenes more holistically and show better context memory than Americans. We examined evidence for differences in binding source to context in young and old Americans and native Chinese. We hypothesized that age effects on source memory could be mitigated due to these cultural differences in processing style. During incidental encoding, younger and older Chinese and Americans watched a video with statements spoken by four distinct speakers. After a brief interval, participants identified source (experiment 1) or item and source (experiment 2). We observed substantial age-related deficits in source memory in both cultures but little evidence for cultural differences in source or item memory. Basic source memory processes operate similarly across culture and age. The source of holistic processing differences observed between cultures may occur in cognitive operations that are more highly bound to a social context.
Stiller, Jurik; Hartmann, Stefan; Mathesius, Sabrina; Straube, Philipp; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Krüger, Dirk; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette
The aim of this study was to improve the criterion-related test score interpretation of a text-based assessment of scientific reasoning competencies in higher education by evaluating factors which systematically affect item difficulty. To provide evidence about the specific demands which test items of various difficulty make on pre-service…
Khawaja, Nigar G.; Yu, Lai Ngo Heidi
The 27-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) has become one of the most frequently used measures of Intolerance of Uncertainty. More recently, an abridged, 12-item version of the IUS has been developed. The current research used clinical (n = 50) and non-clinical (n = 56) samples to examine and compare the psychometric properties of both…
Lin, Ting Hsiang; Yao, Grace
Quality of life (QOL) has become an important component of health. By using the methodology of psychometric theory, we examine the item properties of the WHOQOL-BRIEF. Samejima's graded response model with natural metrics of the logistic response function was fitted. The results showed items with negative natures were less discriminating. Items…
Bernaards A., Coen; Sijtsma, Klaas
Used simulation to study the problem of missing item responses in tests and questionnaires when factor analysis is used to study the structure of the items. Factor loadings based on the EM algorithm best approximated the loading structure, with imputation of the mean per person across the scores for that person being the best alternative. (SLD)
Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah
In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…
Asún, Rodrigo A.; Rdz-Navarro, Karina; Alvarado, Jesús M.
This study compares the performance of two approaches in analysing four-point Likert rating scales with a factorial model: the classical factor analysis (FA) and the item factor analysis (IFA). For FA, maximum likelihood and weighted least squares estimations using Pearson correlation matrices among items are compared. For IFA, diagonally weighted…
Hatchlings of clarias anguillaris produced at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria, were cultured in plastic aquaria set up in flow through system and observed for 30 days. The effect of different food items such as artemia, moina, zooplankton (mixture of artemia and moina), mixture of zooplankton and artificially ...
Petersen, Morten Aa.; Gamper, Eva-Maria; Costantini, Anna
OBJECTIVE: To improve measurement precision, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing an item bank for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) of emotional functioning (EF). The item bank will be within the conceptual framework...... of the widely used EORTC Quality of Life questionnaire (QLQ-C30). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: On the basis of literature search and evaluations by international samples of experts and cancer patients, 38 candidate items were developed. The psychometric properties of the items were evaluated in a large...... that 24 items could be included in a unidimensional IRT model. DIF did not seem to have any significant impact on the estimation of EF. Evaluations indicated that the CAT measure may reduce sample size requirements by up to 50% compared to the QLQ-C30 EF scale without reducing power. CONCLUSION...
Voskuilen, Chelsea; Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail
We examined the effects of aging on performance in an item-recognition experiment with confidence judgments. A model for confidence judgments and response time (RTs; Ratcliff & Starns, 2013) was used to fit a large amount of data from a new sample of older adults and a previously reported sample of younger adults. This model of confidence…
hereby introduce a new feature for Scopus: Items of interest from recent ornithological literature. We hope to have this feature in all forthcoming issues of Scopus, switching between topics based on interest and articles received. Besides the Editorial Board occasionally soliciting articles, we welcome pieces from interested ...
In this article, the author makes reference to four comic book characters to make the point that together they are a formidable team, but on their own they are vulnerable. She examines the four components of mathematics assessment items and the need for implicit instruction within the classroom for student success. Just like the "Fantastic Four"…
For the purposes of tailoring physics instruction in accordance with the needs and abilities of the students it is useful to explore the knowledge structure of students of different ability levels. In order to precisely differentiate the successive, characteristic states of student achievement it is necessary to use test items that possess…
Foote, Chandra J.
Very little research has been performed which examines gender differences in confidence in highly specified situations. More generalized studies consistently suggest that women are less confident than men (i.e. Sadker and Sadker, 1994). The few studies of gender differences in item-specific conditions indicate that men tend to be more confident in…
Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2017
The Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) mathematics items measure critical thinking, mathematical reasoning, and the ability to apply skills and knowledge to real-world problems. Students are asked to solve problems involving the key knowledge and skills for their grade level as identified by the Common Core…
van der Linden, Willem J.; Adema, Jos J.
Two optimalization models for the construction of tests with a maximal value of coefficient alpha are given. Both models have a linear form and can be solved by using a branch-and-bound algorithm. The first model assumes an item bank calibrated under the Rasch model and can be used, for instance,
Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu
Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…
Fencl, Jennifer L
A surgical item unintentionally retained in a patient after an operative or other invasive procedure is a serious, preventable medical error with the potential to cause the patient great harm. Perioperative RNs play a key role in preventing retained surgical items (RSIs). The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of retained surgical items" provides guidance for implementing a consistent, multidisciplinary approach to RSI prevention; accounting for surgical items; preventing retention of device fragments; reconciling count discrepancies; and using adjunct technologies to supplement manual count procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel provide optimal care during a procedure. Key points addressed include taking responsibility for RSI prevention as a team; minimizing distractions, noise, and interruptions during counts; using consistent counting methods; reconciling discrepancies; and participating in performance-improvement activities. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance in writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... or Account 4110, Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes for the income tax effects (Federal... account shall also include the related income tax effect of the extraordinary items. (b) This account... Account 4070, Income taxes—accrued, shall be credited or charged for all current income tax effects...
Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene
It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…
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... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item standardization code. 101-30.701-2 Section 101-30.701-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-2 Item standardization code. Item standardization code (ISC...
Sinclair, Norma; Pecheone, Raymond L.
The impact of test item multidimensionality was examined as it affected fitting items on a teacher licensure test to an item response theory (IRT) model. Test item data from the 1990 study of G. W. Guiton and G. Delandshere are used. The Connecticut Elementary Certification Test (CONNECT) is a licensure examination designed to assess the subject…
Junker, Brian W.; Sijtsma, Klaas
Presents results from two methods of evaluating monotonicity in item response models: regressing individual item scores on the total test score and on the "rest" score obtained by omitting the selected items from the total test score. Discusses implications for exploratory analysis of dichotomous item response data and the application of…
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling items and containers. 835.605 Section 835.605... items and containers. Except as provided at § 835.606, each item or container of radioactive material... information to permit individuals handling, using, or working in the vicinity of the items or containers to...
Krass, Iosif A.; Thomasson, Gary L.
New items are being calibrated for the next generation of the computerized adaptive (CAT) version of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) (Forms 5 and 6). The requirements that the items be "good" three-parameter logistic (3-PL) model items and typically "like" items in the previous CAT-ASVAB tests have…
Owens, Robert G.; Harms, Laura O.
Compared Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) items for 128 females convicted of forgery against items for 128 females from age-matched normative sample. Thirty-three items were significant at 0.0001 level. Significant items were categorized as value system, relations with family, uncertainty, appearance of perfectionism,…
Kreiner, Svend; Christensen, Karl Bang
In behavioural sciences, local dependence and DIF are common, and purification procedures that eliminate items with these weaknesses often result in short scales with poor reliability. Graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner & Christensen, in Statistical Methods for Quality of Life Studies, ed....... by M. Mesbah, F.C. Cole & M.T. Lee, Kluwer Academic, pp. 187–203, 2002) where uniform DIF and uniform local dependence are permitted solve this dilemma by modelling the local dependence and DIF. Identifying loglinear Rasch models by a stepwise model search is often very time consuming, since...... the initial item analysis may disclose a great deal of spurious and misleading evidence of DIF and local dependence that has to disposed of during the modelling procedure. Like graphical models, graphical loglinear Rasch models possess Markov properties that are useful during the statistical analysis...
Scott, Neil W; Fayers, Peter M; Aaronson, Neil K
Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses can be used to explore translation, cultural, gender or other differences in the performance of quality of life (QoL) instruments. These analyses are commonly performed using "baseline" or pretreatment data. We previously reported DIF analyses to examine...... the pattern of item responses for translations of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 QoL instrument, using only data collected prior to cancer treatment. We now compare the consistency of these results with similar analyses of on-treatment and off...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integration of information streams into a unitary representation is an important task of our cognitive system. Within working memory, the medial temporal lobe (MTL has been conceptually linked to the maintenance of bound representations. In a previous fMRI study, we have shown that the MTL is indeed more active during working-memory maintenance of spatial associations as compared to non-spatial associations or single items. There are two explanations for this result, the mere presence of the spatial component activates the MTL, or the MTL is recruited to bind associations between neurally non-overlapping representations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current fMRI study investigates this issue further by directly comparing intrinsic intra-item binding (object/colour, extrinsic intra-item binding (object/location, and inter-item binding (object/object. The three binding conditions resulted in differential activation of brain regions. Specifically, we show that the MTL is important for establishing extrinsic intra-item associations and inter-item associations, in line with the notion that binding of information processed in different brain regions depends on the MTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that different forms of working-memory binding rely on specific neural structures. In addition, these results extend previous reports indicating that the MTL is implicated in working-memory maintenance, challenging the classic distinction between short-term and long-term memory systems.
Peel, Trisha N; Dylla, Brenda L; Hughes, John G; Lynch, David T; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Cheng, Allen C; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin
Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs) is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM) in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014) at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32%) met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively); this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003). The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster. Prosthetic joint infections are a devastating complication of arthroplasty surgery. Despite this, current microbiological techniques to detect and diagnose infections are imperfect. This study examined a new approach to diagnosing infections, through the inoculation of tissue samples from around the prosthetic joint into blood culture bottles. This study demonstrated that, compared to current laboratory practices, this new technique increased the detection of
Full Text Available Construction logistics are activities that consist of ordering, storage and transportation of materials of construction projects. Storage material is logistics activity that ensure the availability of materials in project site. Generally, material storage activities have been conducted at the project site. Logistics construction is aimed to support the project activities that the completion schedule has been set. Construction logistics issues is determining the schedule of ordering materials so that the project can be implemented on schedule. The purpose of research is to determine the optimum ordering period for the primary items on the main building structure construction and designing inventory control cards as a mechanism for monitoring procurement of materials. This research has been obtained optimal ordering period for the primary items of main building structure with elements of the work using Fixed Period Requirement method. Inventories were already meet the material requirement of each period. Material management has been conducted based grouping approach as many as 31 groups. In addition, this research has proposed the inventory control cards as an instrument for material procurement monitoring. The implications of inventory control cards are coordinate contracting parties with vendors to plan the replenishment of materials to meet the work schedule. Further research can be developed with other aspects such as integrated material order system between contractors and vendors to consider the safety stock. In addition, the information system for planning material is an important consideration for construction projects with large scale so that the companies can plan primary items inventory and other materials in the projects completion more easily, quickly and accurately.
Waliv Rahul H.
Full Text Available A multi item profit maximization inventory model is developed in fuzzy stochastic environment. Demand is taken as Stock dependent demand. Available storage space is assumed to be imprecise and vague in nature. Impreciseness has been expressed by linear membership function. Purchasing cost and investment constraint are considered to be random and their randomness is expressed by normal distribution. The model has been formulated as a fuzzy stochastic programming problem and reduced to corresponding equivalent fuzzy linear programming problem. The model has been solved by using fuzzy linear programming technique and illustrated numerically.
Kent, Peter; Grotle, Margreth; Dunn, Kate M
OBJECTIVE: To determine the psychometric properties of the 23-item version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ-23) and to quantify their stability across 2 cultures/languages and 2 types of care-settings. METHODS: Rasch analysis of data from 1,000 patients with low back pain from...... clinical characteristics (such as age, gender, pain intensity, pain duration and care setting), depending on the country. CONCLUSION: As similar results have been found for the RMDQ-24, we believe it is timely to reconsider whether: (i) the RMDQ should be reconstructed using an item-response theory......-based approach that includes consideration of new items and response options; or (ii) the use of alternative questionnaires should be recommended, such as the Oswestry Disability Index, that have shown evidence of fitting the Rasch model; or (iii) a completely new condition-specific questionnaire should...
Trisha N. Peel
Full Text Available Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32% met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively; this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003. The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001, with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster.
Wilkerson, J Michael; Noor, Syed W; Galos, Dylan L; Rosser, B R Simon
In this study, we investigated if a single-item indicator measured the degree to which people were open about their same-sex attraction ("out") as accurately as a multi-item scale. For the multi-item scale, we used the Outness Inventory, which includes three subscales: family, world, and religion. We examined correlations between the single- and multi-item measures; between the single-item indicator and the subscales of the multi-item scale; and between the measures and internalized homonegativity, social attitudes towards homosexuality, and depressive symptoms. In addition, we calculated Tjur's R (2) as a measure of predictive power of the single-item indicator, multi-item scale, and subscales of the multi-item scale in predicting two health-related outcomes: depressive symptoms and condomless anal sex with multiple partners. There was a strong correlation between the single- and multi-item measures (r = 0.73). Furthermore, there were strong correlations between the single-item indicator and each subscale of the multi-item scale: family (r = 0.70), world (r = 0.77), and religion (r = 0.50). In addition, the correlations between the single-item indicator and internalized homonegativity (r = -0.63), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = -0.38), and depression (r = -0.14) were higher than those between the multi-item scale and internalized homonegativity (r = -0.55), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = -0.21), and depression (r = -0.13). Contrary to the premise that multi-item measures are superior to single-item measures, our collective findings indicate that the single-item indicator of outness performs better than the multi-item scale of outness.
Noor, Syed W.; Galos, Dylan L.; Simon Rosser, B. R.
In this study, we investigated if a single-item indicator measured the degree to which people were open about their same-sex attraction (“out”) as accurately as a multi-item scale. For the multi-item scale, we used the Outness Inventory, which includes three subscales: family, world, and religion. We examined correlations between the single- and multi-item measures; between the single-item indicator and the subscales of the multi-item scale; and between the measures and internalized homonegativity, social attitudes towards homosexuality, and depressive symptoms. In addition, we calculated Tjur’s R2 as a measure of predictive power of the single-item indicator, multi-item scale, and subscales of the multi-item scale in predicting two health-related outcomes: depressive symptoms and condomless anal sex with multiple partners. There was a strong correlation between the single- and multi-item measures (r = 0.73). Furthermore, there were strong correlations between the single-item indicator and each subscale of the multi-item scale: family (r = 0.70), world (r = 0.77), and religion (r = 0.50). In addition, the correlations between the single-item indicator and internalized homonegativity (r = −0.63), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = −0.38), and depression (r = −0.14) were higher than those between the multi-item scale and internalized homonegativity (r = −0.55), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = −0.21), and depression (r = −0.13). Contrary to the premise that multi-item measures are superior to single-item measures, our collective findings indicate that the single-item indicator of outness performs better than the multi-item scale of outness. PMID:26292840
Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D; Kuhfeld, Megan; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li
Smoking behavior is influenced by social motivations such as the expected social benefits of smoking and the social cues that induce craving. This paper describes development of the PROMIS Social Motivations for Smoking item banks, which will serve to standardize assessment of these social motivations among daily and nondaily smokers. Daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers completed an online survey. Item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses were conducted to identify a unidimensional set of items for each group. Short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) were evaluated as tools for more efficiently assessing this construct. A total of 15 items were included in the item banks (9 items common to daily and nondaily smokers, 3 unique to daily, 3 unique to nondaily). Scores based on full item banks are highly reliable (reliability = 0.90-0.91). Additionally, the item banks are strongly unidimensional and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A fixed SF for use with both daily and nondaily smokers consists of 4 items (reliability = 0.80). Results from simulated CATs showed that, on average, fewer than 5 items are needed to assess this construct with adequate precision using the item banks. A new set of items has been identified for assessing the social motivations for smoking in a reliable, standardized manner for daily and nondaily smokers. In addition to using the full item banks, efficient assessment can be achieved by using SFs, employing CATs, or selecting items tailored to specific research or clinical purposes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
This research applies multimedia technology to design a dynamic item generation method that can adaptively adjust the difficulty level of items according to the level of the testee. The method is based on interactive testing software developed by Flash Actionscript, and provides a testing solution for users by automatically distributing items of…
Kim, Seock-Ho; Cohen, Allan S.; Alagoz, Cigdem; Kim, Sukwoo
Data from a large-scale performance assessment (N = 105,731) were analyzed with five differential item functioning (DIF) detection methods for polytomous items to examine the congruence among the DIF detection methods. Two different versions of the item response theory (IRT) model-based likelihood ratio test, the logistic regression likelihood…
homogeneity may be the types of items that besc contribute to predicting job-relevant performance by an external criterion. Thus, until externa ...the item itself (Nunnally, 1967). (Obviously, the size of this artifact will vary inversely with the number of items in the test/section.) Also, if a
Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Thuras, Paul; Batres-Y-Carr, Tegan; McNairy, Scott; Swanson, Heather
The current study describes the psychometric properties of a scale (entitled "Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale-10 items" or 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale) designed for longitudinal studies. Sixteen male veterans attending a substance use disorder recovery clinic were studied over a 2-year period. The attending nurse and physician conducted four, 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale scale ratings, each encompassing a 6-month period, for each participant. Analyses involved scale descriptive results, Cronbach alpha scores, effects of deleting the item on Cronbach alpha scores for the remaining items, and item-to-scale correlations across the four periods, plus three exploratory studies. Scale scores showed skewness p ≤ 1.0 and Cronbach alphas of 0.89 to 0.93. Six of 10 items correlated with total scale scores at 3 or 4 rating periods at p ≤ 0.005. Two items showed p ≤ 0.005 correlations only in the first two periods, and two items showed p ≤ 0.005 correlations only in the last two periods. Exploratory analyses revealed some item convergence over time plus non-significant associations with long-standing demographic and clinical variables. Desirable 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale psychometric properties included normal distribution, excellent Cronbach alphas, and high item-to-score correlations, all of which persisted over time.
Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.
Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…
Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Willem J.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.
Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the
Meyer, J. Patrick
An examinee faced with a test item will engage in solution behavior or rapid-guessing behavior. These qualitatively different test-taking behaviors bias parameter estimates for item response models that do not control for such behavior. A mixture Rasch model with item response time components was proposed and evaluated through application to real…
While the methodology used in developing test items can vary significantly, to ensure quality examinations, test items should be developed systematically. Test design and development is discussed in the DOE Guide to Good Practices for Design, Development, and Implementation of Examinations. This guide is intended to be a supplement by providing more detailed guidance on the development of specific test items. This guide addresses the development of written examination test items primarily. However, many of the concepts also apply to oral examinations, both in the classroom and on the job. This guide is intended to be used as guidance for the classroom and laboratory instructor or curriculum developer responsible for the construction of individual test items. This document focuses on written test items, but includes information relative to open-reference (open book) examination test items, as well. These test items have been categorized as short-answer, multiple-choice, or essay. Each test item format is described, examples are provided, and a procedure for development is included. The appendices provide examples for writing test items, a test item development form, and examples of various test item formats.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separate line item. 50.14 Section 50... PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.14 Separate line item. An insurer is deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of providing disclosure on a “separate line item in the policy...
van der Ark, L. Andries; Croon, Marcel A.; Sijtsma, Klaas
Scalability coefficients play an important role in Mokken scale analysis. For a set of items, scalability coefficients have been defined for each pair of items, for each individual item, and for the entire scale. Hypothesis testing with respect to these scalability coefficients has not been fully developed. This study introduces marginal modelling…
Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu
A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…
Conclusion: The control charts have the advantage for classifying items as acceptable or unacceptable based on item difficulty criteria. Key words: Item difficulty, quality control, statistical process control, variable control charts. Date of Acceptance: 26-Jun-2015. Address for correspondence: Dr. L Tomak,. Department of ...
Vale, C. David; Gialluca, Kathleen A.
ASCAL is a microcomputer-based program for calibrating items according to the three-parameter logistic model of item response theory. It uses a modified multivariate Newton-Raphson procedure for estimating item parameters. This study evaluated this procedure using Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques. The current version of ASCAL was then compared to…
Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming
Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…
Veerkamp, W.J.J.; Veerkamp, Wim J.J.; Berger, Martijn; Berger, Martijn P.F.
Items with the highest discrimination parameter values in a logistic item response theory (IRT) model do not necessarily give maximum information. This paper shows which discrimination parameter values (as a function of the guessing parameter and the distance between person ability and item
Muhson, Ali; Lestari, Barkah; Supriyanto; Baroroh, Kiromim
Item analysis has essential roles in the learning assessment. The item analysis program is designed to measure student achievement and instructional effectiveness. This study was aimed to develop item-analysis program and verify its feasibility. This study uses a Research and Development (R & D) model. The procedure includes designing and…
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato sauce...
Edwards, Michael C.; Flora, David B.; Thissen, David
This article describes a computerized adaptive test (CAT) based on the uniform item exposure multi-form structure (uMFS). The uMFS is a specialization of the multi-form structure (MFS) idea described by Armstrong, Jones, Berliner, and Pashley (1998). In an MFS CAT, the examinee first responds to a small fixed block of items. The items comprising…
Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We al...
This study investigated test item bias and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) of West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) in chemistry. The major objective was to examine how WASSCE items in chemistry function differentially with respect to gender and location. In Aba education zone of Abia, ...
Westers, Paul; Kelderman, Henk
A method for analyzing test item responses is proposed to examine differential item functioning (DIF) in multiple-choice items through a combination of the usual notion of DIF, for correct/incorrect responses and information about DIF contained in each of the alternatives. The proposed method uses
Khalid, Muhammad Naveed; Glas, Cornelis A.W.
Item bias or differential item functioning (DIF) has an important impact on the fairness of psychological and educational testing. In this paper, DIF is seen as a lack of fit to an item response (IRT) model. Inferences about the presence and importance of DIF require a process of so-called test
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Human space flight item... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause: Human Space Flight Item (MAR 1997) The Contractor shall include the following statement in all subcontracts...
Merino-Soto, Cesar; Salas Blas, Edwin
This research intended to validate two brief scales of sensations seeking with Peruvian adolescents: the eight item scale (BSSS8; Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, y Donohew, 2002) and the four item scale (BSSS4; Stephenson, Hoyle, Slater, y Palmgreen, 2003). Questionnaires were administered to 618 voluntary participants, with an average age of 13.6 years, from different levels of high school, state and private school in a district in the south of Lima. It analyzed the internal structure of both short versions using three models: a) unidimensional (M1), b) oblique or related dimensions (M2), and c) the bifactor model (M3). Results show that both instruments have a single dimension which best represents the variability of the items; a fact that can be explained both by the complexity of the concept and by the small number of items representing each factor, which is more noticeable in the BSSS4. Reliability is within levels found by previous studies: alpha: .745 = BSSS8 and BSSS4 =. 643; omega coefficient: .747 in BSSS8 and .651 in BSSS4. These are considered suitable for the type of instruments studied. Based on the correlation between the two instruments, it was found that there are satisfactory levels of equivalence between the BSSS8 and BSSS4. However, it is recommended that the BSSS4 is mainly used for research and for the purpose of describing populations.
This study compares the performance of three nonparametric item characteristic curve (ICC) estimation procedures: isotonic regression, smoothed isotonic regression, and kernel smoothing. Smoothed isotonic regression, employed along with an appropriate kernel function, provides better estimates and also satisfies the assumption of strict…
Berger, Moritz; Tutz, Gerhard
Detection of differential item functioning (DIF) by use of the logistic modeling approach has a long tradition. One big advantage of the approach is that it can be used to investigate nonuniform (NUDIF) as well as uniform DIF (UDIF). The classical approach allows one to detect DIF by distinguishing between multiple groups. We propose an…
Li, Yanju; Brooks, Gordon P.; Johanson, George A.
In 2009, DeMars stated that when impact exists there will be Type I error inflation, especially with larger sample sizes and larger discrimination parameters for items. One purpose of this study is to present the patterns of Type I error rates using Mantel-Haenszel (MH) and logistic regression (LR) procedures when the mean ability between the…
Huggins, Anne Corinne
Invariant relationships in the internal mechanisms of estimating achievement scores on educational tests serve as the basis for concluding that a particular test is fair with respect to statistical bias concerns. Equating invariance and differential item functioning are both concerned with invariant relationships yet are treated separately in the…
McCarthy, Denis M.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.
Drinking behavior in preadolescence is a significant predictor of both short- and long-term negative consequences. This study examined the psychometric properties of 1 known risk factor for drinking in this age group, alcohol expectancies, within an item response theory framework. In a sample of middle school youths (N = 1,273), the authors tested…
Bagley, Anita M.; Gorton, George E.; Bjornson, Kristie; Bevans, Katherine; Stout, Jean L.; Narayanan, Unni; Tucker, Carole A.
Aim: Children and adolescents highly value their ability to participate in relevant daily life and recreational activities. The Activities Scale for Kids-performance (ASKp) instrument measures the frequency of performance of 30 common childhood activities, and has been shown to be valid and reliable. A revised and expanded 38-item ASKp (ASKp38)…
Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Leng, Chin Hai; Alahmadi, Ahlam
The purpose of the study was to examine gender differences in performance on multiple-choice mathematical ability test, administered within the context of high school graduation test that was designed to match eleventh grade curriculum. The transformed item difficulty (TID) was used to detect a gender related DIF. A random sample of 1400 eleventh…
Fedotova, G. A.; Voropai, N. I.; Kovalev, G. F.
This paper is concerned with problems blown up in the development of a new version of the Interstate Standard GOST 27.002 "Industrial product dependability. Terms and definitions". This Standard covers a wide range of technical items and is used in numerous regulations, specifications, standard and technical documentation. A currently available State Standard GOST 27.002-89 was introduced in 1990. Its development involved a participation of scientists and experts from different technical areas, its draft was debated in different audiences and constantly refined, so it was a high quality document. However, after 25 years of its application it's become necessary to develop a new version of the Standard that would reflect the current understanding of industrial dependability, accounting for the changes taking place in Russia in the production, management and development of various technical systems and facilities. The development of a new version of the Standard makes it possible to generalize on a terminological level the knowledge and experience in the area of reliability of technical items, accumulated over a quarter of the century in different industries and reliability research schools, to account for domestic and foreign experience of standardization. Working on the new version of the Standard, we have faced a number of issues and problems on harmonization with the International Standard IEC 60500-192, caused first of all by different approaches to the use of terms and differences in the mentalities of experts from different countries. The paper focuses on the problems related to the chapter "Maintenance, restoration and repair", which caused difficulties for the developers to harmonize term definitions both with experts and the International Standard, which is mainly related to differences between the Russian concept and practice of maintenance and repair and foreign ones.
Eckert, Johanna; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep
Inductive learning from limited observations is a cognitive capacity of fundamental importance. In humans, it is underwritten by our intuitive statistics, the ability to draw systematic inferences from populations to randomly drawn samples and vice versa. According to recent research in cognitive development, human intuitive statistics develops early in infancy. Recent work in comparative psychology has produced first evidence for analogous cognitive capacities in great apes who flexibly drew inferences from populations to samples. In the present study, we investigated whether great apes (Pongo abelii, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla) also draw inductive inferences in the opposite direction, from samples to populations. In two experiments, apes saw an experimenter randomly drawing one multi-item sample from each of two populations of food items. The populations differed in their proportion of preferred to neutral items (24:6 vs. 6:24) but apes saw only the distribution of food items in the samples that reflected the distribution of the respective populations (e.g., 4:1 vs. 1:4). Based on this observation they were then allowed to choose between the two populations. Results show that apes seemed to make inferences from samples to populations and thus chose the population from which the more favorable (4:1) sample was drawn in Experiment 1. In this experiment, the more attractive sample not only contained proportionally but also absolutely more preferred food items than the less attractive sample. Experiment 2, however, revealed that when absolute and relative frequencies were disentangled, apes performed at chance level. Whether these limitations in apes' performance reflect true limits of cognitive competence or merely performance limitations due to accessory task demands is still an open question. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF in men and women. Methods The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves and their options (option characteristic curves in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Results Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. Conclusions All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.
Chen, Tzu-An; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Diep, Cassandra; Baranowski, Tom
To evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We also tested for differences in the ways item function (called differential item functioning) across child's gender, ethnicity, age, and household income groups. Parents of 3-5 year old children completed a self-reported vegetable parenting practices scale online. Vegetable parenting practices consisted of 14 effective vegetable parenting practices and 12 ineffective vegetable parenting practices items, each with three subscales (responsiveness, structure, and control). Multidimensional polytomous item response modeling was conducted separately on effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices. One effective vegetable parenting practice item did not fit the model well in the full sample or across demographic groups, and another was a misfit in differential item functioning analyses across child's gender. Significant differential item functioning was detected across children's age and ethnicity groups, and more among effective vegetable parenting practices than ineffective vegetable parenting practices items. Wright maps showed items only covered parts of the latent trait distribution. The harder- and easier-to-respond ends of the construct were not covered by items for effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices, respectively. Several effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices scale items functioned differently on the basis of child's demographic characteristics; therefore, researchers should use these vegetable parenting practices scales with caution. Item response modeling should be incorporated in analyses of parenting practice questionnaires to better assess
McClelland, Mark; Lazar, Danielle; Wolfe, Lindsay; Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Zocchi, Mark; Twesten, Jenny; Pines, Jesse M
Understanding hospital culture is important to effectively manage patient flow. The purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument that can assess a hospital's culture related to in-hospital transitions in care. Key transition themes were identified using a multidisciplinary team of experts from 3 health care systems. Candidate items were rigorously evaluated using a modified Delphi technique. Findings indicate 8 themes associated with hospital culture-mediating transitions. Forty-four items reflect the themes.
Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.; Alcala-Quintana, Rocio; Garcia-Cueto, Eduardo
Current interest in measuring quality of life is generating interest in the construction of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with Likert-type items. Calibration of an item bank for use in CAT requires collecting responses to a large number of candidate items. However, the number is usually too large to administer to each subject in the…
Research was conducted to develop methods of surface applications of antiozonants to rubber items and evaluate antiozonants for packaging rubber...items in plastic bags. The report covers (1) tests of packaging rubber items in polyethylene bags together with various antiozonants , and (2) tests of
Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.
Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…
Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.
Anatomists often use images in assessments and examinations. This study aims to investigate the influence of different types of images on item difficulty and item discrimination in written assessments. A total of 210 of 460 students volunteered for an extra assessment in a gross anatomy course. This assessment contained 39 test items grouped in…
Full Text Available Item analysis has essential roles in the learning assessment. The item analysis program is designed to measure student achievement and instructional effectiveness. This study was aimed to develop item-analysis program and verify its feasibility. This study uses a Research and Development (R & D model. The procedure includes designing and developing a product, validating, and testing the product. The data were collected through documentations, questionnaires, and interviews. This study successfully developed item analysis program, namely AnBuso. It is developed based on classical test theory (CTT. It was practical and applicable for Indonesian teachers to analyse test items
The author suggests that the Latin American cities can serve as a focus of culture study in elementary grades. describes what is general in the uniqueness" found in the values and life style of Latin American families, politics, culture. Lists items for a classroom and resource library on Latin America for 25 dollars. (VW)
Archives: Journal of Philosophy and Culture. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Philosophy and Culture. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 5 of 5 Items. 2014 ...
Although the author loves winter camping and holds the Inuit culture in great regard, thinking about material culture in a northern landscape referred to as barren constitutes a daunting lesson. She wondered, when a landscape is barren is it possible at all for someone to find material, make useful items and survive? So it was she joined the Mara…
Yarroch, William L.
The use of content validity as the primary assurance of the measurement accuracy for science assessment examinations is questioned. An alternative accuracy measure, item validity, is proposed. Item validity is based on research using qualitative comparisons between (a) student answers to objective items on the examination, (b) clinical interviews with examinees designed to ascertain their knowledge and understanding of the objective examination items, and (c) student answers to essay examination items prepared as an equivalent to the objective examination items. Calculations of item validity are used to show that selected objective items from the science assessment examination overestimated the actual student understanding of science content. Overestimation occurs when a student correctly answers an examination item, but for a reason other than that needed for an understanding of the content in question. There was little evidence that students incorrectly answered the items studied for the wrong reason, resulting in underestimation of the students' knowledge. The equivalent essay items were found to limit the amount of mismeasurement of the students' knowledge. Specific examples are cited and general suggestions are made on how to improve the measurement accuracy of objective examinations.
Osth, Adam F; Dennis, Simon
A powerful theoretical framework for exploring recognition memory is the global matching framework, in which a cue's memory strength reflects the similarity of the retrieval cues being matched against the contents of memory simultaneously. Contributions at retrieval can be categorized as matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, including the self match (match on item and context), item noise (match on context, mismatch on item), context noise (match on item, mismatch on context), and background noise (mismatch on item and context). We present a model that directly parameterizes the matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, which enables estimation of the magnitude of each interference contribution (item noise, context noise, and background noise). The model was fit within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 10 recognition memory datasets that use manipulations of strength, list length, list strength, word frequency, study-test delay, and stimulus class in item and associative recognition. Estimates of the model parameters revealed at most a small contribution of item noise that varies by stimulus class, with virtually no item noise for single words and scenes. Despite the unpopularity of background noise in recognition memory models, background noise estimates dominated at retrieval across nearly all stimulus classes with the exception of high frequency words, which exhibited equivalent levels of context noise and background noise. These parameter estimates suggest that the majority of interference in recognition memory stems from experiences acquired before the learning episode. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A
Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children ( N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.
Sampaio, Paula Florence; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael
Parental upbringing of children and adolescents has received little attention in research on the promotion of children's health and wellbeing. This paper presents the initial cross-cultural adaptation process of a Brazilian version of the s-EMBU for adolescents, which intends to capture parental rearing practices. The study takes a universalistic approach to assess the four initial phases of cross-cultural adaptation: conceptual, item, semantic, and operational equivalence. The process thus included a literature review, discussion with experts, and translation and back-translation of items. A pretest was conducted with 10 adolescents in the waiting room of a public clinic. The adolescents did not understand some items as proposed in the original constructs. After some rewording, the items were properly understood as projected by the original instrument. The findings suggest that this Brazilian version of s-EMBU for adolescents is promising and that it provides room for future psychometric studies to complete the cross-cultural adaptation process.
Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li; Stucky, Brian D; Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Edelen, Maria Orlando
This article describes the procedures used in the PROMIS Smoking Initiative for the development and evaluation of item banks, short forms (SFs), and computerized adaptive tests (CATs) for the assessment of 6 constructs related to cigarette smoking: nicotine dependence, coping expectancies, emotional and sensory expectancies, health expectancies, psychosocial expectancies, and social motivations for smoking. Analyses were conducted using response data from a large national sample of smokers. Items related to each construct were subjected to extensive item factor analyses and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). Final item banks were calibrated, and SF assessments were developed for each construct. The performance of the SFs and the potential use of the item banks for CAT administration were examined through simulation study. Item selection based on dimensionality assessment and DIF analyses produced item banks that were essentially unidimensional in structure and free of bias. Simulation studies demonstrated that the constructs could be accurately measured with a relatively small number of carefully selected items, either through fixed SFs or CAT-based assessment. Illustrative results are presented, and subsequent articles provide detailed discussion of each item bank in turn. The development of the PROMIS smoking item banks provides researchers with new tools for measuring smoking-related constructs. The use of the calibrated item banks and suggested SF assessments will enhance the quality of score estimates, thus advancing smoking research. Moreover, the methods used in the current study, including innovative approaches to item selection and SF construction, may have general relevance to item bank development and evaluation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tay, L.; Huang, Q.; Vermunt, J.K.
In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across
Zhu, Junya; Li, Liping; Li, Yuxia; Shi, Meiyu; Lu, Haiying; Garnick, Deborah W; Weingart, Saul N
To develop a patient safety culture instrument for use in Chinese hospitals, we assessed the appropriateness of existing safety culture questionnaires used in the USA and Japan for Chinese respondents and identified new items and domains suitable to Chinese hospitals. Focus group study. Twenty-four physicians, nurses and other health-care workers from 11 hospitals in three Chinese cities. Three focus groups were conducted in 2010 to elicit information from hospital workers about their perceptions of the appropriateness and importance of each of 97 questionnaire items, derived from a literature review and an expert panel, characterizing hospital safety culture. understood the concepts of patient safety and safety culture and identified features associated with safe care. They judged that numerous questions from existing surveys were inappropriate, including 39 items that were dropped because they were judged unimportant, semantically redundant, confusing, ambiguous or inapplicable in Chinese settings. Participants endorsed eight new items and three additional dimensions addressing staff training, mentoring of new hires, compliance with rules and procedures, equipment availability and leadership walk-rounds they judged appropriate to assessing safety culture in Chinese hospitals. This process resulted in a 66-item instrument for testing in cognitive interviews, the next stage of survey development. Focus group participants provided important insights into the refinement of existing items and the construction of new items for measuring patient safety culture in Chinese hospitals. This is a necessary first step in producing a culturally appropriate instrument applicable to specific local contexts.
Gilbert, Mark R; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie L; Rosen, Clark A
The Vocal Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) was designed as an item reduction of the original VHI to provide a quick, reliable, and quantifiable measure of patients' own vocal handicap perception. Many translations of the VHI-10 have been produced, but methodologies of translation vary between articles and do not always mirror that of the English VHI-10. This discrepancy leads to confusion about normative values and the applicability of published data in non-English-speaking cultures. This article examines the various item reductions of the VHI-10 from the VHI and the differing methodologies of translation of the VHI-10. This is an invited review article. Published item reductions and translations of the VHI-10 were reviewed. Normative values for each translation, where available, were calculated. The World Health Organization recommendations for the translation of instruments are reviewed. There are substantial differences between the original VHI-10 (created and published in American English) and many of the translations of the VHI-10 and other proposed item reductions, both in the actual questions used and the order of the questions. We have to conclude that for a number of the non-English VHI-10/VHI reductions, the instruments are not equivalent, meaning the results from different languages are not comparable. Our recommendation for future patient-reported instrument translations is to translate and validate the instrument according to the World Health Organization protocol while maintaining item consistency and order, allowing studies to be better focused and decrease unnecessary replication of well-performed studies, as well as allowing metadata to be combined from different countries and cultures. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sachs, J; Gao, L
The learning process questionnaire (LPQ) has been the source of intensive cross-cultural study. However, an item-level factor analysis of all the LPQ items simultaneously has never been reported. Rather, items within each subscale have been factor analysed to establish subscale unidimensionality and justify the use of composite subscale scores. It was of major interest to see if the six logically constructed items groups of the LPQ would be supported by empirical evidence. Additionally, it was of interest to compare the consistency of the reliability and correlational structure of the LPQ subscales in our study with those of previous cross-cultural studies. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit the six-factor item level model and to fit five representative subscale level factor models. A total of 1070 students between the ages of 15 to 18 years was drawn from a representative selection of 29 classes from within 15 secondary schools in Guangzhou, China. Males and females were almost equally represented. The six-factor item level model of the LPQ seemed to fit reasonably well, thus supporting the six dimensional structure of the LPQ and justifying the use of composite subscale scores for each LPQ dimension. However, the reliability of many of these subscales was low. Furthermore, only two subscale-level factor models showed marginally acceptable fit. Substantive considerations supported an oblique three-factor model. Because the LPQ subscales often show low internal consistency reliability, experimental and correlational studies that have used these subscales as dependent measures have been disappointing. It is suggested that some LPQ items should be revised and other items added to improve the inventory's overall psychometric properties.
Vitterso, Joar; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Diener, Ed
Cultural differences in response to the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) items is investigated. Data were fit to a mixed Rasch model in order to identify latent classes of participants in a combined sample of Norwegians (N = 461) and Greenlanders (N = 180). Initial analyses showed no mean difference in life satisfaction between the two…
Archer, R P; Jacobson, J M
This article examines one aspect of the potential usefulness of critical items to the: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -Adolescent (MMPI-A). Endorsement frequency data are presented on the Koss-Butcher (1973) and the Lachar-Wrobeli (1979) critical items for Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) adult normative and clinical samples and for MMPI-A adolescent normative and clinical samples. Adolescents in both normal and clinical samples endorse critical items with a higher frequency than do normal adults. Further, results demonstrated that significant differences were uniformly found between the endorsement frequencies for normative versus clinical subjects for the MMPI-2 samples, whereas similar comparisons for the MMPI-A samples typically showed that adolescents in clinical setting did not endorse critical items more frequently than normal adolescents. These findings indicate that it may be difficult to construct critical item lists for adolescents based on the type of empirical methodology used with adults in which items are selected based on endorsement frequency differences found between comparison group. Beyond the issue of the technical difficulty in creating a critical item list for adolescents, several conceptual concerns are raised regarding the application of critical items to the MMPI-A. It was noted that the concept of "critical items" has not been we11 defined, and both the reliability and validity of critical items may be limited in adolescent populations.
Sijtsma, K; Junker, B W
In many testing situations, ordering the items by difficulty is helpful in analysing the testing data; examples include intelligence testing, analysis of differential item functioning, person-fit analysis, and exploring hypotheses about the order in which cognitive operations are acquired by children. In each situation, interpretation and analysis are made easier if the items are ordered by difficulty in the same way for every individual taking the test, i.e. the item response functions do not cross. This is an invariant item ordering. In this paper we review a class of non-parametric unidimensional item response models in which the ordinal properties of items (and persons) can be studied, and survey both old and new methods for the investigation of invariant item ordering in empirical data sets. Our model formulation derives in particular from the work of Holland & Rosenbaum (1986), Junker (1993) and Mokken (1971). We survey methods based on the work of Mokken (1971), Rosenbaum (1987a, b), and Sijtsma & Meijer (1992), and we also discuss some new proposals for checking invariant item ordering. When violations are detected, these methods allow a rough assessment of where on the latent scale the item response functions cross. We also study similarities and differences between these various methods and provide guidelines for their use. Finally, the methods are illustrated with data from a developmental psychology experiment in which the ability to draw inferences about transitive relations is explored.
Full Text Available Previous research on the impact of text and formatting changes on test-item performance has produced mixed results. This matter is important because it is generally acknowledged that any change to an item requires that it be recalibrated. The present study investigated the effects of seven classes of stylistic changes on item difficulty, discrimination, and response time for a subset of 65 items that make up a standardized test for physician licensure completed by 31,918 examinees in 2012. One of two versions of each item (original or revised was randomly assigned to examinees such that each examinee saw only two experimental items, with each item being administered to approximately 480 examinees. The stylistic changes had little or no effect on item difficulty or discrimination; however, one class of edits -' changing an item from an open lead-in (incomplete statement to a closed lead-in (direct question -' did result in slightly longer response times. Data for nonnative speakers of English were analyzed separately with nearly identical results. These findings have implications for the conventional practice of repretesting (or recalibrating items that have been subjected to minor editorial changes.
Chenault, Michelene; Berger, Martijn; Kremer, Bernd; Anteunis, Lucien
The purpose of this study was to improve the effectiveness of adult hearing screens and demonstrate that interventions assessment methods are needed that address the individual's experienced hearing. Item response theory, which provides a methodology for assessing patient-reported outcomes, is examined here to demonstrate its usefulness in hearing screens and interventions. The graded response model is applied to a scale of 11 items assessing perceived hearing functioning and 10 items assessing experienced social limitations completed by a sample of 212 persons age 55+ years. Fixed and variable slope models are compared. Discrimination and threshold parameters are estimated and information functions evaluated. Variable slope models for both scales provided the best fit. The estimated discrimination parameters for all items except for one in each scale were good if not excellent (1.5-3.4). Threshold values varied, demonstrating the complementary and supplementary value of items within a scale. The information provided by each item varies relative to trait values so that each scale of items provides information over a wider range of trait values. Item response theory methodology facilitates the comparison of items relative to their discriminative ability and information provided and thus provides a basis for the selection of items for application in a screening setting.
Baker, Frank B
This graduate-level textbook is a tutorial for item response theory that covers both the basics of item response theory and the use of R for preparing graphical presentation in writings about the theory. Item response theory has become one of the most powerful tools used in test construction, yet one of the barriers to learning and applying it is the considerable amount of sophisticated computational effort required to illustrate even the simplest concepts. This text provides the reader access to the basic concepts of item response theory freed of the tedious underlying calculations. It is intended for those who possess limited knowledge of educational measurement and psychometrics. Rather than presenting the full scope of item response theory, this textbook is concise and practical and presents basic concepts without becoming enmeshed in underlying mathematical and computational complexities. Clearly written text and succinct R code allow anyone familiar with statistical concepts to explore and apply item re...
Teresi, Jeanne A; Ramirez, Mildred; Jones, Richard N; Choi, Seung; Crane, Paul K
Measure modification can impact comparability of scores across groups and settings. Changes in items can affect the percent admitting to a symptom. Using item response theory (IRT) methods, well-calibrated items can be used interchangeably, and the exact same item does not have to be administered to each respondent, theoretically permitting wider latitude in terms of modification. Recommendations regarding modifications vary, depending on the use of the measure. In the context of research, adjustments can be made at the analytic level by freeing and fixing parameters based on findings of differential item functioning (DIF). The consequences of DIF for clinical decision making depend on whether or not the patient's performance level approaches the scale decision cutpoint. High-stakes testing may require item removal or separate calibrations to ensure accurate assessment. Guidelines for modification based on DIF analyses and illustrations of the impact of adjustments are presented.
Caldwell, David J; Pate, Adam N
To determine the effect of 3 variations in test item format on item statistics and student performance. Fifteen pairs of directly comparable test questions were written to adhere to (standard scale) or deviate from (nonstandard scale) 3 specific item-writing guidelines. Differences in item difficulty and discrimination were measured between the 2 scales as a whole and for each guideline individually. Student performance was also compared between the 2 scales. The nonstandard scale was 12.7 points more difficult than the standard scale (p=0.03). The guideline to avoid "none of the above" was the only 1 of the 3 guidelines to demonstrate significance. Students scored 53.6% and 41.3% (pstudents to answer correctly than the standard test items, provided no enhanced ability to discriminate between higher- and lower-performing students, and resulted in poorer student performance. Item-writing guidelines should be considered during test construction.
Full Text Available Folk literature, which is a production of daily life experiences transferred from mouth to mouth, encompasses many types such as epic, legend, folk poetry, mania, laments, songs, riddles, tales, folk story, anecdote, proverbs, idioms, rhymes, and etc. These products, which represent the oral tradition of the people, transfer numerous information regarding the life experiences, beliefs, and values of their communities to the next generation. Tales are more attractive since they depict extraordinary events and because of these characteristics they are very didactic. These are some reasons why tales have a very significant place in Turkish folk literature. People have documented tales successfully transferring from a nomadic life to a settled one. This study attempts to determine the scientific elements in Cyprus Turkish Tales, as sample in the scope of the Turkish Tales, through content analysis. Researchers in this study will examine the themes in the selected tales such as “Earth and Cosmos”, “Physical Event”, “Matter and Change”, and “Living Organisms and Life”. They will also provide a code-list according to the themes found in the tales. Researchers will do a content analysis in relation to the themes and code-listing activities in “Cyprus Turkish Tales” collected by Mustafa Gökçeoğlu, a well-known Cyprus Turkish folk literature writer. It is seen from the research that living organism and life (f: 25 and matter and change (f: 24 themes have very abundant coded. It is followed with an orderly physical events theme (f: 13 and earth and cosmos theme (f: 6. As a result, it is seen that in samples which are taken from Turkish Cypriot Tales, scientific items are widely used. It is believed that the results of the study will give different perspectives to Turkish Language, literature, science-technology, and classroom teacher providing them with interdisciplinary and rich materials.
Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to determine the relevance between the scope of the national final examination test items in English lesson and the English teacher made test items. It is also to identify the relevance between the deepness of national final examination test items in English subject and the English teacher made test item. The finding showed that more than fifty percents of tryout out test items are not relevant with the national test items. Meanwhile, the final national test items were design with higher cognitive domain than teacher made test items. It means the teacher made test items (tryout is more superficial than final national test items. It can be a reason why the students who are can pass the tryout test which is made in teacher cannot pass the national final examination test (standardized test. It is expected that this study provides empirical evidence to devise on their optimal uses in EFL teaching. Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved
Voronov, Alexey; Tidstam, Anna; Åkesson, Knut; MALMQVIST, Johan
Part 2: PLM Ecosystem; International audience; In the development of complex products product configuration systems are often used to support the development process. Item Usage Rules (IURs) are conditions for including specific items in products bills of materials based on a high-level product description. Large number of items and significant complexity of IURs make it difficult to maintain and analyze IURs manually. In this paper we present an automated approach for verifying IURs, which g...
Adema, Jos J.; van der Linden, Willem J.
Recently, linear programming models for test construction were developed. These models were based on the information function from item response theory. In this paper another approach is followed. Two 0-1 linear programming models for the construction of tests using classical item and test parameters are given. These models are useful, for instance, when classical test theory has to serve as an interface between an IRT-based item banking system and a test constructor not familiar with the und...
This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.
Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...
Daniel Adrian Gârdan
Full Text Available The issue of culture consumption is a particular concern within the modern marketing theory. Culture can be seen as representing a body of knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, symbols etc, developed in a certain period of time by a group of individuals, items transmitted with the help of a social learning process to other generations within the group. Thus, the consumption of culture will identify itself with the consumption of any product, service or a combination of them, directly resulted as manifestation of culture, expressions of artistic creativity specific for a certain cultural space. The present paper proposes the analysis of the phenomenon referring to the culture consumption in terms of specific characteristics. The paper reviews the features specific to the modern consumer of culture, the relationship that exists between the individuals’ level of education and the culture consumption and value creation process or augmentation of the intrinsic value of an artistic product as a result of the contribution that the culture consumer can bring himself. The authors highlight the fact that within extremely complex processes which are defining the culture consumption, consumers can assume an active role, becoming on their turn co-participants in the cultural goods and services value creation and transmission. The modern consumer benefits more than ever from the advantages offered by the information technology, being called to respond to major challenges of the postmodernism paradigm in terms of culture consumption. Globalization and other social economic and politic phenomena have profoundly changed the reports between individual and culture, between self and other members of the society, causing synthesis and essential transformations of culture consumption, of culture consumers typologies, and not least of the very forms of artistic expression related to cultural goods and services.
Yoon Soo Park
Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.
Chu, Kwang-lee; Kamata, Akihito
This paper proposes a multilevel measurement model that controls for DIF effects in test equating. The accuracy and stability of item and ability parameter estimates under the proposed multilevel measurement model were examined using randomly simulated data. Estimates from the proposed model were compared with those resulting from two multiple-group concurrent equating designs, including 1) a design that replaced DIF-items with items with no DIF; and 2) a design that retained DIF items with no attempt to control for DIF. In most of the investigated conditions, the results indicated that the proposed multilevel measurement model performed better than the two comparison models.
Hughey, Joseph; Burdsal, Charles
The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) was factored with the use of groups of items called radial parcels and was subsequently compared with an item factoring of the same data. This was done in order to verify the 16PF (Form E) primary factors and to investigate the use of radial parcels in that process. Ss were 449 physically or mentally handicapped men and women who were part of a rehabilitation counseling process. Results indicated that with some familiar exceptions factor identification and verification were complete. Moreover, the use of radial parcels maintained the dimensionality found in the items. Also, rotation toward simple structure proceeded more rapidly with parcels than with items.
Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.
The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.
Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.
Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah
Why do some cultural items catch on and become more popular than others? Language is one of the basic foundations of culture. But what leads some phrases to become more culturally successful? There are multiple ways to convey the same thing and phrases with similar meanings often act as substitutes,
Beck, Barbra; Scheel, Matthew H; De Oliveira, Kathleen; Hopp, Jane
This study tracked student self-assessments of cultural awareness at regular intervals during the first year of a master's of science physician assistant (PA) program to test effectiveness of a cultural competency component in the curriculum. Students completed a cultural awareness survey at the beginning of the program and retook the survey at approximately 4-month intervals throughout the first year. Regression analyses confirmed positive linear relationships between survey number and score on 31 of 31 items. Cultural awareness among PA students benefits from repeated exposures to lessons on cultural competency. Schools attempting to develop or expand cultural awareness among students should consider presenting material in multiple courses across terms.
Greenfield, Patricia M.
Analyzes intelligence tests as items of symbolic culture. Test takers often do not share the presuppositions about values, knowledge, and communication implicitly assumed by the test. Suggestions are offered to detect, correct, and avoid the cross-cultural misunderstandings that undermine the validity of such tests. (MMU)
Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven
The frequency effect in short-term serial recall is influenced by the composition of lists. In pure lists, a robust advantage in the recall of high-frequency (HF) words is observed, yet in alternating mixed lists, HF and low-frequency (LF) words are recalled equally well. It has been argued that the preexisting associations between all list items determine a single, global level of supportive activation that assists item recall. Preexisting associations between items are assumed to be a function of language co-occurrence; HF-HF associations are high, LF-LF associations are low, and mixed associations are intermediate in activation strength. This account, however, is based on results when alternating lists with equal numbers of HF and LF words were used. It is possible that directional association between adjacent list items is responsible for the recall patterns reported. In the present experiment, the recall of three forms of mixed lists-those with equal numbers of HF and LF items and pure lists-was examined to test the extent to which item-to-item associations are present in serial recall. Furthermore, conditional probabilities were used to examine more closely the evidence for a contribution, since correct-in-position scoring may mask recall that is dependent on the recall of prior items. The results suggest that an item-to-item effect is clearly present for early but not late list items, and they implicate an additional factor, perhaps the availability of resources at output, in the recall of late list items.
Zhao, Yue; Chan, Wai; Lo, Barbara Chuen Yee
Item response theory (IRT) has been increasingly applied to patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. The purpose of this study is to apply IRT to examine item properties (discrimination and severity of depressive symptoms), measurement precision and score comparability across five depression measures, which is the first study of its kind in the Chinese context. A clinical sample of 207 Hong Kong Chinese outpatients was recruited. Data analyses were performed including classical item analysis, IRT concurrent calibration and IRT true score equating. The IRT assumptions of unidimensionality and local independence were tested respectively using confirmatory factor analysis and chi-square statistics. The IRT linking assumptions of construct similarity, equity and subgroup invariance were also tested. The graded response model was applied to concurrently calibrate all five depression measures in a single IRT run, resulting in the item parameter estimates of these measures being placed onto a single common metric. IRT true score equating was implemented to perform the outcome score linking and construct score concordances so as to link scores from one measure to corresponding scores on another measure for direct comparability. Findings suggested that (a) symptoms on depressed mood, suicidality and feeling of worthlessness served as the strongest discriminating indicators, and symptoms concerning suicidality, changes in appetite, depressed mood, feeling of worthlessness and psychomotor agitation or retardation reflected high levels of severity in the clinical sample. (b) The five depression measures contributed to various degrees of measurement precision at varied levels of depression. (c) After outcome score linking was performed across the five measures, the cut-off scores led to either consistent or discrepant diagnoses for depression. The study provides additional evidence regarding the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the five depression measures
Gjersoe, Nathalia L; Newman, George E; Chituc, Vladimir; Hood, Bruce
The current studies examine how valuation of authentic items varies as a function of culture. We find that U.S. respondents value authentic items associated with individual persons (a sweater or an artwork) more than Indian respondents, but that both cultures value authentic objects not associated with persons (a dinosaur bone or a moon rock) equally. These differences cannot be attributed to more general cultural differences in the value assigned to authenticity. Rather, the results support the hypothesis that individualistic cultures place a greater value on objects associated with unique persons and in so doing, offer the first evidence for how valuation of certain authentic items may vary cross-culturally.
Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza
Full Text Available The idea of culture is somewhat vague and ambiguous for the formal goals of economics. The aim of this paper is to define the notion of culture better so as to help build economic explanations based on culture and therefore to measure its impact in every activity or beliefs associated with culture. To define culture according to the canonical evolutionary definition, it is any kind of ritualised behaviour that becomes meaningful for a group and that remains more or less constant and is transmitted down through the generations. Economic institutions are founded, implicitly or explicitly, on a worldview of how humans function; culture is an essential part of understanding us as humans, making it necessary to describe what we understand by culture correctly. In this paper we review the literature on evolutionary anthropology and psychology dealing with the concept of culture to warn that economic modelling ignores intangible benefits of culture rendering economics unable to measure certain cultural items in the digital consumer society.
Ángel Vázquez Alonso
Full Text Available The scarce attention to assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for Science-Technology-Society (STS education, due to the dialectic, tentative, value-laden, and controversial nature of most STS topics. To overcome the methodological pitfalls of the STS assessment instruments used in the past, an empirically developed instrument (VOSTS, Views on Science-Technology-Society have been suggested. Some methodological proposals, namely the multiple response models and the computing of a global attitudinal index, were suggested to improve the item implementation. The final step of these methodological proposals requires the categorization of STS statements. This paper describes the process of categorization through a scaling procedure ruled by a panel of experts, acting as judges, according to the body of knowledge from history, epistemology, and sociology of science. The statement categorization allows for the sound foundation of STS items, which is useful in educational assessment and science education research, and may also increase teachers’ self-confidence in the development of the STS curriculum for science classrooms.
Hambleton, Ronald K.
A brief overview of item response theory is provided, and a 186-item bibliography of books and articles on the subject dating from 1953 to June 1989 is presented. The overview includes a definition of the theory, a discussion of its development and application, and comparisons with classical test theory. All publications in the bibliography were…
..., and life- cycle costs of even a very small percentage of all products that may exist within an item... measures and life-cycle costs (the ASTM Standard D7075, ``Standard Practice for Evaluating and Reporting... health benefits, and life-cycle costs for each of the designated items. Information on the availability...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 407) Corporate governance. 229.407 Section 229.407 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION....407 (Item 407) Corporate governance. (a) Director independence. Identify each director and, when the...
Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.
This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming
Several recent reviews have highlighted the large number of instruments currently available to assess food parenting practices (FPP). In order to foster development of instruments that assess behaviorally significant FPP domains with appropriate items, an item bank of FPP is being developed, populat...
However, increasing task difficulty, resulting in a more istinctive encoding for items, plays a larger role in recognition. In a similar vein, Belleza ...and his collegues ( Belleza , Cheesman & Reddy 1977) have demonstrated that organizational strategies, such as the alphabet and story mnemonics, aid...specific semantic processing (Craik & Tulving, 1975). Presumably, some item-specific semantic processing occurs prior to or during organization ( Belleza
Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail
The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…
Hu, Panpan; Li, Youhai; Ma, Huijuan; Xi, Chunhua; Chen, Xianwen; Wang, Kai
Episodic memory includes information about item memory and source memory. Many researches support the hypothesis that these two memory systems are implemented by different brain structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of item memory and source memory processing in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to further verify the hypothesis of dual-process model of source and item memory. We established a neuropsychological battery to measure the performance of item memory and source memory. Totally 35 PD individuals and 35 matched healthy controls (HC) were administrated with the battery. Item memory task consists of the learning and recognition of high-frequency national Chinese characters; source memory task consists of the learning and recognition of three modes (character, picture, and image) of objects. Compared with the controls, the idiopathic PD patients have been impaired source memory (PD vs. HC: 0.65 ± 0.06 vs. 0.72 ± 0.09, P = 0.001), but not impaired in item memory (PD vs. HC: 0.65 ± 0.07 vs. 0.67 ± 0.08, P = 0.240). The present experiment provides evidence for dissociation between item and source memory in PD patients, thereby strengthening the claim that the item or source memory rely on different brain structures. PD patients show poor source memory, in which dopamine plays a critical role.
Weighting of items in an evaluation instrument contributes to more meaningful and valid interpretations of student performance in respect of each learning outcome or item being assessed. It follows that the validity of instruments is important for meaningful inferences about students' learning performance, including their ...
Bechger, T.M.; Maris, G.
This paper presents an IRT-based statistical test for differential item functioning (DIF). The test is developed for items conforming to the Rasch (Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests, The Danish Institute of Educational Research, Copenhagen, 1960) model but we will
Glas, Cornelis A.W.
In this paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or C. R. Rao's efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch model, the one-parameter logistic model, the
Adema, Jos J.; van der Linden, Willem J.
Recently, linear programming models for test construction were developed. These models were based on the information function from item response theory. In this paper another approach is followed. Two 0-1 linear programming models for the construction of tests using classical item and test
van der Linden, Willem J.
Response times on items can be used to improve item selection in adaptive testing provided that a probabilistic model for their distribution is available. In this research, the author used a hierarchical modeling framework with separate first-level models for the responses and response times and a
Babcock, B.; Marks, P.E.L.; Crick, N.R.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
This article examines a variety of reliability issues as related to limited nomination sociometric measures. Peer nomination data were collected from 77 sixth grade classrooms. Results showed that, although some single-item peer nomination measures were relatively reliable, many single-item peer
Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Dagohoy, A.V.
A person fit test based on the Lagrange multiplier test is presented for three item response theory models for polytomous items: the generalized partial credit model, the sequential model, and the graded response model. The test can also be used in the framework of multidimensional ability
Stoffel, Heather; Raymond, Mark R.; Bucak, S. Deniz; Haist, Steven A.
Previous research on the impact of text and formatting changes on test-item performance has produced mixed results. This matter is important because it is generally acknowledged that "any" change to an item requires that it be recalibrated. The present study investigated the effects of seven classes of stylistic changes on item…
Koger, Helju, 1943-
VI kihelkonnapäevadest Juurus. Juuru Mihkli kirikus esines ansambel Resonabilis. Konverentsil räägiti Järlepa mõisast, Anu Allikvee pidas ettekande "August von Kotzebue elu nagu näitemäng" jm. Näitemängu "Pärmi Jaagu unenägu" nägi kohalike asjaarmastajate esituses
This paper provides an introductory primer on methods for exploring item bias. The purposes of item bias analysis are to investigate whether test scores are affected by different sources of variance in the various subpopulations, and if different sources of variance are found, to determine if an unfair advantage exists. The review discusses three…
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Line item adjustments to grants. 59.90 Section 59.90 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.90 Line item adjustments to...
vested on computer programmers and the labour turnover of programming staff was usually very high. The implication of this ..... test items banking; skills in test development, test moderation, item analysis with a good programming practice are ..... “A Web-based System for Automatic Language Skill. Assessment: EVALING”.
Suh, Youngsuk; Bolt, Daniel M.
Nested logit item response models for multiple-choice data are presented. Relative to previous models, the new models are suggested to provide a better approximation to multiple-choice items where the application of a solution strategy precedes consideration of response options. In practice, the models also accommodate collapsibility across all…
Yu, Chong Ho; Douglas, Samantha; Lee, Anna; An, Min
This paper aims to illustrate how data visualization could be utilized to identify errors prior to modeling, using an example with multi-dimensional item response theory (MIRT). MIRT combines item response theory and factor analysis to identify a psychometric model that investigates two or more latent traits. While it may seem convenient to…
This dissertation, which is structured as a collection of self-contained papers, will be concerned mainly with di�erences between item response models. The purpose of item response theory (IRT) is estimation of a hypothesized latent variable, such as, for example, intelligence or ability in
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 406) Code of ethics. 229... 406) Code of ethics. (a) Disclose whether the registrant has adopted a code of ethics that applies to... code of ethics, explain why it has not done so. (b) For purposes of this Item 406, the term code of...
Leuba, Richard J.
Explains how multiple choice test items can be devised to measure higher-order learning, including engineering problem solving. Discusses the value and information provided in item analysis procedures with machine-scored tests. Suggests elements to consider in test design. (ML)
Falk, Carl F.; Cai, Li
We present a logistic function of a monotonic polynomial with a lower asymptote, allowing additional flexibility beyond the three-parameter logistic model. We develop a maximum marginal likelihood-based approach to estimate the item parameters. The new item response model is demonstrated on math assessment data from a state, and a computationally…
van der Linden, Willem J.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.
In adaptive testing, item selection is sequentially optimized during the test. Since the optimization takes place over a pool of items calibrated with estimation error, capitalization on these errors is likely to occur. How serious the consequences of this phenomenon are depends not only on the
van der Linden, Willem J.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.
In adaptive testing, item selection is sequentially optimized during the test. Because the optimization takes place over a pool of items calibrated with estimation error, capitalization on chance is likely to occur.Howserious the consequences of this phenomenon are depends not only on the
van der Linden, Willem J.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.
In adaptive testing, item selection is sequentially optimized during the test. Since the optimization takes place over a pool of items calibrated with estimation error, capitalization on these errors is likely to occur. How serious the consequences of this phenomenon are depends not only on the
This paper looks at how to generate questions for national and local examinations without putting such questions (Items) at risk of leakage; reduce cost and time taken for such activities like time consuming items analysis and moderation; and improve on the poor selection which often characterized manually generated ...
Straat, J.H.; van der Ark, L.A.; Sijtsma, K.
Mokken scale analysis uses an automated bottom-up stepwise item selection procedure that suffers from two problems. First, when selected during the procedure items satisfy the scaling conditions but they may fail to do so after the scale has been completed. Second, the procedure is approximate and
Penfield, Randall D.
In this article, I address two competing conceptions of differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomously scored items. The first conception, referred to as net DIF, concerns between-group differences in the conditional expected value of the polytomous response variable. The second conception, referred to as global DIF, concerns the conditional…
This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California
In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord
Kwang Ok Kim
.... Along with globalization of dietary life, people invent new items of rice cuisine and (re)produce new perspectives on the positive qualities of national foods in what can be seen as an expression of cultural nationalism...
Suhonen, Riitta; Schmidt, Lee A; Katajisto, Jouko; Berg, Agneta; Idvall, Ewa; Kalafati, Maria; Land, Lucy; Lemonidou, Chryssoula; Välimäki, Maritta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
The aim of this study was to investigate, using Rasch model analysis, the measurement invariance of the item ratings of the Individualised Care Scale. Evidence of reliability is needed in cross-cultural comparative studies. To be used in different cultures and languages, the items must function the same way. A methodological and comparative design. Secondary analysis of data, gathered in 2005-2006 from a cross-cultural survey using the Individualised Care Scale from Finnish, Greek, Swedish and English predischarge hospitalised orthopaedic and trauma patients (n = 1093), was used. The Rasch model, which produces calibrations (item locations and rank) and item fit statistics, was computed using the Winstep program. The rank of average Individualised Care Scale item calibrations (-2·26-1·52) followed a generally similar trend (Infit ≤ 1·3), but slight differences in the item rank by country were found and some item misfit was identified within the same items. There was some variation in the order and location of some Individualised Care Scale items for individual countries, but the overall pattern of item calibration was generally corresponding. The Rasch model provided information about the appropriateness, sensitivity and item function in different cultures providing more in-depth information about the psychometric properties of the Individualised Care Scale instrument. Comparison of the four versions of the Individualised Care Scale - patient revealed general correspondence in the item calibration patterns although slight differences in the rank order of the items were found. Some items showed also a slight misfit. Based on these results, the phrasing and targeting of some items should be considered. The Individualised Care Scale - Patient version can be used in cross-cultural studies for the measurement of patients' perceptions of individualised care. Information obtained with the use of the Individualised Care Scale in clinical nursing practice is important
Özge BIKMAZ BİLGEN
Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the effects of independent variables as sample size, sample distribution, the number of items in the test, and the number of response categories of items in the test on the estimations of Graded Response Model (GRM under Parametric Item Response Theory (PIRT and by Monotone Homogeneity Model (MHM under Non-Parametric Item Response Theory (NIRT for polytomously scored items. To achieve this aim, the research was performed as a fundamental study in which 192 simulation conditions were designed by the combination of sample size, sample distribution, the number of items, and the number of categories of items. Estimates by GRM and MHM were examined under different levels of sample size (N= 100, 250, 500, 1000, sample distribution (normal, skewed, the number of items (10, 20, 40, 80, and the number of categories of items (3, 5, 7 conditions, by respectively calculating model-data fit, reliability values, standart errors of parameters. As a result of the research, it was found that since the values used to evaluate model-data fit were influenced by the increase of variable while calculating model-data fit and since they can not be interpreted alone, it is difficult to compare and generalize the results. The practical calculation of model data fit, which can be interpreted without the need for another value, in MHM provides superiority over GRM. Another research result is that the reliability values give similar results for both models. The standard errors of the MHM parameter estimates is lower than the GRM estimates under small sample and few items conditions and the standard errors of the MHM parameter estimates are close to each other in all conditions.
Mueller, Anne E; Segal, Daniel L; Gavett, Brandon; Marty, Meghan A; Yochim, Brian; June, Andrea; Coolidge, Frederick L
The Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS; Segal et al. (Segal, D. L., June, A., Payne, M., Coolidge, F. L. and Yochim, B. (2010). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 709-714. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.002) is a self-report measure of anxiety that was designed to address unique issues associated with anxiety assessment in older adults. This study is the first to use item response theory (IRT) to examine the psychometric properties of a measure of anxiety in older adults. A large sample of older adults (n = 581; mean age = 72.32 years, SD = 7.64 years, range = 60 to 96 years; 64% women; 88% European American) completed the GAS. IRT properties were examined. The presence of differential item functioning (DIF) or measurement bias by age and sex was assessed, and a ten-item short form of the GAS (called the GAS-10) was created. All GAS items had discrimination parameters of 1.07 or greater. Items from the somatic subscale tended to have lower discrimination parameters than items on the cognitive or affective subscales. Two items were flagged for DIF, but the impact of the DIF was negligible. Women scored significantly higher than men on the GAS and its subscales. Participants in the young-old group (60 to 79 years old) scored significantly higher on the cognitive subscale than participants in the old-old group (80 years old and older). Results from the IRT analyses indicated that the GAS and GAS-10 have strong psychometric properties among older adults. We conclude by discussing implications and future research directions.
... petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101... available from the Defense Logistics Agency. Agencies required to use GSA supply sources should also use... Logistics Agency, the catalog will contain only those items in Federal supply classification classes which...
Matteucci, M.; S. Mignani, Prof.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.
In testing, item response theory models are widely used in order to estimate item parameters and individual abilities. However, even unidimensional models require a considerable sample size so that all parameters can be estimated precisely. The introduction of empirical prior information about
Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.
Direct behavior rating (DBR) has been described as a hybrid of systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales. Although single-item (DBR-SIS) and multi-item (DBR-MIS) methods have been advocated, the overwhelming majority of research attention has focused on DBR-SIS. This study employed generalizability theory to compare the…
Baylor, Carolyn R.; Birch, Kristen; Yorkston, Kathryn M.
Purpose The Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) was developed to evaluate participation restrictions in communication situations for individuals with speech and language disorders. This study evaluated the potential relevance of CPIB items for individuals with hearing loss. Method Cognitive interviews were conducted with 17 adults with a range of treated and untreated hearing loss, who responded to 46 items. Interviews were continued until saturation was reached and prevalent trends emerged. A focus group was also conducted with 3 experienced audiologists to seek their views on the CPIB. Analysis of data included qualitative and quantitative approaches. Results The majority of the items were applicable to individuals with hearing loss; however, 12 items were identified as potentially not relevant. This was largely attributed to the items' focus on speech production rather than hearing. The results from the focus group were in agreement for a majority of items. Conclusions The next step in validating the CPIB for individuals with hearing loss is a psychometric analysis on a large sample. Possible outcomes could be that the CPIB is considered valid in its entirety or the creation of a new questionnaire or a hearing loss–specific short form with a subset of items is necessary. PMID:28114665
Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees A. W.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob J.; Lindeboom, Robert
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This
Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.W.; Vermeulen, Martinus; de Haan, Rob J.; Lindeboom, Robert
Background: Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This
Full Text Available The role of response time in completing an item can have very different interpretations. Responding more slowly could be positively related to success as the item is answered more carefully. However, the association may be negative if working faster indicates higher ability. The objective of this study was to clarify the validity of each assumption for reasoning items considering the mode of processing. A total of 230 persons completed a computerized version of Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices test. Results revealed that response time overall had a negative effect. However, this effect was moderated by items and persons. For easy items and able persons the effect was strongly negative, for difficult items and less able persons it was less negative or even positive. The number of rules involved in a matrix problem proved to explain item difficulty significantly. Most importantly, a positive interaction effect between the number of rules and item response time indicated that the response time effect became less negative with an increasing number of rules. Moreover, exploratory analyses suggested that the error type influenced the response time effect.
Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Klaassen, T.P.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.
Anatomists often use images in assessments and examinations. This study aims to investigate the influence of different types of images on item difficulty and item discrimination in written assessments. A total of 210 of 460 students volunteered for an extra assessment in a gross anatomy course. This
correct; D, a measure of item discrimination - the rpbi , between the item score (correct or incorrect) and the total score on the 36 original items...D2 another measure of item discrimination - the rpbis between the item score and the total score on the 18 original items of the same type (marked
Peters, Judith C.; Goebel, Rainer; Roelfsema, Pieter R.
If we search for an item, a representation of this item in our working memory guides attention to matching items in the visual scene. We can hold multiple items in working memory. Do all these items guide attention in parallel? We asked participants to detect a target object in a stream of objects while they maintained a second item in memory for…
Magis, David; Facon, Bruno
Item purification is an iterative process that is often advocated as improving the identification of items affected by differential item functioning (DIF). With test-score-based DIF detection methods, item purification iteratively removes the items currently flagged as DIF from the test scores to get purified sets of items, unaffected by DIF. The…
Presents issues in English-as-a-Foreign-Language conversation textbook development. Explores the content of the textbooks and the emphases on teaching cultural items for meaningful communicative competence. Suggests that some cultural items be considered to be themes of each unit at a macro level; at a micro level, detailed activities and tasks…
Lai, Jin-Shei; Butt, Zeeshan; Zelko, Frank; Cella, David; Krull, Kevin R; Kieran, Mark W; Goldman, Stewart
.... A computerized adaptive testing (CAT) simulation was used to evaluate clinical utility. Results The final 43-item pedsPCF item bank demonstrates no item bias, has acceptable IRT parameters, and provides good prediction of related clinical problems...
Khan, Anzalee; Yavorsky, Christian; Liechti, Stacy; Opler, Mark; Rothman, Brian; DiClemente, Guillermo; Lucic, Luka; Jovic, Sofija; Inada, Toshiya; Yang, Lawrence
The objective of this study was to examine the cross-cultural differences of the PANSS across six geo-cultural regions. The specific aims are (1) to examine measurement properties of the PANSS; and (2) to examine how each of the 30 items function across geo-cultural regions. Data was obtained for 1,169 raters from 6 different regions: Eastern Asia (n = 202), India (n = 185), Northern Europe (n = 126), Russia & Ukraine (n = 197), Southern Europe (n = 162), United States (n = 297). A principle components analysis assessed unidimensionality of the subscales. Rasch rating scale analysis examined cross-cultural differences among each item of the PANSS. Lower item values reflects items in which raters often showed less variation in the scores; higher item values reflects items with more variation in the scores. Positive Subscale: Most regions found item P5 (Excitement) to be the most difficult item to score. Items varied in severity from -0.93 [item P6. Suspiciousness/persecution (USA) to 0.69 item P4. Excitement (Eastern Asia)]. Item P3 (Hallucinatory Behavior) was the easiest item to score for all geographical regions. Negative Subscale: The most difficult item to score for all regions is N7 (Stereotyped Thinking) with India showing the most difficulty Δ = 0.69, and Northern Europe and the United States showing the least difficulty Δ = 0.21, each. The second most difficult item for raters to score was N1 (Blunted Affect) for most countries including Southern Europe (Δ = 0.30), Eastern Asia (Δ = 0.28), Russia & Ukraine (Δ = 0.22) and India (Δ = 0.10). General Psychopathology: The most difficult item for raters to score for all regions is G4 (Tension) with difficulty levels ranging from Δ = 1.38 (India) to Δ = 0.72. There were significant differences in response to a number of items on the PANSS, possibly caused by a lack of equivalence between the original and translated versions, cultural differences among interpretation of items or scoring parameters. Knowing
Ishimoto, Michi; Davenport, Glen; Wittmann, Michael C.
Student views of force and motion reflect the personal experiences and physics education of the student. With a different language, culture, and educational system, we expect that Japanese students' views on force and motion might be different from those of American students. The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) is an instrument used to probe student views on force and motion. It was designed using research on American students, and, as such, the items might function differently for Japanese students. Preliminary results from a translated version indicated that Japanese students had similar misconceptions as those of American students. In this study, we used item response curves (IRCs) to make more detailed item-by-item comparisons. IRCs show the functioning of individual items across all levels of performance by plotting the proportion of each response as a function of the total score. Most of the IRCs showed very similar patterns on both correct and incorrect responses; however, a few of the plots indicate differences between the populations. The similar patterns indicate that students tend to interact with FMCE items similarly, despite differences in culture, language, and education. We speculate about the possible causes for the differences in some of the IRCs. This report is intended to show how IRCs can be used as a part of the validation process when making comparisons across languages and nationalities. Differences in IRCs can help to pinpoint artifacts of translation, contextual effects because of differences in culture, and perhaps intrinsic differences in student understanding of Newtonian motion.
Wicherts, Jelte M.; Johnson, Wendy
It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups differ in mean ability, the functioning of items at different ability levels may result in group differences in the heritability of items, even when these items function equivalently across groups and the heritability of the underlying ability is equal across groups. We illustrate this graphically, by computer simulation, and by focusing on several problems associated with a recent study by Rushton et al. who argued that the heritability estimates of items of Raven's Progressive Matrices test in North-American twin samples generalized to other population groups, and hence that the population group differences on this test of general mental ability (or intelligence) had a substantial genetic component. Our results show that item heritabilities are strongly dependent on the group on which the heritabilities were based. Rushton et al.'s results were artefactual and do not speak to the nature of population group differences in intelligence test performance. PMID:19403538
Tomak, L; Bek, Y; Cengiz, M A
There are different indexes used in the evaluation of exam results. One important index is the difficulty level of the item that is also used in this study to obtain control charts. This article offers some suggestions for the improvement of multiple-choice tests using item analysis statistics. The graphical modeling is important for the rapid and comparative evaluation of test results. The control chart is a tool that can be used to sharpen our teaching and testing skills by inspecting the weaknesses of measurements and producing reliable items. The research data for the application of control charts were obtained using the results of the fourth and fifth-grade student's exams at Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine. I-chart or moving range chart (MR) is preferred for whole variable data. It is seen that all observations are within control limits for I-chart, but three points on MR-chart are settled on the LCL. Using X--chart with subgroups, it was determined that control measurements were within the upper and lower limits in both charts. The difficulty levels of items were examined by obtaining different variable control charts. The difficulty level of the two items exceeded the upper control limit in R- and S-charts. The control charts have the advantage for classifying items as acceptable or unacceptable based on item difficulty criteria.
Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija
Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge
Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan
conducted a case study on the making of a Danish adventure film and analysed the role budgeting plays from the film director’s point of view. Findings – This paper suggests that the constraints of the line-item budget imposed on the director had positive effects in terms of the pre-commitments entailed...... of line-item budgeting, adding greater insight into the interrelations between creativity and control. By exploring the ways in which line-item budgeting might take on the role of pre-commitment advice and devices in the creative process, this paper further exposes the links between accounting constraints...
Full Text Available Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal
Full Text Available Previous studies have reported conflicting findings on whether item repetition has beneficial or detrimental effects on source memory. To reconcile such contradictions, we investigated whether the degree of pre-exposure of items can be a potential modulating factor. The experimental procedures spanned two consecutive days. On Day 1, participants were exposed to a set of unfamiliar faces. On Day 2, the same faces presented on the previous day were used again in half of the participants, whereas novel faces were used for the other half. Day 2 procedures consisted of three successive phases: item repetition, source association, and source memory test. In the item repetition phase, half of the face stimuli were repeatedly presented while participants were making male/female judgments. During the source association phase, both the repeated and the unrepeated faces appeared in one of the four locations on the screen. Finally, participants were tested on the location in which a given face was presented during the previous phase and reported the confidence of their memory. Source memory accuracy was measured as the percentage of correct non-guess trials. As results, we found a significant interaction between prior exposure and repetition. Repetition impaired source memory when the items had been pre-exposed on Day 1, while it led to greater accuracy in novel ones. These results show that pre-experimental exposure can modulate the effects of repetition on associative binding between an item and its contextual information, suggesting that pre-existing representation and novelty signal interact to form new episodic memory.
Fong, Kevin M.
This comment examines the roles of cultural pluralism and assimilation as guiding values in American law. In particular, it investigates the ways in which the legal system both implicitly and explicitly recognizes the value of cultural pluralism. (Author/AM)
Culture - nasopharyngeal; Swab for respiratory viruses; Swab for staph carriage ... and then tilt your head back. A sterile cotton-tipped swab is ... a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ...
Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)
Bourion-Bédès, Stéphanie; Schwan, Raymund; Laprevote, Vincent; Bédès, Alex; Bonnet, Jean-Louis; Baumann, Cédric
Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is investigated to ensure that each item displays a consistent pattern of responses irrespective of the characteristics of the respondents. Assessing DIF helps to understand the nature of instruments, to assess the quality of a measure and to interpret results. This study aimed to examine whether the items of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) and Short-Form 12 (SF-12) exhibit DIF. A total of 124 outpatients diagnosed with substance dependence participated in a cross-sectional, multicenter study. In addition to the Q-LES-Q-SF and SF-12 results, demographic data such as age, sex, type of substance dependence and education level were collected. Rasch analysis was conducted (using RUMM2020 software) to assess DIF of the Q-LES-Q-SF and SF-12 items. For SF-12, significant age-related uniform DIF was found in two of the 12 items, and sex-related DIF was found in one of the 12 items. All of the observed DIF effects in SF-12 were found among the mental health items. Three items showed DIF on the Q-LES-Q-SF; however, the impact of DIF item on the delta score calculation for the comparisons of self-reported health status between the groups was minimal in the SF-12 and small in the Q-LES-Q-SF. These results indicated that no major measurement bias affects the validity of the self-reported health status assessed using the Q-LES-Q-SF or SF-12. Thus, these questionnaires are largely robust measures of self-reported health status among substance users.
Andi Ulfa Tenri Pada
Full Text Available This article discusses the evaluation results of the separation index and fit item of creative thinking skills assessment that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers in Aceh. This assessment consists of 37 items of divergent tasks, which is the application of human physiology courses that support the conation aspects. The participants were selected from the Biology Education Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Syiah Kuala University. The data were analyzed using the Quest software including the separation index and fit item. The results indicate that the creative thinking skills assessment instrument that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers has a good separation index and all the items fit PCM-1PL.
Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Cowan, Nelson
Researchers of working memory currently debate capacity limits of the focus of attention, the proposed mental faculty in which items are most easily accessed. Cowan (1999) suggested that its capacity is about 4 chunks, whereas others have suggested that its capacity is only 1 chunk. Recently, Oberauer and Bialkova (2009) found evidence that 2 items could reside in the focus of attention, but only because they were combined into a single chunk. We modified their experimental procedure, which depends on a pattern of switch costs, to obtain a situation in which chunking was not likely to occur (i.e., each item remained a separate chunk), and still obtained results consistent with a capacity of at least 2 items. Therefore, either the focus of attention can hold multiple chunks, or the switch cost logic must be reconsidered. PMID:21767065
Tartu katoliku kooli 3. klassi poisi Mario Raitari näitemäng "Kristoph Silvester von Tenderi lugu", mis on esimene lugu sarjast "Mario Raitari kroonika". Näidendit etendab Linnupuu Lastepereteatri trupp
... procurement preference: Disposable tableware; expanded polystyrene foam recycling products; heat transfer... following items for preferred procurement: Disposable tableware; expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling... (``expandable polystyrene foam recycling products'') is based on a single tested product. Given that only two...
Pritikin, Joshua N; Hunter, Micheal D; Boker, Steven
This paper introduces an Item Factor Analysis (IFA) module for OpenMx, a free, open-source, and modular statistical modeling package that runs within the R programming environment on GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. The IFA module offers a novel model specification language that is well suited to programmatic generation and manipulation of models. Modular organization of the source code facilitates the easy addition of item models, item parameter estimation algorithms, optimizers, test scoring algorithms, and fit diagnostics all within an integrated framework. Three short example scripts are presented for fitting item parameters, latent distribution parameters, and a multiple group model. The availability of both IFA and structural equation modeling in the same software is a step toward the unification of these two methodologies.
Azevedo, Caio L.N.; Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Andrade, Dalton F.
Educational studies are often focused on growth in student performance and background variables that can explain developmental differences across examinees. To study educational progress, a flexible latent variable model is required to model individual differences in growth given longitudinal item
... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1111 (Item.... (vi) Finance charges, fees and other income earned. (vii) Balance reductions granted for refunds...
Barron, Daniel D.
Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)
Magrath, Douglas R.
The study of a foreign language is the study of another culture. Cultural involvement begins as learners progress from grammar to the actual use of language. Culture includes the ideas, customs, skills, arts, and tools of a people and influences both cognitive and affective behavior. It should be introduced as part of the total language…
... is essentially a cultural, not religious, practice. Siddiq Bazarwala Singapore From Georgina Dubourcq Sir: While I don't disagree with Dr Dalrymple's comments about the way Muslim culture can treat women, I wonder how a culture which condones lap-dancing, pornographic videos and often turns a blind eye to under-age prostitution can really feel superior. I...
Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden
The article indicates how companies may prepare for and deal with cultural differences. Because the research base is still rather limited an overall perspective may not be realised. After discussing definitions and concepts of culture, as well as values, cultural differences between states are
Stucky, Brian D.; Edelen, Maria O.; Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li
Introduction: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Smoking Initiative has developed item banks for assessing six smoking behaviors and biopsychosocial correlates of smoking among adult cigarette smokers. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Spanish version of the PROMIS smoking item banks as compared to the original banks developed in English. Methods: The six PROMIS banks for daily smokers were translated into Spanish and administered to a sample of Spanish-speaking adult daily smokers in the United States (N = 302). We first evaluated the unidimensionality of each bank using confirmatory factor analysis. We then conducted a two-group item response theory calibration, including an item response theory-based Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis by language of administration (Spanish vs. English). Finally, we generated full bank and short form scores for the translated banks and evaluated their psychometric performance. Results: Unidimensionality of the Spanish smoking item banks was supported by confirmatory factor analysis results. Out of a total of 109 items that were evaluated for language DIF, seven items in three of the six banks were identified as having levels of DIF that exceeded an established criterion. The psychometric performance of the Spanish daily smoker banks is largely comparable to that of the English versions. Conclusions: The Spanish PROMIS smoking item banks are highly similar, but not entirely equivalent, to the original English versions. The parameters from these two-group calibrations can be used to generate comparable bank scores across the two language versions. Implications: In this study, we developed a Spanish version of the PROMIS smoking toolkit, which was originally designed and developed for English speakers. With the growing Spanish-speaking population, it is important to make the toolkit more accessible by translating the items and calibrating the Spanish version to
Irwin Debra E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric self-report should be considered the standard for measuring patient reported outcomes (PRO among children. However, circumstances exist when the child is too young, cognitively impaired, or too ill to complete a PRO instrument and a proxy-report is needed. This paper describes the development process including the proxy cognitive interviews and large-field-test survey methods and sample characteristics employed to produce item parameters for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS pediatric proxy-report item banks. Methods The PROMIS pediatric self-report items were converted into proxy-report items before undergoing cognitive interviews. These items covered six domains (physical function, emotional distress, social peer relationships, fatigue, pain interference, and asthma impact. Caregivers (n = 25 of children ages of 5 and 17 years provided qualitative feedback on proxy-report items to assess any major issues with these items. From May 2008 to March 2009, the large-scale survey enrolled children ages 8-17 years to complete the self-report version and caregivers to complete the proxy-report version of the survey (n = 1548 dyads. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 7 years completed the proxy report survey (n = 432. In addition, caregivers completed other proxy instruments, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Parent Proxy-Report version, PedsQL™ Asthma Module Parent Proxy-Report version, and KIDSCREEN Parent-Proxy-52. Results Item content was well understood by proxies and did not require item revisions but some proxies clearly noted that determining an answer on behalf of their child was difficult for some items. Dyads and caregivers of children ages 5-17 years old were enrolled in the large-scale testing. The majority were female (85%, married (70%, Caucasian (64% and had at least a high school education (94%. Approximately 50% had children with a chronic health condition, primarily
Huang, Wenjing; Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria O; Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Smoking Initiative has developed item banks for assessing six smoking behaviors and biopsychosocial correlates of smoking among adult cigarette smokers. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Spanish version of the PROMIS smoking item banks as compared to the original banks developed in English. The six PROMIS banks for daily smokers were translated into Spanish and administered to a sample of Spanish-speaking adult daily smokers in the United States (N = 302). We first evaluated the unidimensionality of each bank using confirmatory factor analysis. We then conducted a two-group item response theory calibration, including an item response theory-based Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis by language of administration (Spanish vs. English). Finally, we generated full bank and short form scores for the translated banks and evaluated their psychometric performance. Unidimensionality of the Spanish smoking item banks was supported by confirmatory factor analysis results. Out of a total of 109 items that were evaluated for language DIF, seven items in three of the six banks were identified as having levels of DIF that exceeded an established criterion. The psychometric performance of the Spanish daily smoker banks is largely comparable to that of the English versions. The Spanish PROMIS smoking item banks are highly similar, but not entirely equivalent, to the original English versions. The parameters from these two-group calibrations can be used to generate comparable bank scores across the two language versions. In this study, we developed a Spanish version of the PROMIS smoking toolkit, which was originally designed and developed for English speakers. With the growing Spanish-speaking population, it is important to make the toolkit more accessible by translating the items and calibrating the Spanish version to be comparable with English-language scores. This study
Andi Ulfa Tenri Pada; Badrun Kartowagiran; Bambang Subali
This article discusses the evaluation results of the separation index and fit item of creative thinking skills assessment that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers in Aceh. This assessment consists of 37 items of divergent tasks, which is the application of human physiology courses that support the conation aspects. The participants were selected from the Biology Education Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Syiah Kuala University. The data were analyze...
Henry Alexander; Rohit Bansal; Robin Singh Bhadoria
Association rule mining is the process of discovering relationships among the data items in large database. It is one of the most important problems in the field of data mining. Finding frequent itemsets is one of the most computationally expensive tasks in association rule mining. The classical frequent itemset mining approaches mine the frequent itemsets from the database where presence of an item in a transaction is certain. Frequent itemset mining under uncertain data model is a new area ...
Mnih, Andriy; Teh, Yee Whye
User preferences for items can be inferred from either explicit feedback, such as item ratings, or implicit feedback, such as rental histories. Research in collaborative filtering has concentrated on explicit feedback, resulting in the development of accurate and scalable models. However, since explicit feedback is often difficult to collect it is important to develop effective models that take advantage of the more widely available implicit feedback. We introduce a probabilistic approach to ...