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Sample records for cultural context differs

  1. Organizing Construction Practices in Different Cultural Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.

    2013-01-01

    participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies......This paper presents in-depth case studies of construction practices with a specific focus on understanding the emergent and dynamic nature of construction management in different cultural contexts. The cases are based on actual working-experiences by the author as an assistant project manager...... a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings...

  2. Business negotiations on different culture context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐芳

    2015-01-01

    With economic globalization and China’s entry into WTO, commercial contacts among various countries are bound to be increasingly substantial. As a result, negotiation among people who come from different cultural backgrounds will certainly become a universal issue that arouses concern among people in different countries.

  3. Different uses of silence explained by observing high-context cultures and low-context cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奕雯

    2011-01-01

    Silence, as a form of nonverbal communication, may be interpreted in various ways depending upon the culture. The pur- pose of this study is to explain misunderstanding concerned with the uses of silence in conversations situated in different cuhural backgrounds, and then give possible methods to avoid it. The explanation is mainly based on the two categories related to the context posed by Edward Hall: high-context culture & low-context culture. In this part, the study also contrasts distinct verbal styles in America & Japan, in addition, it analyses different attitudes towards silence from 3 aspects: traditional value, religion and power distance. At end, the study is concluded with 4 solutions that try to solve the problem.

  4. Performance measurement of workplace change: in two different cultural contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Riratanaphong

    2014-01-01

    in different contexts. Two organisations in Thailand and one organisation in The Netherlands were selected to serve as case studies. The impact of culture was explored as a contextual background.Research methodsBased on literature review an overview of performance measurement systems and measures has been developed. The list of corporate real estate performance measures has been classified in six categories according to Bradley (2002 and subsequently compared with the findings from the case studies. The six categories include: 1 stakeholder perception, 2 financial health, 3 organisational development, 4 productivity, 5 environmental responsibility and 6 cost efficiency. The impact of workplace change was examined using the work environment diagnosis instrument (WODI questionnaire which evaluates employees’ responses to the changed work environment in three areas: employee satisfaction, perceived productivity support and prioritised aspects (Maarleveld, et al., 2009. The Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI; Cameron and Quinn, 2006 was used to assess organisational culture. National culture was measured by using the Value Survey Module 94 (VSM94; Hofstede, 1997.Research findingsThe conceptual framework that came to the fore from the literature review showed to be useful for both theoretical understanding of performance measurement and practical applications. Proposed performance measures have been applied in all three case studies but in different ways. The three case studies showed that performance measurement of an organisation is multi-dimensional. It includes several performance criteria and performance measures beyond cost efficiency. All seven performance criteria mentioned by Sink and Tuttle (1989 have been applied in all three cases including effectiveness, efficiency, quality, productivity, quality of worklife, innovation and profitability. The four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard (financial, customer, internal business process

  5. Cultural bases for self-evaluation: seeing oneself positively in different cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Bond, Michael Harris; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Aldhafri, Said; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Paz Cadena, Maria; Lay, Siugmin; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Özgen, Emre; Güner, Ülkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil; Silveira Lemos, Flávia Cristina; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Cristina Ferreira, M; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Wang, Qian; Fülöp, Márta; Harb, Charles; Chybicka, Aneta; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Martin, Mariana; Nizharadze, George; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Valk, Aune; Koller, Silvia H

    2014-05-01

    Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one's surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for self-evaluation (controlling one's life, doing one's duty, benefitting others, achieving social status) among 4,852 adolescents across 20 cultural samples, using an implicit, within-person measurement technique to avoid cultural response biases. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that participants generally derived feelings of self-esteem from all four bases, but especially from those that were most consistent with the value priorities of others in their cultural context. Multilevel analyses confirmed that the bases of positive self-regard are sustained collectively: They are predictably moderated by culturally normative values but show little systematic variation with personally endorsed values.

  6. Measurement Invariance of Discipline in Different Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Malone, Patrick S; Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario

    2011-07-01

    The measurement invariance of mother-reported use of 18 discipline strategies was examined in samples from 13 different ethnic/cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Participants included approximately 100-120 mothers and their children aged 7 to 10 years from each group. The results of exploratory factor analyses and multigroup categorical confirmatory factor analyses (MCCFA) indicated that a seven-factor solution was feasible across the cultural groups, as shown by marginally sufficient evidence for configural and metric invariance for the mother-reported frequency on the discipline interview. This study makes a contribution on measurement invariance to the parenting literature, and establishes the mother-report aspect of the discipline interview as an instrument for use in further cross-cultural research on discipline.

  7. Performance measurement of workplace change in two different cultural contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riratanaphong, C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the increasi

  8. Performance measurement of workplace change in two different cultural contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riratanaphong, C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the

  9. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  10. How Two Differing Portraits of Newton Can Teach Us about the Cultural Context of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more…

  11. Cultural differences in affect intensity perception in the context of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna ePogosyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1 perceptual differences in the extent to which high arousal images were discriminated from low arousal images, and (2 categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for cross-cultural communication and global advertising are discussed.

  12. Cultural Contexts and Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-mei

    2014-01-01

    According to cognitive linguistics, human language is a process of cognition. Because of the different culture in Eastern and Western, the translation form must adapt to the cultural contexts. This article mainly deals with the differences in intercultural, and discusses the relationship between cultural contexts and language translation.

  13. Developing English Communication Skills in a Different Cultural Context: Matches and Mismatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Mariana IFTIMIE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that from among all the languages in the world, English has acquired the status of ‘lingua franca’, i.e., the language that is used in international communication across countries, the language that enables people of different ethnic, national and cultural backgrounds to share with others their ideas and cultures. The use of English as an international language has resulted in a growing number of people who learn and speak this language all over the world. This has important consequences for English language teaching practices, which need to aim at developing the learners’ social and professional communication skills, while catering for the dimension of intercultural communication, placed against the local cultural-educational context. This paper shares the author’s experience of developing the students’ communication skills by means of oral presentation projects in two parts of the world in which English is taught as a foreign language – Romania and Taiwan. After a brief literature review, the study compares and contrasts the two different contexts of learning. The last part of the paper presents the methodological choices made in order to reconcile the global requirement of developing the students’ communicative competence with the local issues connected to the host culture complex. While most of the studies concerned with the teaching of English as Foreign Language in the Asia Pacific region offer either the point of view of the source culture teacher or that of the target culture (native speaker of English teacher, this paper presents the perspective of a non-native teacher of English who belongs to a third culture.

  14. Confronting the meat paradox in different cultural contexts: Reactions among Chinese and French participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qirui; Hilton, Denis; Becker, Maja

    2016-01-01

    As a well-known source of nutrition and pleasure, meat plays an important role in most people's diet. However, awareness of the "meat paradox"-the association of liking to eat meat but not wanting to kill animals-often implies the experience of cognitive dissonance. In two studies, focusing on meat production and meat consumption respectively, we examined whether participants used reduction of willingness to eat meat and reduction of mind attribution to food animals as strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox in the Chinese and French cultural contexts. Focusing on meat production (slaughtering of an animal to produce meat; Study 1, n = 520), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef in a condition that emphasized the slaughter of a cow compared to a condition that presented a diagram of a cow as meat. In addition, French but not Chinese participants attributed less mind to cows when the relation between meat and its animal origin was made salient. Focusing on meat consumption (the transformation of meat into food; Study 2, n = 518), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef and attributed less mind to cows in a condition that emphasized the animal origin of meat compared to a condition that presented a recipe. These results suggest that the use of different strategies to resolve cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox depends on different contexts of the meat-animal link as well as on cultural context.

  15. Cultural Context and Humor Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中锋

    2009-01-01

    "Humor" is a very general word, which has been studied by numerous scholars from different points of view, pursuing different goals and using different assumptions. This paper holds that cultural context counts for the production and perception of humor.

  16. Cultural differences in sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts: evidence from P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Umla-Runge, Katja; Hofmann, Juliane; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-06-18

    Cross-cultural differences in Easterners and Westerners have been observed in different cognitive domains. Differential sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts might be an underlying cognitive mechanism for these differences. Twenty-one Chinese and 22 Germans participated in a three-stimulus event-related potential oddball task. They were instructed to monitor geometrical forms filled in black (targets) that were presented among a series of blank geometrical forms (standards). Novel stimuli were colored images of common objects. Robust novelty P3 and target P3 over the entire scalp were observed in both groups. As compared with the German group, Chinese participants showed larger amplitudes of novelty P3 and target P3 over frontal regions and earlier peak latency for target P3. This indicates a higher sensitivity to the relationship between contexts and objects in the Chinese as compared with the German group, which might be an underlying mechanism for cross-cultural differences reported in many cognitive domains.

  17. The role of context and culture in teaching physics: The implication of disciplinary differences

    CERN Document Server

    Redish, Edward F

    2012-01-01

    The theme of the World Conference on Physics Education 2012 is "Context, Culture, and Representations." In this talk I present a brief outline of a theoretical framework that allows us to discuss these issues using a model based in psychology and sociology: the resources framework. The framework brings together a model of individual behavior based on brain function with a model of how the behavior of an individual is controlled by the individual's perception of the social context they find themselves in. This control process is the process I refer to as "framing". In the paper I give three experiments that the reader can carry out for themselves that illustrate the basic principles of the framework. I then discuss a number of specific examples showing how framing can have powerful effects leading to context dependence and cultural responses at a variety of levels and grain sizes. One such is the impact of differences between the epistemological stances of physics and biology on the creation of a reformed phys...

  18. A Measure of Market Orientation: Development and Validation in a Different Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Ospina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, researchers and marketing practitioners have proclaimed that the adoption of a consumer-oriented philosophy is the key to developing and maintaining a sustainable competitive advantage for a business operating in a highly competitive environment. The interest shown has not been sufficient to dispel certain concerns about the construct’s domain, and the methodology followed for measuring it in different cultural contexts. This paper examines the reliability and validity of three scales for measuring market orientation in a Spanish-speaking international context. The results confirm those obtained from previous research efforts. The study of the three scales, when combined, suggests the existence of six dimensions that are measurable with eighteen items.

  19. Cognitive socialization across ethnocultural contexts: literacy and cultural differences in intellectual performance and parent-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, P R; Cuentas, T E; Zady, M

    2000-03-01

    A comparative study of parent-child interaction and its relation to children's intellectual achievement is presented. The question of cultural continuities in cognitive development was examined. The cross-national design also illustrates some of the problems encountered when such relationships are studied across social contexts in general. The results suggest that although interaction characteristics are related to children's intellectual achievement, that relation is moderated by context factors that may operate differently in each culture. The findings are discussed in terms of how literacy mediates parents' teaching styles in ways that remain culturally ingrained. Research issues and recommendations for future research and policy are discussed.

  20. Cultural Capital in Context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes the extent to which the effect of cultural capital on academic achievement varies across high- and low-achieving schooling environments. We distinguish three competing theoretical models: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields higher returns in high-achieving schooling...... environments than in low-achieving ones), cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher returns in low-achieving environments), and cultural resources (cultural capital yields the same returns in different environments). We analyze PISA data from six countries and find that returns to cultural capital tend...... to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....

  1. Culture, innovation and periphery: a theoretical sketch and some evidence from different portuguese contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Brito Henriques

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to look at the culture-innovation nexus in periphery. Starting with a theoretical discussion on this issue, in which the role of culture in current capitalism is analysed, we raise the question whether the increasing imporance of culture in the present economic context has been creating new opportunities for peripheral regions to innovate, namely by the valorization of tradition.The paper will highlight the results of four case studies from the handicraft pottery sector. These achievements will then be confronted with an exemple of cultural political promotion in an urban area - Lisbon'94, European Cultural Capital, in order to unravel the political logic of cultural and innovation in the periphery. The final section provides a brief conclusion, placing emphasis on the ambivalences which characterise peripherical modernisation processes and their cultural dimension. We argue that the ability of periphery to sustain development strategies based on the valorization of tradition depends primarily upon a successful management of these ambivalences.

  2. STATE EXPERIENCES IN THE APPLICATION OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADMINISTRATIVE CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfiye Celik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of welfare state policies in the 20th century, public institutions grew, diversified, and the field of public administration expanded considerably in terms of public services. This has brought about cumbersome, resource waste, paperwork and similar problems in public administration. But especially after the economic crisis of the 1970s, the debate about public administration's fundamental change and transformation has been intensified. These debates, which also constitute the foundations of the New Public Management, led to a re-questioning of the public administration and a radical transformation. Changing systems have foreseen a state that provides faster and more efficient services and the state has to adopt a structural transformation that limits its activities to provide efficient services instead of operating in every field. In this transformation process, it is being argued that the private sector and the public sector are not different from each other and that the techniques successfully applied in the private sector can also be implemented by the public administration. In this context, the most important tool that comes out to provide effective and efficient service in public administration is performance concept and performance management process. But management tradition and culture have a great influence in the implementation and success of this technique. AngloSaxon state tradition, which attaches importance to organizational understanding and practice, is more inclined to adapt modern management techniques to public administration; Continental Europe state tradition seems to be more distant from these techniques by giving more importance to theory and public institutions.

  3. Chinese Students' Adaptation of Social Intercourse Influenced by Different Cultural Contexts of China and America in American Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于乐群

    2012-01-01

    1 Statement of the Purpose (1) Statement of the purpose The purpose of the research isto study Chinese studends' adaptation of social intercourse influenced by different cultural contexts of China and America in American universities.And the study will also try to find out the exact problems and obstacles during Chinese students' adapting period in American universities.

  4. Attachment in cultural context : Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differe

  5. Developing English Communication Skills in a Different Cultural Context: Matches and Mismatches

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta-Mariana IFTIMIE

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that from among all the languages in the world, English has acquired the status of ‘lingua franca’, i.e., the language that is used in international communication across countries, the language that enables people of different ethnic, national and cultural backgrounds to share with others their ideas and cultures. The use of English as an international language has resulted in a growing number of people who learn and speak this language all over the world. This has impo...

  6. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology.

  7. Attachment in cultural context: Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differences between Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland. In this chapter we also introduce A theoretical basis of acculturation and attachment theory. In Chapter 2 we focused on the replicability ...

  8. Replicating a study of collaborative use of mobile phones for photo sharing in a different cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval, Carolina; Montero, Camila; Jokela, Tero;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we replicate a study of collaborative mobile phone use to share personal photos in groups of collocated people. The replication study was conducted in a different cultural context to check the generalizability of the findings from the original study in terms of the proposed...... interaction techniques, current photo sharing practices, and privacy. Our results confirm and expand the original findings. We report our main findings by comparing them to the key findings of the original study. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for some variance in the results....

  9. Cultural Capital in Context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes the extent to which the effect of cultural capital on academic achievement varies across high- and low-achieving schooling environments. We distinguish three competing theoretical models: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields higher returns in high-achieving schooling...... to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....

  10. Attachment in cultural context : Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic

  11. Youth Civic Development: Theorizing a Domain with Evidence from Different Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Martinez, M. Loreto; Cumsille, Patricio; Ngomane, Tsakani

    2011-01-01

    The authors use examples of youth civic engagement from Chile, South Africa, Central/Eastern Europe, and the United States--and also emphasize diversities among youth from different subgroups within countries--to illustrate common elements of the civic domain of youth development. These include the primacy of collective activity for forming…

  12. Cross-cultural Context and Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芬

    2012-01-01

    In social interaction,politeness is a universal phenomenon existing in all languages.However,for social,ethnographic and even historical reasons,politeness strategies in a specific cultural context may vary from one to another.And for most time it is not language itself but different politeness strategies that lead to cross-cultural communicative failure.Knowing about these differences will help to overcome pragmatic failure in cross-cultural communication.

  13. Usability in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sabine; Nielsen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on presenting and discussing the aim, context, challenges, results, and impact of the Cultural usability project named as CultUsab. This project was a four year international research effort from 2006 to 2009, which was supported by a grant for the Danish Research Councils for ...... for Independent Research in Culture and Communication. The project aimed at innovating processes in Information and Communication Technology development through an understanding of culturally sensitive aspects of usability evaluation methods.......This paper focuses on presenting and discussing the aim, context, challenges, results, and impact of the Cultural usability project named as CultUsab. This project was a four year international research effort from 2006 to 2009, which was supported by a grant for the Danish Research Councils...

  14. Words in a Cultural Context*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    My approach in this paper is not that of an academic who has spent several .... involves background knowledge, shared information about context, traditions, and attitudes ... I would suggest that many a dictionary user would like to know more ... the arts in Europe, but it has since absorbed cultural achievement from the rest.

  15. Acculturation through sport: Different contexts different meanings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Morela, Eleftheria

    2017-01-01

    Research on the role of sport as a social integrative agent for migrants has provided equivocal results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between ethnic–cultural identity and sport environmental factors. Young migrant male athletes from two different societal and sport...... contexts were studied: migrants from Eastern European countries living in Greece (n = 60) and from Latin America living in Spain (n = 60). Participants completed measures of ethnic and cultural identity, task-oriented motivational climate, and autonomysupportive coaching behaviour. Analysis of variance...

  16. Survey error in an international context: an empirical assessment of cross-cultural differences regarding scale effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, H.; Kampen, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Likert-type of questions are prone to differences in response styles. The aim of the present study is to examine possible cross-cultural differences regarding scale effects resulting from different answer categories. This study aims to extend the literature on scale effects to a foreign language. An

  17. Attitudes Toward Business Ethics in Different Contexts: a Cross-Cultural Comparison between professionals in Jordan and UK

    OpenAIRE

    Haloub, Radi; Samawi, Jamil Nazih; Refai, Deema; Beddewela, Eshani

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the attitude and perception of business professionals towards ethics, in an era of dynamic globalisation is important for investors to make strategic decisions. We explore this manifestation of business ethics across cultures in terms of ethical perceptions, moral philosophies and ethical judgments, by focusing upon the attitudes of professionals towards ethics, in two culturally and institutionally different countries: Jordan and the UK. We base our theorisation on Hofstede's T...

  18. Diversity in context: how organizational culture shapes reactions to workers with disabilities and others who are demographically different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Sandra E

    2005-01-01

    Successfully integrating workers with disabilities into their organizations is both a challenge and an opportunity facing managers today. Despite laws and business practices prohibiting discrimination against those with disabilities, people with disabilities are consistently underutilized in organizations. This article applies theories of demographic diversity in organizations to assert that a richer understanding of organizational cultures and their implications for workers with disabilities may shed light on the question of how and why workers with disabilities may be excluded from mainstream work experiences and career progression. The article briefly reviews business arguments that support integration of workers with disabilities into organizations based on their contribution to the overall diversity within the organization, and reviews complications in the research on diversity to date that leave important questions of the potential gains or detriments from increasing this diversity unanswered. The article then goes on to introduce organizational culture as an underinvestigated but likely potent tool in explaining how and when workers who are demographically different, in general, and with disabilities, specifically, may be successfully integrated into an organization's work force. The article introduces three types of organizational culture: culture of differentiation, culture of unity, and culture of integration. Each is explained in terms of its content and its implications for managing diversity. A discussion of the implications of culture as a primary tool for managing the integration of workers with disabilities concludes the paper. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Bilingual Cultural Differences and Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-sheng; HUA Qing-liang

    2001-01-01

    For historical, regional or other reasons, there are some great differences between the Chinese and the English culture. Generally, the keynote of the western culture is the superiority of lust, while the Chinese culture stresses on reservation and compromise. The westerners emphasize individualism, while the Chinese lay stress on context. Different cultures contribute to different habits, characters and behaviors as well as different registers.Cultural differences can directly lead to information loss, information misleading, thus result in obstacles in communication. This essay will have a detailed analysis on the cultural differences and their influence on communication.

  20. The Variance of Language in Different Contexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申一宁

    2012-01-01

    language can be quite different (here referring to the meaning) in different contexts. And there are 3 categories of context: the culture, the situation and the cotext. In this article, we will analysis the variance of language in each of the 3 aspects. This article is written for the purpose of making people understand the meaning of a language under specific better.

  1. Teaching percussion in a music therapy training context: reflections on different cultures, PBL and ways of teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson-Ingstrup, Jens; Gattino, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    This publication deals with reflections on teaching percussion in the music therapy training at Aalborg University (Denmark). Discussions are focused in challenges and characteristics of this teaching as follows: cultural differences, teaching based on Problem Based Methodology (PBL) and the ways...

  2. Political Culture as Context for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

  3. Popular Culture, Methods, and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Responds to an earlier article that argues that the dominance of communicative language teaching (CLT) has led to the neglect of one crucial aspect of language pedagogy, namely the context in which that pedagogy takes place. Suggests that it is time to replace CLT as the central paradigm in language teaching with a context approach. (Author/VWL)

  4. Cultural Context and Development of Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Devendra; Williams, David D.

    A university-public school partnership analysis reveals how the cultural context associated with existing institutions can both facilitate and impede the emergence of a new culture that those institutions attempt to create and often involves entire cultural reforms and organizational conversion. Brigham Young University and five surrounding school…

  5. Culture Difference and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰

    2012-01-01

    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  6. Words in a Cultural Context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Kavanagh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Successful communication is dependent upon an adequate level of cultural as well as linguistic understanding. Language is itself part of culture and reflects social structures and attitudes. lbis paper examines the case for dictionaries to carry cultural as well as lexical information. It reviews the American tradition and purpose of including cultural material in dictionaries, and considers the nature and scope of cultural information contained in a number of modem American and European dictionaries. Various means of presenting cultural information are also examined. The paper concludes by considering the implications for lexicographers developing dictionaries in multicultural South Africa.

    Keywords: COMMUNICATION, CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION, CULTURAL INFORMATION, CULTURE, CURRICULUM, DICTIONARIES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES, DICTIONARY, DICTIONARY DESIGN, ENCYCLOPEDIA, ENCYCLOPEDIC DICTIONARIES, LANGUAGE, LEXICOGRAPHY, MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY, SOUTH AFRICA

    Opsomming: W oorde binne In kulturele konteks. Suksesvolle kommunikasie berusop 'n voldoende vlak van kulturele sowel as taalkundige begrip. Taal self is deeJ van kuJtuur enweerspieiH sosiale strukture en houdings. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die insluiting van sowel kultureleas leksikale inIigting in woordeboeke. Dit beoordeel die Amerikaanse tradisie en doel daarmeeom kulturele materiaal in woordeboeke in te sluit, en oorweeg die aard en omvang van kultureleinIigting vervat in 'n aantal moderne Amerikaanse en Europese woordeboeke. Verskillendemaniere om kulturele inIigting aan te bied, word ook ondersoek. Die artikel sluit af deur die implikasiesvir leksikograwe te oorweeg wat woordeboeke saamstel in multikulturele Suid-Afrika.

    Sleutelwoorde: KOMMUNIKASIE, INTERKULTURELE KOMMUNIKASIE, KULTURELEINLIGTlNG, KULTUUR, KURRIKULUM, WOORDEBOEKE MET SPESIALE OOGMERKE,WOORDEBOEK, WOORDEBOEKONTWERP, ENSIKLOPEDIE, ENSIKLOPEDIESE WOORDEBOEKE,TAAL, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, MULTIKULTURELE

  7. The Role of Cultural Portals in the Context of Converging Digital Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Uzelac, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the role of cultural portals in the context of converg¬ing digital culture against the background of convergence theory and network reality. Today digital trends are increasingly interloping with the world of culture and arts, involving different aspects of convergence of cultures, media and information technologies, and influencing new forms of communication. This provides a context for developing of new working practices in cultural sector that, in the past decade,...

  8. The Interaction of Local Context and Cultural Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard; Holmqvist, Emma; Dhalman, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Immigrants' housing position is often explained by (lack of) resources or differences in cultural backgrounds. Recent studies have included the importance of local context. The aim of this paper is to examine Somalis' perceptions of their possibilities in four Nordic capitals' housing markets...... and sometimes conflict with each other, but that the negotiation between cultural background and local context was individual. The conclusion is that local context and cultural background are important factors for understanding differences between Somalis on different housing markets, thus emphasising...

  9. Music Therapy - History and Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Even Ruud

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available An essay review 1 of Horden, Peregrine (Ed. (2000. Music as Medicine. The History of Music Therapy since Antiquity. Aldershot: Ashgate. Gouk, Penelope (Ed. (2000. Musical Healing in Cultural Contexts. Aldershot: Ashgate.

  10. ABOUT WELFARE IN CULTURAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to briefly analyze the research efforts on measuring welfare indices in terms of cultural relativism. It presents the limitations of GDP and some of the proposed alternatives over time, to understand the wideness and interest in this topic, but also the consequences of imposing a certain type of indicators to reflect the progress and welfare of a country. To provide a coherent overview on the proposed subject, the approach starts with the presentation of general acceptation of the welfare concept. Further, the literature review reveals many concerns about the welfare and progress, but also the difficulties associated with this effort. Critical comments generally reflect the need to consider the culture factor in the debate on welfare.

  11. Cross-cultural difference in OSH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we describe cross-cultural aspects in the context of safety management. When working abroad, cross-cultural differences ask for other competencies to enhance safe behaviour than at home due to cultural and language differences. In this wiki some guidance is given on aspects of cultur

  12. The Cultural Context of Learning in International Joint Ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shimin; Vince, Russ

    1999-01-01

    A study of Chinese-Western joint business ventures showed that cultural context and different modes of managing and organizing must be considered. Successful joint ventures involve a process of collective, two-way learning. (SK)

  13. The Cultural Context of Learning in International Joint Ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shimin; Vince, Russ

    1999-01-01

    A study of Chinese-Western joint business ventures showed that cultural context and different modes of managing and organizing must be considered. Successful joint ventures involve a process of collective, two-way learning. (SK)

  14. Website Design Guidelines: High Power Distance and High Context Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the question of offering a culturally adapted website for a local audience. So far, in the website design arena the vast majority of studies examined mainly Western and the American (low power distance and low context culture disregarding possible cultural discrepancies. This study fills this gap and explores the key cultural parameters that are likely to have an impact on local website design for Asian-Eastern culture high power distance and high context correlating with both Hofstede’s and Hall’s cultural dimensions. It also reviews how website localisation may be accomplished more effectively by extracting the guidelines from two different yet compatible cultural dimensions: high power distance and high context.

  15. Promises in Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Holly Shi

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study, which examines culture differences in a social function of language, i.e.,the function of promise making using Searle′s constitutive rules. It is to argue that different cultures may have the same type of speech-act such as promise, which, however, represents different cultural concepts. Evidence supporting the argument was drawn from a comparison of performance of Americans and Orientals concerning their respective concepts of promise making.

  16. Cultural context in medical ethics: lessons from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Tia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines two topics in Japanese medical ethics: non-disclosure of medical information by Japanese physicians, and the history of human rights abuses by Japanese physicians during World War II. These contrasting issues show how culture shapes our view of ethically appropriate behavior in medicine. An understanding of cultural context reveals that certain practices, such as withholding diagnostic information from patients, may represent ethical behavior in that context. In contrast, nonconsensual human experimentation designed to harm the patient is inherently unethical irrespective of cultural context. Attempts to define moral consensus in bioethics, and to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable variation across different cultural contexts, remain central challenges in articulating international, culturally sensitive norms in medical ethics.

  17. Theorising culture and culture in context: institutional excellence and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil-Hildebrand, Margitta B

    2002-12-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to focus on the ideological and practical implications of the new cultural forms of healthcare sector management variously described as institutional excellence, empowerment, total quality and human resource management. Thus, I look in detail at the managerial and academic claims concerning the mobilisation of corporate culture and go on to emphasise the impact which the literature of culture management has had on nursing employees and healthcare organisations. I also highlight the restrictions of the applied research approaches and argue that the managerial and poststructural literature is limited in that its conceptualisation of culture and change is incomplete. The focus switches then to a range of literature which has been used to study change with a labour process perspective and explains why an approach based upon the study of the disparity between the cultural rhetoric and the day-to-day practice, as well as how people experience and respond to that disparity, is to be preferred. Furthermore, I gain substance from a variety of viewpoints in order to discover a suitable way of putting the matter of interest into context. Drawing on the analytical framework of the sector model, which differentiates in the economy between private and state production sectors, it is possible to distinguish between the different modes of rationality governing each sector. As a basis for further contextualisation, the powerful and privileged positions of nursing as well as other healthcare professionals and the distinctive character of their employment relationships are considered. The paper concludes that an extended labour process analysis is necessary to challenge the way in which the concept of culture is applied by nursing academics and practitioners.

  18. Adolescent Behavior and Health in Cross-Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…

  19. Valores percibidos en el medio televisivo por adolescentes en contextos transculturales Values Perceived in Television by Adolescents in Different Cross-cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Medrano Samaniego

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este trabajo fue conocer los valores percibidos en su personaje favorito de televisión en una muestra de 1.238 adolescentes pertenecientes a ocho contextos culturales y establecer las posibles diferencias entre dichos contextos. Se parte de la hipótesis básica de que el medio televisivo trasmite valores y es una agente de socialización, entre otros, en la etapa de la adolescencia. La muestra total estuvo constituida por: tres submuestras españolas, cuatro latinoamericanas y una irlandesa. El instrumento utilizado para indagar los valores percibidos ha sido Val.Tv 0.2 que es una adaptación de la escala de Schwartz. La recogida de datos se realizó a través de una plataforma on-line y presencialmente. Respecto a los hallazgos encontrados, tomados globalmente, los valores que más perciben los adolescentes son autodirección y benevolencia. Respecto a las diferencias contextuales los datos nos indican que, a pesar de que existen diferencias significativas en todos los valores, éstas no son muy destacables. Hay que exceptuar los valores de hedonismo y logro, donde no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los diferentes contextos. Las diferencias más relevantes se hallaron en los valores de conformidad, tradición, benevolencia y universalismo. Desde una perspectiva educativa se concluye que el instrumento de medición utilizado puede ser una herramienta adecuada para decodificar los valores percibidos por los adolescentes en sus personajes preferidos.This study was carried out on a sample group of 1,238 adolescents from eight different cultural contexts, and aimed to determine the values perceived by subjects in their favorite television characters. It also aimed to identify any possible differences between cultural contexts. The basic hypothesis for the study was that television conveys values and constitutes one of the forces for socialization at play during adolescence. The total sample group was made up

  20. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    2015-04-01

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society's values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents' profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  1. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.boissy@usherbrooke.ca [Université de Sherbrooke, Interdisciplinary Institute for Technological Innovation (3IT) (Canada); Cloarec, Jean-Pierre [Université de Sherbrooke, Laboratoire Nanotechnologies et Nanosystèmes (LN2), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (Canada); Patenaude, Johane [Université de Sherbrooke, Interdisciplinary Institute for Technological Innovation (3IT) (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society’s values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents’ profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  2. LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC TERMS IN CULTURAL CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurenkova, Y.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a comparative analysis of five economic terms ("business", "competition", "salary", "boss", "profit" in the context of the culture of Russia and the United States. The research shows that some words were borrowed in both languages from different sources (for example, "salary", some of them were borrowed from one source (for example, "business", and some were received from own original words (for example, "profit", "boss". Comparison of cultural contexts and dictionary entries shows that the terms analyzed in this paper primarily help to understand how the two countries (Russia and the US can be culturally different. The study also illustrates how these terms have developed their own additional meanings, characteristic of their cultural and social development. Consequently, certain concepts can be transformed through the prism of a cultural vision of the world of different peoples.

  3. The Interaction of Local Context and Cultural Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard; Holmqvist, Emma; Dhalman, Hanna;

    2015-01-01

    : Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo and Stockholm. The approach is an interview study based on immigrants' own explanations of what they strive for and how they assess the impact of local conditions and cultural background for their possibilities. We found that local context and cultural background intertwine......Immigrants' housing position is often explained by (lack of) resources or differences in cultural backgrounds. Recent studies have included the importance of local context. The aim of this paper is to examine Somalis' perceptions of their possibilities in four Nordic capitals' housing markets...

  4. Cultural differences in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Purpose: Intercultural communication problems are most often argued to be caused by differences in cultural values. In this exploratory paper, we argue that attention should not only be directed at national differences. Alternatively, we argue that more interest should be paid...... corporation. This illustrates how individuals and groups may essentialize cultural differences during intercultural business encounters and how this fixation of cultural traits can be used in social stratification. Originality/value - Originality: Only scant extant research has focused on the active use...... to the actual use of those differences in communication. Design/methodology/approach - Methodology: Ethnographic field study including 12 interviews and observations. Findings - Findings: We use a short case on interaction between expatriates and local managers in a Chinese subsidiary of a Danish multinational...

  5. Cultural differences in risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Yeong Kim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We compared South Koreans with Australians in order to characterize cultural differences in attitudes and choices regarding risk, at both the individual and group levels. Our results showed that Australians, when assessed individually, consistently self-reported higher preference for risk than South Koreans, regardless of gender. The data revealed that South Koreans, regardless of gender composition, were willing to take greater risks when making decisions in group decision-making situations than when they were alone. This is a different pattern from that seen in the Australian sample, in which a risky shift was noted only among males. This difference was attributed to the influence of various cultural orientations (independent vs. interdependent relationship styles. This study also provides a discussion of the implications of these results in terms of cultural differences in attitudes and decisions regarding risk.

  6. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of m...

  7. High or low context culture in the EFL classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih KARAKUZU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communicative competence (ICC and high-low context culture situations are important for both EFL/ESL teachers and their students. In the EFL context, tertiary level students in Turkey are taught by both native and non-native English speakers, which might be challenging for foreign language students as it causes potential communication breakdowns in the classroom. By regarding cultural values, there is a need to examine how EFL tertiary level students successfully negotiate these cultural differences and how both native and non-native English-speaking teachers might respond to them in classroom situations. This study aimed to investigate what culture group the EFL tertiary level students belong to and to explore to what extent high- and low-context culture situations affect the EFL tertiary level students’ communication in the classroom. The participants of the study included 50 EFL tertiary level students, and 15 native and non-native English instructors at a state university in Turkey. The data were collected using the “High or Low Context Culture Questionnaire” (Hall, 1976, and semi structured interviews. A coding and classifying approach (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2012 was used for the data analysis. Three categories of cultural conflicts; misperception, misinterpretation, and misevaluation in communication were identified. The result of the current research is important for EFL tertiary level students, TESOL and ESOL teachers. Building ICC helps EFL/ESL students perceive information across cultures, develop strategies in communication and overcome challenging situations in various contexts. Future research in other EFL/ESL contexts would help to expand the findings of the current study.

  8. The Limits of Dialogue among Teachers from Different National Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jenna Min

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the author investigates the dynamics of dialogue among teachers in different national contexts based on their responses to different cultural practices. Employing Pierre Bourdieu's sociological theory of practice and his concept of habitus, the author shows that, as the teachers' responses are not entirely context-specific, they are…

  9. Cultural Differences and Acculturation in Dark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海梅

    2015-01-01

    The film Dark Matter, based on the actual event of Chinese student Lu Gang shooting in America, tells the protagonist Liu Xing's cultural tragedy. Through the analysis of cultural differences in Black Matter from the perspective of Hofstede's theory of cultural dimensions, this paper explores the reasons for Liu Xing's failure of across-cultural communication, which gives us thought on how to improve intercultural communication in the context of globalization.

  10. Early social cognition in three cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Tara; Moll, Henrike; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Liszkowski, Ulf; Behne, Tanya; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The influence of culture on cognitive development is well established for school age and older children. But almost nothing is known about how different parenting and socialization practices in different cultures affect infants' and young children's earliest emerging cognitive and social-cognitive skills. In the current monograph, we report a series of eight studies in which we systematically assessed the social-cognitive skills of 1- to 3-year-old children in three diverse cultural settings. One group of children was from a Western, middle-class cultural setting in rural Canada and the other two groups were from traditional, small-scale cultural settings in rural Peru and India.In a first group of studies, we assessed 1-year-old children's most basic social-cognitive skills for understanding the intentions and attention of others: imitation, helping, gaze following, and communicative pointing.Children's performance in these tasks was mostly similar across cultural settings. In a second group of studies, we assessed 1-year-old children's skills in participating in interactive episodes of collaboration and joint attention.Again in these studies the general finding was one of cross-cultural similarity. In a final pair of studies, we assessed 2- to 3-year-old children's skills within two symbolic systems (pretense and pictorial). Here we found that the Canadian children who had much more experience with such symbols showed skills at an earlier age.Our overall conclusion is that young children in all cultural settings get sufficient amounts of the right kinds of social experience to develop their most basic social-cognitive skills for interacting with others and participating in culture at around the same age. In contrast, children's acquisition of more culturally specific skills for use in practices involving artifacts and symbols is more dependent on specific learning experiences.

  11. Digital Equity in Cultural Context: Exploring the Influence of Confucian Heritage Culture on Hong Kong Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Allan H.; Park, Jae Hyung; Chen, Lu; Cheng, Miaoting

    2017-01-01

    Our study examines digital equity in a cultural context. Many studies have used classic analytical variables such as socioeconomic status and gender to investigate the problem of unequal access to, and more recently differences in the use of, information and communication technology (ICT). The few studies that have explored cultural variables have…

  12. Cognition and Culture in Evolutionary Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Fernando; Hernández-Lloreda, María Victoria

    2017-01-09

    In humans and other animals, the individuals' ability to adapt efficiently and effectively to the niches they have actively contributed to construct relies heavily on an evolved psychology which has been shaped by biological, social, and cultural processes over evolutionary time. As expected, although many of the behavioral and cognitive components of this evolved psychology are widely shared across species, many others are species-unique. Although many animal species are known to acquire group-specific traditions (or cultures) via social learning, human culture is unique in terms of its contents and characteristics (observable and unobservable products, cumulative effects, norm conformity, and norm enforcement) and of its cognitive underpinnings (imitation, instructed teaching, and language). Here we provide a brief overview of some of the issues that are currently tackled in the field. We also highlight some of the strengths of a biological, comparative, non-anthropocentric and evolutionarily grounded approach to the study of culture. The main contributions of this approach to the science of culture are its emphasis (a) on the integration of information on mechanisms, function, and evolution, and on mechanistic factors located at different levels of the biological hierarchy, and (b) on the search for general principles that account for commonalities and differences between species, both in the cultural products and in the processes of innovation, dissemination, and accumulation involved that operate during developmental and evolutionary timespans.

  13. A Culturally Sensitive Analysis of Culture in the Context of Context: When Is Enough Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.

    Cultural context is not the sole source of human knowledge. Postmodern theory, in both its deconstructionist and affirmative approaches, offers an incomplete basis by which to study race, class, and gender, and undermines ethical interaction. Deconstructionism calls for the abandonment of generalizable research findings, asserting that the concept…

  14. Cultural Capital in Context: Heterogeneous Returns to Cultural Capital Across Schooling Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2015-01-01

    This paper tests two competing explanations of differences in returns to cultural capital across schooling environments: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields a higher returns in high-achieving environments than in low-achieving ones) and cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher...... returns in low-achieving environments). Using multilevel mixture models, empirical results from analyses based on PISA data from three countries (Canada, Germany, and Sweden) show that returns to cultural capital tend to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones....... These results principally support the cultural mobility explanation and suggest that research should pay explicit attention to the institutional contexts in which cultural capital is converted into educational success....

  15. Cultural Capital in Context: Heterogeneous Returns to Cultural Capital Across Schooling Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2015-01-01

    returns in low-achieving environments). Using multilevel mixture models, empirical results from analyses based on PISA data from three countries (Canada, Germany, and Sweden) show that returns to cultural capital tend to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones......This paper tests two competing explanations of differences in returns to cultural capital across schooling environments: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields a higher returns in high-achieving environments than in low-achieving ones) and cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher....... These results principally support the cultural mobility explanation and suggest that research should pay explicit attention to the institutional contexts in which cultural capital is converted into educational success....

  16. The Effects of Cultural Context on Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清华

    2013-01-01

      As is known, Language is an integral component of culture. This paper attempts to explain the importance and necessity of cultural context and suggest a frame work on integrating cultural context into English teaching so as to cultivate students ’cul⁃ture awareness and improve the quality of English teaching and learning.

  17. Leveraging cultural differences to promote educational equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura M; Germano, Adriana L; Fryberg, Stephanie A

    2017-08-10

    This paper theorizes that academic interventions will be maximally effective when they are culturally grounded. Culturally grounded interventions acknowledge cultural differences and validate multiple cultural models in a given context. This review highlights the importance of considering culture in academic interventions and draws upon the culture cycle framework to provide a blueprint for those interested in building more efficacious interventions. Specifically, the paper reviews literature in education and psychology to argue: first, when working-class and racial minority students' cultural models are not valued in mainstream academic domains, these students underperform; and second, many current academic interventions intended to improve working-class and racial minority students' academic outcomes could be further enhanced by cultural grounding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Issues of Cultural Differences in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张隆胜

    2008-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that it is difficult for a learner to have a good command of English in the context in China where learners are not iramersed in the Engush language because of cultural differences which are explored under four categories.The four issues of cultural differences in language learning discussed are essential in the formation of schemata which are very important in communication and language learning.

  19. Learner Cultures and Corporate Cultural Differences in E-Learning Behaviors in the IT Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…

  20. On Affective Communication-From Perspective of Cultural Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佩佩

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, cross-cultural study is turning to pragmatic fields concerning communication, such as business negotiation, overseas life and language teaching, etc. This paper reviews previous studies of culture and communication, attempting to reveal how to have affective communication from perspective of cultural context by case studies. As a result, theoretical foundation and case studies prove that although we have cooperative principles as general guidelines for communication, cultural awareness, espe⁃cially awareness of High Context (HC) and Low Context (LC), still plays a key role in cross-cultural communication by making up for the lost of meaning while transmission.

  1. Analysis of Culture Conflicts in The Joy Luck Club from the High-con-text and Low-context Culture Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Jiao

    2016-01-01

    As a work that reflects culture differences between China and America, the Joy Luck Club has drawn a wide attention from scholars whose researches are more of holistic analyses from a macro perspective of cross-cultural communication. In ac-cordance with the degree of dependence of semantic on dialogue context and dialogue language itself, Edward Hall divides cul-ture into high-context culture and low-context culture, and holds that Chinese culture is a high-context culture, while American culture is a low-context one. According to Hall’s theory, the Sino-US cultural conflicts reflected by the mother-daughter con-flicts in the Joy Luck Club can be analyzed from high-context and low-context culture perspective. And after conflicts, there fi-nally will be a harmonious trend of Sino-US culture development, changing from clash and conflict to convergence and integra-tion.

  2. Time Reference in Different Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairullin, Vladimir

    1993-01-01

    Discusses time references in Russian- and English-speaking cultures by means of Russian translation variants of works by twentieth-century English-language writers. Suggests the different attitudes toward time as manifested by these two distinct cultures. (HB)

  3. Trajectory behaviour at different phonemic context sizes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available models, different types of context modelling (clustered triphones versus biphones) have complimentary behaviours. The authors discuss how this complimentarity may be useful for data-efficient ASR....

  4. Out of Context: Thinking Cultural Studies Diasporically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Farred

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay on cultural studies and the African Diaspora argues for a rethinking of cultural studies in two critical ways: firstly, that cultural studies, from its founding institutional and conceptual moment, cannot but be thought diasporically; and, secondly, that cultural studies be thought ‘out of’, or, against, context—that is, cultural studies is most revealing in its political and literary articulation when it is not read, as many of its advocates claim, contextually. This essay offers a broad critique of cultural studies and the (African diaspora but derives its most cogent and creative argument from its ability to read together the work of two diasporic authors, deracinated South African and Australian writers, J. M. Coetzee and David Malouf.

  5. University Teachers' Perceptions of Appropriate Emotion Display and High-Quality Teacher-Student Relationship: Similarities and Differences across Cultural-Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenauer, Gerda; Gläser-Zikuda, Michaela; Volet, Simone E.

    2016-01-01

    Research on teachers' emotion display and the quality of the teacher-student relationship in higher education is increasingly significant in the context of rapidly developing internationalization in higher education, with scholars (and students) moving across countries for research and teaching. However, there is little theoretically grounded…

  6. Learning in Cultural Context: Developing Destinies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoff, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Over more than three decades spent researching cultural aspects of how children learn, the author has had the opportunity to learn about how individuals and cultural communities change and continue. During her research on children's learning by observing and "pitching in" in a Mayan community in Guatemala, the author learned a great deal…

  7. Adaptation and creativity in cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora M. Cohen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is the fit between the individual and the environment. The dynamic interplay between person, culture, and environment is one of the most important issues in analyzing creativity. Adaptation is defined as the fit or adjustment of the individual to external conditions, but adaptation can also mean moving from one environment to another more suitable, or even forcing the environment to adapt in response to creative efforts. Culture impacts creativity in limiting acceptable boundaries, yet providing the artifacts used in creating. Culture is impacted and changed by creative efforts. Tight conformity to confining environments or cultures can stifle. The creator must be aware of cultural values and not overstep these boundaries for work to be accepted. A developmental continuum of adaptive, creative behaviors suggests a shift from individual adaptation to the environment to adaptation by the world to the individual.

  8. Considering the cultural context in psychopathology formulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-02

    Mar 2, 2013 ... principles, affect the manner in which people perceive and react. [3] Further, Reber and ... significance of considering cultural aspects in the understanding ..... interpersonal relationships within it, and the nature of being.

  9. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)

    2015-01-01

    .... The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers...

  10. Dealing with Difference: Building Culturally Responsive Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Burridge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly over recent years as a result of government policies. More recently, the new period of financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all exacerbated the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among their student and school communities. How effectively schools deal with difference and how well they are supported in their endeavours to build culturally response classrooms is a perennial issue for both teachers and educators. A major challenge for teachers is to at a minimum, understand cultural differences as they manifest in their particular school settings and to draw on approaches that support student learning in culturally appropriate ways so to assist them to better realise their full potential. In this paper we will consider cultural diversity in the context of recent school policies, highlight a number of frameworks for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom, in particular the approaches by Kalantzis and Cope’s (1999 and Hickling-Hudson (2003. We also draw on the findings from a recent qualitative study of representations of cultural diversity in a number of Sydney metropolitan schools to discuss the need for more greater resource and policy support for progressive teaching approaches that support the development of a more tolerant and inclusive multicultural society. Key words: cultural diversity, schools, teacher education, classroom practice, social inclusion

  11. High or low context culture in the EFL classroom?

    OpenAIRE

    Melih KARAKUZU; Pelin İRGİN

    2016-01-01

    Intercultural communicative competence (ICC) and high-low context culture situations are important for both EFL/ESL teachers and their students. In the EFL context, tertiary level students in Turkey are taught by both native and non-native English speakers, which might be challenging for foreign language students as it causes potential communication breakdowns in the classroom. By regarding cultural values, there is a need to examine how EFL tertiary level students successfully negotiate thes...

  12. A Cultural Context for Chinese Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the historical and cultural influences on the current Chinese legal system. The impact of Confucianism and socialism on social values and on the organization of the Chinese legal system are described. Social changes are forcing the Chinese to evolve a more formal court system. (AM)

  13. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  14. ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHINGIN CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinWenhua

    2004-01-01

    Improving learners' intercultural communicativecompetence has been acknowledged to be the major goal ofcurrent English Language Teaching (ELT) in China. Yet, noconsensus has been reached even today on the definition ofIntercultural Communicative Competence (ICC). The author ofthis paper proposes her understanding of ICC and points out tha tthe key element of fostering our learners' ICC lies in improvingtheir social-cultural competence, towards which three feasiblesteps are further illustrated : getting an inside view of the targetculture; getting an outside view of the native culture; seeking athird perspective. Improving learners' intercultural communicativecompetence has been acknowledged to be the major goal ofcurrent English Language Teaching in China. Whatintercultural communicative competence is and how this may beachieved by our English learners have become issues of majorconcern. Addressing these issues, this paper proposes possiblesolutions to the problem.

  15. Mobile Social Network in a Cultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    the chapter “Mobile Social Network in a Cultural Context” examines the guanxi-embedded mobile social network in China. By focusing on three concrete case studies with 56 in-depth interviews, including New Year text message greetings, mobile social networks for job allocations among migrant workers......, and mobile phone rumours, this study observes that mobile social networks are a way that Chinese people cultivate, maintain and strengthen their guanxi networks. Embedding the reliability of guanxi, the message spreading via mobile communication always enjoys high credibility, while mutual obligation...... of mobile social network in China therefore emanate not only from Information and Communication Technologies, but also from the socio-cultural source - guanxi - deeply rooted in Chinese society....

  16. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.

  17. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  18. Broader context for social, economic, and cultural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Jonathan W. Long; Frank K. Lake; Susan. Charnley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter sets the context for the following sociocultural sections of the synthesis by providing information on the broader social, cultural, and economic patterns in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range. Demographic influences surrounding population change, including those accounted for through amenity migration, are examined. Social and cultural concerns...

  19. Mobile Social Network in a Cultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    the chapter “Mobile Social Network in a Cultural Context” examines the guanxi-embedded mobile social network in China. By focusing on three concrete case studies with 56 in-depth interviews, including New Year text message greetings, mobile social networks for job allocations among migrant workers...... contributes to the explosive growth of the message within mobile social networks under special circumstances, such as during festivals and holidays and social disturbances. This circulation in turn increases both the dissemination and credibility of messages, and rumours. The characteristics and strength...

  20. Cultural differences in learning approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, D.T.; Rienties, B.C.; Giesbers, S.J.H.; Schim van der Loeff, S.; Van den Bossche, P.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Milter, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural differences in learning-related dispositions are investigated amongst 7,300 first year students from 81 different nationalities, using the framework of Hofstede (Culture’s consequences: international differences in work-related values. Sage, Beverly Hills, 1980). Comparing levels and

  1. Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕

    2007-01-01

    Festivals are precious cultural heritage of different countries,so differentfestivals can reflect different cultures. This article discusses cultural differences in Chinese and western festivals, aiming to promote cross-culture communication.

  2. [Jerusalem syndrome. Symptoms, course and cultural context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Sobczyk, Artur

    2011-01-01

    The Jerusalem syndrome is an acute psychotic state observed in tourists and pilgrims who visit Jerusalem. The main symptom of this disorder is identification with a character from the Bible and exhibiting behaviours which seems to be typical for this character. The article presents an overview of cultural and demographic factors associated with the appearance of the Jerusalem syndrome. Three main categories of the syndrome were identified with special focus on the category unconjoined to previous psychopathology which can be described as the 'pure' form of the Jerusalem syndrome. The main diagnostic criteria for the 'pure' type and the sequence of seven clinical stages of the Jerusalem syndrome were described. The article contains a review of the hypothesis about the causes of Jerusalem syndrome with special attention given to the role of places of particular meaning for religious tradition.

  3. Cosmic evolution: the context for astrobiology and its cultural implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-10-01

    Astrobiology must be seen in the context of cosmic evolution, the 13.7 billion-year master narrative of the universe. The idea of an evolving universe dates back only to the 19th century, and became a guiding principle for astronomical research only in the second half of the 20th century. The modern synthesis in evolutionary biology hastened the acceptance of the idea in its cosmic setting, as did the confirmation of the Big Bang theory for the origin of the universe. NASA programmes such as Origins incorporated it as a guiding principle. Cosmic evolution encompasses physical, biological and cultural evolution, and may result in a physical, biological or postbiological universe, each with its own implications for long-term human destiny, and each imbuing the meaning of life with different values. It has the status of an increasingly accepted worldview that is beginning to have a profound effect not only in science but also in religion and philosophy.

  4. Infant Contingency Learning in Different Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a…

  5. Apoio social: percepção materna em contextos com diferentes graus de urbanização The relationship between cultural models, social support and quality of family environment in context with different degrees of urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Vieira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem como objetivos: verificar as diferenças no apoio percebido por mães de três contextos de urbanização; analisar a correlação do apoio com dados sociodemográficos e com a qualidade do ambiente familiar; e estabelecer qual modelo de variáveis explica o apoio percebido em cada contexto. Ao total, 150 mães residentes em três contextos responderam um questionário sobre dados sociodemográficos, itens da qualidade de vida familiar atual e uma Escala de Apoio Social. Por meio de análises estatísticas, constataram-se diferenças significativas nas dimensões do apoio social, com melhor percepção nas dimensões Apoio Afetivo e Apoio Emocional para o Interior Leste e menor percepção do Apoio Material para a Capital. Nos modelos de regressão, as variáveis número de filhos e qualidade do ambiente familiar atual mostraram-se preditoras do apoio. Conclui-se que a qualidade do ambiente familiar tem importância no apoio e as características individuais e culturais devem ser consideradas ao se investigar o suporte social.The present study aimed to investigate the differences in perceived social support for mothers of three contexts with distinct urbanization; to analyze the correlation of support with the quality of the family environment and to establish which variables models explain the perceived support in each context. A total of 150 mothers living in three contexts answered a questionnaire about sociodemographic data, items of current quality of family life and Scale of Social Support. Through the statistical analysis it has been found significant differences in dimensions of Social Support, with best perception of the Affective and Emotional support in Eastern context and lower perception for material support in the Capital. In regression models, the number of children and current quality of family life proved to be the predictors of support. It has been concluded that the quality of family environment is important

  6. The Important Role of Context of Culture in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞; 黄英双

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the indispensable role of c ontext of culture in the translation of meaning of language in-use,showing it to be the source of contex tual background of a particular text and of which the contextual features derive .It pays special attention to the tactics for understanding as well as interpret ing words in the light of context.It maintains that the context of culture in wh ich the translator works in mainly affects and limits the choice of words in tra nslation.

  7. Rethinking arts marketing in a changing cultural policy context

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye-Kyung

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates recent changes in British cultural policy and their implications for arts marketing. It first points out the decisive role of the policy in shaping the environment of the nonprofit arts and argues that arts marketing developed as an organisational strategy within the context of marketisation policy since the 1980s. This is followed by an analysis of the current cultural policy, where ‘social impacts’ of the arts are highly emphasised and state intervention intensifies....

  8. Cultural Context and Associative Meaning of Words in Cross-culture Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉侠; 董艇舰

    2014-01-01

    Language is the vehicle of culture, vocabulary is the most active part of a language. This article compares and analyses the relationship of cultural context and the associative meaning of words in three aspects—associative meaning overlap, associative meaning mismatch and associative meaning gap, revealing its importance in the cross-cultural communication.

  9. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  10. MANAGEMENT OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN MULTINATIONAL TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Gultekin; Cemil Ulukan

    2012-01-01

    Assurance of efficiency and productivity of multinational teams necessitates policies, rules, and procedures covering underlying characteristics of team members’ home country cultures, potential cross-cultural conflicts and their solutions, cultural awareness in the organization, and harmonization mechanisms for different cultures with the organizational culture, etc. In spite of ever-increasing importance, studies addressing multinational teams and cultural differences simultaneously are ins...

  11. Examining the Cultural Context of Youth Mentoring: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farruggia, Susan P.; Bullen, Pat; Solomon, Frank; Collins, Efeso; Dunphy, Ann

    2011-01-01

    While research in youth mentoring is extensive in the U.S., little research has explored its effectiveness in New Zealand, despite its growth in the past 20 years. While arguments have been raised that overseas models may not fit all cultural contexts within New Zealand, there appears to be limited evidence supporting this contention. Further,…

  12. Context and Culture in Language Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Mike; Grundy, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Introduces this special issue of the journal on context and culture in language teaching and learning, as well as each of the articles, most of which were contributions to a conference. The origins of this topic lie partly within theory and practice of language teaching and partly in response to the recognition of the social and political…

  13. An Analysis of Different Addressing Terms in High Context Communication and Low Context Communication from the Perspective of Frame Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng-li

    2014-01-01

    Within the scope of human beings, some addressing terms are similar. However, different addressing terms still exist, which are influenced by the background of high context communication or low context communication. A good example is that Chinese traditional culture, a typical instance of high context communication, puts much emphasis on etiquette, which is repre-sented in addressing terms as more complex and definite;In western, with the background of low context communication, every individual is more equal and they address each other more generally and much simpler. This paper tries to explore the addressing terms both in Chinese and in English from the perspective of frame theory.

  14. Cultural Differences and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅

    2009-01-01

    ach culture in English education.This paper expounds the connotation of culture and language, points out the reasons of culture teaching in English education, and raises some suggestions and methods on English culture teaching.

  15. Rethinking the Cultural Context of Schooling Decisions in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: From Deviant Subculture to Cultural Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J

    2011-10-01

    The literature on neighborhood effects on schooling theorizes that neighborhood cultural context is an important mechanism generating such effects. However, explanations that rely on subcultural theories, such as oppositional culture, have met with considerable criticism on empirical grounds, and no alternative account of the cultural context of disadvantaged neighborhoods has been developed in the education literature. This study develops a new account of the cultural context of schooling decisions in disadvantaged neighborhoods based on the concept of cultural heterogeneity, defined as the presence of a wide array of competing and conflicting cultural models. It applies this concept to neighborhood effects on college enrollment. Using survey data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study shows that disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibit greater heterogeneity in college goals and that adolescents in more heterogeneous neighborhoods are less likely to act in concert with the college goals that they articulate.

  16. AN INDIVIDUAL’S GENDER EXPERIENCE: SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Zahrai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights gender experience development in an individual. The socio-cultural context of gender identity development is addressed from the perspective of social constructivism. The author describes the mechanism of constructing gender schemas and norms which reflect socio-cultural experience. Drawing on poststructuralist ideas, the author explores cultural texts which encode assumptions and concepts that serve as schemas for perceiving and understanding reality, for reflecting the processes of an individual’s development as a discursive being in his or her interpretation of socio-cultural experience. The article also analyzes masculinity and femininity models shaped by socio-cultural schemas and explores gender role expectations among the young people in Ukraine.

  17. Cultural influence on Chinese teachers’ perceptions and beliefs in a Danish context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    , teaching methods, and relevant experiences of four native Chinese who have been teaching in Denmark for many years. It demonstrates that teachers’ perceptions reflect two different educational cultures which have shaped and are reshaping their beliefs about students’ characteristics and teaching methods...... in Danish context. It suggests that teachers’ cultural backgrounds and the new cultural contexts in which they are teaching cause their belief development from more teacher-oriented to more student-oriented. However, their belief about teaching methods also implies a complexity of combining two competing...

  18. Student Reasoning about Graphs in Different Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanjek, Lana; Susac, Ana; Planinic, Maja; Andrasevic, Aneta; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates university students' graph interpretation strategies and difficulties in mathematics, physics (kinematics), and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel (isomorphic) mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs, which were developed by us, were administered to 385 first-year students at the…

  19. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  20. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Transferring methods to teach business administration from one cultural context to another

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Catalo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available What happens when a teaching method is transferred from one cultural context to another? In this article we investigate this question by looking at how Computer Based Simulations (CBS were transposed from a French context to an Egyptian one. In this article we demonstrate, through the case of Egypt, how culture and the characteristics of the school system impact learning abilities. We describe what happens when Egyptian students are confronted with learning modes they have not encountered prior to University, in the context of an Egyptian-French dual-degree programme in business administration and business informatics. We show that the transfer of CBS as a teaching method revealed cultural differences between French and Egyptian students. As a consequence the teaching objectives of CBS were redefined in order to take the Egyptian context into account.

  2. Who's in Charge? Leadership and Culture in Extended Service Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Paul; Wainwright, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of understanding different organisational and professional cultures for leaders in extended service settings. It begins with a critical review of key concepts and debates in the organisational culture literature and then shows how different professional groups (education, health and social services) have adopted…

  3. Cultural influence on Chinese teachers’ perceptions and beliefs in a Danish context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    in Danish context. It suggests that teachers’ cultural backgrounds and the new cultural contexts in which they are teaching cause their belief development from more teacher-oriented to more student-oriented. However, their belief about teaching methods also implies a complexity of combining two competing......The paper presents the results of a pilot study designed to investigate native Chinese teachers’ beliefs and perceptions in Danish teaching context and how culture impacts their perceptions and beliefs. Ethnographic interviews were utilized to explore their perceptions on students’ characteristics......, teaching methods, and relevant experiences of four native Chinese who have been teaching in Denmark for many years. It demonstrates that teachers’ perceptions reflect two different educational cultures which have shaped and are reshaping their beliefs about students’ characteristics and teaching methods...

  4. The Comparison of Politeness Strategies in Chinese Culture and in Eng-lish Speaking Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆龄

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society, as the development of globalization a growing tendency of how to communication effective⁃ly between different culture and languages has becoming a matter of fact. Even though a great number of communication strate⁃gies used to reduce the culture shock, obstacles in cultural exchanges still remains due to the culture differences. Politeness theory, as an important communication strategy, is still the most important and influential theory for cross-cultural communication. While there still has a few controversial arguments being conducted. It results in the issue of this article:Is there different compar⁃ing Chinese culture with English Speaking Culture in Terms of Politeness Strategies? In this paper, I will present a general review of classic politeness theories including Brown&Levinson, Leech’s research in English speaking culture and Gu and Xu’s findings in Chinese culture. Among their theories some specific politeness strategies such as face-saving strategy, politeness principle and its maxims will be used to give an image of the difference between Chinese culture and English speaking culture in terms of po⁃liteness strategies. In the definition of‘politeness’, two characteristics are worth mentioning:universality as well as culture-specif⁃ic. Therefore the article concludes by the arguing that, in spite of a few similarities, there are differences between in Chinese cul⁃ture and in English speaking context in politeness.

  5. Context, individual differences and pragmatic competence

    CERN Document Server

    TAGUCHI, Naoko

    2012-01-01

    Pragmatic competence plays a key role in the era of globalization where communication across cultural boundaries is an everyday phenomenon. The ability to use language in a socially appropriate manner is critical, as lack of it may lead to cross-cultural miscommunication or cultural stereotyping. This book describes second language learners' development of pragmatic competence. It proposes an original theoretical framework combining a pragmatics and psycholinguistics approach, and uses a variety of research instruments, both quantitative and qualitative, to describe pragmatic development over

  6. Culture and Psychiatric Symptoms in Puerto Rican Children: Longitudinal Results from One Ethnic Group in Two Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Wu, Ping; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Shen, Sa; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: The development of youth psychopathology may be associated with direct and continuous contact with a different culture (acculturation) and to distress related to this process (cultural stress). We examine cultural experiences of Puerto Rican families in relation to youth psychiatric symptoms in two different contexts: one in which…

  7. Culture and Psychiatric Symptoms in Puerto Rican Children: Longitudinal Results from One Ethnic Group in Two Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Wu, Ping; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Shen, Sa; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: The development of youth psychopathology may be associated with direct and continuous contact with a different culture (acculturation) and to distress related to this process (cultural stress). We examine cultural experiences of Puerto Rican families in relation to youth psychiatric symptoms in two different contexts: one in which…

  8. An Analytical Approach of the Cultural Context in Language Teaching and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Abbas Alkhateeb

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The crucial and repeating subject in reference to cultural setting is the possibility of the importance, structures connected with time, place, individual and conditions. This paper will examine Gage's Dictionary of Canadian English that comprised two different meanings for culture which are appropriate to our discussion. The former definition covers the usual classic studies i.e., formal culture and the latter refers to deep culture. The paper recommends a need for implicit knowledge of these elements and their relation to communication through language. The paper also discusses two types of cultural contexts that are crucial in multicultural communication, (1 the external context and (2 the internal context .The paper also examines three important issues that are vital for quality language learning (1 How far is the classroom a natural setting for both language and culture learning? (2 To what extent is the classroom a setting for both language and culture learning? (3 And how is second or foreign language learning viewed by the society, especially in the multicultural milieu?. The paper reports that a mere ritual of adding cultural component to a basic language course is not sufficient. It is the mutual fitting that counts which the paper attempts to improve language learning through cultural immersion in ELT classroom.

  9. Student reasoning about graphs in different contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanjek, Lana; Susac, Ana; Planinic, Maja; Andrasevic, Aneta; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates university students' graph interpretation strategies and difficulties in mathematics, physics (kinematics), and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel (isomorphic) mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs, which were developed by us, were administered to 385 first-year students at the Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb. Students were asked to provide explanations and/or mathematical procedures with their answers. Students' main strategies and difficulties identified through the analysis of those explanations and procedures are described. Student strategies of graph interpretation were found to be largely context dependent and domain specific. A small fraction of students have used the same strategy in all three domains (mathematics, physics, and other contexts) on most sets of parallel questions. Some students have shown indications of transfer of knowledge in the sense that they used techniques and strategies developed in physics for solving (or attempting to solve) other context problems. In physics, the preferred strategy was the use of formulas, which sometimes seemed to block the use of other, more productive strategies which students displayed in other domains. Students' answers indicated the presence of slope-height confusion and interval-point confusion in all three domains. Students generally better interpreted graph slope than the area under a graph, although the concept of slope still seemed to be quite vague for many. The interpretation of the concept of area under a graph needs more attention in both physics and mathematics teaching.

  10. Technological, mediatic and cultural hybridisation: Cultural mediations in the context of globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Mendes de Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a context of borders that are dissolving in many senses, of the convergence and hybridisation of technologies, mass media and cultures. The context is the resizing of practical time, of movements and links between the local and the global. In these times of interculturality, communication plays a very important role; not so much in its technological media dimension, but particularly in the dynamics of cultural mediations that are dividing off from mediatised relations. This article aims to reflect on the transformations in present-day communication processes, marked by strong movements of hybridisation, as well as examining how to consider interculturality in the context of cultural mediations, based on dialogue between Latin American and French authors. Also, using media material, the article presents illustrations of the Brazilian cultural scene, which is marked by a long history of hybridisation that is filled with intercultural dynamics.

  11. Muslim American adolescents' explanations of changing religious practices: Cultural tools in cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kathleen M; Schiro, Isabella N; Gregory, Wesley E; Westberg, Lindsay M; Lee, Samantha R; Boyle, Colleen D

    2017-03-01

    To examine the culturally embedded nature of religious practices, we conducted a mixed-methods study in which Muslim American adolescents described how and why their religious practices had changed in recent years (see Etengoff & Daiute, 2013, J. Adolesc. Res., 28, 690). Participants included 201 Muslim adolescents (ages 13-19) from predominantly immigrant families; all were contestants in a Muslim Inter-Scholastic Tournament regional competition. Participants completed surveys including an item regarding whether their religious practices had changed, and for those who answered affirmatively, open-ended questions about the change. Additional measures assessed ethnic identity and perceived discrimination. As hypothesized, the 60% of participants who reported a change in religious practices described this shift as a response to new contexts, people, and religious knowledge. Those who reported a change also reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and perceived discrimination. Overall, Muslim American adolescents' descriptions portrayed religious practices as developing through reciprocal interactions with culture. More generally, participants' descriptions point to the viability of a model in which religious practices change and in turn are changed by cultural contexts. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious development is viewed as taking place in relational systems with reciprocity between individuals and surrounding contexts. Variations in contexts predict variations in religious development, but mechanisms of development are not well understood. Muslim Americans, including adolescents, show high levels of religious involvement and experience unique cultural and religious contexts. Muslim American emerging adults describe their religious practices as responsive to sociocultural contexts. What does the study add? This study focuses on Muslim American adolescents, a group that has received little research attention

  12. Social class culture cycles: how three gateway contexts shape selves and fuel inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Markus, Hazel Rose; Phillips, L Taylor

    2014-01-01

    America's unprecedented levels of inequality have far-reaching negative consequences for society as a whole. Although differential access to resources contributes to inequality, the current review illuminates how ongoing participation in different social class contexts also gives rise to culture-specific selves and patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting. We integrate a growing body of interdisciplinary research to reveal how social class culture cycles operate over the course of the lifespan and through critical gateway contexts, including homes, schools, and workplaces. We first document how each of these contexts socializes social class cultural differences. Then, we demonstrate how these gateway institutions, which could provide access to upward social mobility, are structured according to middle-class ways of being a self and thus can fuel and perpetuate inequality. We conclude with a discussion of intervention opportunities that can reduce inequality by taking into account the contextual responsiveness of the self.

  13. Cultural Differences and English Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卞

    2011-01-01

    With the development of the cross-cultural communication,more and more people have recognized the interaction between language and culture.Each culture has its own characteristic and is different from one another.Because of cultural differences,difficulties often arise in communication between different people.In China,English is taught as a foreign language.Both teachers and students should be aware of the differences between eastern and western culture in their teaching and study.

  14. Scientific psychology within the Chinese language and cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Heyong

    2006-01-01

    The Scientific Psychology that was founded by Wilhelm Wundt appeared in China in the late nineteenth century. The scholars translated the name of psychology into Chinese as Xin-Li-Xue, for which the meaning of the words looks like "heartology," i.e., "the study of the heart." In Chinese, the same core structure related to "heart" (Xin) is found in most of the terms of psychology, such as emotion, thinking, will, forgetting, and memory. By translating Xin as "heart" instead of "mind," we maintain an embodied approach to understanding the "principles of the heart." Through a historical approach to the influence of Western psychology, a cultural analysis of the meaning of the term psychology in Chinese, and a focus on the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, we can witness the significance of psychology in the Chinese language and cultural context. I will use three parts to present psychology in the Chinese cultural context: the origins of Chinese psychology, from a historical approach; the meaning of "psychology" in Chinese, using a cultural analysis; and the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, focusing on the development and future.

  15. Reconsidering the Equivalence in Translation From Cultural Differences Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yinling

    2009-01-01

    Translation involves language as well as culture. Cultural similarities exist in languages; however cultural differences have an essential bearing upon translation. Even approximate equivalent and loan words have different implications and usages in English and Chinese. So, this challenges the traditional concept of equivalence as a constitutive feature of translation. To an author, there is no such thing as absolute equivalence in the context of E-C translation for the simple reason that Chinese and English belong to two entirely different cultural traditions. However, through careful comparative studies, relative equivalents can be achieved.

  16. Betrothal Gifts in Marital Engagement in Cross Cultural Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaiMing'an; ZhaoBaohua; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    Betrothal gifts used to be regarded as a symbol to reflect the traditional culture and social structure in a given ethnical community. If viewed from an economic angle, we might see that a variety of betrothal gifts actually mirrored the origin and routes through which an ethnical people acquired their means of livelihood against different economic or cultural backgrounds.

  17. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾秀梅

    2014-01-01

    With the fast-pacing of globalization, cross-cultural communications are becoming increasingly frequent. Translation of the literary works, or novels is one of the most popular models of cultural exchange. While the translation of novel titles comes with first importance as successful translation of the titles facilitates a bird’s eye view of the whole context. However, the transla-tion of novel titles is no easy without consideration of cultural differences which directly influence people’s thoughts and under-standing. Therefore, translating novel titles requires an overall analysis of such cultural elements as religion, cultural images, way of thinking, and historical allusions.

  18. Exploring Several Aspects Cultural Differences Lie in

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓艳

    2016-01-01

    Being a good translator, knowing the cultural differences is essential. Therefore, in the paper, such aspects as certain sayings, certain affairs and behaviors ,etc about cultural difference to support the influence of culture on translation and the translation between English and Chinese will be focused on, which can help to overcome cultural barriers and try to track our brains for the close natural equivalent.

  19. Linguistic and Cultural Differences on Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    Advertising language can be regarded as a special art which mixes cultural backgrounds and the tendency of the times.People from different regions understand advertising culture in different ways.Thus,if people want to overcome the difficulties carried by two cultural backgrounds and linguistic habits,they must make the translation fit the local linguistic and cultural characteristics.

  20. Verbal Communication Skills in Different Tourism Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    MIHUT Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problems verbal communication conducts to in the tourism sector. Language plays a major role in determining the causes and the means of overcoming communication barriers. The theoretical part of the present paper sustains the importance of various elements verbal communication consists of, pointing out its roots and determinants. The practical part reveals the fact that, along with an ever growing number of tourism contexts, language has gained its position of...

  1. Navigating Online Selves: Social, Cultural, and Material Contexts of Social Media Use by Diasporic Gay Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dhoest

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media not only create new opportunities but also pose new challenges for the ways people navigate their online selves. As noted by boyd, social media are characterized by unique dynamics such as collapsed contexts, implying that one’s distinct offline social worlds meet online. This creates particular challenges for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ people, at least those who find it crucial to maintain distinct contexts in which they disclose or conceal their gender and/or sexual selves. However, the existing scholarship on social media use by LGBTQs is predominantly anchored in English-language Western contexts and tends to lose sight of the cultural specificities of Internet use. Therefore, in this article, we build on the scholarship to further investigate the role of context for disclosing or concealing gender and/or sexual selves online. More specifically, we ask, “How do social, cultural, and material contexts affect the ways LGBTQs navigate their selves on social media?” To investigate this question, we analyze in-depth face-to-face interviews with gay men who themselves, or whose parents, migrated to Belgium. Because their migration background forces them to negotiate different social, cultural, and material contexts, our focus on diasporic gay men helps to bring out the issue of context in social media use.

  2. Cultural differences in interpersonal responses to depressives' nonverbal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanger, P; Summerfield, A B; Rosen, B K; Watson, J P

    1991-01-01

    The Social Impression and Interpersonal Attraction of British depressed patients was rated by British and German subjects on the basis of the patients' video-recorded nonverbal behaviour. Depressives were rated negatively by all subjects. Males in both cultural groups agreed in their ratings of depressives but German females expressed a more negative attitude than British females. This is attributed to cultural differences in sex-appropriate interactive behaviour. The importance of studying the expression of depression and its meaning within a particular cultural context is indicated and the role of cultural differences in interactive behaviour is discussed with respect to intercultural assessment and treatment of depression.

  3. Cultural Differences between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子涵

    2013-01-01

    The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English gives an explanation that culture is the customs, beliefs, art, music, and all the other products of human thought made by particular group of people at a particular time. Different nations have differ-ent cultures. Various cultural factors result in different language forms. China and America are distinct in languages, customs, be-haviors, values and many other aspects. It is the many differences between Chinese and Americans that constitute their own dis-tinct cultures. We can see that people bring along their culture with them and stick to their cultural norms in their daily life.

  4. Cultural Differences in International Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹悦

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship of cultural differences on international business negotiations. And also, it emphases on the importance of understanding and mastering cultural differences in international business negotiations.

  5. Cultural Reflexivity and the Nostalgia for Glocal Consumer Culture: Insights from a Multicultural Multiple Migration Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Kjeldgaard, Dannie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to investigate consumption discourses in contexts characterized by multiple cultures and intercultural contacts, as multicultural contacts and multiple migrations challenge existing consumer acculturation models based on a dualistic process of acculturation....... This chapter explores empirically the character of cultural reflexivity and its expression in consumers’ discourses. Given that nostalgia is one prominent dimension of the migration conceptualization, we seek to understand how the role of nostalgia changes in contexts where consumers are decreasingly...... – On the basis of these findings, the article discusses cultural reflexivity in terms of naturalization and cultivation narratives (Wilk, 1999), proposing shifts between reflexive and routinized consumption practices as basis for consumers’ cultural reflexivity. Originality/value of chapter – The contribution...

  6. Intention and task context connected with session in a cultural heritage collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    and retrieval (IS&R) process. The studied collection is a cultural heritage web site containing digitalized material and artist information. Based on different navigation strategies task context and intention was related to session length and arrival level in the site. Some statistically significant...

  7. Intention and task context connected with session in a cultural heritage collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    and retrieval (IS&R) process. The studied collection is a cultural heritage web site containing digitalized material and artist information. Based on different navigation strategies task context and intention was related to session length and arrival level in the site. Some statistically significant...

  8. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Advertisements from High-Context Cultures and Low-Context Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, He

    2016-01-01

    With the development of economy and the change of social culture, advertisements have penetrated our life slowly and done a lot to the commercial markets. Advertisements have often been analyzed in a stylistic way for its unique language style. But language is an important part, as well as a carrier, of culture. Advertising language, as other…

  9. Concussions and Risk Within Cultural Contexts of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Colón, Gabriel Alejandro; Smith, Sharia; Fucillo, Jenny

    2017-06-01

    Concussions are a type of traumatic injury caused by a jolting of the brain that disrupts normal brain function, and multiple concussions can lead to serious long-term health consequences. In this article, we examine the relationship between college students' understanding of concussions and their willingness to continue playing despite the possibility of sustaining multiple head injuries. We use a mixed-methods approach that includes participant observation, cultural domain analysis, and structured interviews. Our research finds that students hold a robust cognitive understanding of concussion yet discursively frame concussions as skeletomuscular injuries. More importantly, students affirm the importance of playing sports for themselves and others, so their decisions to risk multiple concussions must be understood within cultural and biocultural contexts of meaningful social play. We suggest that peoples' decision to risk multiple head injuries should be understood as a desire for meaningful social play rather than an uninformed health risk.

  10. Cultural Reflexivity and the Nostalgia for Glocal Consumer Culture: Insights from a Multicultural Multiple Migration Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Kjeldgaard, Dannie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to investigate consumption discourses in contexts characterized by multiple cultures and intercultural contacts, as multicultural contacts and multiple migrations challenge existing consumer acculturation models based on a dualistic process of acculturation...... of this chapter is firstly a contextualized and empirically grounded definition of cultural reflexivity. Secondly, it demonstrates that migrants’ consumption discourses revolve more around disruptions of routines than around acculturation processes. Thirdly, the chapter illustrates the use of nostalgia...

  11. Cultural Similarities and Differences on Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄频频; 陈于全

    2010-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are abound with idioms. Idioms are an important part of the hnguage and culture of a society. English and Chinese idioms carved with cultural characteristics account for a great part in the tramlation. This paper studies the translation of idioms concerning their cultural similarities, cultural differences and transhtion principles.

  12. Cultural Socialization Across Contexts: Family-Peer Congruence and Adolescent Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D

    2016-03-01

    Racial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures, yet little is known about cultural socialization outside families or how cultural socialization in multiple settings conjointly influences adolescent well-being. In a sample of 236 8th graders (51 % female; 89 % Latinos, 11 % African Americans), we examined adolescents' perceptions of family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American culture. A variable-centered approach demonstrated that the socioemotional and academic benefits of family cultural socialization were most evident when peer cultural socialization was congruently high. Although family and peer cultural contexts are often assumed to be drastically different, we identified similar proportions of adolescents experiencing congruently high, congruently low, and incongruent cultural socialization from families and peers using a person-centered approach. Although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, their well-being was similar to the congruently low group. The findings highlight the importance of considering cultural socialization across multiple developmental settings in understanding racial/ethnic minority youth's well-being.

  13. Written Cultural Heritage in the Context of Adopted Legal Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kodrič-Dačić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: Libraries collect written cultural heritage which is not only the most valuable part of their collections but also a part of library materials which is, due to digitalization projects in the last decade, becoming more and more interesting to librarians and library users. The main goal of the study is a theoretical research of library materials acknowledged as Slovenian heritage. By defining the basic terms it highlights the attributes which are immanent to library materials, derived from the context of their origin or later destiny. Slovenian library legislation concerning protection of written cultural heritage is also critically analysed.Methodology/approach: Comparative analyses of European and Slovenian legislation concerning librarianship and written cultural heritage. Research limitation: Research was mainly limited to professional literature and resources dealing with written cultural heritage. Originality/practical implications: Results of the research serve as formal criteria for definition of library materials as written heritage and suggest how to improve legislation in the field of protection of written heritage in libraries. 

  14. Identifying the essential components of cultural competence in a Chinese nursing context: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Duanying; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Klunklin, Areewan; Sripusanapan, Acharaporn; Avant, Patricia Kay

    2017-06-01

    This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted to identify the essential components of cultural competence from the perspective of Chinese nurses. A purposive sample of 20 nurse experts, including senior clinical nurses, nurse administrators, and educators in transcultural nursing, was recruited. Using thematic analysis, four themes: awareness, attitudes, knowledge, and skills, with two subthemes for each, were identified. Notably, culture in China was understood in a broad way. The participants' responses focused upon demographic attributes, individuality, and efforts to facilitate quality care rather than on the cultural differences of ethnicity and race and developing the capacity to change discrimination or health disparities. A greater understanding of cultural competence in the Chinese nursing context, in which a dominant cultural group exists, is essential to facilitate the provision of culturally competent care to diverse populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. On Cultural Differences in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴丽静

    2011-01-01

    International business negotiation is playing a more and more important role in modem society.We can see clearly that there are great differences in international business negotiation.Specially,culture can influence negotiating styles in different ways,because negotiators from another nation are different in language,beliefs,behaviors manners,and way of thinking,value and attitudes and so on.Different cultures express different ways of doing business.Even though negotiators are well prepared,it is not so easy to reach a satisfactory agreement between negotiators across cultures.Negotiations can be easily broken down due to a lack of mutual understanding of the cultures.Culture affects negotiation even before negotiators meet face to face.Therefore,learning the opponent’s culture and having a good understanding of how cultural differences affect negotiation will be critically important if one wants to succeed in cross-cultural negotiations.

  16. The colour red affects time perception differently in different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaxin; Huang, Xiting

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have found that psychological and behavioural functions of the colour red vary according to context. In this research, we used the verbal estimation paradigm to determine if the colour red affects individuals' perception of interval duration. In our results, perceived duration was shorter in a red condition than in a blue one; additionally, only in the red condition, perceived duration was shorter in an online dating context than in an online interviewing context. The contribution and limitations of this study and future research directions are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Peer Violence and Gender in the Grammar School Social and Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Chmura-Rutkowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this text, I focus on the role that dominant culturally based genderstereotypes and beliefs play in adolescent violence in the context of everyday school life. In other words, I concentrate on how the androcentric order, unequal social position of women and men, and cultural definitions of femininity and masculinity impact everyday school reality and the relationships between adolescent girls and boys. The text builds on the notion of gender understood as a changeable and socially negotiable cultural construct that plays out in discourses, definitions, values and norms concerning femininity, masculinity and the differences between them.

  18. The culture of peace in the context of university education in Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Coromoto Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation addresses the management of the culture of peace in the educational environment, specifically from the context of university education. The aim is to present the treatment of this subject, from different theoretical and the realization of a culture of peace in science teaching, from the educational space, valuing the inclinations from the optics, of holism, interdisciplinary, integration of education, contemporary critical approach on violence and conflict, and analysis of adaptation to the concrete realities to the cultural, social and geographical.

  19. Hemispheric Differences in the Effects of Context on Vowel Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjerps, Matthias J.; Mitterer, Holger; McQueen, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Listeners perceive speech sounds relative to context. Contextual influences might differ over hemispheres if different types of auditory processing are lateralized. Hemispheric differences in contextual influences on vowel perception were investigated by presenting speech targets and both speech and non-speech contexts to listeners' right or left…

  20. On the Cultural Difference in the Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhao-rong

    2003-01-01

    This paper makes an analysis on the Cultural difference in the teaching. Culturaldifference can be reflected in many aspects in the teaching, so the foreign language teachersshould fill their course with cultural factors.

  1. Hemispheric differences in the effects of context on vowel perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjerps, M.J.; Mitterer, H.A.; McQueen, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Listeners perceive speech sounds relative to context. Contextual influences might differ over hemispheres if different types of auditory processing are lateralized. Hemispheric differences in contextual influences on vowel perception were investigated by presenting speech targets and both speech and

  2. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Tatar, Moshé

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices...

  3. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Moshé Tatar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices...

  4. Increasing Understanding of Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeden, Jack; Kelly-Aguirre, Eileen; Visser, Aric

    2016-01-01

    Many high school and university students return home from global programs and often report they have changed as a result of the experience. Global educators assume the act of participating in global education programs (such as high school study abroad) will open students' eyes to the complexities of another culture because students have been…

  5. Cultural Influences on the Business Context in Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范松嵩

    2014-01-01

    More and more organizations and business people involve in communication across cultures, because they are doing business in foreign countries or have an increasingly multicultural workforce. As a result of their migrations, they, with diverse backgrounds and different languages, are working side by side in many countries. So business communication has been intercultur-al communication.

  6. Shaping attitudes about homosexuality: the role of religion and cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; Pitt, Cassady

    2009-06-01

    Across the globe, the debate over homosexuality continues, with great variation in public opinion about the acceptability of homosexuality, laws regulating same-sex unions and penalties for homosexual sex behaviors. Religion is often seen as an important predictor of attitudes about homosexuality. However, cross-national differences in cultural orientations suggest that the role religion has in explaining homosexual attitudes may depend on a nation's cultural context. In this study, we merge ideas from cultural sociology and religious contextual effects to explain cross-national variation in public opinion about homosexuality. Using data from the fourth wave of the World Values Survey and Hierarchical Modeling techniques, we find support for the micro and macro effects of religion and a survival vs. self-expressive cultural orientation. Moreover, we find that personal religious beliefs have a greater effect on attitudes about homosexuality in countries like the United States, which have a strong self-expressive cultural orientation.

  7. Interpreting megalithic tomb orientation and siting within broader cultural contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Frank

    2016-02-01

    This paper assesses the measured axial orientations and siting of Irish passage tombs. The distribution of monuments with passages/entrances directed at related tombs/cairns is shown. Where this phenomenon occurs, the targeted structure is invariably located at a higher elevation on the skyline and this could suggest a symbolic and hierarchical relationship in their relative siting in the landscape. Additional analysis of astronomical declinations at a national scale has identified tombs with an axial alignment towards the rising and setting positions of the Sun at the winter and summer solstices. A criteria-based framework is developed which potentially allows for these types of data to be more meaningfully considered and culturally interpreted within broader archaeological and social anthropological contexts.

  8. RELIGIOUS COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF CULTURE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Petrushkevych

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the work is to determine the features of media culture that bind it with mass culture and mass communications and have the most significant effect on the general principles of the religious mass communication. In addition, the objective is to identify the skills system and traits of mass human that are necessary for using media culture. Methodology. The methodological basis is related to structuring, analytical analysis and synthesis of media features; highlighting phenomena that illustrate modern communicative situation; characteristics of media trends influence for the specific functioning of religious communication. Scientific novelty. Main part of the work is devoted to the analysis of the progressive media culture, mass-media and their main features, design of religious communication in this culture. Media gradually form the appearance of religious communication quietly, especially the mass one, they adapt the modern religious discourse to rates of transfer and perception of information. Modern believer gets a lot of different kinds of religious information, on any subject, any explanation of the religious question, with respect to any religion. Such volume of religious information and the speed with which a person receives it, does not usually make it religious or spiritually advanced, but only informed. Spiritual perfection and religious development, religious communication is possible only when the customer is aware of media culture and way of seeing the ultimate goal of such communications using the Mass Media. So far these mechanisms are perfectly designed in traditional religious communication. Phenomena, that reflects the dramatic changes in the communicative environment are: mediatization of body and mind, the new practice of processing / reading information, the phenomenon of simultaneous perception of a large number of information channels – similar or different. Features of media culture that connect it with

  9. Impacts of Different Culture on Management Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国君

    2015-01-01

    cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.

  10. Culture growth of testate amoebae under different silicon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Manfred; Seidl-Lampa, Barbara; Höhn, Axel; Puppe, Daniel; Meisterfeld, Ralf; Sommer, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Testate amoebae with self-secreted siliceous shell platelets ("idiosomes") play an important role in terrestrial silicon (Si) cycles. In this context, Si-dependent culture growth dynamics of idiosomic testate amoebae are of interest. Clonal cultures of idiosomic testate amoebae were analyzed under three different Si concentrations: low (50μmolL(-1)), moderate/site-specific (150μmolL(-1)) and high Si supply (500μmolL(-1)). Food (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was provided in surplus. (i) Shell size of four different clones of idiosomic testate amoebae either decreased (Trinema galeata, Euglypha filifera cf.), increased (E. rotunda cf.), or did not change (E. rotunda) under the lowest Si concentration (50μmolSiL(-1)). (ii) Culture growth of idiosomic Euglypha rotunda was dependent on Si concentration. The more Si available in the culture medium, the earlier the entry into exponential growth phase. (iii) Culture growth of idiosomic Euglypha rotunda was dependent on origin of inoculum. Amoebae previously cultured under a moderate Si concentration revealed highest sustainability in consecutive cultures. Amoebae derived from cultures with high Si concentrations showed rapid culture growth which finished early in consecutive cultures. (iv) Si (diluted in the culture medium) was absorbed by amoebae and fixed in the amoeba shells resulting in decreased Si concentrations.

  11. Cultural Differences of Etiquette in Nonverbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝钰; 朱凡

    2007-01-01

    Cultural difference is one of the greatest hinders in the intercultural communication. This thesis focuses on displaying cultural differences of etiquette in nonverbal communication. It lays emphasis on the comparisons in China (mainly Han Nationality) and Western (mainly Britain and American) as well as the different culture backgrounds that bring about the etiquette variations. These comparative analyses help people smooth the paths of social intercourse and establish pleasant, comfortable, and cooperative relationships.

  12. Cultural Differences of Etiquette in Nonverbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝钰; 朱凡

    2007-01-01

    Cultural difference is one of the greatest hinders in the intercultural communication. This thesis focuses on displaying cultural differences of etiquette in nonverbal communication. It lays emphasis on the comparisons in China (mainly Han Nationality)and Western (mainly Britain and American) as well as the different culture backgrounds that bring about the etiquette variations. These comparative analyses help people smooth the paths of social intercourse and establish pleasant, comfortable, and cooperative relationships.

  13. Exploring cultural beliefs about "that sickness": grandmothers' explanations of HIV in an urban South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Watermeyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The role of culture in community beliefs about HIV is important to understand, given poor adherence to treatment and the failure of prevention programs in some contexts. An exploration of such models may yield important insight into barriers to care, treatment-seeking paths, and intergenerational differences in cultural beliefs and practices. Our study aimed to understand South African grandmothers' traditional beliefs about HIV. Three focus groups were conducted with 15 grandmothers from different cultural backgrounds in an urban community. Results indicated a variety of cultural explanations for causes, treatments, and prevention strategies. The lack of coherence and fluidity in opinions in this group suggests ways in which grandmothers may have a bridging role in the clinic that may help to validate and alleviate uncertainty, harmonize the voices of medicine and the lifeworld, and provide greater insight into people's ideas about health and treatment seeking, also known as the healthworld.

  14. Measuring A Customer Intimacy Culture In A Value Discipline Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potgieter

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate a questionnaire for the assessment of a customer intimacy culture in the value discipline context. The main survey was completed by using a convenience sample of permanent employees (N = 200 at line, middle and top management levels of an organisation in the entertainment industry. This sample was taken from staff on structured developmental paths, while attending scheduled training events. The 169 completed questionnaires that were returned were used for the final data analyses. Owing to the small sample size, an adapted procedure for first- and second-level factor analyses was used, followed by an iterative item analysis. The preliminary findings suggest that the questionnaire can be applied for assessing customer intimacy cultures. OpsommingDie doel van hierdie studie was om ’n vraelys te evalueer vir die beoordeling van ’n kliëntintimiteitskultuur in die waardedissipline konteks. Die hoofopname is voltooi deur ’n gerieflikheidsteekproef (N = 200 van permanente personeel in lyn, middel- en topbestuursvlakke van ’n organisasie in die vermaaklikheidsbedryf te gebruik. Dié steekproef is geneem vanuit personeel in gestruktureerde ontwikkelingspaaie wat geskeduleerde opleidingsgeleenthede bygewoon het. Die 169 voltooide vraelyste wat terugontvang is, is vir die finale dataontleding gebruik. Weens die klein steekproefgrootte, is ’n aangepaste prosedure vir eerste- en tweedevlakfaktorontleding gebruik, gevolg deur ’n iteratiewe itemontleding. Die voorlopige bevindinge dui daarop dat die vraelys toegepas kan word vir die beoordeling van ’n kliëntintimiteitskultuur.

  15. Examining Culture's Impact on the Learning Behaviors of International Students from Confucius Culture Studying in Western Online Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Chang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of shared understanding of how culture impacts learning in online environment. Utilizing document analysis, the authors in this research study culture's impact on the learning behaviors of student sojourners from Confucius culture studying in Western online learning context. The shared understandings of Confucius culture and…

  16. Talking Culture: Intercultural Competence in a Corporate Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    Taking its starting point in two, currently predominant views on intercultural business communication and intercultural competence (e.g. Askehave & Norlyk 2006; Blasco 2004; Franklin 2007; Gudykunst & Kim 2002; Hofstede 2001; Holiday et al. 2004; Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner 1997), this paper......, the paper attempts to show that in practice members of staff may make sense of intercultural issues by means of various discourses that reflect very different ideas of what culture and intercultural competence is, potentially leading to differences in the handling and experience of intercultural encounters...... provides insight into the way practitioners in an international software company construct their experiences with culture and intercultural encounters in the workplace. On the basis of the discursive analysis of ten semi-structured interviews, the presentation details how practitioners make sense...

  17. Significant differences in cross cultural negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita Vochita

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the importance of different factors that influences cross cultural negotiations. Learning about the components of a cross cultural negotiation process to increase negotiators’ success in avoiding barriers and failures in the international business arena is one of the most challenging achievements of the negotiators in the global environment. In the second part, the paper focuses on the one of the most important componenet of cross cultural business negotiations: difference...

  18. Socio-cultural context, child development and beginning reading in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the fact that many children in Peru are not able to read fluently when they finish elementary school. To analyze this shortcoming it presents an overview of the Peruvian context, the education system, the multilingual and the socio-cultural background and identifies the difficult conditions in which Peruvian children grow and its consequences in child development and beginning reading. The paper discusses different aspectsof developmental psychology and puts the accent...

  19. Culture and context in understanding child maltreatment: Contributions of intersectionality and neighborhood-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadan, Yochay; Spilsbury, James C; Korbin, Jill E

    2015-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect commissioned a series of reviews that appeared as the edited volume, Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect (Melton & Barry, 1994). Using the 1994 review "Sociocultural Factors in Child Maltreatment" (Korbin, 1994) as a background, this article reconsiders culture and context in child maltreatment work. Since 1994, conditions promoting research and practice attention in this area include immigration-driven global increases in diverse, multicultural societies where different beliefs and practices meet (and clash); expanding purview of the human rights discourse to children; and the disproportionate and disparate representation of cultural, ethnic, and racial groups in child-welfare systems. Although research on child maltreatment has advanced in many ways over 20 years, the complexity of child maltreatment leaves many critical questions demanding further attention, culture and context among them. To help address these questions, we propose two approaches for future maltreatment research: intersectionality - the simultaneous examination of multiple identities (such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status) - as a framework for understanding the complexity of cultural factors; and neighborhood-based research as a means for understanding the context of child maltreatment from the perspective of an ecological framework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impact of Cultural Context on Metaphorical Meaning in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Meng-fen

    2015-01-01

    Metaphor is a phenomenon of language use which is the most active and most able to reflect the cultural factor. Cul⁃tural context has a restrictive effect on the metaphorical meaning. Therefore, the understanding and use of metaphor must not be divorced from the underlying cultural context. This paper analyzes similarities and dissimilarities of metaphorical meaning and im⁃ages in English and Chinese from the perspective of cultural context. The research of metaphor of cultural context would enable us to better understand metaphor and have a successful communication.

  1. Political culture of civil society within synergetic paradigm context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Derzhko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Political culture relates to the development and improvement of human abilities for social life within a community and creates conditions for the realization of these abilities. Typically, it is a state or a particular cultural region within the state. Despite the fact that the political culture of a society cannot and should not be subject to a management, it should be regulated and coordinated through a policy - national, which must be state policy. This paradoxical situation requires the use of specific management approaches. There is some configuration management knowledge, training or life, to work effectively, it is necessary to act at the right time and in the right place. Synergetic paradigm creates a methodological basis for a rather broad and full use of all the cultural, regional and individual diversity. Such use may be appropriate and successful implementa­tion provided competent management and, above all, self, which in turn requires a developed political culture in both the public and the private sector. It is important to understand that social system like any complex system, with not one single and multiple alternative paths of evolution. It should be clearly aware of the existence of different trends of evolution, the ambiguity of the transition to the future. Future states of complex social systems do not just open and predict­able, there are range of possible forms of the future, the field of possible ways forward. Value under the tran­sitional regime elements authoritarian and democratic organization of society is one of the most controversial issues. Between these two forms of political domination exists a close relationship than it may seem at first glance. To determine the influence of civil society in the process of becoming a democratic political regime and democratic political culture, it is necessary to outline the main characteristics of this concept. Without dwelling on the analysis of understanding of civil

  2. 魔幻现实主义:异质文化语境中的遮蔽与误读%Magical Realism:shadowing and misreading in different cultural contexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文彬彬

    2014-01-01

    魔幻现实主义的概念在评论界历来存在颇多争议,其代表性作家如卡彭铁尔、马尔克斯等也曾多次强调他们并非魔幻现实主义者。其实质在于各自对“现实”的不同理解:双方都是从自身文化传统和思维模式出发来看待和理解现实。拉美作家眼中的现实既包括客观现实,也包括主观现实---一种建立在拉美信仰基础上的“现实”。这本是他们司空见惯的“现实”,但却很难为拉美本土文化之外的理性“他者”所认同。因此,如果以一种理性主义思维模式去审视拉美文化传统中的现实,就必然导致对拉美文化中非理性信息的过滤和变形。%There have always been controversies about the concept of Magical Realism in critical circles , and its representative writers such as Carpentier、Márquez have also repeatedly stressed that they aren't magical realists .The reason is mainly that each of the parties holds a different interpretation for the "reality"based on their own cultural traditions and thinking models . Reality in the eyes of Latin American writers contains not only the objective reality , which is the real world of objective exist-ence, but also the subjective reality -"reality"based on their religion in Latin America .But their familiar "realities"aren't recognized by the "others"who are out of the circles of Latin American culture .So if we examine the reality of Latin Ameri-can culture with a thinking formulary of rationalism .It will inevitably leads to the filtering and distortion of irrational informa-tion in Latin American culture .

  3. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾秀梅

    2014-01-01

    For whatever kind of literary forms, the first thing that we come into contact with is the title. The title functions as not only the eye catcher but also the summary of the context. Any legal document starts with its title and a good translation of the ti-tle lays the foundation for the interpretation of follow-up terms and conditions. However, translating titles of laws is affected by different factors, especially cultural differences, such as history, diction and conventions. Anyway, cultural impact on translation of law titles can be handled tactfully.

  4. Comparison of university students’ understanding of graphs in different contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Planinic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates university students’ understanding of graphs in three different domains: mathematics, physics (kinematics, and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs were developed. A test consisting of these eight sets of questions (24 questions in all was administered to 385 first year students at University of Zagreb who were either prospective physics or mathematics teachers or prospective physicists or mathematicians. Rasch analysis of data was conducted and linear measures for item difficulties were obtained. Average difficulties of items in three domains (mathematics, physics, and other contexts and over two concepts (graph slope, area under the graph were computed and compared. Analysis suggests that the variation of average difficulty among the three domains is much smaller for the concept of graph slope than for the concept of area under the graph. Most of the slope items are very close in difficulty, suggesting that students who have developed sufficient understanding of graph slope in mathematics are generally able to transfer it almost equally successfully to other contexts. A large difference was found between the difficulty of the concept of area under the graph in physics and other contexts on one side and mathematics on the other side. Comparison of average difficulty of the three domains suggests that mathematics without context is the easiest domain for students. Adding either physics or other context to mathematical items generally seems to increase item difficulty. No significant difference was found between the average item difficulty in physics and contexts other than physics, suggesting that physics (kinematics remains a difficult context for most students despite the received instruction on kinematics in high school.

  5. Toward a culture-by-context perspective on negotiation: negotiating teams in the United States and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Brett, Jeanne; Gunia, Brian C; Imai, Lynn; Huang, Tsai-Jung; Hsu, Bi-Fen

    2013-05-01

    Within the United States, teams outperform solos in negotiation (Thompson, Peterson, & Brodt, 1996). The current research examined whether this team advantage generalizes to negotiators from a collectivist culture (Taiwan). Because different cultures have different social norms, and because the team context may amplify the norms that are salient in a particular culture (Gelfand & Realo, 1999), we predicted that the effect of teams on negotiation would differ across cultures. Specifically, we predicted that since harmony norms predominate in collectivist cultures like Taiwan, the team context would amplify a concern with harmony, leading Taiwanese teams to negotiate especially suboptimal outcomes. In support, 2 studies showed that Taiwanese teams negotiated less-optimal outcomes than Taiwanese solos. We also used a moderated-mediation analysis to investigate the mechanism (Hayes, 2012), documenting that the interactive effect of culture and context on outcomes was mediated by harmony norms. By showing that the same situational conditions (team negotiations) can have divergent effects on negotiation outcomes across cultures, our results point toward a nuanced, sociocontextual view that moves beyond the culture-as-main-effect approach to studying culture and negotiations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Context of culture: Critique of the primitive mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božilović Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper has the intention to reach the new meaning and sense of the primitive mentality by analyzing it in early social communities. He also wants to point out the possible reflections of the spirit and consciousness of our ancestors on us, here and now. The first part of the paper is dedicated to a critical deliberation on anthropological conflicts which have arisen concerning the reasoning power of the so-called primitives. The crucial question lies in the following: Is the difference between the “primitive” and the “civilized” mentality fundamental or is it possible only to a certain degree. The author takes the notion of primitive mentality through time and points to the medieval understandings, which are occupied by teratological themes, then to the renaissance comprehension, which relies on the first experiential observations, and, finally, to the enlightenment ideas of exotic peoples out of which the myth of “the good savage” is born. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries introduce the notions of “people’s character” and “national spirit”. The opinions are polarized, on the one hand of ethnocentrism, carried by the prejudice of people and ethnic groups and, on the other hand, of cultural relativism, based on the understanding and appreciation of cultural differences. In the end, the author also recognizes the modern primitive man, one who is not ready to deal with the challenges of his age. The modern primitive recalls the spirits of the past, the surviving and anachronic models of behavior, unaware of the fact that these are the same models that he has ascribed to “savages”. However, while such thinking and acting was justified by the cultural level at which our ancestors had lived, the mental frame of the contemporary primitives is significantly in contrast with the high level of civilization development.

  7. Culture and the distinctiveness motive: constructing identity in individualistic and collectivistic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Easterbrook, Matt; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Lemos, Flávia Cristina Silveira; Ferreira, M Cristina; Koller, Silvia H; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Cadena, Maria Paz; Lay, Siugmin; Wang, Qian; Bond, Michael Harris; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Valk, Aune; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Nizharadze, George; Fülöp, Marta; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Harb, Charles; Aldhafri, Said; Martin, Mariana; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Chybicka, Aneta; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Ozgen, Emre; Güner, Ulkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil

    2012-04-01

    The motive to attain a distinctive identity is sometimes thought to be stronger in, or even specific to, those socialized into individualistic cultures. Using data from 4,751 participants in 21 cultural groups (18 nations and 3 regions), we tested this prediction against our alternative view that culture would moderate the ways in which people achieve feelings of distinctiveness, rather than influence the strength of their motivation to do so. We measured the distinctiveness motive using an indirect technique to avoid cultural response biases. Analyses showed that the distinctiveness motive was not weaker-and, if anything, was stronger-in more collectivistic nations. However, individualism-collectivism was found to moderate the ways in which feelings of distinctiveness were constructed: Distinctiveness was associated more closely with difference and separateness in more individualistic cultures and was associated more closely with social position in more collectivistic cultures. Multilevel analysis confirmed that it is the prevailing beliefs and values in an individual's context, rather than the individual's own beliefs and values, that account for these differences. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo eChoi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy from others. In study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts.

  9. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Parrott, W Gerrod

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy) from others. In Study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans) showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts.

  10. Issues of Cultural Differences in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张隆胜

    2008-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that it is difficult for a learner to have a good command of English m the contextin China where learners are not immersed m the English language because of cultural differences which are explored under four categories. The four issues of cultural differences in language learning discussed are essential in the formation of schemata which are very important in communication and language learning.

  11. Effective Youth Ministry: Theology-driven in a Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Strong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently Youth Ministry finds itself mostly in a crisis as it is wrongly presented. In a nutshell the crisis can be described as falling short of leading young people to become mature Christian adults. Research shows that there are a variety of contributing factors to this crisis. This article focuses on two of these contributing factors. Firstly, Youth Ministry today is skill and socially driven, rather than theology or spiritually driven. The discussion commences by indicating the importance of establishing theology as the foundation of Youth Ministry. A Christ-centric theological framework as foundation for effective Youth Ministry is proposed. The article emphasises the meaning and essence of theology, with the Sola Scriptura approach being followed throughout. The second contributing factor discussed is the issue that cultural relevance is wrongly being made the heartbeat and foundation of Youth Ministry instead of theology. The article gives culture its rightful and relevant place in Youth Ministry, without it overshadowing the foundation of effective Youth Ministry, namely theology. Postmodernism and subculture also receive attention and in the conclusion the emphasis falls on a call to return to a Youth Ministry that is theology driven in a cultural context.Effektiewe Jeugbediening: Teologies-gedrewe in ’n Kulturele Konteks. Tans verkeer Jeugbediening grootliks in ’n krisis, aangesien dit verkeerd aangebied word. Kortliks behels hierdie krisis dat Jeugbediening daarin te kort skiet om jongmense tot volwasse Christenskap te lei. Navorsing toon verskeie faktore wat tot hierdie krisis bydra. Die artikel fokus op twee van hierdie bydraende faktore. Eerstens val die soeklig op die feit dat Jeugbediening tans metode- en sosiaal-gedrewe eerder as teologies- of spiritueel-gedrewe is. Die bespreking toon die belangrikheid daarvan om teologie en die behoefte daaraan as fondament in Jeugbediening te vestig. Die aanbeveling

  12. Beyond diffusion: sport and its remaking in cross-cultural contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Project MUSE - Journal of Sport History - Beyond Diffusion: Sport and Its Remaking in Cross-Cultural Contexts Project MUSE Journals Journal of Sport History Volume 37, Number 1, Spring 2010 Beyond Diffusion: Sport and Its Remaking in Cross-Cultural Contexts Journal of Sport History Volume 37, Number

  13. Ecologies of Learning: How Culture and Context Impact Outcomes of Workplace Literacy and Essential Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Juliet

    2012-01-01

    Learning always takes place in a particular context and culture, yet educators have tended to focus their attention mainly on the form of learning, its methodology, content and teaching approach. While these can and do affect learning and its results, this paper looks beyond the particulars of the program to explore how the context and culture of…

  14. Ecologies of Learning: Culture, Context and Outcomes of Workplace LES. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to connect workplace learning and essential skills to a larger domain of workplace learning in general. To do this, the contexts in which learning takes place, and the cultures of the actors and environments involved, should be taken into consideration. Although research on the direct effects of contexts and cultures on workplace…

  15. Newborns crying in different contexts: discrete or graded signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti Boero, D; Volpe, C; Marcello, A; Bianchi, C; Lenti, C

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether human infants' cries show individually and contextually discriminable acoustic parameters. 20 full-term normal human newborns (aged 1 to 4 days) had their cries recorded during routine blood withdrawal (pain context) 30 min. before a scheduled feeding (hunger context) and when subjected to kinetic stimuli during neurological examination (manipulation context). Type of cries, melodic contours, F0 parameters, but not the "macro" trend of the start of the fundamental frequency, indicated a difference in pain cries in the other two contexts. All the acoustic features considered showed an individual specificity. The peak frequencies of voiceless or partially voiced wails had the interesting property of being optimised as long distance signals. We hypothesised that this feature of infants' cries may have evolved in a time window when the infants were left in collective nurseries and not carried on the mothers' backs as maintained by the traditional view.

  16. Experience and Cultural Learning in Global Business Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Globalization with increased mobility of the workforce and more frequent use of information and communication technologies means still more people must develop a deeper understanding of Cultural Others, a higher degree of cultural self-awareness and an ability to bridge across multiple cultural...... to facilitate a learning process that transforms emotionally laden experiences into learning through conceptualization, active experimentation and reflective observation....

  17. Culture, context, and the internalizing distress of Mexican American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Antonio J; López, Steven R

    2009-03-01

    Latino youth appear to be at higher risk for depression relative to youth from other ethnic groups. This study assessed the relationship between nativity and several forms of internalizing distress among Mexican American middle school students as well as sociocultural factors that may help explain this relationship. Immigrant Mexican American youth (n = 78) reported significantly higher social anxiety and loneliness than U.S.-born Mexican American youth (n = 83). Acculturation stress and English proficiency were identified as significant mediators of these nativity differences. Although internalizing problems and depression symptoms did not vary across nativity groups, both were related to lower affiliative obedience. The findings point to cultural socialization values and contextual influences as important variables in the mental health of youth in immigrant families.

  18. Procedures for legitimate peripheral participation in two different contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rócio Belén Martín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper framed from situated learning theory tries to describe the process of legitimate peripheral participation taking place in two different learning contexts. Data for this study were collected through observation, first activities that were generated from a non-formal learning context, an association of diabetes; they emphasizing diabetes education camp that took place in 2013, and on the other side, data were collected from learning situations that developed in formal learning as a workshop production of news for 2015. The results found indicate that these contexts, with different characteristics and different in nature from social learning theory encourage the deployment of issues that are closely related concepts of identity processes and the trajectories of involvement of the participants.

  19. The difference in cultural curriculum: for a lesser (Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo César Bueno Nunes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current time is contingent, plural, decentralized, free of old identities and permeated by the noise of voices that have never been heard. Inserted in such context, the school tries to overcome traces of the past and face the struggles of the present. Regarding physical education, the cultural curriculum seems to contribute with the new era mentality by questioning the hegemony of body practices and meanings of the privileged groups to promote the pedagogy of difference. This study analyzed the most important works on this proposal, identifying teaching principles and procedures that characterize it and submitted them to the confrontation with the notion of pure difference by Gilles Deleuze. The results indicate that the cultural curriculum takes the features of a lesser (physical education when it listens what the „different ones‟ have to say and pays attention to the cultural body repertoire that students can access

  20. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshé Tatar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices are analysed as means for the reinforcement of present conditions or as ways for changing them. The concepts of empowerment of and advocacy for our clients are put forward as main components in the challenging new roles of the counseling profession. Implications for counselors are suggested.

  1. School Cultures as Contexts for Informal Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasaite-Harbison, Elena; Rex, Lesley A.

    2010-01-01

    This study profiles and compares international social contexts for teacher workplace informal learning from the teachers' perspectives. Set in elementary schools in the U.S. and Lithuania, the study illustrates how teachers make sense of and engage in professional learning within their historical, political and administrative contexts. A…

  2. Cultural Globalization in the Context of International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Cojocaru, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Beyond locating meanings of globalization, and their connection to those of culture and cultural environment of international affairs, in this paper we propose to analyze the significance of this connection as the main motivation for research. Initially, the primary theory of international economic relations has denied aspects of the influence of culture in profit in the international trade. Classical doctrine of international trade theory based on Ricardo explain on a purely commercial gain ...

  3. RELIGIOUS COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF CULTURE MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Petrushkevych, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the work is to determine the features of media culture that bind it with mass culture and mass communications and have the most significant effect on the general principles of the religious mass communication. In addition, the objective is to identify the skills system and traits of mass human that are necessary for using media culture. Methodology. The methodological basis is related to structuring, analytical analysis and synthesis of media features; highlighting phenome...

  4. Business Performance in the Context of Corporate Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haršányová, Petra; Vaňová, Jaromíra; Čambál, Miloš

    2016-06-01

    Corporate culture is defined as a set of ideas, attitudes, values and behaviour patterns, which are generally accepted and preferred in a company. Company performance is the company's ability to achieve the best results through an evaluation of its assumptions. The article is focused on identifying factors in corporate culture, which changes can increase working satisfaction of employees through targeted shaping of corporate culture, which is ultimately reflected in the performance of the company as a whole.

  5. Do Cultural Differences Matter In Development Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bebenova - Nikolova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of cultural differences on the implementation of Development Education (DE. Firstly, it presents dimensions of cultural differences and gives reasons on the selection of Hofstede’s five dimensions model to be used for comparison between national cultures. Then the article presents some findings on cultural differences based on surveyed school practitioners’ perceptions on the main issues of DE (economic, political, environmental and social. The evaluation survey, implemented in four EU countries (UK, PL, BG and Cyprus, is part of the project ‘The world from our doorstep’, funded by EuropeAid . It was based on a selfassessment questionnaire as well as on focus groups discussions, including multiple-choice activities. Using Hofstede’s model, the paper draws certain suppositions and then compares them with the survey results. Another applied approach is field observation on how DE was being implemented in the project countries. The conclusions derived from the comparison between Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the project findings indicate some ideas on defining the content of the DE to become more culturally open and thus more effective. Building teachers’ intercultural competence and awareness of interconnectedness is timely and necessity-driven, especially under the framework of DE goals.

  6. Rural Cultural Construction in the Context of a Harmonious Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen; ZHUANG

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening rural cultural construction is the objective requirement of building socialist new countryside,is the demand for promoting rural cultural and ethical progress,and is of great significance to promotion of rural economic and social development and building of a moderately prosperous countryside. Rural cultural construction is beset with many problems:( 1) unbalance in development of rural cultural construction;( 2) mistaken ideas in understanding;( 3) negative influence of traditional culture;( 4) negative effect of market economy;( 5)rural education is backward,and science and technology are free from rural production and life. In line with these problems,it comes up with following countermeasures:( 1) bringing government functions into full play;( 2) carrying forward excellent ethnic cultural tradition and learning all outstanding civilization achievements;( 3) enhancing elementary education and energetically developing science and technology;( 4)reinforcing rural democratic and legal construction,and guiding farmers to set up socialist democratic and legal awareness;( 5) stimulating cultural subject awareness of farmers and enhancing their enthusiasm for participation in cultural construction;( 6) cultivating personnel and bringing up a qualified rural cultural backbone team.

  7. High-Maintenance Parent or Cultural Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Examines the conflict which can arise when differing cultural practices of families and child care facilities clash. Presents a case study that exemplifies the potential conflict. Provides advice for child care practitioners on how to combine two differing perspectives and how to move from arguments and misunderstandings to common concerns. (SD)

  8. Culture and crying : Prevalences and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, D.A. van; Vijver, F.J.R. van de; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Results of a cross-cultural study of adult crying across 37 countries are presented. Analyses focused on country differences in recency of last crying episode and crying proneness and relationships with country characteristics. Three hypotheses on the nature of country differences in crying were eva

  9. 文化差异背景下马克思主义大众化的语言艺术研究%The Popularity of the Marxist Theory of Language Arts Exploration in the Context of Cultural Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建涛

    2012-01-01

      推进马克思主义大众化,提升马克思主义亲和力和感染力是当今亟需解决的时代课题。运用马克思主义大众化的语言艺术实现异质文化和不同思维方式之间的有效融合,实现理论特质与现实问题的有效结合,达到马克思主义意识形态性和“草根化”的有效契合,为更好地推进和实现马克思主义大众化提供了有效路径。着眼于最广大人民根本利益的实现,马克思主义大众化的语言艺术研究为实现马克思主义大众化的价值诉求和最终目标提供了突破口%  To promote the popularity of Marxism and to improve the affinity and appeal of Marxism is the topic of the times today. The Marxism popular language arts integration between heterogeneous cultures and different ways of thinking; to achieve the effective combina⁃tion of the Marxism theory and reality; to fit the ideology of Marxism and its grassroots, and provide a valid path to achieve the popularity of the Marxism. focus on the realization of the fundamental interests of the majority of the people, the language arts study of the Marxism popu⁃lar for the realization of the value of popular demands and the ultimate goal of Marxism provides a breakthrough.

  10. Children’s Self-Regulation in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Parental Socialization Theories, Goals, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jorge M.; Rendón, María I.; Muñoz, Lorena; Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulation is a complex multidimensional construct which has been approached mainly in Western cultural contexts. The present contribution examines the importance of considering the culture-sensitive nature of self-regulation by reviewing theory and research on the development of children’s self-regulation in different cultural contexts. This review of theory and research allows to suggest that widely shared values in a cultural group influence parental socialization theories, goals, and practices, which in turn have an impact on how children learn to self-regulate, the forms of self-regulation they develop, and the goals associated with self-regulation. Thus, this article concludes that more specific research is required to relate both the developmental and the cultural aspects of children’s self-regulation. PMID:28634460

  11. How Student Teachers Understand Distance Force Interactions in Different Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariotoglou, Petros; Spyrtou, Anna; Tselfes, Vassilis

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe empirical research on the recording of primary school and preschool student teacher conceptions of the concept of distant force interactions in different contexts related to the school curriculum for this subject. For this objective to be achieved, we undertook ten semi-structured interviews with student teachers. Based…

  12. Rap Music and Its Violent Progeny: America's Culture of Violence in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeanita W.; Scott, Kim A.

    2002-01-01

    Considers rap music as a creative expression and metaphorical offspring of America's well-established culture of violence, highlighting rap music in the context of a violent culture; violence in music; rap, cultural capital, and social reproduction; rap in the scholarly literature; political and judicial scrutiny of rap; and capitalism and rap.…

  13. The Internet in the Context of Cross-Cultural Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsoomair, Jon Franklin

    1997-01-01

    The Internet offers inexpensive contact with other cultures. This article describes the development of a cross-cultural management course for university seniors in business and economics and MBA students that made extensive use of the Internet to establish relationships with counterparts and mentors in other countries. Outlines course objectives,…

  14. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  15. Counternarrative and antenarrative inquiry in two cross-cultural contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, David M.; Svane, Marita Susanna; Gergerich, Erika

    2016-01-01

    stereotypical representations of race, class, and gender, and offer theory and methodology resources for a more meaningful understanding of homeless life and cultures. The second case explores narrative-counternarrative and antenarrative inquiry into a cross-cultural merger between two companies. Both cases...

  16. Aging, culture, and memory for socially meaningful item-context associations: an East-West cross-cultural comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Yang

    Full Text Available Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older. All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age.

  17. Aging, culture, and memory for socially meaningful item-context associations: an East-West cross-cultural comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Li, Juan; Spaniol, Julia; Hasher, Lynn; Wilkinson, Andrea J; Yu, Jing; Niu, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older) and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older). All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age.

  18. Cultural context in marketing communication on international market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Hirsch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to show in what way cultural factors can determine decisions in international marketing. Particular attention is devoted to the decisions associated with marketing communication, that is, the way in which cultural factors influence our preferences concerning the style of communication and what two basic styles are distinguished within intercultural communication. On the basis of particular examples it will be shown on the one hand in what ways these styles are visible in various forms of marketing messages coming from various countries. On the other hand it will also be shown in what way these messages reflect (very often unwittingly the culture and the system of values of an organization of the place were the messages originated. Before we start discussing the above-mentioned issues, the basic assumptions of the cultural marketing, as well as the term of culture, its models and dimensions will be presented.

  19. ETHNO-CULTURAL IDENTIFICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Семеновна Попова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the study of cultural peculiarities of ethnical identity on the example of the Sakha (Yakut people. The author also makes research on the processes of identification in present ethno-cultural and social conditions. Because the process of identification has local cultural peculiarities seen on mental level, it is necessary to count them in inter-personal and inter-cultural communication in the present socio-cultural space. Based on the duality and triple identity of a Sakha person who has three-part soul Kut, the author shows her own way of classification of identity types. The author suggests a new type of identity named as “creative identity” and introduces a notion of ethno-cultural identity. Having done the analyses of peculiarities of ethno-cultural identity the author results in claiming that all ethnicities have “human”-level identity and that for adequate communication it is necessary to “humanize” a person. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-30

  20. Musical Education in the cultural industry context: fundaments to the pedagogue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Andries Nogueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article was based on the reflexions which came from the research in development about the possibilities of musical education in the context of the cultural industry, considering mainly a point of view which valorizes its ability to promote emancipation, using as reference the Adorno ́s idea of cultural formation. This investigation is focused in the relation between the teacher and the musical education, which has been officially declared mandatory through a Brazilian law and which has allowed the development of many different pedagogical proposals; most of them based on products worldwide spread by the cultural industry. This study presents, firstly, a brief scenario of the usual context at Rio de Janeiro ́s public schools, where this investigation takes place. It is also presented the requests to answer the needs of that brazilian law, considering the number of music teachers and the role of the pedagogues. Aiming to observe the real conditions of this pedagogue ́s formation/participation, this study presents the spaces destined to music subjects inside the Pegagogy Graduation Courses in the main four public universities in the state of Rio de Janeiro. In conclusion, it points some elements which can promote the development of a musical education proposal emancipating.

  1. Writing on: Context and Visual Culture in Recent Works of Allen Fisher and Ulli Freer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Virtanen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a study of Allen Fisher’s 'Proposals' and 'SPUTTOR', and Ulli Freer’s 'Burner on the Buff'. It aims to demonstrate that these works, despite their individual differences, share certain common parallels: (1 an interest in literary and visual culture, and (2 an awareness of the bearing these aspects of culture have on questions of state and civil authority. In the case of 'Proposals', this is discussed via the context of work – particularly in relation to the marketization of Higher Education (HE – and Fisher’s poetics of ‘confidence in lack’. These analyses are extended further through an examination of the social history of the US Space Shuttle programme under the Reagan administration, and the visual practices of collage in 'SPUTTOR'. The broader claims of these arguments are subsequently paralleled with cultural and socio-legal perspectives pertaining to graffiti–especially in connection to Banksy’s recent work, 'Art Buff', which ultimately provides a crucial context for understanding key aspects of 'Burner on the Buff.'

  2. Exclusive Breastfeeding in the Contexts of Socio-Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Socio-Cultural Challenges and Mothers' Health in Rural and Mixed Urban Areas ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The methods of data collection were Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and in-depth (IDI) interviews.

  3. An Urban Colour Space in the Context of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zheleznyak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A colour space is seen as an actual discourse when discussing problems of formation and inhabitation of the modern city environment. The key aspect of such understanding is an activity-cultural interpretation of the urban environment colouristics proposed by the author, which allows building of an integral sphere of colour existence. This model of working with colour includes basic components and structures a colour space, while matching up all the elements (basic paradigms that provide proper functioning and development of the colour space; mechanisms of formation of colour paradigms; processes of formation and transformation of cultural norms and stereotypes; the culture of colour as a holistic unit that penetrates the variety of colour space forms, as well as the reality of colour establishment in the framework of human culture; the urban colouristics as a material and virtual, artificial and natural, organized and spontaneously appearing colour reality together with professional and conventional visions of it, etc..

  4. Cultural Differences and the Construction of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Peña

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between student achievement, student culture and practitioners' attitudes and expectations were investigated. Student achievement was defined as academic performance but also included perceptions, rationales and explanations for student behaviors and conduct. Student culture described student's Mexican American origins, customs and beliefs. Practitioners' attitudes described how middle school personnel perceived Mexican American high and underachieving students generally, and practitioners' expectations described how personnel interacted and behaved toward Mexican American students. Results indicated that Mexican American students perceived themselves and school personnel perceived these students as different from Anglo students. Mexican American cultural traditions were also perceived as inferior and disadvantageous by high achieving Mexican American students and by personnel. Underachieving Mexican American students generally valued their cultural traditions more positively than high achieving students becoming resistant to learning when these traditions were marginalized in school. Student achievement was also related to student compliance, student appearance, styles in written and verbal communication and practitioners' perceptions about the willingness of Mexican American students to practice and support Anglo norms. These findings are congruent with theories that discuss relationships between student achievement, student culture and practitioners' attitudes and expectations. Theories about school failure occurring less frequently in minority groups that are positively oriented toward their own and the dominant culture were contradicted and not supported in this research.

  5. Counternarrative and antenarrative inquiry in two cross-cultural contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, David M.; Svane, Marita Susanna; Gergerich, Erika

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory of antenarrative practices in relation to the interplay of dominant cultural narrative and counternarratives of resistance. Antenarrative is defined here as the field of forces before, between, beneath, bets, and becoming that occurs in the reduction of diverse living stories...... of Self to hegemonic narratives and counternarratives. We contribute two case studies of ways antenarrative processes accomplish the hegemony and resistance occurring between dominant narrative and counternarrative. In the first case dominant cultural narratives of homelessness are resisted...

  6. Culture of Peace and Musical Education in contexts of Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sánchez Fernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural diversity of the world needs to education for the peace, working the values related to the Culture of Peace, like the respect, the justice, the equality, the tolerance and the interculturality. The fundamental aim of our research is to know and to value how the educational centers turn into the most suitable scenes to develop the education. For it we have realized a study in a center of Infantile and Primary Education of the Autonomous City of Melilla, the College Velázquez, with which we try to know the reality that is lived in the school centers of the city in the relative to the promotion of the Interculturality and the Culture of Peace between the pupils of different groups. We have used a qualitative methodology, which has allowed us to form a group of discussion with several teachers of different professional profiles. As more relevant result stands out than the music, in spite of the hourly restrictions that the legislation has established for this matter, it is one of the best resources to educate in values and to promote the Interculturality and the Culture of Peace.

  7. Pragmatics Study of Politeness and Cultural Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐岩

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at study the politeness in the pragmatic framework and reviews the main studies of politeness by western and Chinese scholars.Meanwhile,the writer tries to reveal the cultural difference existing in politeness by comparative study of western and Chinese language.

  8. Cross Cultural Differences in Unconscious Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Sachiko; Dienes, Zoltan; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Ayumi; Crowe, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated cross cultural differences in conscious processes, such that Asians have a global preference and Westerners a more analytical one. We investigated whether these biases also apply to unconscious knowledge. In Experiment 1, Japanese and UK participants memorized strings of large (global) letters made out of small…

  9. Environmental influences on childhood obesity: ethnic and cultural influences in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2008-04-22

    Ethnicity is associated with differences in food-related beliefs, preferences, and behaviors, and cultural influences may contribute to the higher than average risk of obesity among children and youth in U.S. ethnic minority populations. However, cultural attitudes and beliefs are not the only potential source of ethnic variation in childhood obesity prevalence and should not be studied in isolation. Demographic, socio-structural, and environmental variables must also be considered. Available evidence indicates ethnic differences along several pathways that may increase risks of obesity development during gestation, infancy, childhood and adolescence. These include above-average prevalence of obesity in adult females and of maternal diabetes during pregnancy, parental attitudes and practices that may lead to overfeeding children, above-average levels of consumption of certain high calorie foods and beverages, and inadequate physical activity. Environments with lower than average neighborhood availability of healthful foods and higher than average availability of fast food restaurants, along with exposure to ethnically targeted food marketing may contribute to reliance on high calorie foods and beverages, and these foods may be socially and culturally valued. Attitudes about and environmental contexts for physical activity are also relevant. Increasingly, it is acknowledged that individual behaviors and lifestyles, e.g. food choices or child feeding practices, are responsive to the ecological contexts in which they are practiced. Focusing attention on the fluid interactions of cultural influences with contextual factors, of recognized importance for the study of childhood undernutrition, can also lead to further understanding of how to address ethnic disparities in childhood obesity.

  10. Exploring the Role of Cultural and Policy Context in Distributed Leadership Practices in the US and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Helle; Hornskov, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Exploring the Role of Cultural and Policy Context in Distributed Leadership Practices in the US and Denmark......Exploring the Role of Cultural and Policy Context in Distributed Leadership Practices in the US and Denmark...

  11. Organizational Identity and Culture in the Context of Managed Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Schultz, Majken; Skov, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article presents top and middle managers’ experiences and understandings of how organizational identity and culture were entangled with transformational change as it unfolded over a 5-year period in Carlsberg Group. Combining ethnography and grounded theory methods with engaged scholarship...... their organization’s identity led middle managers and employees both to support and resist new organizational identity claims made by top management. Within these identity activation processes we found frequent references relating new identity claims to organizational culture. Further analysis of the data revealed......, our work sits between research and practice, speaking directly to the experience of managers at the same time that it researches both the content and processes of organizational identity and culture. The study shows that engaging in processes of reflecting, questioning, and debating about...

  12. Predictive Value of Social Skills in Living Together at Primary School. Analysis in a Cultural Diversity Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Torres, Lucía; Bravo Antonio, Iván

    2012-01-01

    Coexistence at school stands out as one of the main goals in today's education (Carretero, 2008; Ortega, 2007). The aim of this study developed within a cultural diversity context is to identify the specific dimensions of social skills through which the different elements favouring or hindering coexistence at school can be predicted. A total of…

  13. Food-related lifestyles in a cross-cultural context: Comparing Australia with Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Li, Elton; Bruwer, Johan

    2001-01-01

    , to compare lifestyles across a number of different cultural contexts including Australia, Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark. The research represents the first stage in an on-going process of mapping movements in Australian consumer food-related lifestyles and linking these to global trends and changes....

  14. Culture of Chlorella ellipsoidea in different culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Mohshina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of algal culture was conducted in natural light and temperature conditions at a balcony of a room at the 2nd floor of Fisheries Faculty Building facing the north. The experiment was done to evaluate the growth of Chlorella ellipsoidea in four different media, viz, medium I (inorganic, medium II (organic, whole pulse powder extract, medium III (organic, whole lentil powder extract and medium IV (organic, whole gram powder extract under natural environment conditions during January-June, 2015. Growth rates of the algal species in four different media were found not significantly different. The alga, C. ellipsoidea attained maximum cell density of 28.89×106 cell ml-1 in the 15th day in medium I, of 30.69×106 cell ml-1 in the 13th day in medium II, of 26.18×106 cell ml-1 in the 15th day in medium III and of 21.12×106 cell ml-1 in the 13th day in medium IV. The ranges of air temperature, water temperature and light intensity were 21°C to 38°C, 23°C to 36°C and 2.28×103to 9.60×103 Lux respectively during the culture period. The average sunshine period was 5.87±2.82 hrs. Total alkalinity, free CO2, pH , NO3-N and PO4-P of algal culture media I, II, III and IV were 128, 540, 554 and 322 mgL-1; 32, 162, 102, 70 mgL-1; 7.4, 8, 7.9 and 7.9; 180, 36.6, 62.4 and 150 mgL-1, and 25.2, 48.2, 42.4 and 45.6 mgL-1, respectively. According to ANOVA of cell densities of cultures of C. ellipsoidea under treatments are not significantly different (F=1.441077. It is clear that differences between them are not significant i.e. mean algal cell densities are more or less same as differences between treatments are less than 20%.

  15. Understanding resistance to change in different national context : a comparative study between China and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yonglian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has objective of finding out how the phenomenon of resistance to change manifest differently in China and Norway. Research probes the national context of these two countries in terms of culture, political-economic framework and corporate governance mechanism. Taking the national paradigms as departure point, analysis focuses on their influence on ordinary people’s attitude and behavior towards change, to be specific, why employees choose to oppose change, how the...

  16. Transformation of conceptual basis of political science under cultural and historical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Tokovenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is submitted to a scientific discussion the possibility of considering the idea of political science, based on the criteria of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity. In this context, generally accepted among professionals and political scientists idea that political science as a scientific discipline occurs in the early twentieth century and its conceptual framework is still in a state of development, and a long preceding period should be characterized as a period of political thought is being challenged. The main idea that is being proved is recognition the existence of such scientific discipline as political science requires recognition of the existence of specific inherent ideals of science, cognitive standards, rules, procedures, explanations, etc. They allow political thinkers from the ancient world as well as modern researchers to combine it into a single, unique, different from others in their methodological principles and heuristic potential Science. It is convinced that the existence of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity in Political Science is possible due to the existence of the ideals of scholarship, which are closely related to the cultural and historical context in which Political Science is being developed. The possibility of applying such disciplinary and integrated approach is considered as an example of the impact that was made by changes of the Great French Revolution and its consequences on transformation of the conceptual framework of Political Science.  It is concluded that the consideration of the peculiarities of political thought development in the social and cultural contexts related to the events of the Great French Revolution and its consequences argues that political science is responsive to changing the social context, makes changes in categorical apparatus, introduces the new field of scientific inquiry, actualized subject field. These actions are due to the specific disciplinary unity

  17. Within-culture variations of uniqueness: towards an integrative approach based on social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy.

  18. Teaching Popular Culture in a Second Language University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson-Smith, Anne; Chik, Alice; Miller, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an established course on Popular Culture which is framed within the general educational model in an English-medium university. The article is organized into three parts: the underlining educational rationale for general educational courses, the course description, and the students' perspectives of their learning experience.…

  19. Role of Design in the Consumer Culture Development: Ecological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankina, Marina V.; Khrustalyova, Christina ?.; Egarmin, Anton ?.; Shekhova, Natalia V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem stems from ecological issues that are a reflection of the contemporary culture crisis covering the whole range of people's interactions with each other, with society and with nature. In many respects, an ecological crisis is an ideological crisis and global environmental problems are impossible to solve…

  20. Teaching Popular Culture in a Second Language University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson-Smith, Anne; Chik, Alice; Miller, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an established course on Popular Culture which is framed within the general educational model in an English-medium university. The article is organized into three parts: the underlining educational rationale for general educational courses, the course description, and the students' perspectives of their learning experience.…

  1. Resilience across Contexts: Family, Work, Culture, and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D., Ed.; Wang, Margaret C., Ed.

    Noting that much is known from research and practice regarding what works to promote resilience of children and families in a variety of high-risk life situations, this book considers the impact of culture, economy, employment, poverty, family structure, and social policy on parenting, child development, education, and the life success of youth.…

  2. [Quality management and safety culture in medicine: context and concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischet, Werner; Eitzinger, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The publication of the IOM report "To err is human: building a safer health system" in 1999 put spotlight on the primacy of the principle of primum non nocere and made patient safety a central topic of quality management. A key conclusion of the report was the need for a well-developed safety culture. While concepts of quality management have evolved along the lines of ISO and Total Quality Management over the last decades patient safety still has not got the same amount of attention (PubMed). Evidence from other safety-critical areas but also from the field of medicine itself suggests that an efficient culture of safety is a conditio sine qua non for the sustainable improvement of patient safety. Considering these arguments the present paper aims at emphasizing the importance of an efficient culture of safety for patient safety and quality management in healthcare. In addition, key instruments of safety culture as well as their limitations will be presented.

  3. Context, Modularity, and the Cultural Constitution of Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael

    A proper understanding of the role of culture in development can make a significant contribution to the development of theory and offer a more certain guide to practice than current theories afford. Three frameworks for interpreting the influence of nature and nurture on individual development assign biological and environmental factors a direct…

  4. 'Nursing research culture' in the context of clinical nursing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2017-01-01

    for efficiency, nurses' barriers to research use and the lack of definition of the concept of nursing research culture make it difficult to establish. DESIGN: Concept analysis. DATA SOURCES: Data were collected through a literature review in PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO during March 2016. METHODS: Walker...

  5. Cultural Differences in Donation Decision-Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Decisions to help those in need are essential for human development and survival. Previous studies have demonstrated the "identified effect", in which one identifiable individual typically invokes stronger feelings of compassion and receives greater aid than statistical victim. However, this preference might be influenced by cultural differences. In the current study, Chinese respondents' ratings of distress and sympathy and their willingness to contribute are greater for a group of sick children than an individual. In the U.S., greater willingness to help and sympathy are elicited by an identified victim in comparison with an unidentified one. The different results may demonstrate the importance of cultural differences when trying to understand people's prosocial behavior.

  6. Varieties of social experience: The religious cultural context of diverse spiritual exemplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Abo-Zena, Mona M; Weber, Jonathan D

    2017-03-01

    From cultural developmental and relational developmental systems perspectives, the current study employed an exemplar research design along with qualitative content analysis to gain deeper understanding of how adolescents perceived the social influences on their religious and spiritual development (RSD) among religiously and culturally diverse youth. The sample included interviews of 28 highly spiritual youth aged 12-21 years (M = 17.73 years) from six countries and eight different religious traditions. Analysis revealed that 96% of participants reported multiple relational influences on their RSD and that these persons impacted their religiousness and spirituality through various processes such as teaching and encouragement. Portions of the narrative are presented to reveal how the meaning and influence of these interactions are informed by cultural and religious tradition. The narratives testify to the multifaceted nature of spiritual development and how it is embedded within religious, social, and cultural contexts. Statement of contribution Already known Existing research suggests that adolescent relationships are critical in shaping the religious and spiritual attitudes and practices that youth demonstrate (for reviews, see King & Boyatzis, 2015, Social and Emotional Issues; Mahoney, 2010, Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 805; Roehlkepartain et al., 2006, The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence). Parents and peers are significant in shaping adolescents' involvement and beliefs in a religious system (i.e., Denton, 2012, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 5, 42; Desrosiers et al., 2011, Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3, 39; French et al., 2011, Journal of Youth Adolescence, 40, 1623). Other studies have noted the importance of faith communities, mentors, or religious educators (see Schwartz et al., 2006, The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence; Vaidyanathan, 2011, Journal for

  7. Socio-cultural contexts of domestic violence against women: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Razaghi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence against women is a problem that is closely correlated with the social and cultural contexts and many societies in different aspects encounter this problem. The aim of this study was to explore socio-cultural factors of violence against women. Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis. The semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 women as the victims of domestic violence. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. The collected data analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Results: Seven themes were explored of the women, which represented their experiences of social-cultural factors influencing on violence against women. The themes included: the failure of masculine authority, lack of social life skills, addiction, inappropriate marriage, fake friend, powerlessness, and irrational beliefs. Conclusion: Social and cultural factors are effective in the destruction of the family life through domestic violence. The community education, to develop the real position of the family and women situation in Islam, women empowerment, marriage problem solving methods, and family management skills needed to prevent and to control the violence against women.

  8. Context and Culture in Language Teaching and Learning. Languages for Intercultural Communication and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Michael, Ed.; Grundy, Peter, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how the contexts in which language teaching occurs impact the aims and methods of language teaching. Ten papers focus on the following: "Introduction: Context and Culture in Language Teaching and Learning" (Mike Byram and Peter Grundy); "From Practice to Theory and Back Again" (Claire…

  9. Teacher Education for TESOL in Malaysia: The Pursuance of Conformity in the Context of Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallia, Mildred; Thiyagarajah, Rosy

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the development of preservice education for Malaysian Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) within the sociopolitical and sociocultural context, highlighting the pursuance of conformity within the context of cultural diversity and showing how institutional forms and processes frame the teaching profession's response to…

  10. From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

    2014-10-21

    Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators.

  11. Asynchrony of political culture in the context of modernization of the contemporary Russian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konovalov Valery Nikolaevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Russia is a country in which political culture takes in different stages of development. In the social and cultural life are combined two basic forms - the traditional type of political culture and modern political culture. There is asynchrony in the political culture, which creates a serious problem of managing Russian society.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL VARIABLES ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. AN ANALYSIS IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai TALMACIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic and social cohesion policy is the most important of EU policies to mitigate inequalities in economic development between member states, which tend to increase in the context of globalization. For this reason it becomes increasingly important to identify the causes of underdevelopment of lagging countries or regions, by analyzing the influence of economic, socio demographic, cultural, institutional and political variables on growth and development. Economic development is an evolutionary process in which people / society is the purpose and means, causes and effects thereof. The sustainable development must be an anthropocentric one, because the human factor has the decisive role in ensuring its success. In nowadays the economic progress of lagging countries or regions dramatically depends on their ability to harness the potential of creativity, skills and abilities of the human factor, by promoting those cultural values that can contribute to the higher growth. The development can be boosted when the population is driven by a strong work ethic, fierce desire to learn from the experiences of other countries, the attachment to the principles of quality and professional excellence, etc., and all this are closely related to the cultural matrix of the country. This article aims to identify the cultural aspects with a major impact on national or regional economic development and to provide an analysis of the implications of cultural differences between EU countries on disparities in development. In order to achieve these objectives will be used data on the situation of development indices (HDI, Legatum Prosperity Index, etc. and regarding the situation of some cultural variables in European countries, offered by the World Values Survey.

  13. Family expressed emotion in a Javanese cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subandi, M A

    2011-09-01

    This study aims at understanding the emotional milieu of families of psychotic patients, focusing on the concept of expressed emotion (EE). A combination of ethnographic and clinical methodology was employed. During the fieldwork in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, nine participants diagnosed as having first episode psychosis and their families were followed closely over the course of 1 year in their natural home setting. Through ongoing engagement with families, the researcher was able to gather data on the diversity of family responses to illness. Despite the fact that most families in this research could be considered to have low EE, ethnographic observation provided a more complex and nuanced picture of family relationships. This article discusses four issues concerning EE in relation to Javanese culture: the role of interpretation, the coexistence of criticism and warmth, the interpretation of boundary transgression, and the cultural concept of warmth and positive remark.

  14. Talking Culture: Intercultural Competence in a Corporate Context

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2010-01-01

    Taking its starting point in two, currently predominant views on intercultural business communication and intercultural competence (e.g. Askehave & Norlyk 2006; Blasco 2004; Franklin 2007; Gudykunst & Kim 2002; Hofstede 2001; Holiday et al. 2004; Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner 1997), this paper provides insight into the way practitioners in an international software company construct their experiences with culture and intercultural encounters in the workplace. On the basis of the di...

  15. Crow Education Partnership: Science in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S. B.; NASA Astrobiology Institute Icy Worlds Science Team; Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (Wissard) Science Team

    2011-12-01

    Join us to learn more about a developing science education partnership on the Crow Indian Reservation, in South Central Montana. Through this partnership we are designing culturally-relevant STEM science enrichment activites that focus on extreme environments for the Upper Elementary grades in the Hardin School District. The district encompasses three intermediate schools in a rural setting, with a largely Native American student body. Intermediate School teachers from Hardin, scientists and graduate students at Montana State University, and Crow tribal members are working together to develop inquiry-based science activities for students and teachers. Through the use of hands-on interactions, online technologies and field experiences, we are providing monthly science interaction for the classroom, and modeling inquiry-based activities for the teachers and community members. In addition to developing activities, we are working with Crow tribal members and teachers to tie science activities to the national standards and school district curriculum, while at the same time connecting science activities to Crow history and culture. Our blended education model which utilizes face to face interactions and video-conferencing, engages MSU graduate students in the teaching process. Graduate students are developing science communication skills and learning the importance of cross-cultural communication, while the teachers and intermediate students are gaining science content knowledge and direct interactions with authentic science experiences. We are developing a true partnership and community of learning through our efforts.

  16. Differences in gene expression profiles between human preimplantation embryos cultured in two different IVF culture media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijkers, S.H.M.; Eijssen, L.M.T.; Coonen, E.; Derhaag, J.G.; Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M.J.; Mastenbroek, S.; Repping, S.; Evers, J.L.H.; Dumoulin, J.C.M.; van Montfoort, A.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is gene expression in human preimplantation embryos affected by the medium used for embryo culture in vitro during an IVF treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: Six days of in vitro culture of human preimplantation embryos resulted in medium-dependent differences in expression level of genes inv

  17. Complexity of culture: the role of identity and context in bicultural individuals' body ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mei; Lee, Fiona; Cole, Elizabeth R

    2012-07-01

    Culture plays an important role in shaping body image, and people from different cultures have different beliefs about what constitutes the "ideal" body type. This study examines the relationship between culture and body ideals in Asian-American and Black-American women. Results from two studies show that subjective cultural identity and situational cultural cues had different relationships with body ideals. Among Asian-American women, identification with Asian culture was related to a thinner body ideal, but exposure to Asian cultural cues (relative to American cultural cues) was related to a thicker body ideal. Among Black-American women, identification with Black culture was related to a thicker body ideal, but exposure to Black cultural cues (relative to American cultural cues) was related to a thinner body ideal. These results have theoretical and practical implications for understanding how internal and external manifestations of culture can differentially influence body image.

  18. When in Rome: the role of culture & context in adherence to robot recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Rau, P.-L.P.; Evers, V.; Robinson, B.K.; Hinds, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we sought to clarify the effects of users' cultural background and cultural context on human-robot team collaboration by investigating attitudes toward and the extent to which people changed their decisions based on the recommendations of a robot collaborator. We report the results of

  19. International Business Mentoring for Development: The Importance of Local Context and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Gisela; Scheyvens, Regina

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the value of donor-funded, cross-cultural business mentoring in a development context. Following a review of the existing literature on cross-cultural mentoring, it examines the effectiveness of the Pacific Business Mentoring Programme in Samoa through interviews with 23 entrepreneurs and a survey of the New Zealand…

  20. When in Rome: the role of culture & context in adherence to robot recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Rau, P.-L.P.; Evers, V.; Robinson, B.K.; Hinds, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we sought to clarify the effects of users' cultural background and cultural context on human-robot team collaboration by investigating attitudes toward and the extent to which people changed their decisions based on the recommendations of a robot collaborator. We report the results of

  1. 羞耻性自传体记忆: 基于自我文化差异的对比研究%Autobiographical Memories of Shame: A Comparative Study in the Context of Cultural Differences of Self

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智丰; 高隽; 钱铭怡; 王爱民; 张黎黎; 汪智艳

    2009-01-01

    The main objective was to compare the emotion of shame under Chinese culture and American culture,based on the self theory of Markus and Kitayama. There were 69 Chinese collage students and 65 American collage students involved inthis study. Each subject was asked to recall one shameful event he or she experienced. Then based on the theoretical hypothesis and characters of these shameful autobiographical memories, a coding scheme was developed. All autobiographicalmemories were coded according to the scheme. The main results are as follows: 1) the shameful autobiographical memories of Chinese subjects were more specific than those of the American subjects';2) compared withthose of the American subjects, Chinese subjects' autobiographical memories contained more interpersonal contents;and 3) compared with the American subjects,Chinese subjects reported more shameful autobiographical memories happened in the period of childhood and adolescence, in the places of school and with teachers' comments on the events.%基于Markus和Kitayama的自我文化理论,考察羞耻情绪在中美两国文化下的差异.69名中国大学生和65名美国大学生作为被试,每个被试被要求回忆一个自己亲身经历的羞耻性事件.之后根据羞耻自传体记忆的特点及理论假设,制定了编码规则.根据编码规则,对每个记忆进行编码统计.研究结果显示: 1) 中国被试羞耻性自传体记忆的具体程度高于美国被试;2) 中国被试的羞耻记忆出现更多人际关系的内容;3) 中国被试更多报告羞耻事件发生在童年和青春期,更多涉及学校和老师的评价.

  2. Bodyguard manipulation in a multipredator context: different processes, same effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maure, Fanny; Brodeur, Jacques; Droit, Anaïs; Doyon, Josée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Parasites have evolved various strategies to exploit hosts to their own advantage. Bodyguard manipulations consist of usurping the behaviour of the host to confer some protection to the parasite and/or its offspring. Dinocampus coccinellae Schrank is a solitary endoparasitoid of the spotted lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake. The parasitoid larva grows inside the host until mature, then egresses and spins a cocoon between the ladybird's legs. Unlike most parasitoids, D. coccinellae does not kill its host during development, but keeps the coccinellid partially paralysed on top of the cocoon, where it acts as a bodyguard against natural enemies. As recently shown, the presence of a living ladybird on the parasitoid cocoon provides efficient protection against a predator, lacewing larvae. In the present study, we used predators with different foraging behaviours--jumping spiders and crickets--to explore the relevance of the bodyguard strategy for D. coccinellae in a multipredator context. Although the manner of the protection differs among the different tested predators, the presence of the ladybird always enhances parasitoid survival, even when it first increases detection of the cocoon-ladybird complex, as is the case with jumping spiders. Furthermore, although a dead bodyguard is sufficient to passively defend parasitoid cocoons against crickets, it provides only partial protection against jumping spiders. Altogether, these results support the bodyguard hypothesis in a multipredator context, since the presence of a living coccinellid significantly reduces cocoon predation by predators having different prey specificities, morphologies, and hunting behaviours.

  3. Teacher collaboration and curriculum construction: Political, cultural, and structural contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterle, Rochelle Eda Penn

    This longitudinal case study is the story of one high school's efforts to implement curriculum reform and the profound effect of local circumstances on reform ideologies. What began as a study of inter- and intradisciplinary collaborative science curriculum integration became the study of a systemic failure to modify cultural practices. Poritical, economic, and structural measures initiated to facilitate reform ultimately represent inherent conflicts of interest which undermine the reform effort. This research exposes obstacles that are deeply embedded within the school's governance, the beliefs and knowledge of teachers, and the culture of schools. The study site is both a new entity and a new concept: a specialized math/science high school located on a state university campus; the school recruits underrepresented students to become acclimated to university coursework and culture. To date, the school has maintained an exceptional record of college and university placements. The school is governed by a partnership representing the university, the corporate sector, and 11 surrounding K-12 school districts. Free from the regularities of a traditional high school, the school appears to be ideally situated for innovation. The principle innovations at this school relate to its organizational structure--heterogeneous student groupings, cooperative group work, curriculum integration, block scheduling, and concurrent university coursework. For teachers, grade level teams replace departments as the dominant unit for professional, curricular, and social interactions. Within teacher teams, collaboration centers around ongoing student problems and policies, subordinating academic content and significant interdisciplinary connections. Without active discipline-based departments and curricular leadership, however, this research finds an absence of academic direction and accountability.

  4. Domestic Violence: Intersection of Culture, Gender and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsing, Jenny C

    2016-04-01

    This study examines South Asian women's experience of domestic violence in Hong Kong. Despite the proliferation of literature on domestic violence, this issue remain unexplored in the discourse of domestic violence in Hong Kong. A qualitative research approach through face to face interview with 14 women was employed. Participants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Findings from this study highlight the importance of considering the social and cultural influence on how women perceived and construct their experiences of abuse.Implications for practice and policies are highlighted.

  5. Culture Differences and the Translation of English and Chinese Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明武

    2014-01-01

    Culture is a national phenomenon. English nation has its unique culture and so does Chinese nation. Idiom is an important part of language and culture. Idiom and culture are not separable. Special attention should be paid to the differences between English and Chinese cultures when translating idioms, and the translation can be perceived as a process of consideration of both English and Chinese cultures.

  6. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; John D E Gabrieli

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion ...

  7. Beginning elementary school teachers' perceptions of structural and cultural context factors impacting their science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Hillary A.

    Science maintains low status in many elementary classrooms. Beginning teachers find it difficult to teach science effectively. The Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform Model suggests there are personal, structural, and cultural factors that impact teaching practices. The questions that drove this study were: (a) How do beginning teachers perceive structural and cultural factors of the TCSR model as affecting their science teaching practices? (b) How do those perceptions compare between beginning teachers who teach science and those who do not? (c) How do beginning teachers' perceptions compare to those of principals and veteran teachers? The model was used to collect and analyze data on the perceptions of factors that influenced beginning teachers' science teaching practices. A case study involved six beginning teachers from three elementary schools in the southwestern United States during the 2005--2006 school year. Through an initial survey, two groups of beginning teachers were first identified as (a) those who taught and liked science, and (b) those who did not teach or like science. Three teachers from each group were selected to participate in the study that consisted of semi-structured interviews, observations, and review of artifacts. These data were compared with interview data from three veteran teachers and three principals. The findings of this study supported the TCSR model and confirmed that the beginning teachers did perceive certain structural context factors (e.g., curriculum, materials, time, professional development, district requirements, classroom management), and cultural context factors (e.g., district-wide low priority of science) as having an impact on their science teaching. The veteran teachers' perceptions more closely matched those of the beginning teachers' than did those of the principals. Despite the contextual influences, the beginning teachers' perceptions ultimately differed in teacher thinking (i.e., those who taught science had

  8. Addressing Cultural Contexts in the Management of Stress via Narrative and Mobile Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew D; Kang, Xiao; Hanrahan, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In developing applications for stress management and mental health, developers have largely ignored cultural context in design, opting instead to produce apps for a general audience. However, apps designed without a specific population in mind actually have limited reach. Generally stress trackers and socalled "therapists in your pocket", tend to be lost among a jungle of other generic apps that appeal only to the quantified self population and those already predisposed to help-seeking behavior. To reach a broader audience, designing for a specific population may have appeal. The AppHappy Project's Journey to the West is a mobile app being developed by a multidisciplinary group of students at the University of Pennsylvania. The objective is to promote better stress management and mental health among Asian international college students and facilitate their social integration with the general student population. With a prevalence of depression twice that of domestic college students, a reluctance to engage in help-seeking behavior due to stigma, and the challenge of cultural integration, creating interventions for this population requires a different approach to app-mediated therapy. Journey to the West packages bite-sized pieces of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy techniques within the framework of a role-playing game. Every element of its design-from its characters to its art style, from its narrative to its mechanics to its approach to community features-is rooted in a culturally appropriate context. An avatar serves as a surrogate of self while experiencing externalized stressors. Each quest blends therapeutic elements into gameplay with the goal of building resilience towards stressful events.

  9. A Brief Analysis on Cross-cultural Communication Strategy of Chinese Films under the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Zhiyong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of globalization waves, the cross-cultural communication becomes more and more common nowadays. Chinese films, as a kind of mass media and the carrier of ideology, must meet the challenge in the world with active attitudes and take part in cross-cultural communication worldwide extensively. The context of globalization is not only a challenge but also an opportunity for Chinese films and if Chinese films want to be successful in the process of cross-cultural communication, it must find out a conjoint point between globalization and location to implement dual-coding of them. With the objective of consensus but different for the cultural demands of cross-cultural communication, the communicational strategies in culture,subject,art and operation must extensively use for reference and boldly create to renew the situation of Chinese films.

  10. Ecocultural effects on self-concept. A study with young indigenous people from different sociodemographic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Borke, Jörn; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar

    2015-08-01

    This study explores self-concept among indigenous young people from different ecocultural niches in Chiapas (Mexico) through a particular self-concept task. Previous theory and research has described 3 cultural models linked with specific sociodemographic settings that foster particular psychologies. Our aim was to compare the results of the self-concept test among indigenous groups from different sociodemographic settings in order to observed possible differences. We predicted that individuals from rural communities with little formal education (hypothesised to be Interdependent) would have self-concepts with more social and less personal components than would those with an urban, highly educated (hypothesised to be Independent), and we expected a third group of highly educated young people living in an urban context but with a rural background (hypothesised to be autonomous-related group) to value social and personal components equally. The results supported this hypothesis. Based on ecocultural theory, it is suggested that sociodemographic contexts affect the self-concept.

  11. Becoming a Doctor in Different Cultures: Toward a Cross-Cultural Approach to Supporting Professional Identity Formation in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Kalet, Adina; Al-Eraky, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Becoming a doctor is fundamentally about developing a new, professional identity as a physician, which in and of itself may evoke many emotions. Additionally, medical trainees are increasingly moving from one cultural context to another and are challenged with navigating the resulting shifts in their professional identify. In this Article, the authors aim to address medical professional identity formation from a polyvocal, multidisciplinary, cross-cultural perspective. They delineate the cultural approaches to medical professionalism, reflect on professional identity formation in different cultures and on different theories of identity development, and advocate for a context-specific approach to professional identity formation. In doing so, the authors aim to broaden the developing professional identity formation discourse to include non-Western approaches and notions.

  12. On the Cultural Conflicts in The Wedding Banquet Based on Hall's High-Low Context Culture Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀红; 王慧烨

    2016-01-01

    The Wedding Banquet is a movie about a gay Taiwanese immigrant man who marries a mainland Chinese woman to pla?cate his parents and get her a green card. His plan backfires and things get out of hand when his parents arrive in the United States to plan his wedding banquet. Based on Hall's theory of high-context and low-context culture, this paper analyzes the cul?tural conflicts in the movie from six perspectives, and offers suggestions to the harmonious development of China and America. It is hoped that the paper can help readers get an in-depth comprehension of Hall's theory of high-context and low-context cul?ture and discover some invisible conflicts between China and the West and finally raise people 's consciousness of cultural con?flicts and ways of handling the conflicts. With the advancement of globalization, intercultural communicative competence is be?coming more and more important, and social communication between China and the West will become more relaxed and fruit?ful if people acquire more knowledge in intercultural communication.

  13. Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Education in the Context of the Post-Non-Classical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ignatova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the interrelations between society, education and culture. Using the comparative analysis of classical approaches to defining the above spheres, the author comes to conclusion that the nature of socio-cultural processes can be explored and described most consistently by applying comprehensive models of the post-non-classical science and considering civilization, education and culture in the context of the unified dynamic flow of socio-cultural genesis. The research investigates the dialectics of socio-cultural processes in the light of systematic synergetic approach, the advancing role of education in socio-cultural dynamics being revealed and substantiated. The author emphasizes its inevitably rising priority due to sustained development of civilization bringing about the new environmentally-oriented meta-culture.The obtained results can be used in pedagogic research methodology, designing and modeling the educational process, its content, technology and organization. 

  14. Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Education in the Context of the Post-Non-Classical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ignatova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the interrelations between society, education and culture. Using the comparative analysis of classical approaches to defining the above spheres, the author comes to conclusion that the nature of socio-cultural processes can be explored and described most consistently by applying comprehensive models of the post-non-classical science and considering civilization, education and culture in the context of the unified dynamic flow of socio-cultural genesis. The research investigates the dialectics of socio-cultural processes in the light of systematic synergetic approach, the advancing role of education in socio-cultural dynamics being revealed and substantiated. The author emphasizes its inevitably rising priority due to sustained development of civilization bringing about the new environmentally-oriented meta-culture.The obtained results can be used in pedagogic research methodology, designing and modeling the educational process, its content, technology and organization. 

  15. AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE BOYS: EARLY CHILDHOOD RISK AND RESILIENCE AMIDST CONTEXT AND CULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle; Tafoya, Greg; Croy, Calvin D; Hill, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescent and adult men experience a range of health disparities relative to their non-AIAN counterparts and AIAN women. Given the relatively limited literature on early development in tribal contexts, however, indicators of risk during early childhood specific to AIAN boys are not well-known. The current article reviews sources of strength and challenge within AIAN communities for AIAN children in general, including cultural beliefs and practices that support development, and contextual challenges related to socioeconomic and health disparities and historical trauma affecting the AIAN population as a whole. The research literature on early development is reviewed, highlighting what this literature reveals about early gender differences. The article concludes with calls to action on behalf of AIAN boys that align with each of the five tiers of R. Frieden's (2010) Public Health Pyramid. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Socio-cultural context, child development and beginning reading in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Thorne

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the fact that many children in Peru are not able to read fluently when they finish elementary school. To analyze this shortcoming it presents an overview of the Peruvian context, the education system, the multilingual and the socio-cultural background and identifies the difficult conditions in which Peruvian children grow and its consequences in child development and beginning reading. The paper discusses different aspectsof developmental psychology and puts the accent on Bronfenbrenner's theory and the developmental approach to education. It offers, also, a review of several studies on reading in Peru. Finally it emphasizes the advantages of incorporating the ecological theory and the developmental approach to education

  17. Cultural differences and shame in an expressive writing alcohol intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Young, Chelsie M; Neighbors, Clayton; Tou, Reese; Lu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the relationships between shame, culture, and drinking behavior in predicting drinking intentions in the context of an expressive writing intervention. Theory and empirical findings have generally found that shame is maladaptive and can lead to anxiety, depression, and problematic alcohol use. However, research on cultural differences suggests that shame may be differentially damaging to individuals of collectivist, Asian cultures. Previous research evaluating expressive writing as a brief alcohol intervention has shown promising results such as reduced drinking intentions and increased readiness to change drinking behavior. The present study tested the hypothesis that feelings of shame after writing about a negative heavy drinking event would be associated with greater alcohol use generally and that this effect would differ for Caucasian compared to Asian individuals. We also explored whether this differed for light and heavy drinkers. Two hundred sixty-four undergraduates (74% female) who drank at least one alcoholic beverage in the past month completed measures of demographics, baseline drinking, event-related shame and guilt, pre- and postwriting affect, and drinking intentions. Results revealed that, independent of affect, social desirability, and event-related guilt, shame was generally negatively associated with drinking intentions for Caucasians and light drinking Asians. However, for heavy drinking Asians, shame was associated with increased drinking intentions. Results suggest that interventions that elicit shame are differentially effective and should be targeted accordingly.

  18. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:28184202

  19. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Differences in Privacy Between Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶爽

    2015-01-01

    Privacy means different in both cultures.In modern information society,it deverses more attention from us.Privacy in oriental culture is quite distinctive from that in western culture. And the reasons are also not the same.

  1. Differences in Privacy Between Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶爽

    2015-01-01

    Privacy means different in both cultures.In modern information society,it deverses more attention from us.Privacy in oriental culture is quite distinctive from that in western culture.And the reasons are also not the same.

  2. The cultural context of diagnosis: the case of Vincent van Gogh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Borg, Marlies; Trenité, Dorothée Kasteleijn-Nolst

    2012-11-01

    Hardly anyone has been posthumously diagnosed as much as Vincent van Gogh. This article does not attempt to add yet another illness to the long list, nor indeed to make any definite statement about the 'right diagnosis'. Rather, it attempts to place the diagnoses actually made during his lifetime into their historical and cultural context. It examines how these diagnoses were imbedded in the medical paradigms popular at the time, and how these paradigms in their turn relate to the general cultural context of the era. It also shows how the 'patient' reacted to the diagnoses presented to him and to the underlying medical paradigms. Those who give diagnoses and those who receive them are involved in the same cultural context, taking for granted the medical fashions of their times, including the biases incorporated in them.

  3. Socio-Cultural Context of Drug Use with Reflections to Cannabis Use in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niksa Dubreta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural context of drug use is reflected as the constitutive part of interpretation of its effects and corresponding meanings, both at macro and micro-societal level of sociological analysis. In the first part of the article some more influential social-theoretical approaches to drug use are considered. Most of them consider drug use in terms of sociology of subculture and deviance. In second part, Croatian socio-cultural context is analysed, with reflections on questioning key terms that are addressed in the first part of the article. The concluding part indicates the ability for critical reflection of part of theories with regard to specificities of Croatian socio-cultural context. Furthermore, it is indicated that is necessary to overcome existing focus on the war, transition and after-war period as still dominant interpretative model in actual Croatian social research on drug use.

  4. Cultural differences in Research project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Scientific Projects today have increased in complexity, requiring multidisciplinarity, and requiring a mix of diverse individuals from different countries who must be integrated into an effective project. Effective team building is one of the prime responsibilities of the project manager. When the project is supported by a funding, the integration and the implication of the different partners are quite easy. Particularly when partners are developing high-performing teams. However, management of research project requires further skills when the budget is not very high and/or when partners are from non-European countries and are not using the same vocabulary. The various cultures, values, beliefs and social usages, particularly with Mediterranean countries cause a special style of communication for an individual or group of individuals. This communication style participates in the success of the project and encompasses a lot of diplomatic skills which will be highlighted.

  5. Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Isaac C; David Hawkins, J; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2011-05-01

    This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings.

  6. [Aggression and violence in children in different contexts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzke, K; Sanders, M; Diepold, B; Krannich, S; Cierpka, M

    1997-03-01

    Starting with the hypothesis that children's aggressive and potentially violent behavior is the climax of escalating conflicts that cannot be expressed or showed in any other way, we analyse, in the following article, the conditions from which these behavior pattern arise. We have focused on the following areas; the individual, the family, the school and society, and we have tried to show how the development of children's aggressive behavior is determined by the problem constellations in these different contexts. Insecure and disorganised early bonding experiences and/or dysfunctional family relationship patterns combined with parental upbringing methods that support or condone aggressive behavior, can lead to children having fewer resources or social skills available than their peers in kindergarten and school. This may result in conflict and lack of social integration in these institutions.

  7. Study of the Relationship between Cultural differences and Language teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆瑜

    2014-01-01

    Language is an important part of culture,each language belong to a certain culture.Language and culture are interdependent from each other.So,language teaching must be concerned with teaching the culture which it belongs to.Language teaching should pay more attention to the cultural differences.

  8. Information and Culture: Cultural Differences in the Perception and Recall of Information from Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…

  9. Information and Culture: Cultural Differences in the Perception and Recall of Information from Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…

  10. The effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress in Korean and American cultural contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsoo eChoi; Yulia eChentsova-Dutton; Gerrod W. Parrott

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found th...

  11. Creative display of museum objects within their cultural context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Osanlou, Ardieshir; Excell, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Most existing holographic display methods concentrate on real object reconstruction, but there is a lack of research on object stories (revealing and presenting histories). To address this challenge, we propose a method, called 4 `ER' (leader, manager, implementer, presenter) to experience and respond objects in a special immersive environment. The key innovation of the 4'ER' method is to introduce the stories (political, historical, etc.) into hard copy holography, so as to synergy art and science for museum objects display. The hologram of an imitation of a blue and white porcelain jar from The Palace Museum, Beijing, China has been made, showing good performance and reflecting different pathway to knowledge.

  12. Communities in context: undefinitions, multiplicity and cultural difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pallí

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Después de mostrar la pluralidad de nociones de comunidad que habitan la disciplina, se argumenta que la teorización sobre el concepto necesita reconocer e incluir la complejidad encontrada por lo/as psicólogo/as en sus prácticas comunitarias. Partiendo de una lógica representacional, y apoyándose en algunas condiciones empíricas, este artículo explora: a la diversidad contextual de los significados del concepto de comunidad; b el carácter diverso, a veces fracturado, de las comunidades, con límites variables y borrosos y con identidades cambiantes y controvertidas. C el carácter relacional de las comunidades; construido a través de contextos históricos y prácticas locales, incluyendo las propias perspectivas de lo/as psicólogo/as comunitario/as. Se argumenta también que las relaciones dialógicas entre miembros y no miembros, y el capturar el significado de las situaciones cotidianas, son buenos modos de dar sentido de identidades y conceptos de comunidad, que pueden ser usados estratégicamente por la comunidad, a fin de producir cambios sociales

  13. Factors Influencing Social Media Marketing In Different Culture Context.

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Juwayria

    2014-01-01

    Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social media marketing. A questionnaire was completed by students from Norway and ...

  14. Factors Influencing Social Media Marketing In Different Culture Context.

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Juwayria

    2014-01-01

    Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social media marketing. A questionnaire was completed by students from Norway and ...

  15. Different Symbolic Meaning of Color in Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟维维; 裘瑜; 陈佳颖

    2013-01-01

    Colors are embodied with different meanings and symbols in different countries. Not only should we understand their basic and literal meanings, but also we should focus on their deep contents in symbolic meanings, because their symbolic meanings vary from culture to culture. The differences in the symbol of colors are due to different cultures and history back-grounds as well as aesthetic psychology. This paper, mainly based on the Chinese and western culture, approaches the symbols of colors represented in the two different cultures through analyzing the different understanding of colors, which can help us under-stand culture difference in colors better during intercultural com-munication.

  16. Munificence of Parent Corporate Contexts and Expatriate Cross-Cultural Training in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    to business expatriates in China. Surprisingly, the results showed no association between corporate size, international stake, and international experience on the one hand and the extent to which the expatriates had received cross-cultural training on the other hand. Although an ad hoc analysis found......The practice of providing expatriates with cross-cultural training varies widely among business corporations. To examine the proposition that some characteristics of the parent corporation context could be munificent to the practice of providing cross-cultural training, a mail survey was addressed...... a positive relationship between international experience and the provision of sequential cross-cultural training, there was no association between any of the variables depicting corporate context and predeparture or postarrival training. The findings and their implications are discussed in detail....

  17. Brief Probein to Differences Between Chinese and Western Food Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青岛大学音乐学院,山东 青岛 266000

    2016-01-01

    Because of the differences in environment and products, different cultures may be formed in east and west, the social characteristics of material and spiritual life integrated embodiment through Chinese and west food cultures. The author focuses on analysis and comparison in cross-cultural differences of diet idea, diet object and way of eating in China and western countries, the deep-seated causation which induces the differences in food cultures is revealed. Under the background of western economic and cultural integration, communication in food cultures increased, which will certain accelerate Chinese food cultures developed and spread al over the world.

  18. Cultural synergies and challenges in the context of Supplier Relationship Management: Finnish-Chinese interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Penkova, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective of the study: The objective of the study was to identify the cultural synergies and cultural challenges in the context of a case study on supplier relationship management. The two main case organizations of the study were a Finnish subsidiary of a Western MNC, called with the fictional name Power Oy and its Chinese supplier of welded structures, called with the fictional name Frames CN. The Finnish case company manufactures products for the power generation industry. The study e...

  19. Enactments and dissociations driven by cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Etty

    2007-03-01

    Cultural differences between the analytic dyad can foster powerful transference-counter-transference feelings and potentially promote traumatic re-enactments. Those patients who are more directly affected by traumatic experiences may be able to verbalize what has happened to them only if they are convinced that their analysts are "taking in their horror, holding it for them, responding to it emotionally (reenacting) and giving it back in more modulated and containable" manner (Davies, 1997, p. 24). These mutual enactments that emerge in patients and their analysts can be understood as dissociated self-states. Clinical material is presented from the treatment of an African-American inner-city teenager and an Israeli teenage soldier to illustrate the emergence of enactments and dissociation in patient-analyst dyads.

  20. Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Esmaeili Douki; Mohammad Reza Esmaeili; Nazanin Vaezzadeh; Reza Ali Mohammadpour; Hamideh Azimi; Robabeh Sabbaghi; Mousa Esmaeil; Zohreh Shahhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child age...

  1. Impression management within the Zulu culture: Exploring tactics in the work context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrah Mtshelwane

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Impression management tactics are utilised differently by people depending on the situation and the others around them.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify the impression management tactics Zulu people display when they want to impress people in a work context.Motivation for this study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and people who contribute to the return on investment for the organisation. Individuals display impression tactics to influence the perceptions of others in the workplace, especially pertaining to performance appraisals and promotional opportunities.Research approach, design and method: The social constructivism paradigm was employed in conducting this study, following a phenomenological approach. The research sample consisted of 30 Zulu-speaking individuals from various organisations who were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. The researcher used thematic analysis to analyse the data.Main findings: The main findings in this study included impression management tactics that are used by Zulu people when attempting to impress people in the work context. The findings were divided into different categories (colleagues and supervisor. Conscientiousness,interpersonal amiability, openness and relational action are the themes that were reported as the most common impression management features people display at their workplace with colleagues. Themes that were reported when impressing a supervisor include conscientiousness,integrity, relational action and skilfulness.Practical/managerial implications: This study provides organisations with knowledge on the impression management tactics utilised by isiZulu employees. The nature of this information enables management to not misinterpret the use of certain tactics and will lead to more understanding and resilience by organisations and colleagues when working with isiZulu individuals.Contribution/value-add: This study

  2. Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of "protective parenting" in first-generation Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Donovick, Melissa R; Crowley, Susan L

    2009-06-01

    Current literature presents four primary parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. These styles provide an important shortcut for a constellation of parenting behaviors that have been characterized as consisting of warmth, demandingness, and autonomy granting. Empirically, only warmth and demandingness are typically measured. Research reporting on parenting styles in Latino samples has been equivocal leading to questions about conceptualization and measurement of parenting styles in this ethnic/cultural group. This lack of consensus may result from the chasm between concepts (e.g., authoritarian parenting) and observable parenting behaviors (e.g., warmth) in this ethnic group. The present research aimed to examine parenting styles and dimensions in a sample of Latino parents using the two usual dimensions (warmth, demandingness) and adding autonomy granting. Traditional parenting styles categories were examined, as well as additional categorizations that resulted from adding autonomy granting. Fifty first-generation Latino parents and their child (aged 4-9) participated. Parent-child interactions were coded with the Parenting Style Observation Rating Scale (P-SOS). In this sample, the four traditional parenting categories did not capture Latino families well. The combination of characteristics resulted in eight possible parenting styles. Our data showed the majority (61%) of Latino parents as "protective parents." Further, while mothers and fathers were similar in their parenting styles, expectations were different for male and female children. The additional dimensions and implications are discussed. The importance of considering the cultural context in understanding parenting in Latino families is emphasized, along with directions for future research.

  3. A New Understanding of Ankara Music within the Context of Global Cultural Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Can Satır

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to consider a new understanding of the complex and multilayered structure of Ankara music, which is situated between tradition and modernity and has become an important form of popular culture in the region, in the context of local and global relationships.. The theoretical framework of the study is based on Appadurai’s “global cultural flow” model. The ethnoscape, finanscape, mediascape, technoscape and ideoscape of Ankara music is examined in accordance with this approach to reveal the dynamics that make this music different. In the light of these findings, it is concluded that the ethnoscape of Ankara music is based on a broad demographic coalition that has created an independent music industry with a finanscape depending on production, distribution and consumption. While this type of music is represented through a network-based social structure, it gains legitimacy outside its bounds within the media environment. The “Ankara” genre and its quest for authenticity described in this work reveal the ideoscape of the new Ankara music.

  4. University Students' Online Information Searching Strategies in Different Search Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of search context played in university students' online information searching strategies. A total of 304 university students in Taiwan were surveyed with questionnaires in which two search contexts were defined as searching for learning, and searching for daily life information. Students' online search strategies…

  5. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN VOCABULARY AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuanJialing

    2004-01-01

    From illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary teaching, and the ctmtparison of some major differences between English and Chinese words, this paper emphasizes the indivisible relationship between vocabulary and culture. International cultural exchange occurring more and more often, this paper attempts to guide students to better understand the cultural connotation of vocabulary, enhance their awareness towards the target culture, improve their comtprehensive language skills, and, develop their cross-cultural communicative ctmtpetence.

  6. Translation in the global cultural economy: asymmetries, difference and identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Barbosa de Vasconcellos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available While globalization per se (and the related topic of global cultural homogeneity does not in and of itself exhaust the range of relevant questions about translation in the contemporary world, it is here argued that a focus on globalization is a promising route to the reflection on issues of asymmetries, difference and identity in translation. One of such issues would be the role of translation in responding to the march of the overall globalization process toward the making of the entire world into a single space. Within this context, this paper (i interrogates Appadurai’s (1990 framework for the cultural study of globalization so as to problematize the metaphor of the “fractals” for global cultural interactions by exploring what this metaphor leaves in the dark; (ii draws on Asad’s (1986 comments on “The Inequality of Languages and on Jacquemond’s (1992 view of the inequality in the global translation flux; and, finally, (iii makes the connection of these views with translation as the central issue in all communication and sociopolitical interaction between the ‘first’ and the ‘third’ worlds, suggesting that questions dealing with the relative power and prestige of cultures – with matters of dominance, submission and resistance – might profitably move center stage in translating, in translation teaching and in the analysis of translations. The questions informing the reflections are: To what extent does globalization exhibit the effects of domination by the power centers of global culture? To what extent can globalization be said to impact upon translation as regards “the asymmetrical power relationship between the various local vernaculars and the one master-language of our post-colonial world, English”?

  7. PHILOSOPHICAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF SOUND AND IMAGE ONTICS IN THE DIGITAL ART CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloviev Alexander V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to philosophical and cultural aspects of sound and image ontics in the digital art context. The current situation of cultural genesis is characterized by the transition from the domination of analog technology to the domination of digital technology, and it is represented in crisis of traditional typology of arts and in revision of sound and visual image ontics as crucial elements of social-cultural reality. Sounds and images constitute the autonomous databases and flows, manifest simulation, seriality and fragmentation as their basic features.

  8. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions.

  9. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ∼ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement ‘I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional’. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. PMID:23930933

  10. Adjusting policy to institutional, cultural and biophysical context conditions: The case of conservation banking in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsten Mann; James D. Absher

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the political construction of a policy instrument for matching particular institutional, biophysical and cultural context conditions in a social–ecological system, using the case of conservation banking in California as an example. The guiding research question is: How is policy design negotiated between various actors on its way from early...

  11. Social and Cultural Contexts of Chinese Learners: Teaching Strategies for American Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Darshan

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to evaluate the social and cultural context of education among Chinese learners in order to identify ways through which American educators can best serve such students. It is intended that such efforts will create multiple pathways to knowledge for Chinese learners by accommodating their varying learning needs. Several common…

  12. Languages as Socio-Cultural Capital in the Context of Contemporary Linguistic Reality of Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper, "Languages as Socio-Cultural Capital in the Context of Contemporary Linguistic Reality of Jamaica." examines how the narratives of students can offer useful understanding and insights into their attitudes and achievements in second language acquisition. These situations are specific to Creole-speaking learning environments in…

  13. "Making Her Community a Better Place to Live": Culturally Responsive Urban School Leadership in Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the notion of "culturally responsive leadership" through a historical case study of the life of Gertrude Elise MacDougald Ayer, the first African American woman principal in New York City. I begin by situating Ayer's leadership practice in light of the social and political context of Harlem in the 1930s and early 1940s. Then…

  14. The Psychology of Voice and Performance Capabilities in Masculine and Feminine Cultures and Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Kees; Brockner, Joel; Stein, Jordan H.; Steiner, Dirk D.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Dekker, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we examine the hypothesis that in masculine cultures or in other contexts that emphasize competitive achievement, those with higher performance capabilities will feel empowered to have input in decisions and, hence, will desire opportunities to voice their opinions about decisions t

  15. Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy,…

  16. The Role of Cultural Context in Continuing Vocational Training: A Study on Auto Repairmen in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Oktay

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed how auto repairmen working in micro-enterprises undertake continuing vocational training in relation to cultural context. The study was conducted in Kirikkale, a city in central Anatolia in Turkey. To this end, the descriptive research technique of structured interview was used. Interviews with 33 auto repairmen were recorded…

  17. Culture-Blind? Parental Discourse on Religion, Ethnicity and Secularism in the French Educational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveaud, Maroussia

    2008-01-01

    This article examines policy mediation and adaptation in a context where religious, ethnic and other cultural identities are not officially recognised in the public sphere but considered part of the private sphere. French educational policy is firmly rooted within a secular Republican framework which relies on a colour-blind approach to promote…

  18. Deferred imitation in 18-month-olds from two cultural contexts: the case of Cameroonian Nso farmer and German-middle class infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Sonja; Lamm, Bettina; Graf, Frauke; Knopf, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Imitative learning has been described in naturalistic studies for different cultures, but lab-based research studying imitative learning across different cultural contexts is almost missing. Therefore, imitative learning was assessed with 18-month-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants - representing two highly different eco-cultural contexts associated with different cultural models, the psychological autonomy and the hierarchical relatedness - by using the deferred imitation paradigm. Study 1 revealed that the infants from both cultural contexts performed a higher number of target actions in the deferred imitation than in the baseline phase. Moreover, it was found that German middle-class infants showed a higher mean imitation rate as they performed more target actions in the deferred imitation phase compared with Cameroonian Nso farmer infants. It was speculated that the opportunity to manipulate the test objects directly after the demonstration of the target actions could enhance the mean deferred imitation rate of the Cameroonian Nso farmer infants which was confirmed in Study 2. Possible explanations for the differences in the amount of imitated target actions of German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants are discussed considering the object-related, dyadic setting of the imitation paradigm with respect to the different learning contexts underlying the different cultural models of learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The cultural differences in teaching between Chinese and western

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖

    2013-01-01

    Language and culture are interacting. Learning a language must understand the culture. The lack of cultural knowledge will lead to students’mistakes in daily English,therefore,in English teaching,the cultural differences between Chinese and Western as an important question is put forward. Then,from the cultural differences between Chinese and western,I discuss the reasons for mistakes in daily English and then how to teaching.

  20. AN ANALYSIS OF TURKISH NATIONAL AND MILITARY CULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF KOREAN WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Sığrı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze Turkish national and military culture in the context of Korean War. The Korean War is the first international military contribution of modern Turkish Republic and Turkish Armed Forces. This was the first contact with other countries’ and cultures’ armies since the foundation of the modern republic. Following the war Turkey joined to NATO and became a certain member of western block of cold war era. Turkish troops’ efforts and involvement in the Korean War did not only contribute to independence of Korea but also contributed to the world peace. Turkish military has a cultural background, which mainly stems from sociological and managerial characteristics of Turkish national culture. In this study an analysis of Turkish military culture is made within scope of Korean War according to Hofstede’s (1980 four cultural dimensions

  1. On the Eastern and Western Cultures as Reflected in Differences in Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓; 张海南

    2015-01-01

    When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc. A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture. Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.

  2. On the Eastern and Western Cultures as Reflected in Differences in Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓; 张海南

    2015-01-01

    When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc.A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture.Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.

  3. The Effect Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Have on Student-Teacher Relationships in the Korean Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Alice Julianna

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role that culture plays in the classroom setting through Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions. Hofstede categorizes four dimensions of cultural differences, but this paper will focus on power distance, which Hofstede describes as the phenomenon in which less powerful members of a society accept inequality in power as a societal…

  4. The Effect Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Have on Student-Teacher Relationships in the Korean Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Alice Julianna

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role that culture plays in the classroom setting through Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions. Hofstede categorizes four dimensions of cultural differences, but this paper will focus on power distance, which Hofstede describes as the phenomenon in which less powerful members of a society accept inequality in power as a societal…

  5. when language,social and cultural difference face economic development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    study and research in language,society and cultural difference field is very interesting and meaningful.knowing the diversity of different culture we could get to know people from different cultural background easier and better and we could contribute a better understanding and relationship between each other.educators could make the process of teaching and facilitating much more efficient when the target learners are coming from different cultural or language background.

  6. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓玮

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  7. German-Ukrainian Business Relationships: Trust Development in the Face of Institutional Uncertainty and Cultural Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Möllering, Guido; Stache, Florian

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines cultural differences and institutional uncertainty as important factors in the development of trust as a basis for successful international business relationships. The authors focus their investigation on the potential that actors have in becoming aware of and creatively responding to institutional contexts, cultural differences and the challenge of trust development. Empirically, the authors look at German–Ukrainian business relationships and draw on a qualitative analysis...

  8. On Differences Between Chinese and Western Dietary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李本涛

    2013-01-01

    Diet is absolutely necessary in the life of mankind, and even in the existence or development It is also the one of the basic form of social life. However under the difference cultural background, having different diet idea and diet custom, then finally form the different dietary culture, Certainly, the Chinese and western dietary have a large number of difference, This paper analyzed the specific characteristic on the difference between Chinese and western dietary culture. From this paper the Chinese and western dietary culture is difference in concepts, contents, patterns, dining eti-quette, and tableware. It is still significant to study the dietary cultures of Chinese and western dietary. By the analysis of the difference between Chi-nese and western dietary cultures, we can comprehend the respective cultural tradition of Chinese and west. And we can also improve and create the culture of china.

  9. Assessing Organisational Culture in a Group Context Using the Organisational Culture Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    4 The authors searched using Google, Google scholar, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge to determine if the OCP...following search terms were used to search within papers (using Web of Knowledge ) that cited O’Reilly et al. (1991): group admin*, group context, group, and

  10. Cultural differences between English and Chinese color words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙占红

    2008-01-01

    color words may show different cultural connotation of each language in some degree. While translating, we should handle color words appropriately according to cultural differences in both the original and target language. This paper brings a discussion of cultural differences between English and Chinese color words.

  11. Cultural factors behind the different business cultures of Iceland and Norway, a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Rostrup, Hanne Ragnhild Hjemlestad, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Even though Iceland and Norway are both Nordic countries originating from the same culture, the countries’ business cultures have developed different characteristics over the years. In light of the increasing emigration from Iceland to Norway following the financial crisis in 2008, this study will establish the difference between Norwegian and Icelandic business cultures so that Icelanders can prepare themselves for the different national culture and business culture in Norway. Moreover th...

  12. Attitudes to motherhood in different cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razina N.V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of motherhood is a promising and relevant field of psychology. This article represents the results of a study in which a socio-psychological analysis of reproductive attitudes and demographic behaviour was conducted. The study also shows the relationship between attitudes related to motherhood and women’s cultural affiliations. The factors that contribute to the nature of attitudes towards motherhood and the interaction between these factors were studied. According to the results of this study, we distinguished the most significant characteristics of the attitudes to motherhood that influence the nature of the relationship between a mother and her unborn child. The model of the development of attitudes to motherhood proposed by R. V. Ovcharova was detailed. We considered the influence of factors on the nature of attitudes to motherhood as well as the influence of factors on each other. The results of this study allow us to describe the psychological portraits of women with different attitudes to motherhood.

  13. A multilevel cross-cultural examination of role overload and organizational commitment: investigating the interactive effects of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M

    2014-07-01

    Considering the influential nature of context, the current investigation examined whether the relationship between role overload and organizational commitment was affected by various contextual factors. Drawing on the occupational stress literature, structural empowerment and cooperative climate were examined as factors that would mitigate the negative effects of role overload on organizational commitment. In addition, national culture was examined to determine whether empowerment and cooperative climate had consistent moderating effects across cultures. The relationships among these variables were examined using hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 6,264 employees working at a multinational organization in 337 different work locations across 18 countries. Results suggested that the negative effect of role overload on organizational commitment did not vary as a function of culture in the current sample, but empowerment and cooperative climate had a moderating influence on this relationship. Furthermore, a 3-way interaction was observed between the cultural variable of power distance, empowerment, and role overload in predicting organizational commitment, suggesting that factors that serve to mitigate the negative effects of role overload in one culture may be ineffectual in another. This 3-way interaction was observed regardless of whether Hofstede's (2001) cultural value indices were used or the cultural practice scores from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project (R. J. House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004).

  14. 'Nursing research culture' in the context of clinical nursing practice: addressing a conceptual problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2017-05-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of nursing research culture in the context of clinical nursing practice. Nursing research culture should be valued for its contribution to improving patient care and should be considered as a routine hospital activity. However, the demand for efficiency, nurses' barriers to research use and the lack of definition of the concept of nursing research culture make it difficult to establish. Concept analysis. Data were collected through a literature review in PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO during March 2016. Walker and Avant's eight-step framework for concept analysis. Five defining attributes of nursing research culture in the context of clinical nursing practice were identified: strong monodisciplinary nursing professionalism, academic thinking and socialization, research use as a part of daily nursing practice, acceptance by colleagues and management and facilitation of resources from management and organization. Although the method of concept analysis has been criticized and heavily debated, the development of nursing research cultures based on the defining attributes and antecedents of the concept will be important to emphasize evidence-based clinical nursing care. Further research should support the development and the implementation of nursing research culture in clinical nursing practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effectiveness evaluation of flood defence structures in different geomorphological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Stefano; Pazzi, Veronica; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    The flood risk in different geomorphological contexts of two less developed countries are investigated in order to evaluate the efficacy of the existing flood defence structures. In particular, a recent floodplain crossed by a wide meandering river and a narrow mountain valley flowed by creek with a torrential regime have been chosen for such analysis in North Albania and central Mexico, respectively. Both areas have been affected by disastrous floods in past years with considerable damages to properties and people. Some safety countermeasures have been performed over time, even if in a non-systematic way. For this reason, the current inclination to flood risk was assessed by means of a freeware software designed to perform one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling for a full network of natural and anthropic channels (HEC-RAS software by Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System). This new analyses take into account: i) the natural morphological variability along the river path, ii) the anthropic interventions on the fluvial dynamics, iii) the landscape appearance after the soil exploitation in the past years, and iv) all the changes induced by an exceeded informal urbanization. The reconstruction of the river and bordering areas geometric data was carried out according to the physical characteristics of the local environment: a bathymetric survey and near-river DGPS acquisitions for the open spaces of the Albanian floodplain, and traditional topographic methods for the highly vegetated Mexican valley. In both cases, the results show that the existing works are, on their own, poorly efficient in containing the predictable floods. Albanians levees seem underdimensioned, while the channelling works are too narrow to contain large amounts of water and solid transport as typical of the Mexican study area. Evidently, a new territorial planning is required in these areas, and some projects are now in place. However, it would be desirable that local authorities

  16. Unpacking religious affiliation: Exploring associations between Christian children's religious cultural context, God image, and self-esteem across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin I; Crosby, Robert G

    2017-03-01

    In developmental research, religiousness is typically measured with omnibus affiliation or attendance variables that underspecify how the religious cultural contexts and experiences that affiliation represents influence developmental outcomes. This study explores associations between five aspects of a religious cultural context (family religiosity, religious schooling, church-based relationships with peers and adults, and view of God) in 844 seven- to 12-year-old Christian children to examine how they differentially predict self-esteem. Results of a structural equation model (SEM) analysis indicated that God image and peer church relationships directly predicted self-esteem, whereas God image mediated the influence of adult church relationships and family religious practices on self-esteem. A multiple group SEM analysis met the criterion for weak, but not strong, evidence that self-esteem is more related to younger children's adult church relationships but older children's peer church relationships. God image tended to be more related to younger children's family religious practices but older children's adult church relationships. Implications for developmental researchers and practitioners are discussed. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious affiliation is an omnibus variable representing multiple contexts of development. Self-esteem is an important outcome variable with different influences across development. Religious affiliation is associated with increased self-esteem. What does this study add? Children's experience in the contexts of religious affiliation influences development differently. It is not just affiliation, but specific religious contexts that influence children's self-esteem. The role of religious contexts in shaping children's self-esteem shifts across development. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Hermeneutic Analysis of the Cultural Context of the Functioning of Media in Society and Media Texts on Media Literacy Education Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hermeneutic Analysis of Cultural Context is a study of the process of interpretation of media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the viewpoint agencies / media text and the author's point of view on the audience. Hermeneutical analysis suggests a media text comprehension through comparison with cultural tradition and reality; penetration into the logic of media texts; analysis skills through comparison of artistic images in the historical and cultural context. Thus, the system is subject to analysis media and its operation in society, human interaction, language, and media using. For the purposes of media education in this case stand out: the creation of a culture of interaction with the media, the development of the perception of different types of information, skills analysis and interpretation of media texts, the formation of critical thinking, creativity in the field of media. This article presented the maindirections for Hermeneutic Analysis of Cultural Context on media literacy education classes for student audience, including the examples of creative problems and issues associated with this type of the analysis in the context of media literacy education problems, ie based on six key concepts of media literacy education: agency, category, language, technology, audience, representation. The author supposes that the Hermeneutic Analysis of Cultural Context of media texts on media literacy education classes can significantly develop media competence of students, including critical thinking.

  18. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彩珍

    2014-01-01

    When translating the titles of films, translators are faced with not only different meanings of Chinese and English lan-guage, but also various cultural connotations behind the titles. Therefore, translators should take cultural differences into account in order to make the translated titles close to the connotations of the source culture. Such cultural differences as religious dissimi-larities, historical allusions and idiomatic expressions (or idioms) are major concerns when translating film titles.

  19. Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility, and/or subjective norms. The meaning and applicability of these constructs in diverse communities are unknown. The purpose of this study is to inductively explore the social context of Filipina and Latina women (the sociocultural forces that shape people’s day-to-day experiences and that directly and indirectly affect health and behavior) to better understand mammography screening behavior. One powerful aspect of social context that emerged from the findings was relational culture, the processes of interdependence and interconnectedness among individuals and groups and the prioritization of these connections above virtually all else. The authors examine the appropriateness of subjective norms and intentions in the context of relational culture and identify inconsistencies that suggest varied meanings from those intended by behavioral theorists. PMID:19805793

  20. Educational Organisations as "Cultures of Consumption": Cultural Contexts of Consumer Learning in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    High levels of consumption in the industrialised parts of the world such as Europe mark a central threat to global sustainable development. In recent years, growing attention has been paid to the contributions of education and educational organisations to the socialisation of youths and young adults into consumer culture. It is the contention of…

  1. Child Development in Cultural Contexts: Implications of Cultural Psychology for Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…

  2. Content Analysis of Advertisements in Different Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lazović

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, advertising examples are being analyzed and used as yet another form of communication, on account of their ubiquity (e.g. billboards, Internet, television, magazines. Designed to compel us to purchase products, advertisements have the potential to greatly impact our lives. They show current trends in social preferences, they reveal cultural values and norms of the target audience and, finally, they can be the mirror of the times people live in. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of the findings in previously carried–out research relating to cross–cultural content analysis of advertisements. The reports have addressed both linguistic and extra–linguistic features and trends in advertising and emphasized language– and culture–specific elements. This paper also gives ideas for future studies, since nowadays, due to international marketing and increasing globalization there are more cultural transfers to be explored, as cultures are coming in contact far more frequently.

  3. Organisational culture as a socio-economic phenomenon in the context of the modern management paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubin Aleksandr A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies cognitive component of the “organisational culture” category and marks our three groups of approaches to the aspect description of the studied category: aspects of the organisational culture formed by the control system; aspects of the organisational culture inherent in the controlled system; and universal aspects inherent in both control and controlled systems. The article provides the authors’ definition of the organisational culture as a complex element of the internal environment of the organisation that has certain phenomenological properties (synergy, dynamics, uniqueness, adaptability, mentality, hierarchy, aggregation, communicativeness and sociality; integrating spiritual, material, static and procedural elements with the aim of formation of a single management philosophy for ensuring external adaptation and efficient functioning of an enterprise. The article establishes the role and place of the organisational culture as a socio-economic phenomenon in the context of the modern management paradigm through specification of prerequisites of formation and development of the neo-classical concept of the organisational culture; features of the modern management paradigm; phenomenological properties of the culture; factors of influence upon the organisational culture and tendencies of development of the phenomenon of the national organisational culture.

  4. Operational Handbook: Working Amongst Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    granted and rarely questioned. It is useful to conceive of culture as an iceberg , where a small portion is easily visible while the rest remains...in Relation to Status by Age Gender and Gender Roles Class Occupation Definitions of Corruption The iceberg concept of culture is...infrastructure for planning. • Role plays – peer education. • Modelling and diagrams – decision making, explanations, cause and effect. • Photo

  5. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michelle; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    The Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS) is a screening questionnaire that focuses on parents' perceptions of children's speech in different contexts. Originally developed in English, it has been translated into 60 languages and the validity and clinical utility of the scale has been documented in a range of countries. In South Africa, there are…

  6. Culture and aesthetic preference: comparing the attention to context of East Asians and Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiko; Gonzalez, Richard; Kwan, Letty; Nisbett, Richard E

    2008-09-01

    Prior research indicates that East Asians are more sensitive to contextual information than Westerners. This article explored aesthetics to examine whether cultural variations were observable in art and photography. Study 1 analyzed traditional artistic styles using archival data in representative museums. Study 2 investigated how contemporary East Asians and Westerners draw landscape pictures and take portrait photographs. Study 3 further investigated aesthetic preferences for portrait photographs. The results suggest that (a) traditional East Asian art has predominantly context-inclusive styles, whereas Western art has predominantly object-focused styles, and (b) contemporary members of East Asian and Western cultures maintain these culturally shaped aesthetic orientations. The findings can be explained by the relation among attention, cultural resources, and aesthetic preference.

  7. Teacher-Student Interactions under the Influence of Cultural Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between teachers and students are often influenced by the factor of cultural differences. The author mainly analyzes the American teacher-Chinese student interactions under the influence of cultural differences with the theory of Hofstede's four value dimensions. The author also puts forward some suggestions to promote cross-cultural communication in the classrooms.

  8. Working with Different Cultural Patterns & Beliefs: Teachers & Families Learning Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne; Anderson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Rogoff (2003) argues that "Human development is a cultural process….People develop as participants in cultural communities" (p. 3). Children develop within families, and different cultures reflect differences in how they structure activity for this development. For example, middle class North American families generally would not permit…

  9. The wisdom of Ben Sira in MENA cultural context: A cultural topical index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pilch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biblical Books of Proverbs and Ben Sira (Sirach; Ecclesiasticus yield no narrative continuity or logical outline. They are simply collections. The best way to interpret these books is with the aid of a topical index. Most topical indexes are based on English (or another language translation. This article proposes a tentative topical index reflecting Middle East North African culture and its values. It will serve as the outline for a full length commentary already in process.

  10. How Teachers in Different Educational Contexts View Their Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Peretz, Miriam; Mendelson, Nili; Kron, Friedrich W.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between the school context and teachers' views of themselves as professionals. Israeli vocational high school teachers, who taught high- and low-achieving students, matched images of themselves as teachers with drawings of other occupations and commented on their choices. These metaphors helped raise teachers'…

  11. Ecological context determines the choice between prey of different salinities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Food choice has profound implications for the relative intakes of water and salts, and thus for an animal’s physiological state. Discrimination behaviors with respect salt intake have been documented in a number of vertebrate species, but few studies have considered the ecological context in which t

  12. Different faces of passion in the context of leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozłowski Rafał

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes passion, which depending on the context, may motivate entrepreneurial leaders not only to found an organization, but also to grow and expand their ventures. It should also be noted that there is also the dark side of passion dominated by greed and hubris, which may result in counterproductive outcomes.

  13. Obstacles to Reasoning about Inertia in Different Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the underlying reasons for difficulties faced by students when they applied the concept of inertia across varying contexts. The participants of the study included five high school students. Data obtained from interviews were interpreted from the perspectives of the coordination class and epistemological framing…

  14. Different faces of passion in the context of leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowski Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes passion, which depending on the context, may motivate entrepreneurial leaders not only to found an organization, but also to grow and expand their ventures. It should also be noted that there is also the dark side of passion dominated by greed and hubris, which may result in counterproductive outcomes.

  15. Ecological context determines the choice between prey of different salinities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Food choice has profound implications for the relative intakes of water and salts, and thus for an animal’s physiological state. Discrimination behaviors with respect salt intake have been documented in a number of vertebrate species, but few studies have considered the ecological context in which

  16. Analyses of Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Automobile Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Di; Wang Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes auto advertisings between China and western countries, so as to explore the cultural differences of value orientations and thinking patterns behind them and help readers know better about auto culture in China and western countries.

  17. Education of children in Polish family in a context of forming health culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IERMAKOVA T.S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - analysis of the approaches of family education in a Polish family in the direction of forming a culture of children's health. Material: The analysis of the publications of post-communist countries and Poland scientists. Used the results of a questionnaire on health culture. Results: It was found that healthsaving aspect of family education in Polish family plays a significant role in forming health culture. Highlighted in national traditions of family upbringing of a healthy child. It is noted that social support, as a result of active participation in the religious life, helps to better cope with the challenges of everyday life, reduces anxiety and excessive sadness, increases the feeling of well-being. There is a possibility in the Ukrainian family and the school to ensure the spiritual education of children, the right of parents to ensure the education and upbringing of their children in conformity with their own philosophical convictions. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health. The main factors of a healthy lifestyle today's young people are: quality of food, measures to prevent stress, problems of environmental protection, sports, leisure. Conclusions: It is recommended to involve parents in various activities of the societies and volunteers of various organizations. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health.

  18. Indigenous cultural contexts for STEM experiences: snow snakes' impact on students and the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brant G.; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-09-01

    Opportunities for American Indian youth to meaningfully engage in school-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences have historically been inadequate. As a consequence, American Indian students perform lower on standardized assessments of science education than their peers. In this article we describe the emergence of meaning for students—as well as their community—resulting from Indigenous culturally-based STEM curriculum that used an American Indian tradition as a focal context. Specifically, the game of snow snakes (Gooneginebig in Ojibwe) afforded an opportunity for STEM and culturally-based resources to work in unison. A case study research design was used with the bounded case represented by the community associated with the snow snake project. The research question guiding this study was: What forms of culturally relevant meaning do students and the community form as a result of the snow snake game? Results indicate evidence of increased student and community engagement through culturally-based STEM experiences in the form of active participation and the rejuvenation of a traditional game. Implications are discussed for using culturally-based contexts for STEM learning.

  19. A Review on the Study of Ethnic Minorities’ Cultural Identity Influenced by Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dan; Liu Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the rich content of cultural iden ̄tity, the research related to this aspect involves many disciplines, including anthropology, sociolo ̄gy, psychology, philosophy, literature, religion and education,etc. Based on their own academic back ̄ground,scholars have done a lot of research on va ̄rious aspects of the cultural identity of ethnic mi ̄norities. This article classifies cultural identity in ̄fluenced by different cultures, and focuses on a study of the impact and role of different cultural forms on the ethnic minorities’ cultural identity. The influences on the cultural identity of ethnic mi ̄norities include the following.

  20. Cultural Differences between English and Chinese in Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚默

    2014-01-01

    Politeness, as a linguistic phenomenon, pervades almost all the civilized social-cultures and languages, which works as a sort of softening agent to smoothen the course of communication. As people from different cultures may view differently on what politeness is and how to be polite, misunderstandings may arise if cultural differences are neglected in cross-cultural commu-nication. This thesis is intended to make a comparative study of cultural differences in politeness between English and Chinese, first from the disparity in their conceptions of politeness,and then proceeds to discuss the underlying psychological factor. Lastly, based on the awareness of these cultural differences and the knowledge of the cause of the differences, this paper proposes some applicable advice to achieve successful cross-cultural communication.

  1. Small Business Responsiveness and Organizational Culture in the Context of a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael STOICA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between two important variables that define small and medium-sized enterprises: organizational culture and responsiveness. Firms operating in Romania were selected for the study. The country offers a business context with many changes over the last two decades, a challenge and an opportunity for researchers. Results show that the combination of entrepreneurial characteristics and planning and goal oriented managerial styles suits best successful companies. The market-driven type of culture has the best coordination and is best positioned to deliver customer-centered versatility, while adhocracy helps businesses respond fast to changes in the market environment.

  2. Differences in Politeness Principles Between Chinese and English Cultures%Differences in Politeness Principles Between Chinese and English Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元红

    2012-01-01

    Politeness is universal but culturally specific.h shows different characteristics in different cultures.From the angle of cultural differences, this paper reviews Chinese and Western"Politeness Principles"put forward by Gu Yueguo(顾曰国)and Leech,intends to compare on some of the important differences on politeness between Chinese and western cultures. Understanding the differences can avoid the pragmatic failures and achieve success in cross- cultural communication.h can also help English learners to develop and improve their pragmatic competence.

  3. Context, cultural bias, and health risk perception: the "everyday" nature of pesticide policy preferences in London, Calgary, and Halifax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Rachel A; Baxter, Jamie

    2011-05-01

    Risk perception and the cultural theory of risk have often been contrasted in relation to risk-related policy making; however, the local context in which risks are experienced, an important component of everyday decision making, remains understudied. What is unclear is the extent to which localized community beliefs and behaviors depend on larger belief systems about risk (i.e., worldviews). This article reports on a study designed to understand the relative importance of health risk perceptions (threat of harm); risk-related worldviews (cultural biases); and the experiences of local context (situated risk) for predicting risk-related policy preferences regarding cosmetic pesticides. Responses to a random telephone questionnaire are used to compare residents' risk perceptions, cultural biases, and pesticide bylaw preferences in Calgary (Alberta), Halifax (Nova Scotia), and London (Ontario), Canada. Logistic regression shows that the most important determinants of pesticide bylaw preference are risk perception, lack of benefit, and pesticide "abstinence." Though perception of health risk is the best single predictor of differences in bylaw preferences, social factors such as gender and situated risk factors like conflict over chemical pesticides, are also important. Though cultural biases are not important predictors of pesticide bylaw preference, as in other studies, they are significant predictors of health risk perception. Pesticide bylaw preference is therefore more than just a health risk perception or worldview issue; it is also about how health risk becomes situated-contextually-in the experiences of residents' everyday lives. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Beyond culture or beyond control? Reviewing the use of Hall’s high-/low-context concept

    OpenAIRE

    Kittler, Markus G.; Rygl, David; Mackinnon, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews Edward T. Hall’s influential concept of high-/low-context communication and its use in cross-cultural research. Hall’s concept suggests that individuals combine preprogrammed culture specific context and information to create meaning. The use of context is argued to vary across cultures and country classifications have been attached to Hall’s concept. These country rankings have evolved over time classifying (national) cultures as ‘high-context’ (HC) and ‘low-context’ (LC)....

  5. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies-observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences.

  6. Problematisation reconfiguration contexts of social control in the cultural landscape of today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Zubarieva

    2016-08-01

    First, social control is considered outside of the connotation with the processes of socialization, since the latter loses its significance as a mechanism of reproduction of an actor’s social norms, values, behavior patterns, roles, attitudes, customs, cultural tradition, collective assumptions and beliefs, and the like. «Norm» as reference marker conceptualization of social control in classical sociology in the context of contemporary sociological theorizing do not appear, because the situation of postmodernism blurs the binary contradiction of the norm-pathology. However, social control as a sociological object of reflection in the context of the relevant cultural code finds theoretical understanding through the prism of analysis of the characteristics of the visual turning, virtual reality, chaos, consumption and other markers of the postmodern society.

  7. National Cultural Heritage Networks: Access and Context in the Digital Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori McCay-Peet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available With advances in digital technology, museums, archives, and libraries have faced challenges in presenting their collections of primary source material online. This paper discusses the potential for national federated search engines to further the goals of local and national cultural institutions and benefit users by creating a single access point to authoritative sources, formats, and subjects. The challenges associated iwth providing context at the item and collection level to make digital items valuable ot the user are also explored. A search for mourning customs on the Picture Australia, Images Canada, and American Memory national cultural heritage networks is used to highlight issues related to access and context throughout the paper. Finally, challenges to greater contextualization due to the diversity of users and the mandates of the networks themselves are examined.

  8. The Influence of Cultural Differences between English and Chinese upon Idiom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勤

    2010-01-01

    This text analyze English-Chinese cultural difference reflected in the English-Chinese idiom, propose that should guarantee the implying meaning of original text passing on accurately in translation, give consideration to the image meaning and literal meaning in a situation that there is no cultural conflict, translate correctly out passing judgement on the meaning of the original text according to the concrete linguistic context. Therefore has set out and put forward several , concrete translation methods.

  9. THE IMPACT of CULTURE, LEADERSHIP, and POWER, on STAFF MOTIVATION in the CONTEXT of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Erciyes, Erdem

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of culture, leadership, and power, on staff motivation in selected international organizations (IOs), and develops a theoretical framework to assist with the practice of workforce motivation. The main research question is: “How can supervisors motivate their staff in the context of IOs?” Utilizing critical theory as a paradigm of inquiry, the study’s philosophical perspective leans heavily on “phenomenology”. Conducting this research led to the realization ...

  10. Choice and dissonance in a European cultural context: the case of Western and Eastern Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkoris, Michail D; Kühnen, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that members of collectivistic cultures are less likely to reduce cognitive dissonance after making a choice, compared to members of individualistic cultures. This difference has been attributed to different conceptualizations of choice that derive from different self-construals across cultures. In individualistic cultures, choice leads to stronger commitment to the chosen option compared to collectivistic cultures, because it implicates core aspects of the independent self, such as personal preferences. However, this cultural variation in postchoice dissonance has thus far been studied exclusively by comparing East Asians and North Americans. Building on the assumption that this difference is due to different construals of the self, we conducted an experiment with movie choices using the classic free-choice paradigm to examine differences in dissonance reduction between Western and Eastern Europeans, two populations known to differ with respect to interdependence. The results show that Eastern Europeans are less likely than Western Europeans to reduce postchoice dissonance by spreading their alternatives. Our findings speak to the generalizability of the hypothesis that in cultures differing in independence or interdependence people also differ in the way they construe choice, as well as in the way the act of choosing affects their self-concept.

  11. Sibship Size and Gendered Resource Dilution in Different Societal Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Resource dilution theory hypothesizes that children’s educational attainment suffers from being raised with many siblings, as the parental resources have to be shared with more children. Based on economic and cultural theories, we hypothesize that resource dilution is gendered: especially a larger n

  12. The challenge of training for family medicine across different contexts: Insights from providing training in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sandars

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Physicians with expertise in providing training for family medicine, at both undergraduate level and postgraduate level, are frequently invited to run training workshops in countries with developing systems of family medicine but this approach is often a challenge for the incoming external trainers. There are general challenges in working across different contexts, especially cultural factors, the different approaches to training, including the aims, methods, and assessment, and additional organizational factors, influenced by the wider sociopolitical environment of the host country. Practical responses to these challenges are discussed, with relevance to both external trainers and those responsible for requesting training. This commentary contains insights from the experiences of the authors in providing training for family medicine in China.

  13. Drinking culture in the Thai-Isaan context of northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolasart, Jirawat; Chirawatkul, Siriporn

    2012-05-01

    Ethnographic research aimed to explore drinking context, drinking behaviors, and perception of lay people about their drinking and drinking-related behaviors in Thai-Isaan context. The study was conducted in a suburban village in the northeast of Thailand during 2008. Participant observation and informal interview were employed for data collection throughout the year. Findings of the study revealed that alcoholic beverages and drinking were woven into everyday life and integrated into various social events and traditional rites as part of social life. Alcohol consumption was permitted overtly with positive attitudes toward drinking and a low level of restriction. Enjoyment and social functions of drinking were recognized by direct experience in real life. Conversely, problem drinking and overt intoxication with loss of self-control or lack of responsibility were not expected or acceptable. Drinking was rarely perceived as a social distress. From an insiders' view, their drinking was less correlated to alcohol abuse or alcohol-related social problems. In the context of a permissive drinking culture, the existing alcohol regulation measures may be neither supported nor conformed as expected. An alcohol policy that aims to reduce the overall volume of consumption or to indicate the negative consequences may dispute local perceptions and norms. The challenge for public health within this culture is how to persuade the drinkers to realize such negative potential and how to raise societal awareness of negative consequences. Positive local norms and values should be emphasized and strengthened to promote a more healthy drinking culture.

  14. Outcomes of a type 2 diabetes education program adapted to the cultural contexts of Saudi women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bannay, Hana R.; Jongbloed, Lyn E.; Jarus, Tal; Alabdulwahab, Sami S.; Khoja, Tawfik A.; Dean, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the outcomes of a pilot intervention of a type 2 diabetes (T2D) education program, based on international standards, and adapted to the cultural and religious contexts of Saudi women. Methods: This study is an experiment of a pilot intervention carried out between August 2011 and January 2012 at the primary health clinics in Dammam. Women at risk of or diagnosed with T2D (N=35 including dropouts) were assigned to one of 2 groups; an intervention group participated in a pilot intervention of T2D education program, based on international standards and tailored to their cultural and religious contexts; and a usual care group received the usual care for diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Outcomes included blood glucose, body composition, 6-minute walk distance, life satisfaction, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge. The intervention group participated in a focus group of their program experience. Data analysis was based on mixed methods. Results: Based on 95% confidence interval comparisons, improvements were noted in blood sugar, 6-minute walk distance, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge in participants of the intervention group. They also reported improvements in lifestyle-related health behaviors after the education program. Conclusion: Saudi women may benefit from a T2D education program based on international standards and adapted to their cultural and religious contexts. PMID:26108595

  15. Cultural Differences in School Education between China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦娟

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural communication has become a necessary phenomenon,we should introduce some cultural background knowledge in English teaching. This essay is aimed at discussing the cultural differences in school education between China and Western countries in three aspects-the different forms of school education,the different roles of teachers in school education,the different goals of school education.

  16. Race and Cultural Flexibility among Students in Different Multiracial Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Prudence L.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: One of the most critical functions of a well-integrated school is the development of "culturally flexible" students who, over the course of their social development, effectively navigate diverse social environs such as the workplace, communities, and neighborhoods. Most studies, albeit with some exceptions, have…

  17. Practitioner characteristics and organizational contexts as essential elements in the evidence-based practice versus cultural competence debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Vivian Hopkins

    2015-04-01

    The different pathways chosen to efficiently and effectively provide relief to those struggling with mental health challenges reflect different assumptions about the human condition and have led to disagreements over which intervention strategies are best suited to particular individuals or populations. Evidence-based practice and culturally competent services, as discussed within the United States, have been characterized as opposites. However, neither approach captures all of the elements that embody the full treatment experience. This article offers a framework that includes the personal identity of the practitioner and the organizational context as two elements that serve as active agents in the helping relationship, although they have rarely been included in the discourse about evidence-based practice or cultural competence. Suggestions for practice, education, and research are included based on this analysis. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  19. Cross-cultural differences in emotion suppression in everyday interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwae, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliëtte

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we exam

  20. Psychological Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    individualism- collectivism , tightness-looseness, social axioms, values as per the work of Schwartz, and social norm concepts derived from work of...regularity norms, and hierarchical family values. In contrast, conventional cross-cultural variables (e.g., individualism- collectivism ) showed only moderate...source: (a) social axioms, (c) collectivism , (d) Duke religion index, (e) extremist thinking patterns, (f) family values, (g) GLOBE social norms, (h

  1. Multicultural Children's Literature as a Context for Teaching Mathematics for Cultural Relevance in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jacqueline; Moore, Cara M.; Brooks, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a teacher-research study that used multicultural texts as a context for teaching mathematics for cultural relevance during an elementary mathematics methods course. The results of the study reveal that 28% (5 out of 18) of the teacher candidates (TCs) chose books that were culturally contextual or culturally amenable.…

  2. Learning to Teach Elementary Science Through Iterative Cycles of Enactment in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, SueAnn I.; Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.; Hartman, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Iterative cycles of enactment embedded in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts provide rich opportunities for preservice teachers (PSTs) to enact core practices of science. This study is situated in the larger Families Involved in Sociocultural Teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (FIESTAS) project, which weaves together cycles of enactment, core practices in science education and culturally relevant pedagogies. The theoretical foundation draws upon situated learning theory and communities of practice. Using video analysis by PSTs and course artifacts, the authors studied how the iterative process of these cycles guided PSTs development as teachers of elementary science. Findings demonstrate how PSTs were drawing on resources to inform practice, purposefully noticing their practice, renegotiating their roles in teaching, and reconsidering "professional blindness" through cultural practice.

  3. The role of culture in the context of school-based BMI screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Beech, Bettina M

    2009-09-01

    The high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a significant public health concern in the United States. Minority populations are disproportionately affected, and the impact of obesity on minority children is especially alarming. In this article we discuss school-based BMI reporting, which is intended to increase parental awareness of their children's weight status. This information could potentially lead parents of overweight and obese children to carefully examine and possibly change their children's diet and activity patterns. However, any program related to child weight status must consider culturally defined aspects of body size and shape. In other words, the cultural context in which information on child BMI is presented to and received by parents must be considered. In this article we review parental perceptions of child weight. Multiple studies have shown that parents of overweight or obese children often fail to correctly perceive their children as overweight. Possible reasons for, and implications of, this misperception of child weight status among minority parents are then explored within a cultural framework. The PEN-3 model is used to examine influences on health behaviors and could help inform the development of a culturally sensitive BMI-notification program for minority parents. Reporting materials congruent with the social and cultural values and practices of the target audience are likely to maximize program effectiveness. A culturally based BMI-notification program should be conceptualized as a small step in a comprehensive plan to reduce childhood obesity and improve the current and future health of minority children.

  4. THE QUALITY OF CULTURAL SERVICES IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurica DVORACIC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It suffices to browse the websites of only a few of the most noteworthy Romanian cultural organizations – including the website of the Ministry of Culture – to conclude that quality policies are missing. In fact, these are not the only policies that are missing, but this topic should be discussed in another paper. The objective of this paper is to analyze the progresses and the opportunities, as well as the problems and the challenges that the Romanian society and economy are facing as far as culture is concerned at the beginning of the new millennium, in the particular context of the global economic crisis: specifically, we will focus on the role of cultural organization managers in implementing quality management as the main factor in assuring the competitiveness needed to overcome the crisis. Cultural organization managers generally admit that a change is needed in order to cope with competitive pressure, but few understand how this change should be implemented. To avoid the issues associated with “change programs”, the management of cultural organizations must focus on the structure of processes, recognizing the roles and responsibilities of their employees in the processes in which they are involved.

  5. Reasons For Culture Differences Between Sino——USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Wen; Xu; Jing; Jing

    2014-01-01

    Culture is about survival of the human species.One key goal in the study of cultures is in assessing the survival and predictability of values across the history of humankind.As for China and USA,both countries have their own cultures.of course,they have a lot of difference between each other.Every culture has its own reason to exist in the world.

  6. Translate the Cultural Differences on the Principle of Skopostheory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜伟

    2009-01-01

    How to deal with the cultural differences in translation has become a very important issue in translation theory. The paper intro-duces Skopostheory to cultural translation and argues that it is not only appropriate but also successful in translating the cultural differences in accordance with its corresponding purpose in each specific piece of translation. The author makes an illustration by comparing two different English translations of a fragment extracted from the Chinese novel "A Dream of Red Mansions.

  7. The most important culture differences and elements of intercultural communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐

    2012-01-01

    This paper wrote about the cultural differences. There are four dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and masculinity. After that, paper talked about the intercultural communication, which contains language, non-verbal communication, time and space concept. Then talked different cultures do cause problems in business. To avoid misunderstanding and clashes, the international managers should realize and understand the different cultures, adapt themselves to fit into the business environment in order to get the best achievement in business.

  8. The Pragmatic Functions and Cultural Differences of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊屹

    2015-01-01

    Color relates to people very closely; with the development of society and culture, people’s understanding of color is not confided to the visual characteristics of color itself, besides, people give color cultural connotation and actual meanings. In language, the unique glamour that the color words demonstrate makes people regard them with special esteem. Color words describe colors of nature with different cultural implications. They have unique linguistic functions and symbolic connotations. Colors play an indispensable part in our life and it's an effective way to learn the different culture. There is an increase in mis-understanding and communicative barriers because of frequent cross-cultural communication. Chinese and English color words possess different cultural meanings and connotation due to the difference in customs and habits, history and traditions, religions and beliefs, geographic locations, national psychology and ways of thinking. Thus, it’s easy to make mistakes on understanding and comprehension. The methods used in the research procedure are like this: collect some representative color words both from Chinese and English and take them as samples, then make a comparison between cultural connotations. According to the comparison, make a summary about the differences of color words between China and England. This thesis brings a discussion of cultural differences between English and Chinese color words. Color words in learning English is very important. It can help us t make a better understanding of the culture difference of both nations, and achieve the effective cross-culture communication.

  9. impacts of cultural differences on intemational business negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦碳

    2011-01-01

    today,the world is fast developing in the age of economic globalization.business contacts among nations get increasingly close,which has brought more and more opportunities for business field.economic interdependence is much productive to the cooperation between companies.and the successful business,to a great extent,depends on the mutually beneficial negotiation.negotiators from different countries come together and discuss their common and conflicting interests; meanwhile,they bring different cultures to the negotiating table,which have important impacts on negotiation.culture forges values and religious belief that define one' s thinking and behavior.therefore,negotiators with different cultural backgrounds employ different negotiating strategies.cultural differences will certainly result in cultural conflicts,especially for enormous differences between the eastern culture and western culture.thus,to negotiate effectively,negotiators should have a good understanding of culture and cultural differences.more importantly,they should know how negotiation is affected by culture.in doing so,negotiators can predict the process and adjust strategies in order to reach a satisfactory agreement

  10. The Influence of Cultural Differences in Idioms Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛雷

    2008-01-01

    the translation of idioms in English and Chi-nese exists a big difference, which is affected by differ-ent cultures. According to the origin of any idiom, no matter it is Chinese idiom or English idiom, cultural background belongs to one's country must be reflected. China and Western countries both have long histories, which fertilized their own brilliant cultures, which are influenced by their individual environment, history, re-ligion and so on. In this paper, the author will analyze four cultural divergences resulting in differences in translating Chinese idioms and English idioms.

  11. The Influence of Culture Difference in English Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2012-01-01

    Because of different geographical environment, historical story, and psychic conditions, there exists distinct culture differences between china and western countries among varified nations. Therefore, we acknowledge that concrete understanding of the culture difference mkes the very basis of the acquisition of English language for students, and thus they are likely to have an enhancement in interpersonal ability.

  12. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  13. Cross-Informant Evaluations of Preschoolers' Adjustment in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and agreed upon evaluation of preschoolers' behavior is crucial for young children's positive development. This study explores possible cultural differences in cross-informants' evaluations. The premise is that informants who are from different cultures tend to give different evaluations of preschoolers' adjustment and/or that the…

  14. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  15. [Gerontosocial work in the context of Russian culture and recommendations of Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, R I; Golubeva, E Iu

    2007-01-01

    The definition of gerontosocial work adopted in the majority of the European countries in the context of the Russian culture and priority trends of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing has been discussed. In the article the interaction and differences between terms being used in social work with the elderly people in Russia have been showed; tasks and peculiarities of gerontosocial work have been defined. Peculiarities of interaction between personnel and elderly patients have been studied; the increasing requirements to the professionalism of gerontosocial workers have been proved.

  16. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  17. Dialogical PISA: development of competence through social interaction in different contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baucal Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the research was to study how children develop new competencies through social interaction in different contexts. The pre-post test experimental design was used. In the pre-test students were assessed by the PISA 2003 test of mathematics, and based on the results three equal groups for treatment phase were formed. In the treatment phase students from the three groups were solving 5 additional PISA items from the zone of proximal development (ZPD under three different conditions: group IV - collaboration with an equally competent peer in the out-of-school setting with opportunity to consult others and to use available cultural tools (N=22, group IO - collaboration with an adult who deliver gradual levels of help (N=22, and group KG - individual item solving (N=25. The quantitative analysis showed that all three groups progressed, and group IV (children who collaborated with an equally competent peer in out-of-school setting progressed more than other two groups. The qualitative analysis suggested that children who progressed most reported on the interview that they had the most symmetric collaboration and managed to rich consensus in spite of difficulties accompanied with the process of joint thinking ('discourse equality'. It shows also that children who were involved in collaboration where partner dominated interaction ('discourse inequality' did not progress or even regressed. Results also show that wider social context made an effect on interaction between partners.

  18. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys......., but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...

  19. TEAMWORK IN A CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXT. AUSTRIA, POLAND AND TURKEY COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    Chwiałkowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    This article gives insight into cultural differences and the way they affect business life. The focus of the paper is to present results of a study conducted among students from Austria, Poland and Turkey. Its aim is to provide comparison of cultural dimensions crucial at workplace and to identify trends in attitudes towards teamwork in populations of countries presented as well as to reveal similarities and differences in their team-related behaviour.

  20. TEAMWORK IN A CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXT. AUSTRIA, POLAND AND TURKEY COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    Chwiałkowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    This article gives insight into cultural differences and the way they affect business life. The focus of the paper is to present results of a study conducted among students from Austria, Poland and Turkey. Its aim is to provide comparison of cultural dimensions crucial at workplace and to identify trends in attitudes towards teamwork in populations of countries presented as well as to reveal similarities and differences in their team-related behaviour.

  1. Is Male Androphilia a Context-Dependent Cross-Cultural Universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Raymond; Garfield, Zachary; Garfield, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The cross-cultural ethnographic literature has traditionally used the label male "homosexuality" to describe sexual relationships between biological males without considering whether or not the concept encompasses primary sexual attraction to adult males. Although male androphilia seems to be found in all national populations, its universal existence in tribal populations has been questioned. Our goal is to review previous cross-cultural classifications and surveys of male same sex behavior to present a system that does justice to its varied expressions, especially as it is informed by contemporary sexuality research. Previous comparative research does not effectively distinguish male same sex behavior from male androphilia. Using the standard cross-cultural sample (SCCS) as a sampling frame and the ethnographic sources in the human relations area files and elsewhere, we present distributional data on various forms of male same sex behavior. The SCCS is useful because it is designed to be representative of all historically known social formations and the sample is designed to reduce similarities as a consequence of common descent or historical origin as well as reduce the probability of diffusion of sociocultural practices from one culture to another. Our results show that male same sex behavior as well as male androphilia is much more common than previously estimated in the SCCS. With our findings, we make an argument that male androphilia is a context-dependent cross-cultural universal.

  2. Sibship Size and Gendered Resource Dilution in Different Societal Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    Resource dilution theory hypothesizes that children’s educational attainment suffers from being raised with many siblings, as the parental resources have to be shared with more children. Based on economic and cultural theories, we hypothesize that resource dilution is gendered: especially a larger number of brothers is harmful to a person’s educational attainment. Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, covering 18 European countries, we show that the number of brothers is more negatively related with the odds of obtaining a college degree than the number of sisters. This holds particularly for women. However, this pattern is weaker in countries that are known to have a more gender-egalitarian climate. PMID:27560371

  3. It is time to consider cultural differences in debriefing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Hyun Soo; Dieckmann, Peter; Issenberg, Saul Barry

    2013-01-01

    Debriefing plays a critical role in facilitated reflection of simulation after the experiential component of simulation-based learning. The concept of framing and reflective learning in a debriefing session has emanated primarily from Western cultures. However, non-Western cultures have significa...... debriefing sessions. Our goal was to raise awareness of cultural differences and stimulate work to make progress in this regard.......Debriefing plays a critical role in facilitated reflection of simulation after the experiential component of simulation-based learning. The concept of framing and reflective learning in a debriefing session has emanated primarily from Western cultures. However, non-Western cultures have significant...... characteristics that manifest themselves in teaching and learning practices substantially different from Western cultures. We need to consider how to balance standardization in debriefing with a culture-sensitive interpretation of simulation-based learning so that learners receive the maximum benefit from...

  4. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IDENTIFICATION AND ITS EFFECT ON E-SERVICE QUALITY PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences are one of many forces influencing consumer decision making and the effect of cultural differences on the development and use of information and communication technologies. As different companies are not taking their business outside geographic boundaries, the global activities are opened to a large degree via current communication and information technologies. The aim of the study is to determine the cultural differences identification and its effect on E-service quality perception. A quantitative research design was adopted to collect data. Multiple regression analysis method was used to conduct this study. The findings of the study will contribute to both theory and practice. The results of this study have important contributions and implications for practitioners and policy-makers. This study contributed to the field of service quality expectations relationship with online shopping in the context of developing countries. It also examined the impact of culture on the service quality consumer expectations.

  5. Promoting health, preserving culture: adapting RARE in the Maasai context of Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, L K; Powell, C D; Thomas, A D; Medard, E; Roggeveen, Y; Hatfield, J M

    2011-05-01

    HIV/AIDS prevention strategies often neglect traditions and cultural practices relevant to the spread of HIV. The role of women in the HIV/AIDS context has typically been relegated to high-risk female groups such as sex workers, or those engaged in transactional sex for survival. Consequently, these perceptions are born out in the escalation of HIV/AIDS among communities, and female populations in particular where prevention frameworks remain culturally intolerant. We have attempted to address these issues by using an adapted Rapid Assessment Response and Evaluation (RARE) model to examine the impact of HIV/AIDS in the Maasai community of Ngorongoro. Our adapted RARE model used community engagement venues such as stockholder workshops, key informant interviews, and focus groups. Direct observations and geomapping were also done. Throughout our analysis, a gender and a pastoralist-centered approach provided methodological guidance, and served as value added contributions to out adaptation. Based in the unique context of a rural pastoralist community, we made recommendations appropriate to the cultural setting and the RARE considerations.

  6. Applying cultural safety beyond Indigenous contexts: Insights from health research with Amish and Low German Mennonites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Farrar, Helen; Fan, HaiYan; Kulig, Judith

    2017-06-01

    People who identify as members of religious communities, such as the Amish and Low German Mennonites, face challenges obtaining quality health care and engagement in research due in part to stereotypes that are conveyed through media and popular discourses. There is also a growing concern that even when these groups are engaged in research, the guiding frameworks of the research fail to consider the sociocultural or historical relations of power, further skewing power imbalances inherent in the research relationship. This paper aims at discussing the uses of cultural safety in the context of health research and knowledge translation with groups of people that are associated with a specific religion. Research with the Amish and Low German Mennonites is provided as examples to illustrate the use of cultural safety in this context. From these examples, we discuss how the use of cultural safety, grounded in critical theoretical perspectives, offers new insight into health research with populations that are traditionally labeled as minority, vulnerable, or marginalized, especially when a dominant characteristic is a unique religious perspective. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Western and Eastern culture differences in commercial field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳萍

    2008-01-01

    The communication of people partially is the communication of cultures. Culture has a direct effect on international commercial activities in all aspects. Different conceptions about time, space, equality, law and the like, lead people to deal with things in different ways. So to know cultures of the counterpart is to facil-itate our enterprises so as to have a smooth and successful communication in commercial activity.

  8. Cultural Differences and Cultivation of Cross-Cultural Communicative Competence in Chinese FLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve their abilities in cross-cultural communication, language learners should develop not only their language competence, but also communicative competence. This paper presents an understanding on the general cultural differences between the west and China by applying the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and Bond, and points out…

  9. Different Attitudes Towards Traditional Culture in Song of Solomon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI He-qi

    2015-01-01

    Song of Solomon is Toni Morrison’s masterpiece which describes the effort of black people to find the root of their tradi⁃tional culture. Morrison shows us different attitudes of black people towards traditional culture through different characters and por⁃trays us a picture of the life of black people in that age.

  10. Disability as Cultural Difference: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…

  11. Disability as Cultural Difference: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…

  12. Changing of the Utopian discourse in the cultural context of Modern times

    OpenAIRE

    Nātriņa, Iveta

    2011-01-01

    The promotion paper analyzes the development of the utopian discourse from the utopia as a concept emerging in the sixteenth century, when T.More published his work ‘Utopia’ in 1516 until the utopia becoming a general concept in the cultural context of the eighteenth century. In order to address the variations in the utopian discourse, the space and time utopia classification is applied an also has been specified in the study. Hermeneutic text analysis has been used to analyze the utopian wor...

  13. Parental grief and memento mori photography: narrative, meaning, culture, and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Cybele; Cacciatore, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem photography is a widespread practice in perinatal bereavement care, yet few studies have explored how it affects bereaved parents, or how it might be received by parents of older children. This study is an examination of the meaning, utility, and social context of postmortem photography in a sample of 181 bereaved parents. Data were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Photographs were positively regarded by most parents after perinatal death and several parents of older children. Other parents rejected postmortem photography for aesthetic, personal, or cultural reasons. Brief recommendations are offered for healthcare providers.

  14. Reembedding Lean: The Japanese Cultural and Religious Context of a World Changing Management Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrock, Christian

    2015-01-01

    James Womack, Daniel Jones, and Daniel Roos rhetorically positioned the management concept “lean” for the business world in the early 1990s, claiming that lean would change the world for the better. In this article, I consider the management concept “lean,” its relation to Japanese history, culture......, Jones, and Ross that lean can be studied and implemented without regard to the context, I show how practices and attitudes considered central to lean have a long-standing history in Japan. They can be traced back to the Tokugawa period (1600–1868) and were salient in the trading houses of early modern...

  15. The Cultural Differences between English and Chinese Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中宇

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to analyze the cultural differences between English and Chinese color words.The differences are mainly embodied in the historical tradition,the national psychology and religion,life habits and emotional color,etc.

  16. Gender Differences and Informal Networks in a Scandinavian Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2001-01-01

    important competencies stated by male and female managers in Danish companies. While the results seem to indicate that there are fewer differences between the genders than might be expected, using a factor analysis indicates that there are some structural differences suggesting that the proposition about...... performed empirical analyses using networks theory. This has resulted in a number of well-founded propositions about how male and female managers develop and use different informal networks. One key finding, among others, is the proposition that female managers seem to develop dual networks (one with other...... women for friendship and one primarily with men for career development), while their male colleagues only develop one, which seems to satisfy both needs. In the empirical part of this paper, data from the Danish Management Barometer are used to gain an insight into the main differences between the most...

  17. Cultural, gender, and socioeconomic contexts in therapeutic and social policy work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldegrave, Charles

    2009-03-01

    The contention of this paper is that the context of social and therapeutic problems is critical to their resolution, and that many of them stem from historical and structural injustice. It focuses on the contextual issues of cultural, gender, and socioeconomic equity as providing important insights into authentic notions of social inclusion and well-being, and encourages therapists, service providers, researchers, and policy makers to take responsibility to ensure that these injustices are addressed, and become part of the public discourse about the sources and solutions of endemic social problems. Critique and deconstruction of institutional power in our public, private, and voluntary services is encouraged in a manner that honors diversity and enables sensitive therapy, other forms of service delivery and policy making that genuinely reflect the range of cultural, gender, and socioeconomic experiences of citizens.

  18. Action research and empowerment in a Danish context – experiences from three different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Søgård jensen, Michael; Bilfeldt, Anette

    for better social and environmental conditions. The paper introduces the core concepts in action research and the linkage between critical participatory action research and empowerment. The paper presents three different action research projects that has been carried out in: 1) a public nursing home, where...... and facilitate empowerment of both residents and welfare workers and 3) a local project about sustainable housing, where the objective was to design and build houses, which could act as prototypes and inspiration for a further development of sustainable housing. The paper discusses similarities and differences...... in methods that have been employed in the three projects. Finally challenges and opportunities for action research to contribute to empowerment and to the development of societal change with better social and environmental conditions are discussed....

  19. On Cultural Differences between Chinese and English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵容青

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of economic globalization, the desire of modern people to know foreign culture is becoming stronger and stronger. As a part of culture and an important carrier of culture, language has very close relationship with culture. Idioms, the gems of language, are fixed sentences or phrases which are concise in form and wisdom. And the proper idiom translation can not only faithfully express the content and thought of the original works but also widen people' s cultural horizon and enrich their vocabulary. However, there are a lot of harri- ers and difficulties in translating idioms because they are strongly culture-loaded. Therefore, in order to render idioms faithfully and effectively, it is a must for a translator to pay much attention to the different cultural backgrounds between China and English-speaking countries and make use of the methods of idioms translation in a flexible way.

  20. Self-starvation in context: towards a culturally sensitive understanding of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S

    1995-07-01

    Extreme forms of self-starvation can be traced across time and place, and may be construed using a variety of explanatory models. Curiously, the prevailing biomedical definition of anorexia nervosa has assigned primacy to the exclusive use of 'fat phobia' by the affected subjects to justify their diminished food intake. This paper assembles evidence to show that this culturally constructed version of fat phobic anorexia nervosa has neglected the full metaphorical significance of self-starvation and, when applied in a cross-cultural context, may constitute a category fallacy. By delegitimizing other rationales for non-eating and thereby barring subjective expressions, this regnant interpretive strategy may obscure clinicians' understanding of patients' lived experience, and even jeopardize their treatment. Nonetheless, it is a relatively simple task to attune the extant diagnostic criteria to a polythetic approach which will avert cultural parochialism in psychiatric theory and practice. As a corollary of the archival and ethnocultural study of extreme self-starvation, there is, contrary to epistemological assumptions embedded in the biomedical culture of contemporary psychiatry, no 'core psychopathology' of anorexia nervosa.

  1. Action research and empowerment in a Danish context – experiences from three different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Søgård jensen, Michael; Bilfeldt, Anette

    for better social and environmental conditions. The paper introduces the core concepts in action research and the linkage between critical participatory action research and empowerment. The paper presents three different action research projects that has been carried out in: 1) a public nursing home, where...... the purpose was to improve the quality of eldercare with special reference to social life among residents, as an alternative to the rigid and bureaucratic focus in New Public Management 2) a marginalized urban area, where the objective was to develop a community centre, which could strengthen social capital...

  2. Relevant Sex Appeals in Advertising: Gender and Commitment Context Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanseng, Even J.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates differences in men's and women's attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality. Commitment thoughts were manipulated by two types of prime, a parenting prime (study1) and a romantic prime (study 2). Results are explained by differences in how men and women react to sexual material and by differences in men's and women's evolved mating preferences. PMID:27746749

  3. Realizing good care within a context of cross-cultural diversity: an ethical guideline for healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier, Yvonne; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-09-01

    In our globalizing world, health care professionals and organizations increasingly experience cross-cultural challenges in care relationships, which give rise to ethical questions regarding "the right thing to do" in such situations. For the time being, the international literature lacks examples of elaborated ethical guidelines for cross-cultural healthcare on the organizational level. As such, the ethical responsibility of healthcare organizations in realizing cross-cultural care remains underexposed. This paper aims to fill this gap by offering a case-study that illustrates the bioethical practice on a large-scale organizational level by presenting the ethical guideline developed in the period 2007-2011 by the Ethics Committee of Zorgnet Vlaanderen, a Christian-inspired umbrella organization for over 500 social profit healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium. The guideline offers an ethical framework within which fundamental ethical values are being analyzed within the context of cross-cultural care. The case study concludes with implications for healthcare practice on four different levels: (1) the level of the healthcare organization, (2) staff, (3) care receivers, and (4) the level of care supply. The study combines content-based ethics with process-based benchmarks.

  4. Contrasting Policies towards (Mainly) Christian Education in Different Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    During the past 10 to 15 years there has been a renewed interest in the place of religion, religious education and religious schools in different parts of the world. This began in the USA and Europe with the development of private Christian schools. It was later followed by the resurgence of religious schools in the former parts of the Soviet…

  5. The Evolving Context of the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley-Vroman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Foreign language learning contrasts with native language development in two key respects: It is unreliable and it is nonconvergent. At the same time, it is clear that foreign languages are languages. The fundamental difference hypothesis (FDH) was introduced as a way to account for the general characteristics of foreign language learning. The FDH…

  6. Criteria of selection of basic linguacultural units within the context of cross-cultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalupo Olga Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems associated with the analysis and selection of basic linguacultural units that are necessary for a more effective cross-cultural communication. To make the process of dialogue between different cultures and languages more appropriate and productive, it is necessary to possess certain knowledge, skills, which are acquired by man in the process of learning. Important in our opinion in this area are the mastery means which will prepare the person to communicate in a different communicative space. Such means, in our opinion, are the basic linguacultural units, which are considered as carriers of information and expression of cultural identity. They inform choice contributes to a worldview, understanding linguacultural picture of the world community. The basis of selection of linguistic units on the following criteria: the information content, functionality, sufficiency, cultural identity, realism, pivotal importance to the basic sense, social and cultural significance. Application of the proposed criteria allowing more appropriate to make the selection of the material and linguacultural integral components of the scope of cross-cultural interaction, which are characterized by their relevant material necessary for an adequate understanding of the processes occurring in different communicative space.

  7. It is time to change our cultural context. Invited commentary on...Evaluation of England's Time to Change programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce G

    2013-04-01

    The Time to Change campaign in England has attempted to change attitudes to mental illness at population level. The concept of cultural context is introduced to look at how mental illness functions in society and whether any change in the current context is feasible.

  8. Cross-Culture Adaptation in Business Context:the Implication of Adap-tation Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱玲; 石美

    2014-01-01

    Translating in business context involves considerable factors like culture, idioms besides language itself. This paper em-ploys adaptation theory and posed several examples commonly-seen in product, trademark and advertisement translating to show the essentials of translating in business context.

  9. Success for All: Eroding the Culture of Power in the One-to-One Teaching and Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakena, Te Oti; Airini,; Brown, Deidre

    2016-01-01

    This study applied a cultural lens to the "expert-novice dyad" (Kennell, 2002, p. 243) and explored the learning experiences of indigenous minorities studying in this context. The purpose of this study was to gather narratives that reflected the nature of teaching practices in the one-to-one studio context. The resulting data presented…

  10. The Cultural Difference and Teaching of English Lexicoloqy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云

    2009-01-01

    Contrast this to be adopted in terms of both language and cultural background reflected in the meaning of life,and address,social etiquette,gender,emotional,and other areas to explore differences in how English vocabulary teaching in the financial and cultural knowledge in the language,into a culture of moderation,thereby enhancing the efficiency of teaching vocabulary to the real purpose of teaching vocabulary.

  11. Nurses' Experiences of Caring for Patients with Different Cultures in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Rana; Heydari, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Mashhad is a center of diverse cultures, where many local and foreign cultures live together in its context. One of the main needs of a society with cultural diversity is transcultural care of patients. Hence, the present study took the first step for care of culturally diversified and minority patients in Mashhad. This research has been conducted to explore the nurses' experience of caring from patients with different cultures. This study is a qualitative research using phenomenological hermeneutics approach. The participations include nurses who have been working 5 or less than 5 years in the hospitals affiliated to Medical University of Mashhad. They were selected using purposeful sampling method. For data collection, semi-structured, in-depth interview was used. For data analysis, interpretation method was used. The interviews continued until saturation of data was obtained. Data analysis resulted in extraction of 4 themes including ethnocentrism, contradicting perceptions of care, it is not our fault, and lack of cultural knowledge. The experience of nurses in taking care of patients with other cultures showed that minorities and small cultures have been neglected in Mashhad and hospitalization of such people in hospitals and other clinics is not specific. We recommend that an educational curriculum about transcultural care should be added to nursing courses. Also, necessary equipment and facilities should be considered and prepared for culturally different patients in hospitals.

  12. Children’s Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam eWeis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g. such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children’s behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children’s behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children’s self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children’s behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children’s school achievement.

  13. Cultural differences in medical communication: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Barbara C; Meeuwesen, Ludwien

    2006-12-01

    Culture and ethnicity have often been cited as barriers in establishing an effective and satisfying doctor-patient relationship. The aim of this paper is to gain more insight in intercultural medical communication difficulties by reviewing observational studies on intercultural doctor-patient communication. In addition, a research model for studying this topic in future research is proposed. A literature review using online databases (Pubmed, Psychlit) was performed. Findings reveal major differences in doctor-patient communication as a consequence of patients' ethnic backgrounds. Doctors behave less affectively when interacting with ethnic minority patients compared to White patients. Ethnic minority patients themselves are also less verbally expressive; they seem to be less assertive and affective during the medical encounter than White patients. Most reviewed studies did not relate communication behaviour to possible antecedent culture-related variables, nor did they assess the effect of cultural variations in doctor-patient communication on outcomes, leaving us in the dark about reasons for and consequences of differences in intercultural medical communication. Five key predictors of culture-related communication problems are identified in the literature: (1) cultural differences in explanatory models of health and illness; (2) differences in cultural values; (3) cultural differences in patients' preferences for doctor-patient relationships; (4) racism/perceptual biases; (5) linguistic barriers. It is concluded that by incorporating these variables into a research model future research on this topic can be enhanced, both from a theoretical and a methodological perspective. Using a cultural sensitive approach in medical communication is recommended.

  14. Forming insights: assessment of the occupational therapy practice in a cultural context from experience with indigenous people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daniela Corrêa de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a reflection process on the issue of occupational therapy and culture through analysis of practical experiences of a extension project. It aimed to increase knowledge and reflections of occupational therapy and its technical actions in cultural contexts from the perspective of ethnicity issues. It is a documental and qualitative research was aiming to report the experience of students and an occupational therapist, obtained through their written reports between 2012 and 2014. Data were analyzed using the categorizations proposed by Bardin. The categories of analysis found are related to technical activities in occupational therapy, namely: cultural and ethnic action. The results showed that, in the experiences with the Guarani community, there are already significant and consolidated actions of occupational therapy in cultural contexts. The technical actions already performed confirm the relevance of the occupational therapist role in the cultural context and in the ethnicity context. These practices are, in turn, relevant for the production of knowledge, the theoretical and methodological scope and professional training in social and cultural contexts of occupational therapy. It is emphasized that technical procedures coherent with the ethnicity issues in a joint relationship, articulated by cultural mediation, can strengthen human doings and identity claims.

  15. Feeling close and doing well: the prevalence and motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions in Mexican and European American cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Alvarez, Ayme; Mesquita, Batja; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigate whether interpersonally engaging emotions--those that bring the self closer to others (e.g., affection, shame)--are central to the model of self and relationships prevalent in Mexican cultural contexts. Study 1 demonstrated that compared to people in European American contexts, people in Mexican contexts were more likely to report experiencing interpersonally engaging emotions and less likely to report experiencing interpersonally disengaging emotions. Study 2 found that interpersonally engaging emotions had a substantial influence on performance motivation in Mexican contexts--Mexican participants solved more word search puzzles after recalling instances in which they experienced positive interpersonally engaging emotions, and fewer after recalling negative interpersonally disengaging emotions; in contrast, there were no differences by condition for European Americans. These findings significantly extend previous research by documenting the implications of relational concerns (e.g., simpatia, personalismo) for emotion and motivation in Mexican contexts, and are the first to demonstrate the motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions.

  16. Institutional Autonomy and Academic Freedom in the Nordic Context--Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokkala, Terhi; Bladh, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Owing to their common history, similarities in language and culture, long traditions in political collaboration and the shared Nordic societal model, an assumption is often made that the operational and regulatory context of universities is similar in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In this article, we…

  17. Language and disciplinary differences in a biliterate context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses some of the publication characteristics of a biliterate environment - the Faculty of Business Administration in a Danish business school. Academics in this faculty read predominantly in English, publish both in English and in Danish, but interact with one another almost...... and the international academic forum; it shows that a languages-of-communication profile can be drawn for each department; it develops a notion of two types of publication cycles, reflecting different attitudes and demands across disciplines or academic units; and it shows that the existence of four potential...... communities to be served may contribute to our understanding of choice of language for publication....

  18. School violence: An analysis from different interaction contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Varela Garay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyze the differences between adolescents scoring high and low on school violence in the following areas: individual (self-esteem, loneliness, satisfaction with life, and empathy; family (family climate, communication with father and mother; academic (classroom climate, attitudes toward authority, and sociometric status; and community (community involvement, community participation, social support from formal systems, and social support from informal systems. Differences in these relationships between boys and girls scoring high on school violence were also examined. Participants in the study were 1723 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years old, in four secondary schools. Multivariate and univariate analysis of variance were performed. Results showed that adolescents with high levels of school violence scored higher on loneliness, depressive symptomatology, offensive and avoidance communication with father and mother, family conflict, and attitude towards transgression, as compared to adolescents with low levels of school violence. Furthermore, girls scoring high on school violence reported higher scores on academic self-esteem, empathy, and sociometric status, and lower scores on open communication with father and community participation, as compared to boys scoring high in school violence. Finally, these results and their practical implications are discussed.

  19. Three papers in natural resource valuation: Accounting for cross-cultural contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton MacDonald, Darla Anne

    1998-12-01

    This is a three paper thesis concerned with environmental valuation in cross cultural contexts. The first paper tests some of the hypotheses outlined in Adamowicz et al (1998) concerning potential sources of bias and other problems that might enter the contingent valuation process. In particular, the potential for satiation and cultural differences in willingness to pay are explored. The paper concludes that there are differences in how Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal people in northern Canada place values on natural resources such as the fishery. No strong tendencies to refuse to consider monetary - resource trade-offs were observed in either group. In general, satiation was found to be a negative influence on willingness to pay. Satiation with one's own use of a resource was a significant factor with the Non-Aboriginal population. Non-use values were isolated for the group of satiated respondents. The non-use values reflect the existence values, bequest values, altruism, etc. The second paper examines how the random utility model could be adapted to model household firewood collection. Collecting fuelwood is first and foremost a resource allocation issue for the household. There are real opportunity costs in choosing one site for fuelwood collection over another. In the study areas of north-eastern Zimbabwe, households were observed to choose a variety of sites. The choice of any particular site was hypothesised to involve a trade-off of the various attributes of the sites which includes time, effort or calories as well as characteristics such as the availability of certain types of fuelwood at a site, whether the site passes by the garden or by the homestead of a friend. The closure of any particular site might represent a minor loss on average of 10 to 25 calories but for some households, the loss may be as high as 200 calories. This brings a spatial dimension to the analysis as the closure of a site will be borne differently by households depending on their

  20. [Bus drivers' biomechanical risk assessment in two different contexts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, A; Coggiola, M; Perrelli, F; Banchio, M; Martignone, S; Gullino, A; Romano, C

    2012-01-01

    The application of standardize methods for the biomechanical risk assessment in non-industrial cycled activity is not always possible. A typical case is the public transport sector, where workers complain of suffering for shoulder more than elbow and wrist pains. The Authors present the results of two studies involving two public transport companies and the risk of biomechanical overload of upper limbs for bus and tram drivers. The analysis has been made using three different approaches: focus groups; static analysis by using anthropometric manikins; work sampling technique by monitoring worker's activity and posture at each minute, for two hours and for each binomial vehicle-route, considering P5F e P95M drivers and assessing the perceived efforts thorough the Borg's CR10 Scale. The conclusive results show that the ergonomic analysis managed by multiple non-standardized techniques may reach consistent and repeatable results according to the epidemiological evidences.

  1. Differences Between British and Americans’ Cultures in Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘巍巍; 戴立黎

    2008-01-01

    <正>Values are the most important issue in identifying one particular culture.Social values are the feelings people have about what is important,worthwhile,and just.In this paper,the differences between British and American values are discussed in two aspects which mainly lie respectively in the comparisons of values and characteristics in both cultures.

  2. The Cultural Differences in Advertisements Between the West and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳

    2013-01-01

    Advertising is not only a kind of business activity,but also a means of cultural communication.?When it comes to interpreting advertising language,different cultures and traditions are taken into consideration.Meanwhile distinct features are represented in Chinese and western advertisements.

  3. Analyses of Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Automobile Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Di; Wang; Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes auto advertisings between China and western countries,so as to explore the cultural differences of value orientations and thinking patterns behind them and help readers know better about auto culture in China and western countries.

  4. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  5. Formation of financial culture of Ukraine's population in the context of the minimization of the market asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kornivska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the features of the institutionalization of the Ukrainian financial market in the context of high levels of market asymmetry due to the insufficient level of general financial culture. The author characterizes the global experience of improving the financial culture of population, and justifies the ways to overcome the market asymmetry of socio-institutional space of the Ukrainian financial market.

  6. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  7. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Cultural values predict coping using culture as an individual difference variable in multi-cultural samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Bardi, Anat; Guerra, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Three studies establish the relations between cultural values and coping using multicultural samples of international students. Study 1 established the cross-cultural measurement invariance of subscales of the Cope inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989) used in the paper. The cultural value dimensions of embeddedness vs. autonomy and hierarchy vs. egalitarianism predicted how international students from 28 (Study 2) and 38 (Study 3) countries coped with adapting to living in a new cou...

  9. Destination Quality Perception in the Context of Different Behavioural Characteristics of Visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryglová Kateřina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Visitors’ perceptions of the quality of a tourism destination are fundamental for effective destination management and marketing. This paper deals with the topic of destination quality from the viewpoint of demand, i.e. from the viewpoint of a destination visitor. The results of perceiving the destination quality partial factors in the context of different behavioural characteristics of a visitor are presented, particularly, the way how spending and organizing a holiday influences the perception of destination quality factors (Kruskal-Wallis test. The research nineteen factors were designed on the basis of contemporary theories and on qualitative research. Some important quality aspects related to tourism were identified and assessed for the Czech population. The primary data were obtained through a questionnaire survey with quota sampling (n = 1097. The dependence of destination quality perception on the way of spending the holiday was revealed in the case of 8 factors (e.g., Availability of transportation to the destination, Availability and quality of information; Additional infrastructure, Sense of security, Destination cleanliness, Uniqueness of destination, Price level in the destination, Cultural monuments. The significant differences identified among various groups of respondents are described in detail in this study. The research findings contribute to better understanding of the behavioural mechanism and can be used by destination managers to design communication strategies for different segments of consumers for individual destinations to improve their competiveness.

  10. Physical and sexual violence against children in Kenya within a cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewater, Grace

    2016-02-01

    The issue of physical and sexual abuse of children in Kenya is recognised as a highly prevalent and significant problem, occurring within a framework of social values that contribute to the exploitation of women and children. In order to understand the risk and protective factors for children who experience physical and sexual abuse, the cultural context must be taken into consideration. This paper will argue that patriarchy and traditional values underlie the norms and behaviours of parents and communities interacting with children. These values can be protective, eg the value placed on family structure; however, the traditional value-system justifies harsh physical punishment as a means of disciplining children. While systems exist to prevent abuse, these often disenfranchise the poor, who are then left to seek traditional means of support (eg out-of-court agreements and settlements). A culture of silence also prevents many children from reporting abuse. The paper argues that efforts must be made to gain a better understanding of the prevalence of child maltreatment in Kenya so that targeted services can be developed to reduce it, taking into consideration and overcoming negative cultural factors through the implementation of educational programmes and anti-oppressive practice. It is hoped that this paper will enable community practitioners and health visitors in the UK to provide better support to Kenyan children who are at risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence.

  11. Practice to research: integrating evidence-based practices with culture and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Thomas S; Hay, M Cameron

    2015-04-01

    There are ways to integrate culturally competent services (CCS) and evidence-based practices (EBP) which can improve the experiences of patients and their families and communities when faced with health problems, as well as the effectiveness and positive experiences of practitioners. CCS and EBP evidence should be jointly deployed for helping patients and clinicians. Partnership research models are useful for achieving the integration of CCS and EBP, since they involve close observation of and participation by clinicians and practitioners in the research process, and often use integrated qualitative and quantitative mixed methods. We illustrate this with 3 examples of work that can help integrate CCS and EBP: ongoing collection of information from patients, clinicians and staff, or "evidence farming"; close study and continuous improvement of activities and accommodations; and use of evidence of tacit, implicit cultural scripts and norms, such as being "productive," as well as explicit scripts. From a research practice point of view, collaborative partnerships will likely produce research with culture and context bracketed in, and will contribute stronger research models, methods, and units of analysis.

  12. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  13. Different Cultures Reflected in Chinese and American Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪思思

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, advertising has become an important part in human life. Advertising is not only a carrier of information, but also an important part of culture. As a kind of cultural phenomenon, advertising has permeated throughout people ’s social life. In its course of spread, it transmits cultural information and embodies different values. Thus it influences people ’s thoughts and values unconsciously, leads and changes their behaviors and patterns of consumption.In this essay, I will demonstrate the la-tent relationship between advertising and culture through analyzing different cultures reflected in Chinese and American advertise-ments. And this essay offers many solid theories and abundant examples acquired from books and periodicals of various ages.

  14. An Analysis on Cultural Differences in Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雅

    2014-01-01

    Great opportunities together with great challenges are brought to the development of Chinese economy with the glo-balization of the world economy. Foreign businessmen want to share the market of China, while Chinese enterprisers with a broader sight have been thinking about selling products to international markets. Languages and cultures of different nations have their own characteristics. In order to communicate with each other, human beings must make use of the methods of translation. Thus, it shows that translation, which is a social activity of inter-language, inter-culture and inter-community, is linked closely to culture. Meanwhile, the features of translation represent similarly in advertising translation. Generally speaking, when doing ad-vertising translation, it can not only focus on language differences between the two sides, but also pay attention to cultural differ-ences. Or else it would be difficult to translate satisfying advertisements.By taking examples from Chinese-English and English-Chinese, this paper compares the different aspects between Chinese and Western thinking sets, traditional ideas and values in order to reflect differences of advertising translation based on different cultures. Finally, it will sum up some strategies of inter-cultural advertising translation.

  15. Normal and retarded children's understanding of semantic relations in different verbal contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchan, J F; Erickson, J G

    1976-12-01

    The effect of different semantic relations presented in different verbal contexts to language retarded and normal children at the one-and two-word stage of development was studied. No significant difference was found between the performance of mentally retarded language-disordered and normal children on the verbal comprehension task. Both groups of children performed best on the possessive, next on the agent-object, then actor-action, and poorest on the locative relations. Finally, nonsense, telegraphic, and expanded contexts did make a difference in the children's understandings with expanded being the best, telegraphic next, and nonsense contexts poorest. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Cultural Preferences to Color Quality of Illumination of Different Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Anqing; Žukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Prančiskas; Shur, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The preferences to color quality of illumination were investigated for American and Chinese subjects using a solid-state source of white light with the continuously tunable color saturation ability and correlated color temperature of quadrichromatic blends. Subjects were asked to identify both most natural and preferred blends. For very familiar objects, cultural differences did not affect the average of the selected blends. For less familiar objects (various paintings), cultural differences in the average selected blends depended on the level of the familiarity of the content. An unfamiliar painting also showed preferences to color temperature being dependent on the cultural background. In all cases, the American subjects exhibited noticeably wider distributions.

  17. Different Connotations of "Modesty" Lying in Western and Eastern Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2015-01-01

    as a common morality,politeness is the symbol of human civilization and a primary principle abided by people in interpersonal communication.However,the standard and the way of expression of politeness are fluctuated with different culture.This essay takes analysis on different connotations of"modesty" lying in the western culture and eastern culture deeply and explains the cause for that,for the purpose of helping people avoid pragmatic mistake in intercultural communication at the best to achieve considerable communicative effect.

  18. Exploring cultural differences in feedback processes and perceived instructiveness during clerkships : Replicating a Dutch study in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Prihatiningsih, Titi S.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cultural differences between countries may entail differences in feedback processes. Aims: By replicating a Dutch study in Indonesia, we analysed whether differences in processes influenced the perceived instructiveness of feedback. Methods: Over a two-week period, Indonesian students (n =

  19. Continuing Professional Development in Context: Teachers' Continuing Professional Development Culture in Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the continuing professional development (CPD) culture of teachers, and asks how it is influenced by properties of the school system. It reports the results of a questionnaire study with 418 secondary teachers from Sweden and Germany. The results show highly significant differences between Swedish and German teachers'…

  20. Emotional Faces in Context: Age Differences in Recognition Accuracy and Scanning Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Rim; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    While age-related declines in facial expression recognition are well documented, previous research relied mostly on isolated faces devoid of context. We investigated the effects of context on age differences in recognition of facial emotions and in visual scanning patterns of emotional faces. While their eye movements were monitored, younger and older participants viewed facial expressions (i.e., anger, disgust) in contexts that were emotionally congruent, incongruent, or neutral to the facial expression to be identified. Both age groups had highest recognition rates of facial expressions in the congruent context, followed by the neutral context, and recognition rates in the incongruent context were worst. These context effects were more pronounced for older adults. Compared to younger adults, older adults exhibited a greater benefit from congruent contextual information, regardless of facial expression. Context also influenced the pattern of visual scanning characteristics of emotional faces in a similar manner across age groups. In addition, older adults initially attended more to context overall. Our data highlight the importance of considering the role of context in understanding emotion recognition in adulthood. PMID:23163713

  1. NOx Emission Trading in a European Context: Discussion of the Economic, Legal, and Cultural Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris P.A. Dekkers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission trading is a new instrument in environmental policy. It is an alien notion in most European countries and it is often viewed with hesitation. The paper discusses the economic, legal, and perhaps more importantly, the cultural aspects to consider when one tries to explore the prospects for trading emissions of NOX and other substances in Europe. Issues to be addressed are the present legal framework in Europe in relation to the national emission ceilings on NOX and other substances on the basis of relevant EU directives and UNECE protocols. The paper will discuss the extent to which the legal framework within the EU imposes constraints on the design of a national emission trading scheme, and what options are available to fit emission trading into that legislative structure. The NOX emission trading programme developed in the Netherlands will be used to demonstrate the various aspects in a European context.

  2. The cultural context of smoking among immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cathy J; Fortney, Christine A; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ahijevych, Karen L

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to gain understanding of the cultural context of smoking among immigrants from former Soviet Union countries now living in the Midwest United States. Semistructured interviews were conducted in focus group or individual settings (N = 14), including smokers and former smokers recruited from community settings. Social factors and stress management strongly motivated smoking behavior. Personal willpower was the most helpful cessation strategy, with firm lack of openness to pharmacologic approaches. Top past stressors included food insecurity and societal unrest, with the top current stressors being acculturative issues. The importance of social connectedness and the relatively low priority of prevention were also themes. Based on these interviews, interventions should include acculturative stress management and maintaining social connectedness, while addressing life experiences in the insecurity of basic needs. Smoking cessation interventions that are tailored beyond just language use and address these specific issues are suggested.

  3. Brain-computer-interfaces in their ethical, social and cultural contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Grübler, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    This volume summarizes the ethical, social and cultural contexts of interfacing brains and computers. It is intended for the interdisciplinary community of BCI stakeholders. Insofar, engineers, neuroscientists, psychologists, physicians, care-givers and also users and their relatives are concerned. For about the last twenty years brain-computer-interfaces (BCIs) have been investigated with increasing intensity and have in principle shown their potential to be useful tools in diagnostics, rehabilitation and assistive technology. The central promise of BCI technology is enabling severely impaired people in mobility, grasping, communication, and entertainment. Successful applications are for instance communication devices enabling locked-in patients in staying in contact with their environment, or prostheses enabling paralysed people in reaching and grasping. In addition to this, it serves as an introduction to the whole field of BCI for any interested reader.

  4. "Life is a verb": inflections of artificial life in cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    This review essay surveys recent literature in the history of science, literary theory, anthropology, and art criticism dedicated to exploring how the artificial life enterprise has been inflected by--and might also reshape--existing social, historical, cognitive, and cultural frames of thought and action. The piece works through various possible interpretations of Kevin Kelly's phrase "life is a verb," in order to track recent shifts in cultural studies of artificial life from an aesthetic of critique to an aesthetic of conversation, discerning in the process different styles of translating between the concerns of the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and sciences of the artificial.

  5. Differences between Chinese and American Language Cultures from the Aspect of Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐桂真

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionFood culture is the sum of human dietary behavior,conception,technology and its products.It shows human natural choiceand dietary way of life that is suited to special geographical environment and humane environment through common practice.Cultural differences between

  6. Cross-Cultural Differences in Somatic Awareness and Interoceptive Accuracy: A Review of the Literature and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eMa-Kellams

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoceptive processes and the role of culturally-bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: 1 the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; 2 the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, 3 culturally-bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and 4 consequences for culturally-bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible interventions, or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoceptive processes for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders.

  7. Impression management within the Zulu culture: Exploring tactics in the work context

    OpenAIRE

    Debrah Mtshelwane; Jan Alewyn Nel; Lizelle Brink

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: Impression management tactics are utilised differently by people depending on the situation and the others around them.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify the impression management tactics Zulu people display when they want to impress people in a work context.Motivation for this study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and people who contribute to the return on investment for the organisation. Individuals display impression tactics to influ...

  8. The cultural context of patient's autonomy and doctor's duty: passive euthanasia and advance directives in Germany and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicktanz, Silke; Raz, Aviad; Shalev, Carmel

    2010-11-01

    The moral discourse surrounding end-of-life (EoL) decisions is highly complex, and a comparison of Germany and Israel can highlight the impact of cultural factors. The comparison shows interesting differences in how patient's autonomy and doctor's duties are morally and legally related to each other with respect to the withholding and withdrawing of medical treatment in EoL situations. Taking the statements of two national expert ethics committees on EoL in Israel and Germany (and their legal outcome) as an example of this discourse, we describe the similarity of their recommendations and then focus on the differences, including the balancing of ethical principles, what is identified as a problem, what social role professionals play, and the influence of history and religion. The comparison seems to show that Israel is more restrictive in relation to Germany, in contrast with previous bioethical studies in the context of the moral and legal discourse regarding the beginning of life, in which Germany was characterized as far more restrictive. We reflect on the ambivalence of the cultural reasons for this difference and its expression in various dissenting views on passive euthanasia and advance directives, and conclude with a comment on the difficulty in classifying either stance as more or less restrictive.

  9. Cultural Psychology of Differences and EMS; a New Theoretical Framework for Understanding and Reconstructing Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2017-09-01

    In this paper I introduce the outlines of our new type of theoretical framework named 'Cultural psychology of Differences' for understanding cultural others and dialogically reconstructing interactions among cultural others. In order to understand cultural others, it is necessary for us to reconstruct a new concept which enables us to analyze dynamic generation processes of culture. We propose the concept of Expanded Mediational Structure, EMS, as an elementary unit for understanding human social interactions. EMS is composed of subjects who interacts each other using objects of some kind as mediators, and a normative mediator, NM, which mediates their interactions. It is necessary to generate, share and adjust a NM to keep social interactions stable, and culture will appear when interaction malfunction is attributed to a gaps of NMs. The concept of EMS helps us to understand how culture is functionally substantialized in the plane of collective (or communal) intersubjectivity and how cultural conflicts develop and intensify. Focusing on the generation process of culture through interactions provides us with another option to understand cultural others through dialogical interactions with them.

  10. Energy use in cultural context: an ethnographic comparison of households in Minnesota and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sweden's reputation for energy efficiency caught the attention of the US as it sought to cope with the oil crisis of 1973 and subsequent energy problems. How did the Swedes enjoy an affluent way of life while using only 60% as much energy as the Americans. Was lesser residential energy consumption in Sweden due primarily to superior technology or to a more-conserving way of life there. In the absence of detailed household data, such questions were treated summarily, with references to the vague notion of lifestyle and with stereotypes about temperate Swedes and gluttonous Americans. This study addresses the questions of the relative roles of technology and behavior and of the veracity of such popular stereotypes. An ethnographic and holistic approach is taken to the comparison of household energy use lifestyle, and cultural context in the towns of Foley, Minnesota and Munka Ljungby, Skane, Sweden. The unit of research is the single family dwelling. The economic, energetic, and political contexts of the households are compared, and the relationships of residents to their larger societies are contrasted, especially with regard to information and support for energy conservation.

  11. Characterization of Cellulolytic Bacterial Cultures Grown in Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Idris Alshelmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF of palm kernel cake (PKC. The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30∘C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.

  12. An investigation on leadership styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous efforts on leadership style and various aspects of different leadership style. Some firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership while many studies indicate that firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership. This paper reviews recent advances on leadership style and various aspects of organizational cultures completed during the past few years. The paper concentrates on recently published articles appeared in the world.

  13. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Songs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彩珍

    2014-01-01

    A title is like an eye that reveals its character. A good title of great originality can concentrate on the main points and arouse readers’interests. The title plays a significant part especially in the times of eyeball economy. However, though short as titles are, they always contain a lot of connotations which are quite difficult to translate. Translation is substantially kind of cross-cultural information communication, and translation of song titles is no exception. Due to different origins, Chinese and Western cultures possess their own characteristics in cultural images, ways of thinking, and historical allusions, which should be considered when translating song titles.

  14. [The personal context of a museum experience: similarities and differences between science and art museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana Mortara

    2005-01-01

    The article focuses on the development of research that illuminates not only the socioeconomic profiles of museum visitors and non-visitors but also their cultural habits, general entertainment interests, and their perceptions of art, science, and other topics addressed at these institutes. The more we know about a visitor's personal context, the more we can enhance his or her museum experience, thereby encouraging further museum visits during which his or her expectations, wishes, and needs will be more fully met. The article also focuses on how local culture plays an important part in shaping both personal context as well as each museum experience. Some examples are provided from the literature, above all concerning studies in Brazil and the contributions that research at art museums may have for science museums.

  15. Measuring Culture Effect size Differences in Slovenian and Portuguese Leadership Practices: Cross-Cultural Leadership Universality or Contigency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašković Matevž

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the cultural effect size across five types of leadership practices by using the Leadership Practice Inventory (LPI instrument and drawing on the GLOBE research project framework. It tests cultural universality vs. contingency in five LPI leadership practices in an East-West EU comparison, both with an ex-socialist past. It employs four different effect size statistics. The paper contributes to the narrowing of the empirical gap in researching leadership practices in a small, East-West European country context. Only two of the five leadership practices show statistically significant effect sizes. Furthermore, the leadership practice Encouraging the heart is the only one to display a relatively moderate effect size. Thus, the evidence seems to support the universalist perspective over the contingency perspective.

  16. The significance of cultural differences overcome in acquisition processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Slaviša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides the high merger failure rate, different types of corporation restructuring are still one of the most popular ways to realize particular strategic goals, as well as the identified and anticipated synergy effects. In this article we tried to point at the significance that might have cultural integration on the final derived transactions of two entities or new culture development in acquisition processes.

  17. Cultural Differences in the Traditional Chinese and Western Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娟

    2012-01-01

    The culture of world is colorful.On the soil of colorful culture,there grows different traditional festivals.They are distinctly different in their origins.Chinese festivals mainly stem from seasons and solar periods,while western festivals are mostly influenced with religious features.Another aspect is apparent different in their customs.When celebrating the festivals,the Chinese tend to focus more attention on eating and drinking,while the westerners tend to the seeking of pleasure.In the era of globaliza...

  18. Tissue Culture Responses from Different Explants of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-hong; SHI Xiang-yuan; WU Xian-jun

    2005-01-01

    Different culture explants, including anther, young panicle, young embryo, and mature embryo, from 19 rice varieties were used for callus induction and green plantlet differentiation. The culture efficiency differed significantly among the four types of explants, and varied from genotype to genotype. Callus induction frequency presented significantly positive correlation each between anther and young panicle, anther and mature embryo, and young panicle and young embryo. Green plantlet differentiation showed no relationship between different types of explants. In addition, no relationship was found between callus induction frequency and green plantlet differentiation frequency.

  19. Yup'ik culture and context in Southwest Alaska: community member perspectives of tradition, social change, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayunerak, Paula; Alstrom, Deborah; Moses, Charles; Charlie, James; Rasmus, Stacy M

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an introduction to key aspects of Yup'ik Inuit culture and context from both historical and contemporary community member perspectives. Its purpose is to provide a framework for understanding the development and implementation of a prevention initiative centered on youth in two communities in Southwest Alaska as part of collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the National Institutes of Health. This paper is written from the perspective of elders and local prevention workers from each of the two prevention communities. The co-authors discuss their culture and their community from their own perspectives, drawing from direct experience and from ancestral knowledge gained through learning and living the Yuuyaraq or the Yup'ik way of life. The authors of this paper identity key aspects of traditional Yup'ik culture that once contributed to the adaptability and survivability of their ancestors, particularly through times of hardship and social disruption. These key processes and practices represent dimensions of culture in a Yup'ik context that contribute to personal and collective growth, protection and wellbeing. Intervention development in Yup'ik communities requires bridging historical cultural frames with contemporary contexts and shifting focus from reviving cultural activities to repairing and revitalizing cultural systems that structure community.

  20. High-context and Low-context communication:A Case Study of A Chinese Refusal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建晓; 钱敏

    2013-01-01

    Edward Hall offers us an effective means of examining cultural similarities and differences, that is the classification of high-context and low-context culture. The paper attempts to analyze a case of a Chinese refusal from the perspective of high-context and low-context communication and explores the differences between the two types of communication.

  1. The Cultural Content of Chinese and English Expressions in the Context of Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔慈行

    2016-01-01

    Globalization, informatization and digitalization have been the prevailing trends in the world with the advent of 21st century. Under these circumstances, people from different countries are increasingly connecting among each other. Certainly no one can parry this trend or ignore the importance of communication. Consequently, intercultural communications occur here and there in a variety of fields, let alone cultural interactions between different regions. This paper mainly focuses on the following categories:color items, animals and idioms and allusions, which can be seen as a perfect miniature for the differences of intercul-tural communication.

  2. Cultural and learning differences in the Judd illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kamp, John; Withagen, Rob; de Wit, Matthieu M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in the perception of illusory Judd drawings point to variability in the pickup of informational variables. Two sources for these individual differences were addressed: culture and learning. East Asian (n = 24) and Western (n = 24) part

  3. Cultural differences between construction professionals in Denmark and United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, M.R.

    This report presents the results of an investigation into cultural differences between professional members of the construction sector of Denmark and the United Kingdom. In particular it refers to differences between Arkitekter/Architects, Civilingeniører/Civil Engineers and Bygningskonstruktører...

  4. Usability in a Cultural Context: A Report on the Scope, Process and Research Results of CultUsab - The Cultural Usability Project

    OpenAIRE

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Yammiyavar, Pradeep; Ørngreen, Rikke; Katre, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper focuses on presenting and discussing the aim, context, challenges, results, and impact of the Cultural usability project named as CultUsab. This project was a four year international research effort from 2006 to 2009, which was supported by a grant from the Danish Research Councils for Independent Research in Culture and Communication. The project aimed at innovating processes in Information and Communication Technology development through an understanding o...

  5. Cultural Dimensions of Behaviors Towards E-Commerce in a Developing Country Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Akhter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Customers prefer to shop online for various reasons such as saving time, better prices, convenience, selection, and availability of products and services. The accessibility and the ubiquitous nature of the Internet facilitate business beyond brick and mortar. The web-based businesses are required to understand the consumers’ expectations, attitudes, and behavior across the globe and take into consideration of cultural effects. Saudi Arabia has become a highly potential lucrative market for web-based companies. However, the growing number of Saudi Internet users has not become leading online shoppers. It is important for web based companies to identify the barriers that are causing Saudi users to stay away from online shopping mainstream. This led to understanding Saudi culture, expectations, behavior, and decision-making process to promote e-commerce. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Saudi Arabian culture on the diffusion process of e-commerce. The study addresses the cultural differences, risk perceptions, and attitude by investigating Saudi people about shopping online. An empirical study was conducted to collect the data from Saudi users.

  6. Differences of Organizational Culture between Small and Large Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Iliuta Dobre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper analyses the organizational culture of small enterprises and large enterprises, and highlights the common elements and the main differences. The results of the study show significant differences in terms of organizational culture between the two types of organizations. Employees working in small size enterprises are oriented towards innovation, whereas the ones working in large enterprises are more aware of social responsibility. In addition, small organizations are perceived to have a more supportive organizational culture than large enterprises. Furthermore, the study reveals differences in management and leadership styles when analyzing the small and large enterprises. Considering the flatter organizational structure of small enterprises, the managers have a personal relationship with the employees and they motivate them better and align their goals with the ones of the enterprise. In large organizations, the managers need to have a tighter control, as more procedures have to be followed.

  7. Typical Responses in Giving Evaluation: An Analysis of High and Low Context Culture Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferany Arifin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing high and low context in responses given by the students to evaluate their friend’s impromptu speech performance. The study focuses on the characteristics of high and low context represented specifically on (1 direct-indirect (2 simple-complex response, and (3 relationship orientation. The study is based on the analysis of ten responses given by ten students with different sexes. Classroom observation followed by transcription analysis is used. The data were collected naturally at undergraduate campus. The result shows that using indirect and complex responses can maintain harmonious relationship with others. The basic asumption is that the students tend to communicate in high level context. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membahas konteks tinggi dan rendah dalam mengevaluasi performansi pidato tanpa persiapan temannya. Penelitian ini memusatkan perhatian pada ciri konteks tinggi dan rendah yang direpresentasikan oleh (1 tanggapan langsung-tak langsung (2 sederhana-kompleks, dan (3 orientasi hubungan. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada sepuluh tanggapan yang diberikan oleh sepuluh mahasiswa pria dan wanita. Pengamatan kelas yang diikuti dengan analisis transkripsi digunakan untuk pengumpulan data. Data dikumpulkan di kampus diploma. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa siswa cenderung menggunakan tanggapan kompleks dan tak langsung agar dapat menjaga keharmonisan hubungan dengan temannya. Oleh karena itu asumsi dasarnya adalah bahwa siswa cenderung berkomunikasi dalam konteks level tinggi.

  8. Cultural Tourism in the Urban Context: Museologic Routes – The cases of Aveiro and Ílhavo (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Vidal Maia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies how crucial are the relationships between cultural resources and touristic attractions, passing through a journey of transmutation that meets two essential requirements: the need for cultural storytelling or information and the need of providing a unique experience to cultural consumers. One of the most successful products, in the relationship between tourism and culture, are museum routes. This ex-post facto study creates a whole cultural-touristic dynamic through museum routes and their planning in urban areas. We also try to encompass the museum activity of Aveiro and Ílhavo in order to protect and promote sociocultural and patrimonial resources. Our main goal consists on the integration of related areas such as tradition, heritage, art, costumes, crafts, ethnography and history by creating a stronger regional cultural touristic product, that we named “Route Museums, Memories and Stories in the Urban Context of Aveiro and Ílhavo”.

  9. A Study of The Impacts of Culture on Brand and Brand Management: In The Context of Chinese Spirit Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates and discusses the impacts of culture on brand and brand management in the context of Chinese spirit industry. The study deploys the qualitative method. In addition, the individual depth interviews are conducted to collect the data needed. By adopting Hofstede‟s four dimension of culture, the finding shows that: (I) Brand is viewed as a significant equity of a company by Chinese managers; (II) there are three dimensions out of five showing impacts on brand and brand man...

  10. P2-34: Similar Dimensions Underlie Emotional and Conversational Expressions in Korean and German Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahyoung Shin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although facial expressions are one of the most important ways of communication in human society, most studies in the field focus only on the emotional aspect of facial expressions. The communicative/conversational aspects of expressions remain largely neglected. In addition, whereas it is known that there are culturally universal emotional expressions, less is known about how conversational expressions are perceived across cultures. Here, we investigate the underlying dimensions of the complex space of emotional and conversational expressions in a cross-cultural context. For the experiments, we used 620 video sequences of the KU facial expression database (62 expressions of 10 Korean actors, and 540 video sequences of the MPI facial expression database (54 expressions of 10 German actors. Four groups of native German and Korean participants were asked to group the sequences of the German or Korean databases into clusters based on similarity, yielding a fully crossed design across cultural contexts and databases. The confusion matrices created from the grouping data showed similar structure for both databases, but also yielded significantly less confusion for own-culture judgments. Interestingly, multidimensional scaling of the confusion matrices showed that for all four participant groups, two dimensions explained the data sufficiently. Most importantly, post-hoc analyses identified these two dimensions as valence and arousal, respectively, for all cultural contexts and databases. We conclude that although expressions from a familiar background are more effectively grouped, the evaluative dimensions for both German and Korean cultural contexts are exactly the same, showing that cultural universals exist even in this complex space.

  11. Influences of cultural differences on the translation of titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琦

    2007-01-01

    Every country in the world has titles since the ancient times which describe a person's social status or economic power.But because of the different cultures,there are many difficulties in the title translation.This dissertation talks about the cultural differences from these aspects: history,religion,thought,country situation,custom,and economy.And also,this dissertation gives five principles to the title translation.They are principles of levels,principles of changelessness,principles of shortness and conciseness,principles of common use,principles of exceptions.

  12. Beyond our origin: adding social context to an explanation of sex differences in emotion expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Fischer

    2009-01-01

    Vigil's socio-relational framework of sex differences in emotional expressiveness emphasizes general sex differences in emotional responding, but largely ignores the social context in which emotions are expressed. There is much empirical evidence showing that sex differences in emotion displays are

  13. The Use of Management Controls in Different Cultural Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmi, Teemu; Ax, Christian; Bedford, David

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses differences in management control practices in Anglo-Saxon (Australia, Canada), Germanic (Austria, Belgium, Germany), and Nordic firms (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden). Unique data is collected through structured interviews from 688 strategic business units (SBUs) in these ......This study addresses differences in management control practices in Anglo-Saxon (Australia, Canada), Germanic (Austria, Belgium, Germany), and Nordic firms (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden). Unique data is collected through structured interviews from 688 strategic business units (SBUs......) in these countries. We find differences across cultural regions with regard to how managers delegate decision rights to their subordinates, establish multidimensional reporting lines, involve subordinates in cross-functional tasks, and involve subordinates in strategic planning activities. We also find differences...... in the comprehensiveness of plans, purposes of performance measurement and evaluation, and the importance of interactively using budgets and performance measurement systems. Furthermore, we find differences in the nature and bases of rewards and variable compensation. Regarding cultural controls, differences...

  14. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-12-15

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.

  15. The symbolic context of Chinese medicine: a comparative approach to the study of traditional medical and psychiatric forms of care in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, A M

    1975-04-01

    This article explores a distinctly different aspect of Chinese medicine, and of health care in Chinese culture, from that receiving most attention and serious study at present in this country. It examines the symbolic structure and significance of illness and care in the Chinese context by (a) applying concepts developed in anthropology and the cross-cultural study of medicine and psychiatry; (b) examining recent studies of folk and popular forms of health care in contemporary Chinese communities; and (c) raising questions about the congnitive structure, cultural background, and bio-social significance of traditional Chinese healing beliefs and practices. An attempt is made to place this analysis in a comparative framework, so that Chinese cases can be related to health care systems in other cultural settings.

  16. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.

  17. The Role of The Socio-Cultural Context In Designing Appropriate Support Services And Enhancing Interaction In Distance Education In Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih USUN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Understanding the socio-cultural context is the key to developing appropriate support systems for distance learners. The socio-cultural context in Turkey is a critical ingredient in the development of Turkish distance education programmes, in which two elements of Turkish culture - patronage and an oral tradition - seem to play a significant role. The main aim of this study is to determine the role of the socio-cultural context in designing appropriate support services and enhancing interaction in the Turkish Distance Education System, namely, the Open Education Faculty (OEF. The study firstly introduces the technologies and socio-cultural context of the OEF then presents for consideration the influence of that context in designing appropriate support services and enhancing interaction; and finally provides a number of suggestions to enhance learner support and interaction according to the prevailing socio-cultural context.

  18. Cross cultural differences in mood regulation: An empirical comparison of individualistic and collectivistic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luomala, Harri; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine cross cultural differences in the ways people regulate their mood states with special emphasis put on the role of consumption. This issue is virtually unexplored in the extant literature. After briefly introducing the essence of mood regulation and culture we integrate...... more socially based emotional consequences, and are more easily pursued and are more effective in collectivistic as opposed to individualistic cultures. The paper concludes by outlining the theoretical and managerial implications of the results and spelling out a few research suggestions....

  19. Cross cultural differences in mood regulation: An empirical comparison of individualistic and collectivistic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luomala, Harri; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner;

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine cross cultural differences in the ways people regulate their mood states with special emphasis put on the role of consumption. This issue is virtually unexplored in the extant literature. After briefly introducing the essence of mood regulation and culture we integrate...... more socially based emotional consequences, and are more easily pursued and are more effective in collectivistic as opposed to individualistic cultures. The paper concludes by outlining the theoretical and managerial implications of the results and spelling out a few research suggestions....

  20. Learning about patient safety: organizational context and culture in the education of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Pauline; Steven, Alison; Howe, Amanda; Sheikh, Aziz; Ashcroft, Darren; Smith, Pam

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the formal and informal ways pre-registration students from medicine, nursing, physiotherapy and pharmacy learn about keeping patients safe. This paper gives an overview of the study and explores findings in relation to organizational context and culture. The study employed a phased design using multiple qualitative methods. The overall approach drew on 'illuminative evaluation'. Ethical approval was obtained. Phase 1 employed a convenience sample of 13 pre-registration courses across the UK. Curriculum documents were gathered, and course directors interviewed. Phase 2 used eight case studies, two for each professional group, to develop an in-depth investigation of learning across university and practice by students and newly-qualified practitioners in relation to patient safety, and to examine the organizational culture that students and newly-qualified staff are exposed to. Analysis was iterative and ongoing throughout the study, using frameworks agreed by all researchers. Patient safety was felt to have become a higher priority for the health care system in recent years. Incident reporting was a key feature of the patient safety agenda within the organizations examined. Staff were often unclear or too busy to report. On the whole, students were not engaged and may not be aware of incident reporting schemes. They may not have access to existing systems in their organization. Most did not access employers' induction programmes. Some training sessions occasionally included students but this did not appear to be routine. Action is needed to develop an efficient interface between employers and education providers to develop up-to-date curricula for patient safety.